WorldWideScience

Sample records for residential monthly electricity

  1. Modeling of Monthly Residential and Commercial Electricity Consumption Using Nonlinear Seasonal Models—The Case of Hong Kong

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wai-Ming To

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Accurate modeling and forecasting monthly electricity consumption are the keys to optimizing energy management and planning. This paper examines the seasonal characteristics of electricity consumption in Hong Kong—a subtropical city with 7 million people. Using the data from January 1970 to December 2014, two novel nonlinear seasonal models for electricity consumption in the residential and commercial sectors were obtained. The models show that the city’s monthly residential and commercial electricity consumption patterns have different seasonal variations. Specifically, monthly residential electricity consumption (mainly for appliances and cooling in summer has a quadratic relationship with monthly mean air temperature, while monthly commercial electricity consumption has a linear relationship with monthly mean air temperature. The nonlinear seasonal models were used to predict residential and commercial electricity consumption for the period January 2015–December 2016. The correlations between the predicted and actual values were 0.976 for residential electricity consumption and 0.962 for commercial electricity consumption, respectively. The root mean square percentage errors for the predicted monthly residential and commercial electricity consumption were 7.0% and 6.5%, respectively. The new nonlinear seasonal models can be applied to other subtropical urban areas, and recommendations on the reduction of commercial electricity consumption are given.

  2. Electric power monthly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-08-01

    The Energy Information Administration (EIA) prepares the Electric Power Monthly (EPM) for a wide audience including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the electric utility industry, and the general public. This publication provides monthly statistics for net generation, fossil fuel consumption and stocks, quantity and quality of fossil fuels, cost of fossil fuels, electricity sales, revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold. Data on net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and cost of fossil fuels are also displayed for the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) regions. The EIA publishes statistics in the EPM on net generation by energy source, consumption, stocks, quantity, quality, and cost of fossil fuels; and capability of new generating units by company and plant. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decisionmakers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead.

  3. Residential Electricity Consumption in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edyta Ropuszyńska-Surma

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Key factors influencing electricity consumption in the residential sector in Poland have been identified. A fixed-effects model was used, which includes time effects, and a set of covariates, based on the model developed by Houthakker et al. This model estimates electricity demand by using lagged values of the dependent variable along with current and lagged values of electricity prices, and other variables that affect electricity demand such as: population, economic growth, income per capita, price of related goods, etc. The model has been identified according to the research results of the authors and those obtained by Bentzen and Engsted. The set of covariates was extended to the lagged electricity price given by a tariff (taken from two years previous to the time of interest and heating degree days index, a very important factor in European Union countries, where the climate is temperate. The authors propose four models of residential electricity demand, for which a confidence interval of 95% has been assumed. Estimation was based on Polish quarterly data for the years 2003-2013. (original abstract

  4. Electric power monthly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Sandra R.; Johnson, Melvin; McClevey, Kenneth; Calopedis, Stephen; Bolden, Deborah

    1992-05-01

    The Electric Power Monthly is prepared by the Survey Management Division; Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels, Energy Information Administration (EIA), Department of Energy. This publication provides monthly statistics at the national, Census division, and State levels for net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and quality of fuel, cost of fuel, electricity sales, revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold. Data on net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and cost of fuel are also displayed for the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) regions. Additionally, statistics by company and plant are published in the EPM on capability of new plants, new generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and quality of fuel, and cost of fuel.

  5. Residential electricity demand in Singapore

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ang, B.W.; Goh, T.N.; Liu, X.Q.

    1992-01-01

    Residential electricity consumption in Singapore increased at a rate of 8.8% per year between 1972 and 1990. Estimates of the long-run income and price elasticities are 1.0 and -0.35, respectively. The energy-conservation campaigns that have been launched are found to have marginal effects on consumption. A statistical analysis shows that the consumption is sensitive to small changes in climatic variables, particularly the temperature, which is closely linked to the growing diffusion of electric appliances for environmental controls. There has been a temporal increase in the ownership levels of appliances associated with increasing household incomes. However, other factors were involved since the ownership levels would also increase over time after the elimination of the income effect. A large part of the future growth in electricity demand will arise from the growing need for air-conditioning, which will lead to increasingly large seasonal variations in electricity use. (author)

  6. Electric Power Monthly, June 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-06-01

    The data in this report are presented for a wide audience including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the electric utility industry, and the general public. The Energy Information Administration (EIA) collected the information in this report to fulfill its data collection and dissemination responsibilities as specified in the Federal Energy Administration Act of 1974 (Public Law 93-275) as amended. The Electric Power Monthly contains information from three data sources: the Form EIA-759, 'Monthly Power Plant Report'; the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) Form 423, 'Monthly Report of Cost and Quality of Fuels for Electric Plants ; and the Form EIA-826, M onthly Electric Sales and Revenue Report with State Distributions'. The Form EIA-759 collects data from all operators of electric utility generating plants (except those having plants solely on standby), approximately 800 of the more than 3,200 electric utilities in the United States. To reduce the reporting burden for utilities, the FERC Form 423 and Form EIA-826 data are based on samples, which cover less than 100 percent of all central station generating utilities. The FERC Form 423 collects data from steam-electric power generating plants with a combined installed nameplate capacity of 50 megawatts or larger (approximately 230 electric utilities). The 50-megawatt threshold was established by FERC. The Form EIA-826 collects sales and revenue data in the residential, commercial, industrial, and other sectors of the economy. Other sales data collected include public street and highway lighting, other sales to public authorities, sales to railroads and railways, and interdepartmental sales. Respondents to the Form EIA-826 were statistically chosen and include approximately 225 privately and publicly owned electric utilities from a universe of more than 3,200 utilities. The sample selection for the Form EIA-826 is evaluated annually. Currently, the Form EIA-826 data account for approximately 83 percent

  7. Forecasting residential electricity demand in provincial China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Hua; Liu, Yanan; Gao, Yixuan; Hao, Yu; Ma, Xiao-Wei; Wang, Kan

    2017-03-01

    In China, more than 80% electricity comes from coal which dominates the CO2 emissions. Residential electricity demand forecasting plays a significant role in electricity infrastructure planning and energy policy designing, but it is challenging to make an accurate forecast for developing countries. This paper forecasts the provincial residential electricity consumption of China in the 13th Five-Year-Plan (2016-2020) period using panel data. To overcome the limitations of widely used predication models with unreliably prior knowledge on function forms, a robust piecewise linear model in reduced form is utilized to capture the non-deterministic relationship between income and residential electricity consumption. The forecast results suggest that the growth rates of developed provinces will slow down, while the less developed will be still in fast growing. The national residential electricity demand will increase at 6.6% annually during 2016-2020, and populous provinces such as Guangdong will be the main contributors to the increments.

  8. Electric power monthly, March 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-03-20

    This report for March 1995, presents monthly electricity statistics for a wide audience including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the electric utility industry, and the general public. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decisionmakers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead.

  9. Electric power monthly, April 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-05-07

    The Electric Power Monthly is prepared by the Survey Management Division; Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels, Energy Information Administration (EIA), Department of Energy. This publication provides monthly statistics at the US, Census division, and State levels for net generation, fossil fuel consumption and stocks, quantity and quality of fossil fuels, cost of fossil fuels, electricity sales, revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold. Data on net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and cost of fossil fuels are also displayed for the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) regions.

  10. Electric power monthly, May 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-05-25

    The Electric Power Monthly (EPM) is prepared by the Survey Management Division; Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels, Energy Information Administration (EIA), Department of Energy. This publication provides monthly statistics at the US, Census division, and State levels for net generation, fossil fuel consumption and stocks, quantity and quality of fossil fuels, cost of fossil fuels, electricity sales, revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold. Data on net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and cost of fossil fuels are also displayed for the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) regions.

  11. Electric power monthly, August 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-08-13

    The Electric Power Monthly (EPM) presents monthly electricity statistics. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decisionmakers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead. The EPM is prepared by the Survey Management Division; Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels, Energy Information Administration (EIA), Department of Energy. This publication provides monthly statistics at the US, Census division, and State levels for net generation, fossil fuel consumption and stocks, quantity and quality of fossil fuels, cost of fossil fuels, electricity sales, revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold. Data on net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and cost of fossil fuels are also displayed for the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) regions.

  12. Electric power monthly, September 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-09-17

    The Electric Power Monthly (EPM) presents monthly electricity statistics. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decisionmakers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead. The EPM is prepared by the Survey Management Division; Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels, Energy Information Administration (EIA), Department of Energy. This publication provides monthly statistics at the US, Census division, and State levels for net generation, fossil fuel consumption and stocks, quantity and quality of fossil fuels, cost of fossil fuels, electricity sales, revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold. Data on net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and cost of fossil fuels are also displayed for the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) regions.

  13. Electric Power Monthly, March 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    The Electric Power Monthly (EPM) presents monthly summaries of electric utility statistics at the national, Census division, and state level. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decisionmakers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead. Data are presented on generation, fuel consumption, stockpiles, costs, sales, and unusual occurrences. Fuels considered are: coal, petroleum, natural gas, nuclear power, and hydroelectric power. 4 figs., 48 tabs

  14. Modelling and forecasting Turkish residential electricity demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dilaver, Zafer; Hunt, Lester C

    2011-01-01

    This research investigates the relationship between Turkish residential electricity consumption, household total final consumption expenditure and residential electricity prices by applying the structural time series model to annual data over the period from 1960 to 2008. Household total final consumption expenditure, real energy prices and an underlying energy demand trend are found to be important drivers of Turkish residential electricity demand with the estimated short run and the long run total final consumption expenditure elasticities being 0.38 and 1.57, respectively, and the estimated short run and long run price elasticities being -0.09 and -0.38, respectively. Moreover, the estimated underlying energy demand trend, (which, as far as is known, has not been investigated before for the Turkish residential sector) should be of some benefit to Turkish decision makers in terms of energy planning. It provides information about the impact of past policies, the influence of technical progress, the impacts of changes in consumer behaviour and the effects of changes in economic structure. Furthermore, based on the estimated equation, and different forecast assumptions, it is predicted that Turkish residential electricity demand will be somewhere between 48 and 80 TWh by 2020 compared to 40 TWh in 2008. - Research highlights: → Estimated short run and long run expenditure elasticities of 0.38 and 1.57, respectively. → Estimated short run and long run price elasticities of -0.09 and -0.38, respectively. → Estimated UEDT has increasing (i.e. energy using) and decreasing (i.e. energy saving) periods. → Predicted Turkish residential electricity demand between 48 and 80 TWh in 2020.

  15. Electric power monthly, May 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-05-01

    The Electric Power Monthly (EPM) presents monthly electricity statistics. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decisionmakers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead. Data in this report are presented for a wide audience including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the electric utility industry, and the general public. This publication provides monthly statistics for net generation, fossil fuel consumption and stocks, quantity and quality of fossil fuels, cost of fossil fuels, electricity sales, revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold. Statistics by company and plant are published on the capability of new generating units, net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and quality of fuel, and cost of fossil fuels.

  16. Electric power monthly, April 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-04-01

    The Electric Power Monthly (EPM) presents monthly electricity statistics. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decisionmakers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead. This publication provides monthly statistics at the U.S., Census division, and State levels for net generation, fossil fuel consumption and stocks, quantity and quality of fossil fuels, cost of fossil fuels, electricity sales, revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold. Data on net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and cost of fossil fuels are also displayed for the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) regions. This April 1994 issue contains 1993 year-end data and data through January 1994.

  17. Electric power monthly, June 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-06-01

    The Electric Power Monthly (EPM) presents monthly electricity statistics. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decisionmakers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead. Data in this report are presented for a wide audience including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the electric utility industry, and the general public. The EIA collected the information in this report to fulfill its data collection and dissemination responsibilities as specified in the Federal Energy Administration Act of 1974 (Public Law 93-275) as amended.

  18. Electric power monthly, August 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-08-24

    The Electric Power Monthly (EPM) presents monthly electricity statistics. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decisionmakers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead. Data in this report are presented for a wide audience including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the electric utility industry, and the general public. The EIA collected the information in this report to fulfill its data collection and dissemination responsibilities as specified in the Federal Energy Administration Act of 1974 (Public Law 93-275) as amended.

  19. Electric power monthly, July 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-07-29

    The Electric Power Monthly (EPM) presents monthly electricity statistics. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decisionmakers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead. Data in this report are presented for a wide audience including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the electric utility industry, and the general public. The EIA collected the information in this report to fulfill its data collection and dissemination responsibilities as specified in the Federal Energy Administration Act of 1974 (Public Law 93-275) as amended.

  20. Electric power monthly, November 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-11-01

    The Electric Power Monthly (EPM) presents monthly electricity statistics. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decisionmakers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead. Data in this report are presented for a wide audience including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the electric utility industry, and the general public. The EIA collected the information in this report to fulfill its data collection and dissemination responsibilities as specified in the Federal Energy Administration Act of 1974 (Public Law 93-275) as amended

  1. Modeling Residential Electricity Consumption Function in Malaysia: Time Series Approach

    OpenAIRE

    L. L. Ivy-Yap; H. A. Bekhet

    2014-01-01

    As the Malaysian residential electricity consumption continued to increase rapidly, effective energy policies, which address factors affecting residential electricity consumption, is urgently needed. This study attempts to investigate the relationship between residential electricity consumption (EC), real disposable income (Y), price of electricity (Pe) and population (Po) in Malaysia for 1978-2011 period. Unlike previous studies on Malaysia, the current study focuses on the residential secto...

  2. Electric power monthly, April 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    The Electric Power Monthly (EPM) presents monthly summaries of electric utility statistics at the national Census division, and State level. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decision makers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead. Data are given for net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and quality of fuel, cost of fuel, electricity sales, revenue, and average revenue per kilowatt hour of electricity sold. Data on net generation are also displayed at the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) region level. Additionally, statistics at the company and plant level are published in the EPM on capability of new plants, net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and quality of fuel, and cost of fuel. 6 figs., 57 tabs

  3. Electric Power monthly, November 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-11-01

    This publication presents monthly electricity statistics for a wide audience including Congress, Federal and state agencies, the electric utility industry, and the general public. Purpose is to provide energy decisionmakers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead. EIA collected the information in this report to fulfill its data collection and dissemination responsibilities as specified in the Federal Energy Administration Act of 1974 (Public Law 93-275) as amended.

  4. Electric power monthly, May 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-05-01

    This publication presents monthly electricity statistics for a wide audience including Congress, Federal and Stage agencies, the electric utility industry, and the general public. Purpose is to provide energy decisionmakers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead. EIA collected the information to fulfill its data collection and dissemination responsibilities in Federal Energy Administration Act of 1974 (Public Law 93-275) as amended.

  5. Electric Power Monthly, July 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-10-12

    The Electric Power Monthly (EPM) is prepared by the Electric Power Division; Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels, Energy Information Administration (EIA), Department of Energy. This publication provides monthly statistics at the national, Census division, and State levels for net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and quality of fuel, cost of fuel, electricity sales, and average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold. Data on net generation are also displayed at the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) region level. Additionally, company and plant level information are published in the EPM on capability of new plants, net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and quality of fuel, and cost in fuel. Quantity, quality, and cost of fuel data lag the net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, electricity sales, and average revenue per kilowatthour data by 1 month. This difference in reporting appears in the national, Census division, and State level tables. However, at the plant level, all statistics presented are for the earlier month for the purpose of comparison. 12 refs., 4 figs., 48 tabs.

  6. Electric power monthly, July 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-07-01

    The Electric Power Monthly (EPM) presents monthly electricity statistics. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decisionmakers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead. Data in this report are presented for a wide audience including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the electric utility industry, and the general public. The EIA collected the information in this report to fulfill its data collection and dissemination responsibilities as specified in the Federal Energy Administration Act of 1974 (Public Law 93-275) as amended. The EPM is prepared by the Survey Management Division; Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels, Energy Information Administration (EIA), Department of Energy. This publication provides monthly statistics at the US, Census division, and State levels for net generation, fossil fuel consumption and stocks, quantity and quality of fossil fuels, cost of fossil fuels, electricity sales, revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold. Data on net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and cost of fossil fuels are also displayed for the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) regions. Statistics by company and plant are published in the EPM on the capability of new generating units, net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and quality of fuel, and cost of fossil fuels. Data on quantity, quality, and cost of fossil fuels lag data on net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, electricity sales, and average revenue per kilowatthour by 1 month. This difference in reporting appears in the US, Census division, and State level tables. However, for purposes of comparison, plant-level data are presented for the earlier month.

  7. Electric power monthly, January 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The Electric Power Monthly (EPM) presents monthly electricity statistics. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decisionmakers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead. Data in this report are presented for a wide audience including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the electric utility industry, and the general public. The EIA collected the information in this report to fulfill its data collection and dissemination responsibilities as specified in the Federal Energy Administration Act of 1974 (Public Law 93-275) as amended. This publication provides monthly statistics at the US Census division, and State levels for net generation, fossil fuel consumption and stocks, quantity and quality of fossil fuels, cost of fossil fuels, electricity sales, revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold. Data on net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and cost of fossil fuels are also displayed for the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) regions. Statistics by company and plant are published in the EPM on the capability of new generating units, net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and quality of fuel, and cost of fossil fuels

  8. Electric power monthly, February 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-02-16

    The Electric Power Monthly (EMP) presents monthly electricity statistics. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decisionmakers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead. Data in this report are presented for a wide audience including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the electric utility industry, and the general public. The EIA collected the information in this report to fulfill its data collection and dissemination responsibilities as specified in the Federal Energy Administration Act of 1974 (Public Law 93-275) as amended. This publication provides monthly statistics at the US, Census division, and State levels for net generation, fossil fuel consumption and stocks, quantity and quality of fossil fuels, cost of electricity sales, revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold. Data on net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and cost of fossil fuels are also displayed for the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) regions. Statistics by company and plant are published in the EPM on the capability of new generating units, net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and quality of fuel, and cost of fossil fuels.

  9. Electric power monthly, January 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-01-26

    The Electric Power Monthly (EPM) presents monthly electricity statistics. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decisionmakers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead. Data in this report are presented for a wide audience including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the electric utility industry, and the general public. The EIA collected the information in this report to fulfill its data collection and dissemination responsibilities as specified in the Federal Energy Administration Act of 1974 (Public Law 93-275) as amended. This publication provides monthly statistics at the US Census division, and State levels for net generation, fossil fuel consumption and stocks, quantity and quality of fossil fuels, cost of fossil fuels, electricity sales, revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold. Data on net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and cost of fossil fuels are also displayed for the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) regions. Statistics by company and plant are published in the EPM on the capability of new generating units, net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and quality of fuel, and cost of fossil fuels.

  10. Electric power monthly, October 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-10-20

    The Electric Power Monthly (EPM) presents monthly electricity statistics. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decisionmakers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead. Data in this report are presented for a wide audience including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the electric utility industry, and the general public. The EIA collected the information in this report to fulfill its data collection and dissemination responsibilities as specified in the Federal Energy Administration Act of 1974 (Public Law 93-275) as amended. This publication provides monthly statistics at the US, Census division, and State levels for net generation, fossil fuel consumption and stocks, quantity and quality of fossil fuels, cost of fossil fuels, electricity sales, revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold. Data on net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and cost of fossil fuels are also displayed for the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) regions. Statistics by company and plant are published in the EPM on the capability of new generating units, net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and quality of fuel, and cost of fossil fuels.

  11. Electricity demand for South Korean residential sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sa'ad, Suleiman

    2009-01-01

    This study estimates the electricity demand function for the residential sector of South Korea with the aim of examining the effects of improved energy efficiency, structural factors and household lifestyles on electricity consumption. In the study, time series data for the period from 1973 to 2007 is used in a structural time series model to estimate the long-term price and income elasticities and annual growth of underlying energy demand trend (UEDT) at the end of the estimation period. The result shows a long-term income elasticity of 1.33 and a long-term price elasticity of -0.27% with -0.93% as the percentage growth of UEDT at the end of the estimation period. This result suggests that, in order to encourage energy efficiency in the residential sector, the government should complement the market based pricing policies with non-market policies such as minimum energy efficiency standards and public enlightenment.

  12. Electricity demand for South Korean residential sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sa' ad, Suleiman [Surrey Energy Economics Centre (SEEC), Department of Economics, University of Surrey, Guildford, Surrey GU2 7XH (United Kingdom)

    2009-12-15

    This study estimates the electricity demand function for the residential sector of South Korea with the aim of examining the effects of improved energy efficiency, structural factors and household lifestyles on electricity consumption. In the study, time series data for the period from 1973 to 2007 is used in a structural time series model to estimate the long-term price and income elasticities and annual growth of underlying energy demand trend (UEDT) at the end of the estimation period. The result shows a long-term income elasticity of 1.33 and a long-term price elasticity of -0.27% with -0.93% as the percentage growth of UEDT at the end of the estimation period. This result suggests that, in order to encourage energy efficiency in the residential sector, the government should complement the market based pricing policies with non-market policies such as minimum energy efficiency standards and public enlightenment. (author)

  13. Quebec residential electricity demand: a microeconometric approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernard, J.T.; Bolduc, D.; Belanger, D.

    1996-01-01

    An economic analysis of Quebec residential electricity demand was studied by micro-simulation models. These structural models describe all components which lead to decisions upon durable holdings and electric appliance usage. The demand for space and water heating systems was evaluated. Recent price change in favour of energy sources other than electricity were taken into account. Price and income elasticity ratios were found to be low, as expected when estimating short term use. The role played by socio-economic variables on the choice of space-water heating systems and electricity use was also examined. Recent conversions have indicated a trend toward preference by households in favour of natural gas or oil over electricity. 18 refs., 5 tabs., 1 fig

  14. Electric Power Monthly, June 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-09-13

    The EPM is prepared by the Electric Power Division; Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels, Energy Information Administration (EIA), Department of Energy. This publication provides monthly statistics at the national, Census division, and State levels for net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and quality of fuel, electricity sales, and average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold. Data on net generation are also displayed at the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) region level. Additionally, company and plant level information are published in the EPM on capability of new plants, net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and quality of fuel, and cost of fuel. Quantity, quality, and cost of fuel data lag the net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, electricity sales, and average revenue per kilowatthour data by 1 month. This difference in reporting appears in the national, Census division, and State level tables. However, at the plant level, all statistics presented are for the earlier month for the purpose of comparison. 40 tabs.

  15. A hybrid society model for simulating residential electricity consumption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Minjie [School of Electrical Engineering, Beijing Jiaotong University, Beijing (China); State Power Economic Research Institute, Beijing (China); Hu, Zhaoguang [State Power Economic Research Institute, Beijing (China); Wu, Junyong; Zhou, Yuhui [School of Electrical Engineering, Beijing Jiaotong University, Beijing (China)

    2008-12-15

    In this paper, a hybrid social model of econometric model and social influence model is proposed for evaluating the influence of pricing policy and public education policy on residential habit of electricity using in power resources management. And, a hybrid society simulation platform based on the proposed model, called residential electricity consumption multi-agent systems (RECMAS), is designed for simulating residential electricity consumption by multi-agent system. RECMAS is composed of consumer agent, power supplier agent, and policy maker agent. It provides the policy makers with a useful tool to evaluate power price policies and public education campaigns in different scenarios. According to an influenced diffusion mechanism, RECMAS can simulate the residential electricity demand-supply chain and analyze impacts of the factors on residential electricity consumption. Finally, the proposed method is used to simulate urban residential electricity consumption in China. (author)

  16. A hybrid society model for simulating residential electricity consumption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Minjie; Hu, Zhaoguang; Wu, Junyong; Zhou, Yuhui

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, a hybrid social model of econometric model and social influence model is proposed for evaluating the influence of pricing policy and public education policy on residential habit of electricity using in power resources management. And, a hybrid society simulation platform based on the proposed model, called residential electricity consumption multi-agent systems (RECMAS), is designed for simulating residential electricity consumption by multi-agent system. RECMAS is composed of consumer agent, power supplier agent, and policy maker agent. It provides the policy makers with a useful tool to evaluate power price policies and public education campaigns in different scenarios. According to an influenced diffusion mechanism, RECMAS can simulate the residential electricity demand-supply chain and analyze impacts of the factors on residential electricity consumption. Finally, the proposed method is used to simulate urban residential electricity consumption in China. (author)

  17. The analysis of Taiwan's residential electricity demand under the electricity tariff policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Po-Jui

    In October 2013, the Taiwan Power Company (Taipower), the monopolized state utility service in Taiwan, implemented an electricity tariff adjustment policy to reduce residential electricity demand. Using bi-monthly billing data from 6,932 electricity consumers, this study examine how consumers respond to an increase in electricity prices. This study employs an empirical approach that takes advantage of quasi-random variation over a period of time when household bills were affected by a change in electricity price. The study found that this price increase caused a 1.78% decline in residential electricity consumption, implying a price elasticity of -0.19 for summer-season months and -0.15 for non-summer-season months. The demand for electricity is therefore relatively inelastic, likely because it is hard for people to change their electricity consumption behavior in the short-term. The results of this study highlight that demand-side management cannot be the only lever used to address Taiwan's forecasted decrease in electricity supply.

  18. Retailing residential electricity : A concept that makes sense?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacDonald, C.

    2003-07-01

    A heated debate centres around the deregulation of the electricity industry and the retailing of residential electricity. An assessment of the current situation in the industry was provided in this paper to provide a basis for discussion. The experience gained both in Alberta and Texas in residential retail was examined. The main issue of concern is whether residential customers will benefit from deregulation of the electricity sector. The Retail Energy Deregulation (RED) Index provides a benchmark for those jurisdictions considering the residential options. Deregulation has not led to significant benefits to residential customers in most jurisdictions. The electricity industry will always require a central dispatch/market process that will have to designed, governed, regulated, modified regularly. The benefits to residential consumers are not expected for a very long time. Standard market design is an issue that will require attention. refs., 7 figs

  19. Predicting summer residential electricity demand across the U.S.A using climate information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, X.; Wang, S.; Lall, U.

    2017-12-01

    We developed a Bayesian Hierarchical model to predict monthly residential per capita electricity consumption at the state level across the USA using climate information. The summer period was selected since cooling requirements may be directly associated with electricity use, while for winter a mix of energy sources may be used to meet heating needs. Historical monthly electricity consumption data from 1990 to 2013 were used to build a predictive model with a set of corresponding climate and non-climate covariates. A clustering analysis was performed first to identify groups of states that had similar temporal patterns for the cooling degree days of each state. Then, a partial pooling model was applied to each cluster to assess the sensitivity of monthly per capita residential electricity demand to each predictor (including cooling-degree-days, gross domestic product (GDP) per capita, per capita electricity demand of previous month and previous year, and the residential electricity price). The sensitivity of residential electricity to cooling-degree-days has an identifiable geographic distribution with higher values in northeastern United States.

  20. The Sensitivity of Residential Electricity Demand in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stranti Nastiti Kusumaningrum

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Since 2013, the residential electricity price for High VA (Volt-Ampere households has changed due to changes in pricing policies. This paper analyzes the responsiveness of residential electricity demand to the change in electricity prices and income among two different household groups (Low VA and High VA in 2011 and 2014. Using an electricity consumption model and the Quantile Regression method, the results show that residential electricity demand is price and income inelastic. Income elasticity is lower than price elasticity. Furthermore, the effects on price elasticity also found in the Low VA group, whose rate remained stable. At the same time, evidence proves the impact of the change in pricing policy on income elasticity remains unclear. This result implies that the government has to be more careful in regulating electricity prices for the low VA group, while maintaining economic stability.DOI: 10.15408/sjie.v7i2.6048

  1. Exploring utility organization electricity generation, residential electricity consumption, and energy efficiency: A climatic approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Craig, Christopher A.; Feng, Song

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Study examined impact of electricity fuel sources and consumption on emissions. • 97.2% of variability in emissions explained by coal and residential electricity use. • Increasing cooling degree days significantly related to increased electricity use. • Effectiveness of state-level energy efficiency programs showed mixed results. - Abstract: This study examined the impact of electricity generation by fuel source type and electricity consumption on carbon emissions to assess the role of climatic variability and energy efficiency (EE) in the United States. Despite high levels of greenhouse gas emissions, residential electricity consumption continues to increase in the United States and fossil fuels are the primary fuel source of electricity generation. 97.2% of the variability in carbon emissions in the electricity industry was explained by electricity generation from coal and residential electricity consumption. The relationships between residential electricity consumption, short-term climatic variability, long-term climatic trends, short-term reduction in electricity from EE programs, and long-term trends in EE programs was examined. This is the first study of its nature to examine these relationships across the 48 contiguous United States. Inter-year and long-term trends in cooling degree days, or days above a baseline temperature, were the primary climatic drivers of residential electricity consumption. Cooling degree days increased across the majority of the United States during the study period, and shared a positive relationship with residential electricity consumption when findings were significant. The majority of electricity reduction from EE programs was negatively related to residential electricity consumption where findings were significant. However, the trend across the majority of states was a decrease in electricity reduction from EE while residential electricity consumption increased. States that successfully reduced consumption

  2. Estimating elasticity for residential electricity demand in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, G; Zheng, X; Song, F

    2012-01-01

    Residential demand for electricity is estimated for China using a unique household level dataset. Household electricity demand is specified as a function of local electricity price, household income, and a number of social-economic variables at household level. We find that the residential demand for electricity responds rather sensitively to its own price in China, which implies that there is significant potential to use the price instrument to conserve electricity consumption. Electricity elasticities across different heterogeneous household groups (e.g., rich versus poor and rural versus urban) are also estimated. The results show that the high income group is more price elastic than the low income group, while rural families are more price elastic than urban families. These results have important policy implications for designing an increasing block tariff.

  3. Electric Power Monthly, August 1990. [Glossary included

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-11-29

    The Electric Power Monthly (EPM) presents monthly summaries of electric utility statistics at the national, Census division, and State level. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decisionmakers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead. Data includes generation by energy source (coal, oil, gas, hydroelectric, and nuclear); generation by region; consumption of fossil fuels for power generation; sales of electric power, cost data; and unusual occurrences. A glossary is included.

  4. Modelling residential electricity demand in the GCC countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atalla, Tarek N.; Hunt, Lester C.

    2016-01-01

    This paper aims at understanding the drivers of residential electricity demand in the Gulf Cooperation Council countries by applying the structural time series model. In addition to the economic variables of GDP and real electricity prices, the model accounts for population, weather, and a stochastic underlying energy demand trend as a proxy for efficiency and human behaviour. The resulting income and price elasticities are informative for policy makers given the paucity of previous estimates for a region with particular political structures and economies subject to large shocks. In particular, the estimates allow for a sound assessment of the impact of energy-related policies suggesting that if policy makers in the region wish to curtail future residential electricity consumption they would need to improve the efficiency of appliances and increase energy using awareness of consumers, possibly by education and marketing campaigns. Moreover, even if prices were raised the impact on curbing residential electricity growth in the region is likely to be very small given the low estimated price elasticities—unless, that is, prices were raised so high that expenditure on electricity becomes such a large proportion of income that the price elasticities increase (in absolute terms). - Highlights: • Residential electricity demand for Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, and Saudi Arabia • Estimated residential electricity demand relationships using STSM/UEDT approach • LR income and price elasticities from 0.43 to 0.71 and − 0.16 to zero respectively • Impact CDD elasticities from 0.2 to 0.7 • Estimated UEDTs suggest exogenous electricity using behaviour.

  5. Challenge: Getting Residential Users to Shift Their Electricity Usage Patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brewer, Robert S.; Verdezoto, Nervo; Rasmussen, Mia Kruse

    2015-01-01

    electricity use from the less desirable times to more desirable times, including: feedback technology, pricing incentives, smart appliances, and energy storage. Based on our experience in this area, we present three challenges for residential shifting: getting users to understand the concept of shifting...

  6. Monthly Electrical Energy Overview October 2016

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-11-01

    This publication presents the electricity characteristics and noteworthy developments in France every month: consumption, generation, renewable energies, cross-border trades and transmission system developments, along with feedback on the highlights affecting this data. This issue presents the key figures for October 2016. French gross electricity demand fell by 1.9%. The monthly balance of cross-border exchanges remain in favour of exports but dropped to its historically lowest point since February 2012. Corrected for climate factors, overall demand remained stable compared with October 2015. The fall in nuclear and hydraulic generation was offset by thermal fossil fuel generation that reached, with 5 TWh, its highest level since February 2015. Renewable generation excluding hydraulic increased in October, after the sharp fall of the previous month. Over the whole of the month, French exchanges remained in favour of exports although they fell by 89% compared to October 2015. 20 new installations went into service in October

  7. Electric power monthly, January 1991. [Contains glossary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-01-17

    This publication provides monthly statistics at the national, Census division, and state levels for net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and quality of fuel, cost of fuel, electricity sales, and average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold. Data on net generation are also displayed at the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) region level. Additionally, company and plant level information are published in the EPM on capability of new plants, net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and quality of fuel, and cost of fuel. 4 figs., 48 tabs.

  8. Electric power monthly, October 1991. [CONTAINS GLOSSARY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-10-11

    This publication provides monthly statistics at the national, Census division, and State levels for net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and quality of fuel, cost of fuel, electricity sales, revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold. Data on net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and cost of fuel are also displayed at the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) region level. Additionally, statistics at the company and plant level are published in the EPM on capability of new plants, net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and quality of fuel, and cost of fuel. 4 figs., 63 tabs.

  9. Electric Power Monthly, September 1991. [CONTAINS GLOSSARY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-09-12

    This publication provides monthly statistics at the national, Census division, and state levels for net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and quality of fuel, cost of fuel, electricity sales, revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold. Data on net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and cost of fuel are also displayed at the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) region level. Additionally, statistics at the company and plant level are published in the EPM on capability of new plants, net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and quality of fuel, and cost of fuel. 4 figs., 63 tabs.

  10. Dynamic linear modeling of monthly electricity demand in Japan: Time variation of electricity conservation effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honjo, Keita; Shiraki, Hiroto; Ashina, Shuichi

    2018-01-01

    After the severe nuclear disaster in Fukushima, which was triggered by the Great East Japan earthquake in March 2011, nuclear power plants in Japan were temporarily shut down for mandatory inspections. To prevent large-scale blackouts, the Japanese government requested companies and households to reduce electricity consumption in summer and winter. It is reported that the domestic electricity demand had a structural decrease because of the electricity conservation effect (ECE). However, quantitative analysis of the ECE is not sufficient, and especially time variation of the ECE remains unclear. Understanding the ECE is important because Japan's NDC (nationally determined contribution) assumes the reduction of CO2 emissions through aggressive energy conservation. In this study, we develop a time series model of monthly electricity demand in Japan and estimate time variation of the ECE. Moreover, we evaluate the impact of electricity conservation on CO2 emissions from power plants. The dynamic linear model is used to separate the ECE from the effects of other irrelevant factors (e.g. air temperature, economic production, and electricity price). Our result clearly shows that consumers' electricity conservation behavior after the earthquake was not temporary but became established as a habit. Between March 2011 and March 2016, the ECE on industrial electricity demand ranged from 3.9% to 5.4%, and the ECE on residential electricity demand ranged from 1.6% to 7.6%. The ECE on the total electricity demand was estimated at 3.2%-6.0%. We found a seasonal pattern that the residential ECE in summer is higher than that in winter. The emissions increase from the shutdown of nuclear power plants was mitigated by electricity conservation. The emissions reduction effect was estimated at 0.82 MtCO2-2.26 MtCO2 (-4.5% on average compared to the zero-ECE case). The time-varying ECE is necessary for predicting Japan's electricity demand and CO2 emissions after the earthquake.

  11. Lifestyle factors in U.S. residential electricity consumption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanquist, Thomas F.; Orr, Heather; Shui Bin; Bittner, Alvah C.

    2012-01-01

    A multivariate statistical approach to lifestyle analysis of residential electricity consumption is described and illustrated. Factor analysis of selected variables from the 2005 U.S. Residential Energy Consumption Survey (RECS) identified five lifestyle factors reflecting social and behavioral patterns associated with air conditioning, laundry usage, personal computer usage, climate zone of residence, and TV use. These factors were also estimated for 2001 RECS data. Multiple regression analysis using the lifestyle factors yields solutions accounting for approximately 40% of the variance in electricity consumption for both years. By adding the household and market characteristics of income, local electricity price and access to natural gas, variance accounted for is increased to approximately 54%. Income contributed ∼1% unique variance to the models, indicating that lifestyle factors reflecting social and behavioral patterns better account for consumption differences than income. Geographic segmentation of factor scores shows distinct clusters of consumption and lifestyle factors, particularly in suburban locations. The implications for tailored policy and planning interventions are discussed in relation to lifestyle issues. - Highlights: ► Illustrates lifestyle analysis of residential electricity consumption. ► Lifestyle factors based on social and behavioral decisions and equipment use. ► Regression models using lifestyle factors account for 40% of consumption variance. ► Lifestyle factors are stable over time when applied to other data sets. ► Energy reduction opportunities are identified by segmentation analysis.

  12. Monthly Electrical Energy Overview December 2015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-12-01

    This publication presents the electricity characteristics and noteworthy developments in France every month: consumption, generation, renewable energies, cross-border trades and transmission system developments, along with feedback on the highlights affecting this data. This issue presents the key figures for December 2015

  13. Monthly Electrical Energy Overview June 2015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-06-01

    This publication presents the electricity characteristics and noteworthy developments in France every month: consumption, generation, renewable energies, cross-border trades and transmission system developments, along with feedback on the highlights affecting this data. This issue presents the key figures for June 2015

  14. Monthly Electrical Energy Overview May 2014

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-05-01

    This publication presents the electricity characteristics and noteworthy developments in France every month: consumption, generation, renewable energies, cross-border trades and transmission system developments, along with feedback on the highlights affecting this data. This issue presents the key figures for May 2014

  15. Monthly Electrical Energy Overview April 2014

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-04-01

    This publication presents the electricity characteristics and noteworthy developments in France every month: consumption, generation, renewable energies, cross-border trades and transmission system developments, along with feedback on the highlights affecting this data. This issue presents the key figures for April 2014

  16. Monthly Electrical Energy Overview June 2016

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-06-01

    This publication presents the electricity characteristics and noteworthy developments in France every month: consumption, generation, renewable energies, cross-border trades and transmission system developments, along with feedback on the highlights affecting this data. This issue presents the key figures for June 2016

  17. Monthly Electrical Energy Overview November 2013

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-11-01

    This publication presents the electricity characteristics and noteworthy developments in France every month: consumption, generation, renewable energies, cross-border trades and transmission system developments, along with feedback on the highlights affecting this data. This issue presents the key figures for November 2013

  18. Monthly Electrical Energy Overview November 2015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-11-01

    This publication presents the electricity characteristics and noteworthy developments in France every month: consumption, generation, renewable energies, cross-border trades and transmission system developments, along with feedback on the highlights affecting this data. This issue presents the key figures for November 2015

  19. Monthly Electrical Energy Overview November 2014

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-11-01

    This publication presents the electricity characteristics and noteworthy developments in France every month: consumption, generation, renewable energies, cross-border trades and transmission system developments, along with feedback on the highlights affecting this data. This issue presents the key figures for November 2014

  20. Monthly Electrical Energy Overview December 2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-12-01

    This publication presents the electricity characteristics and noteworthy developments in France every month: consumption, generation, renewable energies, cross-border trades and transmission system developments, along with feedback on the highlights affecting this data. This issue presents the key figures for December 2012

  1. Monthly Electrical Energy Overview May 2013

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-05-01

    This publication presents the electricity characteristics and noteworthy developments in France every month: consumption, generation, renewable energies, cross-border trades and transmission system developments, along with feedback on the highlights affecting this data. This issue presents the key figures for May 2013

  2. Monthly Electrical Energy Overview April 2015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-04-01

    This publication presents the electricity characteristics and noteworthy developments in France every month: consumption, generation, renewable energies, cross-border trades and transmission system developments, along with feedback on the highlights affecting this data. This issue presents the key figures for April 2015

  3. Monthly Electrical Energy Overview December 2013

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-12-01

    This publication presents the electricity characteristics and noteworthy developments in France every month: consumption, generation, renewable energies, cross-border trades and transmission system developments, along with feedback on the highlights affecting this data. This issue presents the key figures for December 2013

  4. Monthly Electrical Energy Overview April 2013

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-04-01

    This publication presents the electricity characteristics and noteworthy developments in France every month: consumption, generation, renewable energies, cross-border trades and transmission system developments, along with feedback on the highlights affecting this data. This issue presents the key figures for April 2013

  5. Monthly Electrical Energy Overview October 2013

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-10-01

    This publication presents the electricity characteristics and noteworthy developments in France every month: consumption, generation, renewable energies, cross-border trades and transmission system developments, along with feedback on the highlights affecting this data. This issue presents the key figures for October 2013

  6. Monthly Electrical Energy Overview May 2015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-05-01

    This publication presents the electricity characteristics and noteworthy developments in France every month: consumption, generation, renewable energies, cross-border trades and transmission system developments, along with feedback on the highlights affecting this data. This issue presents the key figures for May 2015

  7. Monthly Electrical Energy Overview March 2013

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-03-01

    This publication presents the electricity characteristics and noteworthy developments in France every month: consumption, generation, renewable energies, cross-border trades and transmission system developments, along with feedback on the highlights affecting this data. This issue presents the key figures for March 2013

  8. Monthly Electrical Energy Overview September 2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-09-01

    This publication presents the electricity characteristics and noteworthy developments in France every month: consumption, generation, renewable energies, cross-border trades and transmission system developments, along with feedback on the highlights affecting this data. This issue presents the key figures for September 2012

  9. Monthly Electrical Energy Overview June 2013

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-06-01

    This publication presents the electricity characteristics and noteworthy developments in France every month: consumption, generation, renewable energies, cross-border trades and transmission system developments, along with feedback on the highlights affecting this data. This issue presents the key figures for June 2013

  10. Monthly Electrical Energy Overview March 2015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-03-01

    This publication presents the electricity characteristics and noteworthy developments in France every month: consumption, generation, renewable energies, cross-border trades and transmission system developments, along with feedback on the highlights affecting this data. This issue presents the key figures for March 2015

  11. Monthly Electrical Energy Overview March 2016

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-03-01

    This publication presents the electricity characteristics and noteworthy developments in France every month: consumption, generation, renewable energies, cross-border trades and transmission system developments, along with feedback on the highlights affecting this data. This issue presents the key figures for March 2016

  12. Monthly Electrical Energy Overview March 2014

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-03-01

    This publication presents the electricity characteristics and noteworthy developments in France every month: consumption, generation, renewable energies, cross-border trades and transmission system developments, along with feedback on the highlights affecting this data. This issue presents the key figures for March 2014

  13. Monthly Electrical Energy Overview February 2015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-02-01

    This publication presents the electricity characteristics and noteworthy developments in France every month: consumption, generation, renewable energies, cross-border trades and transmission system developments, along with feedback on the highlights affecting this data. This issue presents the key figures for February 2015

  14. Monthly Electrical Energy Overview February 2014

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-02-01

    This publication presents the electricity characteristics and noteworthy developments in France every month: consumption, generation, renewable energies, cross-border trades and transmission system developments, along with feedback on the highlights affecting this data. This issue presents the key figures for February 2014

  15. Monthly Electrical Energy Overview January 2014

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    This publication presents the electricity characteristics and noteworthy developments in France every month: consumption, generation, renewable energies, cross-border trades and transmission system developments, along with feedback on the highlights affecting this data. This issue presents the key figures for January 2014

  16. Monthly Electrical Energy Overview January 2016

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    This publication presents the electricity characteristics and noteworthy developments in France every month: consumption, generation, renewable energies, cross-border trades and transmission system developments, along with feedback on the highlights affecting this data. This issue presents the key figures for January 2016

  17. Monthly Electrical Energy Overview June 2014

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-06-01

    This publication presents the electricity characteristics and noteworthy developments in France every month: consumption, generation, renewable energies, cross-border trades and transmission system developments, along with feedback on the highlights affecting this data. This issue presents the key figures for June 2014

  18. Monthly Electrical Energy Overview August 2014

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-08-01

    This publication presents the electricity characteristics and noteworthy developments in France every month: consumption, generation, renewable energies, cross-border trades and transmission system developments, along with feedback on the highlights affecting this data. This issue presents the key figures for July-August 2014

  19. Monthly Electrical Energy Overview September 2013

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-09-01

    This publication presents the electricity characteristics and noteworthy developments in France every month: consumption, generation, renewable energies, cross-border trades and transmission system developments, along with feedback on the highlights affecting this data. This issue presents the key figures for September 2013

  20. Monthly Electrical Energy Overview April 2016

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-04-01

    This publication presents the electricity characteristics and noteworthy developments in France every month: consumption, generation, renewable energies, cross-border trades and transmission system developments, along with feedback on the highlights affecting this data. This issue presents the key figures for April 2016

  1. Monthly Electrical Energy Overview February 2016

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-02-01

    This publication presents the electricity characteristics and noteworthy developments in France every month: consumption, generation, renewable energies, cross-border trades and transmission system developments, along with feedback on the highlights affecting this data. This issue presents the key figures for February 2016

  2. Monthly Electrical Energy Overview October 2015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-10-01

    This publication presents the electricity characteristics and noteworthy developments in France every month: consumption, generation, renewable energies, cross-border trades and transmission system developments, along with feedback on the highlights affecting this data. This issue presents the key figures for October 2015

  3. Monthly Electrical Energy Overview September 2015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-09-01

    This publication presents the electricity characteristics and noteworthy developments in France every month: consumption, generation, renewable energies, cross-border trades and transmission system developments, along with feedback on the highlights affecting this data. This issue presents the key figures for September 2015

  4. Monthly Electrical Energy Overview May 2016

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-05-01

    This publication presents the electricity characteristics and noteworthy developments in France every month: consumption, generation, renewable energies, cross-border trades and transmission system developments, along with feedback on the highlights affecting this data. This issue presents the key figures for May 2016

  5. Monthly Electrical Energy Overview October 2014

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-10-01

    This publication presents the electricity characteristics and noteworthy developments in France every month: consumption, generation, renewable energies, cross-border trades and transmission system developments, along with feedback on the highlights affecting this data. This issue presents the key figures for October 2014

  6. Monthly Electrical Energy Overview December 2014

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-12-01

    This publication presents the electricity characteristics and noteworthy developments in France every month: consumption, generation, renewable energies, cross-border trades and transmission system developments, along with feedback on the highlights affecting this data. This issue presents the key figures for December 2014

  7. Monthly Electrical Energy Overview September 2014

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-09-01

    This publication presents the electricity characteristics and noteworthy developments in France every month: consumption, generation, renewable energies, cross-border trades and transmission system developments, along with feedback on the highlights affecting this data. This issue presents the key figures for September 2014

  8. Monthly Electrical Energy Overview November 2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-11-01

    This publication presents the electricity characteristics and noteworthy developments in France every month: consumption, generation, renewable energies, cross-border trades and transmission system developments, along with feedback on the highlights affecting this data. This issue presents the key figures for November 2012

  9. Monthly Electrical Energy Overview February 2013

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-02-01

    This publication presents the electricity characteristics and noteworthy developments in France every month: consumption, generation, renewable energies, cross-border trades and transmission system developments, along with feedback on the highlights affecting this data. This issue presents the key figures for February 2013

  10. Monthly Electrical Energy Overview January 2013

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    This publication presents the electricity characteristics and noteworthy developments in France every month: consumption, generation, renewable energies, cross-border trades and transmission system developments, along with feedback on the highlights affecting this data. This issue presents the key figures for January 2013

  11. Monthly Electrical Energy Overview July August 2015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-08-01

    This publication presents the electricity characteristics and noteworthy developments in France every month: consumption, generation, renewable energies, cross-border trades and transmission system developments, along with feedback on the highlights affecting this data. This issue presents the key figures for July-August 2015

  12. Monthly Electrical Energy Overview November 2016

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-12-01

    This publication presents the electricity characteristics and noteworthy developments in France every month: consumption, generation, renewable energies, cross-border trades and transmission system developments, along with feedback on the highlights affecting this data. This issue presents the key figures for November 2016. The cool weather in November caused an increase in demand (+8% compared with November 2015). The monthly French exports balance dropped to its historically lowest point since February 2012. The trend in adjusted electricity demand was slightly down. The nuclear generation deficit was offset by the rise in thermal fossil fuel generation that, at 6.7 TWh, reached its highest level since February 2012. The average wind load factor reached almost 30%, the highest level since March 2016. Over the whole of the month, French exchanges remained slightly in favour of exports as they fell by 92% compared to November 2015. 33 new installations went into service in November 2016

  13. Assessing Residential Customer Satisfaction for Large Electric Utilities

    OpenAIRE

    Lea Kosnik; L. Douglas Smith; Satish Nayak; Maureen Karig; Mark Konya; Kristy Lovett; Zhennan Liu; Harrison Luvai

    2015-01-01

    Electric utilities, like other service organizations, rely on customer surveys to assess the quality of their services and customer relations. With responses to an in-depth survey of 2,216 residential customers, complementary data from geo-coded public sources, aggregate assessments of performance by J.D. Power & Associates from their independent surveys, historical records of individual customer usage and bill payments, streams of published media content and records of actual service deliver...

  14. Electric heat-pumps in residential buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1983-03-01

    Since the end of 1979 every other day an electrically operated heat-pump has started operation in Berlin (West). Pros and cons of heat-pumps are a much discussed subject. But what is the opinion of the user. As it is not known the BEWAG carried out a written customer inquiry in the summer 1982. The aim of the inquiry was to improve the advisory service by means of the answers obtained, to obtain information about the reliability or liability to defects of the heat pump, the mechanism they operate on and to know how big the oil substitution potential is. Customer satisfaction with the heat pumps was a further point of interest.

  15. Charging Schedule for Electric Vehicles in Danish Residential Distribution Grids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pillai, Jayakrishnan Radhakrishna; Huang, Shaojun; Bak-Jensen, Birgitte

    2015-01-01

    energy sources like wind in power systems. The EV batteries could be used to charge during periods of excess electricity production from wind power and reduce the charging rate or discharge on deficit of power in the grid, supporting system stability and reliability. By providing such grid services......The prospects of Electric Vehicles (EVs) in providing clean transportation and supporting renewable electricity is widely discussed in sustainable energy forums worldwide. The battery storage of EVs could be used to address the variability and unpredictability of electricity produced from renewable......, the vehicle owner, vehicle fleet operator and other parties involved in the process could economically benefit from the process. This paper investigates an optimal EV charging plan in Danish residential distribution grids in view of supporting high volumes of wind power in electricity grids. The results...

  16. Reforming residential electricity tariff in China: Block tariffs pricing approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Chuanwang; Lin, Boqiang

    2013-01-01

    The Chinese households that make up approximately a quarter of world households are facing a residential power tariff reform in which a rising block tariff structure will be implemented, and this tariff mechanism is widely used around the world. The basic principle of the structure is to assign a higher price for higher income consumers with low price elasticity of power demand. To capture the non-linear effects of price and income on elasticities, we set up a translog demand model. The empirical findings indicate that the higher income consumers are less sensitive than those with lower income to price changes. We further put forward three proposals of Chinese residential electricity tariffs. Compared to a flat tariff, the reasonable block tariff structure generates more efficient allocation of cross-subsidies, better incentives for raising the efficiency of electricity usage and reducing emissions from power generation, which also supports the living standards of low income households. - Highlights: • We design a rising block tariff structure of residential electricity in China. • We set up a translog demand model to find the non-linear effects on elasticities. • The higher income groups are less sensitive to price changes. • Block tariff structure generates more efficient allocation of cross-subsidies. • Block tariff structure supports the living standards of low income households

  17. Monthly Electrical Energy Overview January 2017

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-02-01

    This publication presents the electricity characteristics and noteworthy developments in France every month: consumption, generation, renewable energies, cross-border trades and transmission system developments, along with feedback on the highlights affecting this data. This issue presents the key figures for January 2017. The cold spell of January 2017 caused a strong increase in gross electricity demand (+14.3%) compared to January 2016. The French exchange balance was in favour of imports for the second consecutive month. Demand recorded a peak on 20/01/2017 at 94.2 GW. It is the highest peak since February 2012. Corrected electricity demand trend stabilised in January 2017. Fossil fuel thermal generation was 8.3 TWh up by 71% compared to January 2016. Solar production grew significantly compared to last year with a 37.7% increase. The balance of exchanges was in favour of imports for the second consecutive month with a total of 0.95 TWh of electricity imported. 4 new installations went into service in January 2017

  18. Residential response to voluntary time-of-use electricity rates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mostafa Baladi, S. [Laurits R. Christensen Associates, Inc. Ames, IA 50011-1070 (United States); Herriges, Joseph A. [Iowa State University, 280D Heady Hall, Department of Economics, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011-1070 (United States); Sweeney, Thomas J. [MidAmerican Energy, Des Moines, Iowa (United States)

    1998-09-01

    The response of residential households to voluntary Time-of-Use (TOU) electricity rates is estimated using data from a recent experiment at Midwest Power Systems of Iowa. The study`s design allows us to examine both the participation decision and the customer`s load pattern changes once the TOU rate structure was in effect. Substitution elasticities between on-peak and off-peak electricity usage are estimated and compared to those obtained in earlier mandatory programs, indicating whether program volunteers are more responsive to TOU pricing than the typical household. Attitudinal questionnaires allow us to examine the role of usage perceptions in program participation

  19. What do customers want from improved residential electricity services? Evidence from a choice experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huh, Sung-Yoon; Woo, JongRoul; Lim, Sesil; Lee, Yong-Gil; Kim, Chang Seob

    2015-01-01

    Improvements in customer satisfaction as well as product/service quality represent a common objective of all businesses, and electricity services are no exception. Using choice experiments and a mixed logit model, this study quantitatively analyzes customers' preferences and their marginal willingness to pay for improved residential electricity services. The study provides an ex ante evaluation of customers' acceptance of hypothetical electricity services. According to the results, customers consider the electricity bill and the electricity mix as the two most important attributes when choosing their electricity services. Customers are willing to pay 2.2% more in the average electricity bill (an additional monthly electricity bill of KRW 1,064; USD 0.96) for a significant increase in the share of renewable energy, which is far less than the actual cost of achieving this renewable target. Therefore, it is better to maintain the current electricity mix in principle, and the renewable share should be gradually expanded instead of making a sudden change in the electricity mix. In addition, customers are willing to pay KRW 6,793 (USD 6.15) more to reduce blackouts once in a year and KRW 64/year (USD 0.06/year) to reduce a minute of each blackout. -- Highlights: •Customers' preferences for improved residential electricity services are analyzed. •Empirical setting is a sample of residents in South Korea. •The electricity bills and electricity mix are important to customers. •Increase in electricity bill of different electricity mix is considered

  20. Monthly Electrical Energy Overview September 2017

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-10-01

    This publication presents the electricity characteristics and noteworthy developments in France every month: consumption, generation, renewable energies, cross-border trades and transmission system developments, along with feedback on the highlights affecting this data. This issue presents the key figures for September 2017. Gross domestic demand increased slightly compared to September 2016, despite a monthly average temperature of less than 3.4 deg. C. The monthly balance of trade was positive (i.e. France was a net exporter) and increased by 73% compared to September 2016. Total demand corrected for climate contingencies remained stable. Demand by large industry continued its upward trend. Nuclear generation was up 11% compared to September 2016 and reached 29.3 TWh. Wind power production increased 66% compared to September 2016. The Greoux-les-Bains photovoltaic plant was connected to the public electricity transmission network. The plant has a generating power of 70 MW. The Grand-Est and Hauts-de-France regions really benefited from the strong winds observed across France. They thus contributed the most to the record levels of solar and wind generation recorded in September. Market prices were up in most European countries despite a notable decline in week 37. The monthly balance of trade remained exporter. 15 new installations went into service in September

  1. Monthly Electrical Energy Overview December 2016

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-01-01

    This publication presents the electricity characteristics and noteworthy developments in France every month: consumption, generation, renewable energies, cross-border trades and transmission system developments, along with feedback on the highlights affecting this data. This issue presents the key figures for December 2016. Demand in December 2016 was higher by more than 13% compared to December 2015, due to the significantly lower temperatures. The balance of exchanges was in favour of imports for the first time since February 2012. The December overview is published in the same time as the 2016 annual electricity report (http://bilan-electrique-2016.rte-france.com/). You will find there the analysis of the whole year. Adjusted electricity demand remained unchanged. Fossil fuel thermal generation reached 7.4 TWh, its highest level since February 2012. Wind power production was low, with an average wind load factor of around 17%. The monthly balance of French exchanges was in favour of imports, which had not happened since February 2012. 25 new installations went into service in December 2016

  2. Monthly Electrical Energy Overview October 2017

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-11-01

    This publication presents the electricity characteristics and noteworthy developments in France every month: consumption, generation, renewable energies, cross-border trades and transmission system developments, along with feedback on the highlights affecting this data. This issue presents the key figures for Monthly gross domestic demand fell by 5.2% compared to October 2016, due to above-normal temperatures. The monthly trade balance was in favour of exports. Total demand corrected for climate contingencies remained stable. Demand by heavy industry continued its upward trend. Monthly nuclear generation fell by 3.3% compared to October 2016. The rainfall deficit resulted in a reduction of almost 11% in hydropower production compared to October 2016. Wind power production rose 46.7% compared to October 2016. Photovoltaic production fell by 2.2% compared to October 2016. The solar load factor fell in almost all French regions compared to October 2016. Market prices continued to increase, in particular in Belgium and in France where nuclear availability was strongly reduced. The monthly balance of trade for France was once again positive in October 2017. 15 new installations went into service in October

  3. Meeting residential space heating demand with wind-generated electricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hughes, Larry

    2010-01-01

    Worldwide, many electricity suppliers are faced with the challenge of trying to integrate intermittent renewables, notably wind, into their energy mix to meet the needs of those services that require a continuous supply of electricity. Solutions to intermittency include the use of rapid-response backup generation and chemical or mechanical storage of electricity. Meanwhile, in many jurisdictions with lengthy heating seasons, finding secure and preferably environmentally benign supplies of energy for space heating is also becoming a significant challenge because of volatile energy markets. Most, if not all, electricity suppliers treat these twin challenges as separate issues: supply (integrating intermittent renewables) and demand (electric space heating). However, if space heating demand can be met from an intermittent supply of electricity, then both of these issues can be addressed simultaneously. One such approach is to use off-the-shelf electric thermal storage systems. This paper examines the potential of this approach by applying the output from a 5.15 MW wind farm to the residential heating demands of detached households in the Canadian province of Prince Edward Island. The paper shows that for the heating season considered, up to 500 households could have over 95 percent of their space heating demand met from the wind farm in question. The benefits as well as the limitations of the approach are discussed in detail. (author)

  4. Accelerating residential PV expansion: supply analysis for competitive electricity markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Payne, Adam; Williams, Robert H.; Duke, Richard

    2001-01-01

    Photovoltaic (PV) technology is now sufficiently advanced that market support mechanisms such as net metering plus a renewable portfolio standard (RPS) could induce rapid PV market growth in grid-connected applications. With such support mechanisms, markets would be sufficiently large that manufacturers could profitably build and operate 100 MW p /yr PV module factories, and electricity costs for residential rooftop PV systems would compare favorably with residential electricity prices in certain areas (e.g., California and the greater New York region in the US). This prospect is illustrated by economic and market analyses for one promising technology (amorphous silicon thin-film PV) from the perspectives of both module manufacturers and buyers of new homes with rooftop PV systems. With public policies that reflect the distributed and environmental benefits offered by PV-and that can sustain domestic PV market demand growth at three times the historical growth rate for a period of the order of two decades - PV could provide 3% of total US electricity supply by 2025. (Author)

  5. Residential implementation of critical-peak pricing of electricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herter, Karen

    2007-01-01

    This paper investigates how critical-peak pricing (CPP) affects households with different usage and income levels, with the goal of informing policy makers who are considering the implementation of CPP tariffs in the residential sector. Using a subset of data from the California Statewide Pricing Pilot of 2003-04, average load change during summer events, annual percent bill change, and post-experiment satisfaction ratings are calculated across six customer segments, categorized by historical usage and income levels. Findings show that high-use customers respond significantly more in kW reduction than do low-use customers, while low-use customers save significantly more in percentage reduction of annual electricity bills than do high-use customers-results that challenge the strategy of targeting only high-use customers for CPP tariffs. Across income levels, average load and bill changes were statistically indistinguishable, as were satisfaction rates-results that are compatible with a strategy of full-scale implementation of CPP rates in the residential sector. Finally, the high-use customers earning less than $50,000 annually were the most likely of the groups to see bill increases-about 5% saw bill increases of 10% or more-suggesting that any residential CPP implementation might consider targeting this customer group for increased energy efficiency efforts

  6. Integration of Solar Photovoltaics and Electric Vehicles in Residential Grids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pillai, Jayakrishnan Radhakrishna; Huang, Shaojun; Bak-Jensen, Birgitte

    2013-01-01

    In the last few years, there is an increased penetration of solar photovoltaic (SPV) units in low voltage (LV) distribution grids. Also electric vehicles (EVs) are introduced to these LV networks. This has caused the distribution networks to be more active and complex as these local generation...... and load units are characterised by unpredictable and diverse operating characteristics. This paper analyses the combined effect of SPVs and EVs in LV Danish residential grids. The EVs charging needs based on typical driving patterns of passenger cars and SPV power profiles during winter/summer days...

  7. Monthly Electrical Energy Overview April 2017

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-05-01

    This publication presents the electricity characteristics and noteworthy developments in France every month: consumption, generation, renewable energies, cross-border trades and transmission system developments, along with feedback on the highlights affecting this data. This issue presents the key figures for April 2017. Despite lower than normal temperatures (-0.8 deg. C), April remained milder than that of the previous year, resulting in a slight fall in demand. For the third month in a row, demand fell compared to the same month in the previous year (-6.2%). Hydraulic generation suffered from the dry weather in April with a fall of 35% compared to April 2016. The good amount of sunlight this month as well as the increase in the installed photovoltaic base allowed solar generation to jump by more than 36%. The rainfall deficit over the country affected hydraulic generation with falls of as much as -80% in the Centre-Val de Loire region. Variations in market prices were mixed depending on the countries. The balance of exports was in France's favour on all its borders, with a national export balance greater than 5 TWh. 9 new installations went into service in April

  8. Monthly Electrical Energy Overview February 2017

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-03-01

    This publication presents the electricity characteristics and noteworthy developments in France every month: consumption, generation, renewable energies, cross-border trades and transmission system developments, along with feedback on the highlights affecting this data. This issue presents the key figures for February 2017. The monthly balance of French exchanges once again passed back in favour of exports in February 2017, despite a fall in nuclear and hydraulic generation. Gross demand was down compared to February 2016, due to milder temperatures. Fossil fuel thermal generation totalled 6.1 TWh, up by 65% compared to February 2016. Due to fluctuating winds, February 2017 recorded both an instantaneous generation peak for the wind and solar sectors (11.3 GW), and a fall in monthly wind generation compared to February 2016. The fall in wind power generation was not uniform over the country: the Southwest experienced stormy episodes boosting generation whereas that in the North-East fell sharply. Market prices were sharply lower Europe-wide. The balance in favour of exports totalled 3.4 TWh in February 2017. 11 installations went into service in this month

  9. Monthly Electrical Energy Overview August 2016

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-09-01

    This publication presents the electricity characteristics and noteworthy developments in France every month: consumption, generation, renewable energies, cross-border trades and transmission system developments, along with feedback on the highlights affecting this data. This issue presents the key figures for July and August 2016. Demand increased by +1.8% compared to August 2015 due in particular to the heat wave that occurred at the end of the month. Corrected for weather effects, total demand increased, led by the demand from households, professionals and small businesses. To respond to the increased demand resulting from the heat wave, thermal generation using fossil fuel was used (up 145% compared to August 2015). For the first time, solar production broke the 1 TWh threshold in July and August. During the week of the start of the academic year, on Monday, 29 August, the balance of French electricity exchanges was in favour of imports for over 8 hrs. The July/August period was used to put 33 new installations into service

  10. Response of residential electricity demand to price: The effect of measurement error

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alberini, Anna; Filippini, Massimo

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we present an empirical analysis of the residential demand for electricity using annual aggregate data at the state level for 48 US states from 1995 to 2007. Earlier literature has examined residential energy consumption at the state level using annual or monthly data, focusing on the variation in price elasticities of demand across states or regions, but has failed to recognize or address two major issues. The first is that, when fitting dynamic panel models, the lagged consumption term in the right-hand side of the demand equation is endogenous. This has resulted in potentially inconsistent estimates of the long-run price elasticity of demand. The second is that energy price is likely mismeasured. To address these issues, we estimate a dynamic partial adjustment model using the Kiviet corrected Least Square Dummy Variables (LSDV) (1995) and the Blundell-Bond (1998) estimators. We find that the long-term elasticities produced by the Blundell-Bond system GMM methods are largest, and that from the bias-corrected LSDV are greater than that from the conventional LSDV. From an energy policy point of view, the results obtained using the Blundell-Bond estimator where we instrument for price imply that a carbon tax or other price-based policy may be effective in discouraging residential electricity consumption and hence curbing greenhouse gas emissions in an electricity system mainly based on coal and gas power plants. - Research Highlights: → Updated information on price elasticities for the US energy policy. → Taking into account measurement error in the price variable increase price elasticity. → Room for discouraging residential electricity consumption using price increases.

  11. Response of residential electricity demand to price: The effect of measurement error

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alberini, Anna [Department of Agricultural Economics, University of Maryland (United States); Centre for Energy Policy and Economics (CEPE), ETH Zurich (Switzerland); Gibson Institute and Institute for a Sustainable World, School of Biological Sciences, Queen' s University Belfast, Northern Ireland (United Kingdom); Filippini, Massimo, E-mail: mfilippini@ethz.ch [Centre for Energy Policy and Economics (CEPE), ETH Zurich (Switzerland); Department of Economics, University of Lugano (Switzerland)

    2011-09-15

    In this paper we present an empirical analysis of the residential demand for electricity using annual aggregate data at the state level for 48 US states from 1995 to 2007. Earlier literature has examined residential energy consumption at the state level using annual or monthly data, focusing on the variation in price elasticities of demand across states or regions, but has failed to recognize or address two major issues. The first is that, when fitting dynamic panel models, the lagged consumption term in the right-hand side of the demand equation is endogenous. This has resulted in potentially inconsistent estimates of the long-run price elasticity of demand. The second is that energy price is likely mismeasured. To address these issues, we estimate a dynamic partial adjustment model using the Kiviet corrected Least Square Dummy Variables (LSDV) (1995) and the Blundell-Bond (1998) estimators. We find that the long-term elasticities produced by the Blundell-Bond system GMM methods are largest, and that from the bias-corrected LSDV are greater than that from the conventional LSDV. From an energy policy point of view, the results obtained using the Blundell-Bond estimator where we instrument for price imply that a carbon tax or other price-based policy may be effective in discouraging residential electricity consumption and hence curbing greenhouse gas emissions in an electricity system mainly based on coal and gas power plants. - Research Highlights: > Updated information on price elasticities for the US energy policy. > Taking into account measurement error in the price variable increase price elasticity. > Room for discouraging residential electricity consumption using price increases.

  12. Monthly Electrical Energy Overview May 2017

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-06-01

    This publication presents the electricity characteristics and noteworthy developments in France every month: consumption, generation, renewable energies, cross-border trades and transmission system developments, along with feedback on the highlights affecting this data. This issue presents the key figures for May 2017. Demand increased slightly versus May 2016 with higher average temperatures (+1.6 deg.) over this period. Demand rose by 0.9% compared with May 2016. Hydraulic generation was again impacted by the lack of rain with a fall of 12,6% compared with May 2016. Solar generation increased by 20%, driven by the growth of the park and the high amounts of sunshine observed over the month. It is in Auvergne-Rhone-Alpes, Grand-Est, Hauts-de-France, Ile-de-France and Provence-Alpes-Cote d'Azur (PACA) that annual final demand from heavy industry was at its highest for 2016. In these regions, except for Ile-de-France, the chemicals, para-chemicals, metallurgy and steel sectors consumed the most energy. Market prices were relatively stable in most European countries. France had an export balance with all countries outside its borders. With 1.85 TWh, the export balance for monthly trades with Spain reached a new record. 7 new installations went into service in May

  13. Monthly Electrical Energy Overview June 2017

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-07-01

    This publication presents the electricity characteristics and noteworthy developments in France every month: consumption, generation, renewable energies, cross-border trades and transmission system developments, along with feedback on the highlights affecting this data. This issue presents the key figures for June 2017. Average temperatures in June increased by +2.7 deg. compared to June 2016. Demand in June increased by +1.76% compared to June 2016. Demand in June increased by 1.76% compared to June 2016, due in particular to the heat wave that occurred between 19 and 22. Hydraulic generation was again penalized by the lack of rainfall with a fall of 28.6% compared to June 2016. Solar generation was up by 26.7%, driven by the high amount of sunlight in the month. The heat wave had a strong impact on demand in the regions most affected by the high temperatures: Champagne-Ardenne, Pays de la Loire, Midi-Pyrenees. Market prices increased in the south of Europe. France imported more than it exported via Switzerland. Overall, French exchanges remained in favour of exports in the month. 14 new installations went into service in June

  14. Monthly Electrical Energy Overview Mars 2017

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-04-01

    This publication presents the electricity characteristics and noteworthy developments in France every month: consumption, generation, renewable energies, cross-border trades and transmission system developments, along with feedback on the highlights affecting this data. This issue presents the key figures for March 2017. With 2 deg. C over the normal average temperature, March 2017 was the hottest March recorded over the period 1900-2017. Therefore, gross French power demand fell by 9.4% compared to March 2016. A new record instantaneous balance in favour of exports was reached at over 17 GW. Gross demand was down compared to March 2016, due to milder temperatures. RE generation excluding hydraulic rose after 4 months of falls, driven by favourable weather conditions. The maximum coverage rate of demand by wind power generation reached a new record (18.2%) benefiting from the presence of windy conditions over the country in March. The monthly regional coverage rate of demand by generation of renewable origin exceeded 23% in the Occitanie, Auvergne-Rhone-Alpes, Grand-Est, Provence-Alpes-Cote d'Azur and Nouvelle-Aquitaine regions. The fall in prices continued throughout Europe. On 30 March at 19.30 a new record instantaneous balance in favour of exports was recorded at over 17 GW. 1 new installation went into service in March 2017

  15. Dynamic linear modeling of monthly electricity demand in Japan: Time variation of electricity conservation effect.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keita Honjo

    Full Text Available After the severe nuclear disaster in Fukushima, which was triggered by the Great East Japan earthquake in March 2011, nuclear power plants in Japan were temporarily shut down for mandatory inspections. To prevent large-scale blackouts, the Japanese government requested companies and households to reduce electricity consumption in summer and winter. It is reported that the domestic electricity demand had a structural decrease because of the electricity conservation effect (ECE. However, quantitative analysis of the ECE is not sufficient, and especially time variation of the ECE remains unclear. Understanding the ECE is important because Japan's NDC (nationally determined contribution assumes the reduction of CO2 emissions through aggressive energy conservation. In this study, we develop a time series model of monthly electricity demand in Japan and estimate time variation of the ECE. Moreover, we evaluate the impact of electricity conservation on CO2 emissions from power plants. The dynamic linear model is used to separate the ECE from the effects of other irrelevant factors (e.g. air temperature, economic production, and electricity price. Our result clearly shows that consumers' electricity conservation behavior after the earthquake was not temporary but became established as a habit. Between March 2011 and March 2016, the ECE on industrial electricity demand ranged from 3.9% to 5.4%, and the ECE on residential electricity demand ranged from 1.6% to 7.6%. The ECE on the total electricity demand was estimated at 3.2%-6.0%. We found a seasonal pattern that the residential ECE in summer is higher than that in winter. The emissions increase from the shutdown of nuclear power plants was mitigated by electricity conservation. The emissions reduction effect was estimated at 0.82 MtCO2-2.26 MtCO2 (-4.5% on average compared to the zero-ECE case. The time-varying ECE is necessary for predicting Japan's electricity demand and CO2 emissions after the

  16. Dynamic linear modeling of monthly electricity demand in Japan: Time variation of electricity conservation effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiraki, Hiroto; Ashina, Shuichi

    2018-01-01

    After the severe nuclear disaster in Fukushima, which was triggered by the Great East Japan earthquake in March 2011, nuclear power plants in Japan were temporarily shut down for mandatory inspections. To prevent large-scale blackouts, the Japanese government requested companies and households to reduce electricity consumption in summer and winter. It is reported that the domestic electricity demand had a structural decrease because of the electricity conservation effect (ECE). However, quantitative analysis of the ECE is not sufficient, and especially time variation of the ECE remains unclear. Understanding the ECE is important because Japan’s NDC (nationally determined contribution) assumes the reduction of CO2 emissions through aggressive energy conservation. In this study, we develop a time series model of monthly electricity demand in Japan and estimate time variation of the ECE. Moreover, we evaluate the impact of electricity conservation on CO2 emissions from power plants. The dynamic linear model is used to separate the ECE from the effects of other irrelevant factors (e.g. air temperature, economic production, and electricity price). Our result clearly shows that consumers’ electricity conservation behavior after the earthquake was not temporary but became established as a habit. Between March 2011 and March 2016, the ECE on industrial electricity demand ranged from 3.9% to 5.4%, and the ECE on residential electricity demand ranged from 1.6% to 7.6%. The ECE on the total electricity demand was estimated at 3.2%–6.0%. We found a seasonal pattern that the residential ECE in summer is higher than that in winter. The emissions increase from the shutdown of nuclear power plants was mitigated by electricity conservation. The emissions reduction effect was estimated at 0.82 MtCO2–2.26 MtCO2 (−4.5% on average compared to the zero-ECE case). The time-varying ECE is necessary for predicting Japan’s electricity demand and CO2 emissions after the

  17. Impact of residential PV adoption on Retail Electricity Rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai, Desmond W.H.; Adlakha, Sachin; Low, Steven H.; De Martini, Paul; Mani Chandy, K.

    2013-01-01

    The price of electricity supplied from home rooftop photo voltaic (PV) solar cells has fallen below the retail price of grid electricity in some areas. A number of residential households have an economic incentive to install rooftop PV systems and reduce their purchases of electricity from the grid. A significant portion of the costs incurred by utility companies are fixed costs which must be recovered even as consumption falls. Electricity rates must increase in order for utility companies to recover fixed costs from shrinking sales bases. Increasing rates will, in turn, result in even more economic incentives for customers to adopt rooftop PV. In this paper, we model this feedback between PV adoption and electricity rates and study its impact on future PV penetration and net-metering costs. We find that the most important parameter that determines whether this feedback has an effect is the fraction of customers who adopt PV in any year based solely on the money saved by doing so in that year, independent of the uncertainties of future years. These uncertainties include possible changes in rate structures such as the introduction of connection charges, the possibility of PV prices dropping significantly in the future, possible changes in tax incentives, and confidence in the reliability and maintainability of PV. -- Highlights: •Households who install PV reduce their electricity consumption from the grid. •Electricity rates must increase for utility companies to recover its fixed costs. •However, higher electricity rates give households more incentives to adopt PV. •We find that this feedback has significant impact on PV uptake only in later years. •Utility companies could lose a significant fraction of high consumption customers

  18. Photovoltaic electricity generation: Value for residential and commercial sectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharjee, Ujjwal

    The photovoltaic (PV) industry in the US has seen an upsurge in recent years, and PV holds great promise as a renewable technology with no greenhouse gas emissions with its use. We aim to assess the value of PV based electricity for users in the residential and commercial sectors focusing on the financial impacts it has, which may not be greatly recognized. Specifically, we pursue two goals. First, the emerging 'renewable portfolio standard (RPS)' adopted in several states in the country has been a driving force for large scale PV deployment, but financial incentives offered to PV in different RPS states differ considerably. We use life cycle cost model to estimate the cost of PV based electricity for thirty-two RPS states in the country. Results indicate that the levelized cost of PV electricity is high (40 to 60 Cents/kWh). When the contribution of the financial incentives (along with the cost of energy saved) is taken into account, the cost of PV based electricity is negative in some RPS states such as California, New Jersey, New York, while for most of the RPS states the cost of PV electricity continues to remain high. In addition, the states with negative or low cost of PV electricity have been driving the PV diffusion in the residential sector. Therefore, a need to adjust the financial incentive structure in different RPS states is recommended for homogenous development of the residential PV market in the country. Second, we assess the value of the PV in reducing the highest peak load demand in commercial buildings and hence the high value demand charge. The Time-of-Use (TOU) based electricity tariff is widely used by electric utilities in the commercial sector. Energy and peak load are two important facets of the TOU tariff regime. Tools are well established to estimate the energy contribution from a PV system (installed in a commercial building), but not power output on a short time interval. A joint conditional probability model has been developed that

  19. Empirical Investigations of the Opportunity Limits of Automatic Residential Electric Load Shaping: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cruickshank, Robert F.; Henze, Gregor P.; Balaji, Rajagopalan; Hodge, Bri-Mathias S.; Florita, Anthony R.

    2017-04-01

    Residential electric load shaping is often modeled as infrequent, utility-initiated, short-duration deferral of peak demand through direct load control. In contrast, modeled herein is the potential for frequent, transactive, intraday, consumer-configurable load shaping for storage-capable thermostatically controlled electric loads (TCLs), including refrigerators, freezers, and hot water heaters. Unique to this study are 28 months of 15-minute-interval observations of usage in 101 homes in the Pacific Northwest United States that specify exact start, duration, and usage patterns of approximately 25 submetered loads per home. The magnitudes of the load shift from voluntarily-participating TCL appliances are aggregated to form hourly upper and lower load-shaping limits for the coordination of electrical generation, transmission, distribution, storage, and demand. Empirical data are statistically analyzed to define metrics that help quantify load-shaping opportunities.

  20. Electric power monthly, July 1997 with data for April 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-07-01

    The Electric Power Monthly (EPM) presents monthly electricity statistics for a wide audience including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the electric utility industry, and the general public. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decisionmakers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead. 57 tabs.

  1. Electric power monthly, June 1997 with data for March 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-06-01

    The Electric Power Monthly (EPM) presents monthly electricity statistics for a wide audience including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the electric utility industry, and the general public. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decisionmakers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead. 63 tabs.

  2. Accelerating residential PV expansion: demand analysis for competitive electricity markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duke, Richard; Williams, Robert; Payne, Adam

    2005-01-01

    This article quantifies the potential market for grid-connected, residential photovoltaic (PV) electricity integrated into new homes built in the US. It complements an earlier supply-side analysis by the authors that demonstrates the potential to reduce PV module prices below $1.5/W p by scaling up existing thin-film technology in 100 MW p /yr manufacturing facilities. The present article demonstrates that, at that price, PV modules may be cost effective in 125,000 new home installations per year (0.5 GW p /yr). While this market is large enough to support multiple scaled up thin-film PV factories, inefficient energy pricing and demand-side market failures will inhibit prospective PV consumers without strong public policy support. Net metering rules, already implemented in many states to encourage PV market launch, represent a crude but reasonable surrogate for efficient electricity pricing mechanisms that may ultimately emerge to internalize the externality benefits of PV. These public benefits include reduced air pollution damages (estimated costs of damage to human health from fossil fuel power plants are presented in Appendix A), deferral of transmission and distribution capital expenditures, reduced exposure to fossil fuel price risks, and increased electricity system reliability for end users. Thus, net metering for PV ought to be implemented as broadly as possible and sustained until efficient pricing is in place. Complementary PV 'buydowns' (e.g., a renewable portfolio standard with a specific PV requirement) are needed to jumpstart regional PV markets

  3. 77 FR 2743 - Recovery Directorate Fact Sheet 9580.213, Residential Electrical Meter Repair-“Power Up”

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-19

    ...] Recovery Directorate Fact Sheet 9580.213, Residential Electrical Meter Repair--``Power Up'' AGENCY: Federal..., Residential Electrical Meter Repair--``Power Up.'' DATES: Comments must be received by February 21, 2012... authority, FEMA may fund the repair of residential electrical meters damaged in a major disaster or...

  4. Market-based Demand Response via Residential Plug-in Electric Vehicles in Smart Grids

    OpenAIRE

    Rassaei, Farshad; Soh, Wee-Seng; Chua, Kee-Chaing

    2015-01-01

    Flexibility in power demand, diverse usage patterns and storage capability of plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) grow the elasticity of residential electricity demand remarkably. This elasticity can be utilized to form the daily aggregated demand profile and/or alter instantaneous demand of a system wherein a large number of residential PEVs share one electricity retailer or an aggregator. In this paper, we propose a demand response (DR) technique to manage vehicle-to-grid (V2G) enabled PEVs' e...

  5. Did residential electricity rates fall after retail competition? A dynamic panel analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swadley, Adam; Yücel, Mine

    2011-01-01

    A key selling point for the restructuring of electricity markets was the promise of lower prices. There is not much consensus in earlier studies on the effects of electricity deregulation in the U.S., particularly for residential customers. Part of the reason for not finding a consistent link with deregulation and lower prices was that the removal of transitional price caps led to higher prices. In addition, the timing of the removal of price caps coincided with rising fuel prices, which were passed on to consumers in a competitive market. Using a dynamic panel model, we analyze the effect of participation rates, fuel costs, market size, a rate cap and switch to competition for 16 states and the District of Columbia. We find that an increase in participation rates, price controls, a larger market, and high shares of hydro in electricity generation lower retail prices, while increases in natural gas and coal prices increase rates. We also find that retail competition makes the market more efficient by lowering the markup of retail prices over wholesale costs. The effects of a competitive retail electricity market are mixed across states, but generally appear to lower prices in states with high participation rates. - Highlights: ► We analyze the effects of retail competition in electricity markets on residential retail prices. ► Analysis carried out using a dynamic panel model; monthly data for 17 U.S. states. ► More customer participation and larger market lead to lower prices. ► Higher fuel costs increase retail prices, but with a lag. ► Retail competition leads to a more efficient electricity market.

  6. Electric power monthly January 1997 with data for October 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-01-01

    This publication presents monthly electricity statistical data. Information is included on U.S. electric utility net generation, consumption of fossil fuels, and fossil-fuel stocks; U.S. electric utility sales; receipts and cost of fossil fuels at utilities; and monthly plant aggregates. A glossary is included.

  7. The Relationship between Residential Electricity Consumption and Income: A Piecewise Linear Model with Panel Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanan Liu

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available There are many uncertainties and risks in residential electricity consumption associated with economic development. Knowledge of the relationship between residential electricity consumption and its key determinant—income—is important to the sustainable development of the electric power industry. Using panel data from 30 provinces for the 1995–2012 period, this study investigates how residential electricity consumption changes as incomes increase in China. Previous studies typically used linear or quadratic double-logarithmic models imposing ex ante restrictions on the indistinct relationship between residential electricity consumption and income. Contrary to those models, we employed a reduced piecewise linear model that is self-adaptive and highly flexible and circumvents the problem of “prior restrictions”. Robust tests of different segment specifications and regression methods are performed to ensure the validity of the research. The results provide strong evidence that the income elasticity was approximately one, and it remained stable throughout the estimation period. The income threshold at which residential electricity consumption automatically remains stable or slows has not been reached. To ensure the sustainable development of the electric power industry, introducing higher energy efficiency standards for electrical appliances and improving income levels are vital. Government should also emphasize electricity conservation in the industrial sector rather than in residential sector.

  8. An analysis of a demand charge electricity grid tariff in the residential sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stokke, A. V.; Doorman, G.L.; Ericson, T.

    2010-01-01

    This paper analyzes the demand response from residential electricity consumers to a demand charge grid tariff. The tariff charges the maximum hourly peak consumption in each of the winter months Dec, Jan, and Feb, thus giving incentives to reduce peak consumption. We use hourly electricity consumption data from 443 households, as well as data on their grid and power prices, the local temperature, wind speed, and hours of daylight. The panel data set is analyzed with a fixed effects regression model. The estimates indicate average demand reductions up to 0.37 kWh/h per household in response to the tariff. This is on average a 5% reduction, with a maximum reduction of 12% in hour 8 in Dec. The consumers did not receive any information on their continuous consumption or any reminders when the tariff was in effect. It is likely that the consumption reductions would have been even higher with more information to the consumers.

  9. Electricity consumption in G7 countries: A panel cointegration analysis of residential demand elasticities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narayan, Paresh Kumar; Smyth, Russell; Prasad, Arti

    2007-01-01

    This article applies recently developed panel unit root and panel cointegration techniques to estimate the long-run and short-run income and price elasticities for residential demand for electricity in G7 countries. The panel results indicate that in the long-run residential demand for electricity is price elastic and income inelastic. The study concludes that from an environmental perspective there is potential to use pricing policies in the G7 countries to curtail residential electricity demand, and thus curb carbon emissions, in the long run. (author)

  10. Electric power monthly, September 1990. [Glossary included

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-12-17

    The purpose of this report is to provide energy decision makers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues. The power plants considered include coal, petroleum, natural gas, hydroelectric, and nuclear power plants. Data are presented for power generation, fuel consumption, fuel receipts and cost, sales of electricity, and unusual occurrences at power plants. Data are compared at the national, Census division, and state levels. 4 figs., 52 tabs. (CK)

  11. Electric power monthly, March 1998 with data for December 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    The Electric Power Monthly (EPM) provides monthly statistics at the State, Census division, and US levels for net generation, fossil fuel consumption and stocks, quantity and quality of fossil fuels, cost of fossil fuels, electricity retail sales, associated revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold. In addition, data on net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and cost of fossil fuels are also displayed for the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) regions. 63 tabs.

  12. Electric power monthly, December 1998 with data for September 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-01

    The Electric Power Monthly (EPM) presents monthly electricity statistics for a wide audience including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the electric utility industry, and the general public. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decisionmakers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead. The EIA collected the information in this report to fulfill its data collection and dissemination responsibilities. 57 tabs.

  13. Electric Power Monthly, September 1995: With data for June 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    The Electric Power Monthly (EPM) presents monthly electricity statistics for a wide audience including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the electric utility industry, and the general public. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decisionmakers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead. The Coal and Electric Data and Renewables Division; Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels, Energy Information Administration (EIA), Department of Energy prepares the EPM. This publication provides monthly statistics at the State, Census division, and US levels for net generation, fossil fuel consumption and stocks, quantity and quality of fossil fuels, cost of fossil fuels, electricity sales, revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold. Data on net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and cost of fossil fuels are also displayed for the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) regions.

  14. Electric power monthly: April 1996, with data for January 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-04-01

    The Electric Power Monthly (EPM) presents monthly electricity statistics for a wide audience including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the electric utility industry, and the general public. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decision makers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead. The Coal and Electric Data and Renewables Division; Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels, Energy Information Administration (EIA), Department of Energy prepares the EPM. This publication provides monthly statistics at the State, Census division, and US levels for net generation, fossil fuel consumption and stocks, quantity and quality of fossil fuels, cost of fossil fuels, electricity sales, revenue, and average revenue per kilowatt hour of electricity sold. Data on net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and cost of fossil fuels are also displayed for the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) regions. 64 tabs.

  15. Electric power monthly, February 1999 with data for November 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-02-01

    The Electric Power Monthly presents monthly electricity statistics for a wide audience including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the electric utility industry, and the general public. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decision makers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead. Statistics are provided for net generation, fossil fuel consumption and stocks, quantity and quality of fossil fuels, cost of fossil fuels, electricity retail sales, associated revenue, and average revenue per kilowatt-hour of electricity sold.

  16. Quantifying the Flexibility of Residential Electricity Demand in 2050: a Bottom-Up Approach

    OpenAIRE

    van Stiphout, Arne; Engels, Jonas; Guldentops, Dries; Deconinck, Geert

    2015-01-01

    This work presents a new method to quantify the flexibility of automatic demand response applied to residential electricity demand using price elasticities. A stochastic bottom-up model of flexible electricity demand in 2050 is presented. Three types of flexible devices are implemented: electrical heating, electric vehicles and wet appliances. Each house schedules its flexible demand w.r.t. a varying price signal, in order to minimize electricity cost. Own- and cross-price elasticities are ob...

  17. Electric power monthly, August 1998, with data for May 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-08-01

    The Electric Power Monthly (EPM) presents monthly electricity statistics for a wide audience including congress, Federal and State agencies, the electric utility industry, and the general public. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decisionmakers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead. This publication provides monthly statistics at the State, Census division, and US levels for net generation, fossil fuel consumption and stocks, quantity and quality of fossil fuels, cost of fossil fuels, electricity retail sales, associated revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold. In addition, data on net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and cost of fossil fuels are also displayed for the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) regions. 9 refs., 57 tabs.

  18. Electric power monthly, March 1999 with data for December 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    The Electric Power Monthly (EPM) presents monthly electricity statistics for a wide audience including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the electric utility industry, and the general public. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decisionmakers with accurate and timely information that may be sued in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead. This publication provides monthly statistics at the State, Census division, and US levels for net generation, fossil fuel consumption and stocks, quantity and quality of fossil fuels, cost of fossil fuels, electricity retail sales, associated revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold. In addition, data on net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and cost of fossil fuels are also displayed for the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) regions. 63 tabs.

  19. Electric power monthly, May 1998, with data for February 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-05-01

    The Electric Power Monthly (EPM) presents monthly electricity statistics for a wide audience including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the electric utility industry, and the general public. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decisionmakers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead. The EIA collected the information in this report to fulfill its data collection and dissemination responsibilities as specified in the Federal Energy Administration Act of 1974. The EPM provides monthly statistics at the State, Census division, and US levels for net generation, fossil fuel consumption and stocks, quantity and quality of fossil fuels, cost of fossil fuels, electricity retail sales, associated revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold. In addition, data on net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and cost of fossil fuels are also displayed for the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) regions. 30 refs., 58 tabs.

  20. Electric power monthly, December 1997 with data for September 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-01

    The Electric Power Monthly (EPM) presents monthly electricity statistics for a wide audience including congress, Federal and State agencies, the electric utility industry, and the general public. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decisionmakers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead. This publication provides monthly statistics at the State, Census division, and US levels for net generation, fossil fuel consumption and stocks, quantity and quality of fossil fuels, cost of fossil fuels, electricity retail sales, associated revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold. In addition, data on net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and cost of fossil fuels are also displayed for the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) regions. The EIA publishes statistics in the EPM on net generation by energy source; consumption, stocks, quantity, quality, and cost of fossil fuels; and capability of new generating units by company and plant. 63 tabs.

  1. Electric power monthly, May 1995 with data for February 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-05-24

    The Electric Power Monthly (EPM) presents monthly electricity statistics for a wide audience including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the electric utility industry, and the general public. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decisiommakers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead. The publication provides monthly statistics at the State, Census division, and US levels for net generation, fossil fuel consumption and stocks, quantity and quality of fossil fuel, cost of fossil fuels, electricity sales, revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold. Data on net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and cost of fossil fuels are also displayed for the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) regions. The EIA publishes statistics in the EPM on net generation by energy source; consumption, stocks, quantity, quality, and cost of fossil fuels; and capability of new generating units by company and plant.

  2. Energy efficiency to reduce residential electricity and natural gas use under climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyna, Janet L; Chester, Mikhail V

    2017-05-15

    Climate change could significantly affect consumer demand for energy in buildings, as changing temperatures may alter heating and cooling loads. Warming climates could also lead to the increased adoption and use of cooling technologies in buildings. We assess residential electricity and natural gas demand in Los Angeles, California under multiple climate change projections and investigate the potential for energy efficiency to offset increased demand. We calibrate residential energy use against metered data, accounting for differences in building materials and appliances. Under temperature increases, we find that without policy intervention, residential electricity demand could increase by as much as 41-87% between 2020 and 2060. However, aggressive policies aimed at upgrading heating/cooling systems and appliances could result in electricity use increases as low as 28%, potentially avoiding the installation of new generation capacity. We therefore recommend aggressive energy efficiency, in combination with low-carbon generation sources, to offset projected increases in residential energy demand.

  3. An exploratory analysis of California residential customer response to critical peak pricing of electricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herter, Karen; McAuliffe, Patrick; Rosenfeld, Arthur

    2007-01-01

    This paper summarizes the results from an exploratory analysis of residential customer response to a critical peak pricing (CPP) experiment in California, in which 15 times per year participating customers received high price signals dispatched by a local electricity distribution company. The high prices were about three times the on-peak price for the otherwise applicable time-of-use rate. Using hourly load data collected during the 15-month experiment, we find statistically significant load reduction for participants both with and without automated end-use control technologies. During 5-h critical peak periods, participants without control technology used up to 13% less energy than they did during normal peak periods. Participants equipped with programmable communicating thermostats used 25% and 41% less for 5 and 2h critical events, respectively. Thus, this paper offers convincing evidence that the residential sector can provide substantial contributions to retail demand response, which is considered a potential tool for mitigating market power, stabilizing wholesale market prices, managing system reliability, and maintaining system resource adequacy. (author)

  4. Exploring variance in residential electricity consumption: Household features and building properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartusch, Cajsa; Odlare, Monica; Wallin, Fredrik; Wester, Lars

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Statistical analysis of variance are of considerable value in identifying key indicators for policy update. ► Variance in residential electricity use is partly explained by household features. ► Variance in residential electricity use is partly explained by building properties. ► Household behavior has a profound impact on individual electricity use. -- Abstract: Improved means of controlling electricity consumption plays an important part in boosting energy efficiency in the Swedish power market. Developing policy instruments to that end requires more in-depth statistics on electricity use in the residential sector, among other things. The aim of the study has accordingly been to assess the extent of variance in annual electricity consumption in single-family homes as well as to estimate the impact of household features and building properties in this respect using independent samples t-tests and one-way as well as univariate independent samples analyses of variance. Statistically significant variances associated with geographic area, heating system, number of family members, family composition, year of construction, electric water heater and electric underfloor heating have been established. The overall result of the analyses is nevertheless that variance in residential electricity consumption cannot be fully explained by independent variables related to household and building characteristics alone. As for the methodological approach, the results further suggest that methods for statistical analysis of variance are of considerable value in indentifying key indicators for policy update and development.

  5. Electric power monthly, May 1997 with data for February 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-05-01

    The Electric Power Monthly (EPM) presents monthly electricity statistics for a wide audience including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the electric utility industry, and the general public. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decisionmakers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead. The EIA collected the information in this report to fulfill its data collection and dissemination responsibilities as specified in the Federal Energy Administration Act of 1974 (Public Law 93-275) as amended. 63 tabs.

  6. Electric power monthly: February 1995, with data for November 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-02-22

    The Electric Power Monthly (EPM) presents monthly electricity statistics for a wide audience including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the electric utility industry, and the general public. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decisionmakers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead. The EIA collected the information in this report to fulfill its data collection and dissemination responsibilities as specified in the Federal Energy Administration Act of 1974 (Public Law 93-275) as amended. 64 tabs.

  7. Electric power monthly: March 1996, with data for December 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    The Electric Power Monthly (EPM) presents monthly electricity statistics for a wide audience including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the electric utility industry, and the general public. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decision makers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead. The EIA collected the information in this report to fulfill its data collection and dissemination responsibilities as specified in the Federal Energy Administration Act of 1974 (Public Law 93-275) as amended. 69 tabs.

  8. Electric power monthly with data for November 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-02-01

    The Electric Power Monthly (EPM) presents monthly electricity statistics for a wide audience including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the electric utility industry, and the general public. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decisionmakers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead. The EIA collected the information in this report to fulfill its data collection and dissemination responsibilities as specified in the Federal Energy Administration Act of 1974 (Public Law 93-275) as amended.

  9. Electric power monthly, April 1998, with data for January 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-04-01

    The Electric Power Monthly (EPM) presents monthly electricity statistics for a wide audience including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the electric utility industry, and the general public. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decisionmakers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead. The EIA collected the information in this report to fulfill its data collection and dissemination responsibilities as specified in the Federal Energy Administration Act of 1974 (Public Law 93-275) as amended. 63 tabs.

  10. Electric power monthly, February 1998 with data for November 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-02-01

    The Electric Power Monthly (EPM) provides monthly statistics at the State, Census division, and US levels for net generation, fossil fuel consumption and stocks, quantity and quality of fossil fuels, cost of fossil fuels, electricity retail sales, associated revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold. In addition, data on net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and cost of fossil fuels are also displayed for the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) regions. The EIA publishes statistics in the EPM on net generation by energy source; consumption, stocks, quantity, quality, and cost of fossil fuels; and capability of new generating units by company and plant. 63 tabs.

  11. Electric power monthly, January 1999 with data for October 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-01-01

    The Electric Power Monthly (EPM) presents monthly electricity statistics for a wide audience including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the electric utility industry, and the general public. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decisionmakers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead. The EIA collected the information in this report to fulfill its data collection and dissemination responsibilities as specified in the Federal Energy Administration Act of 1974 (Public Law 93-275) as amended. 1 fig., 63 tabs.

  12. Electric power monthly, July 1998 with data for April 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-07-01

    The Electric Power Monthly (EPM) presents monthly electricity statistics for a wide audience including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the electric utility industry, and the general public. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decisionmakers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead. The EIA collected the information in this report to fulfill its data collection and dissemination responsibilities as specified in the Federal Energy Administration Act of 1974 (Public Law 93-275) as amended.

  13. Impact of Uncoordinated Plug-in Electric Vehicle Charging on Residential Power Demand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muratori, Matteo [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2018-01-22

    Electrification of transport offers opportunities to increase energy security, reduce carbon emissions, and improve local air quality. Plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) are creating new connections between the transportation and electric sectors, and PEV charging will create opportunities and challenges in a system of growing complexity. Here, I use highly resolved models of residential power demand and PEV use to assess the impact of uncoordinated in-home PEV charging on residential power demand. While the increase in aggregate demand might be minimal even for high levels of PEV adoption, uncoordinated PEV charging could significantly change the shape of the aggregate residential demand, with impacts for electricity infrastructure, even at low adoption levels. Clustering effects in vehicle adoption at the local level might lead to high PEV concentrations even if overall adoption remains low, significantly increasing peak demand and requiring upgrades to the electricity distribution infrastructure. This effect is exacerbated when adopting higher in-home power charging.

  14. Impact of uncoordinated plug-in electric vehicle charging on residential power demand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muratori, Matteo

    2018-03-01

    Electrification of transport offers opportunities to increase energy security, reduce carbon emissions, and improve local air quality. Plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) are creating new connections between the transportation and electric sectors, and PEV charging will create opportunities and challenges in a system of growing complexity. Here, I use highly resolved models of residential power demand and PEV use to assess the impact of uncoordinated in-home PEV charging on residential power demand. While the increase in aggregate demand might be minimal even for high levels of PEV adoption, uncoordinated PEV charging could significantly change the shape of the aggregate residential demand, with impacts for electricity infrastructure, even at low adoption levels. Clustering effects in vehicle adoption at the local level might lead to high PEV concentrations even if overall adoption remains low, significantly increasing peak demand and requiring upgrades to the electricity distribution infrastructure. This effect is exacerbated when adopting higher in-home power charging.

  15. Moving from Outsider to Insider: Peer Status and Partnerships between Electricity Utilities and Residential Consumers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Peter; Buys, Laurie; Vine, Desley

    2014-01-01

    An electricity demand reduction project based on comprehensive residential consumer engagement was established within an Australian community in 2008. By 2011, both the peak demand and grid supplied electricity consumption had decreased to below pre-intervention levels. This case study research explored the relationship developed between the utility, community and individual consumer from the residential customer perspective through qualitative research of 22 residential households. It is proposed that an energy utility can be highly successful at peak demand reduction by becoming a community member and a peer to residential consumers and developing the necessary trust, access, influence and partnership required to create the responsive environment to change. A peer-community approach could provide policymakers with a pathway for implementing pro-environmental behaviour for low carbon communities, as well as peak demand reduction, thereby addressing government emission targets while limiting the cost of living increases from infrastructure expenditure. PMID:24979234

  16. Energy Savings Potential and Opportunities for High-Efficiency Electric Motors in Residential and Commercial Equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goetzler, William [Navigant Consulting, Inc., Burlington, MA (United States); Sutherland, Timothy [Navigant Consulting, Inc., Burlington, MA (United States); Reis, Callie [Navigant Consulting, Inc., Burlington, MA (United States)

    2013-12-04

    This report describes the current state of motor technology and estimates opportunities for energy savings through application of more advanced technologies in a variety of residential and commercial end uses. The objectives of this report were to characterize the state and type of motor technologies used in residential and commercial appliances and equipment and to identify opportunities to reduce the energy consumption of electric motor-driven systems in the residential and commercial sectors through the use of advanced motor technologies. After analyzing the technical savings potential offered by motor upgrades and variable speed technologies, recommended actions are presented.

  17. Price freezes, durables and residential electricity demand - Evidence from the Greater Buenos Aires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casarin, Ariel; Delfino, Maria Eugenia

    2010-09-15

    This paper examines the determinants of residential electricity demand in the Greater Buenos Aires between 1997 and 2006. During the second half of this period, residential tariffs remained nominally fixed, while an income boom boosted up the sales of durables. This study differs from previous works in that it explicitly considers the impact of the stock of air-conditioners on residential demand. The paper reports short- and long-run elasticities and examines the contribution of prices and durables to recent demand growth. Simulations illustrate the impact of prices and durables on future demand.

  18. Developing a Mixed Neural Network Approach to Forecast the Residential Electricity Consumption Based on Sensor Recorded Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oprea, Simona-Vasilica; Pîrjan, Alexandru; Căruțașu, George; Petroșanu, Dana-Mihaela; Bâra, Adela; Stănică, Justina-Lavinia; Coculescu, Cristina

    2018-05-05

    In this paper, we report a study having as a main goal the obtaining of a method that can provide an accurate forecast of the residential electricity consumption, refining it up to the appliance level, using sensor recorded data, for residential smart homes complexes that use renewable energy sources as a part of their consumed electricity, overcoming the limitations of not having available historical meteorological data and the unwillingness of the contractor to acquire such data periodically in the future accurate short-term forecasts from a specialized institute due to the implied costs. In this purpose, we have developed a mixed artificial neural network (ANN) approach using both non-linear autoregressive with exogenous input (NARX) ANNs and function fitting neural networks (FITNETs). We have used a large dataset containing detailed electricity consumption data recorded by sensors, monitoring a series of individual appliances, while in the NARX case we have also used timestamps datasets as exogenous variables. After having developed and validated the forecasting method, we have compiled it in view of incorporating it into a cloud solution, being delivered to the contractor that can provide it as a service for a monthly fee to both the operators and residential consumers.

  19. Electric power monthly, July 1999, with data for April 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-07-01

    The Electric Power Division, Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels, Energy Information Administration (EIA), Department of Energy prepares the Electric Power Monthly (EPM). This publication provides monthly statistics at the State, Census division, and US levels for net generation, fossil fuel consumption and stocks, quantity and quality of fossil fuels, cost of fossil fuels, electricity retail sales, associated revenue, and average revenue per kilowatt hour of electricity sold. In addition, data on net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and cost of fossil fuels are also displayed for the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) regions. The EIA publishes statistics in the EPM on net generation by energy source; consumption, stocks, quantity, quality, and cost of fossil fuels; and capability of new generating units by company and plant. 1 fig., 64 tabs.

  20. Electric power monthly, December 1996 with data for September 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-01

    The report presents monthly electricity statistics for a wide audience including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the electric utility industry, and the general public. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decisionmakers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead. This publication provides monthly statistics at the State, Census division, and US levels for net generation, fossil fuel consumption and stocks, quantity and quality of fossil fuels, cost of fossil fuels, electricity retail sales, associated revenue, and average revenue per kilowatt hour of electricity sold. In addition, data on net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and cost of fossil fuels are also displayed for the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) regions. The EIA publishes statistics on net generation by energy source; consumption, stocks, quantity, quality, and cost of fossil fuels; and capability of new generating units by company and plant. 57 tabs.

  1. Monthly bulletin of electric power market - November 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    This bulletin deals with the brazilian electric power consumption in November 1988, containing data about the total consumption, the growth rates, the special tariffs and monthly evolution in each brazilian region. The economic indexes of industrial production, the market and the prices of electric power and petroleum products are also presented. (C.G.C.)

  2. Monthly bulletin of electric power market - July 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    This bulletin deals with the brazilian electric power consumption in July 1988, containing data about the total consumption, the growth rates, the special tariffs and monthly evolution in each brazilian region. The economic indexes of industrial production, the market and the prices of electric power and petroleum products are also presented. (C.G.C.)

  3. Monthly bulletin of electric power market - September 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    This bulletin deals with the brazilian electric power consumption in September 1988, containing data about the total consumption, the growth rates, the special tariffs and monthly evolution in each brazilian region. The economic indexes of industrial production, the market and the prices of electric power and petroleum products are also presented. (C.G.C.)

  4. The performance of residential micro-cogeneration coupled with thermal and electrical storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopf, John

    Over 80% of residential secondary energy consumption in Canada and Ontario is used for space and water heating. The peak electricity demands resulting from residential energy consumption increase the reliance on fossil-fuel generation stations. Distributed energy resources can help to decrease the reliance on central generation stations. Presently, distributed energy resources such as solar photovoltaic, wind and bio-mass generation are subsidized in Ontario. Micro-cogeneration is an emerging technology that can be implemented as a distributed energy resource within residential or commercial buildings. Micro-cogeneration has the potential to reduce a building's energy consumption by simultaneously generating thermal and electrical power on-site. The coupling of a micro-cogeneration device with electrical storage can improve the system's ability to reduce peak electricity demands. The performance potential of micro-cogeneration devices has yet to be fully realized. This research addresses the performance of a residential micro-cogeneration device and it's ability to meet peak occupant electrical loads when coupled with electrical storage. An integrated building energy model was developed of a residential micro-cogeneration system: the house, the micro-cogeneration device, all balance of plant and space heating components, a thermal storage device, an electrical storage device, as well as the occupant electrical and hot water demands. This model simulated the performance of a micro-cogeneration device coupled to an electrical storage system within a Canadian household. A customized controller was created in ESP-r to examine the impact of various system control strategies. The economic performance of the system was assessed from the perspective of a local energy distribution company and an end-user under hypothetical electricity export purchase price scenarios. It was found that with certain control strategies the micro-cogeneration system was able to improve the

  5. Electric power monthly, December 1995 with data for September 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-14

    This publication presents monthly electricity statistics for a wide audience including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the electric utility industry, and the general public. Its purpose is to provide energy decisionmakers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead. EIA collected the information to fulfill its data collection and dissemination responsibilities. (User instructions on EIA`s electronic publishing system are included, as is a glossary.)

  6. Residential electricity consumption in Portugal: Findings from top-down and bottom-up models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiesmann, Daniel; Lima Azevedo, Ines; Ferrao, Paulo; Fernandez, John E.

    2011-01-01

    An econometric study of the Portuguese residential electricity consumption is presented, with a focus on the influence of dwelling characteristics on consumption. The relationship between the dwelling and household characteristics on per capita residential electricity consumption is estimated at two different scales, involving two distinct databases: the first includes data at the municipality level for 2001, the second is the most recent Portuguese consumer expenditure survey that was collected in 2005 and 2006. The results of the analysis at both scales are consistent and indicate that household and dwelling characteristics have a significant influence on residential electricity consumption. Our results show that in Portugal the direct effect of income on electricity consumption is low and becomes smaller when more relevant control variables are included in the analysis. Future demand of electricity in Portugal will be significantly influenced by trends in socioeconomic factors as well as changes in the building stock. These trends should be taken in consideration in the formulation of policy measures to reduce electricity consumption. - Research highlights: → Econometric study of per capita residential electricity consumption in Portugal. → Comparing models at two levels of aggregation: by municipality and by household. → Using proxies for the dwelling characteristics on the municipality level. → Results from both scales are consistent. → Income elasticity is low and the influence of dwelling characteristics is significant.

  7. Short- and long-run time-of-use price elasticities in Swiss residential electricity demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filippini, Massimo

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents an empirical analysis on the residential demand for electricity by time-of-day. This analysis has been performed using aggregate data at the city level for 22 Swiss cities for the period 2000-2006. For this purpose, we estimated two log-log demand equations for peak and off-peak electricity consumption using static and dynamic partial adjustment approaches. These demand functions were estimated using several econometric approaches for panel data, for example LSDV and RE for static models, and LSDV and corrected LSDV estimators for dynamic models. The attempt of this empirical analysis has been to highlight some of the characteristics of the Swiss residential electricity demand. The estimated short-run own price elasticities are lower than 1, whereas in the long-run these values are higher than 1. The estimated short-run and long-run cross-price elasticities are positive. This result shows that peak and off-peak electricity are substitutes. In this context, time differentiated prices should provide an economic incentive to customers so that they can modify consumption patterns by reducing peak demand and shifting electricity consumption from peak to off-peak periods. - Highlights: → Empirical analysis on the residential demand for electricity by time-of-day. → Estimators for dynamic panel data. → Peak and off-peak residential electricity are substitutes.

  8. Residential electricity consumption in Portugal: Findings from top-down and bottom-up models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiesmann, Daniel, E-mail: daniel.wiesmann@ist.utl.p [Instituto Superior Tecnico, Technical University of Lisbon, Avenida Rovisco Pais 1, 1049-001 Lisbon (Portugal); Lima Azevedo, Ines [Department of Engineering and Public Policy, Carnegie Mellon University, 5000 Forbes Avenue, Pittsburgh, PA 15213 (United States); Ferrao, Paulo [Instituto Superior Tecnico, Technical University of Lisbon, Avenida Rovisco Pais 1, 1049-001 Lisbon (Portugal); Fernandez, John E. [Department of Architecture, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States)

    2011-05-15

    An econometric study of the Portuguese residential electricity consumption is presented, with a focus on the influence of dwelling characteristics on consumption. The relationship between the dwelling and household characteristics on per capita residential electricity consumption is estimated at two different scales, involving two distinct databases: the first includes data at the municipality level for 2001, the second is the most recent Portuguese consumer expenditure survey that was collected in 2005 and 2006. The results of the analysis at both scales are consistent and indicate that household and dwelling characteristics have a significant influence on residential electricity consumption. Our results show that in Portugal the direct effect of income on electricity consumption is low and becomes smaller when more relevant control variables are included in the analysis. Future demand of electricity in Portugal will be significantly influenced by trends in socioeconomic factors as well as changes in the building stock. These trends should be taken in consideration in the formulation of policy measures to reduce electricity consumption. - Research highlights: {yields} Econometric study of per capita residential electricity consumption in Portugal. {yields} Comparing models at two levels of aggregation: by municipality and by household. {yields} Using proxies for the dwelling characteristics on the municipality level. {yields} Results from both scales are consistent. {yields} Income elasticity is low and the influence of dwelling characteristics is significant.

  9. Electric power monthly, October 1998, with data for July 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-10-01

    The Electric Power Monthly (EPM) presents monthly electricity statistics for a wide audience including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the electric utility industry, and the general public. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decisionmakers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead. The Electric Power Division; Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels, Energy Information Administration (EIA), Department of Energy prepares the EPM. This publication provides monthly statistics at the State, Census division, and US levels for net generation, fossil fuel consumption and stocks, quantity and quality of fossil fuels, cost of fossil fuels, electricity retail sales, associated revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold. In addition, data on net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and cost of fossil fuels are also displayed for the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) regions. The EIA publishes statistics in the EPM on net generation by energy source; consumption, stocks, quantity, quality, and cost of fossil fuels; and capability of new generating units by company and plant. 57 tabs.

  10. Electric power monthly, November 1998, with data for August 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-11-01

    The Electric Power Monthly (EPM) presents monthly electricity statistics for a wide audience including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the electric utility industry, and the general public. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decisionmakers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead. The Electric Power Division; Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate fuels, Energy Information Administration (EIA), Department of Energy prepares the EPM. This publication provides monthly statistics at the State, Census division, and US levels for net generation, fossil fuel consumption and stocks, quantity and quality of fossil fuels, cost of fossil fuels, electricity retail sales, associated revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold. In addition, data on net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and cost of fossil fuels are also displayed for the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) regions. The EIA publishes statistics in the EPM on net generation by energy source; consumption, stocks, quantity, quality, and cost of fossil fuels; and capability of new generating units by company and plant. 57 tabs.

  11. Electric power monthly, September 1998, with data for June 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-09-01

    The Electric Power Monthly (EPM) presents monthly electricity statistics for a wide audience including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the electric utility industry, and the general public. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decisionmakers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead. The Electric Power Division; Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels, Energy Information Administration (EIA), Department of Energy prepares the EPM. This publication provides monthly statistics at the State, Census division, and US levels for net generation, fossil fuel consumption and stocks, quantity and quality of fossil fuels, cost of fossil fuels, electricity retail sales, associated revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold. In addition, data on net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and cost of fossil fuels are also displayed for the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) regions. The EIA publishes statistics in the EPM on net generation by energy source; consumption, stocks, quantity, quality, and cost of fossil fuels; and capability of new generating units by company and plant.

  12. Electric power monthly, June 1999, with data for March 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-06-01

    The Electric Power Monthly (EPM) presents monthly electricity statistics for a wide audience including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the electric utility industry, and the general public. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decisionmakers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead. The Electric Power Division; Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels, Energy Information Administration (EIA), Department of Energy prepares the EPM. This publication provides monthly statistics at the State, Census division, and US levels for net generation, fossil fuel consumption and stocks, quantity and quality of fossil fuels, cost of fossil fuels, electricity retail sales, associated revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold. In addition, data on net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and cost of fossil fuels are also displayed for the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) regions. The EIA publishes statistics in the EPM on net generation by energy source; consumption, stocks, quantity, quality, and cost of fossil fuels; and capability of new generating units by company and plant. 57 tabs.

  13. Electric power monthly, April 1999 with data for January 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-04-01

    The Electric Power Monthly (EPM) presents monthly electricity statistics for a wide audience including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the electric utility industry, and the general public. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decisionmakers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead. The Electric Power Division; Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels, Energy Information Administration (EIA), Department of Energy prepares the EPM. This publication provides monthly statistics at the State, Census division, and US levels for net generation, fossil fuel consumption and stocks, quantity and quality of fossil fuels, cost of fossil fuels, electricity retail sales, associated revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold. In addition, data on net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and cost of fossil fuels are also displayed for the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) regions. The EIA publishes statistics in the EPM on net generation by energy source; consumption, stocks, quantity, quality, and cost of fossil fuels; and capability of new generating units by company and plant.

  14. Electric power monthly: October 1995, with data for July 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-10-19

    The Electric Power Monthly (EPM) presents monthly electricity statistics for a wide audience including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the electric utility industry, and the general public. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decisionmakers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead. The Coal and Electric Data and Renewables Division; Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels, Energy Information Administration (EIA), Department of Energy prepares the EPM. This publication provides monthly statistics at the State, Census division, and US levels for net generation, fossil fuel consumption and stocks, quantity and quality of fossil fuels, cost of fossil fuels, electricity sales, revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold. Data on net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and cost of fossil fuels are also displayed for the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) regions. The EIA publishes statistics in the EPM on net generation by energy source; consumption, stocks, quantity, quality, and cost of fossil fuels; and capability of new generating units by company and plant.

  15. Electric Power Monthly with data for July 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-10-01

    This publication provides monthly statistics at the state, census division, and U.S. levels for net generation; fossil fuel consumption and stocks, quantity, and quality of fossil fuels; cost of fossil fuels; electricity retail sales; associated revenue; and average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold. Data on net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and cost of fossil fuels are also displayed for the North American Electric Reliability Council regions. Statistics on net generation are published by energy source; consumption, stocks, quantity, quality, and cost of fossil fuels; and capability of new generating units by company and plant. The monthly update is summarized, and industry developments are briefly described. 57 tabs.

  16. SIZING AND COSTING OPTIMISATION OF A TYPICAL WIND/PV HYBRID ELECTRICITY GENERATION SYSTEM FOR A TYPICAL RESIDENTIAL BUILDING IN URBAN ARMIDALE NSW, AUSTRALIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasser Maklad

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the wind and solar electricity generation availability and potentiality for residential buildings in Armidale NSW, Australia. The main purpose of this study is to design an appropriate wind-PV hybrid system to cover the electricity consumption of typical residential buildings of various occupancy rates and relevant various average electrical daily consumption. In order to do achieve that, monthly average solar irradiance monthly average wind speed historical data observed at weather station belongs to the Australian bureau of meteorology in Armidale town over a fourteen years period from 1997–2010. Simulation of solar photovoltaic panels and wind turbines were conducted to obtain the optimal hybrid system sizing and best efficient with lowest cost. Correlations between the solar and wind power data were carried out on an hourly, daily, and monthly basis. It is shown that the hybrid system can be applied for the efficient and economic utilization of wind and solar renewable energy sources.

  17. Norwegian residential electricity demand - a microeconomic assessment of the growth from 1976 to 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halvorsen, B.; Larsen, B.M.

    2001-01-01

    The Norwegian residential electricity consumption increased by an average of 3% annually during the period 1976-1993. Political signals indicate that the growth in Norwegian residential energy consumption should be reduced, and that it may be necessary to increase energy taxes. Based on data for the sample of households from the annual consumer expenditure survey, we study factors that are of importance explaining the growth in Norwegian residential electricity demand during this period. Nearly half of the growth is due to an increase in the number of households, while the rest reflects an increase in average consumption per household. The increase in average consumption per household is due to an increasing number of households possessing electric household appliances such as dryers and dishwashers, an increase in real disposable household income and in the floor space of dwellings. (author)

  18. Estimation of urban residential electricity demand in China using household survey data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Shaojie; Teng, Fei

    2013-01-01

    This paper uses annual urban household survey data of Sichuan Province from 2007 to 2009 to estimate the income and price elasticities of residential electricity demand, along with the effects of lifestyle-related variables. The empirical results show that in the urban area of Sichuan province, the residential electricity demand is price- and income-inelastic, with price and income elasticities ranging from −0.35 to −0.50 and from 0.14 to 0.33, respectively. Such lifestyle-related variables as demographic variables, dwelling size and holdings of home appliances, are also important determinants of residential electricity demand, especially the latter. These results are robust to a variety of sensitivity tests. The research findings imply that urban residential electricity demand continues to increase with the growth of income. The empirical results have important policy implications for the Multistep Electricity Price, which been adopted in some cities and is expected to be promoted nationwide through the installation of energy-efficient home appliances. - Highlights: • We estimate price and income elasticities in China using household survey data. • The current study is the first such study in China at this level. • Both price and income are inelastic. • Behavior factors have important impact on electricity consumption

  19. Electric power monthly. June 1966 with data for March 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-06-01

    This publication presents monthly electricity statistics for a wide audience including Congress, Federal and state agencies, the electric utility industry, and the general public, with the purpose of providing energy decisionmakers with accurate, timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead. EIA collected the information in this report to fulfill its data collection and dissemination responsibilities (Public Law 93-275). A section on upgrading transmission capacity for wholesale electric power trade is included. The tables include US electric power at a glance, utility net generation, utility consumption of fossil fuels, fossil-fuel stocks/receipts/cost at utilities, utility sales/revenue/revenue per kWh, and monthly plant aggregates.

  20. The residential electricity sector in Denmark: A description of current conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kitzing, Lena; Katz, Jonas; Schröder, Sascha Thorsten

    We provide an overview of the current conditions and framework for residential electricity consumption in Denmark. This includes a general overview of the sector, the retail market and the regulatory framework. We describe the regulations currently in place and changes which have been decided...... in the area, which are listed in the Glossary towards the end of the report. We also attach a list and description of the major sources of information and data that can be obtained and downloaded for analysis of the Danish residential electricity sector....

  1. Integration of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV) with grid connected residential photovoltaic energy systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagarajan, Adarsh; Shireen, Wajiha

    2013-06-01

    This paper proposes an approach for integrating Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEV) to an existing residential photovoltaic system, to control and optimize the power consumption of residential load. Control involves determining the source from which residential load will be catered, where as optimization of power flow reduces the stress on the grid. The system built to achieve the goal is a combination of the existing residential photovoltaic system, PHEV, Power Conditioning Unit (PCU), and a controller. The PCU involves two DC-DC Boost Converters and an inverter. This paper emphasizes on developing the controller logic and its implementation in order to accommodate the flexibility and benefits of the proposed integrated system. The proposed controller logic has been simulated using MATLAB SIMULINK and further implemented using Digital Signal Processor (DSP) microcontroller, TMS320F28035, from Texas Instruments

  2. Electric power monthly, May 1999, with data for February 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-05-01

    The Electric Power Monthly (EPM) presents monthly electricity statistics for a wide audience including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the electric utility industry, and the general public. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decision makers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead. This publication provides monthly statistics at the State, Census division, and US levels for net generation, fossil fuel consumption and stocks, quantity and quality of fossil fuels, cost of fossil fuels, electricity retail sales, associated revenue, and average revenue per kilowatt hour of electricity sold. In addition, data on net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and cost of fossil fuels are also displayed for the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) regions. The EIA publishes statistics in the EPM on net generation by energy source; consumption, stocks, quantity, quality, and cost of fossil fuels; and capability of new generating units by company and plant. 64 tabs.

  3. Electric power monthly: October 1996, with data for July 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-10-01

    The Electric Power Monthly (EPM) presents monthly electricity statistics for a wide audience including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the electric utility industry, and the general public. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decisionmakers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead. This publication provides monthly statistics at the State, Census division, and US levels for net generation, fossil fuel consumption and stocks, quantity and quality of fossil fuels, cost of fossil fuels, electricity retail sales, associated revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold. In addition, data on net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and cost of fossil fuels are also displayed for the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) regions. The EIA publishes statistics in the EPM on net generation by energy source; consumption, stocks, quantity, quality, and cost of fossil fuels; and capability of new generating units by company and plant. This report contains approximately 60 tables.

  4. Electricity rates in Canada, 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    Numerical data only are presented for monthly electricity costs (residential and commercial) for selected Canadian cities. Total electricity supply is broken down by province. Residential, urban and rural electricity costs, including taxation, are provided for selected Canadian cities. Calculations of electricity costs for commercial and residential sectors are tabulated by province. Historical data from 1974 are supplied

  5. The effect of economic factors and energy efficiency programs on residential electricity consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Mihoko

    Many countries have implemented policies to correct market and behavioral failures that lead to inefficient energy use. It is important to know what factors and policies can effectively overcome such failures and improve energy efficiency; however, a comprehensive analysis has been difficult because of data limitations. Using state scores compiled by American organizations recently, and adopting fixed-effects regression models, I analyze the joint impacts of relevant factors and policy programs on residential electricity consumption in each U.S. state. The empirical results reveal that increases in electricity price have small and negative effects, and increases in personal income have positive effects on residential electricity sales per capita (a measure of energy efficiency). The results suggest that it may take time for economic factors to affect electricity sales. The effects of personal income suggest the difficulty of controlling residential electricity consumption; however, they also imply that there is some room in households to reduce electricity use. The study also finds that programs and budgets of several policies seem to be associated with electricity sales. The estimates from a model including interaction terms suggest the importance of including multiple policies when analyzing and designing policies to address electricity efficiency. The results also imply the possibility of rebound effects of some policies, whereby improvements in energy efficiency lead to increases in energy consumption due to the associated lower per unit cost. Future studies should analyze both short-term and long-term effects of economic factors and policies, based on improved and accumulated time series and panel data, in order to design more effective policies for improving residential electricity efficiency.

  6. Estimation of Iranian price elasticities of residential electricity demand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeganeh Mousavi Jahromi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a study to determine demand for electricity in city of Yazd, Iran over the period of 1998-2008. Using vector error correction model (VECM based on seasonal information, the study determines that electricity has no elasticity in short term in household expenditure. Therefore, government policy on increasing price of electricity will not influence demand. However, electricity maintains elasticity over the long-term period and an increase on price of electricity could motivate consumers to reduce their consumption by purchasing energy efficient facilities. Therefore, any governmental strategy to increase price may have positive impact on economy. The study also detects a positive and meaningful relationship between temperature and electricity consumption.

  7. Electric power monthly, August 1996, with data for May 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-08-09

    This publication presents monthly electricity statistics for a wide audience including Congress, Federal and state agencies, the electric utility industry, and the general public. Purpose is to provide energy decisionmakers with accurate, timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead. EIA collected the information to fulfill its data collection and dissemination responsibilities as specified in the Federal Energy Administration Act of 1974. Statistics are presented in this publication on net generation by energy source; consumption, stocks, quantity, quality, and cost of fossil fuels; and capability of new generating units by company and plant.

  8. Electric power monthly with data for June 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-09-01

    This publication provides monthly statistics at the state, census division, and U.S. levels for net generation; fossil fuel consumption and stocks, quantity, and quality of fossil fuels; cost of fossil fuels; electricity retail sales; associated revenue; and average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold. Data on net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity, and cost of fossil fuels are also displayed for the North American Electric Reliability Council regions. Statistics on net generation by energy source and capability of new generating units by company and plant are also included. A section is included in the report which summarizes major industry developments. 1 fig., 64 tabs.

  9. Electric power monthly, June 1995 with data for March 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-06-19

    The Coal and Electric Data and Renewables Division; Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels, Energy Information Administration (EIA), Department of Energy prepares the EPM. This publication provides monthly statistics at the State, Census division, and US levels for net generation, fossil fuel consumption and stocks, quantity and quality of fossil fuels, cost of fossil fuels, electricity sales, revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold. Data on net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and cost of fossil fuels are also displayed for the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) regions. The EIA publishes statistics in the EPM on net generation by energy source; consumption, stocks, quantity, quality, and cost of fossil fuels; and capability of new generating units by company and plant. 68 tabs.

  10. Electric power monthly with data for December 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    The Coal and Electric Data and Renewables Division; Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels, Energy Information Administration (EIA), Department of Energy prepares the EPM. This publication provides monthly statistics at the State, Census division, and U.S. levels for net generation, fossil fuel consumption and stocks, quantity and quality of fossil fuels, cost of fossil fuels, electricity retail sales, associated revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold. In addition, data on net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and cost of fossil fuels are also displayed for the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) regions. The EIA publishes statistics in the EPM on net generation by energy source; consumption, stocks, quantity, quality, and cost of fossil fuels; and capability of new generating units by company and plant.

  11. Electric power monthly with data for January 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-04-01

    The Coal and Electric Data and Renewables Division; Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels, Energy Information Administration (EIA), Department of Energy prepares the EPM. This publication provides monthly statistics at the State, Census division, and U.S. levels for net generation, fossil fuel consumption and stocks, quantity and quality of fossil fuels, cost of fossil fuels, electricity retail sales, associated revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold. In addition, data on net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and cost of fossil fuels are also displayed for the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) regions. The EIA publishes statistics in the EPM on net generation by energy source; consumption, stocks, quantity, quality, and cost of fossil fuels; and capability of new generating units by company and plant.

  12. Electric power monthly, September 1996, with data for June 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-09-01

    The Coal and Electric Data and Renewables Division; Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels, Energy Information Administration (EIA), Department of Energy prepares the EPM. This publication provides monthly statistics at the State, Census division, and U.S. levels for net generation, fossil fuel consumption and stocks, quantity and quality of fossil fuels, cost of fossil fuels, electricity retail sales, associated revenue, and average revenue per kilowatt hour of electricity sold. In addition, data on net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and cost of fossil fuels are also displayed for the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) regions. The EIA publishes statistics in the EPM on net generation by energy source; consumption, stocks, quantity, quality, and cost of fossil fuels; and capability of new generating units by company and plant.

  13. Electric power monthly with data for October 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-01-01

    The Coal and Electric Data and Renewables Division; Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels, Energy Information Administration (EIA), Department of Energy prepares the EPM. This publication provides monthly statistics at the State, Census division, and U.S. levels for net generation, fossil fuel consumption and stocks, quantity and quality of fossil fuels, cost of fossil fuels, electricity sales, revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold. Data on net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and cost of fossil fuels are also displayed for the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) regions. The EIA publishes statistics in the EPM on net generation by energy source; consumption, stocks, quantity, quality, and cost of fossil fuels; and capability of new generating units by company and plant.

  14. A critical look at residential electricity conservation campaigns in a developing country environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martino Jannuzzi, G. de; Ferreira Santos, V. dos

    1993-01-01

    This paper analyse survey results of the effectiveness of information campaigns to promote energy efficiency among residential consumers in Brazil. The survey found that consumers have a relatively good knowledge of conservation measures to improve electricity usage. Nevertheless, other approaches are needed to promote energy conservation in the household sector. (author). 3 refs, 4 figs, 2 tabs

  15. Experimental device for the residential heating with heat pipe and electric heat storage blocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasiliev, L L; Boldak, I M; Domorod, L S; Rabetsky, M I; Schirokov, E I [AN Belorusskoj SSR, Minsk (Belarus). Inst. Teplo- i Massoobmena

    1992-01-01

    Residential heating using electric heat storage blocks nowadays is an actual problem from the point of view of heat recovery and nature protection. In the Luikov Heat and Mass Transfer Institute a new residential electrical heater capable of heating chambers by controlling air temperature and heat output using heat pipes and an electric heat storage block was developed. This heater (BETA) is fed from the source of energy and during 7 h of night time accumulates energy sufficiently to heat 10 m{sup 3} during 24 h. Heating device BETA has a ceramic thermal storage block, electric heaters and a heat pipe with evaporator inside the ceramic block and constant temperature (65{sup o}C) finned condenser outside it. The condenser temperature could be controlled easily. BETA is compact, has high thermal response, accurate air temperature control and safe operation. Such types of residential heaters are necessary for heating residential and office building in the Mogilev and Gomel regions in Byelorussia which suffered after the Chernobyl catastrophe. (Author).

  16. Analysis and modeling of active occupancy of the residential sector in Spain: An indicator of residential electricity consumption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    López-Rodríguez, M.A.; Santiago, I.; Trillo-Montero, D.; Torriti, J.; Moreno-Munoz, A.

    2013-01-01

    The growing energy consumption in the residential sector represents about 30% of global demand. This calls for Demand Side Management solutions propelling change in behaviors of end consumers, with the aim to reduce overall consumption as well as shift it to periods in which demand is lower and where the cost of generating energy is lower. Demand Side Management solutions require detailed knowledge about the patterns of energy consumption. The profile of electricity demand in the residential sector is highly correlated with the time of active occupancy of the dwellings; therefore in this study the occupancy patterns in Spanish properties was determined using the 2009–2010 Time Use Survey (TUS), conducted by the National Statistical Institute of Spain. The survey identifies three peaks in active occupancy, which coincide with morning, noon and evening. This information has been used to input into a stochastic model which generates active occupancy profiles of dwellings, with the aim to simulate domestic electricity consumption. TUS data were also used to identify which appliance-related activities could be considered for Demand Side Management solutions during the three peaks of occupancy. -- Highlights: •Active occupancy profiles of Spanish dwellings has been obtained and modeled from Time Use Survey data. •Occupancy profiles resulting from the model can be used to model domestic energy consumption. •The presence of three peaks of active occupation was verified, which coincide with morning, noon and evening. •Manual and incentive-based DSM programmes are considered the most suitable for Spanish dwellings. •TV electricity consumption becomes important at aggregate level

  17. Electric power monthly with data for October 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-01-01

    This publication provides monthly statistics at the State, Census division, and U.S. levels for net generation, fossil fuel consumption and stocks, quantity and quality of fossil fuels, cost of fossil fuels, electricity retail sales, associated revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold. In addition, data on net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and cost of fossil fuels are also displayed for the North American Electric Reliability Council regions. Statistics are published on net generation by energy source; consumption, stocks, quantity, quality, and cost of fossil fuels; and capability of new generating units by company and plant. A monthly utility update and summary of industry developments are also included. 63 tabs., 1 fig.

  18. Electric power monthly with data for August 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-11-01

    This publication provides monthly statistics at the state, census division, and U.S. levels for net generation; fossil fuel consumption and stocks, quantity, and quality of fossil fuels; cost of fossil fuels; electricity retail sales; associated revenue; and average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold. Data on net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and cost of fossil fuels are also displayed for the North American Electric Reliability Council regions. Statistics on net generation are published by energy source; consumption, stocks, quantity, quality, and cost of fossil fuels; and capability of new generating units by company and plant. The monthly update is summarized, and industry developments are briefly described. 1 fig., 63 tabs.

  19. Electric Power monthly, November 1995 with data for August 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-11-15

    This report presents monthly electricity statistics, with the purpose of providing energy decisionmakers with accurate, timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead. EIA collected the information in this report to fulfill its data collection and dissemination responsibilities; the information are from six data sources: forms EIA-759, FERC Form 423, EIA-826, EIA-861, EIA-860, and Form OE-417R. An article on reclicensing and environmental issues affecting hydropower is included. Then the statistics are presented in: US electric power at a glance, utility net generation, utility consumption of fossil fuels, fossil-fuel stocks at utilities, fossil fuel receipts and costs, utility sales/revenue/average revenue per kWh, and monthly plant aggregates. Finally, nonutility power producer statistics, bibliography, technical notes, and a glossary are presented.

  20. Smart electric storage heating and potential for residential demand response

    OpenAIRE

    Darby, S

    2017-01-01

    Low-carbon transition plans for temperate and sub-polar regions typically involve some electrification of space heating. This poses challenges to electricity system operation and market design, as it increases overall demand and alters the temporal patterns of that demand. One response to the challenge is to ‘smarten’ electrical heating, enabling it to respond to network conditions by storing energy at times of plentiful supply, releasing it in response to customer demands and offering rapid-...

  1. Game-Theoretic Energy Management for Residential Users with Dischargeable Plug-in Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bingtuan Gao

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The plug-in electric vehicle (PEV has attracted more and more attention because of the energy crisis and environmental pollution, which is also the main shiftable load of the residential users’ demand side management (DSM system in the future smart grid (SG. In this paper, we employ game theory to provide an autonomous energy management system among residential users considering selling energy back to the utility company by discharging the PEV’s battery. By assuming all users are equipped with smart meters to execute automatic energy consumption scheduling (ECS and the energy company can adopt adequate pricing tariffs relating to time and level of energy usage, we formulate an energy management game, where the players are the residential users and the strategies are their daily schedules of household appliance use. We will show that the Nash equilibrium of the formulated energy management game can guarantee the global optimization in terms of minimizing the energy costs, where the depreciation cost of PEV’s battery because of discharging and selling energy back is also considered. Simulation results verify that the proposed game-theoretic approach can reduce the total energy cost and individual daily electricity payment. Moreover, since plug-in electric bicycles (PEBs are currently widely used in China, simulation results of residential users owing household appliances and bidirectional energy trading of PEBs are also provided and discussed.

  2. Electric power monthly, June 1998, with data for March 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-06-01

    The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decisionmakers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead. This publication provides monthly statistics at the State, Census division, and Us levels for net generation, fossil fuel consumption and stocks, quantity and quality of fossil fuels, cost of fossil fuels, electricity retail sales, associated revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold. In addition, data on net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and cost of fossil fuels are also displayed for the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) regions. The EIA publishes statistics in the EPM on net generation by energy source; consumption, stocks, quantity, quality, and cost of fossil fuels; and capability of new generating units by company and plant. 5 refs., 57 tabs.

  3. Electricity contract choices of Finnish residential customers. A choice based conjoint analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rouvinen, S.; Matero, J. (Univ. of Eastern Finland, Joensuu (Finland), School of Forest Sciences), e-mail: seppo.rouvinen@uef.fi, e-mail: jukka.matero@uef.fi

    2010-07-01

    Our aim is to examine how different environmental attributes of electricity contracts affect the residential customer choices when heterogeneity in customer preferences and motivations is taken into account. The data was acquired by a mail questionnaire to random sample of Finnish people in October-November 2009 with a response rate of 38 %. In addition to conventional questions, like questions on socio-demographic and agreements of energy related statements, the discrete choice experiment (DCE) of electricity contracts was included. The choice sets in the DCE had three electricity contract alternatives with varying levels of predetermined attributes (including unit price, supplier type, frequency of power outages, energy source and CO{sub 2} emissions). In this paper, we present the findings of our DCE design. Modeling respondent choices resulted in implicit prices for various electricity contract attributes that provide guidance for green marketing strategies of electricity suppliers and energy related informational activities of public institutions. We conclude that currently the potential for increasing demand-based environmental competitiveness from the wood electricity differentiation remains limited as we did not find any significant market segment of residential customers with strong preferences for wood over other sources of electricity (including 'mixture'). (orig.)

  4. Integrating a hydrogen fuel cell electric vehicle with vehicle-to-grid technology, photovoltaic power and a residential building

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Robledo, C.B.; Oldenbroek, V.D.W.M.; Abbruzzese, F.; van Wijk, A.J.M.

    2018-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a demonstration project, including building-integrated photovoltaic (BIPV) solar panels, a residential building and a hydrogen fuel cell electric vehicle (FCEV) for combined mobility and power generation, aiming to achieve a net zero-energy residential building

  5. The residential demand for electricity in Australia: an application of the bounds testing approach to cointegration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narayan, P.K.; Smyth, R.

    2005-01-01

    This paper reports estimates of the long- and short-run elasticities of residential demand for electricity in Australia using the bounds testing procedure to cointegration, within an autoregressive distributive lag framework. In the long run, we find that income and own price are the most important determinants of residential electricity demand, while temperature is significant some of the time and gas prices are insignificant. Our estimates of long-run income elasticity and price elasticity of demand are consistent with previous studies, although they are towards the lower end of existing estimates. As expected, the short-run elasticities are much smaller than the long-run elasticities, and the coefficients on the error-correction coefficients are small consistent with the fact that in the short-run energy appliances are fixed. (author)

  6. C-Vine copula mixture model for clustering of residential electrical load pattern data

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, M; Konstantelos, I; Strbac, G

    2016-01-01

    The ongoing deployment of residential smart meters in numerous jurisdictions has led to an influx of electricity consumption data. This information presents a valuable opportunity to suppliers for better understanding their customer base and designing more effective tariff structures. In the past, various clustering methods have been proposed for meaningful customer partitioning. This paper presents a novel finite mixture modeling framework based on C-vine copulas (CVMM) for carrying out cons...

  7. Residential consumers in the Cape Peninsula's willingness to pay for premium priced green electricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliver, Henry; Volschenk, Jako; Smit, Eon

    2011-01-01

    A number of studies have explored the willingness (i.e. stated willingness as opposed to actual willingness) of consumers to pay a premium for green electricity in developed countries. However, little is known about how this translates into an emerging economy context. This study investigates the level of willingness of residential households in South Africa's Cape Peninsula to pay a premium for electricity from renewable energy. It methodologically drew on recent contributions in the literature on norm-motivated behaviour used to identify testable factors that could influence residential consumers' willingness to pay (WTP). Interestingly, the study found a significant positive link between household income and WTP for green electricity, contrary to the findings of some previous studies. Not only are higher income households more likely to pay a premium, but typically they are also willing to pay a bigger premium. It was also further established that the view that green electricity is reliable, involvement in the recycling of waste and the belief that everyone should contribute to green electricity generation drive the WTP. - Research Highlights: →The study explored the drivers of willingness to pay (WTP) a premium for green electricity. →All the hypothesised drivers of WTP a premium were found to be significant. →Contrary to some former studies, income was found to be a good predictor of WTP and the pledged premium. →The quantum of the premium positively correlates with income levels.

  8. Electric and gas utility marketing of residential energy conservation case studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-05-01

    The objective of this research was to obtain information about utility conservation marketing techniques from companies actively engaged in performing residential conservation services. Many utilities currently are offering comprehensive services (audits, listing of contractors and lenders, post-installation inspection, advertising, and performing consumer research). Activities are reported for the following utilities: Niagara Mohawk Power Corporation; Tampa Electric Company; Memphis Light, Gas, and Water Division; Northern States Power-Wisconsin; Public Service Company of Colorado; Arizona Public Service Company; Pacific Gas and Electric Company; Sacramento Municipal Utility District; and Pacific Power and Light Company.

  9. Residential demand response reduces air pollutant emissions on peak electricity demand days in New York City

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilbraith, Nathaniel; Powers, Susan E.

    2013-01-01

    Many urban areas in the United States have experienced difficulty meeting the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS), partially due to pollution from electricity generating units. We evaluated the potential for residential demand response to reduce pollutant emissions on days with above average pollutant emissions and a high potential for poor air quality. The study focused on New York City (NYC) due to non-attainment with NAAQS standards, large exposed populations, and the existing goal of reducing pollutant emissions. The baseline demand response scenario simulated a 1.8% average reduction in NYC peak demand on 49 days throughout the summer. Nitrogen oxide and particulate matter less than 2.5 μm in diameter emission reductions were predicted to occur (−70, −1.1 metric tons (MT) annually), although, these were not likely to be sufficient for NYC to meet the NAAQS. Air pollution mediated damages were predicted to decrease by $100,000–$300,000 annually. A sensitivity analysis predicted that substantially larger pollutant emission reductions would occur if electricity demand was shifted from daytime hours to nighttime hours, or the total consumption decreased. Policies which incentivize shifting electricity consumption away from periods of high human and environmental impacts should be implemented, including policies directed toward residential consumers. - Highlights: • The impact of residential demand response on air emissions was modeled. • Residential demand response will decrease pollutant emissions in NYC. • Emissions reductions occur during periods with high potential for poor air quality. • Shifting demand to nighttime hours was more beneficial than to off-peak daytime hours

  10. Energy in the residential building. Electricity, heat, e-mobility. 2. rev. and enl. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwarzburger, Heiko

    2017-01-01

    Photovoltaics, heat pumps and fuel cells offer enormous potential for sustainable energy supply in residential buildings. Solar thermal energy and wood-fired boilers also play an important role in refurbishment. Due to the wide range of possible combinations, the wishes of building owners and homeowners for an ecologically and economically individually adapted energy concept can be fulfilled accurately. This book provides you with a holistic approach to the residential building and its supply of electricity, heat and water. All processes that play a role in the house's energy consumption are examined in their entirety for their potentials and potential savings. The author analyses and describes in detail the resources of buildings and their surroundings - and how they can be used for a truly independent supply. The focus is on reducing energy consumption and costs, the generation and supply of energy from renewable sources and energy storage - considered in new construction and modernisation. The supply of water is also dealt with if it touches on energy issues. The author draws attention to standards and regulations and gives practical advice for planning and installation. The focus is on the so-called sector coupling: electricity from the sun, wind and hydrogen is used to supply electrical consumers in the home, charging technology for electric vehicles, hot water and heating. The time of the boilers and combustion engines has elapsed. Clean electricity and digital controls - power and intelligence - determine the regenerative building technology. [de

  11. Electric vehicles in low voltage residential grid: a danish case study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pillai, Jayakrishnan Radhakrishna; Huang, Shaojun; Thøgersen, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Electric Vehicles (EVs) have gained large interest in the energy sector as a carrier to support clean transportation and green electricity. The potential to use battery storages of electric vehicles as a sink for excess electricity that may result from large integration of wind power, especially...... in countries like Denmark, is widely discussed and promoted. However, the wide-spread adoption of EVs requires the provision of intelligent grid and EV charging infrastructure. To analyse and understand the amount of EVs that could be integrated in the local distribution grids, within its existing capabilities......, is absolutely essential for the system operators to plan and implement the levels of grid reinforcement and intelligence required. This paper investigates the local grid limitations to accommodate large amount of EVs of sizable power ratings in residential areas. The case study applied in this paper uses...

  12. Module Embedded Micro-inverter Smart Grid Ready Residential Solar Electric System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agamy, Mohammed [GE Global Research Center, Niskayuna, NY (United States)

    2015-10-27

    The “Module Embedded Micro-inverter Smart Grid Ready Residential Solar Electric System” program is focused on developing innovative concepts for residential photovoltaic (PV) systems with the following objectives: to create an Innovative micro-inverter topology that reduces the cost from the best in class micro-inverter and provides high efficiency (>96% CEC - California Energy Commission), and 25+ year warranty, as well as reactive power support; integrate micro-inverter and PV module to reduce system price by at least $0.25/W through a) accentuating dual use of the module metal frame as a large area heat spreader reducing operating temperature, and b) eliminating redundant wiring and connectors; and create micro-inverter controller handles smart grid and safety functions to simplify implementation and reduce cost.

  13. A Hybrid dasymetric and machine learning approach to high-resolution residential electricity consumption modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morton, April M [ORNL; Nagle, Nicholas N [ORNL; Piburn, Jesse O [ORNL; Stewart, Robert N [ORNL; McManamay, Ryan A [ORNL

    2017-01-01

    As urban areas continue to grow and evolve in a world of increasing environmental awareness, the need for detailed information regarding residential energy consumption patterns has become increasingly important. Though current modeling efforts mark significant progress in the effort to better understand the spatial distribution of energy consumption, the majority of techniques are highly dependent on region-specific data sources and often require building- or dwelling-level details that are not publicly available for many regions in the United States. Furthermore, many existing methods do not account for errors in input data sources and may not accurately reflect inherent uncertainties in model outputs. We propose an alternative and more general hybrid approach to high-resolution residential electricity consumption modeling by merging a dasymetric model with a complementary machine learning algorithm. The method s flexible data requirement and statistical framework ensure that the model both is applicable to a wide range of regions and considers errors in input data sources.

  14. The long-run price sensitivity dynamics of industrial and residential electricity demand: The impact of deregulating electricity prices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adom, Philip Kofi

    2017-01-01

    This study examines the demand-side of Ghana's electricity sector. We test two important related hypotheses: (1) deregulation of electricity price does not promote energy conservation, and (2) demand-price relationship is not an inverted U-shaped. The Stock and Watson dynamic OLS is used to address the so-called second-order bias. The result showed that, deregulation of electricity price in Ghana has induced behaviours that are more consistent with energy conservation improvements. The demand-price relationship is an inverted U, which suggests that there is a price range that end-users can tolerate further price rise and still increase their consumption of electricity. However, the degree of price tolerability is higher for residential consumers than industrial consumers. The simulation results showed that, further economic growth is likely to compromise energy conservation but more in the industrial sector than the residential sector. On the other hand, future crude oil price is likely to deteriorate energy conservation in the initial years after 2016, but this trend is likely to reverse after the year 2020. Pricing mechanisms are potent to induce energy conservation but inadequate. The results suggest that they should be complemented with other stringent policies such as a mandatory energy reduction policy, investment in renewables, and personalization of energy efficiency programs. - Highlights: • Studies the demand-side of the electricity sector • Deregulating electricity price promotes energy conservation • Demand-price relationship is an inverted U-shaped • Pricing policies should be combined with other energy mandatory reduction policies

  15. The Risk of Residential Peak Electricity Demand: A Comparison of Five European Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacopo Torriti

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The creation of a Europe-wide electricity market combined with the increased intermittency of supply from renewable sources calls for an investigation into the risk of aggregate peak demand. This paper makes use of a risk model to assess differences in time-use data from residential end-users in five different European electricity markets. Drawing on the Multinational Time-Use Survey database, it assesses risk in relation to the probability of electrical appliance use within households for five European countries. Findings highlight in which countries and for which activities the risk of aggregate peak demand is higher and link smart home solutions (automated load control, dynamic pricing and smart appliances to different levels of peak demand risk.

  16. Estimating short and long-term residential demand for electricity. New evidence from Sri Lanka

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Athukorala, P.P.A Wasantha; Wilson, Clevo

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates the short-run dynamics and long-run equilibrium relationship between residential electricity demand and factors influencing demand - per capita income, price of electricity, price of kerosene oil and price of liquefied petroleum gas - using annual data for Sri Lanka for the period, 1960-2007. The study uses unit root, cointegration and error-correction models. The long-run demand elasticities of income, own price and price of kerosene oil (substitute) were estimated to be 0.78, - 0.62, and 0.14 respectively. The short-run elasticities for the same variables were estimated to be 0.32, - 0.16 and 0.10 respectively. Liquefied petroleum (LP) gas is a substitute for electricity only in the short-run with an elasticity of 0.09. The main findings of the paper support the following (1) increasing the price of electricity is not the most effective tool to reduce electricity consumption (2) existing subsidies on electricity consumption can be removed without reducing government revenue (3) the long-run income elasticity of demand shows that any future increase in household incomes is likely to significantly increase the demand for electricity and (4) any power generation plans which consider only current per capita consumption and population growth should be revised taking into account the potential future income increases in order to avoid power shortages in the country. (author)

  17. Estimating short and long-term residential demand for electricity. New evidence from Sri Lanka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Athukorala, P.P.A Wasantha; Wilson, Clevo [School of Economics and Finance, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane (Australia)

    2010-09-15

    This study investigates the short-run dynamics and long-run equilibrium relationship between residential electricity demand and factors influencing demand - per capita income, price of electricity, price of kerosene oil and price of liquefied petroleum gas - using annual data for Sri Lanka for the period, 1960-2007. The study uses unit root, cointegration and error-correction models. The long-run demand elasticities of income, own price and price of kerosene oil (substitute) were estimated to be 0.78, - 0.62, and 0.14 respectively. The short-run elasticities for the same variables were estimated to be 0.32, - 0.16 and 0.10 respectively. Liquefied petroleum (LP) gas is a substitute for electricity only in the short-run with an elasticity of 0.09. The main findings of the paper support the following (1) increasing the price of electricity is not the most effective tool to reduce electricity consumption (2) existing subsidies on electricity consumption can be removed without reducing government revenue (3) the long-run income elasticity of demand shows that any future increase in household incomes is likely to significantly increase the demand for electricity and (4) any power generation plans which consider only current per capita consumption and population growth should be revised taking into account the potential future income increases in order to avoid power shortages in the country. (author)

  18. The electric tariff in the residential sector; Tarificacion electrica en el sector residencial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheinbaum Pardo, Claudia [Instituto de Ingenieria, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (UNAM), Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1997-12-31

    The main objective of this paper is to make an historical revision and analyze the current condition of the electric tariffs in the Mexican residential sector and ask ourselves if the equalization of tariffs generates the possibility that the entire population has access to the electricity service. The document is divided into three parts. The first one presents the history and the tendencies of the tariffs in the domestic sector in Mexico since 1973 until 1996 and the current tariff structure. The second one describes the characteristics of the residential users and mention is made of how the increment of the electric tariffs would affect the various population sectors. The last part of this paper presents some tariff criteria, that take into account energy conservation measures [Espanol] El objetivo principal de este trabajo es hacer una revision historica y analizar la situacion actual de las tarifas electricas en el sector residencial mexicano y preguntarnos si la igualdad de tarifas genera la posibilidad de que toda la poblacion tenga acceso al servicio electrico. El documento se divide en tres partes. La primera presenta la historia y tendencias de las tarifas del sector domestico en Mexico desde 1973 hasta 1996 y la estructura tarifaria actual. La segunda describe las caracteristicas de los usuarios residenciales y se menciona como afectaria el incremento de las tarifas electricas a los distintos sectores de la poblacion. La ultima parte de este trabajo presenta algunos criterios de tarificacion, que toman en cuenta medidas de ahorro de energia

  19. Monthly Electrical Energy Overview July and August 2017

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-09-01

    This publication presents the electricity characteristics and noteworthy developments in France every month: consumption, generation, renewable energies, cross-border trades and transmission system developments, along with feedback on the highlights affecting this data. This issue presents the key figures for July and August 2017. Demand was stable compared to July and August 2016. The average temperatures were close to those of 2016: +0.3 deg. C in July and -0.6 deg. C in August. Demand remained stable with a slight increase (+0.5%) in July and a slight decrease (0.3%) in August. Hydraulic generation was impacted by the lack of rain with a fall of 26.5% in July compared with 2016. Wind power generation was up by 67.6% and reached 1,699 TWh in July compared to 2016 buoyed by good wind conditions. Generation of electricity from wind now exceeds the total energy produced over the same period in 2016. The Grand-Est, Hauts-de-France, Occitanie and Centre- Val de Loire regions contribute 70% of the increase in wind power generation in July. The French price decreased in August. Overall, French exchanges remained in favour of exports in July and August 22 new installations went into service in July and August

  20. The electric energy consumption in the city of Sao Paulo - Brazil: the residential sector in the eighties; O consumo de energia eletrica na cidade de Sao Paulo: o setor residencial nos anos oitenta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borelli, A.B.; Sellito, Y.M.; Moreira, J.G.S. [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Inst. de Eletrotecnica e Energia

    1994-07-01

    This work analyses the evolution of the energy consumption in the residential sector of the city of Sao Paulo in the years of 19980, 1985 and 1990, and relates electric power cost participation in the family monthly stratified budget. Also, the price x consumption elasticity verified in the mentioned period is analysed.

  1. Industrial and residential electricity demand dynamics in Japan: How did price and income elasticities evolve from 1989 to 2014?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Nan; Mogi, Gento

    2017-01-01

    This study estimates the price and income elasticities of industrial and residential electricity demand in Japan with the annual data from 1989 to 2014. A time varying parameter (TVP) model with the Kalman filter is applied to monitor the evolution of consumer behaviors in the “post-bubble” period given the exogenous shock (financial crisis in 2008) and the structural breaks (electricity deregulation and Fukushima Daiichi crisis). The TVP model can provide a robust estimation of elasticities and can detect the outliers and the structural breaks. The results suggest that both industrial and residential consumers become less sensitive to price after the electricity deregulation and the financial crisis, and more sensitive to price after the Fukushima Daiichi crisis. Especially the industrial sector is less sensitive to price after the retail deregulation. By contrast, the income elasticities of industrial and residential sector consumers are stable during the examined period. Results also indicate that a negative relationship exists between the price elasticity of electricity demand and the price level of electricity after the electric sector deregulation. Some insights on the further electric sector reform and the environmental taxation in Japan are also provided. - Highlights: • A time varying parameter model is calculated with the Kalman filter. • Income elasticities are stable while price elasticities are time-varying. • Industrial sector is less sensitive to price change than residential sector. • Negative relationship between price elasticity and price level is found.

  2. Economic analysis of second use electric vehicle batteries for residential energy storage and load-levelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heymans, Catherine; Walker, Sean B.; Young, Steven B.; Fowler, Michael

    2014-01-01

    The reuse of Li-ion EV batteries for energy storage systems (ESS) in stationary settings is a promising technology to support improved management of demand and supply of electricity. In this paper, MatLAB simulation of a residential energy profile and regulated cost structure is used to analyze the feasibility of and cost savings from repurposing an EV battery unit for peak-shifting. in situ residential energy storage can contribute to the implementation of a smart grid by supporting the reduction of demand during typical peak use periods. Use of an ESS increases household energy use but potentially improves economic effectiveness and reduces greenhouse gas emissions. The research supports the use of financial incentives for Li-ion battery reuse in ESS, including lower energy rates and reduced auxiliary fees. - Highlights: • EV Li-ion batteries can be reused in stationary energy storage systems (ESS). • A single ESS can shift 2 to 3 h of electricity used in a house. • While energy use increases, potential economic and environmental effectiveness improve. • ESS supports smart grid objectives. • Incentives like reduced fees are needed to encourage implementation of Li-ion battery ESS

  3. Meeting the Electrical Energy Needs of a Residential Building with a Wind-Photovoltaic Hybrid System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hosein Mohammadnezami

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available A complete hybrid system including a photovoltaic cell, a wind turbine, and battery is modeled to determine the best approach for sizing the system to meet the electrical energy needs of a residential building. In evaluating system performance, the city of Tehran is used as a case study. Matlab software is used for analyzing the data and optimizing the system for the given application. Further, the cost of the system design is investigated, and shows that the electrical cost of the hybrid system in Tehran is 0.62 US$/kWh, which is 78% less expensive than a wind turbine system and 34% less expensive than a photovoltaic system.

  4. Wright tariffs in the Spanish electricity industry: the case of residential consumption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castro-Rodriguez, F.

    1999-01-01

    In this paper a capacity price model is developed for the Spanish electricity industry which allows the presentation of the Spanish utilization level tariffs as an example of duration tariffs (Wright tariffs) when duration is approximated by the ratio of consumption to power used. Using this model and data on the residential consumption of electricity, several optimal two-part tariffs are computed, considering different hypothesis on the configuration of the generating equipment. It has been found that the optimal tariff maintaining universal service increases welfare if the generating equipment and the output assignment to the different technologies are taken as given. Furthermore, if the regulator is concerned not only with efficiency, but also with distributive issues, then welfare losses associated with the existing regulatory regime are even larger

  5. A Cost-Effective Electric Vehicle Charging Method Designed For Residential Homes with Renewable Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lie, T. T.; Liang, Xiuli; Haque, M. H.

    2015-03-01

    Most of the electrical infrastructure in use around the world today is decades old, and may be illsuited to widespread proliferation of personal Electric Vehicles (EVs) whose charging requirements will place increasing strain on grid demand. In order to reduce the pressure on the grid and taking benefits of off peak charging, this paper presents a smart and cost effective EV charging methodology for residential homes equipped with renewable energy resources such as Photovoltaic (PV) panels and battery. The proposed method ensures slower battery degradation and prevents overcharging. The performance of the proposed algorithm is verified by conducting simulation studies utilizing running data of Nissan Altra. From the simulation study results, the algorithm is shown to be effective and feasible which minimizes not only the charging cost but also can shift the charging time from peak value to off-peak time.

  6. A nonlinear approach to modelling the residential electricity consumption in Ethiopia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gabreyohannes, Emmanuel

    2010-01-01

    In this paper an attempt is made to model, analyze and forecast the residential electricity consumption in Ethiopia using the self-exciting threshold autoregressive (SETAR) model and the smooth transition regression (STR) model. For comparison purposes, the application was also extended to standard linear models. During the empirical presentation of both models, significant nonlinear effects were found and linearity was rejected. The SETAR model was found out to be relatively better than the linear autoregressive model in out-of-sample point and interval (density) forecasts. Results from our STR model showed that the residual variance of the fitted STR model was only about 65.7% of that of the linear ARX model. Thus, we can conclude that the inclusion of the nonlinear part, which basically accounts for the arrival of extreme price events, leads to improvements in the explanatory abilities of the model for electricity consumption in Ethiopia. (author)

  7. A nonlinear approach to modelling the residential electricity consumption in Ethiopia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gabreyohannes, Emmanuel [Ethiopian Civil Service College, P.O.Box 5648, Addis Ababa (Ethiopia)

    2010-05-15

    In this paper an attempt is made to model, analyze and forecast the residential electricity consumption in Ethiopia using the self-exciting threshold autoregressive (SETAR) model and the smooth transition regression (STR) model. For comparison purposes, the application was also extended to standard linear models. During the empirical presentation of both models, significant nonlinear effects were found and linearity was rejected. The SETAR model was found out to be relatively better than the linear autoregressive model in out-of-sample point and interval (density) forecasts. Results from our STR model showed that the residual variance of the fitted STR model was only about 65.7% of that of the linear ARX model. Thus, we can conclude that the inclusion of the nonlinear part, which basically accounts for the arrival of extreme price events, leads to improvements in the explanatory abilities of the model for electricity consumption in Ethiopia. (author)

  8. The Private Net Benefits of Residential Solar PV: The Role of Electricity Tariffs, Tax Incentives and Rebates

    OpenAIRE

    Severin Borenstein

    2015-01-01

    With dramatic declines in the cost of solar PV technology over the last 5 years, the electricity industry is in the midst of discussions about whether to use this low-polluting renewable energy source in grid-scale generation or in distributed generation (DG), mostly with rooftop solar PV. California has led the growth in DG solar in the U.S. I use 2007 to early 2014 residential data from Pacific Gas & Electric – the utility with largest number of residential solar customers in the U.S. – to ...

  9. Electric power monthly, July 1995 - with data for April 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-07-01

    This publication provides statistical data on net generation, fuel consumption, fossil fuel stocks, electricity sales, revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold. Data on fossil fuel stocks and costs are also included.

  10. Modeling hourly consumption of electricity and district heat in non-residential buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kipping, A.; Trømborg, E.

    2017-01-01

    Models for hourly consumption of heat and electricity in different consumer groups on a regional level can yield important data for energy system planning and management. In this study hourly meter data, combined with cross-sectional data derived from the Norwegian energy label database, is used to model hourly consumption of both district heat and electrical energy in office buildings and schools which either use direct electric heating (DEH) or non-electric hydronic heating (OHH). The results of the study show that modeled hourly total energy consumption in buildings with DEH and in buildings with OHH (supplied by district heat) exhibits differences, e.g. due to differences in heat distribution and control systems. In a normal year, in office buildings with OHH the main part of total modeled energy consumption is used for electric appliances, while in schools with OHH the main part is used for heating. In buildings with OHH the share of modeled annual heating energy is higher than in buildings with DEH. Although based on small samples our regression results indicate that the presented method can be used for modeling hourly energy consumption in non-residential buildings, but also that larger samples and additional cross-sectional information could yield improved models and more reliable results. - Highlights: • Schools with district heating (DH) tend to use less night-setback. • DH in office buildings tends to start earlier than direct electric heating (DEH). • In schools with DH the main part of annual energy consumption is used for heating. • In office buildings with DH the main part is used for electric appliances. • Buildings with DH use a larger share of energy for heating than buildings with DEH.

  11. Modelling weather effects for impact analysis of residential time-of-use electricity pricing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, Reid; Golab, Lukasz; Rosenberg, Catherine

    2017-01-01

    Analyzing the impact of pricing policies such as time-of-use (TOU) is challenging in the presence of confounding factors such as weather. Motivated by a lack of consensus and model selection details in prior work, we present a methodology for modelling the effect of weather on residential electricity demand. The best model is selected according to explanatory power, out-of-sample prediction accuracy, goodness of fit and interpretability. We then evaluate the effect of mandatory TOU pricing in a local distribution company in southwestern Ontario, Canada. We use a smart meter dataset of over 20,000 households which is particularly suited to our analysis: it contains data from the summer before and after the implementation of TOU pricing in November 2011, and all customers transitioned from tiered rates to TOU rates at the same time. We find that during the summer rate season, TOU pricing results in electricity conservation across all price periods. The average demand change during on-peak and mid-peak periods is −2.6% and −2.4% respectively. Changes during off-peak periods are not statistically significant. These TOU pricing effects are less pronounced compared to previous studies, underscoring the need for clear, reproducible impact analyses which include full details about the model selection process. - Highlights: • We study models for the effect of weather on residential electricity demand. • We evaluate the effect of mandatory TOU pricing in a local distribution company in Ontario, Canada. • We find the effect of TOU pricing to be less pronounced compared to previous studies.

  12. Assessing incentive contracts for reducing residential electricity consumption: new experimental methods for new results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frachet, Laure

    2013-01-01

    Facing economic, political and environmental stakes, electricity providers are nowadays developing incentive tools, in order to reduce consumer's demand, particularly during peak demand periods. For residential customers, these tools can be tariffs (dynamic pricing of time-of-use tariffs), or informative devices or services (feedbacks on historical or real-time consumption, given on various media). They might go along with automation systems that can help cutting of some electric devices when needed. In order to evaluate the capacity of these settings among their customers, electricity utilities are developing quite a few studies, which are mainly field experiment often called pilots. During these pilots, demand response tools are implemented on a population sample. These long and expensive studies lid to quantitative and qualitative analysis. We have compiled about 40 of them and extract from this survey some generalizable teachings. We have shown what these results were and highlighted pilot programs' methodological limits. In order to propose a substitute to these heavy experimentations, we assessed the capacity or experimental economics. This relatively new discipline's objective is to evaluation the efficiency of institutions, like markets, but also to study what animate economic agents' behaviour, e.g. preferences, beliefs, cognitive biases, willingness to pay... We were also able to elaborate an experimental protocol dedicated to the evaluation of some demand response contracts' acceptability. The results collected during 14 experimental sessions gave us some innovative clues and insight on these contracts acceptability. But, beyond these results, we have demonstrated that even if experimental economics can't obviously be a substitute for field experiments, it can represent an interesting exploratory methodology. To sum up the experimental economics can take part of residential customers' behaviour understanding, performing

  13. A MEMS AC current sensor for residential and commercial electricity end-use monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leland, E S; Wright, P K; White, R M

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a novel prototype MEMS sensor for alternating current designed for monitoring electricity end-use in residential and commercial environments. This new current sensor design is comprised of a piezoelectric MEMS cantilever with a permanent magnet mounted on the cantilever's free end. When placed near a wire carrying AC current, the magnet is driven sinusoidally, producing a voltage in the cantilever proportional to the current being measured. Analytical models were developed to predict the applicable magnetic forces and piezoelectric voltage output in order to guide the design of a sensor prototype. This paper also details the fabrication process for this sensor design. Released piezoelectric MEMS cantilevers have been fabricated using a four-mask process and aluminum nitride as the active piezoelectric material. Dispenser-printed microscale composite permanent magnets have been integrated, resulting in the first MEMS-scale prototypes of this current sensor design

  14. Unleashing Flexibility from Electric Boilers and Heat Pumps in Danish Residential Distribution Network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sinha, Rakesh; Bak-Jensen, Birgitte; Pillai, Jayakrishnan Radhakrishna

    2018-01-01

    and thereby improving its techno-economic efficiency. The data used for the evaluation are also from the real household sites in Denmark provided by the district heating utility. Focus is on the low-voltage grid, and that’s very relevant since many doesn’t expect any flexibility from that voltage level. Study...... this model is compared to responses from an average model of the hot water storage tank to evaluate the benefit of the more detailed model. Finally, analysis on consumption patterns of electrical and thermal loads in residential buildings in Northern Jutland, Denmark, are used for analysis of the system...... and use of thermal units as flexible consumer loads in the low voltage (LV) distribution network grid. The models of EB and HP with storage tank are briefly discussed in relation to the actual control and flexibility based on grid condition and status of storage tank temperature or position...

  15. Massive coordination of residential embedded electricity generation and demand response using the PowerMatcher approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamphuis, I.G.; Hommelberg, M.P.F.; Warmer, C.J.; Kok, J.K.

    2007-01-01

    Different driving forces push the electricity production towards decentralization. The projected increase of distributed power generation on the residential level with an increasing proportion of intermittent renewable energy resources poses problems for continuously matching the energy balance when coordination takes place centrally. On the other hand, new opportunities arise by intelligent clustering of generators and demand in so-called Virtual Power Plants. Part of the responsibility for new coordination mechanisms, then, has to be laid locally. To achieve this, the current electricity infrastructure is expected to evolve into a network of networks (including ICT (Information and Communication Technology)-networks), in which all system parts communicate with one another, are aware of each other's context and may influence each other. In this paper, a multi-agent systems approach, using price signal-vectors from an electronic market is presented as an appropriate technology needed for massive control and coordination tasks in these future electricity networks. The PowerMatcher, a market-based control concept for supply and demand matching (SDM) in electricity networks, is discussed. The results within a simulation study show the ability to raise the simultaneousness of electricity production and consumption within (local) control clusters with cogeneration and heat-pumps by exchanging price signals and coordinated allocation using market algorithms. The control concept, however, can also be applied in other business cases like reduction of imbalance cost in commercial portfolios or virtual power plant operators, utilizing distributed generators. Furthermore, a PowerMatcher-based field test configuration with 15 Stirling-engine powered micro-CHP's is described, which is currently in operation within a field test in the Netherlands

  16. An analysis of the impact of Renewable Portfolio Standards on residential electricity prices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Andrew James

    A Renewable Portfolio Standard (RPS) has become a popular policy for states seeking to increase the amount of renewable energy generated for consumers of electricity. The success of these state programs has prompted debate about the viability of a national RPS. The impact that these state level policies have had on the price consumers pay for electricity is the subject of some debate. Several federal organizations have conducted studies of the impact that a national RPS would have on electricity prices paid by consumers. NREL and US EIA utilize models that analyze the inputs in electricity generation to examine the future price impact of changes to electricity generation and show marginal increases in prices paid by end users. Other empirical research has produced similar results, showing that the existence of an RPS increases the price of electricity. These studies miss important aspects of RPS policies that may change how we view these price increases from RPS policies. By examining the previous empirical research on RPS policies, this study seeks to identify the controls necessary to build an effective model. These controls are utilized in a fixed effects model that seeks to show how the controls and variables of interest impact electricity prices paid by residential consumers of electricity. This study utilizes a panel data set from 1990 to 2014 to analyze the impact of these policies controlling for generating capacity, the regulatory status of utilities in each state, demographic characteristics of the states, and fuel prices. The results of the regressions indicate that prices are likely to be higher in states that have an RPS compared to states that do not have such a policy. Several of the characteristics mentioned above have price impacts, and so discussing RPS policies in the context of other factors that contribute to electricity prices is essential. In particular, the regulatory status of utilities in each state is an important determinate of price as

  17. VersiCharge-SG - Smart Grid Capable Electric Vehicle Supply Equipment (EVSE) for Residential Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei, Dong [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Haas, Harry [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Terricciano, Paul [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-09-30

    In his 2011 State of the Union address, President Obama called for one million electric vehicles on the road by 2015 [1]. With large-scale Electric Vehicle (EV) or Plug-in Electric Vehicle (PEV or EV for short) or Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PHEV) penetration into the US market, there will be drastic reduction in fossil fuel consumption, thus significantly reducing our dependency on foreign oil [2-6]. There will also be significant reduction on Green House Gas (GHG) emissions and smog in the major US cities [3, 7, 8]. Similar studies have also been done other industrial counties [9]. For the fuel cost, with the home electricity rate around $0.13 per kWh, it would cost about $0.05 per mile for DC operation and $0.03 cents per mile for AC operation. But, assuming 25 miles per gallon for a typical vehicle and $4 per gallon, fossil fuel will cost $0.16 per mile [10]. The overall lifecycle cost of PEVs will be several folds lower than the existing fossil fueled vehicles. Despite the above advantages of the EVs, the current cost of EVSE is not affordable for the average consumer. Presently, the cost of installing state-of-the-art residential EVSE ranges from $1500 to $2500 [11]. Low priced EVSE technology, which is easy to install, and affordable to operate and maintain by an average consumer, is essential for the large-scale market penetration of EVs. In addition, the long-term success of this technology is contingent on the PEVs having minimal excessive load and shift impact on the grid, especially at peak times. In a report [2] published by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), the exiting electric power generation infrastructure, if used at its full capacity 24 hours a day, would support up to 84% of the nation’s cars, pickup trucks and SUVs for an average daily drive of 33 miles. This mileage estimate is certainly much below what an average driver would drive his/her vehicle per day. Another report [3] by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory

  18. Environmental determinants of unscheduled residential outages in the electrical power distribution of Phoenix, Arizona

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maliszewski, Paul J.; Larson, Elisabeth K.; Perrings, Charles

    2012-01-01

    The sustainability of power infrastructures depends on their reliability. One test of the reliability of an infrastructure is its ability to function reliably in extreme environmental conditions. Effective planning for reliable electrical systems requires knowledge of unscheduled outage sources, including environmental and social factors. Despite many studies on the vulnerability of infrastructure systems, the effect of interacting environmental and infrastructural conditions on the reliability of urban residential power distribution remains an understudied problem. We model electric interruptions using outage data between the years of 2002 and 2005 across Phoenix, Arizona. Consistent with perceptions of increased exposure, overhead power lines positively correlate with unscheduled outages indicating underground cables are more resistant to failure. In the presence of overhead lines, the interaction between birds and vegetation as well as proximity to nearest desert areas and lakes are positive driving factors explaining much of the variation in unscheduled outages. Closeness to the nearest arterial road and the interaction between housing square footage and temperature are also significantly positive. A spatial error model was found to provide the best fit to the data. Resultant findings are useful for understanding and improving electrical infrastructure reliability. - Highlights: ► Unscheduled outages were related to interacting environmental and infrastructural conditions. ► Underground feeders are more resistant to failure. ► In the presence of overhead lines, birds, vegetation, and proximity to desert areas are positive driving factors. ► Proximity to arterial roads and a proxy for energy demand were significantly positive. ► Outages were most spatially dependent up to around 350 m.

  19. Evolution of residential electricity demand by end-use in Quebec 1979-1989: A conditional demand analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lafrance, G.; Perron, D.

    1994-01-01

    Some of the main conclusions are presented from a temporal analysis of three large-scale electricity demand surveys (1979, 1984, and 1989) for the Quebec residential sector. A regression method called conditional demand analysis was used. The study allows a number of conclusions about certain electricity consumption trends by end-uses from 1979 to 1989 by household type and by vintage category. For example, the results indicate that decreasing electricity consumption between 1979 and 1984 for a typical dwelling equipped with electric space heating was mainly related to a large decline in net heating consumption. Overall, the results suggest that some permanent energy savings have been realized by a typical household equipped with an electric heating system due to improvements in standards and changes in customer behavior. These energy savings were partly offset by increased electricity consumption from the purchase of new appliances and an increase in the demand for hot water. 7 refs., 1 fig., 8 tabs

  20. The Research of Regression Method for Forecasting Monthly Electricity Sales Considering Coupled Multi-factor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jiangbo; Liu, Junhui; Li, Tiantian; Yin, Shuo; He, Xinhui

    2018-01-01

    The monthly electricity sales forecasting is a basic work to ensure the safety of the power system. This paper presented a monthly electricity sales forecasting method which comprehensively considers the coupled multi-factors of temperature, economic growth, electric power replacement and business expansion. The mathematical model is constructed by using regression method. The simulation results show that the proposed method is accurate and effective.

  1. Development of an Energy-Savings Calculation Methodology for Residential Miscellaneous Electric Loads: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hendron, R.; Eastment, M.

    2006-08-01

    In order to meet whole-house energy savings targets beyond 50% in residential buildings, it will be essential that new technologies and systems approaches be developed to address miscellaneous electric loads (MELs). These MELs are comprised of the small and diverse collection of energy-consuming devices found in homes, including what are commonly known as plug loads (televisions, stereos, microwaves), along with all hard-wired loads that do not fit into other major end-use categories (doorbells, security systems, garage door openers). MELs present special challenges because their purchase and operation are largely under the control of the occupants. If no steps are taken to address MELs, they can constitute 40-50% of the remaining source energy use in homes that achieve 60-70% whole-house energy savings, and this percentage is likely to increase in the future as home electronics become even more sophisticated and their use becomes more widespread. Building America (BA), a U.S. Department of Energy research program that targets 50% energy savings by 2015 and 90% savings by 2025, has begun to identify and develop advanced solutions that can reduce MELs.

  2. Impact Analysis of Customized Feedback Interventions on Residential Electricity Load Consumption Behavior for Demand Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Wang

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Considering the limitations of traditional energy-saving policies, a kind of energy conservation method called the Information Feedback to Residential Electricity Load Customers, which could impact the demand response capacity, has increasingly received more attention. However, most of the current feedback programs provide the same feedback information to all customers regardless of their diverse characteristics, which may reduce the energy-saving effects or even backfire. This paper attempts to investigate how different types of customers may change their behaviors under a set of customized feedback. We conducted a field survey study in Qinhuangdao (QHD, China. First, we conducted semi-structured interviews to classify four groups of customers of different energy-saving awareness, energy-saving potential, and behavioral variability. Then, 156 QHD households were surveyed using scenarios to collect feedback of different scenarios. Social science theories were used to guide the discussion on the behavior changes as a result of different feedback strategies and reveal the reasons for customers’ behaviors. Using the Chi-Square test of independence, the variables that have strong correlations with the categories of residents are extracted to provide references for residents’ classification. Finally, the practical implications and needs for future research are discussed.

  3. Impact of roof integrated PV orientation on the residential electricity peak demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadineni, Suresh B.; Atallah, Fady; Boehm, Robert F.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► A study to demonstrate peak load reductions at the substation. ► A new residential energy efficient community named Villa Trieste is being developed. ► The peak demand from the homes has decreased by 38% through energy efficiency. ► Orientation of roof integrated PV has less influence on the summer peak demand. ► Increasing thermostat temperature during peak by 1 °C can significantly reduce peaks. -- Abstract: Peak electricity demand has been an issue in the Desert Southwest region of the US, due to extreme summer temperatures. To address this issue, a consortium was formed between the University of Nevada, Las Vegas, Pulte Homes, and NV Energy. An energy efficient residential community was developed by the team in Las Vegas with approximately 200 homes to study substation-level peak reduction strategies. A summer peak reduction of more than 65%, between 1:00 PM and 7:00 PM, compared to code standard housing developments is the targeted goal of the project. Approximately 50 homes are already built and some are occupied. The energy performances of the homes have been monitored and are presented in this paper. Several peak electric load reduction strategies such as energy efficiency in buildings, roof integrated photovoltaics (PV) and direct load control have been applied. Though all the homes in the developed community are installed with 1.8 kW p PV systems, the orientation of the PV system depends on the building orientation. Focus of this paper is to find the impact of PV orientation on the peak load from a building. In addition, different time-of-use (TOU) energy pricing options are offered by the local electrical utility company. Hence it is important to find an optimal pricing option for each building. A computer model has been developed for one of the homes in the new development using building energy simulation code, ENERGY-10. Calculations on the PV orientations have shown that a south and 220° (i.e. 40° west of due south

  4. Potential Effect and Analysis of High Residential Solar Photovoltaic (PV Systems Penetration to an Electric Distribution Utility (DU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey Tamba Dellosa

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The Renewable Energy Act of 2008 in the Philippines provided an impetus for residential owners to explore solar PV installations at their own rooftops through the Net-Metering policy. The Net-Metering implementation through the law however presented some concerns with inexperienced electric DU on the potential effect of high residential solar PV system installations. It was not known how a high degree of solar integration to the grid can possibly affect the operations of the electric DU in terms of energy load management. The primary objective of this study was to help the local electric DU in the analysis of the potential effect of high residential solar PV system penetration to the supply and demand load profile in an electric distribution utility (DU grid in the province of Agusan del Norte, Philippines. The energy consumption profiles in the year 2015 were obtained from the electric DU operating in the area. An average daily energy demand load profile was obtained from 0-hr to the 24th hour of the day based from the figures provided by the electric DU. The assessment part of the potential effect of high solar PV system integration assumed four potential total capacities from 10 Mega Watts (MW to 40 MW generated by all subscribers in the area under study at a 10 MW interval. The effect of these capacities were measured and analyzed with respect to the average daily load profile of the DU. Results of this study showed that a combined installations beyond 20 MWp coming from all subscribers is not viable for the local electric DU based on their current energy demand or load profile. Based from the results obtained, the electric DU can make better decisions in the management of high capacity penetration of solar PV systems in the future, including investment in storage systems when extra capacities are generated. Article History: Received July 15th 2016; Received in revised form Sept 23rd 2016; Accepted Oct 1st 2016; Available online How to Cite

  5. Biorock Electric Reefs Grow Back Severely Eroded Beaches in Months

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas J. F. Goreau

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Severely eroded beaches on low lying islands in Indonesia were grown back in a few months—believed to be a record—using an innovative method of shore protection, Biorock electric reef technology. Biorock shore protection reefs are growing limestone structures that get stronger with age and repair themselves, are cheaper than concrete or rock sea walls and breakwaters, and are much more effective at shore protection and beach growth. Biorock reefs are permeable, porous, growing, self-repairing structures of any size or shape, which dissipate wave energy by internal refraction, diffraction, and frictional dissipation. They do not cause reflection of waves like hard sea walls and breakwaters, which erodes the sand in front of, and then underneath, such structures, until they collapse. Biorock reefs stimulate settlement, growth, survival, and resistance to the environmental stress of all forms of marine life, restoring coral reefs, sea grasses, biological sand production, and fisheries habitat. Biorock reefs can grow back eroded beaches and islands faster than the rate of sea level rise, and are the most cost-effective method of shore protection and adaptation to global sea level rise for low lying islands and coasts.

  6. Residential consumers in the Cape Peninsula's willingness to pay for premium priced green electricity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliver, Henry; Volschenk, Jako; Smit, Eon [University of Stellenbosch Business School, Carl Cronje Drive, Bellville, Western Cape 7535 (South Africa)

    2011-02-15

    A number of studies have explored the willingness (i.e. stated willingness as opposed to actual willingness) of consumers to pay a premium for green electricity in developed countries. However, little is known about how this translates into an emerging economy context. This study investigates the level of willingness of residential households in South Africa's Cape Peninsula to pay a premium for electricity from renewable energy. It methodologically drew on recent contributions in the literature on norm-motivated behaviour used to identify testable factors that could influence residential consumers' willingness to pay (WTP). Interestingly, the study found a significant positive link between household income and WTP for green electricity, contrary to the findings of some previous studies. Not only are higher income households more likely to pay a premium, but typically they are also willing to pay a bigger premium. It was also further established that the view that green electricity is reliable, involvement in the recycling of waste and the belief that everyone should contribute to green electricity generation drive the WTP. (author)

  7. Change in consumer sensitivity to electricity prices in response to retail deregulation: A panel empirical analysis of the residential demand for electricity in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakajima, Tadahiro; Hamori, Shigeyuki

    2010-01-01

    About ten years have passed since the deregulation of the U.S. retail electricity market, and it is now generally accepted that the available data is adequate to quantitatively assess and compare conditions before and after deregulation. This study, therefore, estimates the changes in price elasticity in the residential electricity market to examine the changes, if any, in household sensitivity (as a result of retail electricity market deregulation policies) to residential electricity rates. Specifically, six types of panel data are prepared, based on three cross-sections-all states (except for Alaska and Hawaii) and the District of Columbia, deregulated states, and non-deregulated states-and two time series-the period before deregulation and the period after deregulation. The panel empirical analysis techniques are used to determine whether or not the variables are stationary, and to estimate price elasticity. We find that there is no substantial difference in the price elasticity between deregulated and non-deregulated states for both periods-before deregulation and after deregulation. Thus, it can be said that the deregulation of the retail electricity market has not made consumers more sensitive to electricity rates and that retail deregulation policies are not the cause of price elasticity differences between deregulated and non-deregulated states.

  8. Change in consumer sensitivity to electricity prices in response to retail deregulation. A panel empirical analysis of the residential demand for electricity in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakajima, Tadahiro [The Kansai Electric Power Company, Incorporated, 6-16, Nakanoshima 3-chome, Kita-Ku, Osaka 530-8270 (Japan); Hamori, Shigeyuki [Faculty of Economics, Kobe University 2-1, Rokkodai, Nada-Ku, Kobe 657-8501 (Japan)

    2010-05-15

    About ten years have passed since the deregulation of the U.S. retail electricity market, and it is now generally accepted that the available data is adequate to quantitatively assess and compare conditions before and after deregulation. This study, therefore, estimates the changes in price elasticity in the residential electricity market to examine the changes, if any, in household sensitivity (as a result of retail electricity market deregulation policies) to residential electricity rates. Specifically, six types of panel data are prepared, based on three cross-sections - all states (except for Alaska and Hawaii) and the District of Columbia, deregulated states, and non-deregulated states - and two time series - the period before deregulation and the period after deregulation. The panel empirical analysis techniques are used to determine whether or not the variables are stationary, and to estimate price elasticity. We find that there is no substantial difference in the price elasticity between deregulated and non-deregulated states for both periods - before deregulation and after deregulation. Thus, it can be said that the deregulation of the retail electricity market has not made consumers more sensitive to electricity rates and that retail deregulation policies are not the cause of price elasticity differences between deregulated and non-deregulated states. (author)

  9. Setting up charging electric stations within residential communities in current China: Gaming of government agencies and property management companies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Tian; Ma, Lin; Mao, Zhonggen; Ou, Xunmin

    2015-01-01

    The difficulty of charging electric vehicles (EVs) is now hindering their further development. Governments generally choose to build stations for home charging (including piles) within residential communities. Given the conflict of interest between various government agencies and property management companies, constructing a charging station within residential communities would result in welfare loss for the property management companies and therefore lead to the principal–agent problem. This paper constructs a two-period imperfect information game theory model to study the moral hazard involved in this issue and government agencies' optimal choice. In the analytic solution of the model, we find that the optimal choice for a farsighted government agency is to constantly improve the incentive mechanism and introduce charging stations only when the conflict of interest is eliminated. Any benefits derived from government regulations by force would prove short-lived. The government should focus on long-term returns in the development of EVs, and its optimal mechanism should be designed to mitigate the principal–agent problem of property management companies, thereby accelerate the progress of EV charging infrastructure and improve overall social welfare. - Highlights: • The charging of electric vehicles (EVs) is hindering their use. • A game theory model is used for analysis of EV charging station construction. • Charging stations are in residential communities in China. • Government agencies are constantly improving incentive mechanisms

  10. Electric Industry Restructuring in Ohio: Residential and Low Income Customer Impacts; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eisenberg, J

    2001-01-01

    This report analyzes the electric utilities in Ohio in order to determine how they are situated for the coming of competition. It begins with the status of the utilities as of 1995, the last year for which detailed data were available, and determines the detailed underlying cost structure behind the rates charged to customers. The study then develops a number of restructuring scenarios to be analyzed. These scenarios cover different approaches to dividing stranded asset costs between customers and stockholders, and between different groups of customers. They also cover wholesale versus retail competition, different regulatory structures for those services still under regulation, and new approaches to stranded asset costs such as securitization--the use of special bonds to reduce costs. Throughout the report the special emphasis is on the impact of restructuring on low-income residential customers. Low-income customers are the most vulnerable to changes in the regulatory structure with the fewest alternative options. The report finds that there are a great deal of above-market cost, potentially stranded assets in Ohio--approximately$8.75 billion in 1995. The annual above-market costs total over$3 billion, of which about 2/3 is recovery of capital related costs and 1/3 is recovery of energy related costs. The distribution of stranded assets in Ohio is very uneven. Some utilities such as Cleveland Electric and Ohio Edison have very high levels of above-market costs. In contrast, Ohio Power has, under some estimates, costs which are actually below market costs. The study looks separately at the near-term or transition period (approximately the next seven to ten years) and the longer term competitive market period. During the transition period the costs of stranded assets are being collected from customers while competitive markets are being developed. In the longer term market period it is assumed that all of the stranded asset costs have been collected and that the

  11. The Effect of Electric Load Profiles on the Performance of Off-Grid Residential Hybrid Renewable Energy Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Treado

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the energy performance of off-grid residential hybrid renewable electric power systems, particularly the effect of electric load profiles on the ability to harvest available solar energy and avoid the consumption of auxiliary energy in the form of propane. The concepts are illustrated by an analysis of the energy performance of electric and propane-fired refrigerators. Off-grid electric power systems frequently incorporate a renewable source, such as wind or solar photovoltaic (PV, with a back-up power provided by a propane fueled motor/generator. Among other design decisions, residential consumers face the choice of employing an electric refrigerator with a conventional vapor compression refrigeration system, or a fuel-fired refrigerator operating as an absorption refrigeration system. One interesting question is whether it is more advantageous from an energy perspective to use electricity to run the refrigerator, which might be provided by some combination of the PV and propane motor/generator, thereby taking advantage of the relatively higher electric refrigerator Coefficient of Performance (COP and free solar energy but having to accept a low electrical conversion efficiency of the motor/generator, or use thermal energy from the combustion of propane to produce the refrigeration effect via an absorption system, albeit with a much lower COP. The analysis is complicated by the fact that most off-grid renewable electrical power systems utilize a battery bank to provide electrical power when it is not available from the wind turbine or PV system, so the state of charge of the battery bank will have a noticeable impact on what energy source is available at any moment in time. Daily electric load profiles combined with variable solar energy input determine the state of charge of the battery bank, with the degree of synchronization between the two being a critical factor in determining performance. The annual energy usage

  12. Analysing socioeconomic diversity and scaling effects on residential electricity load profiles in the context of low carbon technology uptake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKenna, R.; Hofmann, L.; Merkel, E.; Fichtner, W.; Strachan, N.

    2016-01-01

    Adequately accounting for interactions between Low Carbon Technologies (LCTs) at the building level and the overarching energy system means capturing the granularity associated with decentralised heat and power supply in residential buildings. The approach presented here adds novelty in terms of a realistic socioeconomic differentiation by employing dwelling/household archetypes (DHAs) and neighbourhood clusters at the Output Area (OA) level. These archetypes are combined with a mixed integer linear program (MILP) to generate optimum (minimum cost) technology configurations and operation schedules. Even in the baseline case, without any LCT penetration, a substantial deviation from the standard load profile (SLP) is encountered, suggesting that for some neighbourhoods this profile is not appropriate. With the application of LCTs, including heat pumps, micro-CHP and photovoltaic (PV), this effect is much stronger, including more negative residual load, more variability, and higher ramps with increased LCT penetration, and crucially different between neighbourhood clusters. The main policy implication of the study is the importance of understanding electrical load profiles at the neighbourhood level, because of the consequences they have for investment in the overarching energy system, including transmission and distribution infrastructure, and centralised generation plant. Further work should focus on attaining a superior socioeconomic differentiation between households. - Highlights: • Low carbon technologies (LCTs) for heat/electricity in residential buildings. • Socioeconomic effects and interactions with overarching energy system. • Building thermal/electrical model combined with optimisation. • Significant differences between neighbourhood load profiles. • Policy implications: support for LCTs and investment in infrastructure.

  13. Comparison study of the technical characteristics and financial analysis of electric battery storage systems for residential grid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palivos, Marios; Vokas, Georgios A.; Anastasiadis, Anestis; Papageorgas, Panagiotis; Salame, Chafic

    2018-05-01

    One of the major energy issues of our days is reliable and effective energy generation and supply of electricity grids. In recent years there has been experienced a rapid development and implementation of Renewable Energy Sources (RES) worldwide. On one hand, many Gigawatts of grid-connected renewables are being installed and on the other many Megawatts of hybrid renewable systems for residential use are being installed making use of electric battery systems, in order to cover all daily energy and power needs during. New types of batteries are being developed and many companies have made great progress providing a variety of electricity storage products. The purpose of this research is firstly to highlight the necessity and also the importance of the use of energy storage systems and secondly, through detailed technical and financial simulation analysis using HOMER Pro-optimization software, to compare the technical characteristics and performance of energy storage systems by various leading companies when installed in a residential renewable energy system with a specific load and at the same time to provide the most efficient system economically. Results concerning the operation and the choice of a storage system are derived.

  14. Mitigation of the Impact of High Plug-in Electric Vehicle Penetration on Residential Distribution Grid Using Smart Charging Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chong Cao

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Vehicle electrification presents a great opportunity to reduce transportation greenhouse gas emissions. The greater use of plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs, however, puts stress on local distribution networks. This paper presents an optimal PEV charging control method integrated with utility demand response (DR signals to mitigate the impact of PEV charging to several aspects of a grid, including load surge, distribution accumulative voltage deviation, and transformer aging. To build a realistic PEV charging load model, the results of National Household Travel Survey (NHTS have been analyzed and a stochastic PEV charging model has been defined based on survey results. The residential distribution grid contains 120 houses and is modeled in GridLAB-D. Co-simulation is performed using Matlab and GridLAB-D to enable the optimal control algorithm in Matlab to control PEV charging loads in the residential grid modeled in GridLAB-D. Simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed optimal charging control method in mitigating the negative impacts of PEV charging on the residential grid.

  15. Techno-economic feasibility of hybrid diesel/PV/wind/battery electricity generation systems for non-residential large electricity consumers under southern Iran climate conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baneshi, Mehdi; Hadianfard, Farhad

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A hybrid electricity generation system for a large electricity consumer was studied. • The PV and wind electricity potentials under given climate conditions were evaluated. • Technical, economical, and environmental issues of different systems were discussed. • The optimum configuration of components was obtained. • The impacts of governmental incentives on economic viability of systems were examined. - Abstract: This paper aims to study the techno-economical parameters of a hybrid diesel/PV/wind/battery power generation system for a non-residential large electricity consumer in the south of Iran. As a case study, the feasibility of running a hybrid system to meet a non-residential community’s load demand of 9911 kWh daily average and 725 kW peak load demand was investigated. HOMER Pro software was used to model the operation of the system and to identify the appropriate configuration of it based on comparative technical, economical, and environmental analysis. Both stand alone and grid connected systems were modeled. The impacts of annual load growth and governmental energy policies such as providing low interest loan to renewable energy projects, carbon tax, and modifying the grid electricity price on viability of the system were discussed. Results show that for off-grid systems the cost of electricity (COE) and the renewable fraction of 9.3–12.6 ₵/kWh and 0–43.9%, respectively, are achieved with photovoltaic (PV) panel, wind turbine, and battery sizes of 0–1000 kW, 0–600 kW, and 1300 kWh, respectively. For on grid systems without battery storage the range of COE and renewable fraction are 5.7–8.4 ₵/kWh and 0–53%, respectively, for the same sizes of PV panel and wind turbine.

  16. The Boom of Electricity Demand in the Residential Sector in the Developing World and the Potential for Energy Efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Letschert, Virginie; McNeil, Michael A.

    2008-05-13

    With the emergence of China as the world's largest energy consumer, the awareness of developing country energy consumption has risen. According to common economic scenarios, the rest of the developing world will probably see an economic expansion as well. With this growth will surely come continued rapid growth in energy demand. This paper explores the dynamics of that demand growth for electricity in the residential sector and the realistic potential for coping with it through efficiency. In 2000, only 66% of developing world households had access to electricity. Appliance ownership rates remain low, but with better access to electricity and a higher income one can expect that households will see their electricity consumption rise significantly. This paper forecasts developing country appliance growth using econometric modeling. Products considered explicitly - refrigerators, air conditioners, lighting, washing machines, fans, televisions, stand-by power, water heating and space heating - represent the bulk of household electricity consumption in developing countries. The resulting diffusion model determines the trend and dynamics of demand growth at a level of detail not accessible by models of a more aggregate nature. In addition, the paper presents scenarios for reducing residential consumption through cost-effective and/or best practice efficiency measures defined at the product level. The research takes advantage of an analytical framework developed by LBNL (BUENAS) which integrates end use technology parameters into demand forecasting and stock accounting to produce detailed efficiency scenarios, which allows for a realistic assessment of efficiency opportunities at the national or regional level. The past decades have seen some of the developing world moving towards a standard of living previously reserved for industrialized countries. Rapid economic development, combined with large populations has led to first China and now India to emerging as &apos

  17. Renewable energy rebound effect?: Estimating the impact of state renewable energy financial incentives on residential electricity consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, Beth A.

    Climate change is a well-documented phenomenon. If left unchecked greenhouse gas emissions will continue global surface warming, likely leading to severe and irreversible impacts. Generating renewable energy has become an increasingly salient topic in energy policy as it may mitigate the impact of climate change. State renewable energy financial incentives have been in place since the mid-1970s in some states and over 40 states have adopted one or more incentives at some point since then. Using multivariate linear and fixed effects regression for the years 2002 through 2012, I estimate the relationship between state renewable energy financial incentives and residential electricity consumption, along with the associated policy implications. My hypothesis is that a renewable energy rebound effect is present; therefore, states with renewable energy financial incentives have a higher rate of residential electricity consumption. I find a renewable energy rebound effect is present in varying degrees for each model, but the results do not definitively indicate how particular incentives influence consumer behavior. States should use caution when adopting and keeping renewable energy financial incentives as this may increase consumption in the short-term. The long-term impact is unclear, making it worthwhile for policymakers to continue studying the potential for renewable energy financial incentives to alter consumer behavior.

  18. Introducing a demand-based electricity distribution tariff in the residential sector: Demand response and customer perception

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartusch, Cajsa; Wallin, Fredrik; Odlare, Monica; Vassileva, Iana; Wester, Lars

    2011-01-01

    Increased demand response is essential to fully exploit the Swedish power system, which in turn is an absolute prerequisite for meeting political goals related to energy efficiency and climate change. Demand response programs are, nonetheless, still exceptional in the residential sector of the Swedish electricity market, one contributory factor being lack of knowledge about the extent of the potential gains. In light of these circumstances, this empirical study set out with the intention of estimating the scope of households' response to, and assessing customers' perception of, a demand-based time-of-use electricity distribution tariff. The results show that households as a whole have a fairly high opinion of the demand-based tariff and act on its intrinsic price signals by decreasing peak demand in peak periods and shifting electricity use from peak to off-peak periods. - Highlights: → Households are sympathetic to demand-based tariffs, seeing as they relate to environmental issues. → Households adjust their electricity use to the price signals of demand-based tariffs. → Demand-based tariffs lead to a shift in electricity use from peak to off-peak hours. → Demand-based tariffs lead to a decrease in maximum demand in peak periods. → Magnitude of these effects increases over time.

  19. Customer-economics of residential photovoltaic systems (Part 1): The impact of high renewable energy penetrations on electricity bill savings with net metering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darghouth, Naïm R.; Barbose, Galen; Wiser, Ryan H.

    2014-01-01

    Residential photovoltaic (PV) systems in the US are often compensated at the customer's underlying retail electricity rate through net metering. Given the uncertainty in future retail rates and the inherent links between rates and the customer–economics of behind-the-meter PV, there is growing interest in understanding how potential changes in rates may impact the value of bill savings from PV. In this article, we first use a production cost and capacity expansion model to project California hourly wholesale electricity market prices under two potential electricity market scenarios, including a reference and a 33% renewables scenario. Second, based on the wholesale electricity market prices generated by the model, we develop retail rates (i.e., flat, time-of-use, and real-time pricing) for each future scenario based on standard retail rate design principles. Finally, based on these retail rates, the bill savings from PV is estimated for 226 California residential customers under two types of net metering, for each scenario. We find that high renewable penetrations can drive substantial changes in residential retail rates and that these changes, together with variations in retail rate structures and PV compensation mechanisms, interact to place substantial uncertainty on the future value of bill savings from residential PV. - Highlights: • We investigate the impact of high renewables on customer economics of solar. • We model three types of residential retail electricity rates. • Based on the rates, we calculate the bill savings from photovoltaic (PV) generation. • High renewables penetration can lead to lower bill savings with time-varying rates. • There is substantial uncertainty in the future bill savings from residential PV

  20. Correlation Between Monthly Cumulative Auroral Electrojet Indices, DST Index and Interplanetary Electric Field During Magnetic Storms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoon-Kyung Park

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Magnetospheric substorms occur frequently during magnetic storms, suggesting that the two phenomena are closely associated. We can investigate the relation between magnetospheric substorms and magnetic storms by examining the correlation between AE and Dst indices. For this purpose, we calculated the monthly cumulative AU, |AL| and |Dst| indices. The correlation coefficient between the monthly cumulative |AL| and |Dst| index is found to be 0.60, while that between monthly cumulative AU and |Dst| index is 0.28. This result indicates that substorms seem to contribute to the development of magnetic storms. On the other hand, it has been reported that the interplanetary electric field associated with southward IMF intensifies the magnetospheric convection, which injects charged particles into the inner magnetosphere, thus developing the ring current. To evaluate the contribution of the interplanetary electric field to the development of the storm time ring current belt, we compared the monthly cumulative interplanetary electric field and the monthly cumulative Dst index. The correlation coefficient between the two cumulative indices is 0.83 for southward IMF and 0.39 for northward IMF. It indicates that magnetospheric convection induced by southward IMF is also important in developing magnetic storms. Therefore, both magnetospheric substorm and enhanced magnetospheric convection seem to contribute to the buildup of magnetic storm.

  1. Energy saving or privatization? The case of the electric residential sector of Mexico; Ahorro de energia o privatizacion? El caso del sector electrico residencial de Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friedmann, Rafael [University of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1994-12-31

    The validity of the premise that proposes the privatization of the electric sector as a solution to the problem of obtaining enough investment capital for the continuous expansion of the electric sector is examined. It is shown that the growth of the demand foreseen for the residential sector for year 2000, can be totally reduced by introducing technologies economically feasible to increase the efficiency and end uses of the residential electricity. With the efficient use of the electricity, the economical development is allowed for the residential sector, without large increments of the residential electricity demand. [Espanol] Se examina la validez de la premisa que propone la privatizacion del sector electrico como una solucion al problema de conseguir suficientes capitales de inversion para la continua expansion del sector. Se muestra que se puede reducir casi totalmente el crecimiento en la demanda prevista del sector residencial al ano 2000, introduciendo tecnologias economicamente factibles para aumentar la eficiencia en los usos finales de electricidad residencial. Con el uso eficiente de la electricidad, se permite el desarrollo economico del sector residencial sin grandes incrementos en la demanda residencial de electricidad.

  2. Energy saving or privatization? The case of the electric residential sector of Mexico; Ahorro de energia o privatizacion? El caso del sector electrico residencial de Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friedmann, Rafael [University of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1993-12-31

    The validity of the premise that proposes the privatization of the electric sector as a solution to the problem of obtaining enough investment capital for the continuous expansion of the electric sector is examined. It is shown that the growth of the demand foreseen for the residential sector for year 2000, can be totally reduced by introducing technologies economically feasible to increase the efficiency and end uses of the residential electricity. With the efficient use of the electricity, the economical development is allowed for the residential sector, without large increments of the residential electricity demand. [Espanol] Se examina la validez de la premisa que propone la privatizacion del sector electrico como una solucion al problema de conseguir suficientes capitales de inversion para la continua expansion del sector. Se muestra que se puede reducir casi totalmente el crecimiento en la demanda prevista del sector residencial al ano 2000, introduciendo tecnologias economicamente factibles para aumentar la eficiencia en los usos finales de electricidad residencial. Con el uso eficiente de la electricidad, se permite el desarrollo economico del sector residencial sin grandes incrementos en la demanda residencial de electricidad.

  3. Monthly electric energy demand forecasting with neural networks and Fourier series

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez-Romera, E.; Jaramillo-Moran, M.A.; Carmona-Fernandez, D.

    2008-01-01

    Medium-term electric energy demand forecasting is a useful tool for grid maintenance planning and market research of electric energy companies. Several methods, such as ARIMA, regression or artificial intelligence, have been usually used to carry out those predictions. Some approaches include weather or economic variables, which strongly influence electric energy demand. Economic variables usually influence the general series trend, while weather provides a periodic behavior because of its seasonal nature. This work investigates the periodic behavior of the Spanish monthly electric demand series, obtained by rejecting the trend from the consumption series. A novel hybrid approach is proposed: the periodic behavior is forecasted with a Fourier series while the trend is predicted with a neural network. Satisfactory results have been obtained, with a lower than 2% MAPE, which improve those reached when only neural networks or ARIMA were used for the same purpose. (author)

  4. Development of a High-Fidelity Model for an Electrically Driven Energy Storage Flywheel Suitable for Small Scale Residential Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa E. Amiryar

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Energy storage systems (ESS are key elements that can be used to improve electrical system efficiency by contributing to balance of supply and demand. They provide a means for enhancing the power quality and stability of electrical systems. They can enhance electrical system flexibility by mitigating supply intermittency, which has recently become problematic, due to the increased penetration of renewable generation. Flywheel energy storage systems (FESS are a technology in which there is gathering interest due to a number of advantages offered over other storage solutions. These technical qualities attributed to flywheels include high power density, low environmental impact, long operational life, high round-trip efficiency and high cycle life. Furthermore, when configured in banks, they can store MJ levels of energy without any upper limit. Flywheels configured for grid connected operation are systems comprising of a mechanical part, the flywheel rotor, bearings and casings, and the electric drive part, inclusive of motor-generator (MG and power electronics. This contribution focusses on the modelling and simulation of a high inertia FESS for energy storage applications which has the potential for use in the residential sector in more challenging situations, a subject area in which there are few publications. The type of electrical machine employed is a permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM and this, along with the power electronics drive, is simulated in the MATLAB/Simulink environment. A brief description of the flywheel structure and applications are given as a means of providing context for the electrical modelling and simulation reported. The simulated results show that the system run-down losses are 5% per hour, with overall roundtrip efficiency of 88%. The flywheel speed and energy storage pattern comply with the torque variations, whilst the DC-bus voltage remains constant and stable within ±3% of the rated voltage, regardless of

  5. Electric power of residential photovoltaic power system; Jutakuyo taiyoko hatsuden system no hatsudenryo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asano, K.; Kawamura, H.; Yamanaka, S.; Kawamura, H.; Ono, H.; Hayashi, K.; Naganawa, H. [Meijo University, Nagoya (Japan); Asai, H.

    1996-10-27

    Measurement was done on the annual power generation of a residential photovoltaic power system that was most suitable for the present situation in utilizing solar energy; and an examination was made on the basis of the data of a module in which an optimal operation load control was separately installed in order to operate the system more effectively. As a result, it was found that the introduction of a 3kW class system was currently most desirable as a residential photovoltaic power system, and that the problem of the optimal operation load control was crucial for the more efficient power generation. The resistance value of the optimal operation load was stable between 6 and 8 ohm in the daytime in fine weather. However, it was observed that, where no sufficient insolation was expected, the optimal operation load was ten times as much as in fine weather, being easily influenced by the environmental elements. In addition, it was revealed that, if the operation load was fixed at a specific value (6 ohm) in a clear day, the power generation was only about 85% compared with the case of controlling the optimal operation load. This figure was obtained under comparatively favorable conditions, however. 8 refs., 7 figs.

  6. Advisory report on licence requirements for the marketing of natural gas and electricity to residential and small commercial consumers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-10-06

    The proposed Ontario Energy Board Act, 1998 which forms part of Bill 35, would make it possible for the Board to make regulations prescribing license requirements and conditions for sellers of natural gas and electricity to residential and small commercial users. Interested stakeholders were invited to provide their input on the proposed Act. A total of 23 parties responded by submitting their comments to the Ontario Energy Board. This document presents the concerns of several parties regarding various provisions of the proposed regulatory regime affecting energy marketing. Comments on the definition of `low volume customer`, on classes of gas marketers, need and requirements for gas marketer`s licence, the form and posting of security bonds by prospective gas marketers, exemptions from licensing, conditions of licensing, code of conduct for energy marketers, disclosure of customer information, were some of the proposed provisions that elicited comments.

  7. Advisory report on licence requirements for the marketing of natural gas and electricity to residential and small commercial consumers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    The proposed Ontario Energy Board Act, 1998 which forms part of Bill 35, would make it possible for the Board to make regulations prescribing license requirements and conditions for sellers of natural gas and electricity to residential and small commercial users. Interested stakeholders were invited to provide their input on the proposed Act. A total of 23 parties responded by submitting their comments to the Ontario Energy Board. This document presents the concerns of several parties regarding various provisions of the proposed regulatory regime affecting energy marketing. Comments on the definition of 'low volume customer', on classes of gas marketers, need and requirements for gas marketer's licence, the form and posting of security bonds by prospective gas marketers, exemptions from licensing, conditions of licensing, code of conduct for energy marketers, disclosure of customer information, were some of the proposed provisions that elicited comments

  8. Forecasting monthly peak demand of electricity in India—A critique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rallapalli, Srinivasa Rao; Ghosh, Sajal

    2012-01-01

    The nature of electricity differs from that of other commodities since electricity is a non-storable good and there have been significant seasonal and diurnal variations of demand. Under such condition, precise forecasting of demand for electricity should be an integral part of the planning process as this enables the policy makers to provide directions on cost-effective investment and on scheduling the operation of the existing and new power plants so that the supply of electricity can be made adequate enough to meet the future demand and its variations. Official load forecasting in India done by Central Electricity Authority (CEA) is often criticized for being overestimated due to inferior techniques used for forecasting. This paper tries to evaluate monthly peak demand forecasting performance predicted by CEA using trend method and compare it with those predicted by Multiplicative Seasonal Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average (MSARIMA) model. It has been found that MSARIMA model outperforms CEA forecasts both in-sample static and out-of-sample dynamic forecast horizons in all five regional grids in India. For better load management and grid discipline, this study suggests employing sophisticated techniques like MSARIMA for peak load forecasting in India. - Highlights: ► This paper evaluates monthly peak demand forecasting performance by CEA. ► Compares CEA forecasts it with those predicted by MSARIMA model. ► MSARIMA model outperforms CEA forecasts in all five regional grids in India. ► Opportunity exists to improve the performance of CEA forecasts.

  9. Paying the full cost of power : an indicative comparative analysis of residential electricity rates across Canadian provinces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goulding, A.J.; Sabatier, G.

    2005-01-01

    This study was commissioned to review electricity rates charged to residential consumers across Canada and to determine how the basics of ratemaking change from province to province. Rates in each province vary significantly due to differences in the industry structure and their resource base. It was noted that direct comparisons are difficult because some rates reflect the financing, fuel and opportunity costs of power. For that reason, a simple adjustment factor was developed for fair comparison between jurisdictions. This assessment compared the all-in cost to final consumers which includes power generation, transmission, distribution and all other charges, as calculated by Statistics Canada. It was revealed that Alberta is Canada's only province where prices to final consumers reflect the market value of the underlying commodity. Ratepayers have the advantage of not being responsible for bad investment choices in the power sector and there are no hidden subsidies due to provincial ownership of power resources. Another consumer advantage is that they receive appropriate price signals in terms of energy consumption and conservation. This report suggests that low electricity rates in other provinces can be expected to rise much more rapidly than those in Alberta in the coming decade as consumers may be charged the full value of the electricity they use. 18 refs., 9 figs

  10. An electricity system : 18-month outlook from Oct 2004 to March 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    This report presents a resource assessment by the Independent Electricity Market Operator (IMO) for the 18-month period from October 2004 to March 2006. It is based on the IMO's forecast of electricity demand. The information was provided by power generators in Ontario. The outlook for the electricity system has improved due to new resource additions in 2004 which have improved the general supply situation. The Brighton Beach (580 MW) and Kirkland Lake (32 MW) facilities have completed commissioning since the last quarterly outlook. Plans have also been announced to return the nuclear Pickering Unit 1 to service for a projected capacity increase of 515 MW by the fall of 2005. The impending shutdown of 1150 MW of coal-fired generation at Lakeview Thermal Generating Station in Mississauga in April 2005 emphasizes the importance of improving transmission and generation capacity in the Toronto area. Requests for Proposals for 300 MW of renewable energy supply have been issued by the Ontario government along with requests for 2,500 MW of new clean generation and demand-side projects. This report also includes updated values for existing resource scenarios and planned resource scenarios. The reliability of Ontario's transmission system was also assessed along with the adequacy of the existing resource to meet the forecast demand. The existing installed generation resources include 5 nuclear stations generating 10,850 MW of electricity, 5 coal stations generating 7,564 MW of electricity, 23 oil and gas fired stations generating 4,976 MW of electricity, 61 hydroelectric stations generating 7,676 MW of electricity, and 2 other stations generating 66 MW of electricity. Although the existing resource scenario is better than in previous reports, imports will be required under extreme weather conditions to help meet electricity demand in Ontario during peak periods. 19 tabs., 10 figs

  11. Effects of feedback on residential electricity demand—Findings from a field trial in Austria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schleich, Joachim; Klobasa, Marian; Gölz, Sebastian; Brunner, Marc

    2013-01-01

    This paper analyzes the effects of providing feedback on electricity consumption in a field trial involving more than 1500 households in Linz, Austria. About half of these households received feedback together with information about electricity-saving measures (pilot group), while the remaining households served as a control group. Participation in the pilot group was random, but households were able to choose between two types of feedback: access to a web portal or written feedback by post. Results from cross section OLS regression suggest that feedback provided to the pilot group corresponds with electricity savings of around 4.5% for the average household. Our results from quantile regressions imply that for households in the 30th to the 70th percentile of electricity consumption, feedback on electricity consumption is statistically significant and effects are highest in absolute terms and as a share of electricity consumption. For percentiles below or above this range, feedback appears to have no effect. Finally, controlling for a potential endogeneity bias induced by non random participation in the feedback type groups, we find no difference in the effects of feedback provided via the web portal and by post. - Highlights: • We estimate the effects of feedback on household electricity use in a field trial in Linz, Austria. • Providing feedback on electricity use corresponds with average savings of around 4.5%. • Effects of feedback are most pronounced in the 30th to the 70th percentile. • Feedback provided via a web portal and by post appears equally effective

  12. The opening of electricity and gas markets to residential customers. Annual barometer - First wave. December 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    Since July 1, 2007, French residential customers can freely chose their energy supplier. A quantitative inquiry has been carried out by LH2 on behalf of the French Energy Regulatory Commission (CRE) on a sample of 1501 households representative of the overall French households. The aim of this barometer is to answer the following questions: what is the level of knowledge and information of individuals about the opening of energy markets and the new regulation in force? How do they perceive this opening? What is their behaviour in front of the opening of markets to competition? Four years after the full opening of energy markets, this first inquiry has permitted to draw up a first status of the knowledge, behaviour and opinion of individuals with respect to the opening of these markets. (J.S.)

  13. Mining residential water and electricity demand data in Southern California to inform demand management strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cominola, A.; Spang, E. S.; Giuliani, M.; Castelletti, A.; Loge, F. J.; Lund, J. R.

    2016-12-01

    Demand side management strategies are key to meet future water and energy demands in urban contexts, promote water and energy efficiency in the residential sector, provide customized services and communications to consumers, and reduce utilities' costs. Smart metering technologies allow gathering high temporal and spatial resolution water and energy consumption data and support the development of data-driven models of consumers' behavior. Modelling and predicting resource consumption behavior is essential to inform demand management. Yet, analyzing big, smart metered, databases requires proper data mining and modelling techniques, in order to extract useful information supporting decision makers to spot end uses towards which water and energy efficiency or conservation efforts should be prioritized. In this study, we consider the following research questions: (i) how is it possible to extract representative consumers' personalities out of big smart metered water and energy data? (ii) are residential water and energy consumption profiles interconnected? (iii) Can we design customized water and energy demand management strategies based on the knowledge of water- energy demand profiles and other user-specific psychographic information? To address the above research questions, we contribute a data-driven approach to identify and model routines in water and energy consumers' behavior. We propose a novel customer segmentation procedure based on data-mining techniques. Our procedure consists of three steps: (i) extraction of typical water-energy consumption profiles for each household, (ii) profiles clustering based on their similarity, and (iii) evaluation of the influence of candidate explanatory variables on the identified clusters. The approach is tested onto a dataset of smart metered water and energy consumption data from over 1000 households in South California. Our methodology allows identifying heterogeneous groups of consumers from the studied sample, as well as

  14. The effects of electric vehicles on residential households in the city of Indianapolis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Shisheng; Safiullah, Hameed; Xiao Jingjie; Hodge, Bri-Mathias S.; Hoffman, Ray; Soller, Joan; Jones, Doug; Dininger, Dennis; Tyner, Wallace E.; Liu, Andrew; Pekny, Joseph F.

    2012-01-01

    There is an increasing impetus to transform the U.S transportation sector and transition away from the uncertainties of oil supply. One of the most viable current solutions is the adoption of electric vehicles (EVs). These vehicles allow for a transportation system that would be flexible in its fuel demands. However, utilities may need to address questions such as distribution constraints, electricity tariffs and incentives and public charging locations before large scale electric vehicle adoption can be realized. In this study, the effect of electric vehicles on households in Indianapolis is examined. A four-step traffic flow model is used to characterize the usage characteristics of vehicles in the Indianapolis metropolitan area. This data is then used to simulate EV usage patterns which can be used to determine household electricity usage characteristics. These results are differentiated by the zones with which the households are associated. Economic costs are then calculated for the individual households. Finally, possible public charging locations are examined. - Highlights: ► Traffic flow modeling is used to accurately characterize EV usage in Indianapolis. ► EV usage patterns are simulated to determine household electricity usage patterns. ► Economic costs are calculated for the households for electric vehicles. ► Possible public charging locations are examined.

  15. RESIDENTIAL EXPOSURE TO EXTREMELY LOW FREQUENCY ELECTRIC AND MAGNETIC FIELDS IN THE CITY OF RAMALLAH-PALESTINE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abuasbi, Falastine; Lahham, Adnan; Abdel-Raziq, Issam Rashid

    2018-04-01

    This study was focused on the measurement of residential exposure to power frequency (50-Hz) electric and magnetic fields in the city of Ramallah-Palestine. A group of 32 semi-randomly selected residences distributed amongst the city were under investigations of fields variations. Measurements were performed with the Spectrum Analyzer NF-5035 and were carried out at one meter above ground level in the residence's bedroom or living room under both zero and normal-power conditions. Fields' variations were recorded over 6-min and some times over few hours. Electric fields under normal-power use were relatively low; ~59% of residences experienced mean electric fields V/m. The highest mean electric field of 66.9 V/m was found at residence R27. However, electric field values were log-normally distributed with geometric mean and geometric standard deviation of 9.6 and 3.5 V/m, respectively. Background electric fields measured under zero-power use, were very low; ~80% of residences experienced background electric fields V/m. Under normal-power use, the highest mean magnetic field (0.45 μT) was found at residence R26 where an indoor power substation exists. However, ~81% of residences experienced mean magnetic fields residences showed also a log-normal distribution with geometric mean and geometric standard deviation of 0.04 and 3.14 μT, respectively. Under zero-power conditions, ~7% of residences experienced average background magnetic field >0.1 μT. Fields from appliances showed a maximum mean electric field of 67.4 V/m from hair dryer, and maximum mean magnetic field of 13.7 μT from microwave oven. However, no single result surpassed the ICNIRP limits for general public exposures to ELF fields, but still, the interval 0.3-0.4 μT for possible non-thermal health impacts of exposure to ELF magnetic fields, was experienced in 13% of the residences.

  16. Determinants of residential electricity consumption: Using smart meter data to examine the effect of climate, building characteristics, appliance stock, and occupants' behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kavousian, Amir; Rajagopal, Ram; Fischer, Martin

    2013-01-01

    We propose a method to examine structural and behavioral determinants of residential electricity consumption, by developing separate models for daily maximum (peak) and minimum (idle) consumption. We apply our method on a data set of 1628 households' electricity consumption. The results show that weather, location and floor area are among the most important determinants of residential electricity consumption. In addition to these variables, number of refrigerators and entertainment devices (e.g., VCRs) are among the most important determinants of daily minimum consumption, while number of occupants and high-consumption appliances such as electric water heaters are the most significant determinants of daily maximum consumption. Installing double-pane windows and energy-efficient lights helped to reduce consumption, as did the energy-conscious use of electric heater. Acknowledging climate change as a motivation to save energy showed correlation with lower electricity consumption. Households with individuals over 55 or between 19 and 35 years old recorded lower electricity consumption, while pet owners showed higher consumption. Contrary to some previous studies, we observed no significant correlation between electricity consumption and income level, home ownership, or building age. Some otherwise energy-efficient features such as energy-efficient appliances, programmable thermostats, and insulation were correlated with slight increase in electricity consumption. - Highlights: • Weather, location and floor area are the most important determinants of residential electricity use. • Daily minimum and maximum are explained by different factors. • Number of refrigerators and entertainment devices explain daily minimum the best. • Number of occupants and high-consumption appliances explain daily maximum the best. • Other factors such as energy efficient features and household's socioeconomic status are examined

  17. FedEx Gasoline Hybrid Electric Delivery Truck Evaluation: 6-Month Interim Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnitt, R.

    2010-05-01

    This interim report presents partial (six months) results for a technology evaluation of gasoline hybrid electric parcel delivery trucks operated by FedEx in and around Los Angeles, CA. A 12 month in-use technology evaluation comparing in-use fuel economy and maintenance costs of GHEVs and comparative diesel parcel delivery trucks was started in April 2009. Comparison data was collected and analyzed for in-use fuel economy and fuel costs, maintenance costs, total operating costs, and vehicle uptime. In addition, this interim report presents results of parcel delivery drive cycle collection and analysis activities as well as emissions and fuel economy results of chassis dynamometer testing of a gHEV and a comparative diesel truck at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL) ReFUEL laboratory. A final report will be issued when 12 months of in-use data have been collected and analyzed.

  18. Dynamic pricing of electricity for residential customers. The evidence from Michigan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faruqui, A.; Akaba, L. [The Brattle Group, 201 Mission Street, Suite 2800, San Francisco, CA 94105 (United States); Sergici, S. [The Brattle Group, 44 Brattle Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

    2013-08-15

    The rollout of smart meters has enabled the provision of dynamic pricing to residential customers. However, doubts remain whether households can respond to time-varying price signals and that is preventing the full-scale rollout of dynamic pricing and the attainment of economic efficiency. Experiments are being conducted to test price responsiveness. We analyze data from a pilot in Michigan which featured two dynamic pricing rates and an enabling technology. Unlike most other pilots, it also included a group of 'information only' customers who were provided information on time-varying prices but billed on standard rates. Similarly, unlike most other pilots, it also included two control groups, one of whom knew they were in the pilot and one of whom did not. This was designed to test for the presence of a Hawthorne effect. Consistent with the large body of experimental literature, we find that customers, including low-income participants, do respond to dynamic pricing. We also find that the response to critical peak pricing rates is similar to the response to peak time rebates, consistent with the finding of one prior experiment but inconsistent with the finding of two prior experiments. We also find that the 'information only' customers respond to the provision of pricing information but at a substantially lower rate than the customers on dynamic pricing. We find that the response to enabling technology is muted. We do not find any evidence to suggest that a Hawthorne effect existed in this experiment.

  19. Uncertainties in the Value of Bill Savings from Behind-the-Meter, Residential Photovoltaic Systems: The Roles of Electricity Market Conditions, Retail Rate Design, and Net Metering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darghouth, Naim Richard

    Net metering has become a widespread policy mechanism in the U.S. for supporting customer adoption of distributed photovoltaics (PV), allowing customers with PV systems to reduce their electric bills by offsetting their consumption with PV generation, independent of the timing of the generation relative to consumption. Although net metering is one of the principal drivers for the residential PV market in the U.S., the academic literature on this policy has been sparse and this dissertation contributes to this emerging body of literature. This dissertation explores the linkages between the availability of net metering, wholesale electricity market conditions, retail rates, and the residential bill savings from behind-the-meter PV systems. First, I examine the value of the bill savings that customers receive under net metering and alternatives to net metering, and the associated role of retail rate design, based on current rates and a sample of approximately two hundred residential customers of California's two largest electric utilities. I find that the bill savings per kWh of PV electricity generated varies greatly, largely attributable to the increasing block structure of the California utilities' residential retail rates. I also find that net metering provides significantly greater bill savings than alternative compensation mechanisms based on avoided costs. However, retail electricity rates may shift as wholesale electricity market conditions change. I then investigate a potential change in market conditions -- increased solar PV penetrations -- on wholesale prices in the short-term based on the merit-order effect. This demonstrates the potential price effects of changes in market conditions, but also points to a number of methodological shortcomings of this method, motivating my usage of a long-term capacity investment and economic dispatch model to examine wholesale price effects of various wholesale market scenarios in the subsequent analysis. By developing

  20. Effects of heat and electricity saving measures in district-heated multistory residential buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Truong, Nguyen Le; Dodoo, Ambrose; Gustavsson, Leif

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We analyzed the potential for energy savings in district heated buildings. • Measures that reduce more peak load production give higher primary energy savings. • Efficient appliances increase heat demand but give net primary energy savings. • Efficient appliances give the largest net primary energy savings. - Abstract: The effects of heat and electricity saving measures in district-heated buildings can be complex because these depend not only on how energy is used on the demand side but also on how energy is provided from the supply side. In this study, we analyze the effects of heat and electricity saving measures in multistory concrete-framed and wood-framed versions of an existing district-heated building and examine the impacts of the reduced energy demand on different district heat (DH) production configurations. The energy saving measures considered are for domestic hot water reduction, building thermal envelope improvement, ventilation heat recovery (VHR), and household electricity savings. Our analysis is based on a measured heat load profile of an existing DH production system in Växjö, Sweden. Based on the measured heat load profile, we model three minimum-cost DH production system using plausible environmental and socio-political scenarios. Then, we investigate the primary energy implications of the energy saving measures applied to the two versions of the existing building, taking into account the changed DH demand, changed cogenerated electricity, and changed electricity use due to heat and electricity saving measures. Our results show that the difference between the final and primary energy savings of the concrete-framed and wood-framed versions of the case-study building is minor. The primary energy efficiency of the energy saving measures depends on the type of measure and on the composition of the DH production system. Of the various energy saving measures explored, electricity savings give the highest primary energy savings

  1. Climate, weather, socio-economic and electricity usage data for the residential and commercial sectors in FL, U.S

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayanti Mukherjee

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the data that is used in the article entitled “Climate sensitivity of end-use electricity consumption in the built environment: An application to the state of Florida, United States” (Mukhopadhyay and Nateghi, 2017 [1]. The data described in this paper pertains to the state of Florida (during the period of January 1990 to November 2015. It can be classified into four categories of (i state-level electricity consumption data; (ii climate data; (iii weather data; and (iv socio-economic data. While, electricity consumption data and climate data are obtained at monthly scale directly from the source, the weather data was initially obtained at daily-level, and then aggregated to monthly level for the purpose of analysis. The time scale of socio-economic data varies from monthly-level to yearly-level. This dataset can be used to analyze the influence of climate and weather on the electricity demand as described in Mukhopadhyay and Nateghi (2017 [1].

  2. Consumption of electric power for space heating of residential buildings and other premises

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandberg, E.; Westerlund, R.

    1986-10-01

    The analysis comprises power consumption to 1989 and to 1997 using different energy prices. The effects of oil prices on consumption has been calculated. The level of the consumption of electric power of the year 1989 is estimated to be 2-3 TWh higher than the level of 1997. This is because of not yet accomplished economizing measures and relatively new installations

  3. The role of energy and investment literacy for residential electricity demand and end-use efficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blasch, J.E.; Boogen, Nina; Filippini, Massimo; Kumar, Nilkanth

    2017-01-01

    This paper estimates the level of transient and persistent efficiency in the use of electricity in Swiss households using the newly developed generalized true random effects model (GTREM). An unbalanced panel dataset of 1, 994 Swiss households from 2010 to 2014 collected via a household survey is

  4. Analysis of PG&E`s residential end-use metered data to improve electricity demand forecasts -- final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eto, J.H.; Moezzi, M.M.

    1993-12-01

    This report summarizes findings from a unique project to improve the end-use electricity load shape and peak demand forecasts made by the Pacific Gas and Electric Company (PG&E) and the California Energy Commission (CEC). First, the direct incorporation of end-use metered data into electricity demand forecasting models is a new approach that has only been made possible by recent end-use metering projects. Second, and perhaps more importantly, the joint-sponsorship of this analysis has led to the development of consistent sets of forecasting model inputs. That is, the ability to use a common data base and similar data treatment conventions for some of the forecasting inputs frees forecasters to concentrate on those differences (between their competing forecasts) that stem from real differences of opinion, rather than differences that can be readily resolved with better data. The focus of the analysis is residential space cooling, which represents a large and growing demand in the PG&E service territory. Using five years of end-use metered, central air conditioner data collected by PG&E from over 300 residences, we developed consistent sets of new inputs for both PG&E`s and CEC`s end-use load shape forecasting models. We compared the performance of the new inputs both to the inputs previously used by PG&E and CEC, and to a second set of new inputs developed to take advantage of a recently added modeling option to the forecasting model. The testing criteria included ability to forecast total daily energy use, daily peak demand, and demand at 4 P.M. (the most frequent hour of PG&E`s system peak demand). We also tested the new inputs with the weather data used by PG&E and CEC in preparing their forecasts.

  5. Forecasting Monthly Electricity Demands by Wavelet Neuro-Fuzzy System Optimized by Heuristic Algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeng-Fung Chen

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Electricity load forecasting plays a paramount role in capacity planning, scheduling, and the operation of power systems. Reliable and accurate planning and prediction of electricity load are therefore vital. In this study, a novel approach for forecasting monthly electricity demands by wavelet transform and a neuro-fuzzy system is proposed. Firstly, the most appropriate inputs are selected and a dataset is constructed. Then, Haar wavelet transform is utilized to decompose the load data and eliminate noise. In the model, a hierarchical adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (HANFIS is suggested to solve the curse-of-dimensionality problem. Several heuristic algorithms including Gravitational Search Algorithm (GSA, Cuckoo Optimization Algorithm (COA, and Cuckoo Search (CS are utilized to optimize the clustering parameters which help form the rule base, and adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS optimize the parameters in the antecedent and consequent parts of each sub-model. The proposed approach was applied to forecast the electricity load of Hanoi, Vietnam. The constructed models have shown high forecasting performances based on the performance indices calculated. The results demonstrate the validity of the approach. The obtained results were also compared with those of several other well-known methods including autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA and multiple linear regression (MLR. In our study, the wavelet CS-HANFIS model outperformed the others and provided more accurate forecasting.

  6. Prediction of monthly electric energy consumption using pattern-based fuzzy nearest neighbour regression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pełka Paweł

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Electricity demand forecasting is of important role in power system planning and operation. In this work, fuzzy nearest neighbour regression has been utilised to estimate monthly electricity demands. The forecasting model was based on the pre-processed energy consumption time series, where input and output variables were defined as patterns representing unified fragments of the time series. Relationships between inputs and outputs, which were simplified due to patterns, were modelled using nonparametric regression with weighting function defined as a fuzzy membership of learning points to the neighbourhood of a query point. In an experimental part of the work the model was evaluated using real-world data. The results are encouraging and show high performances of the model and its competitiveness compared to other forecasting models.

  7. Residential Fuel Cell Demonstration Handbook: National Rural Electric Cooperative Association Cooperative Research Network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torrero, E.; McClelland, R.

    2002-07-01

    This report is a guide for rural electric cooperatives engaged in field testing of equipment and in assessing related application and market issues. Dispersed generation and its companion fuel cell technology have attracted increased interest by rural electric cooperatives and their customers. In addition, fuel cells are a particularly interesting source because their power quality, efficiency, and environmental benefits have now been coupled with major manufacturer development efforts. The overall effort is structured to measure the performance, durability, reliability, and maintainability of these systems, to identify promising types of applications and modes of operation, and to assess the related prospect for future use. In addition, technical successes and shortcomings will be identified by demonstration participants and manufacturers using real-world experience garnered under typical operating environments.

  8. Electricity, water, and natural gas consumption of a residential house in Canada from 2012 to 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makonin, Stephen; Ellert, Bradley; Bajić, Ivan V.; Popowich, Fred

    2016-06-01

    With the cost of consuming resources increasing (both economically and ecologically), homeowners need to find ways to curb consumption. The Almanac of Minutely Power dataset Version 2 (AMPds2) has been released to help computational sustainability researchers, power and energy engineers, building scientists and technologists, utility companies, and eco-feedback researchers test their models, systems, algorithms, or prototypes on real house data. In the vast majority of cases, real-world datasets lead to more accurate models and algorithms. AMPds2 is the first dataset to capture all three main types of consumption (electricity, water, and natural gas) over a long period of time (2 years) and provide 11 measurement characteristics for electricity. No other such datasets from Canada exist. Each meter has 730 days of captured data. We also include environmental and utility billing data for cost analysis. AMPds2 data has been pre-cleaned to provide for consistent and comparable accuracy results amongst different researchers and machine learning algorithms.

  9. Information v. energy efficiency incentives: Evidence from residential electricity consumption in Maryland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alberini, Anna; Towe, Charles

    2015-01-01

    We focus on two utility programs intended to reduce energy usage and the associated CO2 emissions—a home energy audit and rebates on the purchase of high-efficiency air-source heat pumps. We use a unique panel dataset from participating and non-participating households to estimate the average treatment effect of participating in either program on electricity usage. We fit models with household-by-season, season-by-year, and household-by-year fixed effects to account for all possible confounders that might influence energy usage. Since the programs are voluntary, we seek to restore near-exogeneity of the program “treatment” by matching participating households with control households. We deploy coarsened exact matching (CEM; Iacus et al., 2011) as our main matching method. We ask whether it is sufficient to match households based on past electricity usage, or if we gain by adding structural characteristics of the home, including heating system type. We find that the two programs reduce electricity usage by 5% on average. The effects are strong in both winter and summer for the energy audit groups but appear to be stronger in the winter for the heat pump rebate group. Adding house characteristics to the matching variables does seem to affect results, suggesting that using past usage alone, or house characteristics alone, may not be sufficient to identify the effects of program participation.

  10. The effectiveness of energy efficiency improvement in a developing country: Rebound effect of residential electricity use in South Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin, Sang-Hyeon

    2007-01-01

    The government of South Korea considers an energy efficiency improvement policy an effective economic measure for climate change like many other governments. But it is unaware of any 'rebound effect', the unexpected result of energy efficiency improvement. So the rebound effect of residential electricity use in South Korea was estimated using two different scales in this paper. At the macro level, the rebound effect was estimated indirectly by using price elasticity, and at the micro level, the rebound effect of individual home appliances was estimated directly by using a non-linear relationship between energy efficiency and energy use. At the macro level, the long- and short-term results of rebound effect were estimated at 30% and 38%, respectively. Also at the micro level, the rebound effect of air conditioners was 57-70%; while refrigerators showed only a composite of rebound and income effects. Finally, there was no backfire effect, and efficiency improvement brought energy reduction. In conclusion, these suggest that rebound effect is an important factor that the government of South Korea must consider when planning its energy efficiency improvement policy. (author)

  11. Analysis of the electrical bills of residential consumers: tax and economic aspects; Analise da fatura de energia eletrica de consumidores residenciais: aspectos economicos e tributarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reis, Lindemberg Nunes; Pinto, Danilo Pereira [Universidade Federal de Juiz de Fora, MG (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia], e-mail: lnunesreis@yahoo.com.br, e-mail: danilo.pinto@ufjf.edu.br

    2008-07-01

    Residential consumers represent a significant part of the market of electric energy and are increasing by deriving tributes of the tariff of energy. These consumers are uninformed about the abuses that happen to them. This work has as objective to analyze and to argue the behavior of the tariffs of energy in the period of 2002 the 2006, demonstrating the occurred increases and pointing a relation enters the rise of the price of this energy and the increase of the number of clandestine linkings and difficulty to hold the basics statements of actually electrical regiments. ANEEL's data show that in 1995 the tariff for class residential was R$ 76.26 and industrial was R$ 43.59; in 2003 passed respectively to R$ 236.34 and R$ 110.48. This analysis is directly related to the difficulty of obtaining a national energy management totally sustainable. (author)

  12. Uncertainties in the Value of Bill Savings from Behind-the-Meter, Residential Photovoltaic Systems: The Roles of Electricity Market Conditions, Retail Rate Design, and Net Metering

    OpenAIRE

    Darghouth, Naim Richard

    2013-01-01

    Net metering has become a widespread policy mechanism in the U.S. for supporting customer adoption of distributed photovoltaics (PV), allowing customers with PV systems to reduce their electric bills by offsetting their consumption with PV generation, independent of the timing of the generation relative to consumption. Although net metering is one of the principal drivers for the residential PV market in the U.S., the academic literature on this policy has been sparse and this dissertation co...

  13. Studying feasibility and effects of a two-stage nursing staff training in residential geriatric care using a 30 month mixed-methods design [ISRCTN24344776

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hantikainen Virpi

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Transfer techniques and lifting weights often cause back pain and disorders for nurses in geriatric care. The Kinaesthetics care conception claims to be an alternative, yielding benefits for nurses as well as for clients. Starting a multi-step research program on the effects of Kinaesthetics, we assess the feasibility of a two-stage nursing staff training and a pre-post research design. Using quantitative and qualitative success criteria, we address mobilisation from the bed to a chair and backwards, walking with aid and positioning in bed on the staff level as well as on the resident level. In addition, effect estimates should help to decide on and to prepare a controlled trial. Methods/Design Standard basic and advanced Kinaesthetics courses (each comprising four subsequent days and an additional counselling day during the following four months are offered to n = 36 out of 60 nurses in a residential geriatric care home, who are in charge of 76 residents. N = 22 residents needing movement support are participating to this study. On the staff level, measurements include focus group discussions, questionnaires, physical strain self-assessment (Borg scale, video recordings and external observation of patient assistance skills using a specialised instrument (SOPMAS. Questionnaires used on the resident level include safety, comfort, pain, and level of own participation during mobilisation. A functional mobility profile is assessed using a specialised test procedure (MOTPA. Measurements will take place at baseline (T0, after basic training (T1, and after the advanced course (T2. Follow-up focus groups will be offered at T1 and 10 months later (T3. Discussion Ten criteria for feasibility success are established before the trial, assigned to resources (missing data, processes (drop-out of nurses and residents and science (minimum effects criteria. This will help to make rational decision on entering the next stage of the research

  14. Controlling the demand for electricity: strategies and challenges in the residential sector of the OECD countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lebot, B.

    2003-01-01

    By reinforcing policies to improve the energy efficiency of household appliances (particularly by rating the efficiency of each appliance as a minimum of its overall cost from 2005 onwards), the member countries of the IEA are in a position to reduce their annual CO 2 emissions by approximately 322 million tonnes (Mt) by 2010, compared to what they would have obtained using current policies. In 2030, this same policy will make it possible to achieve an annual saving of 1 110 TWh in the consumption of electricity, (572 Mt of CO 2 each year). This measure alone will meet 30% of the objectives of the member countries of the IEA under the Kyoto agreements concerning climatic change. These reductions can be obtained at a negative cost for society as the additional cost generated by improvements in energy efficiency is offset by savings made in operating costs during the life of the appliance. Thus, in the United States, each tonne of CO 2 saved in this way in 2020 will generate $65 for society. In Europe, every tonne of CO 2 saved will generate a gain of euros 169 (the difference being accounted for by the higher cost of electricity and by lower energy efficiency standards currently existing in Europe). It is possible to make major savings in all regions of the OECD, despite the vast diversity of the various situations of the countries. In the member countries of the IEA, the policies in place have already demonstrated their economic effectiveness in reducing demand for energy and greenhouse gas emissions. Up to 2000, they made it possible to reduce greenhouse gas emissions by approximately 46 Mt of CO 2 each year. These policies will contribute to reducing emissions by 126 Mt of CO 2 each year up to 2010. International co-operation offers real advantages in the deployment of policies for controlling the demand for energy by households. Manufacturers, consumers and governments all benefit from greater transparency in the marketplace, improved comparisons of test methods

  15. Hybrid renewable energy system application for electricity and heat supply of a residential building

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nakomčić-Smaragdakis Branka B.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Renewable and distributed energy systems could provide a solution to the burning issue of reliable and clean supply of energy, having in mind current state and future predictions for population growth and fossil fuel scarcity. Hybrid renewable energy systems are novelty in Serbia and warrant further detailed research. The aim of this paper is to analyze the application of renewable energy sources(RES for electricity and heat supply of a typical household in Serbia, as well as the cost-effectiveness of the proposed system. The influence of feed-in tariff change on the value of the investment is analyzed. Small, grid-connected hybrid system (for energy supply of a standard household, consisting of geothermal heat pump for heating/cooling, solar photovoltaic panels and small wind turbine for power supply is analyzed as a case study. System analysis was conducted with the help of RETScreen software. Results of techno-economics analysis have shown that investing in geothermal heat pump and photovoltaic panels is cost-effective, while that is not the case with small wind turbine.

  16. Cost-competitiveness of organic photovoltaics for electricity self-consumption at residential buildings: A comparative study of Denmark and Greece under real market conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chatzisideris, Marios Dimos; Laurent, Alexis; Christoforidis, Georgios C.

    2017-01-01

    To address sustainability challenges, photovoltaics (PV) are regarded as a promising renewable energy technology. Decreasing PV module costs and increasing residential electricity prices have made self-consumption of PV-generated electricity financially more attractive than exporting to the grid....... Organic photovoltaics (OPV) are an emerging thin-film PV technology that shows promise of greatly improving the environmental and economic performances of PV technologies. Previous studies have estimated the current and future costs of OPV technologies, but the attractiveness of investing in OPV systems...

  17. Feasibility study on combined use of residential SOFC cogeneration system and plug-in hybrid electric vehicle from energy-saving viewpoint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wakui, Tetsuya; Wada, Naohiro; Yokoyama, Ryohei

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Optimal operational planning for combined use of SOFC-CGS and PHEV is conducted. ► Charging PHEV with SOFC-CGS increases electric capacity factor of SOFC-CGS. ► Energy-saving effect of combined use is higher than that of their separate use. ► Combined use provides energy savings in both residential and transport sectors. - Abstract: The energy-saving effect of a combined use of a residential solid oxide fuel cell cogeneration system (SOFC-CGS) that adopts a continuous operation, and a plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) is discussed by optimal operational planning based on mixed-integer linear programming. This combined use aims to increase the electric capacity factor of the SOFC-CGS by charging the PHEV using the SOFC-CGS electric power output late at night, and targets the application in regions where the reverse power flow from residential cogeneration systems to commercial electric power systems is not permitted, like in Japan. The optimal operation patterns of the combined use of 0.7-kWe SOFC-CGS and PHEV for a simulated energy demand with a sampling time of 1 h and various daily running distances of the PHEV show that this combined use increases the electric capacity factor of the SOFC-CGS and saves more energy in comparison with their separate use in which the SOFC-CGS is used but the PHEV is charged only with purchased electric power. Furthermore, it is found that at the PHEV daily running distance of 12 km/d, the reduction rate of the annual primary energy consumption for this combined use increases by up to 3.7 percentage points relative to their separate use. Consequently, this feasibility study reveals that the combined use of the SOFC-CGS and PHEV provides the synergistic effect on energy savings in the residential and transport sectors. For the practical use, simulation scenarios considering the energy demand fluctuations with short periods and real-time pricing of the purchased electric power must be considered as future

  18. Individual differences in object permanence performance at 8 months: locomotor experience and brain electrical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, M A; Fox, N A

    1997-12-01

    This work was designed to investigate individual differences in hands-and-knees crawling and frontal brain electrical activity with respect to object permanence performance in 76 eight-month-old infants. Four groups of infants (one prelocomotor and 3 with varying lengths of hands-and-knees crawling experience) were tested on an object permanence scale in a research design similar to that used by Kermoian and Campos (1988). In addition, baseline EEG was recorded and used as an indicator of brain development, as in the Bell and Fox (1992) longitudinal study. Individual differences in frontal and occipital EEG power and in locomotor experience were associated with performance on the object permanence task. Infants successful at A-not-B exhibited greater frontal EEG power and greater occipital EEG power than unsuccessful infants. In contrast to Kermoian and Campos (1988), who noted that long-term crawling experience was associated with higher performance on an object permanence scale, infants in this study with any amount of hands and knees crawling experience performed at a higher level on the object permanence scale than prelocomotor infants. There was no interaction among brain electrical activity, locomotor experience, and object permanence performance. These data highlight the value of electrophysiological research and the need for a brain-behavior model of object permanence performance that incorporates both electrophysiological and behavioral factors.

  19. A High-Resolution Spatially Explicit Monte-Carlo Simulation Approach to Commercial and Residential Electricity and Water Demand Modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morton, April M [ORNL; McManamay, Ryan A [ORNL; Nagle, Nicholas N [ORNL; Piburn, Jesse O [ORNL; Stewart, Robert N [ORNL; Surendran Nair, Sujithkumar [ORNL

    2016-01-01

    Abstract As urban areas continue to grow and evolve in a world of increasing environmental awareness, the need for high resolution spatially explicit estimates for energy and water demand has become increasingly important. Though current modeling efforts mark significant progress in the effort to better understand the spatial distribution of energy and water consumption, many are provided at a course spatial resolution or rely on techniques which depend on detailed region-specific data sources that are not publicly available for many parts of the U.S. Furthermore, many existing methods do not account for errors in input data sources and may therefore not accurately reflect inherent uncertainties in model outputs. We propose an alternative and more flexible Monte-Carlo simulation approach to high-resolution residential and commercial electricity and water consumption modeling that relies primarily on publicly available data sources. The method s flexible data requirement and statistical framework ensure that the model is both applicable to a wide range of regions and reflective of uncertainties in model results. Key words: Energy Modeling, Water Modeling, Monte-Carlo Simulation, Uncertainty Quantification Acknowledgment This manuscript has been authored by employees of UT-Battelle, LLC, under contract DE-AC05-00OR22725 with the U.S. Department of Energy. Accordingly, the United States Government retains and the publisher, by accepting the article for publication, acknowledges that the United States Government retains a non-exclusive, paid-up, irrevocable, world-wide license to publish or reproduce the published form of this manuscript, or allow others to do so, for United States Government purposes.

  20. Residential greenhouse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1985-02-01

    The following report examines the technical and economic viability of residential greenhouse additions in Whitehorse, Yukon. The greenhouse was constructed using the south facing wall of an existing residence as a common wall. Total construction costs were $18,000, including labour. Annual fuel demand for the residence has been reduced by about 10 per cent for an annual saving of $425. In addition, produce to the value of $1,000 is grown annually in the greenhouse for domestic consumption and commercial resale. Typically the greenhouse operates for nine months each year. There is a net thermal loss during the months of November, December and January as a result of the large area of glazing. As well as supplementing the heating supply solar greenhouses can provide additional cash crops which can be used to offset the cost of construction. Humidity problems are minimal and can be dealt with by exhausting high humidity air. One system which has been considered for the greenhouse is to use a standard residential heat pump to remove excess moisture and to pump heat into the house. This would have a secondary benefit of excluding the need to circulate greenhouse air through the house. Thus any allergenic reactions to the greenhouse air would be prevented. 8 refs., 3 figs, 2 tabs.

  1. 18-month outlook : an assessment of the reliability of the Ontario Electricity System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    This paper provides an 18 month forecast of the Ontario electricity system, as well as an outline of activities and recent developments relating to the issue of reliability. An additional aim of the paper was to identify potentially adverse conditions that may require adjustment or coordination of maintenance plans for generation and transmission equipment. Requests for proposals (RFPs) for renewable generation within the specified time-frame were also discussed, as well as the return to service of Ontario Power Generation's Pickering Unit 1. Reduced reserve levels for the summer of 2005 were anticipated, and details of forecasted peak demand, generator maintenance, new generation and price-responsive demand adjustments and forced outage rates were presented. It was suggested that adequate market mechanisms were in place to manage reserve levels. Developments concerning the new Parkway Transformer station were reviewed. A resource outlook was provided. Available resources were expected to exceed planning requirements with the exception of 6 weeks in the summer of 2005. A projected capacity increase was also anticipated, due to the return of Pickering 1 and an additional 515 MW in the fall of 2005. Price-responsive demands were forecasted to exceed 650 MW due to increases in dispatchable load. It was suggested that in order to ensure power demand during peak periods, imports may be required under extreme weather conditions, combined with the possible deferral or cancellation of generation maintenance. Transmission impacts due to shutdowns were discussed. Voltage system requirements were reviewed, along with details of the installation of additional shunt capacitors and transformer controls. The electricity market was reviewed in the context of current overall economic conditions. Data forecasting normal peak demand was presented for the entire outlook period. 19 tabs., 10 figs

  2. Gas-heating alternatives to the residential electric heat pump. Gas Appliance Technology Center 1987 program. Topical report for Work Area 1.1, October 1989-March 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haas, C.

    1990-05-01

    The characteristics of electric heat pumps are described. Options are defined and assessed for utilizing gas heating in conjunction with existing residential electric heat pumps. These options include gas heat introduced into the refrigeration circuit, a flue gas-heated tube bank in the air supply duct, and a hot-water-to-air coil in the supply duct. Economics are presented for conversion of a residence's total space and water heating from electric to gas in New York City and Atlanta. Potential marketing strategies are discussed, and potential gas sales volumes from conversions are estimated. The study concludes that the use of gas water heating coupled with a hydronic coil in the supply ductwork from the air handler is the most advantageous option for the gas industry

  3. Coca-Cola Refreshments Class 8 Diesel Electric Hybrid Tractor Evaluation: 13-Month Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walkowicz, K.; Lammert, M.; Curran, P.

    2012-08-01

    This 13-month evaluation used five Kenworth T370 hybrid tractors and five Freightliner M2106 standard diesel tractors at a Coca Cola Refreshments facility in Miami, Florida. The primary objective was to evaluate the fuel economy, emissions, and operational field performance of hybrid electric vehicles when compared to similar-use conventional diesel vehicles. A random dispatch system ensures the vehicles are used in a similar manner. GPS logging, fueling, and maintenance records and laboratory dynamometer testing are used to evaluate the performance of these hybrid tractors. Both groups drive similar duty cycles with similar kinetic intensity (0.95 vs. 0.69), average speed (20.6 vs. 24.3 mph), and stops per mile (1.9 vs. 1.5). The study demonstrated the hybrid group had a 13.7% fuel economy improvement over the diesel group. Laboratory fuel economy and field fuel economy study showed similar trends along the range of KI and stops per mile. Hybrid maintenance costs were 51% lower per mile; hybrid fuel costs per mile were 12% less than for the diesels; and hybrid vehicle total cost of operation per mile was 24% less than the cost of operation for the diesel group.

  4. Agent-based model for electricity consumption and storage to evaluate economic viability of tariff arbitrage for residential sector demand response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, Menglian; Meinrenken, Christoph J.; Lackner, Klaus S.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Storage-based demand response (loadshifting) is underutilized in residential sector. • Economics (arbitrage savings versus equipment cost) are not well understood. • Stochastic demand models and real-life tariffs can illuminate economic viability. • A range of available storage options provide economically viable DR. • Daily/seasonal stochastic demand variations crucial to understanding optimum capacity. - Abstract: Demand response (DR) is one of many approaches to address temporal mismatches in demand and supply of grid electricity. More common in the commercial sector, DR usually refers to reducing consumption at certain hours or seasons, thus reducing peak demand from the grid. In the residential sector, where sophisticated appliance-level controls such as automatic dimming of lights or on-demand lowering of air conditioning are less common, building-based electricity storage to shift grid consumption from peak to off-peak times could provide DR without requiring consumers to operate their appliances on shifted or reduced schedules: Storage would be dispatched to appliances as needed while still shaving peaks on the grid. Technologically, storage and two-way-inverters are readily available to enable such residential DR. Economically, however, the situation is less clear. Specifically, are time-varying electricity tariffs available such that electricity cost reduction via arbitrage could offset manufacturing, financing, and installation costs of the required storage? To address this question we (i) devise an agent-based appliance-level stochastic model to simulate the electricity demand of an average U.S. household; (ii) loadshift the demand via simple dispatch strategies; and (iii) determine potential profits to the building owner, i.e. reduced electricity cost of the modified demand with realistic tariffs (Con Edison, NY) minus storage cost. We determine the economic viability for a range of traditional and advanced storage technologies

  5. 18-month outlook : An assessment of the adequacy of the Ontario electricity system from January 2002 to June 2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    The Independent Electricity Market Operator (IMO) has monitored the state of electricity demand and available supply in Ontario and has reported its findings to the Minister of Energy, Science and Technology and to the Ontario Energy Board. This report presents the IMO's assessment of the adequacy of resources and transmission for the Ontario electricity system for the 18-month period from January 2002 to June 2003. The assessment was based on current information on forecasts of electricity demand and available supply. The existing installed generation within Ontario was summarized. Existing power facilities include nuclear, coal, oil, gas, hydroelectric, wind-powered, wood and waste-fuelled generation. The installations range from less than 1 MW in size to 881 MW net electrical output. The total generating capacity in Ontario is 29,523 MW, excluding embedded generators that are not managed by the Ontario Electricity Financial Corporation or generation not connected to the IMO-controlled grid. In addition, the Bruce Nuclear Unit was not included because it is currently in laid-up state. This report discussed changes from the previous 18-month outlook in terms of power demand. It also presented outlooks of the transmission outage plan, system voltage, thermal concerns and forced outages. The general conclusion reached in this report is that there will be sufficient resources and transmission available to Ontario to supply Ontario demands and to meet the Northeast Power Coordinating Council (NPCC) resource criteria for the next 18 months. tabs., figs

  6. Modeling temporal variations in global residential energy consumption and pollutant emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Han; Huang, Ye; Shen, Huizhong; Chen, Yilin; Ru, Muye; Chen, Yuanchen; Lin, Nan; Su, Shu; Zhuo, Shaojie; Zhong, Qirui; Wang, Xilong; Liu, Junfeng; Li, Bengang; Tao, Shu

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Space-for-time substitution was tested for seasonality of residential energy. • Regression models were developed to simulate global residential energy consumption. • Factors affecting the temporal trend in residential energy use were identified. • Climate warming will induce changes in residential energy use and emissions. - Abstract: Energy data are often reported on an annual basis. To address the climate and health impacts of greenhouse gases and air pollutants, seasonally resolved emissions inventories are needed. The seasonality of energy consumption is most affected by consumption in the residential sector. In this study, a set of regression models were developed based on temperature-related variables and a series of socioeconomic parameters to quantify global electricity and fuel consumption for the residential sector. The models were evaluated against observations and applied to simulate monthly changes in residential energy consumption and the resultant emissions of air pollutants. Changes in energy consumption are strongly affected by economic prosperity and population growth. Climate change, electricity prices, and urbanization also affect energy use. Climate warming will cause a net increase in electricity consumption and a decrease in fuel consumption by the residential sector. Consequently, emissions of CO_2, SO_2, and Hg are predicted to decrease, while emissions of incomplete combustion products are expected to increase. These changes vary regionally.

  7. An assessment of the reliability of the Ontario electricity system : 18-month outlook from April 2004 to September 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    This report presents a resource assessment by the Independent Electricity Market Operator (IMO) for the 18-month period from April 2004 to September 2005. It is based on the IMO's forecast of electricity demand. The information was provided by power generators in Ontario. The outlook for the electricity system has improved due to the return to service of 3 nuclear units and the addition of more than 700 MW of generation. The return to service of the nuclear units has decreased Ontario's reliance on imports to help meet energy demand in the province. The shutdown of 1150 MW of coal-fired generation at Lakeview Thermal Generating Station in Mississauga emphasizes the importance of improving transmission and generation capacity in the Toronto area. This report also includes updated values for existing resource scenarios and planned resource scenarios. The reliability of Ontario's transmission system was also assessed along with the adequacy of the existing resource to meet the forecast demand. The existing installed generation resources include 5 nuclear stations generating 10,831 MW of electricity, 5 coal stations generating 7,564 MW of electricity, 22 oil and gas fired stations generating 4,364 MW of electricity, 61 hydroelectric stations generating 7,676 MW of electricity, and 2 other stations generating 66 MW of electricity. Although the existing resource scenario is better than in previous reports, imports will be required under extreme weather conditions to help meet electricity demand in Ontario during peak periods. 21 tabs., 10 figs

  8. The opening of electricity and natural gas markets to residential clients. Yearly barometer - run 4. September 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-09-01

    The opening of energy markets to competition became effective to individuals ('residential clients') on July 1, 2007 with the possibility to freely choose their energy supplier. This opening of energy markets to residential clients started 3 years after the opening to professionals (July 1, 2004). The Commission of energy regulation (CRE) and the national energy Ombudsman have set in place in 2007 a quantitative yearly survey ('barometer') addressed to residential clients in order to collect statistical data about the behaviour of these clients with regards to the opening of markets to competition. This document deals with the results of the fourth run of this survey carried out from September 6 to September 18, 2010 by the LH2 institute. For the 1504 households investigated, LH2 has questioned the person in charge of the energy bills management. The barometer aimed at answering the following questions: - what is the level of knowledge and information of residential clients about markets opening and the existing regulation? - What perception of this opening do they have? (pros/cons, advantages/drawbacks); - what behaviour do they have in front of the opening of markets to competition? (approach with respect to information needs, knowledge about the offer, intention to change supplier, brakes/motivations in entering the open market). (J.S.)

  9. The opening of electricity and natural gas markets to residential clients. Yearly barometer - run 5. September 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-09-01

    The opening of energy markets to competition became effective to individuals ('residential clients') on July 1, 2007 with the possibility to freely choose their energy supplier. This opening of energy markets to residential clients started 3 years after the opening to professionals (July 1, 2004). The Commission of energy regulation (CRE) and the national energy Ombudsman have set in place in 2007 a quantitative yearly survey ('barometer') addressed to residential clients in order to collect statistical data about the behaviour of these clients with regards to the opening of markets to competition. This document deals with the results of the fourth run of this survey carried out from September 12 to September 23, 2011 by the LH2 institute. For the 1500 households investigated, LH2 has questioned the person in charge of the energy bills management. The barometer aimed at answering the following questions: - what is the level of knowledge and information of residential clients about markets opening and the existing regulation? - What perception of this opening do they have? (pros/cons, advantages/drawbacks); - what behaviour do they have in front of the opening of markets to competition? (approach with respect to information needs, knowledge about the offer, intention to change supplier, brakes/motivations in entering the open market). (J.S.)

  10. The opening of electricity and natural gas markets to residential clients. Yearly barometer - run 3. September 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-09-01

    The opening of energy markets to competition became effective to individuals ('residential clients') on July 1, 2007 with the possibility to freely choose their energy supplier. This opening of energy markets to residential clients started 3 years after the opening to professionals (July 1, 2004). The Commission of energy regulation (CRE) and the national energy Ombudsman have set in place in 2007 a quantitative yearly survey ('barometer') addressed to residential clients in order to collect statistical data about the behaviour of these clients with regards to the opening of markets to competition. This document deals with the results of the fourth run of this survey carried out in September 2009 by the LH2 institute. For the 1500 households investigated, LH2 has questioned the person in charge of the energy bills management. The barometer aimed at answering the following questions: - what is the level of knowledge and information of residential clients about markets opening and the existing regulation? - What perception of this opening do they have? (pros/cons, advantages/drawbacks); - what behaviour do they have in front of the opening of markets to competition? (approach with respect to information needs, knowledge about the offer, intention to change supplier, brakes/motivations in entering the open market). (J.S.)

  11. The opening of electricity and natural gas markets to residential clients. Yearly barometer - run 2. December 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-12-01

    The opening of energy markets to competition became effective to individuals ('residential clients') on July 1, 2007 with the possibility to freely choose their energy supplier. This opening of energy markets to residential clients started 3 years after the opening to professionals (July 1, 2004). The Commission of energy regulation (CRE) and the national energy Ombudsman have set in place in 2007 a quantitative yearly survey ('barometer') addressed to residential clients in order to collect statistical data about the behaviour of these clients with regards to the opening of markets to competition. This document deals with the results of the fourth run of this survey carried out from November 10 to November 20, 2008 by the LH2 institute. For the 1502 households investigated, LH2 has questioned the person in charge of the energy bills management. The barometer aimed at answering the following questions: - what is the level of knowledge and information of residential clients about markets opening and the existing regulation? - What perception of this opening do they have? (pros/cons, advantages/drawbacks); - what behaviour do they have in front of the opening of markets to competition? (approach with respect to information needs, knowledge about the offer, intention to change supplier, brakes/motivations in entering the open market). (J.S.)

  12. Responsiveness of residential electricity demand to dynamic tariffs : experiences from a large field test in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klaassen, E.A.M.; Kobus, C.B.A.; Frunt, J.; Slootweg, J.G.

    2016-01-01

    To efficiently facilitate the energy transition it is essential to evaluate the potential of demand response in practice. Based on the results of a Dutch smart grid pilot, this paper assesses the potential of both manual and semi-automated demand response in residential areas. To stimulate demand

  13. Responsiveness of residential electricity demand to dynamic tariffs : Experiences from a large field test in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klaassen, EAM; Kobus, C.B.A.; Frunt, J; Slootweg, JG

    2016-01-01

    To efficiently facilitate the energy transition it is essential to evaluate the potential of demand response in practice. Based on the results of a Dutch smart grid pilot, this paper assesses the potential of both manual and semi-automated demand response in residential areas. To stimulate demand

  14. Learning from the implementation of residential optional time of use pricing in the United States electricity industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xibao

    Residential time-of-use (TOU) rates have been in practice in the U.S. since the 1970s. However, for institutional, political, and regulatory reasons, only a very small proportion of residential customers are actually on these schedules. In this thesis, I explore why this is the case by empirically investigating two groups of questions: (1) On the "supply" side: Do utilities choose to offer TOU rates in residential sectors on their own initiative if state commissions do not order them to do so? Since utilities have other options, what is the relationship between the TOU rate and other alternatives? To answer these questions, I survey residential tariffs offered by more than 100 major investor-owned utilities, study the impact of various factors on utilities' rate-making behavior, and examine utility revealed preferences among four rate options: seasonal rates, inverted block rates, demand charges, and TOU rates. Estimated results suggest that the scale of residential sectors and the revenue contribution from residential sectors are the only two significant factors that influence utility decisions on offering TOU rates. Technical and economic considerations are not significant statistically. This implies that the little acceptance of TOU rates is partly attributed to utilities' inadequate attention to TOU rate design. (2) On the "demand" side: For utilities offering TOU tariffs, why do only a very small proportion of residential customers choose these tariffs? What factors influence customer choices? Unlike previous studies that used individual-level experimental data, this research employs actual aggregated information from 29 utilities offering optional TOU rates. By incorporating neo-classical demand analysis into an aggregated random coefficient logit model, I investigate the impact of both price and non-price tariff characteristics and non-tariff factors on customer choice behavior. The analysis indicates that customer pure tariff preference (which captures the

  15. Estimating State-Specific Contributions to PM2.5- and O3-Related Health Burden from Residential Combustion and Electricity Generating Unit Emissions in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penn, Stefani L; Arunachalam, Saravanan; Woody, Matthew; Heiger-Bernays, Wendy; Tripodis, Yorghos; Levy, Jonathan I

    2017-03-01

    Residential combustion (RC) and electricity generating unit (EGU) emissions adversely impact air quality and human health by increasing ambient concentrations of fine particulate matter (PM 2.5 ) and ozone (O 3 ). Studies to date have not isolated contributing emissions by state of origin (source-state), which is necessary for policy makers to determine efficient strategies to decrease health impacts. In this study, we aimed to estimate health impacts (premature mortalities) attributable to PM 2.5 and O 3 from RC and EGU emissions by precursor species, source sector, and source-state in the continental United States for 2005. We used the Community Multiscale Air Quality model employing the decoupled direct method to quantify changes in air quality and epidemiological evidence to determine concentration-response functions to calculate associated health impacts. We estimated 21,000 premature mortalities per year from EGU emissions, driven by sulfur dioxide emissions forming PM 2.5 . More than half of EGU health impacts are attributable to emissions from eight states with significant coal combustion and large downwind populations. We estimate 10,000 premature mortalities per year from RC emissions, driven by primary PM 2.5 emissions. States with large populations and significant residential wood combustion dominate RC health impacts. Annual mortality risk per thousand tons of precursor emissions (health damage functions) varied significantly across source-states for both source sectors and all precursor pollutants. Our findings reinforce the importance of pollutant-specific, location-specific, and source-specific models of health impacts in design of health-risk minimizing emissions control policies. Citation: Penn SL, Arunachalam S, Woody M, Heiger-Bernays W, Tripodis Y, Levy JI. 2017. Estimating state-specific contributions to PM 2.5 - and O 3 -related health burden from residential combustion and electricity generating unit emissions in the United States. Environ

  16. Modeling electric load and water consumption impacts from an integrated thermal energy and rainwater storage system for residential buildings in Texas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Upshaw, Charles R.; Rhodes, Joshua D.; Webber, Michael E.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Hydronic integrated rainwater thermal storage (ITHERST) system concept presented. • ITHERST system modeled to assess peak electric load shifting and water savings. • Case study shows 75% peak load reduction and 9% increase in energy consumption. • Potable rainwater collection could provide ∼50–90% of water used for case study. - Abstract: The United States’ built environment is a significant direct and indirect consumer of energy and water. In Texas, and other parts of the Southern and Western US, air conditioning loads, particularly from residential buildings, contribute significantly to the peak electricity load on the grid, straining transmission. In parallel, water resources in these regions are strained by growing populations and shrinking supplies. One potential method to address both of these issues is to develop integrated thermal energy and auxiliary water (e.g. rainwater, greywater, etc.) storage and management systems that reduce peak load and freshwater consumption. This analysis focuses on a proposed integrated thermal energy and rainwater storage (ITHERST) system that is incorporated into a residential air-source chiller/heat pump with hydronic distribution. This paper describes a step-wise hourly thermodynamic model of the thermal storage system to assess on-peak performance, and a daily volume-balance model of auxiliary water collection and consumption to assess water savings potential. While the model is generalized, this analysis uses a case study of a single family home in Austin, Texas to illustrate its capabilities. The results indicate this ITHERST system could reduce on-peak air conditioning electric power demand by over 75%, with increased overall electric energy consumption of approximately 7–9%, when optimally sized. Additionally, the modeled rainwater collection reduced municipal water consumption by approximately 53–89%, depending on the system size.

  17. Analysis of residential, industrial and commercial sector responses to potential electricity supply constraints in the 1990s

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisher, Z.J.; Fang, J.M.; Lyke, A.J.; Krudener, J.R.

    1986-09-01

    There is considerable debate over the ability of electric generation capacity to meet the growing needs of the US economy in the 1990s. This study provides new perspective on that debate and examines the possibility of power outages resulting from electricity supply constraints. Previous studies have focused on electricity supply growth, demand growth, and on the linkages between electricity and economic growth. This study assumes the occurrence of electricity supply shortfalls in the 1990s and examines the steps that homeowners, businesses, manufacturers, and other electricity users might take in response to electricity outages.

  18. Responsiveness of residential electricity demand to dynamic tariffs: Experiences from a large field test in the Netherlands

    OpenAIRE

    Klaassen, EAM; Kobus, C.B.A.; Frunt, J; Slootweg, JG

    2016-01-01

    To efficiently facilitate the energy transition it is essential to evaluate the potential of demand response in practice. Based on the results of a Dutch smart grid pilot, this paper assesses the potential of both manual and semi-automated demand response in residential areas. To stimulate demand response, a dynamic tariff and smart appliances were used. The participating households were informed about the tariff day-ahead through a home energy management system, connected to a display instal...

  19. Restructuring and the retail residential market for power in Pennsylvania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kleit, Andrew N.; Shcherbakova, Anastasia V.; Chen Xu

    2012-01-01

    In January 2010 electricity retail residential rate caps expired in a large part of Pennsylvania, allowing consumers to shop for electricity in the retail market. In this paper we employ customer-level data from the relevant territory to analyze what residential customer and community characteristics impacted the decision of whether or not to switch to an alternative electricity provider, and when to make the switch. Results show that customers with higher usage levels (especially around the time of the program's introduction), electric heating, and those living in more urban and more educated communities with lower unemployment rates and higher median household incomes were both more likely to switch, and more likely to do so faster. Lower switching rates and a slower switching response was observed from customers with more variable month to month usage (perhaps this made them unsure of future benefits from switching), those on alternative residential electricity rates (time-of-day and thermal storage programs), and those new to the relevant area (perhaps due to lack of information about the residential choice program). Critics of retail electricity competition have suggested that it disadvantages poor and elderly ratepayers. Our results do not support this contention. Customers living in communities with higher poverty rates were actually more likely to switch (and do so faster) than middle-income consumers. Communities with higher shares of senior population were not found to have lower switching rates from younger communities. - Highlights: ► We analyze introduction of retail competition in Pennsylvania's electricity sector. ► We evaluate what characteristics influence consumers to switch electric providers. ► Higher usage and electric heat influence customers to switch and to do so faster. ► More variable usage and being new to service area deter switching. ► High poverty rates induce switching; older communities no less likely to switch.

  20. Electrical network capacity support from demand side response: Techno-economic assessment of potential business cases for small commercial and residential end-users

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martínez Ceseña, Eduardo A.; Good, Nicholas; Mancarella, Pierluigi

    2015-01-01

    Demand Side Response (DSR) is recognised for its potential to bring economic benefits to various electricity sector actors, such as energy retailers, Transmission System Operators (TSOs) and Distribution Network Operators (DNOs). However, most DSR is provided by large industrial and commercial consumers, and little research has been directed to the quantification of the value that small (below 100 kW) commercial and residential end-users could accrue by providing DSR services. In particular, suitable models and studies are needed to quantify potential business cases for DSR from small commercial and residential end-users. Such models and studies should consider the technical and physical characteristics of the power system and demand resources, together with the economic conditions of the power market. In addition, the majority of research focuses on provision of energy arbitrage or ancillary services, with very little attention to DSR services for network capacity support. Accordingly, this paper presents comprehensive techno-economic methodologies for the quantification of three capacity-based business cases for DSR from small commercial and residential end-users. Case study results applied to a UK context indicate that, if the appropriate regulatory framework is put in place, services for capacity support to both DNOs and TSOs can result into potentially attractive business cases for DSR from small end-users with minimum impact on their comfort level. -- Highlights: •We present three business cases for DSR from domestic and commercial end-users. •A comprehensive techno-economic methodology is proposed for the quantification of each DSR business cases. •The regulatory implications associated with each business case are discussed

  1. GREEN RETROFITTING RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS

    Science.gov (United States)

    When compared with the rest of the world, the United States consumes a disproportionately large amount of energy and is a major source of greenhouse gases from fossil fuel combustion. As much as two thirds of U.S. electricity production is consumed by residential and commerci...

  2. Technical and Economic Evaluation of «Electric House» Project: Investigation of Possibility to Use Electric Power as Single Energy Carrier in Residential Buildings

    OpenAIRE

    M. M. Oleshkevich; Y. V. Makosko

    2011-01-01

    The paper considers special features of the «Electric House» project where the building is provided with electric power, cold water and sewerage system. The «Electric House» is characterized by ecological cleanness, high reliability in power supply and low capital costs. While running the «Electric House» an annual expenditure of equivalent fuel is increased due to low efficiency of electric power generation at power plants. The profit obtained due to «Electric House» construction is depleted...

  3. 18 month outlook : an assessment of the adequacy of the Ontario electricity system from October 2001 to March 2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    One of the responsibilities of Ontario's Independent Electricity Market Operator (IMO) is to make sure that existing and proposed generation and transmission facilities can meet the province's energy needs. This report presents an assessment of the adequacy of resources and transmission for Ontario's electricity system for the 18 month period from October 2001 to March 2003. It is also meant to advise the Ontario Energy Board of any adverse conditions that might be avoided through adjustment or coordination of maintenance plans for generation and transmission equipment. The assessment is based on forecasts of electricity demand, available supply and capability of the existing transmission system. Outage plans of generators and transmitters were based on information as of August 3, 2001. An 18 month forecast of electricity demand for Ontario was presented along with the resources and transmission systems that are expected to be available during the study period. The overall assessment is that there will be sufficient resources and transmission available in Ontario to supply the predicted energy demand and to meet the specified reserve margins under the forecasted conditions. The report included graphs which depicted how the weekly peak Ontario demand plus a weekly reserve requirement can be met for each week of the Outlook timeframe. The resource adequacy assessment takes into account all types of weather conditions on a probabilistic basis. 16 tabs., 8 figs

  4. Application of recourse optimization for risk management of electricity production with weekly and monthly horizon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apparigliato, R.

    2008-06-01

    In this Phd, we focus on the problem of weekly risk management in electric production. In the first part of this work, we investigate how to take into account stochastic inflows in the optimal management of a hydraulic valley. Our model is based on robust optimization and linear decision rules. A validation procedure based on simulation over random scenarios shows that we are able to postpone constraints violations of volume at very low cost. The second part deals with the problem of active management of electrical power margin, defined as the difference between the total offer and the total demand, considering the different random parameters which affect the electrical system. The objective is to determine optimal solutions to be taken in order to satisfy the demand in 99% of the cases. In that purpose, we propose a new open-looped formulation, based on the stochastic process of power margin and on the use of probabilistic constraints. To be able to solve this problem, we generate power margin's scenarios using more realistic methods than those used in exploitation. At last, a closed-loop approach, based on the heuristic 'Stochastic Programming with Step Decision Rules', introduced by Thenie and Vial, is studied. First results are quite promising in comparison with the opened-loop ones. (author)

  5. Homogeneous grouping of residential users of electric power in accordance with the variables that affect the consumption; Agrupamientos homogeneos de usuarios residenciales de energia electrica en funcion de las variables que impactan el consumo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campero Littlewood, E.; Romero Cortes, J. [Departamento de Energia, Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana - Unidad Azcapotzalco, Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1997-12-31

    This paper presents the results of the correlation analysis of the monthly consumption of electric power and the capacities in watts of the electric household appliances and domestic lighting performed in a sample of users of the residential tariff. To carry out this task, the information obtained in the answers to the inquiry applied to a group of dwellings, was used (the results of the inquiry are presented in another paper of this Seminar). The correlation variables were obtained from the nominal capacities or through the actual measurements of the energy consumption of the electric household appliances similar to the ones found in the visited homes. At the end of this paper the result of the application of the cluster analysis technic to obtain homogeneous groups of users, is presented, so as to be in position of estimating the shape of the hourly demand curve by means of the recording of the demand (watts) of a small sample of users. [Espanol] En este articulo se presenta el resultado de correlacion del consumo mensual de energia electrica y las capacidades en watts de los electrodomesticos e iluminacion realizado a una muestra de usuarios de tarifa residencial. Para este trabajo se utilizo la informacion obtenida en las respuestas de una encuesta aplicada en un conjunto habitacional (los resultados de la encuesta se presentan en otro articulo en este Seminario). Las variables de la correlacion se obtuvieron a partir de las especificaciones de capacidades o a traves de mediciones en electrodomesticos similares a los encontrados en los hogares. Al final se presenta el resultado de la aplicacion de la tecnica de formacion de agrupamientos `Cluster Analysis` para obtener grupos homogeneos de usuarios, de forma que se pueda estimar el perfil de demanda electrica mediante el registro de la demanda (watts) de una pequena muestra de usuarios.

  6. Homogeneous grouping of residential users of electric power in accordance with the variables that affect the consumption; Agrupamientos homogeneos de usuarios residenciales de energia electrica en funcion de las variables que impactan el consumo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campero Littlewood, E; Romero Cortes, J [Departamento de Energia, Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana - Unidad Azcapotzalco, Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1998-12-31

    This paper presents the results of the correlation analysis of the monthly consumption of electric power and the capacities in watts of the electric household appliances and domestic lighting performed in a sample of users of the residential tariff. To carry out this task, the information obtained in the answers to the inquiry applied to a group of dwellings, was used (the results of the inquiry are presented in another paper of this Seminar). The correlation variables were obtained from the nominal capacities or through the actual measurements of the energy consumption of the electric household appliances similar to the ones found in the visited homes. At the end of this paper the result of the application of the cluster analysis technic to obtain homogeneous groups of users, is presented, so as to be in position of estimating the shape of the hourly demand curve by means of the recording of the demand (watts) of a small sample of users. [Espanol] En este articulo se presenta el resultado de correlacion del consumo mensual de energia electrica y las capacidades en watts de los electrodomesticos e iluminacion realizado a una muestra de usuarios de tarifa residencial. Para este trabajo se utilizo la informacion obtenida en las respuestas de una encuesta aplicada en un conjunto habitacional (los resultados de la encuesta se presentan en otro articulo en este Seminario). Las variables de la correlacion se obtuvieron a partir de las especificaciones de capacidades o a traves de mediciones en electrodomesticos similares a los encontrados en los hogares. Al final se presenta el resultado de la aplicacion de la tecnica de formacion de agrupamientos `Cluster Analysis` para obtener grupos homogeneos de usuarios, de forma que se pueda estimar el perfil de demanda electrica mediante el registro de la demanda (watts) de una pequena muestra de usuarios.

  7. Consequences of long-term power outages and high electricity prices lasting for months

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    Several areas in the world have experienced electricity outages for longer periods of time, but the consequences of these are sparsely documented. There is a need for further analysis of the socioeconomic consequences of the outages. In addition to KILE (Quality adjusted revenue framework for un supplied energy) costs one has to take into account that the costs often increase proportionally with the durance of the outage, and that KILE tariffs do not reflect lost consumer's surplus for products that are not produced during an outage. A good example is the public underground transport, where the company's economical loss can be significantly smaller than the loss of utility value for the travellers. If the authorities act with reasonability it is difficult to see that periods with very high prices represent a big problem. The most important problems are related to diffused effects, especially for households with a weak economy. These problems can be solved with improved contractual forms (price guarantees) or by transfers to the households, without weakening the incentives for electricity economising (ml)

  8. Residential Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Kids For Teens For Parents & Teachers Resolving Family Conflicts The Holidays and Alzheimer's Glossary Virtual Library Online ... longer an option Costs Choosing a care setting Types of residential care A good long-term care ...

  9. A Method for the Monthly Electricity Demand Forecasting in Colombia based on Wavelet Analysis and a Nonlinear Autoregressive Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristhian Moreno-Chaparro

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a monthly electricity forecast method for the National Interconnected System (SIN of Colombia. The method preprocesses the time series using a Multiresolution Analysis (MRA with Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT; a study for the selection of the mother wavelet and her order, as well as the level decomposition was carried out. Given that original series follows a non-linear behaviour, a neural nonlinear autoregressive (NAR model was used. The prediction was obtained by adding the forecast trend with the estimated obtained by the residual series combined with further components extracted from preprocessing. A bibliographic review of studies conducted internationally and in Colombia is included, in addition to references to investigations made with wavelet transform applied to electric energy prediction and studies reporting the use of NAR in prediction.

  10. The Use of Biomass for Electricity Generation: A Scoping Review of Health Effects on Humans in Residential and Occupational Settings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice Freiberg

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The utilization of biomass for power generation has become more prevalent globally. To survey the status of evidence concerning resulting health impacts and to depict potential research needs, a scoping-review was conducted. Biomass life cycle phases of interest were the conversion and combustion phases. Studies from occupational and residential settings were considered. The scoping review was conducted systematically, comprising an extensive literature search, a guided screening process, in-duplicate data extraction, and critical appraisal. Two reviewers executed most review steps. Nine articles of relevance were identified. In occupational settings of biomass plants, exposure to endotoxins and fungi might be associated with respiratory disorders. An accidental leakage of hydrogen sulfide in biogas plants may lead to fatalities or severe health impacts. Living near biomass power plants (and the accompanied odorous air pollution may result in an increased risk for several symptoms and odor annoyance, mediated by perception about air pollution or an evaluation of a resulting health risk. The methodological quality of included studies varied a lot. Overall, the body of evidence on the topic is sparse and future high-quality research is strongly recommended.

  11. Real-Time Recognition Non-Intrusive Electrical Appliance Monitoring Algorithm for a Residential Building Energy Management System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kofi Afrifa Agyeman

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The concern of energy price hikes and the impact of climate change because of energy generation and usage forms the basis for residential building energy conservation. Existing energy meters do not provide much information about the energy usage of the individual appliance apart from its power rating. The detection of the appliance energy usage will not only help in energy conservation, but also facilitate the demand response (DR market participation as well as being one way of building energy conservation. However, energy usage by individual appliance is quite difficult to estimate. This paper proposes a novel approach: an unsupervised disaggregation method, which is a variant of the hidden Markov model (HMM, to detect an appliance and its operation state based on practicable measurable parameters from the household energy meter. Performing experiments in a practical environment validates our proposed method. Our results show that our model can provide appliance detection and power usage information in a non-intrusive manner, which is ideal for enabling power conservation efforts and participation in the demand response market.

  12. The Use of Biomass for Electricity Generation: A Scoping Review of Health Effects on Humans in Residential and Occupational Settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freiberg, Alice; Scharfe, Julia; Murta, Vanise C; Seidler, Andreas

    2018-02-16

    The utilization of biomass for power generation has become more prevalent globally. To survey the status of evidence concerning resulting health impacts and to depict potential research needs, a scoping-review was conducted. Biomass life cycle phases of interest were the conversion and combustion phases. Studies from occupational and residential settings were considered. The scoping review was conducted systematically, comprising an extensive literature search, a guided screening process, in-duplicate data extraction, and critical appraisal. Two reviewers executed most review steps. Nine articles of relevance were identified. In occupational settings of biomass plants, exposure to endotoxins and fungi might be associated with respiratory disorders. An accidental leakage of hydrogen sulfide in biogas plants may lead to fatalities or severe health impacts. Living near biomass power plants (and the accompanied odorous air pollution) may result in an increased risk for several symptoms and odor annoyance, mediated by perception about air pollution or an evaluation of a resulting health risk. The methodological quality of included studies varied a lot. Overall, the body of evidence on the topic is sparse and future high-quality research is strongly recommended.

  13. Eighteen-Month Final Evaluation of UPS Second Generation Diesel Hybrid-Electric Delivery Vans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lammert, M.; Walkowicz, K.

    2012-09-01

    A parallel hybrid-electric diesel delivery van propulsion system was evaluated at a UPS facility in Minneapolis using on-vehicle data logging, fueling, and maintenance records. Route and drive cycle analysis showed different duty cycles for hybrid vs. conventional delivery vans; routes were switched between the study groups to provide a valid comparison. The hybrids demonstrated greater advantage on the more urban routes; the initial conventional vans' routes had less dense delivery zones. The fuel economy of the hybrids on the original conventional group?s routes was 10.4 mpg vs. 9.2 mpg for the conventional group on those routes a year earlier. The hybrid group's fuel economy on the original hybrid route assignments was 9.4 mpg vs. 7.9 mpg for the conventional group on those routes a year later. There was no statistically significant difference in total maintenance cost per mile or for the vehicle total cost of operation per mile. Propulsion-related maintenance cost per mile was 77% higher for the hybrids, but only 52% more on a cost-per-delivery-day basis. Laboratory dynamometer testing demonstrated 13%-36% hybrid fuel economy improvement, depending on duty cycle, and up to a 45% improvement in ton-mi/gal. NOx emissions increased 21%-49% for the hybrids in laboratory testing.

  14. Lifecycle cost and CO2 emissions of residential heat and electricity prosumers in Finland and the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Manrique Delgado, B.; Kotireddy, R.R.; Cao, S.; Hasan, A.; Hoes, P.-J.; Hensen, J.L.M.; Sirén, K.

    2018-01-01

    The complexity of finding solutions to reach energy sustainability in the built environment poses a significant challenge. Therefore, there is interest in adequate management of the generation, conversion, storage, use and exchange of heat and electricity. The novelty of this study exists in

  15. Energetic, exergetic and economic analysis of an innovative Solar CombiSystem (SCS) producing thermal and electric energies: Application in residential and tertiary households

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hazami, Majdi; Mehdaoui, Farah; Naili, Nabiha; Noro, Marco; Lazzarin, Renato; Guizani, AmenAllah

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • The present work studies the potential of using innovative SCS in Tunisia. • In cold months the SCS provide about 50–75% of the total exergy provides. • The SCS produces between 70–150% of electric energy needs. • The SCS payback period (Pb) based on electric water heater was 10.2 years. • The SCS payback period (Pb) based on gas/gas town was about and 8.7 years. - Abstract: The endeavor of this paper is to study of the potential offered by the expenditure of an innovative Solar CombiSystem, SCS, used for the space heating load, the domestic hot water supply and the electric energy production. The investigation achieved in this work was based on an experimental and a simulation studies. A TRNSYS simulation program was achieved in order to evaluate the SCS monthly/annual thermal and electric performances. It was found that the proposed SCS covered between 20 and 45% of the SH energy needs by considering only solar energy. The result shows also that the SCS provided from 40 to 70% of the total DHW needs. It was also found that the SCS electric production ranged between 32 and 225 MJ/m 2 with a gain factor varying between 49 and 125%. An economic appraisal was also achieved to appraise the SCS feasibility. The results of the economic analysis show that the annual energy saved (ARE) and the payback period (Pb) based on electric water heater were respectively equal to 7618.3 kW h/year and 10.2 years. It was found that ARE and Pb based on gas/gas town were about 5825 m 3 and 8.7 years, respectively. The results of the economic analysis shows that the adoption of the SCS saves about 48% of electric energy and about 46% of gas/gas town kept back by the conventional system.

  16. Energy in the residential building. Electricity, heat, e-mobility. 2. rev. and enl. ed.; Energie im Wohngebaeude. Strom, Waerme, E-Mobilitaet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwarzburger, Heiko

    2017-11-01

    Photovoltaics, heat pumps and fuel cells offer enormous potential for sustainable energy supply in residential buildings. Solar thermal energy and wood-fired boilers also play an important role in refurbishment. Due to the wide range of possible combinations, the wishes of building owners and homeowners for an ecologically and economically individually adapted energy concept can be fulfilled accurately. This book provides you with a holistic approach to the residential building and its supply of electricity, heat and water. All processes that play a role in the house's energy consumption are examined in their entirety for their potentials and potential savings. The author analyses and describes in detail the resources of buildings and their surroundings - and how they can be used for a truly independent supply. The focus is on reducing energy consumption and costs, the generation and supply of energy from renewable sources and energy storage - considered in new construction and modernisation. The supply of water is also dealt with if it touches on energy issues. The author draws attention to standards and regulations and gives practical advice for planning and installation. The focus is on the so-called sector coupling: electricity from the sun, wind and hydrogen is used to supply electrical consumers in the home, charging technology for electric vehicles, hot water and heating. The time of the boilers and combustion engines has elapsed. Clean electricity and digital controls - power and intelligence - determine the regenerative building technology. [German] Photovoltaik, Waermepumpen und Brennstoffzellen bieten enormes Potenzial, die Energieversorgung im Wohngebaeude nachhaltig zu gestalten. In der Sanierung spielen auch Solarthermie und Holzfeuerungen eine wichtige Rolle. Aufgrund der vielfaeltigen Kombinationsmoeglichkeiten lassen sich die Wuensche der Bauherren und Hausbesitzer nach einem oekologisch und oekonomisch individuell angepassten Energiekonzept

  17. The effect of utility time-varying pricing and load control strategies on residential summer peak electricity use. A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newsham, Guy R.; Bowker, Brent G.

    2010-01-01

    Peak demand for electricity in North America is expected to grow, challenging electrical utilities to supply this demand in a cost-effective, reliable manner. Therefore, there is growing interest in strategies to reduce peak demand by eliminating electricity use, or shifting it to non-peak times. This strategy is commonly called 'demand response'. In households, common strategies are time-varying pricing, which charge more for energy use on peak, or direct load control, which allows utilities to curtail certain loads during high demand periods. We reviewed recent North American studies of these strategies. The data suggest that the most effective strategy is a critical peak price (CPP) program with enabling technology to automatically curtail loads on event days. There is little evidence that this causes substantial hardship for occupants, particularly if they have input into which loads are controlled and how, and have an override option. In such cases, a peak load reduction of at least 30% is a reasonable expectation. It might be possible to attain such load reductions without enabling technology by focusing on household types more likely to respond, and providing them with excellent support. A simple time-of-use (TOU) program can only expect to realise on-peak reductions of 5%. (author)

  18. Residential Waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Fruergaard, Thilde; Matsufuji, Y.

    2011-01-01

    are discussed in this chapter. Characterizing residential waste is faced with the problem that many residences already divert some waste away from the official collection systems, for example performing home composting of vegetable waste and garden waste, having their bundled newspaper picked up by the scouts...... twice a year or bringing their used furniture to the flea markets organized by charity clubs. Thus, much of the data available on residential waste represents collected waste and not necessarily all generated waste. The latter can only be characterized by careful studies directly at the source......, but such studies are very expensive if fair representation of both spatial and temporal variations should be obtained. In addition, onsite studies may affect the waste generation in the residence because of the increased focus on the issue. Residential waste is defined in different ways in different countries...

  19. Electricity Customers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Residential, commercial, and industrial customers each account for roughly one-third of the nation’s electricity use. The transportation sector also accounts for a small fraction of electricity, although it could increase.

  20. Strategies to optimize the electric energy use in non-residential buildings; Estrategias para eficientizar el uso de la energia electrica en edificios no residenciales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castro Flores, J.; Morillon Galvez, D. [Comision Nacional para el Ahorro de Energia, Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1995-12-31

    This paper presents the problems identified in non-residential buildings, where the inadequate use of energy is mainly shown in three points: inadequate technology and maintenance, wrong use and wrong habits in the energy use. The consequences of this situation in the ecological, politic and social environment were analyzed. In base of the problems detected the following strategies are proposed: An adequate project and design, retrofit, maintenance and users awareness for the rational energy use. The economic evaluation performed for the implementation of these strategies shows a significant saving potential of the electric power, with measures of null and low investment. [Espanol] Se presenta la problematica identificada en edificios no residenciales; donde el uso inadecuado de la energia electrica se manifiesta principalmente en tres puntos: tecnologia y mantenimiento inadecuados, y mal uso y costumbres de la energia. Se analizo las consecuencias de esta situacion en el ambito ecologico, economico, politico y social. Con base a la problematica se proponen las siguientes estrategias: un adecuado proyecto y diseno, retrofit, mantenimiento y concientizacion del usuario para el uso racional de la energia. La evaluacion economica realizada para implantar estas estrategias muestra un significativo potencial de ahorro de energia electrica, con medidas de nula y baja inversion.

  1. Strategies to optimize the electric energy use in non-residential buildings; Estrategias para eficientizar el uso de la energia electrica en edificios no residenciales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castro Flores, J; Morillon Galvez, D [Comision Nacional para el Ahorro de Energia, Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1996-12-31

    This paper presents the problems identified in non-residential buildings, where the inadequate use of energy is mainly shown in three points: inadequate technology and maintenance, wrong use and wrong habits in the energy use. The consequences of this situation in the ecological, politic and social environment were analyzed. In base of the problems detected the following strategies are proposed: An adequate project and design, retrofit, maintenance and users awareness for the rational energy use. The economic evaluation performed for the implementation of these strategies shows a significant saving potential of the electric power, with measures of null and low investment. [Espanol] Se presenta la problematica identificada en edificios no residenciales; donde el uso inadecuado de la energia electrica se manifiesta principalmente en tres puntos: tecnologia y mantenimiento inadecuados, y mal uso y costumbres de la energia. Se analizo las consecuencias de esta situacion en el ambito ecologico, economico, politico y social. Con base a la problematica se proponen las siguientes estrategias: un adecuado proyecto y diseno, retrofit, mantenimiento y concientizacion del usuario para el uso racional de la energia. La evaluacion economica realizada para implantar estas estrategias muestra un significativo potencial de ahorro de energia electrica, con medidas de nula y baja inversion.

  2. Indoor temperature changes after retrofit: inferences based on electricity billing data for nonparticipants and participants in the BPA Residential Weatherization Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirst, E.; White, D.

    1985-07-01

    This report discusses changes in indoor temperatures in response to retrofit improvements. The data on which this analysis is based are from an evaluation of the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) interim Residential Weatherization Program. The BPA program, operated through participating private and public utilities throughout the Pacific Northwest, offered financial assistance (generally a cash rebate) to encourage installation of energy-efficiency improvements to existing homes in the region. These retrofits included attic, wall, floor and heating duct insulation; storm windows and doors; clock thermostats; and caulking and weatherstripping. This program, which operated during 1982 and 1983, weatherized 104 thousand homes at a total cost to BPA of $157 million. In mid-1983, staff at Oak Ridge National Laboratory and Evaluation Research Corporation began an evaluation of the BPA program. The primary focus of this evaluation was assessment of the actual electricity saving that can be attributed to the program (Hirst, et al., 1985). These savings estimates were used to help assess the economic attractiveness of the program to participants, the BPA power system, and the Pacific Northwest region as a whole.

  3. Residential Mechanical Precooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    German, Alea [Davis Energy Group, Davis, CA (United States). Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI); Hoeschele, Marc [Davis Energy Group, Davis, CA (United States). Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI)

    2014-12-01

    Residential air conditioning (AC) represents a challenging load for many electric utilities with poor load factors. Mechanical precooling improves the load factor by shifting cooling operation from on-peak to off-peak hours. This provides benefits to utilities and the electricity grid, as well as to occupants who can take advantage of time-of-use (TOU) electricity rates. Performance benefits stem from reduced compressor cycling, and shifting condensing unit operation to earlier periods of the day when outdoor temperatures are more favorable to operational efficiency. Finding solutions that save energy and reduce demand on the electricity grid is an important national objective and supports key Building America goals. The Alliance for Residential Building Innovation team evaluated mechanical AC precooling strategies in homes throughout the United States. EnergyPlus modeling was used to evaluate two homes with different performance characteristics in seven climates. Results are applicable to new construction homes and most existing homes built in the last 10 years, as well as fairly efficient retrofitted homes. A successful off-peak AC strategy offers the potential for increased efficiency and improved occupant comfort, and promotes a more reliable and robust electricity grid. Demand response capabilities and further integration with photovoltaic TOU generation patterns provide additional opportunities to flatten loads and optimize grid impacts.

  4. Pricing of electricity in Indonesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amarullah, M.

    1983-01-01

    The objectives of this study are 1) to establish a sound theoretical basis for the determinants of electricity demand in Indonesia, 2) to measure the welfare losses of existing electricity pricing, and 3) to suggest a method of reducing these welfare losses. An econometric model for electricity demand is estimated using pooled time-series of fifteen regions in Indonesia covering the period 1970-1979. The short run price elasticities for both residential and industrial/business sectors are found to be inelastic, while the long run price elasticities for these sectors are found to be quite elastic with a value of -.61 for the residential sector and of -1.1 for the industrial/business sector. Income elasticity is .8 in the short run and around 1.00 for the long run. The exposure variable that captures the accessibility of electricity, has long run elasticity of 1.00 for the residential sector and less than 1.00 for the industrial/business sector. Due to distributional considerations, the 1980's electricity rate was set below its efficient level, and has created a welfare loss of Rp.8273.23 million per month. This accounts for 36.03% of the monthly electricity revenue. A rebate mechanism is recommended in this study, which provides a way to mitigate conflicting aspects of efficiency and equity

  5. Economic impacts of current harmonic from nonlinear loads on residential electricity distribution networks; Impactos economicos dos harmonicos de corrente das cargas nao lineares em redes eletricas de distribuicao residenciais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duarte, Carlos Henrique

    2010-04-15

    To achieve more efficient energy use, power electronics systems (PES) may be employed. However, this introduce nonlinear loads into the system by generating undesired frequencies that are harmonic in relation to (multiples of) the fundamental frequency (60 Hz in Brazil). Consequently, devices using PES (power electronics systems) are more efficient but also contribute significantly to degradation of power quality. Besides this, both the conventional rules on design and operation of power systems and the usual premises followed in energy efficiency programs (without mentioning the electricity consumed by the devices themselves) consider the sinusoidal voltage and current waveforms at the fixed fundamental frequency (60 Hz in Brazil) of the power grid. Thus, analysis of electricity consumption reductions in energy efficiency programs that include the use of PES considers the reduction of kWh to the final consumer but not the additional losses caused by the increase in harmonic distortion. This dissertation investigates this problem by exploring a case study of the ownership and use of television sets (TV sets) to estimate the economic impacts of residential PES on a mainly residential electricity distribution system. (author)

  6. Residential building envelope heat gain and cooling energy requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lam, Joseph C.; Tsang, C.L.; Li, Danny H.W.; Cheung, S.O.

    2005-01-01

    We present the energy use situation in Hong Kong from 1979 to 2001. The primary energy requirement (PER) nearly tripled during the 23-year period, rising from 195,405 TJ to 572,684 TJ. Most of the PER was used for electricity generation, and the electricity use in residential buildings rose from 7556 TJ (2099 GWh) to 32,799 TJ (9111 GWh), an increase of 334%. Air-conditioning accounted for about 40% of the total residential sector electricity consumption. A total of 144 buildings completed in the month of June during 1992-2001 were surveyed. Energy performance of the building envelopes was investigated in terms of the overall thermal transfer value (OTTV). To develop the appropriated parameters used in OTTV calculation, long-term measured weather data such as ambient temperature (1960-2001), horizontal global solar radiation (1992-2001) and global solar radiation on vertical surfaces (1996-2001) were examined. The OTTV found varied from 27 to 44 W/m 2 with a mean value of 37.7 W/m 2 . Building energy simulation technique using DOE-2.1E was employed to determine the cooling requirements and hence electricity use for building envelope designs with different OTTVs. It was found that cooling loads and electricity use could be expressed in terms of a simple two-parameter linear regression equation involving OTTV

  7. Guidelines for residential commissioning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wray, Craig P.; Walker, Iain S.; Sherman, Max H.

    2003-01-31

    Currently, houses do not perform optimally or even as many codes and forecasts predict, largely because they are field assembled and there is no consistent process to identify problems or to correct them. Residential commissioning is a solution to this problem. This guide is the culmination of a 30-month project that began in September 1999. The ultimate objective of the project is to increase the number of houses that undergo commissioning, which will improve the quality, comfort, and safety of homes for California citizens. The project goal is to lay the groundwork for a residential commissioning industry in California focused on end-use energy and non-energy issues. As such, we intend this guide to be a beginning and not an end. Our intent is that the guide will lead to the programmatic integration of commissioning with other building industry processes, which in turn will provide more value to a single site visit for people such as home energy auditors and raters, home inspectors, and building performance contractors. Project work to support the development of this guide includes: a literature review and annotated bibliography, which facilitates access to 469 documents related to residential commissioning published over the past 20 years (Wray et al. 2000), an analysis of the potential benefits one can realistically expect from commissioning new and existing California houses (Matson et al. 2002), and an assessment of 107 diagnostic tools for evaluating residential commissioning metrics (Wray et al. 2002). In this guide, we describe the issues that non-experts should consider in developing a commissioning program to achieve the benefits we have identified. We do this by providing specific recommendations about: how to structure the commissioning process, which diagnostics to use, and how to use them to commission new and existing houses. Using examples, we also demonstrate the potential benefits of applying the recommended whole-house commissioning approach to

  8. Load curve modelling of the residential segment electric power consumption applying a demand side energy management program; Modelagem da curva de carga das faixas de consumo de energia eletrica residencial a partir da aplicacao de um programa de gerenciamento de energia pelo lado da demanda

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahde, Sergio Barbosa [Pontificia Univ. Catolica do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica e Mecatronica]. E-mail: sergio@em.pucrs.br; Kaehler, Jose Wagner [Pontificia Univ. Catolica do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia]. E-mail: kaehlerjw@pucrs.br

    2000-07-01

    The dissertation aims to offer a current vision on the use of electrical energy inside CEEE's newly defined area of operation. It also intends to propose different alternatives to set up a Demand Side Management (DSM) project to be carried out on the same market segment, through a Residential Load Management program. Starting from studies developed by DNAEE (the Brazilian federal government's agency for electrical energy), to establish the load curve characteristics, as well as from a research on electrical equipment ownership and electricity consumption habits, along with the contribution supplied by other utilities, especially in the US, an evaluation is offered, concerning several approaches to residential energy management, setting up conditions that simulate the residential segment's scenarios and their influence on the general system's load. (author)

  9. Effects of Duchenne muscular dystrophy on muscle stiffness and response to electrically-induced muscle contraction: A 12-month follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacourpaille, Lilian; Gross, Raphaël; Hug, François; Guével, Arnaud; Péréon, Yann; Magot, Armelle; Hogrel, Jean-Yves; Nordez, Antoine

    2017-03-01

    The present study aimed to assess the ability of muscle stiffness (shear modulus) and response to electrically-induced muscle contraction to detect changes in muscle properties over a 12-month period in children with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). Ten children with DMD and nine age-matched healthy male controls participated in two experimental sessions (T 0 and T +12months ) separated by 12.4 ± 0.9 months. Two contractions of the biceps brachii were electrically-induced during which an ultrasound probe was placed over the muscle. The resting shear modulus was measured using elastography from six muscles. Evoked maximal torque was increased at T +12months in controls (+11.2 ± 7.6%, P muscle stiffness at T +12months in children with DMD for tibialis anterior (+75.1 ± 93.5%, P= 0.043), gastrocnemius medialis (+144.8 ± 180.6%, P= 0.050) and triceps brachii (+35.5 ± 32.2%, P= 0.005). This 12-month follow-up study demonstrates that electromechanical delay and elastography may help detect subtle muscle impairments in patients with DMD. These sensitive outcomes may improve the follow-up of innovative therapeutic interventions within the field of DMD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Residential Energy Performance Metrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Wright

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Techniques for residential energy monitoring are an emerging field that is currently drawing significant attention. This paper is a description of the current efforts to monitor and compare the performance of three solar powered homes built at Missouri University of Science and Technology. The homes are outfitted with an array of sensors and a data logger system to measure and record electricity production, system energy use, internal home temperature and humidity, hot water production, and exterior ambient conditions the houses are experiencing. Data is being collected to measure the performance of the houses, compare to energy modeling programs, design and develop cost effective sensor systems for energy monitoring, and produce a cost effective home control system.

  11. Electrification Opportunities in the Transportation Sector and Impact of Residential Charging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muratori, Matteo [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2018-04-04

    This presentation provides an overview of electrification opportunities in the transportation sector and present results of a study assessing the impact of residential charging on residential power demand and electric power distribution infrastructure.

  12. Electricity and gas market observatory. 2. Quarter 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of the observatory is to provide the general public with indicators for monitoring market deregulation. It both covers the wholesale and retail electricity and gas markets in Metropolitan France. This observatory is updated every three months and data are available on CRE web site (www.cre.fr). The present observatory is dedicated only to eligible customers before 1 July 2007, i.e. non-residential customers. Statistics related to residential customers will be published in the next observatory (1 December 2007). Content: A - The electricity market: The retail electricity market (Introduction, Non-residential customer segments and their respective weights, Status at July 1, 2007, Dynamic analysis: 2. Quarter 2007); The wholesale electricity market (Introduction, Wholesale market activity in France, Wholesale market activity in France, Prices on the French wholesale market and European comparison, Import and export volumes, Concentration of the French electricity market, Striking fact of the second quarter 2007); B - The gas market: The retail gas market (Introduction, The non-residential customer segments and their respective weights, Status at July 1, 2007); The wholesale gas market (Gas pricing and gas markets in Europe, The wholesale market in France); C - Appendices: Electricity and gas market observatories combined glossary, Specific electricity market observatory glossary, Specific gas market observatory glossary

  13. Integrated Management of Residential Energy Resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antunes C. H.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The increasing deployment of distributed generation systems based on renewables in the residential sector, the development of information and communication technologies and the expected evolution of traditional power systems towards smart grids are inducing changes in the passive role of end-users, namely with stimuli to change residential demand patterns. The residential user should be able to make decisions and efficiently manage his energy resources by taking advantages from his flexibility in load usage with the aim to minimize the electricity bill without depreciating the quality of energy services provided. The aim of this paper is characterizing electricity consumption in the residential sector and categorizing the different loads according to their typical usage, working cycles, technical constraints and possible degree of control. This categorization of end-use loads contributes to ascertain the availability of controllable loads to be managed as well as the different direct management actions that can be implemented. The ability to implement different management actions over diverse end-use load will increase the responsiveness of demand and potentially raises the willingness of end-users to accept such activities. The impacts on the aggregated national demand of large-scale dissemination of management systems that would help the end-user to make decisions regarding electricity consumption are predicted using a simulator that generates the aggregated residential sector electricity consumption under variable prices.

  14. Evaluation of the Slope of Amplitude Growth Function Changes of the Electrically Evoked Action Potential in Three Months after Receiving the Device in Children with Cochlear Implant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Reza Pourjavid

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: In neural response telemetry, intracochlear electrodes stimulate the auditory nerve and record the neural responses. The electrical stimulation is sent to the auditory nerve by an electrode and the resulted response, called electrically evoked compound action potential, is recorded by an adjacent electrode. The most important clinical applications of this test are evaluation and monitoring the intra and postoperative responses of auditory nerve and help to primary setting of speech processor. The aim of this study was evaluating the potential's slope of amplitude growth function changes three monthes after receiving the devise in pediatric cochlear implant recipients. Materials & Methods: This longitudinal study evaluated the potentials' slope of amplitude growth function changes in four given electrodes in four sessions after receiving the devise by approximately one month's intervals in all of the children who implanted in Amir Alam and Hazrat-e-Rasoul hospitals in 2007, July to December. Friedman test was used to analyse the results. Results: Electrically evoked compound action potential's mean slope of each electrode was more in later sessions relative to first session, while there was significant difference between the 1st and the other electrodes’ responses in every session (P<0.05. Conclusion: The reliabiliy of the responses results in more assurance of clinician to fit the speech processor for along time. Better responses in apical electrodes may lead to develope an effective coding strategy.

  15. Market surveillance panel monitoring report on the IMO-administered electricity markets for the first 18 months (May 2002 - October 2003)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorbet, F.; McFetridge, D.; Rusnov, T.

    2003-01-01

    The Market Surveillance Panel is an independent body appointed by Ontario's Independent Electricity Market Operator. The Panel's mandate is to monitor the behaviour in the marketplace, examine the behaviour of specific market participants, investigate design rules and operating procedures, and provide periodic reports on the state of the marketplace. This third period report covers the first 18 months of the Ontario electricity marketplace from May 1, 2002 to October 31, 2003. The report includes an overall assessment of the evolution of the market with emphasis on what has worked well and needs improvement. It also includes a high level overview of market outcomes and basic data for comparison. Market performance that was outside of expected norms was explained. A status report is also presented on the IMO initiatives that have been in place since market opening to improve market performance. The Panel concluded that the electricity market is evolving in a manner that promotes market efficiency and system reliability. Demand for electricity in Ontario continues to increase. More Ontario-based generation was available in 2003 because of the addition of new and restored generation in the province and fewer significant outages. The Panel's reaction to the August 14, 2003 blackout was presented. The Interim report of the Canada-U.S. Power System Outage Task Force has indicated that the blackout was not caused by Ontario electricity markets. No correlation was found between the blackout and the restructuring of the electricity utility industry. Planned or forced outages can have a significant impact on price. Average prices for the off-peak period show an upward trend up to February 2003. 49 refs., 37 tabs., 15 figs

  16. A comparison of four methods to evaluate the effect of a utility residential air-conditioner load control program on peak electricity use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newsham, Guy R., E-mail: guy.newsham@nrc-cnrc.gc.ca [National Research Council Canada-Institute for Research in Construction, Building M24, 1200 Montreal Road, Ottawa, Ontario, K1A 0R6 (Canada); Birt, Benjamin J. [National Research Council Canada-Institute for Research in Construction, Building M24, 1200 Montreal Road, Ottawa, Ontario, K1A 0R6 (Canada); Rowlands, Ian H. [University of Waterloo, Ontario (Canada)

    2011-10-15

    We analyzed the peak load reductions due to a residential direct load control program for air-conditioners in southern Ontario in 2008. In this program, participant thermostats were increased by 2 deg. C for four hours on five event days. We used hourly, whole-house data for 195 participant households and 268 non-participant households, and four different methods of analysis ranging from simple spreadsheet-based comparisons of average loads on event days, to complex time-series regression. Average peak load reductions were 0.2-0.9 kWh/h per household, or 10-35%. However, there were large differences between event days and across event hours, and in results for the same event day/hour, with different analysis methods. There was also a wide range of load reductions between individual households, and only a minority of households contributed to any given event. Policy makers should be aware of how the choice of an analysis method may affect decisions regarding which demand-side management programs to support, and how they might be incentivized. We recommend greater use of time-series methods, although it might take time to become comfortable with their complexity. Further investigation of what type of households contribute most to aggregate load reductions would also help policy makers better target programs. - Highlights: > We analyzed peak load reductions due to residential a/c load control. > We used four methods, ranging from simple comparisons to time-series regression. > Average peak load reductions were 0.2-0.9 kW per household, varying by method. > We recommend a move towards time-series regression for future studies. > A minority of participant households contributed to a given load control event.

  17. Development of Residential SOFC Cogeneration System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ono, Takashi; Miyachi, Itaru; Suzuki, Minoru; Higaki, Katsuki

    2011-06-01

    Since 2001 Kyocera has been developing 1kW class Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) for power generation system. We have developed a cell, stack, module and system. Since 2004, Kyocera and Osaka Gas Co., Ltd. have been developed SOFC residential co-generation system. From 2007, we took part in the "Demonstrative Research on Solid Oxide Fuel Cells" Project conducted by New Energy Foundation (NEF). Total 57 units of 0.7kW class SOFC cogeneration systems had been installed at residential houses. In spite of residential small power demand, the actual electric efficiency was about 40%(netAC,LHV), and high CO2 reduction performance was achieved by these systems. Hereafter, new joint development, Osaka Gas, Toyota Motors, Kyocera and Aisin Seiki, aims early commercialization of residential SOFC CHP system.

  18. Development of Residential SOFC Cogeneration System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ono, Takashi; Miyachi, Itaru; Suzuki, Minoru; Higaki, Katsuki

    2011-01-01

    Since 2001 Kyocera has been developing 1kW class Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) for power generation system. We have developed a cell, stack, module and system. Since 2004, Kyocera and Osaka Gas Co., Ltd. have been developed SOFC residential co-generation system. From 2007, we took part in the 'Demonstrative Research on Solid Oxide Fuel Cells' Project conducted by New Energy Foundation (NEF). Total 57 units of 0.7kW class SOFC cogeneration systems had been installed at residential houses. In spite of residential small power demand, the actual electric efficiency was about 40%(netAC,LHV), and high CO2 reduction performance was achieved by these systems. Hereafter, new joint development, Osaka Gas, Toyota Motors, Kyocera and Aisin Seiki, aims early commercialization of residential SOFC CHP system.

  19. Solar photovoltaic/thermal residential experiment. Phase I. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darkazalli, G.

    1980-07-01

    Month-by-month energy transfer data between an occupied residence and its energy supply systems are presented. The data were obtained during the first phase of photovoltaic/thermal residential research conducted at the University of Texas at Arlington/Solar Energy Research Facility. This research was part of the US Department of Energy Photovoltaic/Thermal Project managed by the M.I.T. Lincoln Laboratory. Energy transfer data are divided into different categories depending on how the energy is consumed. Energy transfers between some system components are also categorized. These components include a flat-plate thermal collector array, a flat-plate photovoltaic array, a dc-to-ac inverter, thermal storage tanks, and a series heat pump. System operations included directing surplus electrical energy (generated by the photovoltaic array) into the local utility grid. The heat pump used off-peak utility power to chill water during the cooling season.

  20. Pay for load demand - electricity pricing with load demand component

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pyrko, Jurek; Sernhed, Kerstin; Abaravicius, Juozas

    2003-01-01

    This publication is part of a project called Direct and Indirect Load Control in Buildings. Peak load problems have attracted considerable attention in Sweden during last three winters, caused by a significant decrease in available reserve power, which is a consequence of political decisions and liberalisation of the electricity market. A possible way to lower peak loads, avoiding electricity shortages and reducing electricity costs both for users and utilities, is to make customers experience the price difference during peak load periods and, in this way, become more aware of their energy consumption pattern and load demand. As of January 1st 2001, one of the Swedish energy utilities - Sollentuna Energi - operating in the Stockholm area, introduced a new electricity tariff with differentiated grid fees based on a mean value of the peak load every month. This tariff was introduced for all residential customers in the service area. The objective of this study is to investigate the extent to which a Load Demand Component, included in electricity pricing, can influence energy use and load demand in residential buildings. What are the benefits and disadvantages for customers and utilities? This paper investigates the impact of the new tariff on the utility and different types of typical residential customers, making comparisons with previous tariff. Keywords Load demand, electricity pricing, tariff, residential customers, energy behaviour

  1. Electricity and gas market observatory. 2. quarter 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    Since July 1, 2004, all electricity and gas consumers can be eligible according to their consumption site, as long as all or part of the electricity or gas consumed is designed for non-residential use. The purpose of the observatory is to provide the general public with indicators for monitoring market deregulation. It both covers the wholesale and retail electricity and gas markets in Metropolitan France. This observatory is updated every three months and data are available on CRE web-site (www.cre.fr). It presents: The electricity market; The retail electricity market: Non-residential customer segments and their respective weights, Status at July 1, 2007, Dynamic analysis: 2. Quarter 2007; The wholesale electricity market: Wholesale market activity in France, Prices on the French wholesale market and European comparison, Import and export volumes, Concentration of the French electricity market, Striking facts of the second quarter 2007; The gas market; The retail gas market: The non-residential customer segments and their respective weights, Status at July 1. 2007; The wholesale gas market: Gas pricing and gas markets in Europe,The wholesale market in France. Some glossaries are attached to the document: Electricity and gas market observatories combined glossary; Specific electricity market observatory glossary; Specific gas market observatory glossary

  2. Electricity and gas market observatory. 2. quarter 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    Since July 1, 2004, all electricity and gas consumers can be eligible according to their consumption site, as long as all or part of the electricity or gas consumed is designed for non-residential use. The purpose of the observatory is to provide the general public with indicators for monitoring market deregulation. It both covers the wholesale and retail electricity and gas markets in Metropolitan France. This observatory is updated every three months and data are available on CRE web-site (www.cre.fr). It presents: The electricity market; The retail electricity market: Non-residential customer segments and their respective weights, Status at July 1, 2007, Dynamic analysis: 2. Quarter 2007; The wholesale electricity market: Wholesale market activity in France, Prices on the French wholesale market and European comparison, Import and export volumes, Concentration of the French electricity market, Striking facts of the second quarter 2007; The gas market; The retail gas market: The non-residential customer segments and their respective weights, Status at July 1. 2007; The wholesale gas market: Gas pricing and gas markets in Europe,The wholesale market in France. Some glossaries are attached to the document: Electricity and gas market observatories combined glossary; Specific electricity market observatory glossary; Specific gas market observatory glossary.

  3. Electrical responses and spontaneous activity of human iPS-derived neuronal networks characterized for three-month culture with 4096-electrode arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayder eAmin

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The recent availability of human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs holds great promise as a novel source of human-derived neurons for cell and tissue therapies as well as for in vitro drug screenings that might replace the use of animal models. However, there is still a considerable lack of knowledge on the functional properties of hiPSC-derived neuronal networks, thus limiting their application. Here, upon optimization of cell culture protocols, we demonstrate that both spontaneous and evoked electrical spiking activities of these networks can be characterized on-chip by taking advantage of the resolution provided by CMOS multielectrode arrays (CMOS-MEAs. These devices feature a large and closely-spaced array of 4096 simultaneously recording electrodes and multi-site on-chip electrical stimulation. Our results show that networks of human-derived neurons can respond to electrical stimulation with a physiological repertoire of spike waveforms after three months of cell culture, a period of time during which the network undergoes the expression of developing patterns of spontaneous spiking activity. To achieve this, we have investigated the impact on the network formation and on the emerging network-wide functional properties induced by different biochemical substrates, i.e. poly-dl-ornithine (PDLO, poly-l-ornithine (PLO, and polyethylenimine (PEI, that were used as adhesion promoters for the cell culture. Interestingly, we found that neuronal networks grown on PDLO coated substrates show significantly higher spontaneous firing activity, reliable responses to low-frequency electrical stimuli, and an appropriate level of PSD-95 that may denote a physiological neuronal maturation profile and synapse stabilization. However, our results also suggest that even three-month culture might not be sufficient for human-derived neuronal network maturation. Taken together, our results highlight the tight relationship existing between substrate coatings

  4. Electricity

    CERN Document Server

    Basford, Leslie

    2013-01-01

    Electricity Made Simple covers the fundamental principles underlying every aspect of electricity. The book discusses current; resistance including its measurement, Kirchhoff's laws, and resistors; electroheat, electromagnetics and electrochemistry; and the motor and generator effects of electromagnetic forces. The text also describes alternating current, circuits and inductors, alternating current circuits, and a.c. generators and motors. Other methods of generating electromagnetic forces are also considered. The book is useful for electrical engineering students.

  5. The energy-related services are the major sales promotion. Customized electricity and district heat supply technology and services for the newly developed residential area Boerkhauser Feld at Solingen-Aufderhoehe; Die Dienstleistung bringt den (Verkaufs-)Erfolg. Strom- und Waermeversorgung fuer Wohngebiet Boerkhauser Feld in Solingen-Aufderhoehe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2001-06-01

    The firm COMUNA-metall, Herford, is the contractor and service provider for installation and operation of the electricity and district heat supply systems based on a modular cogeneration plant (CHP system). The residential area will eventually encompass about 450 residential units, all buildings are low-energy houses. The article explains the systems and gives an initial performance report covering 100 existing residential units. (orig./CB) [German] Die Firma COMUNA-metall, Herford, hat als Dienstleister die Erstellung und den Betrieb einer Strom- und Nahwaermeversorgung mit Kraft-Waerme-Kopplung fuer das Wohngebiet uebernommen, das nach Fertigstellung ca. 450 Wohneinheiten in Niedrigenergiebauweise umfassen wird. Der Beitrag schildert die technischen Einrichtungen und eine erste Leistungsbilanz im Bauabschnitt mit 100 Wohneinheiten. (orig./CB)

  6. Chapter 6: Residential Lighting Evaluation Protocol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dimetrosky, Scott [Apex Analytics LLC, Boulder, CO (United States); Parkinson, Katie [Apex Analytics LLC, Boulder, CO (United States); Lieb, Noah [Apex Analytics LLC, Boulder, CO (United States)

    2015-02-01

    In recent years, residential lighting has represented a significant share of ratepayer-funded energy-efficiency electricity savings. Utilities have achieved the majority of these savings by promoting the purchase and installation of compact fluorescent lamps (CFLs), both standard 'twister' bulbs and specialty CFLs such as reflectors, A-Lamps, globes, and dimmable lights.

  7. Feedback as a means of decreasing residential energy consumption. Report PU/CES 34

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seligman, C; Darley, J M

    1976-08-01

    When residential units are analyzed in human factor terms, it is apparent that the consumption level feedback (typically a bill, calculated once a month, over all appliances) is inadequate to give the resident useful information about his energy consuming actions. The present study tested the hypothesis that providing immediate feedback to homeowners concerning their daily rate of electric usage would be effective in reducing electric consumption. In the studied homes, central air-conditioning is the largest single source of electric power consumption during the summer. Accordingly, it was possible to predict the household's expected electric consumption in terms of the average daily outdoor temperature. Predicted electric consumption was derived from a previous month's modeling period during which a regression line was fitted to predict consumption from average daily temperature, for each home. Feedback was expressed as a percentage of actual consumption over predicted consumption. Feedback was displayed to homeowners four times a week for approximately one month. The results confirmed the prediction. Before feedback began, the feedback and control groups were consuming electricity at approximately equal rates. During the feedback period, the feedback group used 10.5 percent less electricity. The effectiveness of the feedback procedure was explained in terms of its cueing, motivational, and commitment functions.

  8. Reconciling Consumer and Utility Objectives in the Residential Solar PV Market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Michael R.

    Today's energy market is facing large-scale changes that will affect all market players. Near the top of that list is the rapid deployment of residential solar photovoltaic (PV) systems. Yet that growing trend will be influenced multiple competing interests between various stakeholders, namely the utility, consumers and technology provides. This study provides a series of analyses---utility-side, consumer-side, and combined analyses---to understand and evaluate the effect of increases in residential solar PV market penetration. Three urban regions have been selected as study locations---Chicago, Phoenix, Seattle---with simulated load data and solar insolation data at each locality. Various time-of-use pricing schedules are investigated, and the effect of net metering is evaluated to determine the optimal capacity of solar PV and battery storage in a typical residential home. The net residential load profile is scaled to assess system-wide technical and economic figures of merit for the utility with an emphasis on intraday load profiles, ramp rates and electricity sales with increasing solar PV penetration. The combined analysis evaluates the least-cost solar PV system for the consumer and models the associated system-wide effects on the electric grid. Utility revenue was found to drop by 1.2% for every percent PV penetration increase, net metering on a monthly or annual basis improved the cost-effectiveness of solar PV but not battery storage, the removal of net metering policy and usage of an improved the cost-effectiveness of battery storage and increases in solar PV penetration reduced the system load factor. As expected, Phoenix had the most favorable economic scenario for residential solar PV, primarily due to high solar insolation. The study location---solar insolation and load profile---was also found to affect the time of year at which the largest net negative system load was realized.

  9. Post-Retrofit Residential Assessments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lancaster, Ross; lutzenhiser, Loren; Moezzi, Mithra; Widder, Sarah H.; Chandra, Subrato; Baechler, Michael C.

    2012-04-30

    This study examined a range of factors influencing energy consumption in households that had participated in residential energy-efficiency upgrades. The study was funded by a grant from the U.S. Department of Energy’s Pacific Northwest National Laboratory and was conducted by faculty and staff of Portland State University Center for Urban Studies and Department of Economics. This work was made possible through the assistance and support of the Energy Trust of Oregon (ETO), whose residential energy-efficiency programs provided the population from which the sample cases were drawn. All households in the study had participated in the ETO Home Performance with Energy Star (HPwES) program. A number of these had concurrently pursued measures through other ETO programs. Post-retrofit energy outcomes are rarely investigated on a house-by-house basis. Rather, aggregate changes are ordinarily the focus of program impact evaluations, with deviation from aggregate expectations chalked up to measurement error, the vagaries of weather and idiosyncrasies of occupants. However, understanding how homes perform post-retrofit on an individual basis can give important insights to increase energy savings at the participant and the programmatic level. Taking a more disaggregated approach, this study analyzed energy consumption data from before and after the retrofit activity and made comparisons with engineering estimates for the upgrades, to identify households that performed differently from what may have been expected based on the estimates. A statistical analysis using hierarchal linear models, which accounted for weather variations, was performed looking separately at gas and electrical use during the periods before and after upgrades took place. A more straightforward comparison of billing data for 12-month periods before and after the intervention was also performed, yielding the majority of the cases examined. The later approach allowed total energy use and costs to be

  10. Dynamic management of integrated residential energy systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muratori, Matteo

    This study combines principles of energy systems engineering and statistics to develop integrated models of residential energy use in the United States, to include residential recharging of electric vehicles. These models can be used by government, policymakers, and the utility industry to provide answers and guidance regarding the future of the U.S. energy system. Currently, electric power generation must match the total demand at each instant, following seasonal patterns and instantaneous fluctuations. Thus, one of the biggest drivers of costs and capacity requirement is the electricity demand that occurs during peak periods. These peak periods require utility companies to maintain operational capacity that often is underutilized, outdated, expensive, and inefficient. In light of this, flattening the demand curve has long been recognized as an effective way of cutting the cost of producing electricity and increasing overall efficiency. The problem is exacerbated by expected widespread adoption of non-dispatchable renewable power generation. The intermittent nature of renewable resources and their non-dispatchability substantially limit the ability of electric power generation of adapting to the fluctuating demand. Smart grid technologies and demand response programs are proposed as a technical solution to make the electric power demand more flexible and able to adapt to power generation. Residential demand response programs offer different incentives and benefits to consumers in response to their flexibility in the timing of their electricity consumption. Understanding interactions between new and existing energy technologies, and policy impacts therein, is key to driving sustainable energy use and economic growth. Comprehensive and accurate models of the next-generation power system allow for understanding the effects of new energy technologies on the power system infrastructure, and can be used to guide policy, technology, and economic decisions. This

  11. 77 FR 28519 - Test Procedure Guidance for Room Air Conditioners, Residential Dishwashers, and Residential...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-15

    ... Guidance for Room Air Conditioners, Residential Dishwashers, and Residential Clothes Washers: Public... procedures for room air conditioners, residential dishwashers, and residential clothes washers. DATES: DOE...'s existing test procedures for residential room air conditioners, residential dishwashers, and...

  12. An experimental study on the thermal characteristics and heating effect of arc-fault from Cu core in residential electrical wiring fires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Jian-Hua; Tu, Ran; Zeng, Yi; Pan, Leng; Zhang, Ren-Cheng

    2017-01-01

    The characteristics of a series direct current (DC) arc-fault including both electrical and thermal parameters were investigated based on an arc-fault simulator to provide references for multi-parameter electrical fire detection method. Tests on arc fault behavior with three different initial circuit voltages, resistances and arc gaps were conducted, respectively. The influences of circuit conditions on arc dynamic image, voltage, current or power were interpreted. Also, the temperature rises of electrode surface and ambient air were studied. The results showed that, first, significant variations of arc structure and light emitting were observed under different conditions. A thin outer burning layer of vapor generated from electrodes with orange light was found due to the extremely high arc temperature. Second, with the increasing electrode gap in discharging, the arc power was shown to have a non monotonic relationship with arc length for constant initial circuit voltage and resistance. Finally, the temperature rises of electrode surface caused by heat transfer from arc were found to be not sensitive with increasing arc length due to special heat transfer mechanism. In addition, temperature of ambient air showed a large gradient in radial direction of arc.

  13. An experimental study on the thermal characteristics and heating effect of arc-fault from Cu core in residential electrical wiring fires.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian-Hua Du

    Full Text Available The characteristics of a series direct current (DC arc-fault including both electrical and thermal parameters were investigated based on an arc-fault simulator to provide references for multi-parameter electrical fire detection method. Tests on arc fault behavior with three different initial circuit voltages, resistances and arc gaps were conducted, respectively. The influences of circuit conditions on arc dynamic image, voltage, current or power were interpreted. Also, the temperature rises of electrode surface and ambient air were studied. The results showed that, first, significant variations of arc structure and light emitting were observed under different conditions. A thin outer burning layer of vapor generated from electrodes with orange light was found due to the extremely high arc temperature. Second, with the increasing electrode gap in discharging, the arc power was shown to have a non monotonic relationship with arc length for constant initial circuit voltage and resistance. Finally, the temperature rises of electrode surface caused by heat transfer from arc were found to be not sensitive with increasing arc length due to special heat transfer mechanism. In addition, temperature of ambient air showed a large gradient in radial direction of arc.

  14. Estimation of energy efficiency of residential buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glushkov Sergey

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Increasing energy performance of the residential buildings by means of reducing heat consumption on the heating and ventilation is the last segment in the system of energy resources saving. The first segments in the energy saving process are heat producing and transportation over the main lines and outside distribution networks. In the period from 2006 to 2013. by means of the heat-supply schemes optimization and modernization of the heating systems. using expensive (200–300 $US per 1 m though hugely effective preliminary coated pipes. the economy reached 2.7 mln tons of fuel equivalent. Considering the multi-stage and multifactorial nature (electricity. heat and water supply of the residential sector energy saving. the reasonable estimate of the efficiency of the saving of residential buildings energy should be performed in tons of fuel equivalent per unit of time.

  15. Poweo 9-month revenue up 40%

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-11-01

    POWEO, an electricity and gas alternative operator in France, presents in this document its key business indicators for the third quarter of 2007. POWEO recorded another strong increase in revenue in the third quarter of 2007, up 63% year-on-year to euro 77.0 million. As a result, revenue year-to-date increased to euro 233.2 million, up 40% compared with the first 9 months of 2006. Active customer sites reached 87,815 at September 30, 2007, up from 86,200 at June 30, 2007. As of September 30, 2007, this number breaks down into 80,257 electricity sites, of which 78,921 for professional customers and 1,336 for residential customers, and 7,558 gas sites, of which 7,313 for professional customers and 245 for residential customers. Since October 1, 2007, 3,224 new residential customer sites have confirmed their subscription to one of POWEO's gas or electricity offers, which means that as at December 1, 2007, more than 4,500 customers will have changed suppliers since the liberalization of the residential market on July 1 of this year. Contracts signed before the summer with several large accounts in the private and public sectors started to generate revenue in the third quarter. Over 130 GWh of electricity was supplied under these contracts. In application of POWEO's tariff pegging clause, the rise in regulated tariffs decided in August by the French authorities was passed on to the company's customers. This led to a very moderate increase in their energy bills of around 1% on average. The upturn in forward electricity prices seen since September resulted in a euro 1.4 million marked-to-market adjustment to the value of the forward contracts and options held in the Energy Management portfolio. On the other hand, the settlement of certain contracts before the price upturn resulted in realised losses of euro 2.3 million. The rise in market prices has accelerated since the end of the third quarter in the wake of the increase in prices for coal and gas. Were prices to hold

  16. Conservation in the residential sector: two alternatives as strategies for ordering the market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lins, M.E.

    1990-01-01

    This work purposes an economic flow analysis in order to be driven conservation strategies by the electric sector. Two strategies for three conservation measures are considered here in the residential sector. The results obtained increase the reliability of an action plan to be elaborated for the electric energy conservation in the residential sector. (author)

  17. Electricity and gas market observatory. 3. quarter 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    Since July 2004, all electricity and gas consumers can be eligible according to their consumption site, as long as all or part of the electricity or gas consumed is designed for non-residential use. The purpose of the observatory is to provide the general public with indicators for monitoring market deregulation. It both covers the wholesale and retail electricity and gas markets in Metropolitan France. This observatory is updated every three months and data are available on CRE web site (www.cre.fr). It completes the information already published by CRE: practical information for eligible customers: consumer guide, list of suppliers, communications regarding markets running, CRE annual activity report. (author)

  18. Electricity and gas market observatory. 1. 2005 quarter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    Since July 2004, all electricity and gas consumers can be eligible according to their consumption site, as long as all or part of the electricity or gas consumed is designed for non-residential use. The purpose of the observatory is to provide the general public with indicators for monitoring market deregulation. It both covers the wholesale and retail electricity and gas markets in Metropolitan France. This observatory is updated every three months and data are available on CRE web site (www.cre.fr). It completes the information already published by CRE: practical information for eligible customers: consumer guide, list of suppliers, communications regarding markets running, CRE annual activity report. (author)

  19. Electricity and gas market observatory. 4. 2005 quarter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    Since July 2004, all electricity and gas consumers can be eligible according to their consumption site, as long as all or part of the electricity or gas consumed is designed for non-residential use. The purpose of the observatory is to provide the general public with indicators for monitoring market deregulation. It both covers the wholesale and retail electricity and gas markets in Metropolitan France. This observatory is updated every three months and data are available on CRE web site (www.cre.fr). It completes the information already published by CRE: practical information for eligible customers: consumer guide, list of suppliers, communications regarding markets running, CRE annual activity report. (author)

  20. Electricity and gas market observatory. 2. 2005 quarter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    Since July 2004, all electricity and gas consumers can be eligible according to their consumption site, as long as all or part of the electricity or gas consumed is designed for non-residential use. The purpose of the observatory is to provide the general public with indicators for monitoring market deregulation. It both covers the wholesale and retail electricity and gas markets in Metropolitan France. This observatory is updated every three months and data are available on CRE web site (www.cre.fr). It completes the information already published by CRE: practical information for eligible customers: consumer guide, list of suppliers, communications regarding markets running, CRE annual activity report. (author)

  1. Electricity and gas market observatory. 3. 2005 quarter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    Since July 2004, all electricity and gas consumers can be eligible according to their consumption site, as long as all or part of the electricity or gas consumed is designed for non-residential use. The purpose of the observatory is to provide the general public with indicators for monitoring market deregulation. It both covers the wholesale and retail electricity and gas markets in Metropolitan France. This observatory is updated every three months and data are available on CRE web site (www.cre.fr). It completes the information already published by CRE: practical information for eligible customers: consumer guide, list of suppliers, communications regarding markets running, CRE annual activity report. (author)

  2. Electricity and gas market observatory. 1. quarter 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    Since July 2004, all electricity and gas consumers can be eligible according to their consumption site, as long as all or part of the electricity or gas consumed is designed for non-residential use. The purpose of the observatory is to provide the general public with indicators for monitoring market deregulation. It both covers the wholesale and retail electricity and gas markets in Metropolitan France. This observatory is updated every three months and data are available on CRE web site (www.cre.fr). It completes the information already published by CRE: practical information for eligible customers: consumer guide, list of suppliers, communications regarding markets running, CRE annual activity report. (author)

  3. Electricity and gas market observatory. 2. quarter 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    Since July 2004, all electricity and gas consumers can be eligible according to their consumption site, as long as all or part of the electricity or gas consumed is designed for non-residential use. The purpose of the observatory is to provide the general public with indicators for monitoring market deregulation. It both covers the wholesale and retail electricity and gas markets in Metropolitan France. This observatory is updated every three months and data are available on CRE web site (www.cre.fr). It completes the information already published by CRE: practical information for eligible customers: consumer guide, list of suppliers, communications regarding markets running, CRE annual activity report. (author)

  4. Electricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tombs, F.

    1983-01-01

    The subject is discussed, with particular reference to the electricity industry in the United Kingdom, under the headings; importance and scope of the industry's work; future fuel supplies (estimated indigenous fossil fuels reserves); outlook for UK energy supplies; problems of future generating capacity and fuel mix (energy policy; construction programme; economics and pricing; contribution of nuclear power - thermal and fast reactors; problems of conversion of oil-burning to coal-burning plant). (U.K.)

  5. Residential heat pumps in the future Danish energy system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petrovic, Stefan; Karlsson, Kenneth Bernard

    2016-01-01

    for politically agreed targets which include: at least 50% of electricity consumption from wind power starting from 2020, fossil fuel free heat and power sector from 2035 and 100% renewable energy system starting from 2050. Residential heat pumps supply around 25% of total residential heating demand after 2035......Denmark is striving towards 100% renewable energy system in 2050. Residential heat pumps are expected to be a part of that system.We propose two novel approaches to improve the representation of residential heat pumps: Coefficients of performance (COPs) are modelled as dependent on air and ground...... temperature while installation of ground-source heat pumps is constrained by available ground area. In this study, TIMES-DK model is utilised to test the effects of improved modelling of residential heat pumps on the Danish energy system until 2050.The analysis of the Danish energy system was done...

  6. BPM Motors in Residential Gas Furnaces: What are the Savings?

    OpenAIRE

    Lutz, James; Franco, Victor; Lekov, Alex; Wong-Parodi, Gabrielle

    2006-01-01

    Residential gas furnaces contain blowers to distribute warm air. Currently, furnace blowers use either a Permanent Split Capacitor (PSC) or a Brushless Permanent Magnet (BPM) motor. Blowers account for the majority of furnace electricity consumption. Therefore, accurate determination of the blower electricity consumption is important for understanding electricity consumption of furnaces. The electricity consumption of blower motors depends on the static pressure across the blower. This p...

  7. The evaluation of retrofit measures in a tall residential building

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abraham, M.M.; McLain, H.A.

    1995-07-01

    As part of a joint demonstration effort involving the US Department of Energy (DOE), the US Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD), Boston Edison Company (BECo), and the Chelsea Housing Authority, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) participated in the evaluation of energy and demand saving retrofits for a tall residential building located in Boston. The thirteen story all-electric building underwent window, lighting, and control renovations in December, 1992. annual energy consumption was reduced by 15% and peak demand fell by 17%. Hourly should building consumption data were available for the comparison of pre- and post- conditions and for calibration of a DOE-2.1D simulation model. The analysis found the window retrofit accounted for 90% of total energy savings and 95% of average demand savings, due to reductions in both conduction and infiltration. Benefits from lighting retrofits were low in cooling months and negligible in winter months due to the increase in the demand for electric resistance heating which was proportional to the reduction in lighting capacity. Finally, the simulation model verified that heating system controls had not been used as intended, and that the utility rate structure would not allow cost savings from the original control strategy. These results and other interesting lessons learned are presented.

  8. INVESTIGATION OF ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELDS IN RESIDENTIAL AREAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dušan MEDVEĎ

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This article is devoted to investigation of impact of electromagnetic fields around the electrical equipment used in a residential area and their impact on the human body. This paper was based on sets of measurements of magnetic induction B with magnetometer and on computational simulations in ANSYS for particular appliances often used in household. The results from measurements and simulations led to setting out the recommendations for practical action in the form of elimination of harmful electromagnetic radiation.

  9. Monthly energy review, January 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-01-01

    This report presents an overview of recent monthly energy statistics. Major activities covered include production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for fossil fuels, electricity, and nuclear energy.

  10. Development of a Residential Integrated Ventilation Controller

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Staff Scientist; Walker, Iain; Sherman, Max; Dickerhoff, Darryl

    2011-12-01

    The goal of this study was to develop a Residential Integrated Ventilation Controller (RIVEC) to reduce the energy impact of required mechanical ventilation by 20percent, maintain or improve indoor air quality and provide demand response benefits. This represents potential energy savings of about 140 GWh of electricity and 83 million therms of natural gas as well as proportional peak savings in California. The RIVEC controller is intended to meet the 2008 Title 24 requirements for residential ventilation as well as taking into account the issues of outdoor conditions, other ventilation devices (including economizers), peak demand concerns and occupant preferences. The controller is designed to manage all the residential ventilation systems that are currently available. A key innovation in this controller is the ability to implement the concept of efficacy and intermittent ventilation which allows time shifting of ventilation. Using this approach ventilation can be shifted away from times of high cost or high outdoor pollution towards times when it is cheaper and more effective. Simulations, based on the ones used to develop the new residential ventilation requirements for the California Buildings Energy code, were used to further define the specific criteria and strategies needed for the controller. These simulations provide estimates of the energy, peak power and contaminant improvement possible for different California climates for the various ventilation systems. Results from a field test of the prototype controller corroborate the predicted performance.

  11. Family ties and residential locations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, C.H.; Cooke, T.J.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, and in the Special Issue it introduces, the focus is on the role of family ties in residential location choice and, conversely, the role of residential locations in maintaining family ties. Not only do events in the nuclear family trigger residential relocations, but nearby family

  12. Residential Mechanical Precooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    German, a. [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI), Davis, CA (United States); Hoeschele, M. [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI), Davis, CA (United States)

    2014-12-01

    This research conducted by the Alliance for Residential Building Innovation team evaluated mechanical air conditioner pre-cooling strategies in homes throughout the United States. EnergyPlus modeling evaluated two homes with different performance characteristics in seven climates. Results are applicable to new construction homes and most existing homes built in the last 10 years, as well as fairly efficient retrofitted homes.

  13. How do urban households in China respond to increasing block pricing in electricity? Evidence from a fuzzy regression discontinuity approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Zibin; Cai, Wenxin; Feng, Xiangzhao

    2017-01-01

    China is the largest electricity consumption country after it has passed the United States in 2011. Residential electricity consumption in China grew by 381.35% (12.85% per annum) between 2000 and 2013. In order to deal with rapid growth in residential electricity consumption, an increasing block pricing policy was introduced for residential electricity consumers in China on July 1st, 2012. Using difference-in-differences models with a fuzzy regression discontinuity design, we estimate a causal effect of price on electricity consumption for urban households during the introduction of increasing block pricing policy in Guangdong province of China. We find that consumers do not respond to a smaller (approximately 8%) increase in marginal price. However, consumers do respond to a larger increase in marginal price. An approximately 40% increase in marginal price induces an approximately 35% decrease in electricity use (284 kW h per month). Our results suggest that although the increasing block pricing could affect the behavior of households with higher electricity use, there is only a limit potential to overall energy conservation. - Highlights: • Estimate electricity consumption changes in response to the IBP in China. • Employ quasi-experimental approach and micro household level data in China. • Households do not respond to a smaller increase in marginal price. • 40% increase in marginal price induces a 35% decrease in electricity use.

  14. Condition assessment and strengthening of residential units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatheer Zahra

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available About 40, ground plus one (G+1 residential units were designed using a hybrid structural framing system (RC frame and load bearing walls. A few months after the completion of the ground floor of the residential units, cracks appeared at several locations in the structure. Field and Laboratory testing was conducted to ascertain the in situ strength of concrete and steel reinforcement. The results of the experimental work were used in the analytical ETABS model for the structural stability calculations. The results indicated that residential units were marginally safe in the existing condition (completed ground floor, but the anticipated construction of the floor above the ground floor (G+1 could not be carried out as the strength of the structural system was inadequate. To increase the safety of existing ground floor and to provide the option of the construction of one floor above, rehabilitation and strengthening design was performed. The proposed strengthening design made use of welded wire fabric (WWF and carbon fibre reinforced polymer (CFRP laminates/sheets for the strengthening of walls, columns and slabs. The residential units will be strengthened in the near future.

  15. Residential outage cost estimation: Hong Kong

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woo, C.K.; Ho, T.; Shiu, A.; Cheng, Y.S.; Horowitz, I.; Wang, J.

    2014-01-01

    Hong Kong has almost perfect electricity reliability, the result of substantial investments ultimately financed by electricity consumers who may be willing to accept lower reliability in exchange for lower bills. But consumers with high outage costs are likely to reject the reliability reduction. Our ordered-logit regression analysis of the responses by 1876 households to a telephone survey conducted in June 2013 indicates that Hong Kong residents exhibit a statistically-significant preference for their existing service reliability and rate. Moreover, the average residential cost estimate for a 1-h outage is US$45 (HK$350), topping the estimates reported in 10 of the 11 studies published in the last 10 years. The policy implication is that absent additional compelling evidence, Hong Kong should not reduce its service reliability. - Highlights: • Use a contingent valuation survey to obtain residential preferences for reliability. • Use an ordered logit analysis to estimate Hong Kong's residential outage costs. • Find high outage cost estimates that imply high reliability requirements. • Conclude that sans new evidence, Hong Kong should not reduce its reliability

  16. Marketing time-of-day rates to the residential market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spangler, W.E.

    1990-01-01

    The Metropolitan Edison Company in Pennsylvania began to promote load management and conservation in the early 1970s. In 1976, time-of-day rates were introduced as a strategy to aid in providing adequate supply at a price which could sustain demand. At first, it was offered on a trial basis to a limited number of customers. The on-peak period was 8 a.m. to 8 p.m. weekdays, and if the customer used 60% or more of his electric energy during the off-peak period, costs could be saved on the new rate. Marketing of the new rates was conducted at a modest level and the marketing program emphasized changes in lifestyle such as the deferring of energy consuming tasks to the off-peak period. After the Three Mile Island incident in 1979, the utility lost some of its supply; this and other factors prompted new marketing strategies including more extensive publicity and targeted mailings to users of electric water heaters. Customers were required to take service under the time-of-day rate if they selected specific end-use applications or consumed over 1,000 kWh for 2 consecutive months. Special programs were initiated to aid customers in modifying water heaters to shift consumption to off-peak hours. These and other measures have led to the present situation in which 16.2% of the total residential rate class takes service under the time-of-day rate

  17. MICRO-CHP System for Residential Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joseph Gerstmann

    2009-01-31

    This is the final report of progress under Phase I of a project to develop and commercialize a micro-CHP system for residential applications that provides electrical power, heating, and cooling for the home. This is the first phase of a three-phase effort in which the residential micro-CHP system will be designed (Phase I), developed and tested in the laboratory (Phase II); and further developed and field tested (Phase III). The project team consists of Advanced Mechanical Technology, Inc. (AMTI), responsible for system design and integration; Marathon Engine Systems, Inc. (MES), responsible for design of the engine-generator subsystem; AO Smith, responsible for design of the thermal storage and water heating subsystems; Trane, a business of American Standard Companies, responsible for design of the HVAC subsystem; and AirXchange, Inc., responsible for design of the mechanical ventilation and dehumidification subsystem.

  18. Monthly energy review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-01

    This document presents an overview of the Energy Information Administration`s (EIA) recent monthly energy statistics. The statistics cover the major activities of U.S. production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. Also included are international energy and thermal and metric conversion factors.

  19. Data report for the Southwest Residential Experiment Station, January 1982

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lieberman, M.; Hai, O. Y.; Hocking, G.; Whitaker, C.

    1982-02-23

    Physical performance data obtained from the photovoltaic energy systems under test at the Southwest Residential Experiment Station in Las Cruces, New Mexico are tabulated and graphed for the month of January, 1982. Data drawn from the Residential Data System (RDS) appears in several formats. A one-page summary is provided as well as a more detailed hour-by-hour tabulation for an average day of the month. Energy histograms are provided, based on RDS data and recording kilowatt hour meters. The histograms also present horizontal and plane-of-array insolation data as well as comments that explain data and/or energy production anomalies. (LEW)

  20. Monthly energy review, August 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-08-01

    The Monthly Energy Review for the month of August 1997, presents an overview of the Energy Information Administration`s recent monthly energy statistics. The statistics cover the major activities of U.S. production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. Also included are international energy and thermal and metric conversion factors.

  1. Day-ahead residential load forecasting with artificial neural network using smart meter data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Asare-Bediako, B.; Kling, W.L.; Ribeiro, P.F.

    2013-01-01

    Load forecasting is an important operational procedure for the electric industry particularly in a liberalized, deregulated environment. It enables the prediction of utilization of assets, provides input for load/supply balancing and supports optimal energy utilization. Current residential load

  2. Re-thinking residential mobility

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Ham, Maarten; Findlay, Allan M.

    2015-01-01

    While researchers are increasingly re-conceptualizing international migration, far less attention has been devoted to re-thinking short-distance residential mobility and immobility. In this paper we harness the life course approach to propose a new conceptual framework for residential mobility research. We contend that residential mobility and immobility should be re-conceptualized as relational practices that link lives through time and space while connecting people to structural conditions. Re-thinking and re-assessing residential mobility by exploiting new developments in longitudinal analysis will allow geographers to understand, critique and address pressing societal challenges. PMID:27330243

  3. Large-Scale Residential Demolition

    Science.gov (United States)

    The EPA provides resources for handling residential demolitions or renovations. This includes planning, handling harmful materials, recycling, funding, compliance assistance, good practices and regulations.

  4. Syllabus in Trade Electricity-Electronics. Section II. Trade Electricity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of Occupational Education Curriculum Development.

    This second section of a three-part syllabus for a flexible curriculum in trade electricity-electronics contains four semi-independent units: (1) Advanced Electricity, (2) Residential and Commercial Wiring, (3) Industrial Electricity, and (4) Motor Controls. Introductory sections describe development of the curriculum, outline the total trade…

  5. ASHRAE and residential ventilation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sherman, Max H.

    2003-10-01

    In the last quarter of a century, the western world has become increasingly aware of environmental threats to health and safety. During this period, people psychologically retreated away from outdoors hazards such as pesticides, smog, lead, oil spills, and dioxin to the seeming security of their homes. However, the indoor environment may not be healthier than the outdoor environment, as has become more apparent over the past few years with issues such as mold, formaldehyde, and sick-building syndrome. While the built human environment has changed substantially over the past 10,000 years, human biology has not; poor indoor air quality creates health risks and can be uncomfortable. The human race has found, over time, that it is essential to manage the indoor environments of their homes. ASHRAE has long been in the business of ventilation, but most of the focus of that effort has been in the area of commercial and institutional buildings. Residential ventilation was traditionally not a major concern because it was felt that, between operable windows and envelope leakage, people were getting enough outside air in their homes. In the quarter of a century since the first oil shock, houses have gotten much more energy efficient. At the same time, the kinds of materials and functions in houses changed in character in response to people's needs. People became more environmentally conscious and aware not only about the resources they were consuming but about the environment in which they lived. All of these factors contributed to an increasing level of public concern about residential indoor air quality and ventilation. Where once there was an easy feeling about the residential indoor environment, there is now a desire to define levels of acceptability and performance. Many institutions--both public and private--have interests in Indoor Air Quality (IAQ), but ASHRAE, as the professional society that has had ventilation as part of its mission for over 100 years, is the

  6. The 1986 residential occupant survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ivey, D.L.; Alley, P.K.

    1987-04-01

    In 1986, Pacific Northwest Laboratory developed the Residential Occupant Survey-Spring '86, which was implemented. The overall purpose of the study was to collect demographic, attitudinal, and behavioral data related to the use and conservation of electricity in dwellings participating in the Bonneville Power Administration's End-Use Load and Conservation Assessment Program (ELCAP). Information was collected on the respondents' perceptions of the energy efficiency of their dwelling, temperature the dwelling was kept when people were at home and awake during the last heating season, which rooms, if any, were not heated during the last heating season, number of times the dwelling was unoccupied for at least one week, number of times pets were let out of the dwelling per day, attitudes toward energy use and conservation and several socio-demographic variables such as age, sex, and total household income. The results of the data analyses showed age to be an important factor for reported indoor temperature and perceived energy efficiency of the dwelling. The results also showed that almost 60% of the ELCAP occupants do not heat one or more rooms during the heating season, and almost 45% of the ELCAP dwellings were unoccupied for at least one week during the reporting period. In terms of the reported allocation of household income for household energy expenses, the results showed that the reported dollar amount spent for the expenses remained relatively constant over income levels.

  7. Influence of India’s transformation on residential energy demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhattacharyya, Subhes C.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The middle income group emerges as the dominant segment by 2030. • Commercial residential energy demand increases 3–4 folds compared to 2010. • Electricity and LPG demand grows above 6% per year in the reference scenario. • India faces the potential of displacing the domination of biomass by 2030. - Abstract: India’s recent macro-economic and structural changes are transforming the economy and bringing significant changes to energy demand behaviour. Life-style and consumption behaviour are evolving rapidly due to accelerated economic growth in recent times. The population structure is changing, thereby offering the country with the potential to reap the population dividend. The country is also urbanising rapidly, and the fast-growing middle class segment of the population is fuelling consumerism by mimicking international life-styles. These changes are likely to have significant implications for energy demand in the future, particularly in the residential sector. Using the end-use approach of demand analysis, this paper analyses how residential energy demand is likely to evolve as a consequence of India’s transformation and finds that by 2030, India’s commercial energy demand in the residential sector can quadruple in the high scenario compared to the demand in 2010. Demand for modern fuels like electricity and liquefied petroleum gas is likely to grow at a faster rate. However, there is a window of opportunity to better manage the evolution of residential demand in India through energy efficiency improvement

  8. The value of residential photovoltaic systems: A comprehensive assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borden, C. S.

    1983-01-01

    Utility-interactive photovoltaic (PV) arrays on residential rooftops appear to be a potentially attractive, large-scale application of PV technology. Results of a comprehensive assessment of the value (i.e., break-even cost) of utility-grid connected residential photovoltaic power systems under a variety of technological and economic assumptions are presented. A wide range of allowable PV system costs are calculated for small (4.34 kW (p) sub ac) residential PV systems in various locales across the United States. Primary factor in this variation are differences in local weather conditions, utility-specific electric generation capacity, fuel types, and customer-load profiles that effect purchase and sell-back rates, and non-uniform state tax considerations. Additional results from this analysis are: locations having the highest insolation values are not necessary the most economically attractive sites; residential PV systems connected in parallel to the utility demonstrate high percentages of energy sold back to the grid, and owner financial and tax assumptions cause large variations in break-even costs. Significant cost reduction and aggressive resolution of potential institutional impediments (e.g., liability, standards, metering, and technical integration) are required for a residential PV marker to become a major electric-grid-connected energy-generation source.

  9. Residential energy consumption: A convergence analysis across Chinese regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrerias, M.J.; Aller, Carlos; Ordóñez, Javier

    2017-01-01

    The process of urbanization and the raise of living standards in China have led an increasing trend in the patterns of residential consumption. Projections for the population growth rate in urban areas do not paint a very optimistic picture for energy conservation policies. In addition, the concentration of economic activities around coastal areas calls for new prospects to be formulated for energy policy. In this context, the objective of this paper is twofold. First, we analyse the effect of the urbanization process of the Chinese economy in terms of the long-run patterns of residential energy consumption at national level. By using the concept of club convergence, we examine whether electricity and coal consumption in rural and urban areas converge to the same long-run equilibrium or whether in fact they diverge. Second, the impact of the regional concentration of the economic activity on energy consumption patterns is also assessed by source of energy across Chinese regions from 1995 to 2011. Our results suggest that the process of urbanization has led to coal being replaced by electricity in urban residential energy consumption. In rural areas, the evidence is mixed. The club convergence analysis confirms that rural and urban residential energy consumption converge to different steady-states. At the regional level, we also confirm the effect of the regional concentration of economic activity on residential energy consumption. The existence of these regional clusters converging to different equilibrium levels is indicative of the need of regional-tailored set of energy policies in China.

  10. Electric vehicle - near or far

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laiho, Y.

    1997-11-01

    Traffic is rapidly becoming the number one environmental problem, especially in metropolitan areas. Electric vehicles have many important advantages to offer. Air quality would be improved, since electric vehicles do not pollute the environment. The improvement obtained might be equated with that resulting from the introduction of district heat for the heating of residential buildings. Electric vehicles also present considerable potential for energy conservation

  11. Electricity and gas market observatory. 1. Quarter 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    Since July 1, 2004, all electricity and gas consumers can be eligible according to their consumption site, as long as all or part of the electricity or gas consumed is designed for non-residential use. The purpose of the observatory is to provide the general public with indicators for monitoring market deregulation. It both covers the wholesale and retail electricity and gas markets in Metropolitan France. This observatory is updated every three months and data are available on CRE web site (www.cre.fr). It completes the information already published by CRE: - practical information for eligible customers: consumer guide, list of suppliers, - communications regarding markets running; CRE's annual activity report. Content: A - The electricity market: The retail electricity market (Introduction, Eligible customer segments and their respective weights, Status at April 1, 2007, Dynamic analysis: 1. Quarter 2007); The wholesale electricity market (Introduction, Traded volumes on the French wholesale electricity market and comparison with European markets, Prices on the French wholesale electricity market and European comparison, Import and export volumes, Concentration of the French electricity market, Striking facts of the 1. 2007 quarter); B - The gas market: The retail gas market (Introduction, The eligible customer segments and their respective weights, Status at April 1, 2007); The wholesale gas market (Gas pricing and gas markets in Europe, The wholesale market in France); C - Appendices: Electricity and gas market observatories combined glossary, Specific electricity market observatory glossary, Specific gas market observatory glossary

  12. Electricity and gas market observatory. 4. Quarter 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    Since July 1, 2004, all electricity and gas consumers can be eligible according to their consumption site, as long as all or part of the electricity or gas consumed is designed for non-residential use. The purpose of the observatory is to provide the general public with indicators for monitoring market deregulation. It both covers the wholesale and retail electricity and gas markets in Metropolitan France. This observatory is updated every three months and data are available on CRE web site (www.cre.fr). It completes the information already published by CRE: - practical information for eligible customers: consumer guide, list of suppliers, - communications regarding markets running; CRE's annual activity report. Content: A - The electricity market: The retail electricity market (Introduction, Eligible customer segments and their respective weights, Status at January 1, 2007, Dynamic analysis: 4. Quarter 2006); The wholesale electricity market (Introduction, Traded volumes on the French wholesale electricity market and comparison with European markets, Prices on the French wholesale electricity market and European comparison, Import and export volumes, Concentration of the French electricity market, Striking facts of the 4. 2006 quarter); B - The gas market: The retail gas market (Introduction, The eligible customer segments and their respective weights, Status at January 1, 2007); The wholesale gas market (Gas pricing and gas markets in Europe, The wholesale market in France); C - Appendices: Electricity and gas market observatories combined glossary, Specific electricity market observatory glossary, Specific gas market observatory glossary

  13. Electricity and gas market observatory. 1. quarter 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    Since July 1, 2004, all electricity and gas consumers can be eligible according to their consumption site, as long as all or part of the electricity or gas consumed is designed for non-residential use. The purpose of the observatory is to provide the general public with indicators for monitoring market deregulation. It both covers the wholesale and retail electricity and gas markets in Metropolitan France. This observatory is updated every three months and data are available on CRE web-site (www.cre.fr). It presents: The electricity market; The retail electricity market: Eligible customer segments and their respective weights, Status at April 1, 2007, Dynamic analysis: 1. Quarter 2007; The wholesale electricity market: Traded volumes on the French wholesale electricity market and comparison with European markets, Prices on the French wholesale electricity market and European comparison, Import and export volumes, Concentration of the French electricity market, Striking facts of the 1. 2007 quarter; The gas market; The retail gas market: The eligible customer segments and their respective weights, Status at April 1. 2007; The wholesale gas market: Gas pricing and gas markets in Europe,The wholesale market in France. Some glossaries are attached to the document: Electricity and gas market observatories combined glossary; Specific electricity market observatory glossary; Specific gas market observatory glossary

  14. Electricity and gas market observatory. 4. quarter 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    Since July 1, 2004, all electricity and gas consumers can be eligible according to their consumption site, as long as all or part of the electricity or gas consumed is designed for non-residential use. The purpose of the observatory is to provide the general public with indicators for monitoring market deregulation. It both covers the wholesale and retail electricity and gas markets in Metropolitan France. This observatory is updated every three months and data are available on CRE web-site (www.cre.fr). It presents: The electricity market; The retail electricity market: Eligible customer segments and their respective weights, Status at January 1, 2007, Dynamic analysis: 4. Quarter 2007; The wholesale electricity market: Traded volumes on the French wholesale electricity market and comparison with European markets, Prices on the French wholesale electricity market and European comparison, Import and export volumes, Concentration of the French electricity market, Striking facts of the 4. 2006 quarter; The gas market; The retail gas market: The eligible customer segments and their respective weights, Status at January 1. 2007; The wholesale gas market: Gas pricing and gas markets in Europe,The wholesale market in France. Some glossaries are attached to the document: Electricity and gas market observatories combined glossary; Specific electricity market observatory glossary; Specific gas market observatory glossary

  15. Electricity and gas market observatory. 1. quarter 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    Since July 1, 2004, all electricity and gas consumers can be eligible according to their consumption site, as long as all or part of the electricity or gas consumed is designed for non-residential use. The purpose of the observatory is to provide the general public with indicators for monitoring market deregulation. It both covers the wholesale and retail electricity and gas markets in Metropolitan France. This observatory is updated every three months and data are available on CRE web-site (www.cre.fr). It presents: The electricity market; The retail electricity market: Eligible customer segments and their respective weights, Status at April 1, 2007, Dynamic analysis: 1. Quarter 2007; The wholesale electricity market: Traded volumes on the French wholesale electricity market and comparison with European markets, Prices on the French wholesale electricity market and European comparison, Import and export volumes, Concentration of the French electricity market, Striking facts of the 1. 2007 quarter; The gas market; The retail gas market: The eligible customer segments and their respective weights, Status at April 1. 2007; The wholesale gas market: Gas pricing and gas markets in Europe,The wholesale market in France. Some glossaries are attached to the document: Electricity and gas market observatories combined glossary; Specific electricity market observatory glossary; Specific gas market observatory glossary.

  16. Electricity and gas market observatory. 4. quarter 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    Since July 1, 2004, all electricity and gas consumers can be eligible according to their consumption site, as long as all or part of the electricity or gas consumed is designed for non-residential use. The purpose of the observatory is to provide the general public with indicators for monitoring market deregulation. It both covers the wholesale and retail electricity and gas markets in Metropolitan France. This observatory is updated every three months and data are available on CRE web-site (www.cre.fr). It presents: The electricity market; The retail electricity market: Eligible customer segments and their respective weights, Status at January 1, 2007, Dynamic analysis: 4. Quarter 2007; The wholesale electricity market: Traded volumes on the French wholesale electricity market and comparison with European markets, Prices on the French wholesale electricity market and European comparison, Import and export volumes, Concentration of the French electricity market, Striking facts of the 4. 2006 quarter; The gas market; The retail gas market: The eligible customer segments and their respective weights, Status at January 1. 2007; The wholesale gas market: Gas pricing and gas markets in Europe,The wholesale market in France. Some glossaries are attached to the document: Electricity and gas market observatories combined glossary; Specific electricity market observatory glossary; Specific gas market observatory glossary.

  17. Residential energy demand in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arouca, M.; Gomes, F.M.; Rosa, L.P.

    1981-01-01

    The energy demand in Brazilian residential sector is studied, discussing the methodology for analyzing this demand from some ideas suggested, for developing an adequate method to brazilian characteristics. The residential energy consumption of several fuels in Brazil is also presented, including a comparative evaluation with the United States and France. (author)

  18. Consequences of long-term power outages and high electricity prices lasting for months; Konsekvenser av langvarige stroemutfall og hoeye kraftpriser i flere maaneder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    Several areas in the world have experienced electricity outages for longer periods of time, but the consequences of these are sparsely documented. There is a need for further analysis of the socioeconomic consequences of the outages. In addition to KILE (Quality adjusted revenue framework for un supplied energy) costs one has to take into account that the costs often increase proportionally with the durance of the outage, and that KILE tariffs do not reflect lost consumer's surplus for products that are not produced during an outage. A good example is the public underground transport, where the company's economical loss can be significantly smaller than the loss of utility value for the travellers. If the authorities act with reasonability it is difficult to see that periods with very high prices represent a big problem. The most important problems are related to diffused effects, especially for households with a weak economy. These problems can be solved with improved contractual forms (price guarantees) or by transfers to the households, without weakening the incentives for electricity economising (ml)

  19. A pilot study of randomized clinical controlled trial of gait training in subacute stroke patients with partial body-weight support electromechanical gait trainer and functional electrical stimulation: six-month follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Maple F W; Tong, Raymond K Y; Li, Leonard S W

    2008-01-01

    This study aimed to assess the effectiveness of gait training using an electromechanical gait trainer with or without functional electrical stimulation for people with subacute stroke. This was a nonblinded randomized controlled trial with a 6-month follow-up. Fifty-four subjects were recruited within 6 weeks after stroke onset and were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 gait intervention groups: conventional overground gait training treatment (CT, n=21), electromechanical gait trainer (GT, n=17) and, electromechanical gait trainer with functional electrical stimulation (GT-FES, n=16). All subjects were to undergo an assigned intervention program comprising a 20-minute session every weekday for 4 weeks. The outcome measures were Functional Independence Measure, Barthel Index, Motricity Index leg subscale, Elderly Mobility Scale (EMS), Berg Balance Scale, Functional Ambulatory Category (FAC), and 5-meter walking speed test. Assessments were made at baseline, at the end of the 4-week intervention program, and 6 months after the program ended. By intention-to-treat and multivariate analysis, statistically significant differences showed up in EMS (Wilks' lambda=0.743, P=0.005), FAC (Wilks' lambda=0.744, P=0.005) and gait speed (Wilks' lambda=0.658, Pgait training that used an electromechanical gait trainer compared with conventional overground gait training. The training effect was sustained through to the 6-month follow-up after the intervention.

  20. Daddy Months

    OpenAIRE

    Volker Meier; Helmut Rainer

    2014-01-01

    We consider a bargaining model in which husband and wife decide on the allocation of time and disposable income. Since her bargaining power would go down otherwise more strongly, the wife agrees to having a child only if the husband also leaves the labor market for a while. The daddy months subsidy enables the couple to overcome a hold-up problem and thereby improves efficiency. However, the same ruling harms cooperative couples and may also reduce welfare in an endogenous taxation framework.

  1. Emergency lighting for industrial, commercial and residential premises

    CERN Document Server

    Lyons, X

    2013-01-01

    Emergency Lighting: For Industrial, Commercial and Residential Premises concerns itself with the provision of emergency lighting to facilitate exit routes for people in industrial, commercial, and residential areas. The book covers important topics such as the objectives of emergency lighting systems; the identification of safe routes under low lighting in different areas; and related devices such as luminaires, emergency signs, and way-guidance. Also discussed are the applications of emergency lighting; factors to consider in the design of emergency lighting; electrical installations; and tes

  2. Electricity demand in Kazakhstan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atakhanova, Zauresh; Howie, Peter

    2007-01-01

    Properties of electricity demand in transition economies have not been sufficiently well researched mostly due to data limitations. However, information on the properties of electricity demand is necessary for policy makers to evaluate effects of price changes on different consumers and obtain demand forecasts for capacity planning. This study estimates Kazakhstan's aggregate demand for electricity as well as electricity demand in the industrial, service, and residential sectors using regional data. Firstly, our results show that price elasticity of demand in all sectors is low. This fact suggests that there is considerable room for price increases necessary to finance generation and distribution system upgrading. Secondly, we find that income elasticity of demand in the aggregate and all sectoral models is less than unity. Of the three sectors, electricity demand in the residential sector has the lowest income elasticity. This result indicates that policy initiatives to secure affordability of electricity consumption to lower income residential consumers may be required. Finally, our forecast shows that electricity demand may grow at either 3% or 5% per year depending on rates of economic growth and government policy regarding price increases and promotion of efficiency. We find that planned supply increases would be sufficient to cover growing demand only if real electricity prices start to increase toward long-run cost-recovery levels and policy measures are implemented to maintain the current high growth of electricity efficiency

  3. Profitability Analysis of Residential Wind Turbines with Battery Energy Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    She, Ying; Erdem, Ergin; Shi, Jing

    Residential wind turbines are often accompanied by an energy storage system for the off-the-grid users, instead of the on-the-grid users, to reduce the risk of black-out. In this paper, we argue that residential wind turbines with battery energy storage could actually be beneficial to the on-the-grid users as well in terms of monetary gain from differential pricing for buying electricity from the grid and the ability to sell electricity back to the grid. We develop a mixed-integer linear programming model to maximize the profit of a residential wind turbine system while meeting the daily household electricity consumption. A case study is designed to investigate the effects of differential pricing schemes and sell-back schemes on the economic output of a 2-kW wind turbine with lithium battery storage. Overall, based on the current settings in California, a residential wind turbine with battery storage carries more economical benefits than the wind turbine alone.

  4. Monthly energy review, July 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-07-01

    This document presents an overview of recent monthly energy statistics. Activities covered include: U.S. production, consumption, trade, stock, and prices for petroleum, coal, natural gas, electricity, and nuclear energy.

  5. Users of electric heating rewarded

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haapakoski, M. [ed.

    1998-07-01

    When the building industry plunged into the deep recession of the early 1990s this did not paralyse research and development work on electric heating. In fact, IVO and power companies launched the `Electrically Heated Homes in the New Millennium` project in 1992. Its purpose was to verify the efficiency, energy economy and residential comfort of model systems using state-of-the-art electric heating technology. The research project launched six years ago is now nearing completion. Its findings indicate that electricity brings ever more unparalleled benefits when it is used for heating. These benefits involve residential comfort, ease of use and economy

  6. Micro-CHP systems for residential applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paepe, Michel de; D'Herdt, Peter; Mertens, David

    2006-01-01

    Micro-CHP systems are now emerging on the market. In this paper, a thorough analysis is made of the operational parameters of 3 types of micro-CHP systems for residential use. Two types of houses (detached and terraced) are compared with a two storey apartment. For each building type, the energy demands for electricity and heat are dynamically determined. Using these load profiles, several CHP systems are designed for each building type. Data were obtained for two commercially available gas engines, two Stirling engines and a fuel cell. Using a dynamic simulation, including start up times, these five system types are compared to the separate energy system of a natural gas boiler and buying electricity from the grid. All CHP systems, if well sized, result in a reduction of primary energy use, though different technologies have very different impacts. Gas engines seem to have the best performance. The economic analysis shows that fuel cells are still too expensive and that even the gas engines only have a small internal rate of return (<5%), and this only occurs in favourable economic circumstances. It can, therefore, be concluded that although the different technologies are technically mature, installation costs should at least be reduced by 50% before CHP systems become interesting for residential use. Condensing gas boilers, now very popular in new homes, prove to be economically more interesting and also have a modest effect on primary energy consumption

  7. Residential cogeneration systems: review of the current technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onovwiona, H.I.; Ugursal, V.I.

    2006-01-01

    There is a growing potential for the use of micro-cogeneration systems in the residential sector because they have the ability to produce both useful thermal energy and electricity from a single source of fuel such as oil or natural gas. In cogeneration systems, the efficiency of energy conversion increases to over 80% as compared to an average of 30-35% for conventional fossil fuel fired electricity generation systems. This increase in energy efficiency can result in lower costs and reduction in greenhouse gas emissions when compared to the conventional methods of generating heat and electricity separately. Cogeneration systems and equipment suitable for residential and small-scale commercial applications like hospitals, hotels or institutional buildings are available, and many new systems are under development. These products are used or aimed for meeting the electrical and thermal demands of a building for space and domestic hot water heating, and potentially, absorption cooling. The aim of this paper is to provide an up-to-date review of the various cogeneration technologies suitable for residential applications. The paper considers the various technologies available and under development for residential, i.e. single-family ( e ) and multi-family (10-30kW t ) applications, with focus on single-family applications. Technologies suitable for residential cogeneration systems include reciprocating internal combustion engine, micro-turbine, fuel cell, and reciprocating external combustion Stirling engine based cogeneration systems. The paper discusses the state of development and the performance, environmental benefits, and costs of these technologies. (author)

  8. Sector-specific issues and reporting methodologies supporting the General Guidelines for the voluntary reporting of greenhouse gases under Section 1605(b) of the Energy Policy Act of 1992. Volume 1: Part 1, Electricity supply sector; Part 2, Residential and commercial buildings sector; Part 3, Industrial sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-10-01

    DOE encourages you to report your achievements in reducing greenhouse gas emissions and sequestering carbon under this program. Global climate change is increasingly being recognized as a threat that individuals and organizations can take action against. If you are among those taking action, reporting your projects may lead to recognition for you, motivation for others, and synergistic learning for the global community. This report discusses the reporting process for the voluntary detailed guidance in the sectoral supporting documents for electricity supply, residential and commercial buildings, industry, transportation, forestry, and agriculture. You may have reportable projects in several sectors; you may report them separately or capture and report the total effects on an entity-wide report

  9. Monthly energy review, March 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-03-29

    The Monthly Energy Review provides information on production, distribution, consumption, prices, imports, and exports for the following US energy sources: petroleum; petroleum products; natural gas; coal; electricity; and nuclear energy. The section on international energy contains data for world crude oil production and consumption, petroleum stocks in OECD countries, and nuclear electricity gross generation.

  10. TEP Power Partners Project [Tucson Electric Power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2014-02-06

    The Arizona Governor’s Office of Energy Policy, in partnership with Tucson Electric Power (TEP), Tendril, and Next Phase Energy (NPE), formed the TEP Power Partners pilot project to demonstrate how residential customers could access their energy usage data and third party applications using data obtained from an Automatic Meter Reading (AMR) network. The project applied for and was awarded a Smart Grid Data Access grant through the U.S. Department of Energy. The project participants’ goal for Phase I is to actively engage 1,700 residential customers to demonstrate sustained participation, reduction in energy usage (kWh) and cost ($), and measure related aspects of customer satisfaction. This Demonstration report presents a summary of the findings, effectiveness, and customer satisfaction with the 15-month TEP Power Partners pilot project. The objective of the program is to provide residential customers with energy consumption data from AMR metering and empower these participants to better manage their electricity use. The pilot recruitment goals included migrating 700 existing customers from the completed Power Partners Demand Response Load Control Project (DRLC), and enrolling 1,000 new participants. Upon conclusion of the project on November 19, 2013; 1,390 Home Area Networks (HANs) were registered; 797 new participants installed a HAN; Survey respondents’ are satisfied with the program and found value with a variety of specific program components; Survey respondents report feeling greater control over their energy usage and report taking energy savings actions in their homes after participating in the program; On average, 43 % of the participants returned to the web portal monthly and 15% returned weekly; and An impact evaluation was completed by Opinion Dynamics and found average participant savings for the treatment period1 to be 2.3% of their household use during this period.2 In total, the program saved 163 MWh in the treatment period of 2013.

  11. Impact of Rate Design Alternatives on Residential Solar Customer Bills. Increased Fixed Charges, Minimum Bills and Demand-based Rates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bird, Lori [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Davidson, Carolyn [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); McLaren, Joyce [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Miller, John [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-09-01

    With rapid growth in energy efficiency and distributed generation, electric utilities are anticipating stagnant or decreasing electricity sales, particularly in the residential sector. Utilities are increasingly considering alternative rates structures that are designed to recover fixed costs from residential solar photovoltaic (PV) customers with low net electricity consumption. Proposed structures have included fixed charge increases, minimum bills, and increasingly, demand rates - for net metered customers and all customers. This study examines the electricity bill implications of various residential rate alternatives for multiple locations within the United States. For the locations analyzed, the results suggest that residential PV customers offset, on average, between 60% and 99% of their annual load. However, roughly 65% of a typical customer's electricity demand is non-coincidental with PV generation, so the typical PV customer is generally highly reliant on the grid for pooling services.

  12. Economic analysis of electric heating based on critical electricity price

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Feng; Sun, Zhijie; Zhou, Xinnan; Fu, Chengran; Yang, Jie

    2018-06-01

    The State Grid Corporation of China proposes an alternative energy strategy, which will make electric heating an important task in the field of residential electricity consumption. This article takes this as the background, has made the detailed introduction to the inhabitant electric heating technology, and take the Zhangjiakou electric panels heating technology as an example, from the expense angle, has carried on the analysis to the electric panels heating economy. In the field of residential heating, electric panels operating costs less than gas boilers. After customers implying energy-saving behavior, electric panels operating cost is even lower than coal-fired boilers. The critical price is higher than the execution price, which indicates that the economic performance of the electric panels is significantly higher than that of the coal boiler.

  13. Willingness to Pay for Renewable Electricity: A Review of Utility Market Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farhar, B. C.

    1999-09-09

    As competition in the electric utility industry has become more widespread and federal legislation deregulating the utility industry more likely, utilities have become more concerned about actions they can take to help ensure the loyalty of their customers. National polls have, for 20 years, found majority preferences for renewable energy over other energy sources. This issue brief compiles and analyzes recent market research conducted by utility companies on customer interest in and willingness to pay for renewable electricity. Findings in the areas examined in this review are: Customers are favorable toward renewable sources of electricity, although they know little about them; Solar and wind are the most favored sources of electricity generation; Majorities of 52% to nearly 100% of residential customers said they were willing to pay at least a modest amount more per month on their electric bills for green power; their responses follow a predictable curve showing that percentages willing to pay more decline as cost increases. The residential market for green pricing is approximately 2% near program rollout at a $5/month price increment, and should increase slowly but steadily over time; Customers may view with favor, and be more willing to purchase electricity from, utilities that provide green power.

  14. Monthly energy review, January 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-01-01

    The Monthly Energy Review (MER) presents an overview of the Energy Information Administration`s recent monthly energy statistics. The statistics cover the major activities of US production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. Also included are international energy and thermal and metric conversion factors. 37 figs., 61 tabs.

  15. Monthly energy review, July 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-07-01

    The Monthly Energy Review (MER) presents an overview of the Energy Information Administration`s recent monthly energy statistics. The statistics cover the major activities of US production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. Also included are international energy and thermal and metric conversion factors. 37 figs. 73 tabs.

  16. Monthly energy review, May 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-05-01

    The Monthly Energy Review (MER) presents an overview of the Energy Information Administration`s recent monthly energy statistics. The statistics cover the major activities of US production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. Also included are international energy and thermal and metric conversion factors. 37 figs., 61 tabs.

  17. Monthly energy review, March 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    The Monthly Energy Review (MER) presents an overview of the Energy Information Administration`s recent monthly energy statistics. The statistics cover the major activities of US production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. Also included are international energy and thermal and metric conversion factors. 37 figs., 74 tabs.

  18. Monthly energy review, November 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-11-01

    The Monthly Energy Review (MER) presents an overview of the Energy Information Administration`s recent monthly energy statistics. The statistics cover the major activities of US production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. Also included are international energy and thermal and metric conversion factors. 37 figs., 91 tabs.

  19. Monthly energy review, June 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-06-01

    The Monthly Energy Review (MER) presents an overview of the Energy Information Administration`s recent monthly energy statistics. The statistics cover the major activities of US production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. Also included are international energy and thermal and metric conversion factors. 36 figs., 61 tabs.

  20. Monthly energy review, February 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-02-01

    The Monthly Energy Review (MER) presents an overview of the Energy Information Administration`s recent monthly energy statistics. The statistics cover the major activities of US production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. Also included are international energy and thermal and metric conversion factors. 37 figs., 73 tabs.

  1. Monthly energy review, November 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-11-01

    The Monthly Energy Review (MER) presents an overview of the Energy Information Administration`s recent monthly energy statistics. The statistics cover the major activities of US production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. Also included are international energy and thermal and metric conversion factors. 37 figs., 61 tabs.

  2. Monthly energy review, October 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-10-01

    The Monthly Energy Review (MER) presents an overview of the Energy Information Administration`s recent monthly energy statistics. The statistics cover the major activities of US production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. Also included are international energy and thermal and metric conversion factors. 37 figs., 61 tabs.

  3. ENERGY STAR Certified Residential Dishwashers

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 6.0 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Residential Dishwashers that are effective as of...

  4. ENERGY STAR Certified Residential Freezers

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 5.0 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Residential Refrigerators and Freezers that are...

  5. ENERGY STAR Certified Residential Refrigerators

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 5.0 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Residential Refrigerators and Freezers that are...

  6. Assessing the benefits of residential demand response in a real time distribution energy market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siano, Pierluigi; Sarno, Debora

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A new probabilistic methodology, integrating DR in a distribution energy market is proposed. • The method can alleviate distribution network congestions. • This method based on D-LMPs allows cost savings for end-user customers. • Innovative thermal and shiftable loads Real Time control algorithms are also presented. - Abstract: In the field of electricity distribution networks and with the advent of smart grids and microgrids, the use of Distribution Locational Marginal Price (D-LMPs) in a Real Time (RT) distribution market managed by a Distribution System Operator (DSO) is discussed in presence of empowered residential end-users that are able to bid for energy by a demand aggregator while following Demand Response (DR) initiatives. Each customer is provided by a transactive controller, which reads the locational market signals and answers with a bid taking into account the user preferences about some appliances involved in DR activities and controlled by smart plugs-in. In particular, Heating Ventilation and Air Conditioning (HVAC) appliances and shiftable loads are controlled so that their consumption profile can be modified according to the price of energy. In order to assess the effectiveness of the proposed method in terms of energy and cost saving, an innovative probabilistic methodology for evaluating the impact of residential DR choices considering uncertainties related to load demand, user preferences, environmental conditions, house thermal behavior and wholesale market trends has been proposed. The uncertainties related to the stochastic variations of the variables involved are modeled by using the Monte Carlo Simulation (MCS) method. The combination of MCS and RT distribution market simulation based on D-LMPs are used to assess the operation and impact of the DR method over one month. Simulations results on an 84-buses distribution network confirmed that the proposed method allows saving costs for residential end-users and making

  7. The effects of residential dual diagnosis treatment on alcohol abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenthaler, Stephen J; Blum, Kenneth; Fried, Lyle; Oscar-Berman, Marlene; Giordano, John; Modestino, Edward J.; Badgaiyan, Rajendra

    2017-01-01

    This multi-center study of dual diagnosis (DD) programs involved 804 residential patients with co-occurring alcohol and mental health disorders. The Addiction Severity Index was administered at admission and at one, six, and 12 months after discharge. Repeated measures analysis showed the intoxication rate per month stabilized between months six and 12 with 68% still in remission and an 88% mean reduction from baseline (F = 519, p treatment of both disorders and explained their effectiveness. Co-occurring DSM IV mood disorders such as anxiety and depression as well as drug abuse involving opioids or cocaine fell between 66 and 95% at months one, six, and twelve. PMID:28868159

  8. A statistical analysis of the energy policy act of 2005, its changes to the daylight saving program, and impact on residential energy consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Patrick L.

    Government programs designed to decrease resource consumption, improve productivity and capitalize on extended daylight hours in the summer have been developed and implemented throughout the world for nearly three hundred years. In 2005, The United States government adopted an extended daylight savings program that increases the number of weeks where the country observes Daylight Saving Time (DST) from 31 to 35 weeks. The program took effect in March 2007. Arguments in support of DST programs highlight the portion of electricity consumption attributed to residential lighting in the evening hours. Adjusting clocks forward by one hour in summer months is believed to reduce electricity consumption due to lighting and therefore significantly reduce residential energy consumption during the period of DST. This paper evaluates the efficacy of the changes to DST resulting from the Energy Policy Act of 2005. The study focuses on changes to household electricity consumption during the extended four weeks of DST. Arizona, one of two states that continue to opt out of DST serves as the study's control for a comparison with neighboring states, Colorado, Nebraska, Nevada, New Mexico, Oklahoma, Texas and Utah. Results from the regression analysis of a Difference in Difference model indicate that contrary to evaluations by Congress and the Department of Energy, the four week period of Extended Daylight Saving Time does not produce a significant decrease in per capita electricity consumption in Southwestern states.

  9. The impact of hearing aids and age-related hearing loss on auditory plasticity across three months - An electrical neuroimaging study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giroud, Nathalie; Lemke, Ulrike; Reich, Philip; Matthes, Katarina L; Meyer, Martin

    2017-09-01

    The present study investigates behavioral and electrophysiological auditory and cognitive-related plasticity in three groups of healthy older adults (60-77 years). Group 1 was moderately hearing-impaired, experienced hearing aid users, and fitted with new hearing aids using non-linear frequency compression (NLFC on); Group 2, also moderately hearing-impaired, used the same type of hearing aids but NLFC was switched off during the entire period of study duration (NLFC off); Group 3 represented individuals with age-appropriate hearing (NHO) as controls, who were not different in IQ, gender, or age from Group 1 and 2. At five measurement time points (M1-M5) across three months, a series of active oddball tasks were administered while EEG was recorded. The stimuli comprised syllables consisting of naturally high-pitched fricatives (/sh/, /s/, and /f/), which are hard to distinguish for individuals with presbycusis. By applying a data-driven microstate approach to obtain global field power (GFP) as a measure of processing effort, the modulations of perceptual (P50, N1, P2) and cognitive-related (N2b, P3b) auditory evoked potentials were calculated and subsequently related to behavioral changes (accuracy and reaction time) across time. All groups improved their performance across time, but NHO showed consistently higher accuracy and faster reaction times than the hearing-impaired groups, especially under difficult conditions. Electrophysiological results complemented this finding by demonstrating longer latencies in the P50 and the N1 peak in hearing aid users. Furthermore, the GFP of cognitive-related evoked potentials decreased from M1 to M2 in the NHO group, while a comparable decrease in the hearing-impaired group was only evident at M5. After twelve weeks of hearing aid use of eight hours each day, we found a significantly lower GFP in the P3b of the group with NLFC on as compared to the group with NLFC off. These findings suggest higher processing effort, as

  10. Estimation of European Union residential sector space cooling potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jakubcionis, Mindaugas; Carlsson, Johan

    2017-01-01

    Data on European residential space cooling demands are scarce and often of poor quality. This can be concluded from a review of the Comprehensive Assessments on the energy efficiency potential in the heating and cooling sector performed by European Union Member States under Art. 14 of the Energy Efficiency Directive. This article estimates the potential space cooling demands in the residential sector of the EU and the resulting impact on electricity generation and supply systems using the United States as a proxy. A georeferenced approach was used to establish the potential residential space cooling demand in NUTS-3 regions of EU. The total potential space cooling demand of the EU was estimated to be 292 TW h for the residential sector in an average year. The additional electrical capacity needed was estimated to 79 GW. With proper energy system development strategies, e.g. matching capacity of solar PV with cooling demand, or introduction of district cooling, the stresses on electricity system from increasing cooling demand can be mitigated. The estimated potential of space cooling demand, identified in this paper for all EU Members States, could be used while preparing the next iteration of EU MS Comprehensive Assessments or other energy related studies. - Highlights: • An estimation of EU space cooling demand potential in residential sector is presented. • An estimate of space cooling demand potential is based on using USA data as a proxy. • Significant cooling demand increase can be expected. • Cooling demand increase would lead to increased stress in energy supply systems. • Proper policies and strategies might measurably decrease the impact on energy systems.

  11. Impact of daylight saving time on the Chilean residential consumption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verdejo, Humberto; Becker, Cristhian; Echiburu, Diego; Escudero, William; Fucks, Emiliano

    2016-01-01

    Since 1970 Chile has had a Daylight Saving Time (DST) policy in order to reduce residential electricity consumption in the country. The time change was set for the first time by executive decree in 1970, and since that date it was applied every year without great changes until 2010. Since then, and to date, decrees have been set in order to increase the duration of the DST, arguing that there are reasons associated with energy savings that justify the extension of the measure that has been adopted by the authority in recent years. In the present study the impact of the application of DST in terms of decreased household electricity consumption is analyzed using two complementary methods, one based on a heuristic approach and the other using an econometric model. The results indicate that there is indeed a marginally small reduction in residential electricity consumption, although these results are not homogeneous throughout the country. - Highlights: • The impact of the application of DST is analyzed in Chilean distribution networks. • The results indicate that there is indeed a marginally small reduction in residential electricity consumption. • A total energy reduction is estimated based on the proposed methodology.

  12. Residential Consumption Scheduling Based on Dynamic User Profiling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangiatordi, Federica; Pallotti, Emiliano; Del Vecchio, Paolo; Capodiferro, Licia

    Deployment of household appliances and of electric vehicles raises the electricity demand in the residential areas and the impact of the building's electrical power. The variations of electricity consumption across the day, may affect both the design of the electrical generation facilities and the electricity bill, mainly when a dynamic pricing is applied. This paper focuses on an energy management system able to control the day-ahead electricity demand in a residential area, taking into account both the variability of the energy production costs and the profiling of the users. The user's behavior is dynamically profiled on the basis of the tasks performed during the previous days and of the tasks foreseen for the current day. Depending on the size and on the flexibility in time of the user tasks, home inhabitants are grouped in, one over N, energy profiles, using a k-means algorithm. For a fixed energy generation cost, each energy profile is associated to a different hourly energy cost. The goal is to identify any bad user profile and to make it pay a highest bill. A bad profile example is when a user applies a lot of consumption tasks and low flexibility in task reallocation time. The proposed energy management system automatically schedules the tasks, solving a multi-objective optimization problem based on an MPSO strategy. The goals, when identifying bad users profiles, are to reduce the peak to average ratio in energy demand, and to minimize the energy costs, promoting virtuous behaviors.

  13. Experimental program of substitution of incandescent light bulb by circular and compact fluorescence lights in the residential sector; Programa experimental de substituicao de lampadas incandensentes por fluorescentes circulares e compactas no segmento residencial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fugiwara, Jose Kozi; Campos Filho, Marcello de Moura [Companhia Paulista de Forca e Luz (CPFL), Campinas, SP (Brazil); Santos, Vanice Ferreira dos [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil)

    1995-12-31

    This work discusses the influence of the residential sector in the Brazilian consumption of electric power and the importance of electric power conservation in residential illumination. A case study is presented. Finally, the perspectives for the utilization of this tool in electric power conservation for market planning is presented 1 tab., 6 refs.

  14. Mergers in the GB Electricity Market: effects on Retail Charges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salies, Evens

    2006-05-01

    The opening up of the UK residential electricity sector in 1999 prompted several studies of the impact this had on both the level and structuring of retail charges, and on incumbent players' market power. Drawing on observations of regional tariffs for the month of January 2004, this paper supports previous conclusions based on simulated retail charges, looking at the response of real tariffs to distribution and transmission costs, customer density, and the length of low voltage underground circuit. We also investigate whether vertically integrated suppliers have a particular effect on charges ceteris paribus the effect of cost drivers and supplier-related factors. (author)

  15. Energy literacy, awareness, and conservation behavior of residential households

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brounen, Dirk; Kok, Nils; Quigley, John M.

    2013-01-01

    The residential sector accounts for one-fifth of global energy consumption, resulting from the requirements to heat, cool, and light residential dwellings. It is therefore not surprising that energy efficiency in the residential market has gained importance in recent years. In this paper, we examine awareness, literacy and behavior of households with respect to their residential energy expenditures. Using a detailed survey of 1721 Dutch households, we measure the extent to which consumers are aware of their energy consumption and whether they have taken measures to reduce their energy costs. Our results show that “energy literacy” and awareness among respondents is low: just 56% of the respondents are aware of their monthly charges for energy consumption, and 40% do not appropriately evaluate investment decisions in energy efficient equipment. We document that demographics and consumer attitudes towards energy conservation, but not energy literacy and awareness, have direct effects on behavior regarding heating and cooling of the home. The impact of a moderating factor, measured by thermostat settings, ultimately results in strong variation in the energy consumption of private consumers. - Highlights: • We use a detailed survey of 1,721 Dutch households to measure awareness and conservation behavior in energy consumption. • Energy literacy and awareness among residential households is low. • 40 percent of the sample does not appropriately evaluate investment decisions in energy efficient equipment • Demographics and consumer attitudes affect behavior regarding heating and cooling of a home

  16. Evaluation of advanced technologies for residential appliances and residential and commercial lighting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turiel, I.; Atkinson, B.; Boghosian, S.; Chan, P.; Jennings, J.; Lutz, J.; McMahon, J.; Rosenquist, G.

    1995-01-01

    Section 127 of the Energy Policy Act requires that the Department of Energy (DOE) prepare a report to Congress on the potential for the development and commercialization of appliances that substantially exceed the present federal or state efficiency standards. Candidate high-efficiency appliances must meet several criteria including: the potential exists for substantial improvement (beyond the minimum established in law) of the appliance`s energy efficiency; electric, water, or gas utilities are prepared to support and promote the commercialization of such appliances; manufacturers are unlikely to undertake development and commercialization of such appliances on their own, or development and production would be substantially accelerated by support to manufacturers. This report describes options to improve the efficiency of residential appliances, including water heaters, clothes washers and dryers, refrigerator/freezers, dishwashers, space heating and cooling devices, as well as residential and commercial lighting products. Data from this report (particularly Appendix 1)were used to prepare the report to Congress mentioned previously. For the residential sector, national energy savings are calculated using the LBL Residential Energy Model. This model projects the number of households and appliance saturations over time. First, end-use consumption is calculated for a base case where models that only meet the standard replace existing models as these reach the end of their lifetime. Second, models with efficiencies equal to the technology under consideration replace existing models that reach the end of their lifetime. For the commercial sector, the COMMEND model was utilized to project national energy savings from new technologies. In this report, energy savings are shown for the period 1988 to 2015.

  17. Residential proximinity, perceived and acceptable risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogers, G.O.

    1984-01-01

    This paper focuses on the relationship between the life experiences associated with residential proximity, and the perception and acceptability of the risks associated with generating electricity in nuclear power plants. Perceived risk is operationally defined in terms of estimated likelihood of occurrence, while acceptability of nuclear power is defined in terms of people's favorable or unfavorable opinions regarding nuclear power plants. In the context of a simple social-structural model of perceived and acceptable risk, four potential explanations for enhanced acceptability among those residentially proximate with nuclear facilities are examined: residents, through the experience of living with hazard, are reinforced toward assigning lower probabilities to the potential risks associated with nuclear facilities; the cognitive dissonance created by the acceptance of the risks associated with nuclear power is decreased by reducing perceived risk; nuclear neighbors are predisposed toward, educated about, and/or economically dependent upon nuclear power hence the more favorable attitudes toward it; nearby residents are systematically more altruistic--other oriented--than the general population and thus more willing to bear the risks associated with nuclear power

  18. Solar Energy Systems for Ohioan Residential Homeowners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luckett, Rickey D.

    Dwindling nonrenewable energy resources and rising energy costs have forced the United States to develop alternative renewable energy sources. The United States' solar energy industry has seen an upsurge in recent years, and photovoltaic holds considerable promise as a renewable energy technology. The purpose of this case study was to explore homeowner's awareness of the benefits of solar energy. Disruptive-innovation theory was used to explore marketing strategies for conveying information to homeowners about access to new solar energy products and services. Twenty residential homeowners were interviewed face-to-face to explore (a) perceived benefits of solar energy in their county in Ohio, and (b) perceptions on the rationale behind the marketing strategy of solar energy systems sold for residential use. The study findings used inductive analyses and coding interpretation to explore the participants' responses that revealed 3 themes: the existence of environmental benefits for using solar energy systems, the expensive cost of equipment associated with government incentives, and the lack of marketing information that is available for consumer use. The implications for positive social change include the potential to enable corporate leaders, small business owners, and entrepreneurs to develop marketing strategies for renewable energy systems. These strategies may promote use of solar energy systems as a clean, renewable, and affordable alternative electricity energy source for the 21st century.

  19. Survey of residential magnetic field sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaffanella, L.E.

    1992-09-01

    A nationwide survey of 1000 residences is underway to determine the sources and characteristics of magnetic fields in the home. This report describes the goals, statistical sampling methods, measurement protocols, and experiences in measuring the first 707 residences of the survey. Some preliminary analysis of the data is also included. Investigators designed a sampling method to randomly select the participating utilities as well as the residential customers for the study. As a first step in the project, 18 utility employee residences were chosen to validate a relatively simple measurement protocol against the results of a more complete and intrusive method. Using the less intrusive measurement protocol, researchers worked closely with representatives from EPRI member utilities to enter customer residences and measure the magnetic fields found there. Magnetic field data were collected in different locations inside and around the residences. Twenty-four-hour recorders were left in the homes overnight. Tests showed that the simplified measurement protocol is adequate for achieving the goals of the study. Methods were developed for analyzing the field caused by a residence's ground current, the lateral field profiles of field lines, and the field measured around the periphery of the residences. Methods of residential source detection were developed that allow identification of sources such as ground connections at an electrical subpanel, two-wire multiple-way switches, and underground or overhead net currents exiting the periphery of a residence

  20. Electricity and gas market observatory. 3. 2005 quarter; Observatoire des marches de l'electricite et du gaz. 3. trimestre 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    Since July 2004, all electricity and gas consumers can be eligible according to their consumption site, as long as all or part of the electricity or gas consumed is designed for non-residential use. The purpose of the observatory is to provide the general public with indicators for monitoring market deregulation. It both covers the wholesale and retail electricity and gas markets in Metropolitan France. This observatory is updated every three months and data are available on CRE web site (www.cre.fr). It completes the information already published by CRE: practical information for eligible customers: consumer guide, list of suppliers, communications regarding markets running, CRE annual activity report. (author)

  1. Observatory of the electric power and gas markets. 16 February 2005; Observatoire des marches de l'electricite et du gaz. 16 fevrier 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-02-15

    Since July 2004, all electricity and gas consumers can be eligible according to their consumption site, as long as all or part of the electricity or gas consumed is designed for non-residential use. The purpose of the observatory is to provide the general public with indicators for monitoring market deregulation. It both covers the wholesale and retail electricity and gas markets in Metropolitan France. This observatory is updated every three months and data are available on CRE web site (www.cre.fr). It completes the information already published by CRE: practical information for eligible customers: consumer guide, list of suppliers, communications regarding markets running, CRE annual activity report. (author)

  2. Electricity and gas market observatory. 4. 2005 quarter; Observatoire des marches de l'electricite et du gaz. 4. trimestre 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    Since July 2004, all electricity and gas consumers can be eligible according to their consumption site, as long as all or part of the electricity or gas consumed is designed for non-residential use. The purpose of the observatory is to provide the general public with indicators for monitoring market deregulation. It both covers the wholesale and retail electricity and gas markets in Metropolitan France. This observatory is updated every three months and data are available on CRE web site (www.cre.fr). It completes the information already published by CRE: practical information for eligible customers: consumer guide, list of suppliers, communications regarding markets running, CRE annual activity report. (author)

  3. Electricity and gas market observatory. 1. 2005 quarter; Observatoire des marches de l'electricite et du gaz. 1. trimestre 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    Since July 2004, all electricity and gas consumers can be eligible according to their consumption site, as long as all or part of the electricity or gas consumed is designed for non-residential use. The purpose of the observatory is to provide the general public with indicators for monitoring market deregulation. It both covers the wholesale and retail electricity and gas markets in Metropolitan France. This observatory is updated every three months and data are available on CRE web site (www.cre.fr). It completes the information already published by CRE: practical information for eligible customers: consumer guide, list of suppliers, communications regarding markets running, CRE annual activity report. (author)

  4. Electricity and gas market observatory. 2. quarter 2006; Observatoire des marches de l'electricite et du gaz. 2. trimestre 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    Since July 2004, all electricity and gas consumers can be eligible according to their consumption site, as long as all or part of the electricity or gas consumed is designed for non-residential use. The purpose of the observatory is to provide the general public with indicators for monitoring market deregulation. It both covers the wholesale and retail electricity and gas markets in Metropolitan France. This observatory is updated every three months and data are available on CRE web site (www.cre.fr). It completes the information already published by CRE: practical information for eligible customers: consumer guide, list of suppliers, communications regarding markets running, CRE annual activity report. (author)

  5. Electricity and gas market observatory. 3. quarter 2006; Observatoire des marches de l'electricite et du gaz. 3. trimestre 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    Since July 2004, all electricity and gas consumers can be eligible according to their consumption site, as long as all or part of the electricity or gas consumed is designed for non-residential use. The purpose of the observatory is to provide the general public with indicators for monitoring market deregulation. It both covers the wholesale and retail electricity and gas markets in Metropolitan France. This observatory is updated every three months and data are available on CRE web site (www.cre.fr). It completes the information already published by CRE: practical information for eligible customers: consumer guide, list of suppliers, communications regarding markets running, CRE annual activity report. (author)

  6. Electricity and gas market observatory. 2. 2005 quarter; Observatoire des marches de l'electricite et du gaz. 2. trimestre 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    Since July 2004, all electricity and gas consumers can be eligible according to their consumption site, as long as all or part of the electricity or gas consumed is designed for non-residential use. The purpose of the observatory is to provide the general public with indicators for monitoring market deregulation. It both covers the wholesale and retail electricity and gas markets in Metropolitan France. This observatory is updated every three months and data are available on CRE web site (www.cre.fr). It completes the information already published by CRE: practical information for eligible customers: consumer guide, list of suppliers, communications regarding markets running, CRE annual activity report. (author)

  7. Electricity and gas market observatory. 1. quarter 2006; Observatoire des marches de l'electricite et du gaz. 1. trimestre 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    Since July 2004, all electricity and gas consumers can be eligible according to their consumption site, as long as all or part of the electricity or gas consumed is designed for non-residential use. The purpose of the observatory is to provide the general public with indicators for monitoring market deregulation. It both covers the wholesale and retail electricity and gas markets in Metropolitan France. This observatory is updated every three months and data are available on CRE web site (www.cre.fr). It completes the information already published by CRE: practical information for eligible customers: consumer guide, list of suppliers, communications regarding markets running, CRE annual activity report. (author)

  8. State energy price projections for the residential sector, 1992--1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of this report, State Energy Price Projections for the Residential Sector, 1992--1993, is to provide projections of State-level residential prices for 1992 and 1993 for the following fuels: electricity, natural gas, heating oil, liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), kerosene, and coal. Prices for 1991 are also included for comparison purposes. This report also explains the methodology used to produce these estimates and the limitations

  9. Design of a DC-AC Link Converter for 500W Residential Wind Generator

    OpenAIRE

    Riza Muhida; Ahmad Firdaus A. Zaidi; Afzeri Tamsir; Rudi Irawan

    2012-01-01

     As one of alternative sources of renewable energy, wind energy has an excellence prospect in Indonesia, particularly in coastal and hilly areas which have potential wind to generate electricity for residential uses. There is urgent need to locally develop low cost inverter of wind generator system for residential use. Recent developments in power electronic converters and embedded computing allow improvement of power electronic converter devices that enable integration of microcontrollers in...

  10. Calculating residential carbon dioxide emissions - a new approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hughes, Larry; Bohan, Kathleen; Good, Joel; Jafapur, Khosrow

    2005-01-01

    All Annex 1 Parties are required to submit an annual national greenhouse gas inventory to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change using the common report format. The inventory is to include a sectoral report for energy, listing different sectors and their associated greenhouse gas emissions (principally carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide). The sectors and their associated emissions can be used as a benchmark to show changes in emissions over time. In certain cases, these changes can be misleading, since an apparent emission reduction in one sector can result in a significant increase in the emissions of another, typically electricity production. Applying the emissions to the sector responsible for the final energy demand (as opposed to the sector that generates the energy) allows researchers and policy makers to develop reduction strategies that are targeted to the demand. This paper demonstrates this by removing the equivalent residential emissions from category A.1.a (Public Electricity and Heat Production) and applying them to category A.4.b (Residential) in Nova Scotia, a Canadian province that relies heavily on fossil fuels for electrical generation. The shift in emissions changes an apparent 4.1 percent decrease in Nova Scotia's residential emissions between 1991 and 2001 to an 8.2 percent increase. (Author)

  11. Positive and Negative Peer Influence in Residential Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huefner, Jonathan C; Smith, Gail L; Stevens, Amy L

    2017-10-13

    The potential for negative peer influence has been well established in research, and there is a growing interest in how positive peer influence also impacts youth. No research, however, has concurrently examined positive and negative peer influence in the context of residential care. Clinical records for 886 residential care youth were used in a Hierarchical Linear Model analysis to examine the impact of negative and positive peer influence on naturally occurring patterns of serious problem behavior over time. Negative peer influence, where the majority of youth in a home manifested above the average number of serious behavior problems, occurred 13.7% of the time. Positive peer influence, where the majority of youth manifested no serious problem behaviors for the month, occurred 47.7% of the time. Overall, youth problem behavior improved over time. There were significantly lower rates of serious problem behavior in target youth during positive peer influence months. Conversely, there were significantly higher rates of serious problem behaviors in target youth during negative peer influence months. Negative peer influence had a relatively greater impact on target peers' serious behavior problems than did positive peer influence. Caregiver experience significantly reduced the impact of negative peer influence, but did not significantly augment positive peer influence. Months where negative peer influence was combined with inexperienced caregivers produced the highest rates of serious problem behavior. Our results support the view that residential programs for troubled youth need to create circumstances that promote positive and control for negative peer influence.

  12. Electricity and gas market observatory. 3. Quarter 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of the observatory is to provide the general public with indicators for monitoring market deregulation. It both covers the wholesale and retail electricity and gas markets in Metropolitan France. This observatory is updated every three months and data are available on CRE web site (www.cre.fr). Since the 1 of July 2007, all customers can choose their gas and electricity suppliers. The present observatory is including residential customer's statistics. Content: A - The electricity market: The retail electricity market (Introduction, Customer segments and their respective weight, Status at September 30, 2007, Dynamic analysis: 3. Quarter 2007); The wholesale electricity market (Introduction, Wholesale market activity in France, Wholesale market activity in France, Prices on the French wholesale market and European comparison, Import and export volumes, Concentration of the French electricity market); B - The gas market: The retail gas market (Introduction, Customer segments and their respective weight, Status on September 30, 2007, Dynamic analysis: 3. Quarter 2007); The wholesale gas market (Gas pricing and gas markets in Europe, The wholesale market in France); C - Appendices: Electricity and gas market observatories combined glossary, Specific electricity market observatory glossary, Specific gas market observatory glossary

  13. Monthly energy review, October 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-10-01

    This document presents an overview of the Energy Information Administration`s recent monthly energy statistics. The statistics cover the major activities of U.S. production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. Information is also provided for oil and gas resource development. International energy statistics are given for petroleum production, consumption, and stocks, and for nuclear electricity gross generation. 37 figs., 61 tabs.

  14. Electric sales and revenue 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-04-01

    The Electric Sales and Revenue is prepared by the Survey Management Division, Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels; Energy Information Administration (EIA); US Department of Energy. This publication provides information about sales of electricity, its associated revenue, and the average revenue per kilowatthour sold to residential, commercial, industrial, and other consumers throughout the United States. Previous publications presented data on typical electric bills at specified consumption levels as well as sales, revenue, and average revenue. The sales of electricity, associated revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour provided in this report are presented at the national, Census division, State, and electric utility levels

  15. Evaluation of fuel-switching opportunities in the residential sector

    OpenAIRE

    Almeida, Aníbal T. de; Lopes, Ana; Carvalho, Anabela; Mariano, Jorge; Nunes, Catarina

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to analyse the impact of different natural gas and electricity end-use technologies in the residential sector, which compete among themselves in terms of energy consumption and carbon emissions. The analysis of 17 different technology options, which were chosen in order to match the consumption behaviour of a typical Portuguese family, has shown that the use of electric heat pumps, both for space and water-heating, combined with the use of a natural gas cooker, leads ...

  16. Performance-based potential for residential energy efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Performance-based potential for residential energy efficiency

    2013-01-15

    Energy performance contracts (EPCs) have proven an effective mechanism for increasing energy efficiency in nearly all sectors of the economy since their introduction nearly 30 years ago. In the modern form, activities undertaken as part of an EPC are scoped and implemented by experts with specialized technical knowledge, financed by commercial lenders, and enable a facility owner to limit risk and investment of time and resources while receiving the rewards of improved energy performance. This report provides a review of the experiences of the US with EPCs and discusses the possibilities for the residential sector to utilize EPCs. Notably absent from the EPC market is the residential segment. Historically, research has shown that the residential sector varies in several key ways from markets segments where EPCs have proven successful, including: high degree of heterogeneity of energy use characteristics among and within households, comparatively small quantity of energy consumed per residence, limited access to information about energy consumption and savings potential, and market inefficiencies that constrain the value of efficiency measures. However, the combination of recent technological advances in automated metering infrastructure, flexible financing options, and the expansion of competitive wholesale electricity markets to include energy efficiency as a biddable supply-side resource present an opportunity for EPC-like efforts to successfully engage the residential sector, albeit following a different model than has been used in EPCs traditionally.(Author)

  17. Monthly energy review, July 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    US total energy consumption in July 1990 was 6.7 quadrillion Btu Petroleum products accounted for 42 percent of the energy consumed in July 1990, while coal accounted for 26 percent and natural gas accounted for 19 percent. Residential and commercial sector consumption was 2.3 quadrillion Btu in July 1990, up 2 percent from the July 1989 level. The sector accounted for 35 percent of July 1990 total consumption, about the same share as in July 1989. Industrial sector consumption was 2.4 quadrillion Btu in July 1990, up 2 percent from the July 1989 level. The industrial sector accounted for 36 percent of July 1990 total consumption, about the same share as in July 1989. Transportation sector consumption of energy was 1.9 quadrillion Btu in July 1990, up 1 percent from the July 1989 level. The sector consumed 29 percent of July 1990 total consumption, about the same share as in July 1989. Electric utility consumption of energy totaled 2.8 quadrillion Btu in July 1990, up 2 percent from the July 1989 level. Coal contributed 53 percent of the energy consumed by electric utilities in July 1990, while nuclear electric power contributed 21 percent; natural gas, 12 percent; hydroelectric power, 9 percent; petroleum, 5 percent; and wood, waste, geothermal, wind, photovoltaic, and solar thermal energy, about 1 percent

  18. Possibility of hydrogen supply by shared residential fuel cell systems for fuel cell vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ono Yusuke

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Residential polymer electrolyte fuel cells cogeneration systems (residential PEFC systems produce hydrogen from city gas by internal gas-reformer, and generate electricity, the hot water at the same time. From the viewpoint of the operation, it is known that residential PEFC systems do not continuously work but stop for long time, because the systems generate enough hot water for short operation time. In other words, currently residential PEFC systems are dominated by the amount of hot water demand. This study focuses on the idle time of residential PEFC systems. Since their gas-reformers are free, the systems have potential to produce hydrogen during the partial load operations. The authors expect that residential PEFC systems can take a role to supply hydrogen for fuel cell vehicles (FCVs before hydrogen fueling stations are distributed enough. From this perspective, the objective of this study is to evaluate the hydrogen production potential of residential PEFC systems. A residential PEFC system was modeled by the mixed integer linear programming to optimize the operation including hydrogen supply for FCV. The objective function represents annual system cost to be minimized with the constraints of energy balance. It should be noted that the partial load characteristics of the gas-reformer and the fuel cell stack are taken into account to derive the optimal operation. The model was employed to estimate the possible amount of hydrogen supply by a residential PEFC system. The results indicated that the system could satisfy at least hydrogen demand for transportation of 8000 km which is as far as the average annual mileage of a passenger car in Japan. Furthermore, hydrogen production by sharing a residential PEFC system with two households is more effective to reduce primary energy consumption with hydrogen supply for FCV than the case of introducing PEFC in each household.

  19. Understanding Residential Polarization in a Globalizing City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim Rotimi Aliu

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the spatial polarization that characterizes the dwellings in the African leading megacity of Lagos. Data were collected through an extensive housing survey carried out on 1,485 household residences in 56 wards within 12 administrative units in Lagos megacity. The spatial dimension of residential density in the city generates three unique residential patterns which are low residential density (LRD, medium residential density (MRD, and high residential density (HRD areas. Descriptive and multivariate inferential statistics were used to render explanations for the spatial variations in the residential quality variables in the study area. Findings indicated that a clear difference exists in the residential quality within the three residential density areas of Lagos. High correlations exist among the residential quality indicators and housing type. The principal component analysis shows that residential polarizations that occur in the LRD, MRD, and HRD are based on the location, dwelling facility, interior and exterior quality, neighborhood integrity, social bond, barrier to entry, and security. The practical implications of residential polarizations along the residential density areas are explicitly expressed.

  20. Monthly energy review, April 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-04-01

    The Monthly Energy Review (MER) presents an overview of the Energy Information Administration`s recent monthly energy statistics. The statistics cover the major activities of US production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. Also included are international energy and thermal and metric conversion factors. The MER is intended for use by Members of Congress, Federal and State agencies, energy analysts, and the general public.

  1. Monthly energy review, August 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-08-01

    The Monthly Energy Review (MER) presents an overview of the Energy Information Administration`s recent monthly energy statistics. The statistics cover the major activities of US production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. Also included are international energy and thermal and metric conversion factors. The MER is intended for use by Members of Congress, Federal and State agencies, energy analysts, and the general public. 37 figs., 73 tabs.

  2. monthly energy consumption forecasting using wavelet analysis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    ABSTRACT. Monthly energy forecasts help heavy consumers of electric power to prepare adequate budget to pay their electricity bills and also draw the attention of management and stakeholders to electric- ity consumption levels so that energy efficiency measures are put in place to reduce cost. In this paper, a wavelet ...

  3. Nebraska residential propane survey, Winter 1991/92

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinyon, L.

    1992-01-01

    This report summarizes information on propane prices for the October 1991/March 1992 heating season in Nebraska. From October through March participating propane distributors were contacted twice monthly by the Nebraska Energy Office to obtain their current residential (retail) prices of propane. This information was faxed to the US Department of Energy, Energy Information Administration (DOE/EIA) biweekly in report format as prepared by the PEDRO system

  4. Technical Problems of Residential Construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowogońska, Beata; Cibis, Jerzy

    2017-10-01

    Beauty, utility, durability - these are the features of good architecture and should also be the distinguishing qualities of every residential building. But do beauty and utility remain along with the passing of time? Performance characteristics are an indicator of both, the technical as well as aesthetic state of buildings. Aesthetic needs are in disagreement with the merciless aging process. The beauty of a city is formed not only by the original forms of new residential buildings, but also by existing tenement housing; thus preserving their aesthetics becomes a necessity. Time is continuously passing and along with it, aging intensifies. The aging process is a natural phenomenon for every material. The life expectancy of building materials is also limited. Along with the passing of time, the technical state of residential buildings continuously deteriorates. With the passing of time, the aesthetic values and preferences of users of flats change and the usability of the building decreases. The permanence of buildings, including residential buildings, is shaped not only by the forces of nature but also by activities of humans. A long lifespan is ensured by carrying out ongoing, systematic renovation-repair works. It is thanks to them that buildings derived from past centuries are still being used, and their market attractiveness is not decreasing.

  5. Main challenges of residential areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oana Luca

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The present article is a position paper aiming to initiate a professional debate related to the aspects related to the urban dysfunctions leading to the wear of the residential areas. The paper proposes a definition of the wear process, identify the main causes leading to its occurrence and propose a number of solutions to neutralise the dysfunctions. The three wearing phases of residential areas components are emphasized, exploring their lifecycle. In order to perform the study of urban wear, the status of the residential areas components can be established and monitored, and also the variables of the function that can mathematically model the specific wear process may be considered. The paper is considered a first step for the model adjustment, to be tested and validated in the following steps. Based on the mathematical method and model, there can be created, in a potential future research, the possibility of determining the precarity degree for residential areas/neighbourhoods and cities, by minimising the subjective component of the analyses preceding the decision for renovation or regeneration.

  6. Residential solar-heating system

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    Complete residential solar-heating and hot-water system, when installed in highly-insulated energy-saver home, can supply large percentage of total energy demand for space heating and domestic hot water. System which uses water-heating energy storage can be scaled to meet requirements of building in which it is installed.

  7. Convergence of Residential Gateway Technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartog, F.T.H. den; Balm, M.; Jong, C.M. de; Kwaaitaal, J.J.B.

    2004-01-01

    A new OSI-based model is described that can be used for the classification of residential gateways. It is applied to analyze current gateway solutions and draw evolutionary paths for the medium to long term. From this it is concluded that particularly set-top boxes and broadband modems, as opposed

  8. Convergence of residential gateway technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartog, den F.T.H.; Balm, M.; Jong, de C.M.; Kwaaitaal, J.J.B.

    2004-01-01

    A new OSI-based model is described that can be used for the classification of residential gateways. It is applied to analyze current gateway solutions and draw evolutionary paths for the medium to long term. From this it is concluded that particularly set-top boxes and broadband modems, as opposed

  9. Trends of Sustainable Residential Architecture

    OpenAIRE

    Narvydas, A

    2014-01-01

    The article is based on Master’s research conducted during Scottish Housing Expo 2010. The aim of the research was to determine the prevailing trends in sustainable residential architecture. Each trend can be described by features detected during visual and technical observation of project data. Based on that architects may predict possible problems related to a specific trend.

  10. Reduce tax on residential mobility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ewijk, C.; van Leuvensteijn, M.

    2010-01-01

    How can Europe increase structural growth? This column argues that labour market flexibility is key. As a major barrier to labour movement is rigidity in the housing market, abolishing transfer taxes on residential property could result in gains of up to 0.4% of GDP.

  11. Zones 30 : urban residential areas.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2006-01-01

    Sustainable Safety uses a road categorization in which through traffic is concentrated on motorways and other main roads. In residential areas, which have a living, shopping, or work function, through traffic is discouraged by setting a speed limit of 30 km/h, and by speed reducing measures such as

  12. Social implications of residential demand response in cool temperate climates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darby, Sarah J.; McKenna, Eoghan

    2012-01-01

    Residential electrical demand response (DR) offers the prospect of reducing the environmental impact of electricity use, and also the supply costs. However, the relatively small loads and numerous actors imply a large effort: response ratio. Residential DR may be an essential part of future smart grids, but how viable is it in the short to medium term? This paper reviews some DR concepts, then evaluates the propositions that households in cool temperate climates will be in a position to contribute to grid flexibility within the next decade, and that that they will allow some automated load control. Examples of demand response from around the world are discussed in order to assess the main considerations for cool climates. Different tariff types and forms of control are assessed in terms of what is being asked of electricity users, with a focus on real-time pricing and direct load control in energy systems with increasingly distributed resources. The literature points to the significance of thermal loads, supply mix, demand-side infrastructure, market regulation, and the framing of risks and opportunities associated with DR. In concentrating on social aspects of residential demand response, the paper complements the body of work on technical and economic potential. - Highlights: ► Demand response implies major change in governance of electricity systems. ► Households in cool temperate climates can be flexible, mainly with thermal loads. ► DR requires simple tariffs, appropriate enabling technology, education, and feedback. ► Need to test consumer acceptance of DR in specific conditions. ► Introduce tariffs with technologies e.g., TOU tariff plus DLC with electric vehicles.

  13. Key Residential Building Equipment Technologies for Control and Grid Support PART I (Residential)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Starke, Michael R [ORNL; Onar, Omer C [ORNL; DeVault, Robert C [ORNL

    2011-09-01

    Electrical energy consumption of the residential sector is a crucial area of research that has in the past primarily focused on increasing the efficiency of household devices such as water heaters, dishwashers, air conditioners, and clothes washer and dryer units. However, the focus of this research is shifting as objectives such as developing the smart grid and ensuring that the power system remains reliable come to the fore, along with the increasing need to reduce energy use and costs. Load research has started to focus on mechanisms to support the power system through demand reduction and/or reliability services. The power system relies on matching generation and load, and day-ahead and real-time energy markets capture most of this need. However, a separate set of grid services exist to address the discrepancies in load and generation arising from contingencies and operational mismatches, and to ensure that the transmission system is available for delivery of power from generation to load. Currently, these grid services are mostly provided by generation resources. The addition of renewable resources with their inherent variability can complicate the issue of power system reliability and lead to the increased need for grid services. Using load as a resource, through demand response programs, can fill the additional need for flexible resources and even reduce costly energy peaks. Loads have been shown to have response that is equal to or better than generation in some cases. Furthermore, price-incentivized demand response programs have been shown to reduce the peak energy requirements, thereby affecting the wholesale market efficiency and overall energy prices. The residential sector is not only the largest consumer of electrical energy in the United States, but also has the highest potential to provide demand reduction and power system support, as technological advancements in load control, sensor technologies, and communication are made. The prevailing loads

  14. The effect of climate change on electricity expenditures in Massachusetts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Véliz, Karina D.; Kaufmann, Robert K.; Cleveland, Cutler J.; Stoner, Anne M.K.

    2017-01-01

    Climate change affects consumer expenditures by altering the consumption of and price for electricity. Previous analyses focus solely on the former, which implicitly assumes that climate-induced changes in consumption do not affect price. But this assumption is untenable because a shift in demand alters quantity and price at equilibrium. Here we present the first empirical estimates for the effect of climate change on electricity prices. Translated through the merit order dispatch of existing capacity for generating electricity, climate-induced changes in daily and monthly patterns of electricity consumption cause non-linear changes in electricity prices. A 2 °C increase in global mean temperature increases the prices for and consumption of electricity in Massachusetts USA, such that the average household’s annual expenditures on electricity increase by about 12%. Commercial customers incur a 9% increase. These increases are caused largely by higher prices for electricity, whose impacts on expenditures are 1.3 and 3.6 fold larger than changes in residential and commercial consumption, respectively. This suggests that previous empirical studies understate the effects of climate change on electricity expenditures and that policy may be needed to ensure that the market generates investments in peaking capacity to satisfy climate-driven changes in summer-time consumption. - Highlights: • Climate change increases summer peak of load curve in US state of Massachusetts. • Climate change increases electricity prices more than consumption. • Previous studies understate the effect of climate change on electricity expenditures. • Adaptation that reduces electricity demand may reduce the price effect. • Adaptation may raise prices by increasing capacity but lowering utilization rate.

  15. Residential Energy Use and Conservation. Economics, Demographics, and Standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brounen, D. [Department of Financial Management, Erasmus University Rotterdam, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Kok, N. [Limburg Institute of Financial Economics LIFE, Maastricht University, Maastricht (Netherlands); Quigley, J.M. [Department of Economics, University of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2011-03-15

    Energy consumption in the residential sector offers an important opportunity for conserving resources. However, much of the current debate regarding energy efficiency in the housing market focuses on the physical and technical determinants of energy consumption, neglecting the role of the economic behavior of resident households. In this paper, we analyze the extent to which the use of gas and electricity is determined by the technical specifications of the dwelling as compared to the demographic characteristics of the occupying household, using a unique set of microeconomic data for a sample of more than 300,000 Dutch homes. The results show that residential gas consumption is determined principally by structural dwelling characteristics, such as the vintage, building type and quality of the home, while electricity consumption varies more directly with household composition, in particular income and family composition. Combining these results with projections on future economic and demographic trends, we find that, absent price increases for residential energy, the aging of the population and their increasing wealth will mostly offset improvements in the energy efficiency of the building stock resulting from policy interventions and natural revitalization.

  16. Economic evaluation of small wind turbines and hybrid systems for residential use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Predescu Mihail

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Renewable electricity generating systems are gaining ground in residential sector for the purpose of diminishing the electricity bills or to reaching some degree of energy independence. The decision to invest in small wind turbines or hybrid energy generation technologies should be based on an economic estimation of money invested in such systems. Levelized Cost of Energy (LCOE calculation for local technologies of choice for residential energy generation is a very meaningful figure for deciding whether the investment can bring financial satisfaction and for selecting which type of technology is the best suited for a specific location.

  17. The impact of residential combustion emissions on atmospheric aerosol, human health, and climate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. W. Butt

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Combustion of fuels in the residential sector for cooking and heating results in the emission of aerosol and aerosol precursors impacting air quality, human health, and climate. Residential emissions are dominated by the combustion of solid fuels. We use a global aerosol microphysics model to simulate the impact of residential fuel combustion on atmospheric aerosol for the year 2000. The model underestimates black carbon (BC and organic carbon (OC mass concentrations observed over Asia, Eastern Europe, and Africa, with better prediction when carbonaceous emissions from the residential sector are doubled. Observed seasonal variability of BC and OC concentrations are better simulated when residential emissions include a seasonal cycle. The largest contributions of residential emissions to annual surface mean particulate matter (PM2.5 concentrations are simulated for East Asia, South Asia, and Eastern Europe. We use a concentration response function to estimate the human health impact due to long-term exposure to ambient PM2.5 from residential emissions. We estimate global annual excess adult (>  30 years of age premature mortality (due to both cardiopulmonary disease and lung cancer to be 308 000 (113 300–497 000, 5th to 95th percentile uncertainty range for monthly varying residential emissions and 517 000 (192 000–827 000 when residential carbonaceous emissions are doubled. Mortality due to residential emissions is greatest in Asia, with China and India accounting for 50 % of simulated global excess mortality. Using an offline radiative transfer model we estimate that residential emissions exert a global annual mean direct radiative effect between −66 and +21 mW m−2, with sensitivity to the residential emission flux and the assumed ratio of BC, OC, and SO2 emissions. Residential emissions exert a global annual mean first aerosol indirect effect of between −52 and −16 mW m−2, which is sensitive to the

  18. Monthly energy review, June 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-09-26

    The Monthly Energy Review presents current data on production, consumption, stocks, imports, exports, and prices of the principal energy commodities in the United States. Also included are data on international production of crude oil, consumption of petroleum products, petroleum stocks, and production of electricity from nuclear-powered facilities.

  19. Monthly energy review, November 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-11-24

    The Monthly Energy Review gives information on production, distribution, and consumption for various energy sources, e.g. petroleum, natural gas, oil, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. Some data is also included on international energy sources and supplies, the import of petroleum products into the US and pricing and reserves data (as applicable) for the various sources of energy listed above.

  20. Monthly energy review, November 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-11-01

    This monthly publication contains statistical data on energy resources in the United States. Petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy are covered. Additional sections include an energy overview, energy consumption, oil and gas resource development and energy prices. This issue includes features on energy-related housing characteristics and the propane-provider fleet