WorldWideScience

Sample records for residential clothes washers

  1. ENERGY STAR Certified Residential Clothes Washers

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 8.0 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Clothes Washers that are effective as of...

  2. 77 FR 32307 - Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Residential Clothes Washers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-31

    ... Efficiency Levels 5. Proprietary Designs 6. Reverse Engineering D. Markups Analysis E. Energy and Water Use...; technology options; approaches to the engineering, life-cycle cost, payback period and national impact... dates adequately consider the typical clothes washer model design cycle for manufacturers. (3) Whether...

  3. 77 FR 13887 - Energy Conservation Program: Test Procedures for Residential Clothes Washers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-07

    ... dryer usage factor; and (5) replaces the current representative load size calculation in the drying... specifications for the dryer to be used for bone-drying the test cloth; (10) clarifies the procedures for.... 12 at p. 4-5) NEEA expressed concern that the definition of the active washing mode leaves out...

  4. ENERGY STAR Certified Commercial Clothes Washers

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 8.0 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Clothes Washers that are effective as of...

  5. Preliminary engineering analysis for clothes washers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biermayer, Peter J.

    1996-10-01

    The Engineering Analysis provides information on efficiencies, manufacturer costs, and other characteristics of the appliance class being analyzed. For clothes washers, there are two classes: standard and compact. Since data were not available to analyze the compact class, only clothes washers were analyzed in this report. For this analysis, individual design options were combined and ordered in a manner that resulted in the lowest cumulative cost/savings ratio. The cost/savings ratio is the increase in manufacturer cost for a design option divided by the reduction in operating costs due to fuel and water savings.

  6. 10 CFR 431.152 - Definitions concerning commercial clothes washers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Commercial Clothers Washers § 431.152 Definitions concerning commercial... household will be using the clothes washer, such as multi-family housing common areas and coin laundries; or...

  7. 78 FR 10636 - Large Residential Washers From Korea and Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-14

    ... Residential Washers From Korea and Mexico Determinations On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in the... determines that an industry in the United States is materially injured by reason of imports from Mexico of... of large residential washers from Korea and Mexico were sold at LTFV within the meaning of 733(b) of...

  8. 77 FR 9700 - Large Residential Washers From Korea and Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-17

    ...)] Large Residential Washers From Korea and Mexico Determinations On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed... reasonable indication that an industry is materially injured by reason of imports from Mexico of large... imports of large residential washers from Mexico. Accordingly, effective December 30, 2011, the Commission...

  9. 77 FR 51569 - Large Residential Washers From Korea and Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-24

    ...)] Large Residential Washers From Korea and Mexico Scheduling of the final phase of countervailing duty and... and Mexico of large residential washers, provided for in subheading 8450.20.00 of the Harmonized... and Mexico are being sold in the United States at less than fair value within the meaning of section...

  10. ELECTRICITY SAVINGS BY IMPLEMENTING ENERGY EFFICIENCY STANDARDS AND LABELS FOR CLOTHES WASHERS IN MALAYSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ABU SALEH AHMED

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Clothes washers being one of the energy consuming household appliances in Malaysia have become a target for energy efficiency improvements. In the present study, a series of experiment investigations have been conducted on six clothes washers of varying capacities. The objectives are to develop the standards and labels. The test has been performed according to IEC (International Electrotechnical Commision clothes washers test specification. Using the experimental data, a baseline standard has been developed by statistical method. From the baseline standards, 10% standards have been developed. The baseline unit energy consumption was calculated to be 32 Wh/kg/cycle (average unit energy consumption of the six models and on the basis of baseline unit, standard unit energy consumption had been proposed to be 29 Wh/kg/cycle. It has been estimated with the introduction of minimum energy efficiency standards for clothes washer 38077037.46 kWh of energy could be saved per year. To develop a comprehensive energy guide labels, three labels had been design, which were star labeling, speedometer labeling and letter bin labeling. A survey was conducted with three different types of labels among the consumers and with the surveys respond, energy guide label of household clothes washers has been proposed for Malaysia. This is result from used of energy-efficient appliances product and is well positioned to promote more widespread efficient improvement.

  11. 76 FR 70996 - Decision and Order Granting a Waiver to Samsung From the Department of Energy Residential Clothes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-16

    ... and Order Granting a Waiver to Samsung From the Department of Energy Residential Clothes Washer Test... No. CW-020) that grants to Samsung Electronics America, Inc. (Samsung) a waiver from the DOE clothes... forth in its petition for waiver. Under today's decision and order, Samsung shall be required to test...

  12. 76 FR 50207 - Decision and Order Granting a Waiver to Samsung From the Department of Energy Residential Clothes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-12

    ... and Order Granting a Waiver to Samsung From the Department of Energy Residential Clothes Washer Test... No. CW-019) that grants to Samsung Electronics America, Inc. (Samsung) a waiver from the DOE clothes... forth in its petition for waiver. Under today's decision and order, Samsung shall be required to test...

  13. Can Standards Increase Consumer Welfare? Evidence from a Change in Clothes Washer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Xiaomei [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States); Roberts, Michael J. [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States); Univ. of Hawaii, Manoa, HI (United States); Yang, Hung-Chia [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Dale, Larry [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2012-12-08

    We study prices and sales of individual clothes washer models before, during and after a 2007 standard that banned manufacture (but not sale) of low-e ciency units and increased the threshold for Energy Star certi cation. While quantities sold of washer models banned from manufacture decreased sharply, prices for banned models increased only modestly. At the same time, sales of higher-e ciency units rose markedly while prices for high-e ciency units declined. On average, washer e ciency increased but prices changed little. A simple welfare analysis indicates that consumer welfare loss from banned washers was far outweighed by gains from lower-priced high-e ciency units. While a full cost-bene t analysis is not feasible with the available data, we estimate a lower-bound gain in consumer surplus equal to 6-16 percent of total sales. This result may accord with earlier theoretical research that shows quality standards can increase welfare in monopolistically competitive industries that possess increasing returns to scale (Ronnen, 1991). Thus, if energy e ciency is a close proxy for quality, energy e ciency standards may increase competition, market e ciency and welfare.

  14. 77 FR 4999 - Decision and Order Granting a Waiver to LG From the Department of Energy Clothes Washer Test...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-01

    ... grants to LG Electronics U.S.A., Inc. (LG) a waiver from the DOE clothes washer test procedure for.... Decision and Order In the Matter of: LG Electronics U.S.A., Inc. (Case No. CW-022) I. Background and... the FTC staff, it is ordered that: (1) The petition for waiver submitted by the LG Electronics America...

  15. Comparison of Test Procedures and Energy Efficiency Criteria in Selected International Standards and Labeling Programs for Clothes Washers, Water Dispensers, Vending Machines and CFLs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fridley, David; Zheng, Nina; Zhou, Nan

    2010-06-01

    Since the late 1970s, energy labeling programs and mandatory energy performance standards have been used in many different countries to improve the efficiency levels of major residential and commercial equipment. As more countries and regions launch programs covering a greater range of products that are traded worldwide, greater attention has been given to harmonizing the specific efficiency criteria in these programs and the test methods for measurements. For example, an international compact fluorescent light (CFL) harmonization initiative was launched in 2006 to focus on collaboration between Australia, China, Europe and North America. Given the long history of standards and labeling programs, most major energy-consuming residential appliances and commercial equipment are already covered under minimum energy performance standards (MEPS) and/or energy labels. For these products, such as clothes washers and CFLs, harmonization may still be possible when national MEPS or labeling thresholds are revised. Greater opportunity for harmonization exists in newer energy-consuming products that are not commonly regulated but are under consideration for new standards and labeling programs. This may include commercial products such as water dispensers and vending machines, which are only covered by MEPS or energy labels in a few countries or regions. As China continues to expand its appliance standards and labeling programs and revise existing standards and labels, it is important to learn from recent international experiences with efficiency criteria and test procedures for the same products. Specifically, various types of standards and labeling programs already exist in North America, Europe and throughout Asia for products in China's 2010 standards and labeling programs, namely clothes washers, water dispensers, vending machines and CFLs. This report thus examines similarities and critical differences in energy efficiency values, test procedure specifications and

  16. 76 FR 22324 - Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Residential Clothes Dryers and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-21

    ... efficiency level, so no consumers are impacted and therefore calculation of a payback period is not... dryers, and a cost of $166 for combination washer/dryers. The median payback period is 22.1 years for... ventless 240V clothes dryers, and a savings of $73 for combination washer/dryers. The median payback period...

  17. 77 FR 75988 - Notice of Final Determination of Sales at Less Than Fair Value: Large Residential Washers From...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-26

    ... Determination of Sales at Less Than Fair Value: Large Residential Washers From the Republic of Korea AGENCY... are likely to be, sold in the United States at less than fair value (LTFV), as provided in section 735... determination \\1\\ was issued. \\1\\ See Notice of Preliminary Determination of Sales at Less Than Fair Value and...

  18. ENERGY STAR Certified Residential Clothes Dryers

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 1.1 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Clothes Dryers that are effective as of January...

  19. Technical support document: Energy conservation standards for consumer products: Dishwashers, clothes washers, and clothes dryers including: Environmental impacts; regulatory impact analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-12-01

    The Energy Policy and Conservation Act as amended (P.L. 94-163), establishes energy conservation standards for 12 of the 13 types of consumer products specifically covered by the Act. The legislation requires the Department of Energy (DOE) to consider new or amended standards for these and other types of products at specified times. This Technical Support Document presents the methodology, data and results from the analysis of the energy and economic impacts of standards on dishwashers, clothes washers, and clothes dryers. The economic impact analysis is performed in five major areas: An Engineering Analysis, which establishes technical feasibility and product attributes including costs of design options to improve appliance efficiency. A Consumer Analysis at two levels: national aggregate impacts, and impacts on individuals. The national aggregate impacts include forecasts of appliance sales, efficiencies, energy use, and consumer expenditures. The individual impacts are analyzed by Life-Cycle Cost (LCC), Payback Periods, and Cost of Conserved Energy (CCE), which evaluate the savings in operating expenses relative to increases in purchase price; A Manufacturer Analysis, which provides an estimate of manufacturers' response to the proposed standards. Their response is quantified by changes in several measures of financial performance for a firm. An Industry Impact Analysis shows financial and competitive impacts on the appliance industry. A Utility Analysis that measures the impacts of the altered energy-consumption patterns on electric utilities. A Environmental Effects analysis, which estimates changes in emissions of carbon dioxide, sulfur oxides, and nitrogen oxides, due to reduced energy consumption in the home and at the power plant. A Regulatory Impact Analysis collects the results of all the analyses into the net benefits and costs from a national perspective. 47 figs., 171 tabs. (JF)

  20. 76 FR 49237 - Energy Conservation Program: Test Procedures for Residential Clothes Washers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-09

    ... accuracy and representativeness of the measurement as compared to the First Edition, but would cause the... representativeness of the resulting power consumption measurement. Furthermore, manufacturers supported DOE's use of...

  1. 77 FR 32381 - Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Residential Clothes Washers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-31

    ... Program for Consumer Products Other Than Automobiles,\\1\\ a program covering most major household... reflect a declining trend using the default product price trend in the Primary Estimate and High Benefits.... Although the price trends in the Primary Estimate and the High Benefits Estimate are the same, the...

  2. 76 FR 69869 - Energy Conservation Program: Test Procedures for Residential Clothes Washers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-09

    ... ensure that the test procedure is representative of consumer behavior and repeatable among different test... would not be factored into its energy efficiency rating. This would imply that consumer behavior would... previous section, DOE does not have data to verify how consumers may adjust their behavior based on the...

  3. 75 FR 57556 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Test Procedure for Residential Clothes Washers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-21

    ... technologies not covered by the current procedure; (2) more accurately reflect current consumer behavior and... Part II Department of Energy 10 CFR Part 430 Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products... [Docket No. EERE-2010-BT-TP-0021] RIN 1904-AC08 Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Test...

  4. 75 FR 57555 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Test Procedure for Residential Clothes Washers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-21

    ... technologies not covered by the current procedure; (2) more accurately reflect current consumer behavior and... Part II Department of Energy 10 CFR Part 430 Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products... [Docket No. EERE-2010-BT-TP-0021] RIN 1904-AC08 Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Test...

  5. 77 FR 59719 - Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Residential Clothes Washers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    ... Appliances (BSH), Alliance Laundry Systems (ALS), Viking Range, Sub-Zero Wolf, Friedrich A/C, U-Line, Samsung... manufacturing is classified under NAICS Code 335224, ``Household Laundry Equipment Manufacturing.'' The SBA sets... standards for consumer products or industrial equipment, and for which none of the exceptions identified in...

  6. 76 FR 79666 - Decision and Order Granting a Waiver to LG from the Department of Energy Residential Clothes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-22

    ... No. CW-021) that grants to LG Electronics U.S.A., Inc. (LG) a waiver from the DOE clothes washer test.... Decision and Order In the Matter of: LG Electronics U.S.A., Inc. (Case No. CW-021). I. Background and... ordered that: (1) The petition for waiver submitted by the LG Electronics America, Inc. (Case No. CW-021...

  7. 77 FR 76288 - Notice of Final Determination of Sales at Less Than Fair Value: Large Residential Washers from...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-27

    ... Administration [A-201-842] Notice of Final Determination of Sales at Less Than Fair Value: Large Residential..., or are likely to be, sold in the United States at less than fair value (LTFV), as provided in section... Determination of Sales at Less Than Fair Value and Postponement of Final Determination: Large Residential...

  8. 78 FR 151 - Energy Conservation Program: Test Procedures for Residential Clothes Dryers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-02

    ... (NRDC), Alliance to Save Energy (ASE), Alliance for Water Efficiency (AWE), Northwest Power and... in the docket of the residential dishwasher, dehumidifier, and conventional cooking products test...

  9. 76 FR 50145 - Energy Conservation Program: Test Procedures for Residential Clothes Dryers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-12

    ... electronic comments in WordPerfect, Microsoft Word, PDF, or ASCII file format and avoid the use of special... dryer and room air conditioner test procedures concerning the active mode for these products. 76 FR 972... testing revealed that all of the clothes dryers tested significantly over-dried the DOE test load to near...

  10. The Development of OZONE Washer at nuclear power generation plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goi, N.; Ito, Kazuaki; Nagano, T.; Tawaki

    2001-01-01

    An OZONE Washer for working clothes in nuclear power generation plants was developed. An ozone generator, tank for the solution with ozone and its recycling, washer and exhaust ventilation makes constructs of the OZONE Washer. The washing effect was determined by the difference of the absorbance of samples between before and after washing. These samples were sewed on the stained places and washed. Main strain was consisted of sebum and protein from human bodies. The average removing stains of samples by water and ozone dissolved solution were 100% and 200%, respectively. Moreover, the deodorization and disinfecting effect were observed by ozone. The water saving of equipment was carried out by reuse of washing water after adding ozone. The strains was dissolved in water and then oxidized thoroughly by ozone added. (S.Y.)

  11. Suprascapular Nerve Injury at the Spinoglenoid Notch in a Washer Man: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atif Ahmed Khan

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Suprascapular Nerve injury is an uncommon cause of shoulder pain and weakness. Lesions of the Suprascapular Nerve can occur at the Supraspinatus or the Spinoglenoid Notch. We present here, report of a 26-year-old washer man who presented with pain in left shoulder and difficulty washing clothes. Clinical evaluation and electrodiagnostic studies confirmed injury to the left Suprascapular Nerve at the Spinoglenoid Notch. The patient was managed conservatively for six weeks with relative rest, supervised physiotherapy and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, following which he showed substantial reduction in pain and improvement in functional activities.

  12. Evaluation of advanced technologies for residential appliances and residential and commercial lighting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turiel, I.; Atkinson, B.; Boghosian, S.; Chan, P.; Jennings, J.; Lutz, J.; McMahon, J.; Rosenquist, G.

    1995-01-01

    Section 127 of the Energy Policy Act requires that the Department of Energy (DOE) prepare a report to Congress on the potential for the development and commercialization of appliances that substantially exceed the present federal or state efficiency standards. Candidate high-efficiency appliances must meet several criteria including: the potential exists for substantial improvement (beyond the minimum established in law) of the appliance`s energy efficiency; electric, water, or gas utilities are prepared to support and promote the commercialization of such appliances; manufacturers are unlikely to undertake development and commercialization of such appliances on their own, or development and production would be substantially accelerated by support to manufacturers. This report describes options to improve the efficiency of residential appliances, including water heaters, clothes washers and dryers, refrigerator/freezers, dishwashers, space heating and cooling devices, as well as residential and commercial lighting products. Data from this report (particularly Appendix 1)were used to prepare the report to Congress mentioned previously. For the residential sector, national energy savings are calculated using the LBL Residential Energy Model. This model projects the number of households and appliance saturations over time. First, end-use consumption is calculated for a base case where models that only meet the standard replace existing models as these reach the end of their lifetime. Second, models with efficiencies equal to the technology under consideration replace existing models that reach the end of their lifetime. For the commercial sector, the COMMEND model was utilized to project national energy savings from new technologies. In this report, energy savings are shown for the period 1988 to 2015.

  13. AA, shims and washers on quadrupole ends

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1981-01-01

    Due to the fact that much of the field of the quadrupoles was outside the iron (in particular with the wide quadrupoles) and that thus the fields of quadrupoles and bending magnets interacted, the lattice properties of the AA could not be predicted with the required accuracy. After a first running period in 1980, during which detailed measurements were made with proton test beams, corrections to the quadrupoles were made in 1981, in the form of laminated shims at the ends of the poles, and with steel washers. With the latter ones, further refinements were made in an iterative procedure with measurements on the circulating beam. This eventually resulted, amongst other things, in a very low chromaticity, with the Q-values being constant to within +- 0.001 over the total momentum range of 6 %. Here we see the shims and washers on a narrow qudrupole (QFN, QDN). See also 8103203, 8103204, 8103205, 8103206.

  14. 10 CFR Appendix J to Subpart B of... - Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Automatic and Semi-Automatic Clothes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... mm) plastic sheet. All clothes washer components which occupy space within the clothes container and... (0.051 mm) plastic sheet to prevent water from entering any void space. 3.1.3Record the total weight.... Applicable Temperature Use Factors for Determining Hot Water Usage for Various Wash/Rinse Temperature...

  15. Protective clothing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malet, J.C.; Regnier, J.

    1979-01-01

    The present operational and intervention suits are described. Research work is currently in progress to improve the performance of the existing suits and to develop more resistant protective clothing. (author)

  16. Limitations of the disk-and-washer structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schriber, S.O.; Potter, J.M.

    1979-01-01

    A preliminary analysis of measurements on β = 0.6 and 1.0 disk-and-washer linac cavities has indicated some limitations on washer support methods; in particular, that the use of radial supports should be avoided until further testing is completed

  17. KENTE CLOTH

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    warp and weft yarns, butalso the woven strips of the fabric which are sewn together to form the. Asante Kente cloth. Modern trends in fashion and the strong desire to be individualistic rather than to conform to tradi- tion has brought about changes in the usages of the Asante Kente. According to Ofori-Ansa,. (1993) the Kente ...

  18. Cloth in the Cult

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nosch, Marie-Louise Bech; Perna, Massimo

    2001-01-01

    analysis of the use and function of cloth in the Mycenaean cult. It is demonstrated that there is a division between cloth for offerings and cloth for culk personnel......analysis of the use and function of cloth in the Mycenaean cult. It is demonstrated that there is a division between cloth for offerings and cloth for culk personnel...

  19. Cloth in the Cult

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nosch, Marie-Louise Bech; Perna, Massimo

    2000-01-01

    The paper investigates cloth in the Bronze Age cult in Greece and disusses its function. There is a seperation between cloth for offerings and cloth for cult personnel......The paper investigates cloth in the Bronze Age cult in Greece and disusses its function. There is a seperation between cloth for offerings and cloth for cult personnel...

  20. Key Residential Building Equipment Technologies for Control and Grid Support PART I (Residential)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Starke, Michael R [ORNL; Onar, Omer C [ORNL; DeVault, Robert C [ORNL

    2011-09-01

    Electrical energy consumption of the residential sector is a crucial area of research that has in the past primarily focused on increasing the efficiency of household devices such as water heaters, dishwashers, air conditioners, and clothes washer and dryer units. However, the focus of this research is shifting as objectives such as developing the smart grid and ensuring that the power system remains reliable come to the fore, along with the increasing need to reduce energy use and costs. Load research has started to focus on mechanisms to support the power system through demand reduction and/or reliability services. The power system relies on matching generation and load, and day-ahead and real-time energy markets capture most of this need. However, a separate set of grid services exist to address the discrepancies in load and generation arising from contingencies and operational mismatches, and to ensure that the transmission system is available for delivery of power from generation to load. Currently, these grid services are mostly provided by generation resources. The addition of renewable resources with their inherent variability can complicate the issue of power system reliability and lead to the increased need for grid services. Using load as a resource, through demand response programs, can fill the additional need for flexible resources and even reduce costly energy peaks. Loads have been shown to have response that is equal to or better than generation in some cases. Furthermore, price-incentivized demand response programs have been shown to reduce the peak energy requirements, thereby affecting the wholesale market efficiency and overall energy prices. The residential sector is not only the largest consumer of electrical energy in the United States, but also has the highest potential to provide demand reduction and power system support, as technological advancements in load control, sensor technologies, and communication are made. The prevailing loads

  1. Piezoelectric Washer for Accurate Application of Bolt Preload

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A concept is proposed for monitoring bolt preload that offers accuracy and low-cost features not available in existing preload monitoring systems. Existing washer...

  2. Clothes Dryer Automatic Termination Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    TeGrotenhuis, Ward E.

    2014-10-01

    Volume 2: Improved Sensor and Control Designs Many residential clothes dryers on the market today provide automatic cycles that are intended to stop when the clothes are dry, as determined by the final remaining moisture content (RMC). However, testing of automatic termination cycles has shown that many dryers are susceptible to over-drying of loads, leading to excess energy consumption. In particular, tests performed using the DOE Test Procedure in Appendix D2 of 10 CFR 430 subpart B have shown that as much as 62% of the energy used in a cycle may be from over-drying. Volume 1 of this report shows an average of 20% excess energy from over-drying when running automatic cycles with various load compositions and dryer settings. Consequently, improving automatic termination sensors and algorithms has the potential for substantial energy savings in the U.S.

  3. Vial washers for the compounding pharmacy: ensuring preparation safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Kain; Sully, Andrew; Anthenat, Bruce

    2014-01-01

    The safety and effectiveness of customized formulations have always been priorities for compounding pharmacists, perhaps even more so since a tragic outbreak of meningitis in 2012 was traced to preparations from the New England Compounding Center in Framingham, Massachusetts. Since that time, pharmaceutical compounding in the U.S. has been the focus of renewed interest from the public and from government organizations and regulatory bodies created to ensure patient safety. As a result, responsible compounders have responded to ensure--to even greater levels--the purity and safety of the formulations they prepare. One tool useful in doing so is the mechanical vial washer, which can produce cleaner vials (and/or ampules, syringes, and cartridges, depending on the washer model) more consistently than does washing vessels by hand. In this article, several such washers appropriate for use in a compounding pharmacy are profiled, and a pharmacist's experience in using one of those models is described.

  4. 76 FR 72722 - Helical Spring Lock Washers From China and Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-25

    ... COMMISSION Helical Spring Lock Washers From China and Taiwan Determination On the basis of the record \\1... antidumping duty orders on helical spring lock washers from China and Taiwan would be likely to lead to... with respect to helical spring lock washers from Taiwan. Background The Commission instituted these...

  5. [Clothing and heat disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satsumoto, Yayoi

    2012-06-01

    The influence of the clothing material properties(like water absorbency and rapid dryness, water vapor absorption, water vapor permeability and air permeability) and the design factor of the clothing(like opening condition and fitting of clothing), which contributed to prevent heat disorder, was outlined. WBGT(wet-bulb globe temperature) is used to show a guideline for environmental limitation of activities to prevent heat disorder. As the safety function is more important than thermal comfort for some sportswear and protective clothing with high cover area, clothing itself increases the risk of heat disorder. WBGT is corrected by CAF (clothing adjustment factor) in wearing such kind of protective clothing.

  6. 77 FR 48108 - Energy Conservation Standards for Commercial Clothes Washers: Public Meeting and Availability of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-13

    ... commercial matters regulated by U.S. antitrust laws. After the public meeting and the expiration of the.... Code, for editorial reasons.) The Energy Policy Act of 2005 (EPACT 2005), Public Law 109-58, further...

  7. 16 CFR 305.11 - Labeling for refrigerators, refrigerator-freezers, freezers, dishwashers, clothes washers, water...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... headline, copy, and charts to maintain uniformity for immediate consumer recognition and readability. Trim... type and graphics shall be print process black. (d) Label types. The labels must be affixed to the...

  8. Repellent-Treated Clothing

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA regulates the pesticide permethrin to pre-treat clothing. We evaluate the safety and effectiveness of such insecticide uses, by exposure scenarios and risk assessment. Read and follow the label directions for use of permethrin-treated clothing.

  9. Automobile windshield washer fluid: A potential source of transmission for Legionella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwake, David Otto; Alum, Absar; Abbaszadegan, Morteza

    2015-09-01

    Epidemiological evidence suggesting driving cars to be a risk factor for legionellosis has prompted public health studies to investigate vehicle windshield washer fluid as a novel transmission source of this disease. The goal of the current study was to investigate whether or not windshield washer fluid could serve as a potential source of transmission for Legionella. A wide variation in the survival of L. pneumophila was observed when incubated in different washer fluids at 25 and 37 °C, however, one brand tested supported Legionella survival similar to or greater than sterilized deionized water. In addition, 1 L of tap water contained in a washer fluid reservoir was able to support population growth and survival of Legionella for several months. In a field study examining the windshield washer fluid of 12 elementary school buses, Legionella were detected from 84% of samples at a high concentration of 8.1×10(4) CFU/mL. Culturable cells were also detected in aerosolized washer fluid during washer fluid spray. By demonstrating survival in certain windshield washer fluids, growth within washer fluid reservoirs, and the presence of viable cells in bus washer fluid spray, we have provided evidence suggesting the potential for a novel route of Legionella exposure. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Advanced Clothing System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broyan, James; Orndoff, Evelyne

    2014-01-01

    The goal of the Advanced Clothing System (ACS) is to use advanced commercial off-the-shelf fibers and antimicrobial treatments with the goal of directly reducing the mass and volume of a logistics item. The current clothing state-of-the-art on the International Space Station (ISS) is disposable, mostly cotton-based, clothing with no laundry provisions. Each clothing article has varying use periods and will become trash. The goal is to increase the length of wear of the clothing to reduce the logistical mass and volume. The initial focus has been exercise clothing since the use period is lower. Various ground studies and an ISS technology demonstration have been conducted to evaluate clothing preference and length of wear. The analysis indicates that use of ACS selected garments (e.g. wool, modacrylic, polyester) can increase the breakeven point for laundry to 300 days.

  11. Vacuum design for the disk-and-washer accelerator structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruhe, J.R.; Hansborough, L.D.

    1982-02-01

    The disk-and-washer (DAW) accelerator structure is being developed for several applications. Because of its complicated geometry and newness, vacuum calculations for the DAW accelerator structure are not yet formalized. The applicable vacuum equations for this structure are presented and correlations for it have been made with the vacuum data from the Clinton P. Anderson Meson Physics Facility side-coupled accelerator structure. A calculation is presented for the DAW structure proposed for the Pion Generator for Medical Irradiations (PIGMI) accelerator

  12. KASTAMONU TRADITIONAL WOMEN CLOTHES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.Elhan ÖZUS

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Clothing is a unique dressing style of a community, a period or a profession. In clothing there is social status and difference principle rather than fashion. In this context, the society created a clothing style in line with its own customs, traditions and social structure. One of the features separating societies from each other and indicating their cultural and social classes is the clothing style. As it is known, traditional Turkish clothes reflecting the characteristics of Turkish society is our most beautiful heritage from past to present. From this heritage there are several examples of women's clothes c arried to present. When these examples are examined, it is possible to see the taste, the way of understanding art, joy and the lifestyle of the history. These garments are also the documents outlining the taste and grace of Turkish people. In the present study, traditional Kastamonu women's clothing, that has an important place in traditional cultural clothes of Anatolia, is investigated . The method of the present research is primarily defined as the examination of the written sources. The study is complet ed with the observations and examinations made in Kastamonu. According to the findings of the study, traditional Kastamonu women's clothing are examined and adapted to todays’ clothing.

  13. Final Technical Report Steam Cycle Washer for Unbleached Pulp

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Starkey, Yvonne; Salminen, Reijo; Karlsnes, Andy

    2008-09-22

    Project Abstract for “Steam Cycle Washer for Unbleached Pulp” When completed, the patented SC Washer will provide an innovative, energy efficient demonstration project to wash unbleached pulp using a pressure vessel charged with steam. The Port Townsend Paper Corporation’s pulp mill in Port Townsend, WA was initially selected as the host site for conducting the demonstration of the SCW. Due to 2006 and 2007 delays in the project caused by issues with 21st Century Pulp & Paper, the developer of the SCW, and the 2007 bankruptcy proceedings and subsequent restructuring at Port Townsend Paper, the mill can no longer serve as a host site. An alternate host site is now being sought to complete the commercial demonstration of the Steam Cycle Washer for Unbleached Pulp. Additionally, estimated costs to complete the project have more than doubled since the initial estimates for the project were completed in 2002. Additional grant funding from DOE was sought and in July, 2008 the additional DOE funds were procured under a new DOE award, DE-PS36-08GO98014 issued to INL. Once the new host site is secured the completion of the project will begin under the management of INL. Future progress reports and milestone tracking will be completed under requirements of new DOE Award Number DE-PS36-08GO98014. The following are excerpts from the project Peer Review completed in 2006. They describe the project in some detail. Additional information can be found by reviewing DOE Award Number: DE-PS36-08GO98014. 5. Statement of Problem and Technical Barriers: The chemical pulping industry is one of the major users of fresh water in the United States. On average the industry uses over 80 tons of water to produce one ton of pulp, some states use up to 50% more (Washington 120 and Wisconsin 140). In order to process one ton of pulp using 80 tons of process water, a large amount of: • energy is used in process heat and • power is required for pumping the large volume of pulp slurries

  14. Cold or hot wash: Technological choices, cultural change, and their impact on clothes-washing energy use in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Jiang; Iyer, Maithili

    2007-01-01

    Usage pattern of clothes washing (and clothes washers) are strongly related to local cultural practices. Such practices have led to the development of distinctive clothes-washing technologies in the US, Europe, and Japan. In emerging markets such as China, several types of technologies often co-exist. Some use less energy but more water (the impeller type), and some use more energy but less water (the horizontal axis type). The competition between different technologies is thought to lead to better consumer choices. However, it could also lead to changes in clothes-washing habits-from cold to hot wash, and therefore to much higher energy use. This paper examines the standard development process in China to illustrate that adoption of foreign technologies and technical standards, if not carefully calibrated to the local cultural practices, could have unintended consequences for energy use and environment

  15. 76 FR 57075 - Helical Spring Lock Washers From China and Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-15

    ... COMMISSION Helical Spring Lock Washers From China and Taiwan Scheduling of expedited five-year reviews concerning the antidumping duty orders on helical spring lock washers from China and Taiwan. AGENCY: United... from China and Taiwan would be likely to lead to continuation or recurrence of material injury within a...

  16. Radiation protecting clothing materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mio, Kotaro; Ijiri, Yasuo.

    1986-01-01

    Purpose: To provide radiation protecting clothing materials excellent in mechanical strength, corrosion resistance, flexibility and flexing strength. Constitution: The radiation protecting clothing materials according to this invention has pure lead sheets comprising a thin pure lead foil of 50 to 150 μm and radiation resistant organic materials, for example, polyethylene with high neutron shielding effect disposed to one or both surfaces thereof. The material are excellent in the repeating bending fatigue and mechanical strength, corrosion resistance and flexibility and, accordingly, radiation protecting clothings prepared by using them along or laminating them also possess these excellent characteristics. Further, they are excellent in the handlability, particularly, durability to the repeated holding and extension, as well as are preferable in the physical movability and feeling upon putting. The clothing materials may be cut into an appropriate size, or stitched into clothings made by radiation-resistant materials. In this case, pure lead sheets are used in lamination. (Horiuchi, T.)

  17. 76 FR 31629 - Helical Spring Lock Washers From China and Taiwan; Institution of Five-Year Reviews Concerning...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    ... COMMISSION Helical Spring Lock Washers From China and Taiwan; Institution of Five-Year Reviews Concerning the Antidumping Duty Orders on Helical Spring Lock Washers From China and Taiwan AGENCY: United States... determine whether revocation of the antidumping duty orders on helical spring lock washers from China and...

  18. Azerbaijan's Medieval Clothes and Jewelry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yegana Aghamaliyeva

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In the 16thcentury high level of culture and art has positively influenced the development of clothing in Azerbaijan. In the 17thcentury in spite of paleness of manufactured fabric and its ornaments, clothing style completely reminds 16thcentury clothes. 18thcentury clothes distinguish with its high level of form and composition. In that period clothes were decorated by sewing. Traditional clothing set was completed by jewelries considered for neck, chest, arm and waist. In the second half of the 19th century, replacing of national clothes primarily happened in the capital city, and further spread in the other territories of Azerbaijan. Traditional clothing completely lost out at the beginning of the 20thcentury due to its unsustainability to compete with mass-produced clothes. Currently, when fashion designers prepare modern costumes they refer to the rich elements of our ancient clothing and apply them to their collections. Thus, they add historical national spirit to their clothing collections.

  19. Radiation protective clothing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Choshin; Takaura, Katsutoshi

    1998-01-01

    An external clothing as a main portion of the radiation protective clothing of the present invention is adapted to cover substantially the entire body of a wearer, comprises a moisture permeable material partially or entirely, and has an air supply device equipped with a filter for feeding air to a head portion of the wearer in the external clothing. Cleaned air filtered by the filter is supplied to the head portion of a wearer in the external clothing. The air passes through remarkably perspiratory head, face, shoulder, chest and back portions to remove heat and sweat at sensitively important upper portions of a body, so that humidity is released to remove fatigues and improve workability. In addition, since some extent of internal pressure is exerted to the inside of the external clothing by the air supply, contaminated air does not intrude from the outside to the external clothing. Since the air supply device is attached and carried to the external clothing, there is no air line hose which disturbs operation. (I.S.)

  20. Clothing Systems Design Lab

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Clothing Systems Design Lab houses facilities for the design and rapid prototyping of military protective apparel.Other focuses include: creation of patterns and...

  1. Exercise clothing and shoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... clothing for activities like: Walking Gentle yoga Strength training Basketball You may want to wear form-fitting, stretchy ... thick soles. For strength or CrossFit training, choose training ... like basketball or soccer, get shoes that match your activity. ...

  2. Clothing and personal hygiene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finogenov, A. M.; Azhayev, A. N.; Kaliberdin, G. V.

    1975-01-01

    The biomedical maintenance of astronauts is discussed in terms of personal hygiene. Principal characteristics and general requirements are described which must be followed in perfecting a system of hygienic practices and in devising means to maintain personal hygiene, flight clothing, underwear, bedding, and medical-domestic equipment for manned space flights of varying durations. Factors discussed include: disposable clothing, thermal protection, oral hygiene, cleansing of the skin, and grooming of the hair.

  3. REDUCED PROTECTIVE CLOTHING DETERMINATIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BROWN, R.L.

    2003-01-01

    This technical basis document defines conditions where reduced protective clothing can be allowed, defines reduced protective clothing, and documents the regulatory review that determines the process is compliant with the Tank Farm Radiological Control Manual (TFRCM) and Title 10, Part 835, of the Code of Federal Regulations (10CFR835). The criteria, standards, and requirements contained in this document apply only to Tank Farm Contractor (TFC) facilities

  4. Burns and military clothing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLean, A D

    2001-02-01

    Burn injury is a ubiquitous threat in the military environment. The risks during combat are well recognised, but the handling of fuel, oil, munitions and other hot or flammable materials during peacetime deployment and training also imposes an inherent risk of accidental burn injury. Over the last hundred years, the burn threat in combat has ranged from nuclear weapons to small shoulder-launched missiles. Materials such as napalm and white phosphorus plainly present a risk of burn, but the threat extends to encompass personnel in vehicles attacked by anti-armour weapons, large missiles, fuel-air explosives and detonations/conflagrations on weapons platforms such as ships. Large numbers of burn casualties were caused at Pearl Harbor, in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Vietnam, during the Arab/Israeli Wars and in the Falkland Islands conflict. The threat from burns is unlikely to diminish, indeed new developments in weapons seek to exploit the vulnerability of the serviceman and servicewoman to burns. Clothing can be a barrier to some types of burn--both inherently in the properties of the material, but also by trapping air between clothing layers. Conversely, ignition of the clothing may exacerbate a burn. There is hearsay that burnt clothing products within a wound may complicate the clinical management, or that materials that melt (thermoplastic materials) should not be worn if there is a burn threat. This paper explores the incidence of burn injury, the mechanisms of heat transfer to bare skin and skin covered by materials, and the published evidence for the complication of wound management by materials. Even light-weight combat clothing can offer significant protection to skin from short duration flash burns; the most vulnerable areas are the parts of the body not covered--face and hands. Multilayered combat clothing can offer significant protection for short periods from engulfment by flames; lightweight tropical wear with few layers offers little protection. Under

  5. 77 FR 4279 - Large Residential Washers From the Republic of Korea: Initiation of Countervailing Duty...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-27

    ... domestic producers or workers accounting for more than 50 percent of the total production of the domestic... accounting for more than 50 percent of the total production of the domestic like product and, as such, the... subject merchandise: 1. Daewoo Electronics Corporation (Daewoo) Restructuring a. GOK-Directed Equity...

  6. 77 FR 1082 - Large Residential Washers From Korea and Mexico; Institution of Antidumping and Countervailing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-09

    ... less than fair value and alleged to be subsidized by the Government of Korea. The products subject to... presentation at the conference. A nonparty who has testimony that may aid the Commission's deliberations may... the investigations. Parties may file written testimony in connection with their presentation at the...

  7. 78 FR 11148 - Large Residential Washers From Mexico and the Republic of Korea: Antidumping Duty Orders

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-15

    ... below for LG. However, with respect to Daewoo Electronics Corporation (Daewoo), Samsung Electronics Co., Ltd. (Samsung), and All Others, the Department did find countervailing duties attributable to export... countervailing duty rate attributable to export subsidies (i.e., 3.30 percent).\\14\\ For Samsung, we offset the...

  8. 77 FR 75975 - Large Residential Washers From the Republic of Korea: Final Affirmative Countervailing Duty...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-26

    ... ``petitioner''). The mandatory respondents in this investigation are: (1) Samsung Electronics Co., Ltd., and its cross-owned affiliates Samsung Electronics Service and Samsung Electronics Logitech (collectively, Samsung); (2) LG Electronics and its cross-owned affiliate, ServeOne Co., Ltd. (ServeOne) (collectively...

  9. 77 FR 33181 - Large Residential Washers From the Republic of Korea: Preliminary Affirmative Countervailing Duty...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-05

    ...)(i) of the Act to companies investing in ``new growth engines'' technology. The tax credits are...\\ See 19 CFR 351.524(a). \\46\\ See, e.g., Certain Hot-Rolled Carbon Steel Flat Products from India: Final...) (HRS from India), and accompanying Issues and Decision Memorandum at ``Exemption from the CST.'' 2...

  10. Experimental and calculated rf properties of the disk-and-washer structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potter, J.M.; Schriber, S.O.; Humphry, F.J.

    1979-01-01

    A detailed study of the disk-and-washer structure using SUPERFISH has shown that the physical geometry can be optimized to make the structure more efficient than previously reported. The calculated ZT 2 is equal to that of an equivalent LAMPF cavity (neglecting any losses associated with the side-coupler slots) for β = 0.6 and is 30% higher for β = 1.0. Several techniques for supporting the washer were studied in addition to the conventional ''L'' supports. Two types of supports, the ''TO'' that supports two washers from every other disk with a T, and radial supports in the washer plane, improve left-right symmetry and reduce the tuning effort required to achieve a satisfactory field distribution. Effects of these supports on tuning procedures are discussed

  11. Clothes make the man

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kregting, A.

    2014-01-01

    When it is winter you will wear a warm jumper, a heavy coat and gloves, during summertime a pair of shorts and a shirt are enough. You adapt your clothes to the climate conditions you live in. However, if you are working under extreme weather circumstances it is a different story, because how do you

  12. Respirators and protective clothing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1967-01-01

    The basic object in the use of protective clothing and equipment is to prevent contamination of the skin and to prevent inhalation and ingestion of radioactive isotopes or other toxic materials. This book is a guide to deciding the kind and quantity of protective equipment needed for a particular type of laboratory or operation.

  13. ESD - FUNCTIONAL CLOTHING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SCARLAT Razvan

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The functional clothing represents a sustainable development direction of in the field of technical textiles, a bridge between various activity domains, a solution to user’s complex requirements. The research and development potential in the field is supported by the new fibers/ yarns generation, the new technologies and the market niches, as well. Protective clothing is now a major part of textile classified under technical textile. Protective clothing refers to the garment and other fabric related items designed to protect the wearer from harsh environmental effects that results in injuries or death. The innovation, as a result of convergence processing technologies, consumer demands and what is viable on the market, defines the personal protective equipment field. In this article, we present the work of an ESD protective clothing development. Therefore, it has been applied a modern knitting technology, on 7E and 12E STOLL machines, using cotton and wool yarns as base yarn and conductive yarns for plaiting structures. Also, the optimal parameters establishment and the functional requirements are aspects of the research activity performed. The experimental models have been conducted in order to demonstrate the design concept used and choosing the optimal variant. The characterization of the developed experimental variants took into account the evaluation of physico-mechanical and electrical characteristics. From the electrical point of view, the variants have been mainly evaluated through “point to point” method in terms of electrical isolation efficiency dimensional changes analysis.

  14. 76 FR 5733 - Clothing Allowance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-02

    ... DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS 38 CFR Part 3 RIN 2900-AN64 Clothing Allowance AGENCY: Department... to amend its adjudication regulations regarding clothing allowances. The amendment would provide for annual clothing allowances for each qualifying prosthetic or orthopedic appliance worn or used by a...

  15. Design and development of progressive tool for manufacturing washer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annigeri, Ulhas K.; Raghavendra Ravi Kiran, K.; Deepthi, Y. P.

    2017-07-01

    In a progressive tool the raw material is worked at different station to finally fabricate the component. A progressive tool is a lucrative tool for mass production of components. A lot of automobile and other transport industries develop progressive tool for the production of components. The design of tool involves lot of planning and the same amount of skill of process planning is required in the fabrication of the tool. The design also involves use of thumb rules and standard elements as per experience gained in practice. Manufacturing the press tool is a laborious task as special jigs and fixtures have to be designed for the purpose. Assembly of all the press tool elements is another task where use of accurate measuring instruments for alignment of various tool elements is important. In the present study, design and fabrication of progressive press tool for production of washer has been developed and the press tool has been tried out on a mechanical type of press. The components produced are to dimensions.

  16. Investigation of the disc-and-washer structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mavrogenes, G.; Gallagher, W.J.

    1981-01-01

    About 1971 a proposed accelerating structure was described by the radiotechnical Institute, Moscow, which was intended for proton acceleration in a planned meson factory linac. The structure has several quite useful features and has been subsequently investigated by AECL (Chalk River, Canada), LASL (UC Los Alamos, NM) and Argonne National Laboratory. A sketch of the structure is shown which reveals the origin of the name disc-and-washer structure (DAW). The origin and development of the concept upon which the structure is founded is provided from considerations of a chain of individual TM-01 cavities designed to produce kinetic energy gain to a bunched beam transiting their common axis. It is assumed the cavities are individually excited without inter-coupling; so that for maximum energy gain there is a specific phasing requirement based on the transit time from the previous cavity. Such a system would be very complex to operate and would only be considered in the special case of a few cavities as, for example, the LASL PHERMEX

  17. Environmental benefits from reusing clothes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farrant, Laura; Olsen, Stig Irving; Wangel, Arne

    2010-01-01

    on the identification of the different profiles of the consumers questioned, a methodology was developed to get a quantitative evaluation of the replacement of new clothes enabled by second-hand clothing consumption. A Life cycle Assessment was conducted based on the EDIP methodology. The life cycle impacts of clothes...... clothes actually results in a decrease of the environmental burden of the life cycle of clothing. The environmental burden of clothing has been studied in several studies. However, most of these studies focus solely on the energy consumption aspects and pay little attention to the potential benefits...... that are directly disposed of by incineration were compared with the life cycle impacts of clothes that are collected and sorted after consumer use in order to be reused. Two products were assessed: a cotton T-shirt and a pair of polyester (65%)/cotton (35%) trousers. The functional unit was 100 garments in the use...

  18. Temperature controlling cloth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujiwara, Kyoko.

    1995-01-01

    In a radiation protective cloth of the present invention, liquid channels made of a porous material which does not permeate liquid but permeate steams are formed, and a moisture absorbing cooling medium solution is flown to the channels to control temperature of a human body. Accordingly, the human body is cooled by the moisture absorbing cooling medium solution itself, and at the same time, sweat from the human body can be absorbed. If the liquid channels are composed of porous resin tubes or porous resin panels, those can be formed to clothes easily, and improve athletic performance since they are flexible. Further, use of an aqueous solution of lithium chloride, for example, as the moisture absorbing cooling medium solution, can provide merits of high moisture absorbing property, capability of dewatering by heating, and repeated use. (T.M.)

  19. Analytical solution for the simultaneous heat and mass transfer problem in air washers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, J.C. [Department of Mechanical Production Engineering, Regional University of Cariri, Av. Leao Sampaio, S/N - Juazeiro do Norte, Ceara 63040-000 (Brazil); Medeiros, J.M. [Federal Institute of Education, Science and Technology of Pernambuco, Rodovia PE-60 km 14, Ipojuca, Pernambuco 55590-000 (Brazil); dos Santos, J.C.; Gurgel, J.M. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Federal University of Paraiba, LES/UFPB - Cidade Universitaria, Joao Pessoa, Paraiba 58090-900 (Brazil); Marcondes, F. [Department of Metallurgical Engineering and Material Science, Federal University of Ceara, Campus do Pici, Bloco 714 Fortaleza, Ceara 60455-760 (Brazil)

    2011-01-15

    An analytical solution approach for the simultaneous heat and mass transfer problem in air washers operating as evaporative coolers is presented. A one-dimensional model using the coupled mass and energy balance equations in the air washer is presented. Then, starting from a linear approach for the experimental curve of the air saturation, an analytical solution for the model was derived. The solution showed an excellent agreement with the available results found in the literature. The influence of several important parameters for the cooling process such as temperature and ambient air humidity, air flow rate and feeding water temperature, in the air cooling rate was investigated. The efficacy of the process can be greatly increased by reducing the cooling water temperature and the applied air flow rate. The analytical solution can be easily included into the models used for simulating desiccant air-conditioning systems operating in conjunction with air washers. (author)

  20. Simple Non-regenerative Deceleration Control of Permanent Magnetic Synchronous Motor for Vibration Control in Drum-type Washer/Dryer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomigashi, Yoshio; Okonogi, Akira; Kishimoto, Keiji

    Drum-type washer/dryers are becoming more common in Japan, but the vibration created by unequally distributed clothes is a significant problem in this type of machine. We have developed a vibration control that prevents this imbalance by re-arranging the balancer fluid on the opposite side of the heavier distribution when there is unequal distribution. The drum, which has a large inertia, must be decelerated rapidly to enable the balancer fluid to shift. When a permanent magnetic synchronous motor is decelerated using an inverter, the machine's energy is converted into electrical energy, which regenerates the power supply. A control method has been developed that adjusts the input power of the motor to zero, thereby eliminating the need for a discharge circuit. However, it is not easy to achieve this method with an inexpensive microcomputer. In this paper, a practical braking method in which energy does not regenerate the power supply is examined. First, a simple method in which non-regenerative braking is possible with low input power is proposed, even though the input power is not zero. The effectiveness of this non-regenerative deceleration control is verified by theoretical numerical analysis and by an experiment. The borderline of the voltage vector for the non-generative braking is affected by dead time, and the experimental results differ from the theoretically calculated results. However, it is experimentally confirmed that the proposed non-regenerative deceleration control can be achieved by correcting the impressed voltage vector based on experimental results. Finally, this control is applied to the vibration control of the drum-type washer/dryer, and it is confirmed that the balancer fluid moves as designed.

  1. Affordable Hybrid Heat Pump Clothes Dryer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    TeGrotenhuis, Ward E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Butterfield, Andrew [Jabil, St. Petersburg, FL (United States); Caldwell, Dustin D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Crook, Alexander [Jabil, St. Petersburg, FL (United States)

    2016-06-30

    This project was successful in demonstrating the feasibility of a step change in residential clothes dryer energy efficiency by demonstrating heat pump technology capable of 50% energy savings over conventional standard-size electric dryers with comparable drying times. A prototype system was designed from off-the-shelf components that can meet the project’s efficiency goals and are affordable. An experimental prototype system was built based on the design that reached 50% energy savings. Improvements have been identified that will reduce drying times of over 60 minutes to reach the goal of 40 minutes. Nevertheless, the prototype represents a step change in efficiency over heat pump dryers recently introduced to the U.S. market, with 30% improvement in energy efficiency at comparable drying times.

  2. Climate and suitable clothing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamas, R

    2010-10-01

    Climate may be described as refined weather The meteorologist notes the day-to-day variations of the weather components, extracts the principal frequencies which then describe the seasons, and once the average values have been derived over long periods of time, there emerges the concept of climate. Advances in preventive and curative medicine are such that man is left virtually with only his two oldest enemies to combat: his fellow men and the environment and he will be able to give better attention to the former if the latter is neutralised by the supply of suitable clothing designed to keep him comfortable.

  3. Advanced Clothing Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orndoff, Evelyne; Poritz, Darwin

    2014-01-01

    All human space missions require significant logistical mass and volume that add an unprecedented burden on longduration missions beyond low-Earth orbit. For these missions with limited cleaning resources, a new wardrobe must be developed to reduce this logistical burden by reducing clothing mass and extending clothing wear. The present studies have been undertaken, for the first time, to measure length of wear and to assess the acceptance of such extended wear. Garments in these studies are commercially available exercise T-shirts and shorts, routine-wear T-shirts, and longsleeved pullover shirts. Fabric composition (cotton, polyester, light-weight, superfine Merino wool, modacrylic, cotton/rayon, polyester/Cocona, modacrylic/Xstatic, modacrylic/rayon, modacrylic/lyocell/aramid), construction (open knit, tight knit, open weave, tight weave), and finishing treatment (none, quaternary ammonium salt) are the independent variables. Eleven studies are reported here: five studies of exercise T-shirts, three of exercise shorts, two of routine wear Tshirts, and one of shirts used as sleep-wear. All studies are conducted in a climate-controlled environment, similar to a space vehicle's. For exercise clothing, study participants wear the garments during aerobic exercise. For routine wear clothing, study participants wear the T-shirts daily in an office or laboratory. Daily questionnaires collected data on ordinal preferences of nine sensory elements and on reason for retiring a used garment. Study 1 compares knitted cotton, polyester, and Merino exercise T-shirts (61 participants), study 2, knitted polyester, modacrylic, and polyester/Cocona exercise T-shirts (40 participants), study 3, cotton and polyester exercise shorts, knitted and woven (70 participants), all three using factorial experimental designs with and without a finishing treatment, conducted at the Johnson Space Center, sharing study participants. Study 4 compares knitted polyester and ZQ Merino exercise T

  4. Cleaning of work clothing

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    As of March 2007, the laundry service (TS/FM) will introduce a new procedure for the collection of work clothing and its redistribution when returned to CERN from the laundry. Clothes will no longer be collected from and distributed to the usual points, but will have to be deposited and exchanged at a pre-defined location and at specific times, as follows: For Meyrin site: in Bldg. 2/ R-402 Each second Thursday between 8-00 and 9-30. Starting on Thursday, March 22, 2007. For Prévessin site and SM18: in Bldg. 933/ R-007. Each second Thursday between 10-00 and 11-30. Starting on Thursday, March 22, 2007. Notices explaining the procedure to be followed will be posted at the collection points used until now. No change in present practice is foreseen, however, for LHC Points 2 and 5. If you require any further information please call the laundry service on 16 2056 or 16 0053.

  5. Cleaning of work clothing

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    As of March 2007, the laundry service (TS/FM) will introduce a new procedure for the collection of work clothing and its redistribution when returned to CERN from the laundry. Clothes will no longer be collected from and distributed to the usual points, but will have to be deposited and exchanged at a pre-defined location and specific time, as specified below: For Meyrin site: Bldg. 2/ R-402 Every second Thursday between 8.00 a.m. and 9.30 a.m. Starting on Thursday, March 22, 2007. For Prévessin site and SM18: Bldg. 933/ R-007. Every second Thursday between 10.00 a.m. and 11.30 a.m. Starting on Thursday, March 22, 2007. Notices explaining the procedure to be followed will be posted at the collection points used until now. No change in present practice is foreseen, however, for LHC Points 2 and 5. If you require any further information please call the laundry service on 16 2056 or 16 0053.

  6. Cleaning of work clothing

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    As of March 2007, the laundry service (TS/FM) will introduce a new procedure for the collection of work clothing and its redistribution when returned to CERN from the laundry. Clothes will no longer be collected from and distributed to the usual points, but will have to be deposited and exchanged at a pre-defined location and specific time, as specified below: For Meyrin site: Bldg. 2/ R-402 Every second Thursday between 8-00 and 9-30. Starting on Thursday, March 22, 2007. For Prévessin site and SM18: Bldg. 933/ R-007. Every second Thursday between 10-00 and 11-30. Starting on Thursday, March 22, 2007. Notices explaining the procedure to be followed will be posted at the collection points used until now. No change in present practice is foreseen, however, for LHC Points 2 and 5. If you require any further information please call the laundry service on 16 2056 or 16 0053.

  7. Clothing Flammability and Burn Injuries: Public Opinion Concerning an Overlooked, Preventable Public Health Problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frattaroli, Shannon; Spivak, Steven M; Pollack, Keshia M; Gielen, Andrea C; Salomon, Michele; Damant, Gordon H

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to describe knowledge of clothing flammability risk, public support for clothing flammability warning labels, and stronger regulation to reduce the risk. As part of a national survey of homeowners about residential sprinkler systems, the authors included questions about clothing flammability. The authors used an online web panel to sample homeowners and descriptive methods to analyze the resulting data. The sample included 2333 homeowners. Knowledge of clothing flammability and government oversight of clothing flammability risk was low. Homeowners were evenly split about the effectiveness of current standards; however, when presented with clothing-related burn injury and death data, a majority (53%) supported stricter standards. Most homeowners (64%) supported warning labels and indicated that such labels would either have no effect on their purchasing decisions (64%) or be an incentive (24%) to purchase an item. Owners of sprinkler-equipped homes were more likely to support these interventions than owners of homes without sprinkler systems. Public knowledge about clothing flammability risks is low. Most homeowners supported clothing labels to inform consumers of this risk and increased government intervention to reduce the risk.

  8. Determination of clothing microclimate volume

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daanen, Hein; Hatcher, Kent; Havenith, George

    2005-01-01

    The average air layer thickness between human skin and clothing is an important factor in heat transfer. The trapped volume between skin and clothing is an estimator for everage air layer thickness. Several techniques are available to determine trapped volume. This study investigates the reliability

  9. New Clothing for Handheld Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Harry T.

    2013-01-01

    Clothing is influenced by many factors, trends, and social happenings. Much of what is worn today had utilitarian roots in the past. In the activitiy presented in this article, students will have the opportunity to redesign clothing for new trends, in this case, the explosion of handheld electronic devices.

  10. Tritium protective clothing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuller, T. P.; Easterly, C. E.

    1979-06-01

    Occupational exposures to radiation from tritium received at present nuclear facilities and potential exposures at future fusion reactor facilities demonstrate the need for improved protective clothing. Important areas relating to increased protection factors of tritium protective ventilation suits are discussed. These areas include permeation processes of tritium through materials, various tests of film permeability, selection and availability of suit materials, suit designs, and administrative procedures. The phenomenological nature of film permeability calls for more standardized and universal test methods, which would increase the amount of directly useful information on impermeable materials. Improvements in suit designs could be expedited and better communicated to the health physics community by centralizing devlopmental equipment, manpower, and expertise in the field of tritium protection to one or two authoritative institutions.

  11. Tritium protective clothing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuller, T.P.; Easterly, C.E.

    1979-06-01

    Occupational exposures to radiation from tritium received at present nuclear facilities and potential exposures at future fusion reactor facilities demonstrate the need for improved protective clothing. Important areas relating to increased protection factors of tritium protective ventilation suits are discussed. These areas include permeation processes of tritium through materials, various tests of film permeability, selection and availability of suit materials, suit designs, and administrative procedures. The phenomenological nature of film permeability calls for more standardized and universal test methods, which would increase the amount of directly useful information on impermeable materials. Improvements in suit designs could be expedited and better communicated to the health physics community by centralizing devlopmental equipment, manpower, and expertise in the field of tritium protection to one or two authoritative institutions

  12. Recession's effects on Finnish women's clothing buying behavior & clothing preferences

    OpenAIRE

    Hlavaty, Isa Sofia

    2013-01-01

    In Finland recession’s effect can be seen in the sales of small brand cloth boutiqs because the consumers do not buy as much products from them as they did few years ago. The Baby boomers (born in 1945- 1950) and the Millennials (born in 1984- 1988) buy most of their clothes from department stores and from big clothing stores. The affordable price and cloth’s origin have noticed to have an influence to the different age groups purchase decision making. This thesis focuses mainly on the Ba...

  13. Residential Waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Fruergaard, Thilde; Matsufuji, Y.

    2011-01-01

    are discussed in this chapter. Characterizing residential waste is faced with the problem that many residences already divert some waste away from the official collection systems, for example performing home composting of vegetable waste and garden waste, having their bundled newspaper picked up by the scouts...... twice a year or bringing their used furniture to the flea markets organized by charity clubs. Thus, much of the data available on residential waste represents collected waste and not necessarily all generated waste. The latter can only be characterized by careful studies directly at the source...

  14. 38 CFR 3.810 - Clothing allowance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Clothing allowance. 3.810..., Compensation, and Dependency and Indemnity Compensation Special Benefits § 3.810 Clothing allowance. (a) Except... therefor, to an annual clothing allowance as specified in 38 U.S.C. 1162. The annual clothing allowance is...

  15. 20 CFR 638.525 - Clothing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Clothing. 638.525 Section 638.525 Employees... THE JOB TRAINING PARTNERSHIP ACT Center Operations § 638.525 Clothing. The Job Corps Director shall establish procedures to provide clothing for all students by means of a clothing purchase allowance and by...

  16. Method of washing contaminated clothings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komatsu, Fumiaki.

    1991-01-01

    The present invention concerns a method of washing contaminated clothings deposited with contaminates such as radioactive materials. The clothings are put into an extractor, and gaseous carbon dioxide is supplied under pressure and heating to the extractor. The clothings are brought into contact with gaseous carbon dioxide for a predetermined period of time, to separate oils and fats and water content deposited to the clothings by dissolving them into the gaseous carbon dioxide. The gaseous carbon dioxide containing the oils and fats and the water content are taken out from the extractor and charged to a separator, in which the oils and fats and the water content are separated, and then released to the atmosphere passing through a high performance filter. The clothings are transferred from the extractor to a water-washing vessel and immersed in a fresh water to remove salts derived from man's body, powdery dusts in the air, radioactive substances, etc. by rinsing. Then, the clothings are dried by a dryer. This can eliminate worries of undesired effects on circumstances by a simple method. (I.N.)

  17. The UTCI-clothing model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havenith, George; Fiala, Dusan; Błazejczyk, Krzysztof; Richards, Mark; Bröde, Peter; Holmér, Ingvar; Rintamaki, Hannu; Benshabat, Yael; Jendritzky, Gerd

    2012-05-01

    The Universal Thermal Climate Index (UTCI) was conceived as a thermal index covering the whole climate range from heat to cold. This would be impossible without considering clothing as the interface between the person (here, the physiological model of thermoregulation) and the environment. It was decided to develop a clothing model for this application in which the following three factors were considered: (1) typical dressing behaviour in different temperatures, as observed in the field, resulting in a model of the distribution of clothing over the different body segments in relation to the ambient temperature, (2) the changes in clothing insulation and vapour resistance caused by wind and body movement, and (3) the change in wind speed in relation to the height above ground. The outcome was a clothing model that defines in detail the effective clothing insulation and vapour resistance for each of the thermo-physiological model's body segments over a wide range of climatic conditions. This paper details this model's conception and documents its definitions.

  18. The UTCI-clothing model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havenith, George; Fiala, Dusan; Błazejczyk, Krzysztof; Richards, Mark; Bröde, Peter; Holmér, Ingvar; Rintamaki, Hannu; Benshabat, Yael; Jendritzky, Gerd

    2012-05-01

    The Universal Thermal Climate Index (UTCI) was conceived as a thermal index covering the whole climate range from heat to cold. This would be impossible without considering clothing as the interface between the person (here, the physiological model of thermoregulation) and the environment. It was decided to develop a clothing model for this application in which the following three factors were considered: (1) typical dressing behaviour in different temperatures, as observed in the field, resulting in a model of the distribution of clothing over the different body segments in relation to the ambient temperature, (2) the changes in clothing insulation and vapour resistance caused by wind and body movement, and (3) the change in wind speed in relation to the height above ground. The outcome was a clothing model that defines in detail the effective clothing insulation and vapour resistance for each of the thermo-physiological model's body segments over a wide range of climatic conditions. This paper details this model's conception and documents its definitions.

  19. University of Maryland Wall Washer Retrofit - LED Modules Replace Halogen Lamps in a Performing Arts Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilkerson, Andrea M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Abell, Thomas C. [Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States); Perrin, Tess E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-08-03

    The University of Maryland (UMD) began retrofitting halogen wall washers in the Clarice Smith Performing Arts Center (CSPAC) in April 2014. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Solid-State Lighting (SSL) GATEWAY program documented this process through the final installation in March 2015, summarized in this report. The wall washers illuminate hallways lining the atrium, providing task illuminance for transitioning between spaces and visual interest to the atrium boundaries. The main goals of the retrofit were to maintain the visual appearance of the space while reducing maintenance costs – energy savings was considered an additional benefit by UMD Facilities Management. UMD Facilities Management is pleased with the results of this retrofit, and continues to initiate LED retrofit projects across the UMD campus.

  20. Study on the coaxial couplers for disk and washer loaded accelerating structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dajkovskij, A.G.; Paramonov, V.V.; Portugalov, Yu.I.; Ryabov, A.D.; Ryabova, T.D.

    1983-01-01

    The paper describes the dispersion and energy properties of the coaxial coupler (CC), which is a promising component for an accelerating system, with the disk and washer (DAW) structure. Resonators, consisting of the DAW structure sections and CC are shown to persist the main advantage of DAW structure, i.e. high stability of the accelerating field distribution. Therewith RF power losses are small. The presence of nonsymetriric modes in the neighbourbood of the operating mode is noted

  1. A Smart Washer for Bolt Looseness Monitoring Based on Piezoelectric Active Sensing Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heyue Yin

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Piezoceramic based active sensing methods have been researched to monitor preload on bolt connections. However, there is a saturation problem involved with this type of method. The transmitted energy is sometimes saturated before the maximum preload which is due to it coming into contact with flat surfaces. When it comes to flat contact surfaces, the true contact area will easily saturate with the preload. The design of a new type of bolt looseness monitoring sensor, a smart washer, is to mitigate the saturation problem. The smart washer is composed of two annular disks with contact surfaces that are machined into convex and concave respectively, to eliminate the complete flat contact surfaces and to reduce the saturation effect. One piezoelectric patch is bonded on the non-contact surface of each annular disk. These two mating annular disks form a smart washer. One of the two piezoelectric patches serves as an actuator to generate an ultrasonic wave that propagates through the contact surface; the other one serves as a sensor to detect the propagated waves. The wave energy propagated through the contact surface is proportional to the true contact area which is determined by the bolt preload. The time reversal method is used to extract the peak of the focused signal as the index of the transmission wave energy; then, the relationship between the signal peak and bolt preload is obtained. Experimental results show that the focused signal peak value changes with the bolt preload and presents an approximate linear relationship when the saturation problem is experienced. The proposed smart washer can monitor the full range of the rated preload.

  2. Demonstration of Advanced Technologies for Multi-Load Washers in Hospitality and Healthcare -- Wastewater Recycling Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyd, Brian K. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Parker, Graham B. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Petersen, Joseph M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Sullivan, Greg [Efficiency Solutions, LLC (United States); Goetzler, W. [Navigant Consulting, Inc. (United States); Foley, K. J. [Navigant Consulting, Inc. (United States); Sutherland, T. A. [Navigant Consulting, Inc. (United States)

    2014-08-14

    The objective of this demonstration project was to evaluate market-ready retrofit technologies for reducing the energy and water use of multi-load washers in healthcare and hospitality facilities. Specifically, this project evaluated laundry wastewater recycling technology in the hospitality sector and ozone laundry technology in both the healthcare and hospitality sectors. This report documents the demonstration of a wastewater recycling system installed in the Grand Hyatt Seattle.

  3. Clothing creator trademark : Business plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stern, B.

    1990-10-01

    SYMAGERY has developed a patented process to manufacture clothing without direct human labor. This CLOTHING CREATOR{trademark}, will have the ability to produce two (2) perfect garments every 45 seconds or one (1) every 30 seconds. The process will combine Computer Integrated Manufacturing (CIM) technology with heat molding and ultrasonic bonding/cutting techniques. This system for garment production, will have the capacity to produce garments of higher quality and at lower productions costs than convention cut and sew methods. ADVANTAGES of the process include: greatly reduced production costs; increased quality of garments; reduction in lead time; and capacity to make new class of garments. This technology will accommodate a variety of knit, woven and nonwoven materials containing a majority of synthetic fibers. Among the many style of garments that could be manufactured by this process are: work clothing, career apparel, athletic garments, medical disposables, health care products, activewear, haz/mat garments, military clothing, cleanroom clothing, outdoor wear, upholstery, and highly contoured stuffed toy shells. 3 refs.

  4. Cooling clothing utilizing water evaporation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sakoi, Tomonori; Tominaga, Naoto; Melikov, Arsen Krikor

    2014-01-01

    We developed cooling clothing that utilizes water evaporation to cool the human body and has a mechanism to control the cooling intensity. Clean water was supplied to the outer surface of the T-shirt of the cooling clothing, and a small fan was used to enhance evaporation on this outer surface...... temperature ranging from 27.4 to 30.7 °C to establish a suitable water supply control method. A water supply control method that prevents water accumulation in the T-shirt and water dribbling was validated; this method is established based on the concept of the water evaporation capacity under the applied...

  5. Innovative Cleaning of Crew Clothing by Microwave

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Currently, there are no in-flight laundry capabilities. All clothing is intended for a single use, and then becomes trash. The ability to launder clothing would...

  6. Interpretation of clothing heritage for contemporary tourism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilman Proje, J.; Bizjak, M.

    2017-10-01

    In tourism is the first impression of essential meaning as tourists falling by what they see. In designing the clothing image, for commercial use in tourist sector, should be considered that clothes are consistent with the clothing habits of the region and that comply with the heritage story and style of the geographical area. Clothing image of the tourism representatives of the Bohinj region (Slovenia) has been developed. When designing, the inspiration was sought in historical and contemporary clothing image and heritage stories, in elements that representatives of the community recognize as their own cultural heritage. Affiliated clothes for tourism employees should have a useful function of comfortable workwear with heritage expression, meaning clothes are to be accepted as “everyday” clothes and not as a costume.

  7. Crew Clothing Odor Absorbing Stowage Bag

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Clothing accounts for a significant portion of the logistical mass launched on current space missions: 277 kg (including 62 kg of exercise clothing) for an ISS crew...

  8. Analysis of Traditional Historical Clothing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Karsten; Schmidt, A. L.; Petersen, A. H.

    2013-01-01

    for establishing a three-dimensional model and the corresponding two-dimensional pattern for items of skin clothing that are not flat. The new method is non-destructive, and also accurate and fast. Furthermore, this paper presents an overview of the more traditional methods of pattern documentation and measurement...

  9. Textiles and clothing sustainability sustainable technologies

    CERN Document Server

    2017-01-01

    This is the first book to deal with the innovative technologies in the field of textiles and clothing sustainability. It details a number of sustainable and innovative technologies and highlights their implications in the clothing sector. There are currently various measures to achieve sustainability in the textiles and the clothing industry, including innovations in the manufacturing stage, which is the crux of this book.

  10. 46 CFR 154.1840 - Protective clothing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Protective clothing. 154.1840 Section 154.1840 Shipping... FOR SELF-PROPELLED VESSELS CARRYING BULK LIQUEFIED GASES Operations § 154.1840 Protective clothing... operation, except those assigned to gas-safe cargo control rooms, wears protective clothing. ...

  11. 33 CFR 142.36 - Protective clothing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Protective clothing. 142.36... Protective clothing. Personnel in areas where there are flying particles, molten metal, radiant energy, heavy dust, or hazardous materials shall wear clothing and gloves providing protection against the hazard...

  12. Employment Clothing for Women in Training Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Searle, Cherry

    1996-01-01

    Eighty-one women in social service employment programs were surveyed to determine knowledge of employment clothing. They were compared on demographics. Differences were found in possession of business clothing, resources for clothing, education, income, residence, and homelessness. Findings indicate a need to educate low-income participants on…

  13. 77 FR 4007 - Large Residential Washers From the Republic of Korea and Mexico: Initiation of Antidumping Duty...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-26

    ..., and knowledge of, the market. The petitioner further adjusted home market price by deducting Korean... market share, reduced shipments, underselling and price depression or suppression, a decline in financial... Mexico. The sources of, and adjustments to, the data relating to U.S. price and NV are discussed in...

  14. 77 FR 46401 - Large Residential Washers From Mexico: Preliminary Determination of Sales at Less Than Fair Value...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-03

    ... From Mexico: Preliminary Determination of Sales at Less Than Fair Value and Postponement of Final...) from Mexico are being sold, or are likely to be sold, in the United States at less than fair value... 4011. \\18\\ See, e.g., Notice of Preliminary Determination of Sales at Less Than Fair Value and...

  15. Shopping for clothes: Body satisfaction, appearance investment, and functions of clothing among female shoppers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiggemann, Marika; Lacey, Catherine

    2009-09-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the link between clothing and body experience in women of different ages. Participants were 162 female clothes shoppers between the ages of 18 and 55 who completed questionnaire measures of body image, functions of clothing, self-esteem, and enjoyment of clothes shopping. It was found that clothing was worn primarily for assurance and fashion by women of all ages. On the other hand, BMI and body dissatisfaction were related to the use of clothing for camouflage purposes and to a more negative clothes shopping experience. Both components of appearance investment were related to choice of clothes for fashion and assurance. However, the self-evaluative salience component was negatively related, while the motivational salience was positively related, to enjoyment of clothes shopping. It was concluded that although clothing is an under-researched aspect of body image, it represents an important part of women's appearance management, whatever their age.

  16. Modeling Neanderthal clothing using ethnographic analogues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wales, Nathan

    2012-12-01

    Although direct evidence for Neanderthal clothing is essentially nonexistent, information about Paleolithic clothing could provide insights into the biological, technological, and behavioral capabilities of Neanderthals. This paper takes a new approach to understanding Neanderthal clothing through the collection and analysis of clothing data for 245 recent hunter-gatherer groups. These data are tested against environmental factors to infer what clothing humans tend to wear under different conditions. Beta regression is used to predict the proportion of the body covered by clothing according to a location's mean temperature of the coldest month, average wind speed, and annual rainfall. In addition, logistic regression equations predict clothing use on specific parts of the body. Neanderthal clothing patterns are modeled across Europe and over a range of Pleistocene environmental conditions, thereby providing a new appreciation of Paleolithic behavioral variability. After accounting for higher tolerances to cold temperatures, it is predicted that some Neanderthals would have covered up to 80% of their bodies during the winter, probably with non-tailored clothing. It is also likely that some populations covered the hands and feet. In comparison with Neanderthals, Upper Paleolithic modern humans are found to have worn more sophisticated clothing. Importantly, these predictions shed new light on the relationship between Neanderthal extinction and their simple clothing. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. An Environmental Perspective on Clothing Consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gwozdz, Wencke; Nielsen, Kristian S.; Mueller, Tina

    2017-01-01

    Efforts to decrease the environmental impact of today’s clothing industry across the entire process of production, purchase, maintenance, and disposal can be driven by either suppliers or consumers. Changing the behavior of the latter, however, requires an understanding of current clothing...... on clothing consumption behavior. At the low end of the spectrum is a consumer segment that earns the least, consumes mostly budget brand clothing, and is the least open to alternative more environmentally friendly business models such as fashion leasing or clothing libraries. At the other extreme lies...... a small segment that earns the most, engages in high consumption of medium or premium brand clothing, and is most open to alternative business models. Lying between these two is a primarily female segment that purchases an above average amount of clothing from budget brands. In addition to the segments...

  18. E-COMMERCE SIDEWALK CLOTHING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dias Ariffiana

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available E-commerce merupakan aplikasi perdagangan barang atau jasa berbasis web melalui media internet.  Sidewalk Clothing saat ini dalam melakukan proses jual beli masih mengharuskan pembeli dan penjual bertatap muka secara langsung. E-commerce atau yang lebih dikenal dengan toko online memberikan kemudahan dalam melakukan proses jual beli sehingga transaksi jual beli menjadi lebih efektif dan efisien. Hasil yang dicapai dalam pembuatan e-commerce ini adalah mempermudah proses transaksi jual beli tanpa terikat waktu dan tempat. Dengan adanya e-commerce ini pemilik toko dimudahkan dalam memperbaharui informasi mengenai produk yang dijual dan dapat sekaligus meningkatkan penjualan. Pembeli dimudahkan dalam dalam mendapatkan informasi produk yang ditawarkan dan pembeli bisa membeli produk tersebut setiap saat. Dengan adanya e-commerce ini dapat memudahkan transaksi jual beli antara pemilik toko dan pembeli, serta memudahkan pemilik toko dalam memperbaharui informasi sehingga dengan adanya e- commerce omset penjualan akanmeningkat. Kata Kunci:E-commerce, website, Sidewalk Clothing

  19. Blackout cloth for dormancy induction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tom Jopson

    2007-01-01

    The use of blackout cloth to create long night photoperiods for the induction of dormancy in certain conifer species has been an established practice for a long time. Its use was suggested by Tinus and McDonald (1979) as an effective technique, and the practice has been commonly used in Canadian forest nurseries for a number of years. Cal-Forest Nursery installed its...

  20. Origin of clothing lice indicates early clothing use by anatomically modern humans in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toups, Melissa A; Kitchen, Andrew; Light, Jessica E; Reed, David L

    2011-01-01

    Clothing use is an important modern behavior that contributed to the successful expansion of humans into higher latitudes and cold climates. Previous research suggests that clothing use originated anywhere between 40,000 and 3 Ma, though there is little direct archaeological, fossil, or genetic evidence to support more specific estimates. Since clothing lice evolved from head louse ancestors once humans adopted clothing, dating the emergence of clothing lice may provide more specific estimates of the origin of clothing use. Here, we use a Bayesian coalescent modeling approach to estimate that clothing lice diverged from head louse ancestors at least by 83,000 and possibly as early as 170,000 years ago. Our analysis suggests that the use of clothing likely originated with anatomically modern humans in Africa and reinforces a broad trend of modern human developments in Africa during the Middle to Late Pleistocene.

  1. Clothing and dementia: A neglected dimension?

    OpenAIRE

    Twigg, Julia

    2010-01-01

    The article explores the neglected subject of clothing and dementia. Addressing questions of the body, identity and selfhood, it argues – against the dominant understanding – that clothes continue to be significant in the lives and wellbeing of people with dementia. Drawing on new theorising that emphasises the embodied nature of selfhood, the article explores the role of clothing in the maintenance of identity; its nature as the ‘environment closest in’; its significance in social interactio...

  2. 20 CFR 670.640 - Are students provided with clothing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Are students provided with clothing? 670.640... clothing? Yes, Job Corps students are provided cash clothing allowances and/or articles of clothing, including safety clothing, when needed for their participation in Job Corps and their successful entry into...

  3. The influence of the clothing sales assistant on the female ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    indicated in the framework. The female consumer in clothing retail. Clothing sales assistant: • Approach consumer. • Behaviour. • Characteristics. • Appearance. Female clothing consumer. Expectations of cloth- ing sales assistant. Retailer gaining purchases. Perception of clothing sales as- sistant. Emotions of consumers.

  4. Astronaut Clothing for Exploration Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poritz, Darwin H.; Orndoff, Evelyne; Kaspranskiy, Rustem R.; Schesinger, Thilini; Byrne, Vicky

    2016-01-01

    Astronaut clothes for exploration missions beyond low Earth orbit need to satisfy several challenges not met by the currently-used mostly-cotton clothing. A laundering system is not expected to be available, and thus soiled garments must be trashed. Jettisoning waste does not seem feasible at this time. The cabin oxygen concentration is expected to be higher than standard, and thus fabrics must better resist ignition and burning. Fabrics need to be identified that reduce logistical mass, that can be worn longer before disposal, that are at least as comfortable as cotton, and that resist ignition or that char immediately after ignition. Human factors and psychology indicate that crew well-being and morale require a variety of colors and styles to accommodate personal identity and preferences. Over the past four years, the Logistics Reduction Project under NASA's Advanced Exploration Systems Program has sponsored the Advanced Clothing System Task to conduct several ground studies and one ISS study. These studies have evaluated length of wear and personal preferences of commercially-available exercise- and routine-wear garments made from several fabrics (cotton, polyester, Merino wool, and modacrylic), woven and knitted. Note that Merino wool and modacrylic char like cotton in ambient air, while polyester unacceptably melts. This paper focuses on the two components of an International Space Station study, onboard and on the ground, with astronauts and cosmonauts. Fabrics were randomized to participants. Length of wear was assessed by statistical survival analysis, and preference by exact binomial confidence limits. Merino wool and modacrylic t-shirts were worn longer on average than polyester t-shirts. Interestingly, self-assessed preferences were inconsistent with length-of-wear behavior, as polyester was preferred to Merino wool and modacrylic.

  5. Awareness of the Social Implications of Clothing in Relation to Fashion Awareness and Clothing Economic Practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horridge, Patricia; Richards, Mary Lynne

    1986-01-01

    The Sproles Consumer Interests and Priorities questionnaire was administered to 3,036 home economists. Awareness of social implications of clothing, correlated positively with fashion awareness and clothing economic practices. Results suggest that persons exhibiting substantial awareness of social importance of clothing also tend to evidence…

  6. Analysis of Parametric Effects on Efficiency of the Brown Stock Washer in Paper Industry Using MATLAB

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Deepak; Kumar, Vivek; Singh, V. P.

    2009-07-01

    In the present paper, the effects of cake thickness and time on the efficiency of brown stock washer of the paper mill are studied by using mathematical model of pulp washing for the species of sodium and lignin ions. The mechanism of the diffusion- dispersion washing of the bed of the pulp fibers is mathematically modeled by the basic material balance and adsorption isotherm is used to describe the equilibrium between the concentration of the solute in the liquor and concentration of the solute on the fibers. To study the parametric effect, numerical solutions of the axial domain of the system governed by partial differential equations (transport and isotherm equations) for different boundary conditions are obtained by the "pdepe" solver in MATLAB source code. The effects of both the parameters are shown by three dimensional graphical representation as well as concentration profiles.

  7. 78 FR 1570 - Semiannual Regulatory Agenda

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-08

    ... Transformers (energy efficiency standards) Residential clothes washers (energy efficiency standards... Distribution Transformers (Reg Plan Seq No. 32). 263 Test Procedures for 1904-AC76 Residential Refrigerators... Efficiency Standards for Distribution Transformers Regulatory Plan: This entry is Seq. No. 32 in part II of...

  8. 77 FR 34218 - Clothing Allowance; Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-11

    ... could be construed to impose a restriction that VA did not intend. This document corrects that error... medication would be eligible for a clothing allowance for each such appliance or medication if each appliance or medication ``[a]ffects a distinct article of clothing or outergarment.'' On November 16, 2011, VA...

  9. Heat transfer from humans wearing clothing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lotens, W.A.

    1993-01-01

    In this monograph the effects of clothing on human heat transfer are described. The description is based on the physics of heat and mass transfer, depending on the design of the clothing, the climate, and the activity of the wearer. The resulting model has been stepwise implemented in computer

  10. Bullous diaper dermatitis with cloth diaper use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harfmann, Katya; Chen, Amy Y; Witman, Patricia

    2017-11-01

    Irritant diaper dermatitis occurs at a higher frequency with cloth diaper use than disposable diapers. We present four cases of vesiculobullous, erosive diaper dermatitis occurring in older infants and toddlers with cloth diaper use that resolved completely after transitioning to disposable diapers. This is the first report of vesicles and bullae as a type of irritant diaper dermatitis. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Insertion Loss of Personal Protective Clothing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shull, D.J.

    1999-01-01

    The use of personal protective clothing that covers the head is a common practice in many industries. Such personal protective clothing will impact the sound pressure level and the frequency content of sounds to which the wearer will be exposed. The use of such clothing, then, may impact speech and alarm audibility. A measure of the impact of such clothing is its insertion loss. Insertion loss measurements were performed on four types of personal protective clothing in use by Westinghouse Savannah River Company personnel which utilize cloth and plastic hood configurations to protect the head. All clothing configurations tested at least partially cover the ears. The measurements revealed that insertion loss of the items tested was notable at frequencies above 1000 Hz only and was a function of material stiffness and acoustic flanking paths to the ear. Further, an estimate of the clothing's noise reduction rating reveals poor performance in that regard, even though the insertion loss of the test articles was significant at frequencies at and above 1000 Hz.'

  12. Airtight clothing for preventing radioactive contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takimoto, Yoshinori.

    1979-01-01

    Purpose: To completely prevent the radioactive contaminations at the time of wearing or removing the airtight clothing, and further to facilitate wearing and removal of the same, air supply thereto and other works. Constitution: A duct having a large caliber and communicating with an air supply chamber is provided at the rear part of the airtight clothing. Since this duct is constituted in an expansible and contractible manner, the operator can pass the duct to wear or remove the airtight clothing. Since the airtight clothing according to the present invention is not cut off from its neck portion, the radiation protection is complete. Further, since the air supply duct has a great caliber, the wearing and removal of the airtight clothing become easy and further a large quantity of air can be supplied therein. (Kamimura, M.)

  13. Effect of clothing weight on body weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whigham, L D; Schoeller, D A; Johnson, L K; Atkinson, R L

    2013-01-01

    In clinical settings, it is common to measure weight of clothed patients and estimate a correction for the weight of clothing, but we can find no papers in the medical literature regarding the variability in clothing weight of adults with weather, season and gender. Fifty adults (35 women) were weighed four times during a 12-month period with and without clothing. Clothing weights were determined and regressed against minimum, maximum and average daily outdoor temperature. The average clothing weight (±s.d.) throughout the year was significantly greater in men than in women (1.2±0.3 vs 0.8±0.3 kg, Pclothing weights across the year were 0.9±0.2 and 1.5±0.4 kg for men, and 0.5±0.2 and 1.1±0.4 kg for women, respectively. The within-person s.d. in clothing weight was 0.3 kg for both men and women. Over the 55 °C range in the lowest to the highest outdoor temperatures, the regressions predicted a maximal change in clothing weight of only 0.4 kg in women and 0.6 kg in men. The clothing weight of men is significantly greater than that of women, but there is little variability throughout the year. Therefore, a clothing adjustment of approximately 0.8 kg for women and 1.2 kg for men is appropriate regardless of outdoor temperature.

  14. Novel Spiked-Washer Repair Is Biomechanically Superior to Suture and Bone Tunnels for Arcuate Fracture Repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vojdani, Saman; Fernandez, Laviel; Jiao, Jian; Enders, Tyler; Ortiz, Steven; Lin, Liangjun; Qin, Yi-Xian; Komatsu, David E; Penna, James; Ruotolo, Charles J

    2017-03-01

    Injuries to the posterolateral corner of the knee can lead to chronic degenerative changes, external rotation instability, and varus instability if not repaired adequately. A proximal fibula avulsion fracture, referred to as an arcuate fracture, has been described in the literature, but a definitive repair technique has yet to be described. The objective of this study was to present a novel arcuate fracture repair technique, using a spiked-washer with an intramedullary screw, and to compare its biomechanical integrity to a previously described suture and bone tunnel method. Ten fresh-frozen cadaveric knees underwent a proximal fibula osteotomy to simulate a proximal fibula avulsion fracture. The lateral knee capsule and posterior cruciate ligament were also sectioned to create maximal varus instability. Five fibulas were repaired using a novel spiked-washer technique and the other 5 were repaired using the suture and bone tunnel method. The repaired knees were subjected to a monotonic varus load using a mechanical testing system instrument until failure of the repair or associated posterolateral corner structures. Compared with the suture repair group, the spiked-washer repair group demonstrated a 100% increase in stiffness, 100% increase in yield, 110% increase in failure force, and 108% increase in energy to failure. The spiked-washer technique offers superior quasi-static biomechanical performance compared with suture repair with bone tunnels for arcuate fractures of the proximal fibula. Further clinical investigation of this technique is warranted and the results of this testing may lead to improved outcomes and patient satisfaction for proximal fibula avulsion fractures.

  15. Demonstration of Advanced Technologies for Multi-Load Washers in Hospitality and Healthcare -- Ozone Based Laundry Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyd, Brian K. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Parker, Graham B. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Petersen, Joseph M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Sullivan, Greg [Efficiency Solutions, LLC (United States); Goetzler, W. [Navigant Consulting, Inc. (United States); Sutherland, T. A. [Navigant Consulting, Inc. (United States); Foley, K. J. [Navigant Consulting, Inc. (United States)

    2014-08-14

    The objective of this demonstration project was to evaluate market-ready retrofit technologies for reducing the energy and water use of multi-load washers in healthcare and hospitality facilities. Specifically, this project evaluated laundry wastewater recycling technology in the hospitality sector and ozone laundry technology in both the healthcare and hospitality sectors. This report documents the demonstration of ozone laundry system installations at the Charleston Place Hotel in Charleston, South Carolina, and the Rogerson House assisted living facility in Boston, Massachusetts.

  16. Unexpected behavioural consequences of preterm newborns' clothing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durier, Virginie; Henry, Séverine; Martin, Emmanuelle; Dollion, Nicolas; Hausberger, Martine; Sizun, Jacques

    2015-03-17

    Restrictions of preterm newborns' movements could have consequences ranging from stress enhancement to impairment of their motor development. Therefore, ability to freely express motor activities appears crucial for their behavioural and physiological development. Our aim was to evaluate behavioural issues of two types of clothing used in NICU. We observed 18 healthy 34-37 post-conception week-old preterm newborns, during resting periods, when they were undisturbed by any interventions. Newborns wore either light clothing (bodysuit and a light wrapping) or heavy clothing (pyjamas, cardigan and sleep-sack). The percentages of time each subject spent in different postures were compared between clothing situations. Arm and hand postures differed in relation to clothing: babies bent their arms more and held their hands nearer their heads when in bodysuits than when in sleepwear. Consequently, babies in bodysuits spent more time touching their body or their environment whereas the others generally were touching nothing. Self-touch is an important way to comfort one's self. Heavy clothing may impair self-soothing behaviours of preterm newborn babies that already lack other forms of contact. Results suggest that more attention should be paid to apparently routine and marginal decisions such as choice of clothes.

  17. Weed seeds on clothing: a global review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansong, Michael; Pickering, Catherine

    2014-11-01

    Weeds are a major threat to biodiversity including in areas of high conservation value. Unfortunately, people may be unintentionally introducing and dispersing weed seeds on their clothing when they visit these areas. To inform the management of these areas, we conducted a systematic quantitative literature review to determine the diversity and characteristics of species with seeds that can attach and be dispersed from clothing. Across 21 studies identified from systematic literature searches on this topic, seeds from 449 species have been recorded on clothing, more than double the diversity found in a previous review. Nearly all of them, 391 species, are listed weeds in one or more countries, with 58 classified as internationally-recognised environmental weeds. When our database was compared with weed lists from different countries and continents we found that clothing can carry the seeds of important regional weeds. A total of 287 of the species are listed as aliens in one or more countries in Europe, 156 are invasive species/noxious weeds in North America, 211 are naturalized alien plants in Australia, 97 are alien species in India, 33 are invasive species in China and 5 are declared weeds/invaders in South Africa. Seeds on the clothing of hikers can be carried to an average distance of 13 km, and where people travel in cars, trains, planes and boats, the seeds on their clothing can be carried much further. Factors that affect this type of seed dispersal include the type of clothing, the type of material the clothing is made from, the number and location of the seeds on plants, and seed traits such as adhesive and attachment structures. With increasing use of protected areas by tourists, including in remote regions, popular protected areas may be at great risk of biological invasions by weeds with seeds carried on clothing. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Neutron irradiation effects on graphite cloth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, W.J.

    1976-01-01

    A series of cloth and fiber samples has been irradiated to fluences of 3.5, 7.3, and 10 x 10 21 cm -2 EFF* at 470 0 C. Data from the first set of samples show large shrinkages relative to that found for typical nuclear graphites. Nevertheless, all but one of the 2-dimensional cloths were unchanged except for the shrinkage. The 3-dimensional cloths, on the other hand, have deteriorated apparently because these types of weaves are less able to accommodate the large axial fiber shrinkages

  19. Energy Efficient Clothes Dryer with IR Heating and Electrostatic Precipitator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weaver, Stanton [GE Global Research, Niskayuna, NY (United States)

    2017-12-12

    The project goal was to develop a revolutionary energy saving technology for residential clothes drying. The team developed an IR (infrared) heating system and NESP (Nebulizer and Electro-Static Precipitator) for integration into a ventless clothes dryer. The proposed technology addresses two of the major inefficiencies in current electric vented dryers by providing effective energy transfer for the removal of the water and recapture of the vapor latent heat. The IR heaters operating in the mid wave (2.5-10um) are very efficient as they target the 3-micron peak absorption of the water molecule. This allows direct energy absorption, unlike conventional element heaters where heat is transferred by convection. The low power NESP removes water vapor from the exhausted stream and recaptures the latent heat in the ESP (Electro-Static Precipitator) exchanger section. This allows the warm dry air to be recirculated back into the drum for additional efficiency savings. The remaining majority of the dryer hardware stays the same. Summing the efficiency gain from the two subcomponents we anticipated the EF (Efficiency Factor) to exceed the goal of 4.04. EF is obtained by dividing the weight (lbs) of water removed by the energy (kWhr) used, where the test load size is 8.45 lbs of bone dry clothing wetted to 57.5% or 4.8lbs of water, and dried to a remaining moisture content of 2.5-5%. Additional benefits include not having to recondition (heat or cool) the large amounts of make-up air to replace the air exhausted by a vented dryer. It was anticipated that the NESP/heat exchanger would be the most challenging and highest risk element in the program. Therefore, the team focused their efforts during Phase 1 of the program on the design, construction, testing, and optimization of the NESP/heat exchanger. At the end Phase 1, the team compared the performance of the NESP/heat exchanger with the system level requirements and made a Go/No-Go decision on proceeding with the second

  20. 28 CFR 571.22 - Release clothing and transportation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Release clothing and transportation. 571... AND RELEASE RELEASE FROM CUSTODY Release Gratuities, Transportation, and Clothing § 571.22 Release clothing and transportation. (a) Staff shall provide release clothing appropriate for the time of year and...

  1. The application and development of artificial intelligence in smart clothing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Xiong

    2018-03-01

    This paper mainly introduces the application of artificial intelligence in intelligent clothing. Starting from the development trend of artificial intelligence, analysis the prospects for development in smart clothing with artificial intelligence. Summarize the design key of artificial intelligence in smart clothing. Analysis the feasibility of artificial intelligence in smart clothing.

  2. Folding System for the Clothes by a Robot and Tools

    OpenAIRE

    大澤, 文明; 関, 啓明; 神谷, 好承

    2004-01-01

    The works of a home robot has the laundering. The purpose of this study is to find a means of folding of the clothes and store the clothes in a drawer by a home robot. Because the shape of cloth tends to change in various ways depending on the situation, it is difficult for robot hands to fold the clothes. In this paper, we propose a realistic folding system for the clothes by a robot and tools. The function of a tool is folding the clothes in half by inserting the clothes using two plates. T...

  3. Improve protective clothing and reduce radwaste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnstone, G.A.; Fryer, J.; Smith, J.M.

    1995-01-01

    Nuclear power plants have been reducing radioactive waste production through aggressive volume reduction and control at the point of generation. Waste reduction efforts may, however, have reached a plateau. Certain items, such as protective clothing, are a necessary part of plant operations and cannot be eliminated. There are more than 800,000 sets of protective clothing currently in use at U.S. nuclear plants. Since up to 25% of these garments are removed from service each year, spent protective wear accounts for ∼100,000 ft 3 of prevolume reduced waste annually. Furthermore, up to 10% of dry active waste produced at commercial power reactor sites is comprised of exhausted protective clothing and related goods. This report describes the design of protective clothing which lasts longer and is lighter than traditional fabrics

  4. FLUORESCENT TRACER EVALUATION OF PROTECTIVE CLOTHING PERFORMANCE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field studies evaluating chemical protective clothing (CPC), which is often employed as a primary control option to reduce occupational exposures during pesticide applications, are limited. This study, supported by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), was designed to...

  5. Dermal Uptake of Benzophenone-3 from Clothing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morrison, Glenn C.; Bekö, Gabriel; Weschler, Charles J.

    2017-01-01

    compartments, including clothing. Given its physical and chemical properties, we hypothesized that dermal uptake from clothing could contribute to the body burden of this compound. First, cotton shirts were exposed to air at an elevated concentration of BP-3 for 32 days; the final air concentration was 4.4 μg....../m3. Next, three participants wore the exposed shirts for 3 h. After 3 h of exposure, participants wore their usual clothing during the collection of urine samples for the next 48 h. Urine was analyzed for BP-3, a metabolite (BP-1), and six other UV filters. The rate of urinary excretion of the sum...... with predictions of steady-state models, suggest that dermal uptake of BP-3 from clothing could meaningfully contribute to overall body burden....

  6. In-Space Manufacturing of Astronaut Clothing

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose an in-space manufacturing solution to produce and recycle crew clothing. Due to the versatility of polyester materials, a detailed study will be conducted...

  7. Logistics Reduction: Advanced Clothing System (ACS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The goal of the Advanced Exploration System (AES) Logistics Reduction (LR) project's Advanced Clothing System (ACS) is to use advanced commercial off-the-shelf...

  8. Neural response in obsessive-compulsive washers depends on individual fit of triggers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali eBaioui

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundPatients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD have highly idiosyncratic triggers. To fully understand which role this idiosyncrasy plays in the neurobiological mechanisms behind OCD, it is necessary to elucidate the impact of individualization regarding the applied investigation methods.This functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI study explores the neural correlates of contamination/washing-related OCD with a highly individualized symptom provocation paradigm. Additionally, it is the first study to directly compare individualized and standardized symptom provocation. MethodsNineteen patients with washing compulsions created individual OCD hierarchies, which later served as instructions to photograph their own individualized stimulus sets. The patients and 19 case-by-case matched healthy controls participated in a symptom provocation fMRI experiment with individualized and standardized stimulus sets created for each patient. ResultsOCD patients compared to healthy controls displayed stronger activation in the basal ganglia (nucleus accumbens, nucleus caudatus, pallidum for individualized symptom provocation. Using standardized symptom provocation, this group comparison led to stronger activation in the nucleus caudatus. The direct comparison of between-group effects for both symptom provocation approaches revealed stronger activation of the orbitofronto-striatal network for individualized symptom provocation.ConclusionsThe present study provides insight into the differential impact of individualized and standardized symptom provocation on the orbitofronto-striatal network of OCD washers. Behavioral and neural responses imply a higher symptom-specificity of individualized symptom provocation.

  9. Characterization of a medium-sized washer-gun for an axisymmetric mirror

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Hongshen; Liu, Ming; Shi, Peiyun; Yang, Zhida; Zhu, Guanghui; Lu, Quanming; Sun, Xuan

    2018-04-01

    A new medium-sized washer gun is developed for a plasma start-up in a fully axisymmetric mirror. The gun is positioned at the east end of the Keda Mirror with AXisymmetricity facility and operated in the pulsed mode with an arc discharging time of 1.2 ms and a typical arc current of 8.5 kA with 1.5 kV discharge voltage. To optimize the operation, a systematic scan of the neutral pressure, the arc voltage, the bias voltage on a mesh grid 6 cm in front of the gun and an end electrode located on the west end of mirror, and the mirror ratio was performed. The streaming plasma was measured with triple probes in the three mirror cells and a diamagnetic loop in the central cell. Floating potential measurements suggest that the plasma could be divided into streaming and mirror-confined plasmas. The floating potential for the streaming plasma is negative, with an electric field pointing inwards. The mirror-confined plasma has a typical lifetime of 0.5 ms.

  10. War and Violence in Sinan Antoon’s The Corpse Washer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radwa Ramadan Mahmoud

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available War is the greatest source of violence in the world. It is the most disastrous expression of tendencies to violence innate to human nature. Iraq has suffered for a long time from the repercussions of war and violence and in this country ravaged by war trauma; the only space left for memory has been literature. Personal and political traumas have characterized the works of Iraqi writers who have been either victims of traumatic experience themselves or have been firsthand witnesses to trauma in Iraq. Literature provides them with an avenue to reclaim the humanity of all those who have been traumatized by the violence represented by war. Drawing on the theory of trauma, the paper seeks to explore the notions of war trauma and violence in Sinan Antoon's novel The Corpse Washer (2014 that reveals Iraq’s traumatic and violent history. The paper examines the ways in which the novel bears witness to, protests against and exposes the devastating effects of war and violence.

  11. Textiles and clothing sustainability nanotextiles and sustainability

    CERN Document Server

    2017-01-01

    This book highlights the sustainability aspects of textiles and clothing sector in light of nanomaterials and technologies. The invasion of nano in every industrial sector has been important and has made remarkable changes as well as posed new challenges, including the textiles and clothing sector. There is quite a great deal of research happening in terms of nano materials for textiles across the globe, some of which are covered in this book. .

  12. Sumptuous clothing and ornamentation in the Apocalypse

    OpenAIRE

    Dietmar Neufeld

    2002-01-01

    Using different categories of social psychology on body decoration and dress, this article examines the author’s course of shifting political, moral, religious and eschatological values as reflected in the clothing and ornamentation motifs deployed in the narrative of the Apocalypse. The article focuses on questions such as the eschatological values betrayed by  the author’s deployment of clothing and ornamentation themes, the meaning adduced from the passages in the Apocalypse wh...

  13. Importance of clothing removal in scalds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Edgar Y K; Tam, Yvonne Y W; Chiu, T W

    2016-04-01

    To test the hypothesis that prompt removal of clothing after scalds lessens the severity of injury. This experimental study and case series was carried out in the Burn Centre of a tertiary hospital in Hong Kong. An experimental burn model using Allevyn (Smith & Nephew Medical Limited, Hull, England) as a skin substitute was designed to test the effect of delayed clothing removal on skin temperature using hot water and congee. Data of patients admitted with scalding by congee over a 10-year period (January 2005 to December 2014) were also studied. A significant reduction in the temperature of the skin model following a hot water scald was detected only if clothing was removed within the first 10 seconds of injury. With congee scalds, the temperature of the skin model progressively increased with further delay in clothing removal. During the study period, 35 patients were admitted with congee scalds to our unit via the emergency department. The majority were children. Definite conclusions supporting the importance of clothing removal could not be drawn due to our small sample size. Nonetheless, our data suggest that appropriate prehospital burn management can reduce patient morbidity. Prompt removal of clothing after scalding by congee may reduce post-burn morbidity.

  14. European Cloth and “Tropical” Skin:

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Ryan

    2009-01-01

    As Britain’s imperial and colonial ambitions intensified toward the end of the nineteenth century, the preservation of white European health in tropical climates became an increasingly important concern. Since at least the seventeenth century, the “tropics” had been seen as spaces holding vast potential wealth but also death and disease. To combat these deadly but desirable landscapes, the British built a considerable commodity culture around the preservation of white European health, and for many, tropical clothing was one of the most important and essential items in their “kits.” This article investigates the composition and use of such clothing in relation to British ideas of health and hygiene in tropical climates. First, it considers debates that ensued over the best material—wool, cotton, linen, silk, or a combination of these materials—and the role of “black” skin and local practice in the development of tropical clothing. Second, it demonstrates the importance of location in any discussion of tropical medicine and hygiene, and the tension and ambiguity that still surrounded British ideas of health and hygiene in the tropical colonies. Third, it argues that tropical clothing was important in the maintenance of climatic etiologies despite advances in parasitology and sanitary science. Finally, it considers the relationship of tropical clothing to the formation of a unique colonial identity. To British men and women embarking for any number of tropical destinations, proper clothing was not a banal and mundane component of their outfitting. For many, the clothing signified a departure from the safe and “civil” climes of Britain for adventure in the expanding tropical empire. PMID:19801795

  15. Radioactive contamination incidents involving protective clothing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reichelt, R.A.; Clay, M.E.; Eichorst, A.J.

    1998-01-01

    The study focuses on incidents at Department of Energy facilities involving the migration of radioactive contaminants through protective clothing. The authors analyzed 68 occurrence reports for the following factors: (1) type of work, (2) working conditions, (3) type of anti-contamination material; (4) area of body or clothing contaminated; and (5) nature of spread of contamination. A majority of reports identified strenuous work activities such as maintenance, construction, or decontamination and decommissioning projects. The reports also indicated adverse working conditions that included hot and humid or cramped work environments. The type of anti-contamination clothing most often identified was cotton or water-resistant disposable clothing. Most of the reports also indicated contaminants migrating through perspiration-soaked areas, typically in the knees and forearms. On the basis of their survey, the authors recommend the use of improved engineering controls and resilient, breathable, waterproof protective clothing for work in hot, humid, or damp areas where the possibility of prolonged contact with contamination cannot be easily avoided or controlled. 1 ref., 6 figs., 1 tab

  16. Radioactive contamination incidents involving protective clothing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reichelt, R.; Clay, M.; Eichorst, J.

    1996-10-01

    The study focuses on incidents at Department of Energy (DOE) facilities involving the migration of radioactive contaminants through protective clothing. The authors analyzed 68 occurrence reports for the following factors: (1) type of work; (2) working conditions; (3) type of anti-contamination (anti-C) material; (4) area of body or clothing contaminated; and (5) nature of spread of contamination. A majority of reports identified strenuous work activities such as maintenance, construction, or decontamination and decommissioning (D ampersand D) projects. The reports also indicated adverse working conditions that included hot and humid or cramped work environments. The type of anti-C clothing most often identified was cotton or water-resistant, disposable clothing. Most of the reports also indicated contaminants migrating through perspiration-soaked areas, typically in the knees and forearms. On the basis of their survey, the authors recommend the use of improved engineering controls and resilient, breathable, waterproof protective clothing for work in hot, humid, or damp areas where the possibility of prolonged contact with contamination cannot be easily avoided or controlled

  17. People's clothing behaviour according to external weather and indoor environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Carli, M.; Olesen, Bjarne W.; Zarrella, A.

    2007-01-01

    In prehistoric times man wore furs of animals to protect himself from the cold. Successively over the centuries clothing has become also a tool to distinguish ourselves in society. Clothing has in addition an important impact on people's perception of the indoor environment. Clothing behaviour has...... selection has been considered. The outdoor temperature at 6 a.m. seems to affect people's choice of clothes the most. Gender does not significantly affect the selection of clothing insulation. Latitude has also been investigated and a good correlation has been found between clothing insulation and external...

  18. Sumptuous clothing and ornamentation in the Apocalypse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dietmar Neufeld

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Using different categories of social psychology on body decoration and dress, this article examines the author’s course of shifting political, moral, religious and eschatological values as reflected in the clothing and ornamentation motifs deployed in the narrative of the Apocalypse. The article focuses on questions such as the eschatological values betrayed by  the author’s deployment of clothing and ornamentation themes, the meaning adduced from the passages in the Apocalypse where body surface is taken seriously, ancients’ connection of clothing and body decoration with the person and society, and the social values reflected by dress and ornamentation, such as honour/shame, status, boundaries, and identity personally and collectively.

  19. Improvement of Workwear Clothing for Army

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belakova, D.; Dabolina, I.; Baltina, I.; Zommere, G.

    2017-10-01

    The two main tasks of combat clothes are soldier's physical protection and freedom of movements [1]. This requirement shall be made with the provision of protective clothing appearance and fit, as well as a suitable choice of material [2]. The aim of the research described in an article is to find out what issues the potential end user meets with during product using (field uniform trousers and jackets) and how it would be possible to avoid it. To reach the aim, end user were interviewed using survey, prospective users were measured by non-contact Human Body 3D scanning combat clothing prototypes (field uniforms) constructive and technological solutions and properties of fabrics were analysed during research.

  20. Fashion marketing in textile and clothing industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alica Grilec Kaurić

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Fashion marketing explores connection between fashion design and marketing including development, promotion, sales and price aspects of fashion industry. Successful fashion marketing managers are aware that the most important fashion marketing elements are customer trend identification, building strong brands and creating positive image of the producers. This paper presents the findings of a research conducted for the purpose of identifying trends in marketing sector in textile and clothing industry in Croatia. The research was conducted through personal interviews with marketing and company managers in Croatia. The research identified that marketing is insufficiently implemented in Croatian textile and clothing industry, despite growing brand management importance. However, because of lack in marketing knowledge and bad brand management, development of fashion brand is the most critical factor in successful business activity in textile and clothing industry.

  1. The CSR Challenges in the Clothing Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulina Księżak

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to study the clothing and textile industry through the prism of the CSR. First of all, it investigates the ways in which companies of this sector deal with the social responsibility issues that are specifically important to the characteristics of the fashion industry. Secondly, the motivators of implementing CSR in the textile and clothing business are identified and analysed. Thirdly, the CSR practices of H&M Hennes & Mauritz AB, a wellknown multinational corporation operating in the sector of fashion, are discussed in order to illustrate the theoretical review with the case study approach.

  2. Drug smuggling using clothing impregnated with cocaine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDermott, Seán D; Power, John D

    2005-11-01

    A case study is presented where a woman travelling from South America to the Republic of Ireland was detained at Dublin Airport and articles of clothing she had in her luggage were found to be impregnated with cocaine. The study shows that the amount of powder recovered from the garments was approximately 14% of the total weight of the garments. The cocaine was in the form of cocaine hydrochloride and the purity was approximately 80%. An examination of the garments under filtered light highlighted the areas exposed to cocaine and indicated that the method of impregnation was by pouring liquid containing cocaine onto the clothing.

  3. Optimizing the protection against the physiological burden of CBRN clothing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brasser, P.

    2010-01-01

    Soldiers can wear chemical, biological, radiological and nuclear (CBRN) protective clothing to be protected agaist warfare agents. The disadvantage of that clothing is that higher protection introduces higher physiological burden. Therefore an optimum between comfort and protection must be found.

  4. Shared Emotional Values in Sustainable Clothing Design Approaches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Durrani, Marium; Petersen, Louise Ravnløkke Munk; Niinimäki, Kirsi

    2016-01-01

    Recent sustainable initiatives in fashion companies are framing design practices that challenge the traditional role of clothing designers. This preliminary study aims to open discussion on challenging traditional clothing design, through an exploration of the shared emotional values between user...

  5. Heat stress in chemical protective clothing: Porosity and vapour resistance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Havenith, G.; Hartog, E.A. den; Martini, S.

    2011-01-01

    Heat strain in chemical protective clothing is an important factor in industrial and military practice. Various improvements to the clothing to alleviate strain while maintaining protection have been attempted. More recently, selectively permeable membranes have been introduced to improve

  6. A Sheep in Wolf’s Clothing?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leitheiser, Erin

    2017-01-01

    The growing complexity of global supply chains alongside increasing expectations of companies has resulted in a proliferation of private governance arrangements. These are largely voluntary and therefore operationalized through “soft law” (non-binding). However, after the horrific collapse of the...... this approach may be little more than a sheep in wolf’s clothing....

  7. INNOVATIVE CLOTHING DESIGN FOR WOMEN DURING PREGNANCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    POPESCU Georgeta

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available During pregnancy there is an evident change in the physical appearance of a woman's body. The most evident change is the substantial weight gain, increased abdominal region, torso and hip, and limbs thickening. Physical changes leads to the need of a wardrobe changing, especially in the fourth month of pregnancy. Given these factors the question arises is to identify the transformations of body conformation and ensure a maximum comfort in developing clothing products for this category. Because it is a continuous transformation, the products must be designed to be adjustable and versatile, ensuring their usability for a long period of the pregnancy and even after birth. The paper presents the specific algorithms for body conformations during pregnancy and the patterns designed based on these algorithms with the proper modifications. The principle of designing clothes for pregnant women refers to the introduction of pregnancy-related size changes in the standard method of pattern design. The research was conducted by INCDTP during the initial stage of a project, financed through national founds, consisting in a documentary study on morphologic indicators of women during the pregnancy period, the changes observe and their application in pattern design. Following the principles specific to the product group studied regarding comfort and style, INCDTP specialists have developed and produced a collection of clothing products for women during pregnancy. Key words: Pregnancy, algorithms, proportions, morphological indices, pattern design, clothing, changes

  8. The Art of African Senufo Cloth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalton, Jane

    2009-01-01

    The Senufo people create paintings on hand-woven fabric using natural fibers, natural dyes made from leaves, and mud dug from the roots of trees. The fabric of the Senufo is woven in strips approximately six-to-eight inches wide, and sewn together to make a larger fabric for painting. The stylized drawings painted on the cloth are of masked…

  9. Homemaking (Clothing and Interior Decorating), Course Description.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelso, Bessie; Anderson, Floyd L.

    Prepared by an instructor and curriculum development specialist of the Minnesota Work Opportunity Center, this course is designed to aid the dropout and/or hard-core unemployed youth develop skills in clothing and interior decorating. The approach focuses on the individual and the goals he desires to accomplish. During the first interview, the…

  10. Occupational Health Problems Associated with Traditional Cloth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study of the health hazards that traditional cloth weavers encounter at the workplace was carried out over a three-week period in Ilorin, Nigeria. All the registered members of the Association whose workplace could be identified were included in the study. The questionnaires were administered as interview schedule by ...

  11. 46 CFR 153.932 - Goggles and protective clothing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Goggles and protective clothing. 153.932 Section 153.932... § 153.932 Goggles and protective clothing. (a) The master shall ensure that each person wear a face mask... paragraphs (a) and (b) of this section wear any additional protective clothing the master believes necessary...

  12. 28 CFR 551.7 - Bathing and clothing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Bathing and clothing. 551.7 Section 551.7... Grooming § 551.7 Bathing and clothing. Each inmate must observe the standards concerning bathing and clothing that exist in the institution as required by standards of § 551.1. [46 FR 59509, Dec. 4, 1981] ...

  13. 7 CFR 58.225 - Clothing and shoe covers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Clothing and shoe covers. 58.225 Section 58.225 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards....225 Clothing and shoe covers. Clean clothing and shoe covers shall be provided exclusively for the...

  14. 46 CFR 197.555 - Personal protective clothing and equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Personal protective clothing and equipment. 197.555... SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS GENERAL PROVISIONS Benzene § 197.555 Personal protective clothing and equipment. (a) When the use of respirators in compliance with § 197.550 and the personal protective clothing...

  15. 10 CFR 850.29 - Protective clothing and equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Protective clothing and equipment. 850.29 Section 850.29... § 850.29 Protective clothing and equipment. (a) The responsible employer must provide protective clothing and equipment to beryllium workers and ensure its appropriate use and maintenance, where...

  16. 33 CFR 150.614 - When is protective clothing required?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false When is protective clothing... SECURITY (CONTINUED) DEEPWATER PORTS DEEPWATER PORTS: OPERATIONS Workplace Safety and Health Clothing § 150.614 When is protective clothing required? The deepwater port operator must ensure that personnel...

  17. 3 The Traditional Cloth Dyeing Enterprise.cdr

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    position for the production of traditional funeral cloths. These cloths are dyed using ... investigated for colour production and performance on cloths for use in the textile industry. Systematic investigation into the dye-yielding ..... Supawadee S., Sorasak L. and Suree P. (2002). Production of red pigment from the root of.

  18. Protective clothing in the sun | Tamas | Nigerian Journal of Clinical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sun protecting clothing is clothing designed for sun protection and is producted from the fabric rated for its level ultraviolet (UV) protection. Some textiles and fabrics emloyed in the use of sun protective clothing may be pre-treated with UV inhibiting ingredients during manufacture to enhance their UV blocking capacitiy.

  19. Identifying the Direction of Future Studies on Clothing Through Survey on Clothing Consciousness of Female High School Students

    OpenAIRE

    扇澤, 美千子; 皆川, 温美; 川端, 博子; Ougizawa, Michiko; Minagawa, Atsumi; Kawabata, Hiroko; 茨城キリスト教大学; 埼玉大学; 埼玉大学

    2011-01-01

    We conducted a questionnaire survey on 631 female high school students to verify their learning experience on clothing during their homemaking classes, their actual purchase behavior of clothes, their consciousness towards clothing coordination, and their degree of self-acceptance. By verifying the characteristics of consciousness and behavior of the students towards clothing, we aimed to identify the direction and points to consider in our future homemaking classes when dealing with the soci...

  20. Optical Illusions and Effects on Clothing Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saliha AĞAÇ

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available “Visual perception” is in the first ranking between the types of perception. Gestalt Theory of the major psychological theories are used in how visual perception realizes and making sense of what is effective in this process. In perception stage brain tak es into account not only stimulus from eyes but also expectations arising from previous experience and interpreted the stimulus which are not exist in the real world as if they were there. Misperception interpretations that brain revealed are called as “Pe rception Illusion” or “Optical Illusion” in psychology. Optical illusion formats come into existence due to factors such as brightness, contrast, motion, geometry and perspective, interpretation of three - dimensional images, cognitive status and color. Opti cal illusions have impacts of different disciplines within the study area on people. Among the most important types of known optical illusion are Oppel - Kundt, Curvature - Hering, Helzholtz Sqaure, Hermann Grid, Muller - Lyler, Ebbinghaus and Ponzo illusion etc . In fact, all the optical illusions are known to be used in numerous area with various techniques and different product groups like architecture, fine arts, textiles and fashion design from of old. In recent years, optical illusion types are frequently us ed especially within the field of fashion design in the clothing model, in style, silhouette and fabrics. The aim of this study is to examine the clothing design applications where optical illusion is used and works done in this subject. Some research of the design with the changing fashion of clothes of different types of optical illusions is discussed with examples of their effects on visual perception. In the study, optical illusory clothing models are scanned by visual analysis from documents like film , video, picture, web pages. The findings were analyzed in terms of the surface and design and effects of the optical illusion on clothing design has tried to put

  1. 76 FR 64330 - Notice of Petition for Waiver of LG Electronics U.S.A., Inc. From the Department of Energy...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-18

    ... Petition for Waiver of LG Electronics U.S.A., Inc. From the Department of Energy Residential Clothes Washer... for comments. SUMMARY: This notice announces receipt of and publishes the LG Electronics U.S.A., Inc..., Government Relations and Communications, LG Electronics USA, Inc., 1776 K Street, NW., Washington, DC 20006...

  2. The professional clothing bank as evidence-based practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, SueZanne Monique

    2015-01-01

    Little research exists linking interview-appropriate attire to improved employment outcomes for women. Thus, it appears that the professional clothing bank has not been investigated as evidence-based practice. To provide preliminary evidence for clothing banks, in this article the author synthesizes findings from existing research on the provision of a professional clothing bank as a means for offering interview-appropriate attire to poor women in job readiness programming. For context, job readiness programs are explored and a case study of one program operating a professional clothing bank is presented. Finally, preliminary considerations for planning and implementing clothing banks based on this literature review are given.

  3. Residential Mechanical Precooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    German, a. [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI), Davis, CA (United States); Hoeschele, M. [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI), Davis, CA (United States)

    2014-12-01

    This research conducted by the Alliance for Residential Building Innovation team evaluated mechanical air conditioner pre-cooling strategies in homes throughout the United States. EnergyPlus modeling evaluated two homes with different performance characteristics in seven climates. Results are applicable to new construction homes and most existing homes built in the last 10 years, as well as fairly efficient retrofitted homes.

  4. Residential Solar Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulkerson, Dan

    This publication contains student and teacher instructional materials for a course in residential solar systems. The text is designed either as a basic solar course or as a supplement to extend student skills in areas such as architectural drafting, air conditioning and refrigeration, and plumbing. The materials are presented in four units…

  5. Musical and clothing invitations to protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deniaud, F

    1993-01-01

    The Chaussez Capote Project interviewed 48 youths in Abidjan and Dabou aged 14-25 years on how to best get individuals in their age group to use condoms. 251 individuals aged 15-25 were also surveyed in Abidjan on the same subject. While more than 80% of this latter group had already discussed AIDS, sexually transmitted disease (STD), and prevention with others, 90% still wanted advice on these themes from medical staff and the media. 40% who had already used condoms did so incorrectly, while approximately 33% had experienced condom breakage during use. Respondents felt that condom promotion should be associated with information on AIDS, STDs, and contraception or information on general health. In response to this feedback, the project commissioned the creation of a promotional music cassette with French and African songs of different musical styles. Lyrics imparted technical information and correct misconceptions related to condom use. Free distribution of the cassette commenced August 1992, and approximately 800 were given to organizations and businesses. The cassette also aired on radio and Ivorian television, but met with only limited success. It is thought that its impact was limited due to the small number of copies duplicated and inefficient distribution. A new version was therefore created with different songs and short messages by popular African singers for local duplication and sale at a subsidized price starting December 1993. As a 2nd intervention, clothing metaphors applied to condoms and condom use were applied to the development of a clothing promotion loincloth designed Spring 1993. The cloth was pretested and revised to ultimately consist of panels depicting 2 young couples, a condom, a panther, and the words Entre nous. The cloth has been ordered for use by the National AIDS Committee, a condom social marketing project, and the French agency for development cooperation.

  6. Fashion marketing in textile and clothing industry

    OpenAIRE

    Alica Grilec Kaurić

    2009-01-01

    Fashion marketing explores connection between fashion design and marketing including development, promotion, sales and price aspects of fashion industry. Successful fashion marketing managers are aware that the most important fashion marketing elements are customer trend identification, building strong brands and creating positive image of the producers. This paper presents the findings of a research conducted for the purpose of identifying trends in marketing sector in textile and clothing i...

  7. Evaluation of Waste Heat Recovery and Utilization from Residential Appliances and Fixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomlinson, John J [ORNL; Christian, Jeff [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Gehl, Anthony C [ORNL

    2012-09-01

    Executive Summary In every home irrespective of its size, location, age, or efficiency, heat in the form of drainwater or dryer exhaust is wasted. Although from a waste stream, this energy has the potential for being captured, possibly stored, and then reused for preheating hot water or air thereby saving operating costs to the homeowner. In applications such as a shower and possibly a dryer, waste heat is produced at the same time as energy is used, so that a heat exchanger to capture the waste energy and return it to the supply is all that is needed. In other applications such as capturing the energy in drainwater from a tub, dishwasher, or washing machine, the availability of waste heat might not coincide with an immediate use for energy, and consequently a heat exchanger system with heat storage capacity (i.e. a regenerator) would be necessary. This study describes a two-house experimental evaluation of a system designed to capture waste heat from the shower, dishwasher clothes washer and dryer, and to use this waste heat to offset some of the hot water energy needs of the house. Although each house was unoccupied, they were fitted with equipment that would completely simulate the heat loads and behavior of human occupants including operating the appliances and fixtures on a demand schedule identical to Building American protocol (Hendron, 2009). The heat recovery system combined (1) a gravity-film heat exchanger (GFX) installed in a vertical section of drainline, (2) a heat exchanger for capturing dryer exhaust heat, (3) a preheat tank for storing the captured heat, and (4) a small recirculation pump and controls, so that the system could be operated anytime that waste heat from the shower, dishwasher, clothes washer and dryer, and in any combination was produced. The study found capturing energy from the dishwasher and clothes washer to be a challenge since those two appliances dump waste water over a short time interval. Controls based on the status of the

  8. Integrated human-clothing system model for estimating the effect of walking on clothing insulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghaddar, Nesreen [American University of Beirut, Faculty of Engineering and Architecture, P.O. Box 11-236, Riad ElSolh, 1107 2020, Beirut (Lebanon); Ghali, Kamel [Beirut Arab University, Faculty of Engineering, Beirut (Lebanon); Jones, Byron [Kansas State University, College of Engineering, 148 Rathbone Hall, 66506-5202, Manhattan, KS (United States)

    2003-06-01

    The objective of this work is to develop a 1-D transient heat and mass transfer model of a walking clothed human to predict the dynamic clothing dry heat insulation values and vapor resistances. Developing an integrated model of human and clothing system under periodic ventilation requires estimation of the heat and mass transfer film coefficients at the skin to the air layer subject to oscillating normal flow. Experiments were conducted in an environmental chamber under controlled conditions of 25 C and 50% relative humidity to measure the mass transfer coefficient at the skin to the air layer separating the wet skin and the fabric. A 1-D mathematical model is developed to simulate the dynamic thermal behavior of clothing and its interaction with the human thermoregulation system under walking conditions. A modification of Gagge's two-node model is used to simulate the human physiological regulatory responses. The human model is coupled to a clothing three-node model of the fabric that takes into consideration the adsorption of water vapor in the fibers during the periodic ventilation of the fabric by the air motion in from ambient environment and out from the air layer adjacent to the moist skin. When physical activity and ambient conditions are specified, the integrated model of human-clothing can predict the thermo-regulatory responses of the body together with the temperature and insulation values of the fabric. The developed model is used to predict the periodic ventilation flow rate in and out of the fabric, the periodic fabric regain, the fabric temperature, the air layer temperature, the heat loss or gain from the skin, and dry and vapor resistances of the clothing. The heat loss from the skin increases with the increase of the frequency of ventilation and with the increased metabolic rate of the body. In addition, the dry resistance of the clothing fabrics, predicted by the current model, IS compared with published experimental data. The current

  9. Double fastener-type contamination protective cloth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nomura, Norio.

    1996-01-01

    In the cloth of the present invention, a hood portion covering the entire of a head and a suit portion having an upper half body portion and a lower half body portion connected to the upper half portion for covering from a neck to ankles are made integrated. The suit portion has long sleeves at the upper half body portion, and has strait leg portions at the lower half body portion. Two linear sliding fasteners are disposed from the neck portion on the front surface of the suit portion to the lower edges of both ankle portions. The sliding fasteners have a double structure having a folded portion at the inner side. Slits are formed on the outer side surfaces of each of the ankle portions and openable/closable face fasteners are attached. A rubber is incorporated in the wrist portions at the top ends of the long sleeves to be in close contact with the wrists. An operator can easily put on and off the cloth without withdrawing legs. Accordingly, radioactive contamination can be prevented upon putting on and off the cloth. (I.N.)

  10. Electrostatic sampling of trace DNA from clothing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zieger, Martin; Defaux, Priscille Merciani; Utz, Silvia

    2016-05-01

    During acts of physical aggression, offenders frequently come into contact with clothes of the victim, thereby leaving traces of DNA-bearing biological material on the garments. Since tape-lifting and swabbing, the currently established methods for non-destructive trace DNA sampling from clothing, both have their shortcomings in collection efficiency and handling, we thought about a new collection method for these challenging samples. Testing two readily available electrostatic devices for their potential to sample biological material from garments made of different fabrics, we found one of them, the electrostatic dust print lifter (DPL), to perform comparable to well-established sampling with wet cotton swabs. In simulated aggression scenarios, we had the same success rate for the establishment of single aggressor profiles, suitable for database submission, with both the DPL and wet swabbing. However, we lost a substantial amount of information with electrostatic sampling, since almost no mixed aggressor-victim profiles suitable for database entry could be established, compared to conventional swabbing. This study serves as a proof of principle for electrostatic DNA sampling from items of clothing. The technique still requires optimization before it might be used in real casework. But we are confident that in the future it could be an efficient and convenient contribution to the toolbox of forensic practitioners.

  11. REFLECTIONS FROM TRADITIONAL CLOTHES OF M ALATYA REGION TODAY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.Elhan ÖZUS

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available It is known that Turks who have a rich culture and an old and well - known civilization have a unique clothing style. The clothing of Turks varies according to the geographical regions, living styles, social differences and gender along the periods they lived. Clothing is one of the most important needs in life depending on the individual and social attributes. The clothing which first emerged as protection means is a social fact complementing the physical and psychological existence of human being, changing forms depending on technological developments and phases, and continuously changing under the affect of fashion today. Clothing is an aesthetic value fed by the feelings of individuals. So, clothing has an indispensable place in the structure and communication of cultural and social identity within this direction. The costumes of traditional Turkish Anatolian women reflect thoughts an d feelings When Turkish Nation’s long history and the cultures that it had interacted are thought, it’s seen that the glory and magnificence it had has also reflected in it’s clothing culture. Traditional clothing of Malatya region has a special character istic. However, these clothes are dissappearing day by day, With the present study, we aimed to protect our cultural heritage and carry these clothes to the present via current designs. This study identified and the traditional dresses fabric , patterns and motifs are made by making use of designs suitable to the present day fashion .

  12. Present Situation and Future Development Trend of Smart Clothing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ju Fengfan

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available With the rapid development of science and technology, our daily clothes are changing quietly. Wearable smart clothing has gradually the leading role in the clothing market. This article first explains the concept of wearable intelligent clothing in china, and then I analyze the various types of wearable smart clothing that is currently facing problems, and summarized about the key points and future directions of wearable intelligent clothing design. From the beginning of 2013, smart watches, bracelets, glasses have entered the public vision, become a "trendsetter who sought the object", this year the industry was identified as "the first year of wearable equipment". In simple terms, a wearable device is a portable device that can be worn directly on the body, or integrated into the user's clothing or accessories. However, with the development of wireless sensor technology, kinds of wearable smart clothing gradually appeared in people's life, the smart clothing is made up of small chip, electronic components, power equipment, embedded into clothing, can achieve a specific function, in order to facilitate people's life.

  13. Clothing insulation and temperature, layer and mass of clothing under comfortable environmental conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, JuYoun; Choi, Jeongwha

    2013-07-01

    This study was designed to investigate the relationship between the microclimate temperature and clothing insulation (Icl) under comfortable environmental conditions. In total, 20 subjects (13 women, 7 men) took part in this study. Four environmental temperatures were chosen: 14°C (to represent March/April), 25°C (May/June), 29°C (July/August), and 23°C (September/October). Wind speed (0.14ms-1) and humidity (45%) were held constant. Clothing microclimate temperatures were measured at the chest (Tchest) and on the interscapular region (Tscapular). Clothing temperature of the innermost layer (Tinnermost) was measured on this layer 30 mm above the centre of the left breast. Subjects were free to choose the clothing that offered them thermal comfort under each environmental condition. We found the following results. 1) All clothing factors except the number of lower clothing layers (Llower), showed differences between the different environmental conditions (Pclothing layers (Lupper) and total clothing mass (Mtotal) was 1.1 to 3.2 layers and 473 to 1659 g respectively. The range of Icl was 0.78 to 2.10 clo. 2) Post hoc analyses showed that analysis of Tinnermost produced the same results as for that of Icl. Likewise, the analysis of Lupper produced the same result as the analysis of the number of total layers (Ltotal) within an outfit. 3) Air temperature (ta) had positive relationships with Tchest and Tscapular and with Tinnermost but had inverse correlations with Icl, Mtotal, Lupper and Ltotal. Tchest, Tscapular, and Tinnermost increased as ta rose. 4) Icl had inverse relationships with Tchest and Tinnermost, but positive relationships with Mtotal, Lupper and Ltotal. Icl could be estimated by Mtotal, Lupper, and Tscapular using a multivariate linear regression model. 5) Lupper had positive relationships with Icl and Mtotal, but Llower did not. Subjects hardly changed Llower under environmental comfort conditions between March and October. This indicates that each

  14. Clothing Benefits Sought: The Case of British Muslims

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syadiyah Abdul Shukor

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to explore British Muslims’ clothing benefits sought. Qualitative research was conducted through interviews to explore British Muslims’ clothing consumption. Following this, quantitative research was undertaken by means of a web based survey questionnaire with 30 items referring to clothing benefits sought. The usable questionnaire consisted of 222 respondents. Data analysis includes descriptive analysis, reliability and exploratory factor analysis. Six factors derived underpinned the clothing benefits sought among British Muslim consumers: “self congruity”, “social status”, “modesty”, “conformity”, “uniqueness” and “personal identity”. This study is the first one to explore clothing benefits sought among Muslim consumers in particular in the UK. This research was exploratory in nature and employed a non probability sampling method. The study provides a useful source of information, which can be used by UK high street fashion retailer regarding clothing benefits sought among British Muslim consumers in the UK.

  15. Guidelines for residential commissioning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wray, Craig P.; Walker, Iain S.; Sherman, Max H.

    2003-01-31

    Currently, houses do not perform optimally or even as many codes and forecasts predict, largely because they are field assembled and there is no consistent process to identify problems or to correct them. Residential commissioning is a solution to this problem. This guide is the culmination of a 30-month project that began in September 1999. The ultimate objective of the project is to increase the number of houses that undergo commissioning, which will improve the quality, comfort, and safety of homes for California citizens. The project goal is to lay the groundwork for a residential commissioning industry in California focused on end-use energy and non-energy issues. As such, we intend this guide to be a beginning and not an end. Our intent is that the guide will lead to the programmatic integration of commissioning with other building industry processes, which in turn will provide more value to a single site visit for people such as home energy auditors and raters, home inspectors, and building performance contractors. Project work to support the development of this guide includes: a literature review and annotated bibliography, which facilitates access to 469 documents related to residential commissioning published over the past 20 years (Wray et al. 2000), an analysis of the potential benefits one can realistically expect from commissioning new and existing California houses (Matson et al. 2002), and an assessment of 107 diagnostic tools for evaluating residential commissioning metrics (Wray et al. 2002). In this guide, we describe the issues that non-experts should consider in developing a commissioning program to achieve the benefits we have identified. We do this by providing specific recommendations about: how to structure the commissioning process, which diagnostics to use, and how to use them to commission new and existing houses. Using examples, we also demonstrate the potential benefits of applying the recommended whole-house commissioning approach to

  16. Detailed residential electric determination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-06-01

    Data on residential loads has been collected from four residences in real time. The data, measured at 5-second intervals for 53 days of continuous operation, were statistically characterized. An algorithm was developed and incorporated into the modeling code SOLCEL. Performance simulations with SOLCEL using these data as well as previous data collected over longer time intervals indicate that no significant errors in system value are introduced through the use of long-term average data.

  17. 75 FR 7987 - Energy Conservation Standards for Residential Clothes Dryers and Room Air Conditioners: Public...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-23

    ... Impact Analysis The NIA estimates the national energy savings (NES) and the net present value (NPV) of... reflects the real consumer cost of capital and puts the LCC in present-value terms. The PBP represents the...) national impact analysis (NIA). These analyses resulted in a preliminary TSD that presents the methodology...

  18. 76 FR 22453 - Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Residential Clothes Dryers and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-21

    .... National Impact Analysis--National Energy Savings and Net Present Value Analysis 1. Shipments 2. Forecasted Efficiency in the Base Case and Standards Cases 3. National Energy Savings 4. Net Present Value of Consumer... Energy Savings b. Net Present Value of Consumer Costs and Benefits c. Impacts on Employment 4. Impact on...

  19. 78 FR 8992 - Energy Conservation Program: Test Procedures for Residential Clothes Dryers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-07

    ... that volume should be added or subtracted as appropriate depending on whether the plastic bag used for... distribution of energy usage, and, therefore, would not result in any environmental impacts. Thus, this... plastic bag, and ensure that all corners and depressions are filled and that there are no extrusions of...

  20. 78 FR 49607 - Energy Conservation Program: Test Procedures for Residential Clothes Dryers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-14

    ... dryers and automatic termination control dryers based on the methodology provided in Australia/New... Partnerships (NEEP)); and consumer groups (Consumer Federation of America (CFA) and the National [[Page 49614...

  1. 76 FR 52854 - Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Residential Clothes Dryers and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-24

    ... design options under consideration, is inconsistent with the approach of using engineering costs. (AGA... approach in the engineering analysis, which estimated the incremental costs of considered design options in... class ** Btu/Wh Room Air Conditioners 1. Without reverse cycle, with louvered sides, and 11.0 less than...

  2. 76 FR 26656 - Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Residential Clothes Dryers and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-09

    ... submitted jointly by interested persons that are fairly representative of relevant points of view (including... Water Efficiency (AWE), Northwest Power and Conservation Council (NPCC), and Northeast Energy Efficiency... Center (NCLC)) (collectively, the ``Joint Petitioners''). This collective set of comments, which DOE...

  3. 78 FR 20842 - Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Residential Clothes Dryers and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-08

    ... standard on receipt of a statement submitted jointly by interested persons that are fairly representative... Energy (ASE), Alliance for Water Efficiency (AWE), Northwest Power and Conservation Council (NPCC), and... collective set of comments, which DOE refers to in this notice as the ``Joint Petition'' \\1\\ or ``Consensus...

  4. 78 FR 42389 - Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Residential Clothes Dryers and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-16

    ... conservation standard on receipt of a statement submitted jointly by interested persons that are fairly... (AWE), Northwest Power and Conservation Council (NPCC), and Northeast Energy Efficiency Partnerships... (NCLC)) [[Page 42390

  5. Clothing Benefits Sought: The Case of British Muslims

    OpenAIRE

    Syadiyah Abdul Shukor

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore British Muslims’ clothing benefits sought. Qualitative research was conducted through interviews to explore British Muslims’ clothing consumption. Following this, quantitative research was undertaken by means of a web based survey questionnaire with 30 items referring to clothing benefits sought. The usable questionnaire consisted of 222 respondents. Data analysis includes descriptive analysis, reliability and exploratory factor analysis. Six factors de...

  6. From clothing to identity; manual and automatic soft biometrics

    OpenAIRE

    Jaha, Emad Sami; Nixon, Mark S.

    2016-01-01

    Soft biometrics have increasingly attracted research interest and are often considered as major cues for identity, especially in the absence of valid traditional biometrics, as in surveillance. In everyday life, several incidents and forensic scenarios highlight the usefulness and capability of identity information that can be deduced from clothing. Semantic clothing attributes have recently been introduced as a new form of soft biometrics. Although clothing traits can be naturally described ...

  7. Factors affecting adolescents’ choice of branded vs. fashionable clothing

    OpenAIRE

    Marques, Mónica Sofia Ramos

    2011-01-01

    A Work Project, presented as part of the requirements for the Award of a Masters Degree in Management from the NOVA – School of Business and Economics The aim of this project is to analyse the importance of branded and fashionable clothing, and which of them is the most important for adolescents when choosing their clothes, according with gender and age. The research analysed how three factors (peers’ influence, materialistic behaviour and self-esteem) affected adolescents’ clothing choice...

  8. The design of clothing washable labels based on NFC

    OpenAIRE

    Liu Zhengdong; Ma Tianyu

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, With the rapid development of NFC (Near Field Communication) technology and the digital advancement of clothing industry, a kind of clothing washable labels based on NFC is proposed and designed in this paper. It can be used to compose a clothing information system together with NFC mobile phones, mobile Internet, enterprise information centers, etc. By experiment, consumers can read and write NFC washable labels through their mobile phones, which can be quicker and more conven...

  9. Textiles and clothing sustainability sustainable fashion and consumption

    CERN Document Server

    2017-01-01

    This is the first book to introduce and explain the concept of sustainable consumption with reference to the clothing sector. It uses various case studies to detail sustainable consumption behavior in the industry. Consumption is a key issue and is a major driver when it comes to sustainability in any industry, including clothing sector. Several studies which have highlighted the need for sustainable consumption in the clothing sector are discussed in this book.

  10. Massa-individualisering in de kledingindustrie [Mass-individualisation in the clothing industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daanen, H.A.M.

    1998-01-01

    When purchasing clothing, the customer has to go through the tedious process of selecting clothing he or she likes and selecting clothing that fits his or her body. The customer is at the end of the line: the clothing is already manufactured. This has the advantage that clothing can be produced

  11. Residential energy usage comparison project: An overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, B.A.; Uhlaner, R.T.; Cason, T.N. (Quantum Consulting, Inc., Berkeley, CA (USA))

    1990-10-01

    This report provides an overveiw of the residential energy usage comparison project, an integrated load and market research project sponsored by EPRI and the Southern California Edison Company. Traditional studies of the relative energy consumption of electric and gas household appliances have relied on laboratory analyses and computer simulations. This project was designed to study the appliance energy consumption patterns of actual households. Ninety-two households in Orange County, California, southeast of Los Angeles, served as the study sample. Half of the households received new electric space-conditioning, water-heating, cooking, and clothes-drying equipment; the other half received gas equipment. The electric space-conditioning and water-heating appliances were heat pump technologies. All of the appliances were metered to collect load-shape and energy consumption data. The households were also surveyed periodically to obtain information on their energy needs and their acceptance of the appliances. The metered energy consumption data provide an important benchmark for comparing the energy consumption and costs of alternative end-use technologies. The customer research results provide new insights into customer preferences for fuel and appliance types. 15 figs., 3 tabs.

  12. Information booklet on personal protective equipment: protective clothing and coverall

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    Personnel protective clothing are meant to provide protection to the user normally against radiant heat, flames, corrosive and other chemicals, radioactive contaminants and X-rays. Various types of leather, plastics and coated fabrics are available to fabricate these clothing. The material of the clothing should be capable of offering protection against the specific hazard involved. This information booklet covers the following four categories of protective clothing and coverall (i) flame/heat resistant suits (ii) suits for radiation protection (iii) chemical resistant suits for corrosive chemicals (iv) lead-rubber aprons for X-rays. (M.K.V.). 3 annexures, 1 appendix

  13. Estimating Clothing Thermal Insulation Using an Infrared Camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jeong-Hoon; Kim, Young-Keun; Kim, Kyung-Soo; Kim, Soohyun

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, a novel algorithm for estimating clothing insulation is proposed to assess thermal comfort, based on the non-contact and real-time measurements of the face and clothing temperatures by an infrared camera. The proposed method can accurately measure the clothing insulation of various garments under different clothing fit and sitting postures. The proposed estimation method is investigated to be effective to measure its clothing insulation significantly in different seasonal clothing conditions using a paired t-test in 99% confidence interval. Temperatures simulated with the proposed estimated insulation value show closer to the values of actual temperature than those with individual clothing insulation values. Upper clothing’s temperature is more accurate within 3% error and lower clothing’s temperature is more accurate by 3.7%~6.2% error in indoor working scenarios. The proposed algorithm can reflect the effect of air layer which makes insulation different in the calculation to estimate clothing insulation using the temperature of the face and clothing. In future, the proposed method is expected to be applied to evaluate the customized passenger comfort effectively. PMID:27005625

  14. The mature female clothing shopper: Profiles and shopping behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. M. Visser

    1996-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to profile the mature female clothing shopper. More specifically certain variables that could be attributed to differences in consumer behaviour were investigated. Mature female clothing shoppers were segmented as clothing moderates, clothing enthusiasts and the clothing unconcerned. These three cluster groups significantly differed regarding clothing involvement, clothing orientation, activities, interests, opinions, family orientation, needs and media usage. No significant differences were found among the three groups regarding evaluative criteria for clothing and clothing store attributes. Profiles of the clusters were developed, along with applicable marketing implications. Recommendations for further research are made. Opsomming  Hierdie studie is onderneem ten einde die vroulike kledingverbruikers van 55 en ouer te tipeer. Die veranderlikes wat 'n bydrae kon lewer ten opsigte van die verskille in verbruikersgedrag is ondersoek. Die verbruikers is gesegmenteer as die kledinggematigdes, kleding- entoesiaste en die kleding-onbetrokkenes. Die drie groeperings verskil beduidend van mekaar ten opsigte van die volgende veranderlikes naamlik: kleding-betrokkenheid, kleding-oriëntasie, aktiwiteite belangstellings, opinies, familie oriëntasie, behoeftes en media gebruik. Geen beduidende verskille kon gevind word tussen die drie groeperings ten opsigte van die veranderlikes evalueringskriteria van klere en winkeleienskappe nie. Profiele van die verskillende trosse is ontwikkel en die bemarkingsimplikasies is uitgewys. Aanbevelings vir verdere navorsing word gedoen.

  15. Protection from solar ultraviolet radiation by clothing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pailthorpe, M.

    1996-01-01

    The recently published Australia/New Zealand Standard AS/NZS 4399: l996 'Sun Protective Clothing - Evaluation and Classification' specifies an in vitro spectrophotometric method for the measurement of the ultraviolet (WR) transmission of textiles. Ultraviolet Protection Factors (UPF) are then calculated by convolving the UVR transmission data with standard CIE erythemal response data and ARL solar irradiance data. At the present time the scope of the standard is limited to loose fitting dry clothing. Virtually every textile parameter has an influence on the UPF of the finished garment and hence on the protection afforded to skin from the harmful effects of solar UVR radiation. Textile parameters such as fibre type, the method of spinning the yarn, fabric structure, cover factor, colorant, UVR absorbers and finishing methods determine the UPF of the fabric and hence must be controlled from batch to batch. Since garments generally shrink when washed, multiple wearing and washing cycles usually cause an increase in fabric UPF. Adventitious soiling of fabrics and the absorption of certain components of domestic laundry formulations, e g fluorescent whitening agents, increase fabric UPF ratings. Garments with a high degree of elasticity, e g nylon/lycra sportswear, that are stretched on to fit, will obviously have lower UPFs when stretched than when relaxed. In general fabrics worn in a wet state provide lower protection than when worn dry. On Australia's most extreme summer day it has been estimated that there are 30 MEDs (minimal erythemal doses) in a dawn to dusk exposure. Thus outdoor workers should be provided with UPF 30 clothing, or better. Results from recent experiments using SK-II hairless mice dressed in UPF 50 'sunsuits' have shown that the mice developed no sun induced skin cancers on the skin areas protected by the UPF 50 fabric whereas multiple tumours developed on the unprotected skin

  16. Making Complex Electrically Conductive Patterns on Cloth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Andrew; Fink, Patrick W.; Dobbins, Justin A.; Lin, Greg Y.; Scully, Robert C.; Trevino, Robert

    2008-01-01

    A method for automated fabrication of flexible, electrically conductive patterns on cloth substrates has been demonstrated. Products developed using this method, or related prior methods, are instances of a technology known as 'e-textiles,' in which electrically conductive patterns ar formed in, and on, textiles. For many applications, including high-speed digital circuits, antennas, and radio frequency (RF) circuits, an e-textile method should be capable of providing high surface conductivity, tight tolerances for control of characteristic impedances, and geometrically complex conductive patterns. Unlike prior methods, the present method satisfies all three of these criteria. Typical patterns can include such circuit structures as RF transmission lines, antennas, filters, and other conductive patterns equivalent to those of conventional printed circuits. The present method overcomes the limitations of the prior methods for forming the equivalent of printed circuits on cloth. A typical fabrication process according to the present method involves selecting the appropriate conductive and non-conductive fabric layers to build the e-textile circuit. The present method uses commercially available woven conductive cloth with established surface conductivity specifications. Dielectric constant, loss tangent, and thickness are some of the parameters to be considered for the non-conductive fabric layers. The circuit design of the conductive woven fabric is secured onto a non-conductive fabric layer using sewing, embroidery, and/or adhesive means. The portion of the conductive fabric that is not part of the circuit is next cut from the desired circuit using an automated machine such as a printed-circuit-board milling machine or a laser cutting machine. Fiducials can be used to align the circuit and the cutting machine. Multilayer circuits can be built starting with the inner layer and using conductive thread to make electrical connections between layers.

  17. Dry and wet heat transfer through clothing dependent on the clothing properties under cold conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Richards, M.G.M.; Rossi, R.; Meinander, H.; Broede, P.; Candas, V.; Hartog, E.A. den; Holmér, I.; Nocker, W.; Havenith, G.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of moisture on the heat transfer through clothing in relation to the water vapour resistance, type of underwear, location of the moisture and climate. This forms part of the work performed for work package 2 of the European Union THERMPROTECT

  18. The effect of air permeability of chemical protective clothing material on clothing vapour resistance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Havenith, G.; Vuister, R.; Wammes, L.

    1996-01-01

    One of the major problems associated with Chemical Warfare Protective Clothing (CW) is the additional heat load created by the garments. For CW-overgarments, research in the direction of reducing material thickness and thus heat and vapour resistance have not resulted in major improvements. The

  19. Clothing style preference of working women related to self- image/clothing-image congruity and public self-consciousness

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Jae Ok

    1990-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to extend knowledge concerning the influence of self-image congruity and public self-consciousness on clothing behavior from the symbolic consumption perspective. Thus, relationships among the three major constructs, public self-consciousness (PSC), self-image/clothing-image congruity (actual self-congruity, ASC and ideal social-congruity, ISSC) and clothing-style preference (CSP), were examined. The five objectives that guided the study were ...

  20. 'Nothing works' in secure residential youth care?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Souverein, F.A.; van der Helm, G.H.P.; Stams, G.J.J.M.

    2013-01-01

    A debate about the effectiveness of secure residential youth care is currently going on. While some continue to support secure residential youth care, others conclude that ‘nothing works’ in secure residential youth care, and argue that non-residential treatment is superior to secure residential

  1. Accumulation of gas-phase methamphetamine on clothing, toy fabrics, and skin oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, G; Shakila, N V; Parker, K

    2015-08-01

    To better understand methamphetamine exposure and risk for occupants of former residential clandestine methamphetamine laboratories, we measured the dynamic accumulation of methamphetamine in skin oil, cotton and polyester (PE) clothing, upholstery, and toy fabric (substrates) exposed to 15-30 ppb (91-183 μg/m(3)) neutral methamphetamine in air for up to 60 days. The average equilibrium partition coefficients at 30% RH, in units of μg of methamphetamine per gram of substrate per ppb, are 3.0 ± 0.2 for a PE baby blanket, 5.6 ± 3.5 for a PE fabric toy, 3.7 ± 0.2 for a PE shirt, 18.3 ± 8.0 for a PE/cotton upholstery fabric, and 1200 ± 570 in skin oil. The partition coefficients at 60% RH are 4.5 ± 0.4, 5.2 ± 2.1, 4.5 ± 0.6, 36.1 ± 3.6, and 1600 ± 1100 μg/(g ppb), respectively. There was no difference in the partition coefficient for a clean and skin-oil-soiled cotton shirt [15.3 ± 2.1 μg/(g ppb) @ 42 days]. Partition coefficients for skin oil may be sensitive to composition. 'Mouthing' of cloth is predicted to be the dominant exposure pathway [60 μg/(kg body weight*ppb)] for a toddler in former meth lab, and indoor air concentrations would have to be very low (0.001 ppb) to meet the recommended reference dose for children. Gas-phase methamphetamine transfers to and accumulates on clothing, toys and other fabrics significantly increases risk of ingestion of methamphetamine. Current remediation methods should consider measurement of postremediation gas-phase air concentrations of methamphetamine in addition to surface wipe samples. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. WBGT clothing adjustments for four clothing ensembles under three relative humidity levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, Thomas E; Luecke, Christina L; Schwartz, Skai W; Kirkland, K Scott; Ashley, Candi D

    2005-05-01

    Threshold limit values for heat stress and strain are based on an upper limit wet bulb globe temperature (WBGT) for ordinary work clothes, with clothing adjustment factors (CAF) for other clothing ensembles. The purpose of this study was to determine the CAF for four clothing ensembles (Cotton Coveralls, Tyvek 1424 Coveralls, NexGen Coveralls, and Tychem QC Coveralls) against a baseline of cotton work clothes and to determine what effect relative humidity may have. A climatic chamber was used to slowly increase the level of heat stress by increasing air temperature at three levels of relative humidity (20%, 50%, and 70%). Study participants wore one of the five ensembles while walking on a treadmill at a moderate metabolic rate of 155 W m-2 (about 300 W). Physiological data and environmental data were collected. When the participant's core temperature reached a steady state, the dry bulb temperature was increased at constant relative humidity. The point at which the core temperature began to increase was defined as the inflection point. The environmental temperature recorded 5 min before the inflection point was used to calculate the critical WBGT for each ensemble. A three-way analysis of variance with ensemble by humidity protocol interactions and a multiple comparison test were used to make comparisons among the mean values. Only the vapor-barrier ensemble (Tychem QC) demonstrated an interaction with humidity level. The following CAFs are proposed: Cotton Coveralls (0 degrees C-WBGT), Tyvek 1424 Coveralls (+1), NexGen Coveralls (+2), and Tychem QC Coveralls (+10).

  3. Re-thinking residential mobility

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Ham, Maarten; Findlay, Allan M.

    2015-01-01

    While researchers are increasingly re-conceptualizing international migration, far less attention has been devoted to re-thinking short-distance residential mobility and immobility. In this paper we harness the life course approach to propose a new conceptual framework for residential mobility research. We contend that residential mobility and immobility should be re-conceptualized as relational practices that link lives through time and space while connecting people to structural conditions. Re-thinking and re-assessing residential mobility by exploiting new developments in longitudinal analysis will allow geographers to understand, critique and address pressing societal challenges. PMID:27330243

  4. Large-Scale Residential Demolition

    Science.gov (United States)

    The EPA provides resources for handling residential demolitions or renovations. This includes planning, handling harmful materials, recycling, funding, compliance assistance, good practices and regulations.

  5. Reversible Humidity Sensitive Clothing for Personal Thermoregulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Ying; Zhang, Fenghua; Wang, Meng; Gardner, Calvin J.; Kim, Gunwoo; Liu, Yanju; Leng, Jinsong; Jin, Sungho; Chen, Renkun

    2017-03-01

    Two kinds of humidity-induced, bendable smart clothing have been designed to reversibly adapt their thermal insulation functionality. The first design mimics the pores in human skin, in which pre-cut flaps open to produce pores in Nafion sheets when humidity increases, as might occur during human sweating thus permitting air flow and reducing both the humidity level and the apparent temperature. Like the smart human sweating pores, the flaps can close automatically after the perspiration to keep the wearer warm. The second design involves thickness adjustable clothes by inserting the bent polymer sheets between two fabrics. As the humidity increases, the sheets become thinner, thus reducing the gap between the two fabrics to reduce the thermal insulation. The insulation layer can recover its original thickness upon humidity reduction to restore its warmth-preservation function. Such humidity sensitive smart polymer materials can be utilized to adjust personal comfort, and be effective in reducing energy consumption for building heating or cooling with numerous smart design.

  6. Pre-Flight Advanced Clothing Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orndoff, Evelyne; Poritz, Darwin; Schlesinger, Thilini; Byme, Vicky

    2014-01-01

    All human space missions require significant logistical mass and volume that will become an excessive burden for long duration missions beyond low Earth orbit. The current International Space Station (ISS) crew wardrobe has already evolved not only to reduce some of the logistical burden but also to address crew preference. The present study was undertaken to find ways further to reduce this logistical burden while examining human response to different types of clothes. The primary objective of the study is to measure how long people can wear the same exercise garment, depending on the type of fabric and the presence of antimicrobial treatment. The secondary objective is to assess the reasons for length of wear from perceptions of clothing characteristics, including nine ordinal scales. Cardiovascular exercise was chosen as the activity in this experiment for its profuse sweating effect and because it is considered a more severe treatment applied to the clothes than every-day usage. Study garments were exercise T-shirts and shorts purchased from various vendors. Fabric construction, fabric composition, and finishing treatment were defined as the key variables. A web-based questionnaire was used for self-reported data collection. The study was divided in three balanced experiments: a cotton-polyester-wool (CPW) T-shirts study with 61 participants, a polyester-modacrylic-polyester/cocona (PMC) T-shirts study with 40 participants, and a shorts study with 70 participants. In the CPW study, the T-shirts were made of 100% cotton, or of 100% polyester or of 100% wool, and categorized into open and tight knit constructions. In the PMC study, the T-shirts were made of 100% polyester, or of 82% modacrylic, or of 95% polyester with 5% cocona fiber, without construction distinction. The shorts were made either of 100% cotton or of 100% polyester, and were knitted or woven. Some garments were treated with Bio-Protect 500 antimicrobial finish according the experimental design

  7. ASHRAE and residential ventilation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sherman, Max H.

    2003-10-01

    In the last quarter of a century, the western world has become increasingly aware of environmental threats to health and safety. During this period, people psychologically retreated away from outdoors hazards such as pesticides, smog, lead, oil spills, and dioxin to the seeming security of their homes. However, the indoor environment may not be healthier than the outdoor environment, as has become more apparent over the past few years with issues such as mold, formaldehyde, and sick-building syndrome. While the built human environment has changed substantially over the past 10,000 years, human biology has not; poor indoor air quality creates health risks and can be uncomfortable. The human race has found, over time, that it is essential to manage the indoor environments of their homes. ASHRAE has long been in the business of ventilation, but most of the focus of that effort has been in the area of commercial and institutional buildings. Residential ventilation was traditionally not a major concern because it was felt that, between operable windows and envelope leakage, people were getting enough outside air in their homes. In the quarter of a century since the first oil shock, houses have gotten much more energy efficient. At the same time, the kinds of materials and functions in houses changed in character in response to people's needs. People became more environmentally conscious and aware not only about the resources they were consuming but about the environment in which they lived. All of these factors contributed to an increasing level of public concern about residential indoor air quality and ventilation. Where once there was an easy feeling about the residential indoor environment, there is now a desire to define levels of acceptability and performance. Many institutions--both public and private--have interests in Indoor Air Quality (IAQ), but ASHRAE, as the professional society that has had ventilation as part of its mission for over 100 years, is the

  8. Dermal uptake of nicotine from air and clothing: Experimental verification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bekö, Gabriel; Morrison, Glenn; Weschler, Charles J.

    2017-01-01

    clothing that has previously absorbed/adsorbed indoor air pollutants can increase dermal uptake. A recent experiment demonstrated that dermal uptake of airborne nicotine directly from air or from clothing can occur (Bekö et al., 2017). The current study aims to expand our knowledge on the dermal uptake...... of nicotine, by conducting more extensive experiments....

  9. Human physiology as the determining factor in protective clothing design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daanen, Hein

    2014-01-01

    Protective clothing is designed to protect humans against risks like fire, chemicals or blunt impact. Although protect¡ve clothing diminishes the effects of external risks, it may hinder people in functioning and it may also introduce new (internal) risks. Manufacturers are often not aware of the

  10. Pre-Employment Laboratory Education. Clothing/Fashion Design Guidebook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock. Home Economics Instructional Materials Center.

    This guidebook is designed for use in teaching students enrolled in preemployment laboratory education (PELE) clothing/fashion design programs. The first of two major sections includes an overview for teachers on planning, conducting, and evaluating a PELE clothing/fashion design program. Specific topics discussed in section 1 include (1)…

  11. Textiles and clothing sustainability implications in textiles and fashion

    CERN Document Server

    2017-01-01

    This book comprehensively covers the topic of sustainability in the clothing and fashion sector. Sustainability is applied under different industrial sectors and there has to be a distinction in every industrial sector when it comes to sustainability in its application. Though the definition is common for sustainability, sustainability in the clothing sector has its unique objectives, principles, and limitations, which this book highlights.

  12. 447 Clothing for Elderly Persons: Management and Caring ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    FIRST LADY

    2011-01-18

    Jan 18, 2011 ... interplay between physiological and cultural influences in the constitution of old age can be explored. Clothing has also traditionally embedded age- ordering even though the phenomenon seems elusive. In Europe, the retail clothing industry is quiet on it while many older people repudiate its influence, but ...

  13. Exercise Clothing for Children in a Weight-Management Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Kate; Alexander, Marina; Spencer, Virginia

    2007-01-01

    This study investigated whether clothing can be perceived as a form of encouragement for success in a weight management exercise program. A small (n = 30) sample of children and parents, enrolled in a weight-management exercise program, responded to a survey instrument that included questions regarding fit and comfort of the clothing children wore…

  14. The control of human thermal comfort by the smart clothing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahta I.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Generally, human thermal comfort depends on combinations of clothing structure and chemical nature of fibers, external conditions and factors related to wearer. Thermal comfort of a clothing system is associated with thermal balance of body and its thermoregulatory responses to the dynamic interactions with the clothing and the environment, and can be quantified in terms of Met and Clo units. One of the important functions of clothing is to provide adequate thermal comfort for wellness and high performance. To do this research, clothing with an integrated human microclimate regulating electrical system has been developed. The clothing contains: Peltier elements, which provide cooling effect; electronic control system with heat sensor – thermistor, which controls the optimal operating parameters, and energy source. The aim of experiments is to verify, how the cooling system, integrated in the clothes, influences indicators of the human microclimate. For this reason, the experiments of wearing by the appropriate operating conditions are carried out by measuring temperature changes in different locations in space between the body and clothes during activities. The analysis of experimental results reveals the system's operational efficiency as well as the negative impact of non-evaporative materials on the possibility of vapour removal through the garment surface.

  15. Image & Identity: Clothing and Adolescence in the 1990s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Michelle Knovic; And Others

    The kit provides students and teachers new ways to study culture through its material evidence: the objects and artifacts of daily life. In the four activities comprising this kit, students study clothing as an aspect of their own material culture. They move from general observations about clothing to consideration of their personal wardrobes,…

  16. Effect of Clothing on Measurement of Bone Mineral Density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, Elizabeth A; Feldman, Anna Z; Malabanan, Alan O; Abate, Ejigayehu G; Whittaker, LaTarsha G; Yano-Litwin, Amanda; Dorazio, Jolene; Rosen, Harold N

    2016-01-01

    It is unknown whether allowing patients to have BMD (bone mineral density) studies acquired while wearing radiolucent clothing adlib contributes appreciably to the measurement error seen. To examine this question, a spine phantom was scanned 30 times without any clothing, while draped with a gown, and while draped with heavy winter clothing. The effect on mean BMD and on SD (standard deviation) was assessed. The effect of clothing on mean or SD of the area was not significant. The effect of clothing on mean and SD for BMD was small but significant and was around 1.6% for the mean. However, the effect on BMD precision was much more clinically important. Without clothing the spine phantom had an least significant change of 0.0077 gm/cm(2), while when introducing variability of clothing the least significant change rose as high as 0.0305 gm/cm(2). We conclude that, adding clothing to the spine phantom had a small but statistically significant effect on the mean BMD and on variance of the measurement. It is unlikely that the effect on mean BMD has any clinical significance, but the effect on the reproducibility (precision) of the result is likely clinically significant. Copyright © 2016 The International Society for Clinical Densitometry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Furs and fabrics : transformations, clothing and identity in East Greenland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buijs, C.C.M.

    2004-01-01

    Today Arctic clothing is an important research topic. The first European researchers were fascinated by the Greenlander’s sophisticated technology, and they brought clothing, kayaks and hunting equipment back to Europe. Researchers still admire the quality of the techniques used to produce a

  18. Adjusting to Chinese Ascendancy in the Global Clothing Industry ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    They will trace Chinese ascendancy in the global clothing industry, analyze trends in each of the study countries' exports to the United States and the European Union, examine each country's clothing sector profile and ... Policy in Focus publishes a special issue profiling evidence to empower women in the labour market.

  19. Stories in the Cloth: Art Therapy and Narrative Textiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garlock, Lisa Raye

    2016-01-01

    In this article I weave together the relevance of narrative textile work in therapeutic and human rights contexts; showcase Common Threads, an international nonprofit that uses story cloths with survivors of gender-based violence; outline a master's level art therapy course in story cloths; and relate how textiles helped build a sibling…

  20. Improvement of thermal comfort by cooling clothing in warm climate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sakoi, Tomonori; Melikov, Arsen Krikor; Kolencíková, Sona

    2014-01-01

    on the inner surface. We conducted experiments with human subjects in climate chambers maintained at 30 °C and RH 50% to compare the effectiveness of the cooling clothing with that of other convective cooling devices. The use of cooling clothing with a convective cooling device improved the subjects’ thermal...

  1. MANUFACTURING OF EMERY CLOTH (SAND PAPER)FROM ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper identifies surface finishing (grinding) as a major engineering process in production industries and that emery cloth otherwise know as ";sand paper"; is used for this purpose. The grinding process is discussed in details. The materials and their sources requires for the production of the emery cloth are discussed ...

  2. Governance and Upgrading Practices in Cloth Production Value Chain

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examines the governance _pal/ern and upgrading _practices of value chain of cloth _production, focusing on micro and small cloth _producing entetprises in Addis Ababa. The study is based on a sample of 222 respondents drawn from various actors of the value chain in the city. The value chain is found out to ...

  3. Factors that influence household and individual clothing expenditure ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    S Blignaut

    Factors that influence household and individual clothing expenditure: A review of research and related literature. ISSN 0378-5254 Journal of Family ... but a similar trend pertains to household clothing and footwear expenditure in South Africa. ...... categories such as men's wear, sportswear or leisure wear were studied.

  4. Protective clothing based on permselective membrane and carbon adsorption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, R.

    1995-03-01

    The objective of this program is to develop improved protective clothing for use by workers engaged in decomissioning and decontamination of former DOE sites. The proposed technology concerns a new protective clothing fabric that combines a permselective membrane layer (for water transmission and breathability) with a sorptive layer.

  5. Dermal uptake of nicotine from air and clothing: Experimental verification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bekö, Gabriel; Morrison, G.; Weschler, Charles J.

    2017-01-01

    This study aims to elucidate in greater detail the dermal uptake of nicotine from air or from nicotine-exposed clothes, which was demonstrated recently in a preliminary study. Six non-smoking participants were exposed to gaseous nicotine (between 236 and 304 μg/m3 ) over 5 hours while breathing...... clothes on week 1 were now exposed wearing a set of clothes that had been exposed to nicotine. All urine was collected for 84 hours after exposure and analyzed for nicotine and its metabolites, cotinine and 3OH-cotinine. All participants except those wearing fresh clothes excreted substantial amounts...... of biomarkers, comparable to levels expected from inhalation intake. Uptake for 1 participant wearing exposed clothes exceeded estimated intake via inhalation by >50%. Biomarker excretion continued during the entire urine collection period, indicating that nicotine accumulates in the skin and is released over...

  6. The design of clothing washable labels based on NFC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Zhengdong

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, With the rapid development of NFC (Near Field Communication technology and the digital advancement of clothing industry, a kind of clothing washable labels based on NFC is proposed and designed in this paper. It can be used to compose a clothing information system together with NFC mobile phones, mobile Internet, enterprise information centers, etc. By experiment, consumers can read and write NFC washable labels through their mobile phones, which can be quicker and more convenient to obtain clothing washing and maintenance information. Moreover, the NFC washable labels conform to the washing requirements of washable labels. The emergence of the NFC washable labels provides a physical basis for smart matching recommendations and precise directional push of clothing advertising information for consumers.

  7. Residential Mechanical Precooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    German, Alea [Davis Energy Group, Davis, CA (United States). Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI); Hoeschele, Marc [Davis Energy Group, Davis, CA (United States). Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI)

    2014-12-01

    Residential air conditioning (AC) represents a challenging load for many electric utilities with poor load factors. Mechanical precooling improves the load factor by shifting cooling operation from on-peak to off-peak hours. This provides benefits to utilities and the electricity grid, as well as to occupants who can take advantage of time-of-use (TOU) electricity rates. Performance benefits stem from reduced compressor cycling, and shifting condensing unit operation to earlier periods of the day when outdoor temperatures are more favorable to operational efficiency. Finding solutions that save energy and reduce demand on the electricity grid is an important national objective and supports key Building America goals. The Alliance for Residential Building Innovation team evaluated mechanical AC precooling strategies in homes throughout the United States. EnergyPlus modeling was used to evaluate two homes with different performance characteristics in seven climates. Results are applicable to new construction homes and most existing homes built in the last 10 years, as well as fairly efficient retrofitted homes. A successful off-peak AC strategy offers the potential for increased efficiency and improved occupant comfort, and promotes a more reliable and robust electricity grid. Demand response capabilities and further integration with photovoltaic TOU generation patterns provide additional opportunities to flatten loads and optimize grid impacts.

  8. Neurovascular risk of bicortical tibial drilling for screw and spiked washer fixation of soft-tissue anterior cruciate ligament graft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Post, William R.; King, Stephen S.

    2001-03-01

    PURPOSE: As the use of soft-tissue anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) grafts, including hamstring grafts, has become more prominent and the benefits of aggressive rehabilitation have become clear, maximizing fixation with screw and spiked washers is important. Bicortical fixation may be superior. We were concerned about potential neurovascular risks and designed this study to define the posterior neurovasculature structures at risk when drilling for bicortical tibial screw fixation during ACL reconstruction. Type of Study: Consecutive sample. METHODS: We placed the tibial tunnel arthroscopically in 10 cadaveric knees using a standard tibial drill guide. Accurate tibial tunnel position was documented in each knee by lateral radiograph. A 4.5-mm bicortical drill hole was placed perpendicular to the tibial surface 1 cm distal to the tibial tunnel. The distances from the posterior tibial drill exit point to nearby neurovascular structures were measured with a caliper. RESULTS: The closest structure to the exit point was the bifurcation of the popliteal artery/vein (11.4 +/- 0.6 mm; range, 8.4 to 14.0 mm). The next closest was the anterior tibial vein (11.7 +/- 1.6 mm; range, 3.5 to 22.8 mm). The closest any individual hole came to a neurovascular structure was 3.5 mm from the anterior tibial vein. CONCLUSIONS: Bicortical drilling for fixation of soft tissue grafts appears reasonably safe. The structures at greatest risk for injury are the bifurcation of the popliteal artery/vein and the anterior tibial vein.

  9. Thermoelectric Fabrics: Toward Power Generating Clothing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Yong; Cai, Kefeng; Chen, Song; Wang, Hongxia; Shen, Shirley Z.; Donelson, Richard; Lin, Tong

    2015-01-01

    Herein, we demonstrate that a flexible, air-permeable, thermoelectric (TE) power generator can be prepared by applying a TE polymer (e.g. poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(4-styrenesulfonate)) coated commercial fabric and subsequently by linking the coated strips with a conductive connection (e.g. using fine metal wires). The poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(4-styrenesulfonate) coated fabric shows very stable TE properties from 300 K to 390 K. The fabric device can generate a TE voltage output (V) of 4.3 mV at a temperature difference (ΔT) of 75.2 K. The potential for using fabric TE devices to harvest body temperature energy has been discussed. Fabric-based TE devices may be useful for the development of new power generating clothing and self-powered wearable electronics. PMID:25804132

  10. Residential Energy Performance Metrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Wright

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Techniques for residential energy monitoring are an emerging field that is currently drawing significant attention. This paper is a description of the current efforts to monitor and compare the performance of three solar powered homes built at Missouri University of Science and Technology. The homes are outfitted with an array of sensors and a data logger system to measure and record electricity production, system energy use, internal home temperature and humidity, hot water production, and exterior ambient conditions the houses are experiencing. Data is being collected to measure the performance of the houses, compare to energy modeling programs, design and develop cost effective sensor systems for energy monitoring, and produce a cost effective home control system.

  11. College residential sleep environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sexton-Radek, Kathy; Hartley, Andrew

    2013-12-01

    College students regularly report increased sleep disturbances as well as concomitant reductions in performance (e.g., academic grades) upon entering college. Sleep hygiene refers to healthy sleep practices that are commonly used as first interventions in sleep disturbances. One widely used practice of this sort involves arranging the sleep environment to minimize disturbances from excessive noise and light at bedtime. Communal sleep situations such as those in college residence halls do not easily support this intervention. Following several focus groups, a questionnaire was designed to gather self-reported information on sleep disturbances in a college population. The present study used The Young Adult Sleep Environment Inventory (YASEI) and sleep logs to investigate the sleep environment of college students living in residential halls. A summary of responses indicated that noise and light are significant sleep disturbances in these environments. Recommendations are presented related to these findings.

  12. EPRI Guide to Managing Nuclear Utility Protective Clothing Programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelly, J.J.; Kelly, D.M.

    1993-10-01

    The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) commissioned a radioactive waste related project (RP2414-34) in 1989 to produce a guide for developing and managing nuclear plant protective clothing programs. Every nuclear facility must coordinate some type of protective clothing program for its radiation workers to ensure proper and safe protection for the wearer and to maintain control over the spread of contamination. Yet, every nuclear facility has developed its own unique program for managing such clothing. Accordingly, a need existed for a reference guide to assist with standardizing protective clothing programs and in controlling the potentially escalating economics of such programs. The initial Guide to Managing Nuclear Utility Protective Clothing Programs, NP-7309, was published in May 1991. Since that time, a number of utilities have reviewed and/or used the report to enhance their protective clothing programs. Some of these utilities requested that a computer program be developed to assist utilities in evaluating the economics of protective clothing programs consistent with the guidance in NP-7309. The PCEVAL computer code responds to that industry need. This report, the PCEVAL User's Manual, provides detailed instruction on use of the software

  13. Non-iterative distance constraints enforcement for cloth drapes simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidajat, R. L. L. G.; Wibowo, Arifin, Z.; Suyitno

    2016-03-01

    A cloth simulation represents the behavior of cloth objects such as flag, tablecloth, or even garments has application in clothing animation for games and virtual shops. Elastically deformable models have widely used to provide realistic and efficient simulation, however problem of overstretching is encountered. We introduce a new cloth simulation algorithm that replaces iterative distance constraint enforcement steps with non-iterative ones for preventing over stretching in a spring-mass system for cloth modeling. Our method is based on a simple position correction procedure applied at one end of a spring. In our experiments, we developed a rectangle cloth model which is initially at a horizontal position with one point is fixed, and it is allowed to drape by its own weight. Our simulation is able to achieve a plausible cloth drapes as in reality. This paper aims to demonstrate the reliability of our approach to overcome overstretches while decreasing the computational cost of the constraint enforcement process due to an iterative procedure that is eliminated.

  14. RE FLECTIONS FROM TRADITIONAL CLOTHES OF KONYA REGION TODAY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.Elhan ÖZUS

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Clothing is the way of wearing that is owned by a society, or a job. There is the essance of social statue and differance rather than fashion. In this aspect made a way of wearing according to their own custom and social organism. One of the specialities of setting apart the societies and defining their cultural differances and social classes is the way of wearing. As it is known, Turkish clothes reflecting the specialities of Turki sh culture and way of living them are the greatest heritage coming from ancient times. Between those heritages, women clothes show a great variety of examples. If you look into those examples, you will see the delight of past, way of art, way of living. Th ose clothes also are at the quality of certificate showing the delight of Turkish people. In this study, traditional Anatolian part of our culture in the position of clothes to protect , promote and special occasions using the transfer to future generation s in terms of Konya traditional women's clothes from the old carpets , rugs and ethnographic goods trading profession dealing with Velinaci Gezgin's stores located in the clothes were examined This study identified and the traditional dresses fabric , patterns and motifs are made by making use of designs suitable to the present day fashion . The technique used in the research is defined firstly the survey of written resources. As the result of research made in that area, observations, research and findi ngs are transferred into text.

  15. Relationship intention amongst clothing retail customers: An exploratory study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanie W. Kuhn

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: Increasing competition has resulted in clothing retailers placing more emphasis on expensive relationship marketing tactics to retain customers. The retailers often use customers’ loyalty programme membership and the duration of their support to identify and target them in relationship-building efforts. Research purpose: This study determines the viability of relationship intention by measuring and categorising clothing customers according to their relationship intentions. The study also explores the duration of customer support for a clothing retailer, membership of their loyalty programme and the relationship thereof with customers’ relationship intentions towards that retailer. Motivation for the study: Relationship building efforts would be better directed at customers with relationship intentions. Research design, approach and method: Quantitative in nature, this study followed a descriptive research design and used an interviewer-administered survey to collect data from 511 clothing retail customers residing in the greater Pretoria metropolitan area. Main findings: Clothing retailers can effectively determine and categorise customers according to their relationship intentions. The duration customers have supported a clothing retailer and its loyalty programme has no relationship with their relationship intentions. Practical/Managerial implications: Clothing retailers should focus their relationship building on customers with relationship intentions, as they are more likely to respond favourably. They are more likely to be retained by the clothing retailer and provide a return on investment. Contribution/value-add: This study gives clothing retailers a reliable and valid measuring instrument that can be used to identify customers with relationship intentions, rather than relying on the duration of the customers’ support and their loyalty programme membership.

  16. Circular Economy in the Clothing Industry : Challenges and Strategies

    OpenAIRE

    RIBEIRO ROSA, ANDRÉ MANUEL

    2016-01-01

    This  exploratory research  identifies  how  can  clothing companies  implement  textile recyclingtechnologies that help transition them to a sustainable circular economy business model, given the challenges of eco-innovation diffusion. The study is exploratory in nature, employs a literature review and a case study of Patagonia, the outdoor equipment and clothing company that pioneered the use of recycled fibers in the outdoor clothing industry and continues to have today several initiatives...

  17. Neutron irradiation effects on carbon and graphite cloths and fibers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, W.J.

    1977-08-01

    A series of cloth and fiber samples were irradiated to fluences of 3.5, 7.3, and 10 x 10 21 cm -2 at 470 0 C. Dimensional changes of the fibers in the radial direction ranged from -19% to +33% and in the axial direction from -18% to -27%, roughly ten times greater than dimensional changes found for typical nuclear graphites. Despite these large dimensional changes, all but one of the 2-dimensional cloths remained essentially unchanged in overall physical appearance. The 3-dimensional cloths, on the other hand, deteriorated apparently because these types of weaves were less able to accommodate the large axial fiber shrinkages

  18. An Investigation of Self-Concept, Clothing Selection, and Life Satisfaction among Disabled Consumers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Hyo Jung

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation investigates the relationships between various aspects of self-concept (i.e., generalized self-efficacy, public self-consciousness, state hope, and self-esteem), clothing selection (i.e., clothing that expresses individuality, clothing that improves the emotional state, clothing that camouflages the body), and life satisfaction…

  19. 41 CFR 109-25.350 - Furnishing of Government clothing and individual equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... clothing and individual equipment. 109-25.350 Section 109-25.350 Public Contracts and Property Management... clothing and individual equipment. (a) Government-owned clothing and individual equipment may be furnished... could not reasonably be required to furnish them as a part of the personal clothing and equipment needed...

  20. 28 CFR 97.16 - Clothing requirements for transported violent prisoners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Clothing requirements for transported... FOR PRIVATE ENTITIES PROVIDING PRISONER OR DETAINEE SERVICES § 97.16 Clothing requirements for... transport are clothed in brightly colored clothing that clearly identifies them as violent prisoners, unless...

  1. Residential energy usage comparison: Findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, B.A.; Uhlaner, R.T.; Cason, T.N.; Courteau, S. (Quantum Consulting, Inc., Berkeley, CA (United States))

    1991-08-01

    This report presents the research methods and results from the Residential Energy Usage Comparison (REUC) project, a joint effort by Southern California Edison Company (SCE) and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI). The REUC project design activities began in early 1986. The REUC project is an innovative demand-site project designed to measure and compare typical energy consumption patterns of energy efficient residential electric and gas appliances. 95 figs., 33 tabs.

  2. Computational fluid dynamic modeling of protective clothing systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gibson, P.; Barry, J.; Hill, R.; Brasser, P.; Sobera, M.; Kleijn, C.

    2006-01-01

    Protective clothing provides laboratory and hazardous materials workers, fire fighters, military personnel, and others with the means to control their exposure to chemicals, biological materials, and heat sources. Depending on the specific application, the textile materials used in protective

  3. Assessment of sun protection for children's summer 2005 clothing collection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khazova, M.; O'Hagan, J. B.; Grainger, K. L.

    2007-01-01

    Overexposure to solar ultraviolet radiation (UVR) in childhood is considered to be a critical factor for developing skin cancer in later life. Clothing may offer a simple and effective means of protection against overexposure to the sun, but its use has often been underrated in public opinion. The Health Protection Agency, in close collaboration with a number of UK retailers, conducted a study to evaluate the UVR protection characteristics of the summer 2005 collection of children's clothing for outdoor activity. The current paper presents a summary of the assessment and the effects of stretching and wetting on the Ultraviolet Protection Factor (UPF) rating of children's clothing. The results demonstrate the need for better public guidance in sun protection of children and more comprehensive evaluation procedures for sun protection provided by clothing. (authors)

  4. The systematization of information: functional clothes through the mind map

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliete Auxiliadora Assunção Ourives

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Currently, if checks the evolution in women's clothing design aiming at the well-being, comfort and quality of life. However, women still complain of discomfort of breast movement during physical activities carried out in factory floors and sporting activities, among other activities. This discomfort, according to the women, increases during the menstrual period. Therefore, to structure the information on the subject is important, because it will suit the functional clothing designs for these activities. The mind map is a tool suitable for this because assists the organization process of thought and understanding of the information about a particular subject. With that, this work aims to structure information for project requirements with a focus on functional female clothing. The method of research is descriptive and exploratory character. In the end, this work presented project guidelines of functional guidelines female clothing through the process of analysis the mind map.

  5. 19 CFR 10.58 - Bolting cloths; marking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. General Provisions Bolting Cloths... used in the act or process of grading, screening, bolting, separating, classifying, or sifting dry...

  6. Improvment of Clothes Fit for Different Female Bodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surikova Olga V.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The factors influencing for fit and suit of women’s clothing have been studied. The main reason of misfit is the nonconformity between the front and back width of pattern block, the corresponding body sizes taken across the hipline, and the textile materials properties. To predict the behavior of textile fabrics in real clothes including the shear deformation and wrinkles appearing, the special test and device have been designed. The developed method of pattern block making includes the test of clothes proportionality based on the female bodies sizes, pattern block indexes, and textile fabrics properties. Features of “figure-clothes” systems in-cluding the vertical designing lines, styles, volume of clothes, ease allowance and its distribution between the back, armhole, and front of the pattern blocks were taken into consideration. Recommendations in terms of selecting the proper design of style for different sizes of female bodies have been made.

  7. Process analysis of an in store production of knitted clothing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buecher, D.; Kemper, M.; Schmenk, B.; Gloy, Y.-S.; Gries, T.

    2017-10-01

    In the textile and clothing industry, global value-added networks are widespread for textile and clothing production. As a result of global networking, the value chain is fragmented and a great deal of effort is required to coordinate the production processes [1]. In addition, the planning effort on the quantity and design of the goods is high and risky. Today the fashion industry is facing an increasing customer demand for individual and customizable products in addition to short delivery times [2]. These challenges are passed down to the textile and clothing industry decreasing batch sizes and production times. Conventional clothing production cannot fulfill those demands especially when combined with more and more individual or customizable designs. Hence new production concepts have to be developed.

  8. WBGT clothing adjustment factors for four clothing ensembles and the effects of metabolic demands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, Thomas E; Caravello, Victor; Schwartz, Skai W; Ashley, Candi D

    2008-01-01

    This study measured the clothing adjustment factors (CAFs) for four clothing ensembles (Cotton Coveralls, Tyvek 1427 Coveralls, NexGen Coveralls, and Tychem QC Coveralls; all coveralls were worn without hoods) against a baseline of cotton work clothes to determine whether the CAFs would be affected by the metabolic rate. Fifteen participants wore one of the five ensembles while walking on a treadmill at low, moderate, and high rates of work in an environment maintained at 50% relative humidity. A climatic chamber was used to slowly increase the level of heat stress by increasing air temperature. When the participant's core temperature reached a steady-state, the dry bulb temperature was increased. The point at which the core temperature began to increase was defined as the inflection point, and the WBGT recorded 5 min before the inflection point was the critical WBGT for each ensemble. A three-way mixed effects linear model with ensemble by metabolic rate category interactions demonstrated that the CAF did not change with metabolic rate, so CAFs can be used over a wide range of metabolic rates. The data at the moderate metabolic rate were combined with data on 14 participants from a previous study under the same conditions. The CAFs in degrees C WBGT were 0 for cotton coveralls, 1.0 for Tyvek 1422A, and 2.5 for NexGen. Although the value of 7.5 for Tychem QC was found, the recommendation remained at 10 to account for the effects of humidity. The standard error for the determination of WBGT crit at 50% relative humidity was 1.60 degrees C WBGT.

  9. Textiles and clothing sustainability sustainable textile chemical processes

    CERN Document Server

    2017-01-01

    This book highlights the challenges in sustainable wet processing of textiles, natural dyes, enzymatic textiles and sustainable textile finishes. Textile industry is known for its chemical processing issues and many NGO’s are behind the textile sector to streamline its chemical processing, which is the black face of clothing and fashion sector. Sustainable textile chemical processes are crucial for attaining sustainability in the clothing sector. Seven comprehensive chapters are aimed to highlight these issues in the book.

  10. Protective clothing use at the Savannah River Plant Nuclear Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cabbil, C.C.

    1987-01-01

    The mission of the Savannah River Plant in producing nuclear materials does pose some unique protective clothing and equipment requirements not usually seen in the general industry. In addition to protection from the chemicals and physical agents encountered, radioactive hazards must also be managed. This paper describes the protective clothing and respiratory protection used at SRP, and focuses particularly on the development of a new plastic suit. 5 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs

  11. Circular economy business models in the clothing industry

    OpenAIRE

    Setterwall Rydberg, Alma

    2016-01-01

    Production, consumption and waste managment of clothing is causing severe environmental damage and needs to be transformed. In this thesis the question of how circular economy business models can contribute to make the clothing business more sustainable is investigated. Two small companies in Jämtland, Sweden, are used as case studies. Case A, Rent-a-Plagg, is renting outdoor wear on a ski resort. By providing the possibility to get access instead of ownership they make their customers avoid ...

  12. Making the optimal decision in selecting protective clothing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, J. Mark

    2007-01-01

    Protective Clothing plays a major role in the decommissioning and operation of nuclear facilities. Literally thousands of employee dress-outs occur over the life of a decommissioning project and during outages at operational plants. In order to make the optimal decision on which type of protective clothing is best suited for the decommissioning or maintenance and repair work on radioactive systems, a number of interrelating factors must be considered, including - Protection; - Personnel Contamination; - Cost; - Radwaste; - Comfort; - Convenience; - Logistics/Rad Material Considerations; - Reject Rate of Laundered Clothing; - Durability; - Security; - Personnel Safety including Heat Stress; - Disposition of Gloves and Booties. In addition, over the last several years there has been a trend of nuclear power plants either running trials or switching to Single Use Protective Clothing (SUPC) from traditional protective clothing. In some cases, after trial usage of SUPC, plants have chosen not to switch. In other cases after switching to SUPC for a period of time, some plants have chosen to switch back to laundering. Based on these observations, this paper reviews the 'real' drivers, issues, and interrelating factors regarding the selection and use of protective clothing throughout the nuclear industry. (authors)

  13. Estimation of radiative properties of thermal protective clothing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Udayraj; Talukdar, Prabal; Das, Apurba; Alagirusamy, Ramasamy

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Absorption and scattering coefficients of thermal protective fabrics are determined. • Genetic algorithm is applied for the inverse estimation. • Effects of pyrolysis of fabrics on radiative properties are analyzed. • Radiative properties of different layers of protective clothing are determined. - Abstract: Thermal protective clothing provides more safety and time to allow wearer to complete task or escape from external high heat or fire exposures. Radiation heat transfer is significant in such high temperature conditions. In the present work, radiative properties of various fabrics used for thermal protective clothing are estimated. Experimentally measured spectral directional–hemispherical reflectance and transmittance data available from literature are used to predict some of the radiative properties. A coupled finite volume radiative transfer equation solver along with genetic algorithm is used for this purpose. Radiative properties of some commonly used fabrics in thermal protective clothing at various heat source temperatures are predicted. Effects of pyrolysis on these properties are also analyzed. It is found that the extinction coefficient of the outermost layer of thermal protective clothing is very high as compared to the other inner layers, and it plays a significant role in blocking heat transfer to the skin. Scattering in fabrics used for thermal protective clothing is also found significant.

  14. Making the Optimal Decision in Selecting Protective Clothing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, J. Mark

    2008-01-01

    Protective Clothing plays a major role in the decommissioning and operation of nuclear facilities. Literally thousands of dress-outs occur over the life of a decommissioning project and during outages at operational plants. In order to make the optimal decision on which type of protective clothing is best suited for the decommissioning or maintenance and repair work on radioactive systems, a number of interrelating factors must be considered. This article discusses these factors as well as surveys of plants regarding their level of usage of single use protective clothing and should help individuals making decisions about protective clothing as it applies to their application. Individuals considering using SUPC should not jump to conclusions. The survey conducted clearly indicates that plants have different drivers. An evaluation should be performed to understand the facility's true drivers for selecting clothing. It is recommended that an interdisciplinary team be formed including representatives from budgets and cost, safety, radwaste, health physics, and key user groups to perform the analysis. The right questions need to be asked and answered by the company providing the clothing to formulate a proper perspective and conclusion. The conclusions and recommendations need to be shared with senior management so that the drivers, expected results, and associated costs are understood and endorsed. In the end, the individual making the recommendation should ask himself/herself: 'Is my decision emotional, or logical and economical?' 'Have I reached the optimal decision for my plant?'

  15. Dynamics of house dust mite transfer in modern clothing fabrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, David; Burke, Daniel; Gormally, Michael; Byrne, Miriam

    2015-04-01

    Clothing is largely presumed as being the mechanism by which house dust mites are distributed among locations in homes, yet little research to date has investigated the capacity with which various clothing fabric types serve as vectors for their accumulation and dispersal. Although previous research has indicated that car seats provide a habitat for mite populations, dynamics involved in the transfer of mites to clothing via car seat material is still unknown. To investigate the dynamics involved in the transfer of house dust mites from car seat material to modern clothing fabrics. A total of 480 samples of car seat material were seeded with mites and subjected to contact with plain woven cotton, denim, and fleece. Contact forces equivalent to the mass of a typical adult and child were administered for different durations of contact. Mean transfer efficiencies of mites from car seat material to receiving clothing fabrics ranged from 7.2% to 19.1%. Fabric type, mite condition (live or dead), and the force applied all revealed a significant effect (P clothing type can have important implications for the colonization of other biotopes by house dust mites, with potential for affecting an individuals' personal exposure to dust mite allergens. Copyright © 2015 American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. DNA Extraction and Amplification from Contemporary Polynesian Bark-Cloth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moncada, Ximena; Payacán, Claudia; Arriaza, Francisco; Lobos, Sergio; Seelenfreund, Daniela; Seelenfreund, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    Background Paper mulberry has been used for thousands of years in Asia and Oceania for making paper and bark-cloth, respectively. Museums around the world hold valuable collections of Polynesian bark-cloth. Genetic analysis of the plant fibers from which the textiles were made may answer a number of questions of interest related to provenance, authenticity or species used in the manufacture of these textiles. Recovery of nucleic acids from paper mulberry bark-cloth has not been reported before. Methodology We describe a simple method for the extraction of PCR-amplifiable DNA from small samples of contemporary Polynesian bark-cloth (tapa) using two types of nuclear markers. We report the amplification of about 300 bp sequences of the ITS1 region and of a microsatellite marker. Conclusions Sufficient DNA was retrieved from all bark-cloth samples to permit successful PCR amplification. This method shows a means of obtaining useful genetic information from modern bark-cloth samples and opens perspectives for the analyses of small fragments derived from ethnographic materials. PMID:23437166

  17. Impact of nurses clothing on anxiety of hospitalised children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roohafza, Hamidreza; Pirnia, Afsaneh; Sadeghi, Masoumeh; Toghianifar, Nafiseh; Talaei, Mohammad; Ashrafi, Mahmood

    2009-07-01

    To investigate anxiety levels in two groups of children exposed to nurses with white vs. coloured clothing in a university hospital in Iran. Hospitalisation causes anxiety in children and it is documented that nurses have an important role in alleviating children's distress and anxiety. Nurses characteristics, including their clothing is a factor that affects quality of care through child-nurse relationship. Clinical trial. Children (n = 92) aged 7-15 years old hospitalised for 3-5 days in paediatric surgery ward were exposed to nurses in white or coloured clothing. Children's anxiety was assessed on admission and at discharge using Revised Children's Manifest Anxiety Scale. Children exposed to white nursing uniforms showed higher anxiety levels compared with children exposed to coloured nursing clothing (p 11 years old (guidance school) and living in families with more than four members were predictors of lower global anxiety scores. Providing a child-friendly environment through colourful nursing clothing can promote nurses' relationship with hospitalised children. This can satisfy children's expectations of the nursing care and alleviates the need for meeting ideals of nursing care through wearing a white nursing uniform provided that standards of nursing care are favoured. Using colourful nursing clothing in paediatric wards reduces anxiety as a psychological parameter which delays improvement and provides a child-friendly environment that helps promotion of quality of nursing care.

  18. Forensic Analysis of High Explosive Residues from Selected Cloth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamad Afiq Mohamed Huri; Umi Kalthom Ahmad

    2014-01-01

    Increased terrorist activities around the Asian region have resulted in the need for improved analytical techniques in forensic analysis. High explosive residues from post-blast clothing are often encountered as physical evidence submitted to a forensic laboratory. Therefore, this study was initiated to detect high explosives residues of cyclotrimethylenetrinitramine (RDX) and pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN) on selected cloth in this study. Cotton swabbing technique was employed as a simple and rapid method in recovering analytes from the sample matrix. Analytes were analyzed using Griess spot test, TLC and HPLC. TLC separation employed toluene-ethyl acetate (9:1) as a good solvent system. Reversed phase HPLC separation employed acetonitrile-water (65:35) as the mobile phase and analytes detected using a programmed wavelength. RDX was detected at 235 nm for the first 3.5 min and then switched to 215 nm for PETN. Limits of detection (LODs) of analytes were in the low ppm range (0.05 ppm for RDX and 0.25 ppm for PETN). Analyte recovery studies revealed that the type of cloth has a profound effect on the extraction efficiency. Analytes were recovered better for nylon as compared to cotton cloth. However, no analytes could be recovered from denim cloth. For post-blast samples, only RDX was detected in low concentration for both nylon and cotton cloth. (author)

  19. Imported Second-Hand Clothes in South Korea: An Examination of Guje Clothing as an Autonomous Consumer Practice

    OpenAIRE

    Hong, Jiyeon

    2009-01-01

    This thesis considers issues of individual's 'style competence' within global order. Guje (imported second-hand garments) fashion in South Korea is an ideal case study from which to examine consumer autonomy in the adoption of this Western vintage fashion trend since the 1990s. The importance of guje clothing lies in the local-cultural discrimination between the 'imported' and the local second-hand garments; guje clothes have been considered far more fashionable than the locally generated ...

  20. Electronic emission and electron spin resonance of irradiated clothes: (cottons, synthetic clothes)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Ajouz Rima, H.

    1984-10-01

    This thesis is devoted to a new method of dosimetry applicable to accidental irradiations. It is based on the use of cotton and synthetic fabric clothes as detectors. It enables absorbed doses and body dose distributions to be estimated after an accidental irradiation. A bibliography on textile fibres used for clothing is presented in the first chapter: origin, structure, industrial treatments, effects of heat, light, ionizing radiations. In the second chapter, electronic emission generated by double stimulation (thermal and optic) is described. This phenomenon reveals changes in the surface state of cotton. Exo-emission was chosen because of its high sensitivity in dosimetry. The third chapter is devoted to the application of electron paramagnetic resonance to the dosimetry of irradiated fabrics. After a brief description of the spectrometer used, the results obtained with commercial cotton fabrics and with a special fabric realized by the Institut Textile de France are described some of these fabrics were subjected to special treatments either before or after irradiation. Synthetic fabrics (polyesters and polypropylene) have also been studied. (author)

  1. APIs and Researchers: The Emperor's New Clothes?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Edmond

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available As part of the Europeana Cloud (eCloud project, Trinity College Dublin investigated best practice in the use of web services, such as APIs, for accessing large data sets from cultural heritage collections. This research looked into the provision and use of APIs, and moreover, whether or not more customised programmatic access to datasets is what researchers want or need. In order to understand whether current patterns of API usage reflect a skills gap on the part of researchers or a mismatch of tool to purpose, we looked not only at the creators and developer/users of APIs, but also at humanists already re-using big data; approaches in cultural heritage institutions and other research infrastructures to bring API use to non-technical audiences; and the kinds of training and other support services available or emerging within the data-intensive humanities research lifecycle. We conducted both desk research and a series of 11 interviews with figures working as researchers, developers or data providers, including figures from both the API development and the data usage communities. This research, conducted under the eCloud project and supported by the European Commission’s ICT Policy and Support Programme (Grant number 325091, was begun in March 2014 and is now in its concluding validation stage. The results of the research are not yet finalised, but the contribution is already emerging of this work to the debate about APIs being either the way forward for digital cultural heritage collections, or the Emperor’s New Clothes (or maybe a bit of both.

  2. The interaction between clothing and air weapon pellets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wightman, G; Wark, K; Thomson, J

    2015-01-01

    Comparatively few studies have been carried out on air weapon injuries yet there are significant number of injuries and fatalities caused by these low power weapons because of their availability and the public perception that because they need no licence they are assumed to be safe. In this study ballistic gel was tested by Bloom and rupture tests to check on consistency of production. Two series of tests were carried out firing into unclothed gel blocks and blocks loosely covered by different items of clothing to simulate attire (tee shirt, jeans, fleece, and jacket). The damage to the clothing caused by different shaped pellets when fired at different ranges was examined. The apparent hole size was affected by the shape of pellet (round, pointed, flat and hollow point) and whether damage was predominantly caused by pushing yarn to one side or by laceration of the yarn through cutting or tearing. The study also compared penetration into clothed gel and unclothed gel under identical conditions, and loose clothing greatly reduced penetration. With loose clothing at 9.1 m range clothing reduced penetration to 50-70% of the penetration of unclothed gel but at 18.3m range only 7 out of 36 shots penetrated the gel. This cannot be accounted for by the energy loss at the longer range (3-7% reduction from 9.1 m to 18.3 m range in unclothed gels) and it is suggested that impulse may have a role to play. Shots that did not penetrate the gel were used to estimate the possible stopping time for the pellet (around 75 μs) and force (1700 N) or stress (100 MPa) required to bring the pellet to a halt. Even with these low energy projectiles, cloth fibres were entrained in the gel showing the potential for penetration of the body and subsequent infection. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Post mortem changes in relation to different types of clothing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teo, C H; Pawita, A H; Khairul, O; Atiah Ayunni, A G; Noor Hazfalinda, H

    2013-06-01

    Post mortem changes are important in estimating post mortem interval (PMI). This project's aim was to study the effect of burial and type of clothing on rate of decomposition, which can contribute to estimating PMI for victims. 12 rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) carcasses were separated into 3 groups: no clothing, light clothing and heavy clothing. Control subjects were placed on the ground surface while test subjects were buried at 30 cm depth graves. Soil samples prior and after decomposition were collected for soil pH and moisture analysis. Post mortem change was assessed using a Total Body Score system. The head, neck and limb regions were found to decay faster than the body trunk region. Mummifi cation occurred on body parts that were exposed directly to the atmosphere while adipocere formed on some buried subjects. Burial delayed decomposition due to lower insect activity and lower soil temperature. The soil layer also blocked the accessibility of majority of the arthropods, causing further delay in decomposition. Clothing enhanced decay for bodies on ground surface because it provided protection for maggots and retained moisture on tissues. However, clothing delayed decomposition in buried bodies because it physically separated the bodies from soil and arthropods. Higher sun exposure and repetitive exhumation showed acceleration of decomposition. The decomposition process increased soil pH and moisture percentage values. Soil pH initially increased until pH 8.0-8.4 followed by a slight decrease while soil moisture percentage changed inconsistently. Burial was significant in affecting post mortem change, F(1,11)=12.991, pclothing was not significant, F(2,9)=0.022, p=0.978 and combination of both type of clothing and burial factors were also not significant, F(2,3)=0.429, p=0.686. For validation, an accuracy of 83.33% was achieved based on soil pH and soil moisture percentage analysis.

  4. Relationship between behavioural factors and colour preferences for clothing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milena Fornazarič

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The colour of clothing plays an important role in one’s emotional reaction and the selection of clothes, which in turn effects design, the fashion industry and sales. In our behavioural research involving the Slovenian population regarding the selection of colours, we used the results of opportunity sampling, i.e. a web survey using a sample of 204 respondents, who were invited to participate in the research using an email list sampling method. Our aim was determine how demographic and behavioural characteristics affect colour preferences for clothing. Demographic characteristics are not important in terms of the behaviour of different segments of the population, except with regard to gender. Nevertheless, we can use the results of the survey to make a correlation between colour and consumer characteristics. Those who are fond of the colour beige follow fashion trends more closely than the others, while the colour white is associated with those who follow fashion on web and in online shopping. On the contrary, consumers who prefer pink and purple primarily buy clothes in fashion shops. Those who prefer brown and beige enjoy the shopping experience more than others, while lovers of the colour pink are less inclined to buy clothes during sales than others. Consumers who prefer the colour blue are predominant in fitting shops, while those who prefer the colour black do not to buy clothes on Saturdays. Lovers of the colour blue stand out in terms of spending, while people who are fond of the colour white spend the most, although they prefer to buy less expensive clothes. People drawn to the colour grey prefer to buy less expensive jackets, while women who prefer the colour green also buy less expensive jackets. We recommend expanding the scope of the research to include historical determinants, fashion patterns, marketing communication and fashion brands, as well as other, more rational and speculative motives associated with a subject

  5. Social and philosophical analysis of brand clothes : the Ukrainian context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. V. Skalatskaya

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the article is to consider the prospects of social and philosophical analysis of the product (clothes of fashion brand. In social and philosophical analysis of brand clothes, its fashion shows there is a range of discursive questions: the use and the definition of the concepts «designer» and «brand»; thematic focus of the brand (fabrics, colors, prints, shapes its semantics; format of representation of fashion collection in dependence; and a number of other structural elements. In the analysis of fashion trends or seasonal collections the concepts designer or brand are used. The concept «brand» contains an economic component, certain calculations, and intangible assets (goodwill; design work is subject to market needs and the interests of consumers (for analysis of the individual designer the biographical method is used. Theoretical analysis of fashion cannot be made apart from empirical material. A performative approach of K. Wolfe can be the methodology of the social and philosophical research of fashion show. The advantages of this method of the research are to determine fashion as performative space, staging ideas of the designer in the fashion show and making clothes. Implementation of performative approach allowed considering thematic focus of the brand of clothes and format of its representation in seasonal fashion shows on the example of Ukrainian brand «Domanoff». Social and philosophical analysis of brand clothes can be divided into the following main components, excluding aesthetic and economic aspects: the use of the concepts designer and brand (a set of aesthetic, economic, social and subjective components and design`s view; review of the semantics of clothes and staging (by providing clothes in the form of seasonal fashion shows of collections. For complex social and socio­philosophical analysis of fashion brand it necessary to have: the press release (description, designer`s interview (disclosure of early

  6. European cloth and "tropical" skin: clothing material and British ideas of health and hygiene in tropical climates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Ryan

    2009-01-01

    As Britain's imperial and colonial ambitions intensified toward the end of the nineteenth century, the preservation of white European health in tropical climates became an increasingly important concern. Since at least the seventeenth century, the "tropics" had been seen as spaces holding vast potential wealth but also death and disease. To combat these deadly but desirable landscapes, the British built a considerable commodity culture around the preservation of white European health, and for many, tropical clothing was one of the most important and essential items in their "kits." This article investigates the composition and use of such clothing in relation to British ideas of health and hygiene in tropical climates. First, it considers debates that ensued over the best material--wool, cotton, linen, silk, or a combination of these materials--and the role of "black" skin and local practice in the development of tropical clothing. Second, it demonstrates the importance of location in any discussion of tropical medicine and hygiene, and the tension and ambiguity that still surrounded British ideas of health and hygiene in the tropical colonies. Third, it argues that tropical clothing was important in the maintenance of climatic etiologies despite advances in parasitology and sanitary science. Finally, it considers the relationship of tropical clothing to the formation of a unique colonial identity. To British men and women embarking for any number of tropical destinations, proper clothing was not a banal and mundane component of their outfitting. For many, the clothing signified a departure from the safe and "civil" climes of Britain for adventure in the expanding tropical empire.

  7. Erosion of graphite cloth under bombardment with 20 keV hydrogen and helium ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guseva, M.I.; Busharov, N.P.; Krasulin, Yu.L.; Rozina, I.A.

    1978-01-01

    Erosion of the WCA graphite cloth under the bombardment with 20 keV H 2 + and He + ions at temperatures up to 1200 deg C has been investigated. The cloth is suggested to use for the protection of the first wall of the UWMAK2 reactor from plasma effect. It has been established, that the determining factor of the surface damage degree is cloth temperature. Various temperatures of the cloth result in domination of one of the following erosion processes: blistering-effect when intruding helium ions, chemical atomization of the graphite cloth by the hydrogen ions, physical atomization of the cloth by the bombarding ions

  8. Individual protection clothing for use in cryogenics conditions and radioactive contamination environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sima, Alina; Gorincu, Adriana; Peteu, Gh.; Mihaila, V.; Iliescu, V.

    1997-01-01

    This work has as objective presentation of individual protection clothing destined for use in cryogenic and radioactive contamination environment. The paper presents: - types of basic materials used as exterior layer of clothing; - variants of clothing structures; - typical individual protection clothing used in cryogenic environment (overalls, two piece clothing, aprons); - indices for characterizing the cryogenic and radioactive contamination efficiency (total thermal conductivity, water vapor and air permeability, radioactive contamination resistance); - pictograph plots to represent the performance levels for different types of individual protection clothing according to the Directives of the European Council 889/686/CEE. Values for the characterization indices of the protection efficiency as obtained following the testings carried out are presented

  9. ESGE-ESGENA technical specification for process validation and routine testing of endoscope reprocessing in washer-disinfectors according to EN ISO 15883, parts 1, 4, and ISO/TS 15883-5

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beilenhoff, Ulrike; Biering, Holger; Blum, Reinhard; Brljak, Jadranka; Cimbro, Monica; Dumonceau, Jean-Marc; Hassan, Cesare; Jung, Michael; Neumann, Christiane; Pietsch, Michael; Pineau, Lionel; Ponchon, Thierry; Rejchrt, Stanislav; Rey, Jean-François; Schmidt, Verona; Tillett, Jayne; van Hooft, Jeanin

    2017-01-01

    1 Prerequisites. The clinical service provider should obtain confirmation from the endoscope washer-disinfector (EWD) manufacturer that all endoscopes intended to be used can be reprocessed in the EWD. 2 Installation qualification. This can be performed by different parties but national guidelines

  10. Industrial Power Spray Washer

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-09-19

    scrubbing and rinsing. This third method introduced a solvent made from natural oranges (d- limonene ), which was used in the final hand scrubbing...using the vapor degreasing, ultrasonic, hand scrubbing and rinsing sequence. In addition, there are no zignificant safety hazards associated with this...type of cleaning operation. The process takes place in an enclosed cabinet, and the most likely safety concerns are the operator dropping a part or

  11. Windshield washer fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... fluid is a brightly colored liquid made of methanol, a poisonous alcohol. Sometimes, small amounts of other toxic alcohols, such as ethylene glycol, are added to the mixture. Some young children ...

  12. All-fabric-based wearable self-charging power cloth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yu; Zhang, Jinxin; Guo, Hang; Chen, Xuexian; Su, Zongming; Chen, Haotian; Cheng, Xiaoliang; Zhang, Haixia

    2017-08-01

    We present an all-fabric-based self-charging power cloth (SCPC), which integrates a fabric-based single-electrode triboelectric generator (STEG) and a flexible supercapacitor. To effectively scavenge mechanical energy from the human motion, the STEG could be directly woven among the cloth, exhibiting excellent output capability. Meanwhile, taking advantage of fabric structures with a large surface-area and carbon nanotubes with high conductivity, the wearable supercapacitor exhibits high areal capacitance (16.76 mF/cm2) and stable cycling performance. With the fabric configuration and the aim of simultaneously collecting body motion energy by STEG and storing in supercapacitors, such SCPC could be easily integrated with textiles and charged to nearly 100 mV during the running motion within 6 min, showing great potential in self-powered wearable electronics and smart cloths.

  13. Impact of Clothing on Dermal Exposure to Phthalates: Observations and Insights from Sampling Both Skin and Clothing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Mengyan; Weschler, Charles J; Zhang, Yinping

    2016-04-19

    Clothing can either retard or accelerate dermal exposure to phthalates. To investigate the impact of clothing on dermal exposure to six phthalates (DMP/DEP/DiBP/DnBP/BBzP/DEHP) in real environments, two sets of experiments have been conducted: (1) Skin wipes were collected from 11 adults to examine the phthalate levels on both bare-skin (hand/forehead) and clothing-covered body locations (arm/back/calf); (2) Five adults were asked to wear just-washed jeans for 1 day (1(st) experiment), 5 days (2(nd) experiment), and 10 days (3(rd) experiment). Phthalate levels on their legs were measured on selected days during the wearing period, and phthalate levels in the jeans were measured at the end of each experiment and again after washing. Measured phthalate levels on body locations covered by clothing were lower than those on uncovered locations, but still substantial. Dermal uptake would be underestimated by a factor of 2 to 5 if absorption through body locations covered by clothing were neglected. Phthalate levels in the jeans and on the legs increased with the wearing time. However, the levels in the jeans and on the legs were not strongly correlated, indicating that other pathways, e.g, contact with bedding or bedclothes, likely contribute to the levels on the legs. The efficiency with which laundering washing removed phthalates from the jeans increased with decreasing Kow; median values ranged from very low (<5%) for DEHP to very high (∼75%) for DMP.

  14. Effect of body mass and clothing on carrion entomofauna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matuszewski, Szymon; Frątczak, Katarzyna; Konwerski, Szymon; Bajerlein, Daria; Szpila, Krzysztof; Jarmusz, Mateusz; Szafałowicz, Michał; Grzywacz, Andrzej; Mądra, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Carcass mass largely affects pattern and rate of carrion decomposition. Supposedly, it is similarly important for carrion entomofauna; however, most of its likely effects have not been tested experimentally. Here, simultaneous effects of carcass mass and clothing are analyzed. A factorial block experiment with four levels of carcass mass (small carcasses 5-15 kg, medium carcasses 15.1-30 kg, medium/large carcasses 35-50 kg, large carcasses 55-70 kg) and two levels of carcass clothing (clothed and unclothed) was made in a grassland habitat of Western Poland. Pig carcasses (N = 24) were grouped into spring, early summer, and late summer blocks. Insects were sampled manually and with pitfall traps. Results demonstrate that insect assemblages are more complex, abundant, and long-lasting on larger carcasses, whereas clothing is of minor importance in this respect. Only large or medium/large carcasses were colonized by all guilds of carrion insects, while small or medium carcasses revealed high underrepresentation of late-colonizing insects (e.g., Cleridae or Nitidulidae). This finding indicates that carcasses weighing about 23 kg-a standard in forensic decomposition studies-give an incomplete picture of carrion entomofauna. Residencies of all forensically relevant insects were distinctly prolonged on larger carcasses, indicating that cadaver mass is a factor of great importance in this respect. The pre-appearance interval of most taxa was found to be unrelated to mass or clothing of a carcass. Moreover, current results suggest that rate of larval development is higher on smaller carcasses. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that carcass mass is a factor of crucial importance for carrion entomofauna, whereas the importance of clothing is small.

  15. Main challenges of residential areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oana Luca

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The present article is a position paper aiming to initiate a professional debate related to the aspects related to the urban dysfunctions leading to the wear of the residential areas. The paper proposes a definition of the wear process, identify the main causes leading to its occurrence and propose a number of solutions to neutralise the dysfunctions. The three wearing phases of residential areas components are emphasized, exploring their lifecycle. In order to perform the study of urban wear, the status of the residential areas components can be established and monitored, and also the variables of the function that can mathematically model the specific wear process may be considered. The paper is considered a first step for the model adjustment, to be tested and validated in the following steps. Based on the mathematical method and model, there can be created, in a potential future research, the possibility of determining the precarity degree for residential areas/neighbourhoods and cities, by minimising the subjective component of the analyses preceding the decision for renovation or regeneration.

  16. Trends of Sustainable Residential Architecture

    OpenAIRE

    Narvydas, A

    2014-01-01

    The article is based on Master’s research conducted during Scottish Housing Expo 2010. The aim of the research was to determine the prevailing trends in sustainable residential architecture. Each trend can be described by features detected during visual and technical observation of project data. Based on that architects may predict possible problems related to a specific trend.

  17. Technical Problems of Residential Construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowogońska, Beata; Cibis, Jerzy

    2017-10-01

    Beauty, utility, durability - these are the features of good architecture and should also be the distinguishing qualities of every residential building. But do beauty and utility remain along with the passing of time? Performance characteristics are an indicator of both, the technical as well as aesthetic state of buildings. Aesthetic needs are in disagreement with the merciless aging process. The beauty of a city is formed not only by the original forms of new residential buildings, but also by existing tenement housing; thus preserving their aesthetics becomes a necessity. Time is continuously passing and along with it, aging intensifies. The aging process is a natural phenomenon for every material. The life expectancy of building materials is also limited. Along with the passing of time, the technical state of residential buildings continuously deteriorates. With the passing of time, the aesthetic values and preferences of users of flats change and the usability of the building decreases. The permanence of buildings, including residential buildings, is shaped not only by the forces of nature but also by activities of humans. A long lifespan is ensured by carrying out ongoing, systematic renovation-repair works. It is thanks to them that buildings derived from past centuries are still being used, and their market attractiveness is not decreasing.

  18. Congestion and residential moving behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Morten Marott; Pilegaard, Ninette; Van Ommeren, Jos

    2008-01-01

    we study how congestion and residential moving behaviour are interrelated, using a two-region job search model. Workers choose between interregional commuting and residential moving, in order to live closer to their place of work. This choice affects the external costs of commuting, due to conges......we study how congestion and residential moving behaviour are interrelated, using a two-region job search model. Workers choose between interregional commuting and residential moving, in order to live closer to their place of work. This choice affects the external costs of commuting, due...... to congestion. We focus on the equilibrium in which some workers currently living in one region accept jobs in the other, with a fraction of them choosing to commute from their current residence to the new job in the other region and the remainder choosing to move to the region in which the new job is located....... The welfare-maximising road tax is derived, which is essentially the Pigouvian tax, given the absence of a tax on moving. Given the presence of moving taxes, which are substantial in Europe, the optimal road tax for commuters is the Pigouvian tax plus the amortised value of the moving tax, evaluated...

  19. Convergence of Residential Gateway Technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartog, F.T.H. den; Balm, M.; Jong, C.M. de; Kwaaitaal, J.J.B.

    2004-01-01

    A new OSI-based model is described that can be used for the classification of residential gateways. It is applied to analyze current gateway solutions and draw evolutionary paths for the medium to long term. From this it is concluded that particularly set-top boxes and broadband modems, as opposed

  20. Protective clothing based on permselective membrane and carbon adsorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gottschlich, D.; Baker, R.

    1995-01-01

    This paper is a description of Phase I of the US DOE's program to develop improved protective clothing for use by workers engaged in decommissioning and decontamination of former DOE sites, including those used for atomic weapons research and production. Membrane Technology and Research has been developing the clothing with an innovative feature of an ultrathin, permselective outer membrane that is extremely permeable to water but impermeable to toxic organic compounds. Phase I (as described herein) includes fabric optimization, commercial-scale fabric production, and prototype suit evaluation. This phase is complete, with the results discussed in this document

  1. Continuing the search for WBGT clothing adjustment factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, D J; Bernard, T E

    1999-02-01

    The original concept for the heat stress limits adopted by the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) was that the threshold for heat stress can be marked by environmental conditions (WBGT) that are adjusted for metabolic rate. The underlying data were based on ordinary work clothes. The Physical Agents Committee promoted clothing adjustment factors within the industrial hygiene community through a revision in the TLVs for heat stress in 1990. As approved, there were adjustment factors for three other clothing ensembles. To extend and further understand adjustment factors, adjustments for commercially available clothing ensembles and prototype ensembles have been examined. The fundamental principle of the assignment of an adjustment factor to an ensemble begins with establishing critical environmental conditions in which test subjects were just able to maintain thermal equilibrium. Four or five subjects for each ensemble walked on a tread-mill inside a climatic chamber under controlled conditions of heat stress. During each test, heart rate and core temperature were continuously monitored. After a physiological steady-state was achieved, temperature and humidity were slowly increased to maintain relative humidity at 20 percent, 50 percent, or 70 percent. Metabolic rate was assessed by measuring the rate of oxygen consumption. Reviewing a trial, the critical conditions were noted as the time when thermal regulatory control was lost (called the inflection point and marked by a steady increase in core temperature). The climatic conditions at the inflection point were used to assign a critical WBGT. A WBGT representative of each ensemble was assigned through a weighted average of different protocols. Clothing adjustment factors representing an equivalent increase in WBGT were computed by noting the difference between the representative WBGT of the cotton work clothes and the other clothing ensembles. The results suggested adjustment factors

  2. Roadmap to sustainable textiles and clothing regulatory aspects and sustainability standards of textiles and the clothing supply chain

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    This book covers the elements involved in achieving sustainability in textiles and clothing sector. The chapters covered in three volumes of this series title cover all the distinctive areas earmarked for achieving sustainable development in textiles and clothing industry. This third volume highlights the areas pertaining to the regulatory aspects and sustainability standards applicable to textiles and clothing supply chain. There are various standards earmarked for measuring the environmental impacts and sustainability of textile products. There are also plenty of certification schemes available along with the index systems applicable to textile sector. Brands and manufactures are also venturing into new developments to achieve sustainable development in textile sector. This third volume addresses all these important aspects.

  3. LABORATORY EVALUATION OF THE LOW TEMPERATURE CHARACTERISTICS OF FOUR PROTECTIVE CLOTHING MATERIALS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of the study was to evaluate several low-temperature characteristics of Challenge 5100, a new protective clothing material developed by Chemical Fabrics Corporation. The low temperature characteristics of three other protective clothing materials were also evaluated...

  4. Heat gain from thermal radiation through protective clothing with different insulation, reflectivity and vapour permeability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bröde, P.; Kuklane, K.; Candas, V.; Hartog, E.A. den; Griefahn, B.; Holmér, I.; Meinander, H.; Nocker, W.; Richards, M.; Havenith, G.

    2010-01-01

    The heat transferred through protective clothing under long wave radiation compared to a reference condition without radiant stress was determined in thermal manikin experiments. The influence of clothing insulation and reflectivity, and the interaction with wind and wet underclothing were

  5. The state of the residential fire fatality problem in Sweden: Epidemiology, risk factors, and event typologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonsson, Anders; Bonander, Carl; Nilson, Finn; Huss, Fredrik

    2017-09-01

    Residential fires represent the largest category of fatal fires in Sweden. The purpose of this study was to describe the epidemiology of fatal residential fires in Sweden and to identify clusters of events. Data was collected from a database that combines information on fatal fires with data from forensic examinations and the Swedish Cause of Death-register. Mortality rates were calculated for different strata using population statistics and rescue service turnout reports. Cluster analysis was performed using multiple correspondence analysis with agglomerative hierarchical clustering. Male sex, old age, smoking, and alcohol were identified as risk factors, and the most common primary injury diagnosis was exposure to toxic gases. Compared to non-fatal fires, fatal residential fires more often originated in the bedroom, were more often caused by smoking, and were more likely to occur at night. Six clusters were identified. The first two clusters were both smoking-related, but were separated into (1) fatalities that often involved elderly people, usually female, whose clothes were ignited (17% of the sample), (2) middle-aged (45-64years old), (often) intoxicated men, where the fire usually originated in furniture (30%). Other clusters that were identified in the analysis were related to (3) fires caused by technical fault, started in electrical installations in single houses (13%), (4) cooking appliances left on (8%), (5) events with unknown cause, room and object of origin (25%), and (6) deliberately set fires (7%). Fatal residential fires were unevenly distributed in the Swedish population. To further reduce the incidence of fire mortality, specialized prevention efforts that focus on the different needs of each cluster are required. Cooperation between various societal functions, e.g. rescue services, elderly care, psychiatric clinics and other social services, with an application of both human and technological interventions, should reduce residential fire

  6. Students' Appraisal of the Quality of Instruction in Clothing and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    FIRST LADY

    level of satisfaction varied with their academic levels and school ... value of the quality of instruction in the teaching of Clothing and Textiles in .... Material and Method. The design of this research work was ex-post facto and descriptive in nature. Academic level and school background served as the independent variables.

  7. Competency Based Curriculum for Clothing Services and Production Sewing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake, Charlotte

    Designed to meet individual needs and learning levels of high school and postsecondary students enrolled in vocational training for occupations in clothing services and production sewing, this competency-based curriculum teaches skills in alterations, dressmaking, and power sewing machine operations. Skills are organized into 13 units: Awareness…

  8. Mud cloth from Mali: its making and use

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Owner

    be found on everything from clothing and furniture to book covers and wrapping paper. Along with kente ... ton industry as early as the 11th century AD (Picton &. Mack, 1989:31). Some of the designs frequently used. 52 ... dou, a Malian fashion designer based in Paris, in- cluded a bogolan wrap in his winter collection (Adire.

  9. 48 Clothing Problems of Upper Middle Socio-Economic Group ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nekky Umera

    accessory, ornament and apparel place on the body to adorn, protect, project or communicate intent. .... unique self-image and opinion leadership was associated with heavy clothing purchases. This makes them .... problem may become unable to delay gratification, have low self confidence and insecurity, display tension, ...

  10. Design and Construction of a Computer Controlled Clothes Washing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this work we develop a computer software for controlling the operations of a domestic clothes washing machine. The valves, pump, electric motor and other sensitive parts were computer-controlled. In the design, the mechanical timer's function were replaced by a software driven emulator which then controls components ...

  11. Clothing increases the risk of indirect ballistic fractures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Current literature has shown the mechanism of how indirect fractures occur but has not determined what factors increase the risks of such fractures. The objective of this study is thus to determine the effect of clothing and soft tissue thickness on the risk of indirect fracture formation. Methods Twenty-five fresh red deer femora embedded in ballistic gelatine were shot with varying distances off their medial cortex with a 5.56 × 45 mm North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) bullet while being filmed with a slow-motion video. We compared the effect of two different gelatine depths and the effect of denim cloth laid onto the impact surface of the moulds. Results Bullet passage in thinner moulds failed to cause fracture because the bullet exited the mould before a large expanding temporary cavity was produced. Clothing dramatically altered the size and depth of the expanding cavity, as well as increased lateral pressures, resulting in more severe fractures with greater bullet distances from the bone that can cause fracture. Conclusions Clothing increases the risk of indirect fracture and results in larger, more superficial temporary cavities, with greater lateral pressures than are seen in unclothed specimens, resulting in more comminuted fractures. Greater tissue depth affords the 5.56 × 45 mm NATO a chance to yaw and thus develop an enlarging temporary cavity that is sufficient to cause fracture. PMID:24267379

  12. Block pattern technology: a means of revamping the clothing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Block pattern technology: a means of revamping the clothing industry in Nigeria. ... The main purpose of this study was to develop bodice block patterns for female youths in three size categories- small, medium and large as well as test the fit of the garments constructed from the blocks. The area of study was Enugu State.

  13. Export strategy risks and governance in the clothing industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arthur Mapanga

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the export strategy implementation risks in Zimbabwe’s clothing sector with a view to build a framework for improving strategy implementation and governance. The government of Zimbabwe has formulated a five year export strategic blue-print to resuscitate the clothing value chain. However, to date, no visible movement towards implementing the export strategy has materialised. The sector is on the brink of collapse putting the welfare and livelihood of over two million people dependent on the sector at risk. A desk research and key informant interviews were conducted to understand the barriers causing inertia in the implementation of the export strategy. Cotton farmers’ unions’ representatives, the cotton ginners association members, the spinning industry members and garment manufacturers representatives, clothing retailers’ representatives, workers’ unions’ members and government officials were important sources of information towards the discovery of the risks. From the research, six of the strategy implementation risks were linked to human elements. Leadership, consensus and commitment deficiencies militated against the implementation of the export strategy in the clothing value chain. There is also a lack of trust among the value chain actors leading to the dislocation of efforts to resuscitate the sector

  14. Image and Identity: Clothing and Adolescence in the 1990s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Michelle Knovic; And Others

    This document looks for meanings in the U.S. adolescent's relationship with clothing and fashion. The material is designed to be used with senior high school students but may be adapted for older or younger students. The topic is particularly relevant to English, sociology, home economics, history, and current events classes. In four activities…

  15. LIMITED-USE CHEMICAL PROTECTIVE CLOTHING FOR EPA SUPERFUND ACTIVITIES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Because contractor field personnel complained about the poor durability and fit of limited-use chemical protective clothing (CPC) most commonly used at hazardous waste site operations, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) initiated a study to • characterize use of CPC...

  16. Contamination skin doses and attenuation of radiation by clothing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Napier, I D; Locke, J; Grubb, S R; Picton, D J

    2010-01-01

    The potential operating environment following an attack using CBRN (chemical, biological, radiological, nuclear) materials has led to design work aiming to reduce the physiological burden of protective clothing, while maintaining satisfactory levels of chemical protection. In this paper, we review the radiological protection provided by these lighter, thinner clothing options. Monte Carlo modelling has been used to determine the contribution to skin dose from both beta and gamma radiation from four sources, each with different emission characteristics. The protection factors for eight materials have been characterised in terms of the surface density of each material (ranging from 50 to 482 g m -2 ). As protective clothing is made lighter and more breathable, the radiological protection is significantly reduced. This work has provided quantitative analysis of the magnitude of this reduction. A simple algorithm has been derived which can be used to estimate the protection factor for any clothing, on the basis of the surface density of the material (within the range of materials studied). These results show the need for skin radiation exposure to be considered by protective suit designers and CBRN response planners.

  17. A test battery related to ergonomics of protective clothing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Havenith, G.; Heus, R.

    2004-01-01

    Specialised protective clothing, such as that worn by firefighters, is usually tested only to standards which give requirements for the materials used (e.g. EN469). However,this testing often neglects the effect the manufacturing process of the garment has on the material properties,the effects of

  18. Design and Construction of a Computer Controlled Clothes Washing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MICHAEL

    ABSTRACT: In this work we develop a computer software for controlling the operations of a domestic clothes washing ... design, the mechanical timer's function were replaced by a software driven emulator which then controls components of the machine to carry .... incorporation of a graphic interface shown in Figure 3. This.

  19. Clothing for Elderly Persons: Management and Caring Strategies ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper examines the clothing requirements of the elderly across the globe and the management and caring strategies in supporting them. There is however, no specific requirement for the elderly in terms of what they wear or how they dress over and above the requirements of early adult life in many nations of the world.

  20. Students' Appraisal of the Quality of Instruction in Clothing and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study analysed Students' appraisal of the quality of instruction in Clothing and Textiles in Tertiary Institutions in Delta State. Two research questions were raised and two hypotheses formulated to guide the study. A sample of 198 that is 30% of the target population of 660 Home Economics students' in the four Tertiary ...

  1. Research on application of carbon fiber heating material in clothing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Huanhong

    2017-08-01

    With the development of society, the way of keeping warm clothing is also developing. Carbon fiber has the advantages of high efficiency, safety, mobility and comfort. As a heating element, it has good application prospect. In this paper, the main technology, application issues and design method of carbon fiber heating garment are analyzed, and the key problems in industrialization are also put forward.

  2. Determination of Aniline Degraded From Sudan I in Cloths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei, C.K.; Fung, L.C.; Men, C.K.

    2013-01-01

    A method development for the determination of an aromatic amine degraded from an azo dye in cloths was carried out. Sodium dithionite was used to cleave the azo bond of Sudan I into its aromatic amines, and the amines, mainly aniline were analyzed using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with UV detection. The efficiency of the reduction process of Sudan I, based on the degree of decolorisation of dye, was measured using the spectrophotometer. The optimized values of the reduction process was found effective when 1:1 ratio of 0.30 % sodium dithionite to Sudan I (dit/ Sud) was used at pH 8. The recovery percentage and relative standard deviation (R.S.D.) of this method was found to be 62.9 - 88.4 % and 7.6 - 21.5 %, respectively. The proposed method was tested on self-dyed cloth samples with Sudan I. Aniline released from the reduction of Sudan I was detected in the self-dyed cloth samples. The results of this study demonstrate the applicability of sodium dithionite for the reduction of the azo dye in the cloth samples. (author)

  3. Market Efficiency of Hessian Cloth and Sacking Bags' Transferable ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Market Efficiency of Hessian Cloth and Sacking Bags' Transferable Specific Delivery Contract transactions in a Regional Commodity Exchange in West Bengal, India. ... KCA Journal of Business Management ... The price stabilization function of the commodity futures market is conditioned upon the efficiency of the market.

  4. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN WORDS, TEXTS, CLOTHES AND TEXTILES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    STURZA Amalia

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we will speculate the possible relationships between “word,” “text,” “textile,” and “clothing”. Many of the terms we use to describe our interactions with words are derived from the common linguistic root and numerous other expressions associated with reading and writing are drawn from the rich vocabulary of cloth. Textiles are one of the most ubiquitous components of material culture and they are also integral to the material history of texts. The intersection between texts and textiles locates the relationship between language and dress, as together they structure the fashion scene over the century. We compare these texts and storytelling with the process of making clothes, they go from fibers that are spun and then create the fabric or the material out of which the clothes are made. Besides the similitude of the words “text” and “textile” that have four similar letters there is also the resemblance in the way they transmit a message. While texts are meant to transmit something to the reader, to enchant and to create emotions in so various ways, just in the same way clothes are also meant to transmit emotions and feelings to the wearer or to the people watching them.

  5. Restructuring, Teams, and Learning: The Case of a Clothing Company.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Tony

    1999-01-01

    Interviews with female employees of a clothing company moving to lean production and teamwork indicate that Taylorism is being reinvented in the contemporary workplace. Restructuring produces higher productivity but greater work pressures and lower wages, despite rhetoric about autonomy, job satisfaction, and workplace democracy. (Contains 57…

  6. A portable vacuum for collecting arthropods from drop cloths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    H.G. Paul; R.R. Mason

    1985-01-01

    A hand-held vacuum modified for collecting insects and spiders in the field is described. The vacuum with battery is mounted on a lightweight pack-frame and is portable and versatile. It is especially useful for collecting arthropods that are dislodged from foliage samples and drop onto cloths.

  7. Chemistry I and Clothing, Textiles and Fashion Merchandising Majors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clausen, Donald F.

    1980-01-01

    The application of principles learned in a first course in chemistry to chemical problems of interest to home economics majors specializing in clothing and textiles or fashion merchandising is described. Concept transfer--teaching difficult concepts in terms of an everyday analogue--is also explained and relevant laboratory experiments are…

  8. 0KG: creating and developing an innovative clothing service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardes, J. P.; Nogueira, M.

    2017-10-01

    This paper explores the creation, analysis and understanding of the feasibility and potential of an innovative service called 0KG, which focuses on the question: “are people willing to use second-hand clothing and/or leased when traveling?”. 0KG is a rental service for the day-to-day, business, and also cultural clothing, depending on the country where tourists are traveling. The main benefit of this service is to be a facilitator in the traveling moment, allowing displacements to be made with greater tranquility, without concern for the luggage and still offering a varied range of clothes to use that normally tourists would not have in their closet. Inspired by the ‘slow fashion movement’, 0KG intends to be an inovation promoting the re-use of clothes. The creation and development of this service happened through the use of various methodologies, such as design thinking and business models. The analysis to these methodologies allows an explanation of 0KG through a process of design thinking and the creation of a business model called Kaleidoscope. Regarding its validation, it was achieved in the format of a questionnaire with 430 responses and a focus group with people of interest. Finally, the paper culminates with the positive response to the problem.

  9. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACHES IN CLOTHING DESIGN SINCE 20th CENTURY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irem Sabanuc Gonul

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available There has always been a search for the new/different in the history of clothing design. Yet, from 20th century onwards changes in these search reached to a considerable level with the advent of artistic expression beside functionality. A modern understanding that broke the routine predominated within which the ‘new’ is questioned. The effects that were considered as innovation before 20th Century began to metamorphose. As a result of artistic movements and technological progress, experimental movements of the 20th century affected the 21st century in the sense that the experimentalism in clothing design became a style of expression rather than a search. These developments brought a new dimension into the relation of art and and clothing design. The paper reflects on the historical process of experimental approach, volumetric and sculptural effects and search for innovative materials with prominent examples. Current work includes analysis on the emergence of clothing ‘independent of human body’ as an object of art as well as inquiries on current situation.

  10. Female consumers' familiarity with clothing brands and their trust in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In recent years many established, reputable brand names have moved their production sites to Eastern countries to reduce labour costs. The country of brand origin (CBO) and the country of manufacture (COM) of popular, sought-after clothing brands may therefore differ. It is not clear whether consumers are familiar with the ...

  11. Fiber, Fabric, and Fashion. Clothing and Textiles Curriculum. Environment I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arizona State Univ., Tempe.

    A competency-based instructional guide for grades 7-14, this volume is one of three parts, each of which focuses on a different instructional environment (psychomotor, cognitive, or affective) for clothing or fashion instruction, and each of which includes competencies and corresponding learning activities for each of three instructional levels.…

  12. Heat strain in protective clothing - challenges and intervention strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McLellan, T.M.; Daanen, H.A.M.; Kiekens, P.; Jayaraman, S.

    2012-01-01

    Humans rely on sweat evaporation during exercise in the heat to promote cooling and to maintain thermal homeostasis. In protective clothing, however, sweat evaporation is severely hampered and this may lead to uncompensable heat strain, where core body temperature continues to rise leading to

  13. Analysis Of Students' Performance In Clothing And Textiles In ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The main purpose of this study was to examine the factors that are responsible for the poor performance of college of Education students in Clothing and Textiles in Rivers State. The study adopted the ex-post factor descriptive research design. A sample of 120 students was drawn from the target population of 400 students ...

  14. 30 CFR 77.1710 - Protective clothing; requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... footwear. (f) Snug-fitting clothing when working around moving machinery or equipment. (g) Safety belts and... Section 77.1710 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS, SURFACE COAL MINES AND SURFACE WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND...

  15. The Right Stuff: Fashioning an Identity through Clothing in a Junior School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swain, Jon

    2002-01-01

    Explored the role of clothing in expressing individual and collective identity among preadolescent English students. Results found that a relaxed enforcement of school uniforms created space for students to use clothing to gain recognition, generate common bonds, and share interests within peer groups. Clothing and footwear were used as an…

  16. 78 FR 35875 - Proposed Extension of Approval of Information Collection; Comment Request: Clothing Textiles...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-14

    ... Information Collection; Comment Request: Clothing Textiles, Vinyl Plastic Film AGENCY: Consumer Product Safety... for extension of approval of a collection of information from manufacturers and importers of clothing, textiles and related materials intended for use in clothing under the Standard for the Flammability of...

  17. 30 CFR 57.15006 - Protective equipment and clothing for hazards and irritants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Protective equipment and clothing for hazards and irritants. 57.15006 Section 57.15006 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION... clothing for hazards and irritants. Special protective equipment and special protective clothing shall be...

  18. The influence of the environment and clothing on human exposure to ultraviolet light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jin; Zhang, Wei

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to determine the effect of clothing and the environment on human exposure to ultraviolet light. The ultraviolet (ultraviolet A and ultraviolet B) light intensity was measured, and air quality parameters were recorded in 2014 in Beijing, China. Three types of clothing (white polyester cloth, pure cotton white T-shirt, and pure cotton black T-shirt) were individually placed on a mannequin. The ultraviolet (ultraviolet A and ultraviolet B) light intensities were measured above and beneath each article of clothing, and the percentage of ultraviolet light transmission through the clothing was calculated. (1) The ultraviolet light transmission was significantly higher through white cloth than through black cloth; the transmission was significantly higher through polyester cloth than through cotton. (2) The weather significantly influenced ultraviolet light transmission through white polyester cloth; transmission was highest on clear days and lowest on overcast days (ultraviolet A: P=0.000; ultraviolet B: P=0.008). (3) Air quality parameters (air quality index and particulate matter 2.5 and 10) were inversely related to the ultraviolet light intensity that reached the earth's surface. Ultraviolet B transmission through white polyester cloth was greater under conditions of low air pollution compared with high air pollution. Clothing color and material and different types of weather affected ultraviolet light transmission; for one particular cloth, the transmission decreased with increasing air pollution.

  19. 76 FR 70829 - Proposed Information Collection (Application for Annual Clothing Allowance) Activity: Comment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-15

    ... (Application for Annual Clothing Allowance) Activity: Comment Request AGENCY: Veterans Health Administration.... This notice solicits comments on information needed to determine a veteran's eligibility for clothing... information technology. Title: Application for Annual Clothing Allowance (Under 38 U.S.C. 1162), VA Form 10...

  20. 30 CFR 56.15006 - Protective equipment and clothing for hazards and irritants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Protective equipment and clothing for hazards... NONMETAL MINES Personal Protection § 56.15006 Protective equipment and clothing for hazards and irritants. Special protective equipment and special protective clothing shall be provided, maintained in a sanitary...

  1. 41 CFR 301-11.31 - Are laundry, cleaning and pressing of clothing expenses reimbursable?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Are laundry, cleaning and pressing of clothing expenses reimbursable? 301-11.31 Section 301-11.31 Public Contracts and... clothing expenses reimbursable? Yes. The expenses incurred for laundry, cleaning and pressing of clothing...

  2. Role of clothing in both accelerating and impeding dermal absorption of airborne SVOCs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morrison, Glenn C.; Weschler, Charles J.; Bekö, Gabriel

    2016-01-01

    To assess the influence of clothing on dermal uptake of semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs), we measured uptake of selected airborne phthalates for an individual wearing clean clothes or air-exposed clothes and compared these results with dermal uptake for bare-skinned individuals under other...

  3. "Clothes--Zur Genese, Therapic und Prophylaxae von Aussprachefehlern ("Clothes"--On the Genesis, Treatment and Prevention of Pronunciation Errors).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegrist, Ottmar K.

    1979-01-01

    Compares variant pronunciations of "clothes" in British and American colloquial with the D. Jones "norms" taught in German schools and with the mostly incorrect pronunciations of German students of English. Considers the genesis of the errors, and discusses possibilities for correcting and preventing such errors. (IFS/WGA)

  4. Residential mobility and childhood leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amoon, A T; Oksuzyan, S; Crespi, C M; Arah, O A; Cockburn, M; Vergara, X; Kheifets, L

    2018-07-01

    Studies of environmental exposures and childhood leukemia studies do not usually account for residential mobility. Yet, in addition to being a potential risk factor, mobility can induce selection bias, confounding, or measurement error in such studies. Using data collected for California Powerline Study (CAPS), we attempt to disentangle the effect of mobility. We analyzed data from a population-based case-control study of childhood leukemia using cases who were born in California and diagnosed between 1988 and 2008 and birth certificate controls. We used stratified logistic regression, case-only analysis, and propensity-score adjustments to assess predictors of residential mobility between birth and diagnosis, and account for potential confounding due to residential mobility. Children who moved tended to be older, lived in housing other than single-family homes, had younger mothers and fewer siblings, and were of lower socioeconomic status. Odds ratios for leukemia among non-movers living mobility, including dwelling type, increased odds ratios for leukemia to 2.61 (95% CI: 1.76-3.86) for living mobility of childhood leukemia cases varied by several sociodemographic characteristics, but not by the distance to the nearest power line or calculated magnetic fields. Mobility appears to be an unlikely explanation for the associations observed between power lines exposure and childhood leukemia. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. RESIDENTIAL MORTGAGE IN MODERN RUSSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dementiev N. P.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The article presents a comparative analysis of residential mortgages in Russia and the United States. The primary ways of mortgage refinancing are outlined. Predominance of the elements of two-level refinancing system of residential mortgage in Russia and the United States is shown. The activity of the Agency for Housing Mortgage Lending (AHML, the basic tool of the Russian government’s mortgage policy, is described in detail. In its objectives and functions the AHML is similar to the American mortgage agencies Ginnie Mae, Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac. Similarities were identified in the Russian and US residential mortgages in the pre-crisis period (high rates of mortgage growth, favourable economic conjuncture, low interest rates, large increase in house prices, speculative housing demand. During the mortgage crisis, the policies of the Russian and US governments and monetary authorities had also much in common (monetary policy easing, cheap central banks loans, extended facilities of mortgage refinancing on the part of state agencies, mortgage rescue scheme, social mortgage programs. But the scope of mortgage in Russia is enormously narrow as compared to the US mortgage. The most important reason for that - low incomes of the Russian population.

  6. Effect of clothing material on thermal responses of the human body

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fengzhi, Li; Yi, Li

    2005-09-01

    The influence of clothing material on thermal responses of the human body are investigated by using an integrated model of a clothed thermoregulatory human body. A modified 25-nodes model considering the sweat accumulation on the skin surface is applied to simulate the human physiological regulatory responses. The heat and moisture coupled transfer mechanisms, including water vapour diffusion, the moisture evaporation/condensation, the moisture sorbtion/desorption by fibres, liquid sweat transfer under capillary pressure, and latent heat absorption/release due to phase change, are considered in the clothing model. On comparing prediction results with the experimental data in the literature, the proposed model seems able to predict dynamic heat and moisture transfer between the human body and the clothing system. The human body's thermal responses and clothing temperature and moisture variations are compared for different clothing materials during transient periods. We concluded that the hygroscopicity of clothing materials influences the human thermoregulation process significantly during environmental transients.

  7. Clothing preference affects vitamin D status of young women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buyukuslu, Nihal; Esin, Kubra; Hizli, Hilal; Sunal, Nihal; Yigit, Pakize; Garipagaoglu, Muazzez

    2014-08-01

    Vitamin D deficiency is associated with several chronic diseases, which include cardiovascular, autoimmune diseases, and cancer. Several factors such as exposure to sunlight, skin color, dietary habits, and cultural factors affect serum vitamin D levels. We hypothesized that serum vitamin D levels in young women are associated with clothing styles and investigated this via a cross-sectional study that included 100 female students at Istanbul Medipol University. Our study used a questionnaire in order to collect demographic information. Serum calcium, 25-hydroxyvitamin D, alkaline phosphatase, and parathyroid hormone levels were determined via standard laboratory tests. We deployed bioelectrical impedance analysis to measure body composition, and we then determined the body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, and total body fat values. The mean age was 20.9 ± 2.1 years. Subjects' data were divided into 2 groups based on their clothing styles: covered (Muslim style clothing) and uncovered. Muslim style clothing, which covers the whole body but leaves the face and hands exposed, was worn by 40.0% of the undergraduate students. The mean BMI (in kilograms per meter squared) of the subjects was 23.0 ± 3.6. The BMI value for the covered students was 24.0 ± 4.0, and that for the uncovered students was 22.3 ± 3.1. Of the subjects, 28.0% had a BMI of at least 25 kg/m(2) (overweight). Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (in nanograms per milliliter), parathyroid hormone (in picograms per milliliter), alkaline phosphatase (in units per liter), and calcium levels (in milligrams per deciliter) were 21.1 ± 6.7, 27.5 ± 9.2, 65.9 ± 10.9, and 9.0 ± 0.2 for covered students, respectively, and 29.7 ± 3.1, 24.3 ± 6.1, 62.8 ± 13.2, and 9.0 ± 0.4, respectively, for uncovered students. The prevalence of vitamin D deficiencies was 55.0% for covered and 20.0% for uncovered students. The vitamin D status was found to be statistically significant and had a negative correlation with the

  8. Motorcycle protective clothing: protection from injury or just the weather?

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Rome, Liz; Ivers, Rebecca; Fitzharris, Michael; Du, Wei; Haworth, Narelle; Heritier, Stephane; Richardson, Drew

    2011-11-01

    Apart from helmets, little is known about the effectiveness of motorcycle protective clothing in reducing injuries in crashes. The study aimed to quantify the association between usage of motorcycle clothing and injury in crashes. Cross-sectional analytic study. Crashed motorcyclists (n=212, 71% of identified eligible cases) were recruited through hospitals and motorcycle repair services. Data was obtained through structured face-to-face interviews. The main outcome was hospitalization and motorcycle crash-related injury. Poisson regression was used to estimate relative risk (RR) and 95% confidence intervals for injury adjusting for potential confounders. Motorcyclists were significantly less likely to be admitted to hospital if they crashed wearing motorcycle jackets (RR=0.79, 95% CI: 0.69-0.91), pants (RR=0.49, 95% CI: 0.25-0.94), or gloves (RR=0.41, 95% CI: 0.26-0.66). When garments included fitted body armour there was a significantly reduced risk of injury to the upper body (RR=0.77, 95% CI: 0.66-0.89), hands and wrists (RR=0.55, 95% CI: 0.38-0.81), legs (RR=0.60, 95% CI: 0.40-0.90), feet and ankles (RR=0.54, 95% CI: 0.35-0.83). Non-motorcycle boots were also associated with a reduced risk of injury compared to shoes or joggers (RR=0.46, 95% CI: 0.28-0.75). No association between use of body armour and risk of fracture injuries was detected. A substantial proportion of motorcycle designed gloves (25.7%), jackets (29.7%) and pants (28.1%) were assessed to have failed due to material damage in the crash. Motorcycle protective clothing is associated with reduced risk and severity of crash related injury and hospitalization, particularly when fitted with body armour. The proportion of clothing items that failed under crash conditions indicates a need for improved quality control. While mandating usage of protective clothing is not recommended, consideration could be given to providing incentives for usage of protective clothing, such as tax exemptions for safety

  9. Residential care : Dutch and Italian residents of residential care facilities compared

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Heer-Wunderink, Charlotte; Caro-Nienhuis, Annemarie D.; Sytema, Sjoerd; Wiersma, Durk

    2008-01-01

    Aims - Characteristics of patients living in residential care facilities and the availability of mental hospital- and residential beds in Italy and The Netherlands were compared to assess whether differences in the process of deinstitutionalisation have influenced the composition of their

  10. A Review of 'Threadbare: Clothes, Sex and Trafficking'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominic Davies

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This review offers an account of journalist Anne Elizabeth Moore’s short comics, co-authored with the Ladydrawers collective, relating to the fashion industry and global apparel and sex trades, and that have been recently collected together in book form. The review argues that the resulting book, 'Threadbare: Clothes, Sex & Trafficking' (2016, is evidence of the ability of the comics form to document social justice issues with nuance, yet without losing sight of the politically imperative calls for change that those issues demand.   'Threadbare: Clothes, Sex and Trafficking', by The Ladydrawers and Anne Elizabeth Moore, Portland: Microcosm Publishing, 2016. Paperback, 160 pages, 6 x 8, 2 colour interior (8.1 oz, Published May 3, 2016, ISBN: 978-1-62106-739-9

  11. PROTECTIVE CLOTHING BASED ON PERMSELECTIVE MEMBRANE AND CARBON ADSORPTION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wijmans, J.G.; Stull, J.O.

    2001-01-01

    The goal of this project was to develop chemical protective clothing for use by DOE decontamination and decommissioning workers that is sufficiently water vapor permeable to keep the workers cool, thereby enhancing their productivity. This report describes the results of Phase II of a two-phase project to complete development of the novel permselective material and to test protective clothing made from the fabric. In Phase I a novel material incorporating a nonporous hydrophilic polyvinylacohol (PVA) layer, which is water vapor permeable but relatively impermeable to organic vapors, was developed. The results of the Phase I tests showed that the chemical resistance of the MTR material is comparable to that of Saranex/Tyvek materials, and that the comfort properties are closer to those of Tyvek (as measured in terms of CLO and permeability). Chemical resistance was measured using permeation tests against liquid dichloromethane. Comfort properties were ascertained by measuring the water vapor transmission of the material and by sweating manikin tests on whole protective suits. In addition, a cost/benefit analysis demonstrated that use of MTR's material technology could result in significant improvements in work productivity and cost savings if protective clothing items made from the new material were used more than once. In Phase II, MTR undertook a program to optimize the performance and production engineering for the new material technology. A partnership was formed with Kimberly-Clark Corporation to assist with a detailed evaluation of the MTR technology, and MTR used the services of Mr. Jeff Stull, President of the consulting firm International Personnel Protection, Inc., who conducted a detailed economic and application analysis for the developed fabric. The protective fabric manufacturing steps were simplified significantly, resulting in a 30% reduction in manufacturing costs and eliminating the necessity for capital investment in production equipment

  12. Flammability on textile of flight crew professional clothing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva-Santos, M. C.; Oliveira, M. S.; Giacomin, A. M.; Laktim, M. C.; Baruque-Ramos, J.

    2017-10-01

    The issue about flammability of textile materials employed in passenger cabins of commercial aircrafts is an important part of safety routines planning. Once an in-flight emergency initiated with fire or smoke aboard, time becomes critical and the entire crew must be involved in the solution. It is part of the crew functions, notably the attendants, the in-flight firefighting. This study compares the values of textile material of flight attendant working cloths and galley curtain fabric with regard to flammability and Limiting Oxygen Index (LOI). Values to the professional clothing material indicate that they are flammable and the curtains, self-extinguishing. Thus, despite of the occurrences of fire outbreaks in aircrafts are unexceptional, the use of other materials and technologies for uniforms, such as alternative textile fibers and flame retardant finishes should be considered as well as the establishment of performance limits regarding flame and fire exposing.

  13. PROTECTIVE CLOTHING BASED ON PERMSELECTIVE MEMBRANE AND CARBON ADSORPTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J.G. Wijmans; J.O. Stull

    2001-11-07

    The goal of this project was to develop chemical protective clothing for use by DOE decontamination and decommissioning workers that is sufficiently water vapor permeable to keep the workers cool, thereby enhancing their productivity. This report describes the results of Phase II of a two-phase project to complete development of the novel permselective material and to test protective clothing made from the fabric. In Phase I a novel material incorporating a nonporous hydrophilic polyvinylacohol (PVA) layer, which is water vapor permeable but relatively impermeable to organic vapors, was developed. The results of the Phase I tests showed that the chemical resistance of the MTR material is comparable to that of Saranex/Tyvek materials, and that the comfort properties are closer to those of Tyvek (as measured in terms of CLO and permeability). Chemical resistance was measured using permeation tests against liquid dichloromethane. Comfort properties were ascertained by measuring the water vapor transmission of the material and by sweating manikin tests on whole protective suits. In addition, a cost/benefit analysis demonstrated that use of MTR's material technology could result in significant improvements in work productivity and cost savings if protective clothing items made from the new material were used more than once. In Phase II, MTR undertook a program to optimize the performance and production engineering for the new material technology. A partnership was formed with Kimberly-Clark Corporation to assist with a detailed evaluation of the MTR technology, and MTR used the services of Mr. Jeff Stull, President of the consulting firm International Personnel Protection, Inc., who conducted a detailed economic and application analysis for the developed fabric. The protective fabric manufacturing steps were simplified significantly, resulting in a 30% reduction in manufacturing costs and eliminating the necessity for capital investment in production equipment

  14. View-Dependent Adaptive Cloth Simulation with Buckling Compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Woojong; Narain, Rahul; O'Brien, James F

    2015-10-01

    This paper describes a method for view-dependent cloth simulation using dynamically adaptive mesh refinement and coarsening. Given a prescribed camera motion, the method adjusts the criteria controlling refinement to account for visibility and apparent size in the camera's view. Objectionable dynamic artifacts are avoided by anticipative refinement and smoothed coarsening, while locking in extremely coarsened regions is inhibited by modifying the material model to compensate for unresolved sub-element buckling. This approach preserves the appearance of detailed cloth throughout the animation while avoiding the wasted effort of simulating details that would not be discernible to the viewer. The computational savings realized by this method increase as scene complexity grows. The approach produces a 2× speed-up for a single character and more than 4× for a small group as compared to view-independent adaptive simulations, and respectively 5× and 9× speed-ups as compared to non-adaptive simulations.

  15. Facts and Fiction on Ultraviolet Protection by Clothing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osterwalder, U.; Schlenker, W.; Rohwer, H.; Martin, E.; Schuh, S.

    2000-01-01

    With the increase of skin cancer the fact that not all apparel is sufficiently protective against UV Radiation is becoming better know to the public. There is an emerging market for UV protective clothing. Its need is not commonly accepted. Understanding of the influencing factors is low. To the consumer it is not always clear what is fact and what is fiction. This paper answers six frequently asked questions. (1) The need for improving UV protection by clothing is demonstrated by UV transmittance measurements in public. (2) A pitfall in the generally recommended 'see through' assessment test is shown. (3) When a garment gets wet its UV protection is not necessarily poor. (4) The reduced UV protection of stretched knitwear can be accounted for. (5) A real life study confirms that UV protection is not washed out. (6) UV protection can be washed in with special additives to laundry products. (author)

  16. Tear Gas, Expanding Bullets and Plain-Clothed Personnel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiesener, Cornelius Rust

    2017-01-01

    This article examines the interplay between human rights law and humanitarian law in relation to riot control agents (such as tear gas), expanding bullets and plain-clothed forces. While outlawed under humanitarian law, they are widely used by police in peace time and not subject to similar bans...... under human rights law. Surprisingly, the legal challenges arising from their potential use in modern military operations have so far received only limited scholarly attention. This article tries to fill that gap and endeavours to contribute to the broader debate on the interplay between human rights...... and humanitarian law in (international) military operations. Drawing on the relevant preparatory works as well as subsequent practice and recent jurisprudence, this article shows that the humanitarian law rules on the use of riot control agents, expanding bullets and plain-clothed personnel provide...

  17. Investigate and Comparsion Self-Esteem and Happiness Among Residential and Non-Residential Old People

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zakieh Nasiri

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The main aim of this study was to investigate and to compare elderly happiness and self-esteem among residential and non-residential. Methods & Materials: This research was designed as descriptive. Two groups were selected in convenience method. Member of residential elderly (416 elderly were chosen based on Morgan Table. Hundred-twenty elderly, 60 residential (30 men and 30 women and 60 non-residential (30 men and 30 women were chosen for study. Data used the three questionnaires, like Demographic questionnaires, Oxford Happiness Inventory and Self-esteem Scale’s Rozenberg. Data were gathered and analyzed with Pearson test, t-student test. Results: The results were indicated that a significant relationship between happiness and self-esteem, among residential and non- residential old people. The findings showed significant difference in happiness, self-esteem among residential and home participants in both groups (P<0.01. Conclusion: The results were showed that a significant relationship between social support and self-esteem, among residential and non-residential old people. Also, the results were indicated that significant difference between social support. In general, residential participants had lower social support and self-esteem than non-residential participants.

  18. Identification of animal species in skin clothing from museum collections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Anne Lisbeth; Gilbert, Tom; Cappellini, Enrico

    Since the birth of museums, the identification of the materials from which objects are made has been a highly respected academic discipline, often yielding significant quantities of information about object provenance, traditional use of special materials, access to commodities, trade, hunting tr...... tradition, etc. This paper introduces methods that enable identification of animal sources in prehistoric and historic skin clothing, using the tools of microscopy, genetic profiling, and mass spectrometry-based protein sequencing of subsamples of hair and skin....

  19. Cyclists' clothing and reduced risk of injury in crashes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Rome, Liz; Boufous, Soufiane; Georgeson, Thomas; Senserrick, Teresa; Ivers, Rebecca

    2014-12-01

    A majority of cyclists' hospital presentations involve relatively minor soft tissue injuries. This study investigated the role of clothing in reducing the risk of cyclists' injuries in crashes. Adult cyclists were recruited and interviewed through hospital emergency departments in the Australian Capital Territory. This paper focuses on 202 who had crashed in transport related areas. Eligible participants were interviewed and their self-reported injuries corroborated with medical records. The association between clothing worn and injury was examined using logistic regression while controlling for potential confounders of injury. A high proportion of participants were wearing helmets (89%) and full cover footwear (93%). Fewer wore long sleeved tops (43%), long pants (33%), full cover gloves (14%) or conspicuity aids (34%). The primary cause of injury for the majority of participants (76%) was impact with the ground. Increased likelihood of arm injuries (Adj. OR=2.06, 95%CI: 1.02-4.18, p=0.05) and leg injuries (Adj. OR=3.37, 95%CI: 1.42-7.96, p=0.01) were associated with wearing short rather than long sleeves and pants. Open footwear was associated with increased risk of foot or ankle injuries (Adj. OR=6.21, 95%CI: 1.58-23.56, p=0.01) compared to enclosed shoes. Bare hands were associated with increased likelihood of cuts, lacerations or abrasion injuries (Adj. OR=4.62, 95%CI: 1.23-17.43, p=0.02) compared to wearing full cover gloves. There were no significant differences by fabric types such as Lycra/synthetic, natural fiber or leather. Clothing that fully covers a cyclist's body substantially reduced the risk of injuries in a crash. Coverage of skin was more important than fabric type. Further work is necessary to determine if targeted campaigns can improve cyclists' clothing choices and whether impact protection can further reduce injury risk. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Motivation of Chinese consumers toward Western luxury clothing products

    OpenAIRE

    Kwan, Shuk Man

    2014-01-01

    This dissertation attempts to investigate the motivation of Chinese consumers towards the consumption/purchase of Western luxury clothing products, specifically the luxury in Chinese market, interpersonal and personal motives to purchase luxury products, and Chinese culture influences on luxury purchase motivation. The research was conducted by in-depth interviews following an interview guide. Snowball sampling technique was employed, and there were twelve Chinese participants involved in the...

  1. A History of Court and Commoner Clothing in Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liam C. Kelley

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Trần Quang Đức. Ngàn năm áo mũ: Lich sử trang phục Việt Nam giai đoạn 1009–1945 [One thousand years of caps and robes: A history of Vietnamese clothing in the period 1009–1945]. TP Hồ Chí Minh: Nhã Nam, 2013. ISBN: 1467557900. Đức documents in incredible detail the history of the sartorial decisions made at various Vietnamese courts, from Quyền’s time until the end of the Nguyễn dynasty. Based on an extensive examination of Vietnamese, Chinese, European, and even Korean sources—most of which only briefly mention clothing in various periods—Đức has succeeded in producing a comprehensive overview of the clothing of Vietnamese rulers and their officials; when possible, he also comments on the dress of other segments of society, such as the military and commoners. One Thousand Years of Caps and Robes devotes a chapter to each Vietnamese dynasty: the Lý, the Trần, the Lê, the Tây Sơn, and the Nguyễn. Đức begins each chapter with an overview of the history of that dynasty’s styles of court dress and then goes into a detailed description of exactly which types of cap and robe the ruler and his officials wore, and in what ways these caps and robes extended previous practices or were innovations. He follows his examination of court dress with a discussion of military and commoner attire. The chapter introductions provide a concise history of changes in court clothing across time, while the detailed discussions of the caps and robes from each period offer a deeper level of understanding...

  2. Clothing the Poor in Nineteenth-Century England

    OpenAIRE

    Richmond, Vivienne

    2013-01-01

    In this pioneering study Vivienne Richmond reveals the importance of dress to the nineteenth-century English poor, who valued clothing not only for its practical utility, but also as a central element in the creation and assertion of collective and individual identities. During this period of rapid industrialisation and urbanisation formal dress codes, corporate and institutional uniforms and the spread of urban fashions replaced the informal dress of agricultural England. This laid the found...

  3. Radiological assessment of radioactive contamination on private clothing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schartmann, F.; Thierfeldt, S.

    2003-01-01

    In the very rare, cases where private clothing of persons working in a nuclear installation are inadvertently contaminated and this contamination is not detected when leaving the facility, there may be radiological consequences for this person as well as for members of his or her family. The VGB (Technische Vereinigung der Grosskraftwerksbetreiber) in Germany has investigated in detail the spread of contamination in nuclear power plants. Part of this evaluation programme was a radiological analysis which has been carried out by Brenk Systemplanung GmbH (Aachen/Germany). The radiological analysis started with the definition of the source term. It is highly unlikely that activities of more than 5 kBq 60 Co could leave a plant undetected on the body or the clothes. Nevertheless activities up to 50 kBq and different nuclide vectors were regarded. It has been found that 60 Co is the most important contaminant. The radiological analysis focusses on two types of contamination: particles and surface contamination. The pathways by which such a contamination can lead to an exposure by external irradiation or by ingestion depend on the type of contamination and are analysed in detail. For example, a particle could be retained in pockets or other parts of clothing and may lead to prolonged external irradiation until the piece of clothing is washed. The analysis is performed on the basis of conservative to realistic assumptions. In conclusion, the analysis has shown that especially particle contamination needs to be focussed on. However, by the advanced detection equipment in German plants doses which may pose a health hazard can safely be excluded. (authors)

  4. Investigation of DNA transfer onto clothing during regular daily activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruan, Travis; Barash, Mark; Gunn, Peter; Bruce, David

    2017-11-15

    Low levels of DNA from an unidentified human source, often referred to as trace DNA, are ubiquitous, can be transferred onto objects by either direct or indirect methods and have an unknown longevity in situ. Clothing items from crime scenes are often submitted for trace DNA analysis, usually in attempt to identify a person of interest. This study examined the transfer of DNA onto three 10 × 10 cm areas located on the front, back and shoulder of an individual's external clothing (n = 300) during a regular day's activity. After wearing for a day, the DNA quantity on all three areas increased approximately 8-fold, which usually corresponded with an increase in the endogenous DNA from the wearer on the front area of the shirt. However, the back area of the shirt was more likely to demonstrate mixtures of endogenous and extraneous DNA. An additional study was also carried out to examine whether domestic laundering is a possible mechanism for the transfer of foreign DNA onto freshly laundered items and revealed that 74% of UV-treated cotton swatch samples produced DNA profiles after laundry with household garments. In summary, this study highlights the ease of DNA transfer onto an individual's external clothing during a regular day, and that extraneous DNA may be already on the clothing item prior to it being worn. The study provides empirical data to assist in the interpretation of trace DNA profiles and support a Bayesian approach to estimate statistical likelihoods for the transfer of foreign DNA. Graphical abstract ᅟ.

  5. Architecture of Gothic Period and Its Effect to Clothing Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Şerife YILDIZ

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Root of the word Gothic comes from a German tribe which lives in region of the Gotland of Scandinavia. Gothic period is a movement which ends the Midde Age and opens Renaissance. Alth ough seen in all branches of the art, Gothic is widely a style of architecture. Having been originated from the Roman architecture, Gothic Architecture come out in the second half of the 12th century and continued its existence until the half of the 16th c entury when classical architecture come out. In Europe, Gothic painting, sculpture and architecture were dominant and preserved its popularity until the Renaissance. Fashion means all the temporary new styles which come out in a certain period of time with the desires of dressing up, being different, wearing the most desirable. Although seen as two different design field, when we examine closely, we can see that fashion and architecture has many common point from the past to present. As man is the common po int of this two field, they naturally affect each other. Gothic architecture inspired clothing designs, which is enough to show how much they affected each other. In this study, our purpose is to reveal effects of the Gothic architecture on the clothing d esigns. The style used in the Gothic period architecture and models and styles in clothing designs was presented with the help of table of specification. According to this, both fields' sharing common aesthetic concern and same theoritic and ideologic bas e was accompanied by stylistic and structural similarities accordingly. Designers in this two different fields turned even to themselves for inspiration and technical strategy. Environmental and cultural factors affect both fashion designers and architects . When seen as a part of historical process, clothes and buildings with their important cultural and economic conditions are priceless anthropological buildings which show technological developments within the period.

  6. Chapter 17: Residential Behavior Protocol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stewart, James [Cadmus Group, Waltham, MA (United States); Todd, Annika [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Residential behavior-based (BB) programs use strategies grounded in the behavioral social sciences to influence household energy use. Strategies may include providing households with real-time or delayed feedback about their energy use; supplying energy-efficiency education and tips; rewarding households for reducing their energy use; comparing households to their peers; and establishing games, tournaments, and competitions. BB programs often target multiple energy end uses and encourage energy savings, demand savings, or both. Savings from BB programs are usually a small percentage of energy use, typically less than 5%.

  7. Flexible pressure sensors for smart protective clothing against impact loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Fei; Zhu, Bo; Shu, Lin; Tao, Xiaoming

    2014-01-01

    The development of smart protective clothing will facilitate the quick detection of injuries from contact sports, traffic collisions and other accidents. To obtain real-time information like spatial and temporal pressure distributions on the clothing, flexible pressure sensor arrays are required. Based on a resistive fabric strain sensor we demonstrate all flexible, resistive pressure sensors with a large workable pressure range (0–8 MPa), a high sensitivity (1 MPa −1 ) and an excellent repeatability (lowest non-repeatability ±2.4% from 0.8 to 8 MPa) that can be inexpensively fabricated using fabric strain sensors and biocompatible polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS). The pressure sensitivity is tunable by using elastomers with different elasticities or by the pre-strain control of fabric strain sensors. Finite element simulation further confirms the sensor design. The simple structure, large workable pressure range, high sensitivity, high flexibility, facile fabrication and low cost of these pressure sensors make them promising candidates for smart protective clothing against impact loading. (paper)

  8. Fear no colors? Observer clothing color influences lizard escape behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putman, Breanna J; Drury, Jonathan P; Blumstein, Daniel T; Pauly, Gregory B

    2017-01-01

    Animals often view humans as predators, leading to alterations in their behavior. Even nuanced aspects of human activity like clothing color affect animal behavior, but we lack an understanding of when and where such effects will occur. The species confidence hypothesis posits that birds are attracted to colors found on their bodies and repelled by non-body colors. Here, we extend this hypothesis taxonomically and conceptually to test whether this pattern is applicable in a non-avian reptile and to suggest that species should respond less fearfully to their sexually-selected signaling color. Responses to clothing color could also be impacted by habituation to humans, so we examine whether behavior varied between areas with low and high human activity. We quantified the effects of four T-shirt colors on flight initiation distances (FID) and on the ease of capture in western fence lizards (Sceloporus occidentalis), and we accounted for detectability against the background environment. We found no differences in lizard behavior between sites. However, lizards tolerated the closest approaches and were most likely to be captured when approached with the T-shirt that resembled their sexually-selected signaling color. Because changes in individual behavior affect fitness, choice of clothing color by people, including tourists, hikers, and researchers, could impact wildlife populations and research outcomes.

  9. Flexible pressure sensors for smart protective clothing against impact loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fei; Zhu, Bo; Shu, Lin; Tao, Xiaoming

    2014-01-01

    The development of smart protective clothing will facilitate the quick detection of injuries from contact sports, traffic collisions and other accidents. To obtain real-time information like spatial and temporal pressure distributions on the clothing, flexible pressure sensor arrays are required. Based on a resistive fabric strain sensor we demonstrate all flexible, resistive pressure sensors with a large workable pressure range (0-8 MPa), a high sensitivity (1 MPa-1) and an excellent repeatability (lowest non-repeatability ±2.4% from 0.8 to 8 MPa) that can be inexpensively fabricated using fabric strain sensors and biocompatible polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS). The pressure sensitivity is tunable by using elastomers with different elasticities or by the pre-strain control of fabric strain sensors. Finite element simulation further confirms the sensor design. The simple structure, large workable pressure range, high sensitivity, high flexibility, facile fabrication and low cost of these pressure sensors make them promising candidates for smart protective clothing against impact loading.

  10. Fear no colors? Observer clothing color influences lizard escape behavior.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Breanna J Putman

    Full Text Available Animals often view humans as predators, leading to alterations in their behavior. Even nuanced aspects of human activity like clothing color affect animal behavior, but we lack an understanding of when and where such effects will occur. The species confidence hypothesis posits that birds are attracted to colors found on their bodies and repelled by non-body colors. Here, we extend this hypothesis taxonomically and conceptually to test whether this pattern is applicable in a non-avian reptile and to suggest that species should respond less fearfully to their sexually-selected signaling color. Responses to clothing color could also be impacted by habituation to humans, so we examine whether behavior varied between areas with low and high human activity. We quantified the effects of four T-shirt colors on flight initiation distances (FID and on the ease of capture in western fence lizards (Sceloporus occidentalis, and we accounted for detectability against the background environment. We found no differences in lizard behavior between sites. However, lizards tolerated the closest approaches and were most likely to be captured when approached with the T-shirt that resembled their sexually-selected signaling color. Because changes in individual behavior affect fitness, choice of clothing color by people, including tourists, hikers, and researchers, could impact wildlife populations and research outcomes.

  11. "I Am Only Ten Years Old": Femininities, Clothing-Fashion Codes and the Intergenerational Gap of Interpretation of Young Girls' Clothes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rysst, Mari

    2010-01-01

    Based in experience-near anthropology, this article explores constructions of gender by 10-year-old Norwegian girls who are informed by a developmental discourse and by new clothing-fashion codes. The analysis reveals gaps in aesthetic understanding between the clothing-fashion industry, preteen girls and older generations. The industry seems to…

  12. Calculation of clothing insulation by serial and parallel methods : effects on clothing choice by IREQ and thermal responses in the cold

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuklane, K.; Gao, C.; Holmér, I.; Giedraityte, L.; Bröde, P.; Candas, V.; Hartog, E.A. den; Meinander, H.; Richards, M.; Havenith, G.

    2007-01-01

    Cold protective clothing was studied in 2 European Union projects. The objectives were (a) to examine different insulation calculation methods as measured on a manikin (serial or parallel), for the prediction of cold stress (IREQ); (b) to consider the effects of cold protective clothing on metabolic

  13. Role of clothing in both accelerating and impeding dermal absorption of airborne SVOCs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Glenn C; Weschler, Charles J; Bekö, Gabriel; Koch, Holger M; Salthammer, Tunga; Schripp, Tobias; Toftum, Jørn; Clausen, Geo

    2016-01-01

    To assess the influence of clothing on dermal uptake of semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs), we measured uptake of selected airborne phthalates for an individual wearing clean clothes or air-exposed clothes and compared these results with dermal uptake for bare-skinned individuals under otherwise identical experimental conditions. Using a breathing hood to isolate dermal from inhalation uptake, we measured urinary metabolites of diethylphthalate (DEP) and di-n-butylphthalate (DnBP) from an individual exposed to known concentrations of these compounds for 6 h in an experimental chamber. The individual wore either clean (fresh) cotton clothes or cotton clothes that had been exposed to the same chamber air concentrations for 9 days. For a 6-h exposure, the net amounts of DEP and DnBP absorbed when wearing fresh clothes were, respectively, 0.017 and 0.007 μg/kg/(μg/m(3)); for exposed clothes the results were 0.178 and 0.261 μg/kg/(μg/m(3)), respectively (values normalized by air concentration and body mass). When compared against the average results for bare-skinned participants, clean clothes were protective, whereas exposed clothes increased dermal uptake for DEP and DnBP by factors of 3.3 and 6.5, respectively. Even for non-occupational environments, wearing clothing that has adsorbed/absorbed indoor air pollutants can increase dermal uptake of SVOCs by substantial amounts relative to bare skin.

  14. Forensic Features of Clothing-Related Deaths: Historical and Cultural Aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byard, Roger W

    2017-12-01

    Clothing may both cause death and contribute to ongoing lethal mechanisms by a variety of quite disparate mechanisms. The manner of death may be accidental, suicidal, or homicidal. Accidental deaths include burning from clothing catching on fire, strangulation from clothing tangling in vehicle wheels or exposed machinery, and drowning. Entanglement of clothing in machinery may also result in significant injuries, which are not uncommon in farming communities. Excessive clothing, or its absence, may significantly alter body temperature, and hanging from clothing is a feature in the young or in mentally or physically handicapped adults, or in adults who are intoxicated with alcohol or drugs. In previous years, potentially lethal amounts of arsenic were present in clothing and accessories from dyes. Clothing may also be used to form nooses or to pad ropes in suicides and may be used in cases of strangulation, suffocation, or choking in homicides. The contribution of clothing to mortality has changed over the years with changes in fashions and in manufacturing techniques. Geographical differences in clothing-related deaths persist because of variable social and cultural practices and legislative frameworks.

  15. Uncovering Sundanese Values by Analyzing Symbolic Meaning of Ménak Priangan Clothing (1800-1942)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karmila, M.; Suciati; Widiaty, I.

    2016-04-01

    This study investigates symbolic meanings found in the Sunda ethnic clothing, particularly the Menak Priangan clothing. This study aims to uncover and document those symbolic meanings found in the Menak Priangan clothing as an effort to develop Sunda cultural artefacts of West Java. This study on Menak Priangan clothing applies ethnography (visual) and aesthetic methods. The visual method is utilized in order to uncover local cultural (Sunda) values found in Menak Priangan clothing visualization, including: design, model, name, and representing colours, which then directed towards local Sundanese aesthetic concepts living within the Priangan community. Furthermore, aesthetic method is used to explore role of aesthetic values in empowering visual cultural values within certain community, particularly Sunda aesthetic values. The study results show that since the 19th century, Sunda ethnic clothing was limited to Priangan Sunda only, while traditional clothing wearing by Priangan people reflects their social strata, consisting of: a. Menak Gede (Menak pangluhurna: mayor), bearing raden title, b. Menak Leutik/Santana (mayor assistant), titles: asep, mas, agus, ujang, (Nyimas for woman), c. Somah/Cacah: ordinary people/lower class. Clothing is a cultural phenomenon within certain culture reflecting such society experiences. For Menak people, clothing and its accessories have important meanings. They wear such traditional clothing and accessories as a symbol of power they have within bureaucratic structure and as a symbol of social status they bear within traditional community structure.

  16. Residential ventilation standards scoping study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKone, Thomas E.; Sherman, Max H.

    2003-10-01

    The goals of this scoping study are to identify research needed to develop improved ventilation standards for California's Title 24 Building Energy Efficiency Standards. The 2008 Title 24 Standards are the primary target for the outcome of this research, but this scoping study is not limited to that timeframe. We prepared this scoping study to provide the California Energy Commission with broad and flexible options for developing a research plan to advance the standards. This document presents the findings of a scoping study commissioned by the Public Interest Energy Research (PIER) program of the California Energy Commission to determine what research is necessary to develop new residential ventilation requirements for California. This study is one of three companion efforts needed to complete the job of determining the ventilation needs of California residences, determining the bases for setting residential ventilation requirements, and determining appropriate ventilation technologies to meet these needs and requirements in an energy efficient manner. Rather than providing research results, this scoping study identifies important research questions along with the level of effort necessary to address these questions and the costs, risks, and benefits of pursuing alternative research questions. In approaching these questions and corresponding levels of effort, feasibility and timing were important considerations. The Commission has specified Summer 2005 as the latest date for completing this research in time to update the 2008 version of California's Energy Code (Title 24).

  17. Residential Electricity Consumption in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edyta Ropuszyńska-Surma

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Key factors influencing electricity consumption in the residential sector in Poland have been identified. A fixed-effects model was used, which includes time effects, and a set of covariates, based on the model developed by Houthakker et al. This model estimates electricity demand by using lagged values of the dependent variable along with current and lagged values of electricity prices, and other variables that affect electricity demand such as: population, economic growth, income per capita, price of related goods, etc. The model has been identified according to the research results of the authors and those obtained by Bentzen and Engsted. The set of covariates was extended to the lagged electricity price given by a tariff (taken from two years previous to the time of interest and heating degree days index, a very important factor in European Union countries, where the climate is temperate. The authors propose four models of residential electricity demand, for which a confidence interval of 95% has been assumed. Estimation was based on Polish quarterly data for the years 2003-2013. (original abstract

  18. Residential instability: a perspective on system imbalance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appleby, Lawrence; Desai, Prakash

    1987-10-01

    In an exploration of residential instability and recidivism in chronic mental patients, 215 psychiatric admissions were followed for a year after the initial episode. In addition to an unusually high incidence of residential mobility, a relationship between mobility and number of hospitalizations was evident, as were isolation, disruptive family situations, and homelessness. The needed response of the mental health system is discussed.

  19. Credit Scores, Race, and Residential Sorting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Ashlyn Aiko

    2010-01-01

    Credit scores have a profound impact on home purchasing power and mortgage pricing, yet little is known about how credit scores influence households' residential location decisions. This study estimates the effects of credit scores on residential sorting behavior using a novel mortgage industry data set combining household demographic, credit, and…

  20. Does immigrant residential crowding reflect hidden homelessness?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Haan

    2011-12-01

    the extent to which heightened levels of residential crowding might reflect “hidden homelessness.” I find mixed evidence to support this link, and, if anything, find some evidence to suggest that the link between residential crowding and hidden homelessness, if one exists, is strongest for the Canadian-born.

  1. Evaluation of the working clothes for nuclear power stations in wearing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, Kazumi

    1984-01-01

    For the working clothes used for nuclear power stations, i.e. coveralls, Tyvek (nonwoven-fabric) clothings generally worn on coveralls to prevent dust and contaminant, and PVC suits, in order to improve the properties in wearing respective clothes, the following characteristics were examined when persons actually wear them: clothing weather, physiological phenomena and conscious complaints. The PVC suits with large steam resistance are not desirable at a temperature in working environment exceeding 30 deg C; but in the environment at 20 deg C and 30 deg C, the influence by thermal load is little. By judging from a thermal environment index, there was no difference in wearing the coveralls and the Tyvek clothings; even if wearing Tyvek clothings on coveralls, the influence is little. Considering the physiological limit of workers, however, the working environment where the allowable levels of heart beat, perspiration quantity and skin temperature are not exceeded is desirable. (Mori, K.)

  2. Washing of Cloth Contaminated with Radionuclides Using a Detergent-free Laundry System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yim, Sung Paal

    2005-07-01

    In this study, a new laundry system to wash clothes without using detergent (detergent-free) was applied to wash clothes contaminated with radionuclides at the RWTF of KAERI. If the clothes contaminated with radionuclides and soil decontaminated and cleaned by washing without using detergent, the problem caused by the detergent could be solved naturally. The experiment was performed in two stages. In the first stage, washability of the processed water from the detergent=free laundry system was investigated with regard to its decontamination efficiency for the radionuclides and the detergency for the soil by using the test cloth specimens. In the second stage, real working clothes contaminated with radionuclides from the RWTF were washed by using a laundry machine equipped with a detergent-free system. Decontamination and detergency of the clothes were estimated after washing and the wastewater was also analyzed for its properties.

  3. Washing of Cloth Contaminated with Radionuclides Using a Detergent-free Laundry System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yim, Sung Paal

    2005-01-01

    In this study, a new laundry system to wash clothes without using detergent (detergent-free) was applied to wash clothes contaminated with radionuclides at the RWTF of KAERI. If the clothes contaminated with radionuclides and soil decontaminated and cleaned by washing without using detergent, the problem caused by the detergent could be solved naturally. The experiment was performed in two stages. In the first stage, washability of the processed water from the detergent=free laundry system was investigated with regard to its decontamination efficiency for the radionuclides and the detergency for the soil by using the test cloth specimens. In the second stage, real working clothes contaminated with radionuclides from the RWTF were washed by using a laundry machine equipped with a detergent-free system. Decontamination and detergency of the clothes were estimated after washing and the wastewater was also analyzed for its properties

  4. Demand planning approaches employed by clothing industry stakeholders in Gauteng, South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Ntombizodwa J. Matsoma; Intaher M. Ambe

    2017-01-01

    Background: The decline in the productivity of the South African clothing industry was attributed to changing trends in the number of clothing production organisations, which together with a decline in manufacturing output and a fluctuation in employment had all contributed to complexities in demand planning. Purpose: This article investigates demand planning approaches in the clothing industry in Gauteng. Method: A descriptive study was conducted based on a structured questionnaire. ...

  5. The Influence of the Environment and Clothing on Human Exposure to Ultraviolet Light

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Jin; Zhang, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Objection The aim of this study is to determine the effect of clothing and the environment on human exposure to ultraviolet light. Methods The ultraviolet (ultraviolet A and ultraviolet B) light intensity was measured, and air quality parameters were recorded in 2014 in Beijing, China. Three types of clothing (white polyester cloth, pure cotton white T-shirt, and pure cotton black T-shirt) were individually placed on a mannequin. The ultraviolet (ultraviolet A and ultraviolet B) light intensi...

  6. An Approach to Evaluate the Clothing Creative Design with Dual Hesitant Fuzzy Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ya-Mei Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The problem of evaluating the clothing creative design with dual hesitant fuzzy information is the multiple attribute decision making problem. In this paper, we have utilized dual hesitant fuzzy hybrid average (DHFHA operator to develop the model to solve the multiple attribute decision making problems for evaluating the clothing creative design. Finally, a practical example for evaluating the clothing creative design is given to verify the developed approach.

  7. Residential radon survey in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arvela, H.; Maekelaeinen, I.; Castren, O.

    1993-02-01

    The study measured the indoor radon concentration in the dwellings of 3074 persons, selected randomly from the central population register of Finland. Alpha track detectors and two consecutive half year measuring periods were used. The national mean of indoor radon concentration for persons living in low-rise residential buildings as well as blocks of flats was 145 and 82 Bq/m 3 , respectively. The mean for the total population was 123 Bq/m 3 . Based on the decision of the Ministry of Social Affairs and Health in 1992, the indoor radon concentration should not exceed 400 Bq/m 3 in already existing houses, the target for new construction being less than 200 Bq/m 3 . According to the study, the percentage of the Finnish population living in houses with an indoor radon concentration exceeding 200, 400 and 800 Bq/m 3 was 12.3 %, 3.6 % and 1.0 %

  8. Demand planning approaches employed by clothing industry stakeholders in Gauteng, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ntombizodwa J. Matsoma

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: The decline in the productivity of the South African clothing industry was attributed to changing trends in the number of clothing production organisations, which together with a decline in manufacturing output and a fluctuation in employment had all contributed to complexities in demand planning. Purpose: This article investigates demand planning approaches in the clothing industry in Gauteng. Method: A descriptive study was conducted based on a structured questionnaire. Findings: The results revealed that both hierarchical and optimal approaches should be considered in clothing manufacturing. Managerial implications: In order to improve demand planning practices in the clothing industry, managers are recommended to apply hierarchical and optimal demand planning approaches, which might bring about improvements to demand planning in the Gauteng clothing industry. Conclusion: It is recommended that clothing manufacturers consider the types of product offering before making decisions about adopting the hierarchical or optimal demand planning approaches. When planning for basic clothes, manufacturers should consider a hierarchical demand planning approach, whereas the optimal demand planning approach is recommended for fashion clothes.

  9. Adsorption of hazardous ions from radioactive waste on chelating cloth filter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sohsah, M.A.; Othman, S.H.; Elanadouli, B.E.

    2005-01-01

    A cloth filter was synthesized by grafting of acrylonitrile/methacrylic acid (80/20) onto cotton cloth using radiation-induced technique followed by amidoximation reaction. The fate of the adsorbed uranium ions from radioactive waste on chelating cloth filter was investigated. The adsorption ability of chelating cloth filter was increased with increasing the ph value from ph 6 to ph 10. The predominant composition of the resulted complex was determined. The chemical adsorption mechanism was confirmed by examining the relationships between the adsorbed amount of the radionuclide and the contact time

  10. The thermal insulation difference of clothing ensembles on the dry and perspiration manikins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiaohong, Zhou; Chunqin, Zheng; Yingming, Qiang; Holmér, Ingvar; Gao, Chuansi; Kuklane, Kalev

    2010-01-01

    There are about a hundred manikin users around the world. Some of them use the manikin such as 'Walter' and 'Tore' to evaluate the comfort of clothing ensembles according to their thermal insulation and moisture resistance. A 'Walter' manikin is made of water and waterproof breathable fabric 'skin', which simulates the characteristics of human perspiration. So evaporation, condensation or sorption and desorption are always accompanied by heat transfer. A 'Tore' manikin only has dry heat exchange by conduction, radiation and convection from the manikin through clothing ensembles to environments. It is an ideal apparatus to measure the thermal insulation of the clothing ensemble and allows evaluation of thermal comfort. This paper compares thermal insulation measured with dry 'Tore' and sweating 'Walter' manikins. Clothing ensembles consisted of permeable and impermeable clothes. The results showed that the clothes covering the 'Walter' manikin absorbed the moisture evaporated from the manikin. When the moisture transferred through the permeable clothing ensembles, heat of condensation could be neglected. But it was observed that heavy condensation occurred if impermeable clothes were tested on the 'Walter' manikin. This resulted in a thermal insulation difference of clothing ensembles on the dry and perspiration manikins. The thermal insulation obtained from the 'Walter' manikin has to be modified when heavy condensation occurs. The modified equation is obtained in this study

  11. Evaluation on an ergonomic design of functional clothing for wheelchair users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yunyi; Wu, Daiwei; Zhao, Mengmeng; Li, Jun

    2014-05-01

    Researchers have pointed out that people with physical disabilities find it difficult to obtain suitable clothing. In this study a set of wheelchair user oriented functional clothing was designed. Attention was paid to the wheelchair users' daily living activities related with clothing. An evaluating system combined with sports tournament and rehabilitation medicine was introduced to assess the new designed clothing. Six wheelchair users (3 males and 3 females) were invited to wear the clothing. A set of normal functional clothing was employed as a comparison (Control). The time required to complete three different daily living activities, i.e. dressing and undressing, going to toilet and bathing were recorded. Results showed that with the new clothing wheelchair users' competence of managing toilet was increased by 52.9%. The time needed for toilet was reduced by 45.7%. Their capability of managing dressing and undressing was improved by 24.6%. The study indicated that the newly designed clothing could facilitate wheelchair users' daily living activities related with clothing. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  12. CLOTHING BUYING MOTIVES AND STORE SELECTION CRITERIA – THE CASE OF CROATIAN ADOLESCENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blaženka Knežević

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to analyse Croatian adolescents’ clothing buying motives and their retail store selection criteria. The paper examined their preferences, attitudes and behaviours when buying clothes - whether adolescents with different primary clothing motives would have similar or different store selection criteria. Also, the paper determined how today’s adolescents spend money on clothes and whether they are more inclined to purchase branded clothes or not. Finally, the paper explained whether Croatian adolescents prefer purchasing in small or large specialized apparel stores, or whether they are more prone to online purchasing or even buying clothes in second-hand shops. Also, the society influences in forming adolescents’ attitudes and decisions towards store selection and purchasing preferences of clothes were examined. The research findings showed that shopping centres are the preferred retail format. In addition, adolescents do not have a fully developed attitude on fashion and clothing. Therefore, they strongly refer to opinions of family and friends when choosing clothes. Moreover, the Internet and TV are evaluated as influential channels of consumer communication within this particular group of consumers. Based on the findings, suggestions for service management and marketing strategies are provided for apparel retail companies that target adolescents.

  13. Developing a national programme for textiles and clothing recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukhari, Mohammad Abdullatif; Carrasco-Gallego, Ruth; Ponce-Cueto, Eva

    2018-04-01

    Textiles waste is relatively small in terms of weight as compared to other waste streams, but it has a large impact on human health and environment, and its rate is increasing due to the 'fast fashion' model. In this paper, we examine the French national programme for managing post-consumer textiles and clothing through a case study research. To date, France is the only country in the world implementing an extended producer responsibility (EPR) policy for end-of-use clothing, linen and shoes. The case highlights the benefits of using an EPR policy and provides interesting insights about the challenges faced by the textiles waste sector. For instance, the EPR policy has contributed to a threefold increase in the collection and recycling rates of post-consumer textiles since 2006. In addition, the material recovery rate of the post-consumer textiles can reach 90%, 50% of which can be directly reused. However, the 'reuse' stream is facing some challenges because its main market is in Africa and many African countries are considering banning the import of used textiles to encourage a competitive textiles industry locally and internationally. The EPR policy shows a great potential to identify new markets for 'reuse' and to improve the textiles waste sector. Such an EPR policy also could drive societies to financially support innovation and research to provide feasible solutions for fashion producers to adopt eco-design and design for recycling practices. This paper provides guidance for policy makers, shareholders, researchers and practitioners interested in diverting post-consumer textiles and clothing waste from landfills and promoting circular textiles transition.

  14. THE CURRENT STATE OF CLOTHING TRADE IN THE BALKAN COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TRIPA Simona

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The study presented here is aimed at analysing the current state of clothing trade in the Balkan states. The dynamics of change over a 15‐year period following economic reforms are revealed. The clothing industries play a significant role and continue to contribute to the economic prosperity of countries with an inexpensive labour force. For most Balkan States clothing’s export plays an important role in promoting economic growth and development – for example, exports of garments Albania was in 2015, 16.81% of its exports, Republic of Macedonia 11.75% of its exports, in Turkey10.51% etc. The main factors which influence the level of competitiveness of clothing products from the Balkans are the gross value added per employee and wages. When the producers of the Balkan countries will create products with higher added value in garment industry the competitiveness of these countries will decrease. Also rising wages in this industry, as a result of trade union pressure or government policy, will lead to decreasing competitiveness of these products on the EU market and implicitly to the decrease of exports of garments from these countries. The main challenges that must face the Balkan States are related to restructuring of economic system, changing trade markets and patterns, declining of domestic demand of most merchandise, reduction of competitive ability, narrow export base, and lower economies of scale. The main opportunities that most of these countries can exploit are related to their geographical position, membership of the EU market, infrastructure in garment sector, and highly skilled workforce.

  15. Chemical protective clothing - State of the art and the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perkins, J.L.

    1990-01-01

    Clothing used to protect the skin from exposure to chemicals (CPC) is an integral part of many work-places. Only 10-15 years ago the strategy behind selecting CPC to afford this protection was to find a type of CPC which was essentially liquid-proof and would therefore protect the skin from exposure to a liquid chemical. However, in the last 10 years there has been an explosion of data in the industrial hygiene field related to the permeation of chemical protective clothing by liquid chemicals. These data indicate clearly that when CPC is exposed to a chemical, it may not disintegrate or degrade, but nevertheless, will be permeated by the chemical and the skin will be exposed. This has led to a new strategy for selecting CPC which essentially assumes that any exposure of the skin is harmful. Consequently, a worst-case scenario is assumed when selecting CPC and often the garment with the best permeation properties is selected regardless of cost. This philosophy is prompted by a lack of knowledge concerning the skin and how it is permeated by industrial chemicals in their liquid and vapor states. The interests in the last 10 years in CPC has led to new developments and an exciting future for protective clothing. Several new laminated polymeric materials are now being used in both gloves and full-body suits. These polymers are plastic rather than elastomeric and therefore do not afford good dexterity properties. However, their permeability properties are extremely good. In addition, further research on dermal penetration should give the industrial hygienist the necessary information to perform risk assessments for skin exposure. These new risk assessment strategies should negate the current need to overprotect workers. Overprotection often leads to unnecessary costs and can lead to increased stress on the worker in the form of heat stress

  16. Improving UV protection by clothing--recent developments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osterwalder, Uli; Rohwer, Hauke

    2002-01-01

    The assessment of UV transmittance of clothing and the determination of the UV protection factor (UPF) are now well established and the influencing factors such as type of fiber, color, and fabric construction are known. Quick and reliable instruments to measure UV transmittance are crucial. Besides expensive scientific laboratory instruments, a low-cost UV meter is now available for this purpose. The questions arise as to what can be done about a given garment and whether there are ways to improve textiles by the consumer. The many opportunities to improve UV protection of clothing along the textile chain of manufacturing are discussed. The latest possibility for improving the UV-protective properties of clothing is now available at the fabric care stage in every household. A UV absorber can be brought into contact with a fabric during the wash or rinse cycle of a laundry operation. The high UV transmittance of 30% of a thin, bleached cotton swatch in the dry state (UPF 3), can be reduced tenfold to about 3% (UPF >30) in ten washes cycles. This is more than the effect achieved by dyestuffs. The detergent should contain about 0.1-0.3% of the special UV absorber. The same effect can be achieved as early as after one wash cycle with a higher concentration provided by a special laundry additive. Yet another form of application is via rinse cycle fabric conditioner. To make these new types of improvement of fabrics visible the Skin Cancer Foundation now provides the possibility for laundry products to qualify for the "Seal of Recommendation".

  17. Article of Clothing for Storing and Deploying a Scarf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Robert (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A clothing article surrounds a wearer's upper torso. The article includes connected front portion, a collar. A sleeve is formed in the front portion. A jacket, and coat with an attachable/detachable scarf will be folded and stored in the inter portion of the front side of the collar area with elastic at each end and Velcro onto the inner portion of your collar, therefore eliminating the lost of them by any consumers, and especially children. A sleeve like collar attached to the coat and jacket for storing a scarf and making it easily deployable while in use.

  18. Business Plan for a New Online Clothing Store

    OpenAIRE

    Martikainen, Jenni

    2014-01-01

    This thesis copes with finding a gap in the Finnish clothing market and fashion industry for the start-up company that the author is founding; The Closet. Based on the findings, a business idea is developed and a business plan is completed. Even though the business plan is an essential part of this thesis and the study, this thesis focuses on the overall process of developing the business idea instead of the implementation of the business plan. To analyze better the overall situation...

  19. Environmental friendly production of synthetic fabrics for clothing (VB)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frydendal, Jeppe; Hjortbak, Grethe Føns; Jørgensen, Michael Søgaard

    1999-01-01

    This report analyses and estimates the environmental strain in the lifecycle of synthetic clothing. Based on a screening it has been decided to survey the production phase in details, because that is the most important phase in which the U-landsimporten can make demands.In connection to the surve...... it will be relevant for the U-landsimporten to make demands for better conditions for the environment and the employers of the supplier.The demands are mostly made for the production but there are also demands for the fiber production, spinning and transportation....

  20. Explicit Pore Pressure Material Model in Carbon-Cloth Phenolic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutierrez-Lemini, Danton; Ehle, Curt

    2003-01-01

    An explicit material model that uses predicted pressure in the pores of a carbon-cloth phenolic (CCP) composite has been developed. This model is intended to be used within a finite-element model to predict phenomena specific to CCP components of solid-fuel-rocket nozzles subjected to high operating temperatures and to mechanical stresses that can be great enough to cause structural failures. Phenomena that can be predicted with the help of this model include failures of specimens in restrained-thermal-growth (RTG) tests, pocketing erosion, and ply lifting

  1. Flip flops, dress clothes, and no coat: clothing barriers to children's physical activity in child-care centers identified from a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saelens Brian E

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Three-quarters of 3-6 year-old children in the U.S. spend time in childcare; many spend most of their waking hours in these settings. Daily physical activity offers numerous health benefits, but activity levels vary widely across centers. This study was undertaken to explore reasons why physical activity levels may vary. The purpose of this paper is to summarize an unexpected finding that child-care providers cited was a key barrier to children's physical activity. Methods Nine focus groups with 49 child-care providers (55% black from 34 centers (including inner-city, suburban, Head Start and Montessori were conducted in Cincinnati, OH. Three independent raters analyzed verbatim transcripts for themes. Several techniques were used to increase credibility of findings, including interviews with 13 caregivers. Results Two major themes about clothing were: 1 children's clothing was a barrier to children's physical activity in child-care, and 2 clothing choices were a significant source of conflict between parents and child-care providers. Inappropriate clothing items included: no coat/hat/gloves in the wintertime, flip flops or sandals, dress/expensive clothes, jewelry, and clothes that were either too loose or too tight. Child-care providers explained that unless there were enough extra coats at the center, a single child without a coat could prevent the entire class from going outside. Caregivers suggested several reasons why parents may dress their child inappropriately, including forgetfulness, a rushed morning routine, limited income to buy clothes, a child's preference for a favorite item, and parents not understanding the importance of outdoor play. Several child-care providers favored specific policies prohibiting inappropriate clothing, as many reported limited success with verbal or written reminders to bring appropriate clothing. Conclusion Inappropriate clothing may be an important barrier to children's physical

  2. Flip flops, dress clothes, and no coat: clothing barriers to children's physical activity in child-care centers identified from a qualitative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Background Three-quarters of 3-6 year-old children in the U.S. spend time in childcare; many spend most of their waking hours in these settings. Daily physical activity offers numerous health benefits, but activity levels vary widely across centers. This study was undertaken to explore reasons why physical activity levels may vary. The purpose of this paper is to summarize an unexpected finding that child-care providers cited was a key barrier to children's physical activity. Methods Nine focus groups with 49 child-care providers (55% black) from 34 centers (including inner-city, suburban, Head Start and Montessori) were conducted in Cincinnati, OH. Three independent raters analyzed verbatim transcripts for themes. Several techniques were used to increase credibility of findings, including interviews with 13 caregivers. Results Two major themes about clothing were: 1) children's clothing was a barrier to children's physical activity in child-care, and 2) clothing choices were a significant source of conflict between parents and child-care providers. Inappropriate clothing items included: no coat/hat/gloves in the wintertime, flip flops or sandals, dress/expensive clothes, jewelry, and clothes that were either too loose or too tight. Child-care providers explained that unless there were enough extra coats at the center, a single child without a coat could prevent the entire class from going outside. Caregivers suggested several reasons why parents may dress their child inappropriately, including forgetfulness, a rushed morning routine, limited income to buy clothes, a child's preference for a favorite item, and parents not understanding the importance of outdoor play. Several child-care providers favored specific policies prohibiting inappropriate clothing, as many reported limited success with verbal or written reminders to bring appropriate clothing. Conclusion Inappropriate clothing may be an important barrier to children's physical activity in child

  3. Evaluation of Multi Residential House Renovation Efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daiva Rapcevičienė

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Analyzed multi residential house renovation investment projects efficiency evaluation methods: economic-social, and environmental, as well as key financial valuation methods: simple pay-back period, the energy cost savings, the net present value, internal rate of return. Building walls condition regenerative rate which is used to evaluate investments in energy-saving measures is also discussed. According to reconstruction investments of multi residential house, three government financing programs of multi residential house are evaluated and selected the most effective program by comparing financial valuation methods taking and without taking into account building walls condition regenerative rate. Article in Lithuanian

  4. 12 CFR 541.16 - Improved residential real estate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Improved residential real estate. 541.16... REGULATIONS AFFECTING FEDERAL SAVINGS ASSOCIATIONS § 541.16 Improved residential real estate. The term improved residential real estate means residential real estate containing offsite or other improvements...

  5. 12 CFR 541.23 - Residential real estate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Residential real estate. 541.23 Section 541.23... AFFECTING FEDERAL SAVINGS ASSOCIATIONS § 541.23 Residential real estate. The terms residential real estate... home used in part for business); (c) Other real estate used for primarily residential purposes other...

  6. Clothing-related burns in New South Wales, Australia: impact of legislation on a continuing problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Lara A; Connolley, Siobhan; Harvey, John G

    2015-02-01

    To combat the risk of nightwear burns a mandatory standard regulating the design, flammability and labelling requirements of children's nightwear was introduced in Australia in 1987. This population-based study examined the trends, characteristics and causes of clothing-related burns to inform a review of the current standard, and to facilitate the development of targeted prevention strategies. Clothing-related burns for 1998-2013 were identified from hospitalisation data for all hospitals in NSW and detailed information regarding circumstance of injury from a burn data registry. To investigate percentage annual change (PAC) in trends negative binomial regression analysis was performed. There were 541 hospitalisations for clothing-related burns, 18% were nightwear-related and 82% were for other clothing. All clothing burns decreased by an estimated 4% per year (95% CI -6.2 to -2.1). Nightwear-related burns decreased by a significantly higher rate (PAC -7.4%; 95% CI -12.5 to -2.1) than other clothing (PAC -2.5%; 95%CI -4.7 to -0.1). Exposure to open heat source (campfire/bonfire) was the most common cause, followed by cooking. Of factors known to be associated with clothing burns, accelerant use was reported in 27% of cases, cigarettes 17%, loose skirt or dress 8%, and angle grinders in 6% of cases. Hospitalisations for clothing burns are relatively uncommon in NSW and rates, particularly of nightwear burns, have decreased over the last 15 years. Strategies for continued reduction of these injuries include increasing the scope of the current clothing standard or developing new standards to include all children's clothing and adult nightwear, and increasing community awareness of the risk associated with open heat sources, accelerant use and loose clothing. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  7. Expansion of effective wet bulb globe temperature for vapor impermeable protective clothing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakoi, Tomonori; Mochida, Tohru; Kurazumi, Yoshihito; Sawada, Shin-Ichi; Horiba, Yosuke; Kuwabara, Kohei

    2018-01-01

    The wet bulb globe temperature (WBGT) is an effective measure for risk screening to prevent heat dISOrders. However, a heat risk evaluation by WBGT requires adjustments depending on the clothing. In this study, we proposed a new effective WBGT (WBGT eff * ) for general vapor permeable clothing ensembles and vapor impermeable protective clothing that is applicable to occupants engaged in moderate intensity work with a metabolic heat production value of around 174W/m 2 . WBGT eff * enables the conversion of heat stress into the scale experienced by the occupant dressed in the basic clothing ensemble (work clothes) based on the heat balances for a human body. We confirmed that WBGT eff * was effective for expressing the critical thermal environments for the prescriptive zones for occupants wearing vapor impermeable protective clothing. Based on WBGT eff * , we succeeded in clarifying how the weights for natural wet bulb, globe, and air temperatures and the intercept changed depending on clothing properties and the surrounding environmental factors when heat stress is expressed by the weighted sum of natural wet bulb, globe, and air temperatures and the intercept. The weight of environmental temperatures (globe and air temperatures) for WBGT eff * for vapor impermeable protective clothing increased compared with that for general vapor permeable clothing, whereas that of the natural wet bulb temperature decreased. For WBGT eff * in outdoor conditions with a solar load, the weighting ratio of globe temperature increased and that of air temperature decreased with air velocity. Approximation equations of WBGT eff * were proposed for both general vapor permeable clothing ensembles and for vapor impermeable protective clothing. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Practicing Sustainability: Illuminating ‘Use’ in Wearing Clothes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison Gill

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Aspects of the ordinary in everyday dressing remain elusive to fashion studies, meaning the life of what Judy Attfield calls ‘design in the lower case’ escapes notice. In this article, the authors assemble a practice-oriented perspective to illuminate ‘wearing’ as an outcome of sets of commonplace and routine practices related to dressing, that wear a garment in and out over time, and enhance the visibility of clothing use. The central example is a research project that tests the theory of loosening the meaning of clean by trialling alternative laundering techniques to understand the transition to sustain-ability, or less resource-intensive competencies in the spectrum of clothing use. The promise of an interdisciplinary conceptual framework that draws from ‘theories of practice’ at the intersection of cultural studies, sociology and design is also tested as appropriate for the analysis of the quotidian realm of wearing and laundering; the analysis is particularly assisted with sustainable design research about the transition toward sustainable ways of living such as the development of ‘slow fashion’.

  9. Three-dimensional nanoelectrode by metal nanowire nonwoven clothes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawamori, Makoto; Asai, Takahiro; Shirai, Yoshimasa; Yagi, Shunsuke; Oishi, Masatsugu; Ichitsubo, Tetsu; Matsubara, Eiichiro

    2014-01-01

    Metal nanowire nonwoven cloth (MNNC) is a metal sheet that has resulted from intertwined metal nanowires 100 nm in diameter with several dozen micrometers of length. Thus, it is a new metallic material having both a flexibility of the metal sheet and a large specific surface area of the nanowires. As an application that utilizes these properties, we propose a high-cyclability electrode for Li storage batteries, in which an active material is deposited or coated on MNNC. The proposed electrode can work without any binders, conductive additives, and current collectors, which might largely improve a practical gravimetric energy density. Huge electrode surfaces provide efficient ion/electron transports, and sufficient interspaces between the respective nanowires accommodate large volume expansions of the active material. To demonstrate these advantages, we have fabricated a NiO-covered nickel nanowire nonwoven cloth (NNNC) by electroless deposition under a magnetic field and annealing in air. The adequately annealed NNNC was shown to be an excellent conversion-type electrode that exhibits a quite high cyclability, 500 mAh/g at 1 C after 300 cycles, compared to that of a composite electrode consisting of NiO nanoparticles. Thus, the present design concept will contribute to a game-changing technology in future lithium ion battery (LIB) electrodes.

  10. COMPARATIVE ADVANTAGE OF CLOTHING SECTOR IN THE EU-28 MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TRIPA Simona

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The study presented here is aimed at analyzing the comparative advantages in the European clothing sector with the focus on Balkan states. The dynamics of change over a 15‐year period following economic reforms are revealed. For all Balkan countries export plays an important role in promoting economic growth and development and the clothing industries play a significant role and continue to contribute to the economic prosperity in this countries. The evolution of the RCA index for garment industry is decreasing for all countries in the Balkans. The evolution of the Lafay index is also decreasing in the most Balkan countries (except Greece, Montenegro and Slovenia but still the values for Lafay index is positive what indicating that in these countries the sale of garments contribute positively to balance the trade balance of countries analyzed. Negative value of the Lafay index may be due to the fact that the garment industry is one of the key industries in the economy of that country and also because the earnings from garment industry in these countries is high. When the producers of the Balkan countries will create products with higher added value in garment industry the competitiveness of these countries will decrease. Also rising wages in this industry, as a result of trade union pressure or government policy, will lead to decreasing competitiveness of these products on the EU market and implicitly to the decrease of exports of garments from these countries.

  11. ROMANIAN TEXTILES AND CLOTHING INDUSTRY – PRESENT AND PERSPECTIVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ovidiu FOLCUT

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available In January 2007 Romania joined the EU. Since then its current import duties for clothing and textiles has dropped a full 10% to between 6% and 8%. Consequently, import and re-export opportunities for Hong Kong, the Chinese mainland and other Asian suppliers are expected to increase, according to local Romanian importers. Chinese mainland firms are said to have invested US$254 million in the Romanian economy, but no details are available about the proportion directly invested in the clothing and textile sectors. Romania is now a lesser force in the garment and textile industry than it used to be, where it comes to feeding the EU market - even though the country is still the largest producer of such goods in Central and Eastern Europe, ahead of comparable economies such as Ukraine and Bulgaria. Romania also easily outcompetes more expensive labour in Hungary and Poland, neither of which are now considered contenders for price-sensitive trades, say Romanian analysts.

  12. Field selection of chemical protective clothing and respiratory protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinette, S.; Dodgen, C.; Morley, M.

    1991-01-01

    Safety professionals who must choose appropriate personal protective equipment for hazardous substance response or hazardous waste sites require useable information about the effectiveness of the various products available. Each hazardous waste operation involves a unique combination of chemical hazards requiring a unique combination of protective apparel. A chemical protective suit or respirator must be chosen for each site and each operation on the site. No single protective suit is effective against all chemical hazards. No single respirator is the best choice in every situation. Various sources of information on the effectiveness of protective clothing products will be discussed. Site-specific permeation testing of the proposed protective clothing options will also be discussed. It is both possible and practical to obtain specific information about the degree of protection afforded by a particular suit against a particular chemical mixture. It is also important to know how long the suit will last. Choosing adequate respiratory protection is a complex process. Respirator cartridge performance depends on various environmental factors as well as upon the combination and concentration of chemicals in the air. Once characterization of the air at a site has been accomplished, it may be appropriate to select an alternative to airline respirators and SCBAs. Respirator cartridges can be tested against specific chemical mixtures using worse case environmental factors. The results can be used to predict both the effectiveness and duration of protection afforded by respirator cartridges which can reduce costs and worker fatigue

  13. Romanian traditional motif - element of modernity in clothing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doble, L.; Stan, O.; Suteu, M. D.; Albu, A.; Bohm, G.; Tsatsarou-Michalaki, A.; Gialinou, E.

    2017-10-01

    In this paper are presented the phases for improving from an aesthetic point of view a clothing item, the jacket respectively, with a straight cut for women using software design patterns, computerised graphics and textile different modern technologies including: industrial embroidery, digital printing, sublimation. In the first phase a documentation was prepared in the Ethnographic Museum of Transylvania from Cluj Napoca where more traditional motifs were selected specific to Transylvania etnographic region and were reintepreted and stylized whilst preserving the symbolism and color range specified to the area. For the styling phase was used CorelDraw vector graphics program that allows changing the shape, size and color of the drawings without affecting the identity of the pattern. In the patterns design phase Gemini CAD software was used and for the modeling and model development Optitex software was used. The part for garnishing the model was performed using Embrodery machine software reproducing the stylized motif identically. In order to obtain a significantly improved aesthetic look and an added artistic value the pattern chosen for the jacket was done using a combination of modern textile technologies. This has allowed the realization of a particular texture on the surface of the designed product, demonstrating that traditional patterns can be reintepreted in modern clothing

  14. ABSORBENCY CHARACTERISTICS OF PESHTAMALS: TRADITIONAL TURKISH WOVEN CLOTHES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KESKIN Reyhan

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Absorbency of textiles is defined as the ability of taking in a fluid in the manner of a sponge. Absorbency is required for comfort properties in so me clothes such as sportswear and underwear clothing, for drying properties in napkins, towels and bathrobes, for health concerns in some medical textiles such as bandages, gauze and absorbent cotton, and for cleaning properties in washclothes and mops. In this study five different fabric samples (three woven 100% cotton fabrics A, B and P respectively at plain, twill, and peshtamal weaving patterns and two 100% cotton terry towels T1 and T2 were tested. The absorbency properties of the samples were evaluated according to the droplet test, sinking time test and wicking height tests (pottasium chromate test. Peshtamal samples showed better absorbency results than plain and twill weaves and lower but close results to towel samples according to the droplet test, sinking time test and wicking height tests. The absorbency properties of peshtamals showed results close to towel samples. The void content of peshtamals is higher than plain and twill samples but closer and lower than towel samples. The good absorbency results of peshtamals might be due to the void content of peshtamals which is higher than plain and twill samples but closer and lower than towel samples. Peshtamals which are good in absorbency and light in weight might be used widespreadly in daily life for their high absorbency, and on travel for weight saving purposes.

  15. EVALUATION OF OUTDOOR SPORTS CLOTHING BRAND PERSONALITY BY USERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saliha AĞAÇ

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Brand personality attributed to the brand is in case the condition of human character traits. One of the areas of the brand personality is the outdoor sports clothing also knowing as “outdoor” th at working city people’s adoption of opening up to the outdoor as new way events in a growing desire. In this study, the aims are personality characteristics of the outdoor sport clothing brands and determining the harmony of these personality characterist ics with brands. The research is in form of surveying study. The research population consists of people in Turkey who sports outdoor on land. In the sampling selection simple random sampling technique is utilized with asking concerned people to participate in the survey on a voluntary basis. The obtained data are analyzed and evaluated by using SPSS packet program. The survey that has been proven reliability and validity ( α = 0904 in the pilot application has sent to the related association members in a month - long through internet and a total of 103 people were replied. It has been identified that research participants are interesting in mostly as trekking , mountaineering, camping and biking outdoor sports and they are working in the public sector. Under research, in the result of factor analysis to determine the brand personality of outd oor sports brands, it had been seen that "competence", “ traditional ” and " androgen” dimensions were come through and the dimension of “excitement” was separated into three parts.

  16. 5 CFR 1655.20 - Residential loans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...'s primary residence is his or her principal residence. A primary residence may include a house, a... residence. A residential loan will not be made for a lease-to-buy option, unless the option to buy is being...

  17. RACIAL RESIDENTIAL SEGREGATION AND ADVERSE BIRTH OUTCOMES

    Science.gov (United States)

    INTRODUCTION. The disparity between black and white women's adverse birth outcomes has been subject to much investigation, yet the factors underlying its persistence remain elusive, which has encouraged research on neighborhood-level influences, including racial residential segr...

  18. Forecasting residential electricity demand in provincial China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Hua; Liu, Yanan; Gao, Yixuan; Hao, Yu; Ma, Xiao-Wei; Wang, Kan

    2017-03-01

    In China, more than 80% electricity comes from coal which dominates the CO2 emissions. Residential electricity demand forecasting plays a significant role in electricity infrastructure planning and energy policy designing, but it is challenging to make an accurate forecast for developing countries. This paper forecasts the provincial residential electricity consumption of China in the 13th Five-Year-Plan (2016-2020) period using panel data. To overcome the limitations of widely used predication models with unreliably prior knowledge on function forms, a robust piecewise linear model in reduced form is utilized to capture the non-deterministic relationship between income and residential electricity consumption. The forecast results suggest that the growth rates of developed provinces will slow down, while the less developed will be still in fast growing. The national residential electricity demand will increase at 6.6% annually during 2016-2020, and populous provinces such as Guangdong will be the main contributors to the increments.

  19. Modeling radon transport in multistory residential buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Persily, A.K.

    1993-01-01

    Radon concentrations have been studied extensively in single-family residential buildings, but relatively little work has been done in large buildings, including multistory residential buildings. The phenomena of radon transport in multistory residential buildings is made more complicated by the multizone nature of the airflow system and the numerous interzone airflow paths that must be characterized in such a system. This paper presents the results of a computer simulation of airflow and radon transport in a twelve-story residential building. Interzone airflow rates and radon concentrations were predicted using the multizone airflow and contaminant dispersal program (CON-TAM88). Limited simulations were conducted to study the influence of two different radon source terms, indoor-outdoor temperature difference and exterior wall leakage values on radon transport and radon concentration distributions

  20. Gentrification and Residential Mobility in Philadelphia

    OpenAIRE

    Ding, Lei; Hwang, Jackelyn; Divringi, Eileen

    2016-01-01

    Gentrification has provoked considerable controversy surrounding its effects on residential displacement. Using a unique individual-level, longitudinal data set, this study examines mobility rates and residential destinations of residents in gentrifying neighborhoods during the recent housing boom and bust in Philadelphia for various strata of residents and different types of gentrification. We find that vulnerable residents, those with low credit scores and without mortgages, are generally n...

  1. Architectural design of passive solar residential building

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma Jing

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies thermal environment of closed balconies that commonly exist in residential buildings, and designs a passive solar residential building. The design optimizes the architectural details of the house and passive utilization of solar energy to provide auxiliary heating for house in winter and cooling in summer. This design might provide a more sufficient and reasonable modification for microclimate in the house.

  2. Review Article: Heat stress and the role of protective clothing in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Moisture absorption, directional radiation, solar radiation, condensation and their interaction with wind may have influence on heat exchange. Aim: To review the role of protective clothing in heat stress stress in military service. Conclusion: Protective clothing serves the purpose of eliminating or reducing the effects of heat ...

  3. The Relationship between Physical Activity and Thermal Protective Clothing on Functional Balance in Firefighters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Pui W.; Suyama, Joe; Cham, Rakie; Hostler, David

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the relationship between baseline physical training and the use of firefighting thermal protective clothing (TPC) with breathing apparatus on functional balance. Twenty-three male firefighters performed a functional balance test under four gear/clothing conditions. Participants were divided into groups by physical training status,…

  4. 76 FR 971 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Test Procedures for Clothes Dryers and Room...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-06

    ... Conditioner Standby Mode and Off Mode Testing a. Clothes Dryers b. Room Air Conditioners 4. Calculation of... Conditioner Active Mode Test Procedures 1. Correction of Text Describing Energy Factor Calculation for Clothes... the Per-Cycle Gas Dryer Continuously Burning Pilot Light Gas Energy Consumption 9. Clarification of...

  5. 75 FR 37593 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Test Procedures for Clothes Dryers and Room...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-29

    ... Testing a. Clothes Dryers b. Room Air Conditioners 4. Calculation of Energy Use Associated With Standby... Mode Test Procedures 1. Correction of Text Describing Energy Factor Calculation for Clothes Dryers 2... Gas Dryer Continuously Burning Pilot Light Gas Energy Consumption 9. Clarification of the Gas Supply...

  6. Attitudes Toward Clothing, Body and Self: A Comparison of Two Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Imogene M.; Drake, Mary Frances

    1982-01-01

    White and Black collegiate females were administered questionnaires measuring self-image, body satisfaction, and the use of sexually attractive dress. The two groups differed significantly on adequacy of money for clothing, sexually attractive dress, and self-esteem, and were alike on body satisfaction, attitude toward unusual clothing, and flair…

  7. The Economic Importance and Characteristics of Cost Calculation in the Clothing Industry in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caprian Cristina

    2017-01-01

    The paper ends with the author conclusions regarding the implementation of a cost calculationmethod in the clothing industry as well as the main actions to be taken by clothing companies tohave competitive and innovative products and to cope with fierce competition.

  8. Matse Sliki Tekle - A cultural history of the Ga funerary loin-cloth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    One striking item of apparel shown in archival drawings, referred to in the accounts of both Roemer and Isert, is the silk loin-cloth known as tekle. According to the detailed description of Isert, there were different styles and manner of ways of donning on this silk loin-cloth (sliki tekle). For men, the tekle ends hung down both ...

  9. Rags in the High Rent District: the Evolution of Quota Rents in Textiles and Clothing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.F. François (Joseph); J. Woerz

    2006-01-01

    textabstractWe develop a mixed complementarity programming (MCP) based estimating framework for non-tariff barriers (NTBs) to examine the evolution of market access conditions in the textile and clothing sectors, working with a panel of bilateral trade data on textile and clothing trade, underlying

  10. 76 FR 22608 - Third Party Testing for Certain Children's Products; Clothing Textiles: Revisions to Terms of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-22

    ... request from certain members of the clothing textile industry to reduce unnecessary retesting of clothing... a way as to meet industry needs. Second, it stated a concern that many apparel manufacturers are not... are manufactured into garments and explained that in some cases, the time that elapses between when a...

  11. The Employment Challenge of the Agreement on Textiles and Clothing: Scenario and Strategies for Pakistan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K.A. Siegmann (Karin Astrid)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractAbstract In January 2005, the quota system for imports of textiles and clothing was phased out and gave way to more liberalized global trade in textiles and clothing. The T&C industry is Pakistan’s main export engine. It is also a major industrial employer, and one of the few sectors

  12. Inconspicuous dressing: a critique of the construction-through-consumption paradigm in the sociology of clothing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Laan, E.; Velthuis, O.

    2016-01-01

    Based on ‘wardrobe interviews’, this article studies how young Dutch men dress themselves. We argue that existing sociological studies of clothing have gone too far in emphasizing the symbolic aspects of clothing and have not paid sufficient attention to the role of routines and rules in daily

  13. 30 CFR 75.705-6 - Protective clothing; use and inspection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Protective clothing; use and inspection. 75.705-6 Section 75.705-6 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL... Protective clothing; use and inspection. All persons performing work on energized high-voltage surface lines...

  14. 48 CFR 3025.7002 - Restrictions on clothing, fabrics, and related items.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Restrictions on clothing, fabrics, and related items. 3025.7002 Section 3025.7002 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT... ACQUISITION 3025.7002 Restrictions on clothing, fabrics, and related items. ...

  15. Research on decontamination technology. Study on protective clothing for decontamination work

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kashimoto, Kaoru; Endo, Hiromu

    2012-01-01

    This report is a summary of study on protective clothing used for decontamination work of radioactive materials by conducting full-system testing in terms of protection performance. As a result of this study, we have validated that the protective clothing effectively inhibit particulate matter from attaching onto a body surface. (author)

  16. 48 CFR 225.7002 - Restrictions on food, clothing, fabrics, and hand or measuring tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Restrictions on food, clothing, fabrics, and hand or measuring tools. 225.7002 Section 225.7002 Federal Acquisition Regulations... 225.7002 Restrictions on food, clothing, fabrics, and hand or measuring tools. ...

  17. Clothing evaporative heat resistance - Proposal for improved representation in standards and models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Havenith, G.; Holmér, I.; Hartog, E.A. den; Parsons, K.C.

    1999-01-01

    Clothing heat and vapour resistances are important inputs for standards and models dealing with thermal comfort, heat- and cold-stress. A vast database of static clothing heat resistance values is available, and this was recently expanded with correction equations to account for effects of movement

  18. Undressing Transformative Learning: The Roles of Instrumental and Communicative Learning in the Shift to Clothing Sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Lisa J.; Sinclair, A. John

    2016-01-01

    Clothing is an integral part of our lives, yet modes of producing, using, and disposing of apparel have significant impacts on the environment. Our research explored the role transformative learning plays in the transition to more sustainable thinking and actions about clothing to illuminate instrumental learning processes and examine the…

  19. Ethnicity, Clothing Style, and Body Mass Index are Significant Predictors of Vitamin D Insufficiency in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farahati, Jamshid; Nagarajah, James; Gilman, Elena; Mahjoob, Soha; Zohreh, Moussavi; Rosenbaum-Krumme, Sandra; Bockisch, Andreas; Zakavi, S Rasoul

    2015-02-01

    To analyze risk factors for vitamin D insufficiency in Germany with respect to ethnicity, sex, and clothing style. We analyzed the routine diagnostic work-ups of 1,231 adult (45.9 ± 17.9 years old) German (n = 1,034) and Turk residents (n = 197) referred with nonspecific symptoms to the Thyroid Centers at St. Elisabeth-Hospital in Dorsten, Germany and Bottrop, Germany to assess for metabolic diseases. All subjects underwent a routine examination that consisted of a questionnaire, lab tests for 25-hydroxyvitamin-D (25OHD), and thyroid profile. Turk females with traditional clothing (headscarf and covered legs and arms) were considered to wear "covered clothing." Logistic-regression was performed to identify factors that could predict vitamin D deficiency (clothes was lower than that in Turk females with conventional clothing (16.3 ± 12.3 vs. 27.2 ± 15.8, Pclothing versus 62.8% with conventional clothing (odds ratio [OR] = 3.6, P = .002). Ethnicity, body mass index (BMI), and clothing style were significant predictors of vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency by logistic regression (Pclothing. (2) Monitoring vitamin D in Turk residents in Germany is warranted. (3) Vitamin D supplements and access to facilities with sunlight exposure for females with covered clothing and all individuals with poor diets or limited access to sun exposure may prevent future health burden due to vitamin D insufficiency.

  20. Measurements in flame retardant textiles and protective clothing using an instrumented

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kort-Kamp, V. M.; Santos, A. M.; Azevedo, A. F.; Lima, R. M. V.; Bittencourt, E.

    2018-03-01

    The flame test manikin system can be used to evaluate the performance of thermal protective clothing under fire simulation conditions. Different weights of thermal protective garments were tested and the total clothed burn injury area decreased as the fabric weight increased. In addition, a comparison of different compositions for the same weight was analyzed too.

  1. 30 CFR 77.704-6 - Protective clothing; use and inspection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Protective clothing; use and inspection. 77.704-6 Section 77.704-6 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL... UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Grounding § 77.704-6 Protective clothing; use and inspection. All persons performing...

  2. 77 FR 3845 - Agency Information Collection Activity (Application for Annual Clothing Allowance) Under OMB Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-25

    ... (Application for Annual Clothing Allowance) Under OMB Review AGENCY: Veterans Health Administration, Department...: Application for Annual Clothing Allowance (Under 38 U.S.C. 1162), VA Form 10-8678. OMB Control Number: 2900... to gather the necessary information to [[Page 3846

  3. Maximum allowable exposure to different heat radiation levels in three types of heat protective clothing

    Science.gov (United States)

    HEUS, Ronald; DENHARTOG, Emiel A.

    2017-01-01

    To determine safe working conditions in emergency situations at petro-chemical plants in the Netherlands a study was performed on three protective clothing combinations (operator’s, firefighter’s and aluminized). The clothing was evaluated at four different heat radiation levels (3.0, 4.6, 6.3 and 10.0 k∙W∙m−2) in standing and walking posture with a thermal manikin RadMan™. Time till pain threshold (43°C) is set as a cut-off criterion for regular activities. Operator’s clothing did not fulfil requirements to serve as protective clothing for necessary activities at heat radiation levels above 1.5 k∙W∙m−2 as was stated earlier by Den Hartog and Heus1). With firefighter’s clothing it was possible to work almost three min up to 4.6 k∙W∙m−2. At higher heat radiation levels firefighter’s clothing gave insufficient protection and aluminized clothing should be used. Maximum working times in aluminized clothing at 6.3 k∙W∙m−2 was about five min. At levels of 10.0 k∙W∙m−2 (emergency conditions) emergency responders should move immediately to lower heat radiation levels. PMID:28978903

  4. Microbial Odor Profile of Polyester and Cotton Clothes after a Fitness Session

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Callewaert, C.; De Maeseneire, E.; Kerckhof, F.M.; Verliefde, A.; Van de Wiele, T.; Boon, N.

    2014-01-01

    Clothing textiles protect our human body against external factors. These textiles are not sterile and can harbor high bacterial counts as sweat and bacteria are transmitted from the skin. We investigated the microbial growth and odor development in cotton and synthetic clothing fabrics. T-shirts

  5. Attitudes of hospitalized patients toward wearing patient clothing in Tianjin, China: A cross-sectional survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Liu

    2016-12-01

    Conclusions: More than half of the hospitalized patients dislike wearing patient clothing because they were unaware of its functions and were skeptical about its hygiene, comfortability, fit, and appearance. Therefore, these patients must be provided with comfortable, well fitting, hygienic, and aesthetically pleasing clothing.

  6. Clothing and the Affects on a Teacher's Image: How Students View Them

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosca, Joseph B.; Buzza, John

    2013-01-01

    Clothing is an essential element of our daily lives that is basically an expression of who we are. People shop to buy clothing for a variety of reasons, such as enjoyment and socialization. It is fundamental that participating in social activities and life satisfaction are related to well-being. Our well-being is influenced by education, income,…

  7. Evaluating the efficacy of cloth facemasks in reducing particulate matter exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakya, Kabindra M; Noyes, Alyssa; Kallin, Randa; Peltier, Richard E

    2017-05-01

    Inexpensive cloth masks are widely used in developing countries to protect from particulate pollution albeit limited data on their efficacy exists. This study examined the efficiency of four types of masks (three types of cloth masks and one type of surgical mask) commonly worn in the developing world. Five monodispersed aerosol sphere size (30, 100, and 500 nm, and 1 and 2.5 μm) and diluted whole diesel exhaust was used to assess facemask performance. Among the three cloth mask types, a cloth mask with an exhaust valve performed best with filtration efficiency of 80-90% for the measured polystyrene latex (PSL) particle sizes. Two styles of commercially available fabric masks were the least effective with a filtration efficiency of 39-65% for PSL particles, and they performed better as the particle size increased. When the cloth masks were tested against lab-generated whole diesel particles, the filtration efficiency for three particle sizes (30, 100, and 500 nm) ranged from 15% to 57%. Standard N95 mask performance was used as a control to compare the results with cloth masks, and our results suggest that cloth masks are only marginally beneficial in protecting individuals from particles<2.5 μm. Compared with cloth masks, disposable surgical masks are more effective in reducing particulate exposure.

  8. addressing low-literacy in the south african clothing retail environment

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    challenges; clothing consumers; coping strategies; functional low-literacy; personal. Addressing low-literacy in the South African clothing retail environment. 55. INTRODUCTION ..... maintain self-esteem, low-literate consumers engage in habitual ...... Unesco Institute for statistics: Global literacy trends, viewed 03 May 2017.

  9. Is the banning of importation of second-hand clothes and shoes a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nevertheless, the second-hand clothes and shoes trade contributed to the collapse and hamper the current initiative to revive the textiles and leather industries. ... Besides, there were some socio-economic and technical factors, influx of clothes and shoes from Asia as well as un-competitive local environment which ...

  10. Integrated residential photovoltaic array development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royal, G. C., III

    1981-04-01

    Sixteen conceptual designs of residential photovoltaic arrays are described. Each design concept was evaluated by an industry advisory panel using a comprehensive set of technical, economic and institutional criteria. Key electrical and mechanical concerns that effect further array subsystem development are also discussed. Three integrated array design concepts were selected by the advisory panel for further optimization and development. From these concepts a single one will be selected for detailed analysis and prototype fabrication. The three concepts selected are: (1) An array of frameless panels/modules sealed in a T shaped zipper locking neoprene gasket grid pressure fitted into an extruded aluminum channel grid fastened across the rafters. (2) An array of frameless modules pressure fitted in a series of zipper locking EPDM rubber extrusions adhesively bonded to the roof. Series string voltage is developed using a set of integral tongue connectors and positioning blocks. (3) An array of frameless modules sealed by a silicone adhesive in a prefabricated grid of rigid tape and sheet metal attached to the roof.

  11. Individual 3D measurements of end users to personalize work wear clothing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mielicka, E.; Napieralska, L.; Jasińska, I.; Jarzyna, V.

    2017-10-01

    Body silhouette 3D measurements need to be performed separately in each country due to significant ethnic differences in body silhouette which preclude the transfer of European data to particular countries. Systematic research allows to update information on the population body silhouette and body proportions as well as select the size changes possible to implement in clothing construction modifications. The diversity in body silhouettes and sizes as well as the issue of clothing fitting encourage clothing producers to provide work wear clothing based on individual measurements of the end users’ bodies. In the framework of the carried research, the group of construction workers was selected as the target group of the analysed work wear clothing users. 42 construction workers, men only, were measured. The body silhouette measurement process was non-contact and was carried out with the use of 3D body scanner. The collected data on the body silhouette allowed to select sizes used to construct the work wear clothing and identify the clothing size. The selected measurement points of the body silhouette underwent statistical analysis to determine the distribution of random variables, here body sizes. The variables distribution characteristics were calculated. On that basis, the fitting appraisal of work wear clothing with respect to the size of the finished product corresponding to the adequate size of individually measured worker/end user was performed. The size overview of the work wear clothing used by the specific professional group and the appraisal of the size fitting to the body silhouette took into consideration the work wear clothing ergonomic functionality with respect to the body posture when performing the tasks, design and clothing construction. The analysis based on the currently gathered end users’ remarks and objections concerning the clothing fitting and performed body silhouette measurements allows to modify the existing work wear clothing for the

  12. Toekomstvisie op Verstrekking en Ontwikkeling van Kleding op Basis van Scangegenereerde Gegevens (Scan Based Distribution and Development of Clothing)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hin, A. J

    2006-01-01

    The Clothing & Personal Equipment Branch of the Ministry of Defence uses body scanning to determine body dimensions of personnel of the Ministry of Defence and to provide an individual advice on clothing size...

  13. Temperature and energy consumption for clothing dryer; Temperatura e consumo de energia em secadora de vestuario

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribeiro, Jefferson Almeida; Magalhaes Filho, Paulo [UNESP, Guaratingueta, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia. Dept. de Energia]. E-mail: pfilho@feg.unesp.br

    2000-07-01

    The cloth dehumidification is done by hot air circulation through it in dryers. The air circulation is done by a fan, run by an electrical motor, and the air temperature raise, which goes through the cloths aiming their moisture dragging, is gotten by the heat dissipation from electrical resistance. This work shows the results of an experimental modeling, examining the behavior of several kinds of cloth in a vertical suspense-type dryer, such as: polyester, cotton-spandex, flannel, blue-jeans and viscose rayon. It was analyzed the behavior of the moisture content in these cloths related to controlled-temperature-air flows, determining the needed heat to reach the required drying standards. The drying device fans were tested for the determination of their flow rate and energy consumption, establishing a flow rate versus consumption relationship. Comparative results among the various kinds of cloths are presented. (author)

  14. ISLAMIC EDUCATION IN CIVILIZATION OF FASHION INDUSTRY: CLOTHES CONCEPT REFLECTION IN ISLAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Mustami

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the concept Apparel in Islamic education. This was currently a lot of variety of fashion in dress. Although the general function of clothes was a human genitalia cover and protect the body from the heat of the sun. However hijab at this time not just cover the nakedness, but rather as a fashion style that became a common thing now was infecting the womenfolk including Muslim. Ranging from clothes, pants, until hijab began in innovation so as to attract the eye. Although it is not yet represent the shape and fashion model/standard clothes, but felt able to express Islamic education in the dressing (hijab and a fashion model/Islamic clothing. Obviously keep on religious norms, ethical and moral teachings. Substance of clothing in Islam is polite in accordance with the values of Islamic Education.

  15. Investigation of pajama properties on skin under mild cold conditions: the interaction between skin and clothing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Lei; Gohel, Mayur D I; Li, Yi; Chung, Waiyee J

    2011-07-01

    Clothing is considered the second skin of the human body. The aim of this study was to determine clothing-wearer interaction on skin physiology under mild cold conditions. Skin physiological parameters, subjective sensory response, stress level, and physical properties of clothing fabric from two longitude parallel-designed wear trials were studied. The wear trials involved four kinds of pajamas made from cotton or polyester material that had hydrophilic or hydrophobic treatment, conducted for three weeks under mild cold conditions. Statistical tools, factor analysis, hierarchical linear regression, and logistic regression were applied to analyze the strong predictors of skin physiological parameters, stress level, and sensory response. A framework was established to illustrate clothing-wearer interactions with clothing fabric properties, skin physiology, stress level, and sensory response under mild cold conditions. Fabric has various effects on the human body under mild cold conditions. A fabric's properties influence skin physiology, sensation, and psychological response. © 2011 The International Society of Dermatology.

  16. Dressing up posture: The interactive effects of posture and clothing on competency judgements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurney, Daniel J; Howlett, Neil; Pine, Karen; Tracey, Megan; Moggridge, Rachel

    2017-05-01

    Individuals often receive judgements from others based on their clothing and their posture. While both of these factors have been found to influence judgements of competency independently, their relative importance in impression formation is yet to be investigated. We address this by examining interactive effects of posture and clothing on four competency measures: confidence, professionalism, approachability, and likeliness of a high salary. Participants rated photographs of both male and female models pictured in different postures (strong, neutral, weak) in smart clothing (a suit for males; both a trouser suit and skirt suit for females) and casual clothing. We confirm that posture manipulations affected judgements of individuals differently according to the clothing they were pictured in. The nature of these interactions varied by gender and, for women, competency judgements differed according to attire type (trouser or skirt suit). The implications of these findings in relation to impression formation are discussed. © 2016 The British Psychological Society.

  17. Cultivating User-ship? Developing a Circular System for the Acquisition and Use of Baby Clothing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Trine Brun; Riisberg, Vibeke

    2017-01-01

    This paper sets out to explore the significance of the production, sale and consumption of clothing as a product service system rather than as the more familiar “shop-window” product offered for individual sale. While there are a number of studies of occupational clothing systems, relatively little...... is known about clothing systems tailored for the private market. This article presents a case study of a recently launched subscription service for baby clothing, which offered a range of eco-certified garments for rent as more or less complete wardrobes. Drawing on fashion scholar Kate Fletcher’s concept...... of “techniques and processes of use” and on Actor-Network Theory, the study follows the company from its tentative beginnings through its first year in a process that provided an opportunity to study a clothing system “in the making.” Particular interest is paid to how the leasing system and product design...

  18. Multiresistant pathogens in geriatric nursing – infection control in residential facilities for geriatric nursing in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peters, Claudia

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available [english] Background: The increase of multidrug-resistant organisms (MDROs causes problems in geriatric nursing homes. Older people are at increased a growing risk of infection due to multimorbidity and frequent stays in hospital. A high proportion of the elderly require residential care in geriatric nursing facilities, where hygiene requirements in nursing homes are similar to those in hospitals. For this reason we examined how well nursing homes are prepared for MDROs and how effectively protect their infection control residents and staff.Methods: A cross-sectional study was performed on infection control in residential geriatric nursing facilities in Germany 2012. The questionnaire recorded important parameters of hygiene, resident and staff protection and actions in case of existing MDROs.Results: The response was 54% in Hamburg and 27% in the rest of Germany. Nursing homes were generally well equipped for dealing with infection control: There were standards for MDROs and regular hygiene training for staff. The facilities provided adequate protective clothing, affected residents are usually isolated and hygienic laundry processing conducted. There are deficits in the communication of information on infected residents with hospitals and general practitioners. 54% of nursing homes performed risk assessments for staff infection precaution.Conclusion: There is a growing interest in MDROs and infection control will be a challenge in for residential geriatric nursing facilities in the future. This issue has also drawn increasing attention. Improvements could be achieved by improving communication between different participants in the health service, together with specific measures for staff protection at work.

  19. U.S. Clothing and Textile Trade with China and the World: Trends Since the End of Quotas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-07-10

    the road to quota-free trade for clothing and textiles, the MFA expanded the scope of the LTA to include wool and man-made fibers . However, concerns... linens , blankets, curtains, tarpaulins, and worn clothing. constrained Chinese imports and thereby obscured the effects of quota removals on clothing and...Coalition, and the American Fiber Manufacturers Association, (continued...) took effect. For clothing manufacturers, the peak period for job losses was

  20. Thermal clothing to reduce heart failure morbidity during winter: a randomised controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Ian; Beevers, Andrea; Fraser, John F; Platts, David

    2017-01-01

    Objective To examine whether providing thermal clothing improved the health of patients with heart failure during winter. Design Parallel group randomised controlled trial. Setting Large public hospital in Brisbane during winter 2016. Participants 91 patients with systolic or diastolic heart failure who were over 50 years old. Intervention 47 patients were randomised to receive thermal clothes (socks, top and hat) and 44 received usual care. Patients could not be blinded to their randomised group. All patients’ data were available for the primary outcome which was collected blind to randomised group. Main outcome measures The primary outcome was the mean number of days in hospital during winter. Secondary outcomes included quality of life and sleep, and blood tests were collected for cardiovascular risk factors. Participants completed clothing diaries in midwinter which were used to estimate their overall clothing insulation using the ‘clo’. Monitors inside the participants’ homes recorded indoor temperatures throughout winter. Results The mean number of days in hospital during winter was 4.2 in the usual care group and 3.0 in the thermal clothing group (mean difference –1.2 days, 95% CI –4.8 to 2.5 days). Most participants (85%) in the thermal clothing group reported using the thermals. There was an increase in overall clothing insulation at night in the thermal clothing group (mean difference 0.13 clo, 95% CI 0.03 to 0.23). Most participants in both groups did not wear sufficient clothing (defined as a clo below 1) and regularly experienced indoor temperatures below 18°C during midwinter. Conclusions There was no clear statistical improvement in health in the thermal clothing group. Efforts to improve health during winter may need to focus on passive interventions such as home insulation rather than interventions that target behaviour change. Trial registration number ACTRN12615001023549; Results. PMID:28993390

  1. Residential care: Dutch and Italian residents of residential care facilities compared.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Heer-Wunderink, Charlotte; Caro-Nienhuis, Annemarie D; Sytema, Sjoerd; Wiersma, Durk

    2008-01-01

    Characteristics of patients living in residential care facilities and the availability of mental hospital- and residential beds in Italy and The Netherlands were compared to assess whether differences in the process of deinstitutionalisation have influenced the composition of their residential patient populations. Data from the Dutch UTOPIA-study (UTilization & Outcome of Patients In the Association of Dutch residential care providers) and the Italian PROGRES-study were used. Dutch residents were more likely to suffer from substance or alcohol abuse than Italian residents. The latter were more likely to suffer from schizophrenia or a related disorder, less likely to have experienced mental hospital admissions and showed an overall shorter duration of stay in residential care facilities. Contrary to our expectations Dutch residents, who still have good access to long stay beds in mental hospitals, are not less disabled than Italian residents. Finally, the number of beds in residential care facilities per 10,000 inhabitants in the Netherlands is twice (6) as high as in Italy (3). The Italian and Dutch deinstitutionalisation processes have resulted in a different availability in the number of residential beds. However, it did not influence the overall level of functioning of both residential populations.

  2. Differences between Residential and Non-Residential Fathers on Sexual Socialisation of African American Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sneed, Carl D.; Willis, Leigh A.

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated differences between residential and non-residential fathers on topics discussed during father-child sex communication and factors associated with child sexual socialisation. Young people (N = 159, 53% female) provided self-reports using computer surveys on the role of their fathers on father-child sex communication, general…

  3. 38 CFR 21.219 - Supplies consisting of clothing, magazines and periodicals, and items which may be personally...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... clothing, magazines and periodicals, and items which may be personally used by the veteran. 21.219 Section....219 Supplies consisting of clothing, magazines and periodicals, and items which may be personally used by the veteran. (a) Furnishing protective articles and clothing. Protective articles or apparel worn...

  4. 75 FR 5578 - Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request-Flammability Standards for Clothing Textiles and Vinyl...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-03

    ... Standards for Clothing Textiles and Vinyl Plastic Film AGENCY: Consumer Product Safety Commission. ACTION... Commission's flammability standards for clothing textiles and vinyl plastic film. DATES: Written comments on... collection requirements should be captioned ``Clothing Textiles and Film, Collection of Information'' and...

  5. 30 CFR 56.15007 - Protective equipment or clothing for welding, cutting, or working with molten metal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Protective equipment or clothing for welding... METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Personal Protection § 56.15007 Protective equipment or clothing for welding, cutting, or working with molten metal. Protective clothing or equipment and face shields, or goggles shall...

  6. 30 CFR 57.15007 - Protective equipment or clothing for welding, cutting, or working with molten metal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Protective equipment or clothing for welding, cutting, or working with molten metal. 57.15007 Section 57.15007 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH... equipment or clothing for welding, cutting, or working with molten metal. Protective clothing or equipment...

  7. Post-Retrofit Residential Assessments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lancaster, Ross; lutzenhiser, Loren; Moezzi, Mithra; Widder, Sarah H.; Chandra, Subrato; Baechler, Michael C.

    2012-04-30

    This study examined a range of factors influencing energy consumption in households that had participated in residential energy-efficiency upgrades. The study was funded by a grant from the U.S. Department of Energy’s Pacific Northwest National Laboratory and was conducted by faculty and staff of Portland State University Center for Urban Studies and Department of Economics. This work was made possible through the assistance and support of the Energy Trust of Oregon (ETO), whose residential energy-efficiency programs provided the population from which the sample cases were drawn. All households in the study had participated in the ETO Home Performance with Energy Star (HPwES) program. A number of these had concurrently pursued measures through other ETO programs. Post-retrofit energy outcomes are rarely investigated on a house-by-house basis. Rather, aggregate changes are ordinarily the focus of program impact evaluations, with deviation from aggregate expectations chalked up to measurement error, the vagaries of weather and idiosyncrasies of occupants. However, understanding how homes perform post-retrofit on an individual basis can give important insights to increase energy savings at the participant and the programmatic level. Taking a more disaggregated approach, this study analyzed energy consumption data from before and after the retrofit activity and made comparisons with engineering estimates for the upgrades, to identify households that performed differently from what may have been expected based on the estimates. A statistical analysis using hierarchal linear models, which accounted for weather variations, was performed looking separately at gas and electrical use during the periods before and after upgrades took place. A more straightforward comparison of billing data for 12-month periods before and after the intervention was also performed, yielding the majority of the cases examined. The later approach allowed total energy use and costs to be

  8. Modernization of means of contamination monitoring of NPP personnel clothing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pil, T.

    1989-01-01

    A modernized set of equipment to control the level of radioactive contamination of clothes of the personnel from NPP and enterprises of nuclear industry IPM-8 of ''Nuclear Energy Technology'', Great Britain, is described. The design of the set takes into account 3 main factors: the possibility of expanding the range of application, of sensitivity increase, of improving the methods of control. The set includes a coloured IBM terminal receiving the data from 8 sets of dosimetric devices which permits to identify the degree of personnel contamination in the actual time scale. The possibility of recording the results and restoring them in envisaged. IPM-8 provides the measurement of the intensity of β-radiation; simultaneously the intensity of α-radiation on the hands, arms and feet of a man is measured

  9. Anthropometry for children’s clothing: difficulties and limitations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezerra, G.; Carvalho, M. A.; Rocha, M. A. V.; Xu, B.

    2017-10-01

    Children’s wear lacks an anthropometric study to better fit clothes on the body of the child, providing greater comfort for users. Initially, this thesis project in fashion design intended to measure Portuguese children between the ages of 2 to 10 years, enrolled in primary schools in the region of Minho in Portugal. During the data gathering, held in the months of June, July, October and November 2016, about 600 children were scanned and measured using a 3D body scanner. The purpose of this paper is to report the difficulties and limitations experienced during data collection of the anthropometric study and the adjustments that were needed, as well as discuss some of the data collected.

  10. Recovery of spray paint traces from clothing by beating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olderiks, Maurice; Baiker, Martin; van Velzen, Jill; van der Weerd, Jaap

    2015-03-01

    Manual recovery of spray paints from textiles using a microscope, the routine method in many laboratories, is often laborious. Beating the clothing with a plastic rod, the routine method used for recovery of glass traces within the authors' laboratory, is proposed as an alternative. The efficiency of the method was evaluated by spray tests with fluorescent paint. In these tests, paint particles in the acquired debris samples, as well as those remaining on the textiles, were investigated. The results show that beating is an efficient way to recover and concentrate paint particles. A good efficiency for jeans fabric and rough knitwear is reported. The results appeared to be less satisfactory for smooth woven fabric. Application of the method in casework was effective for graffiti paints as well as for flaked car paint. © 2014 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  11. Decontamination of radioactive clothing using microemulsion in carbon dioxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoo, Jaeryong; Jang, Jina; Park, Kwangheon; Kim, Hongdoo; Kim, Hakwon [Kyunghee Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Yim, Sanghak; Yoon, Weonseob [Ulchin Nuclear Power Site, Ulchin (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-07-01

    Nuclear power is intrinsically a clean energy source due to its high energy density and low generation of waste. However, as the nuclear industry grows, a variety of radioactive wastes are increased gradually. Major subjects include contaminated components, tools, equipment, containers and facilities as well as nuclear waste such as uranium scrap and radioactive clothing. The radioactive waste can be classified by its creation. There are Trans-Uranium Nuclides (TRU), Fission Products (FP) and corrosion products. Nuclear decontamination has become an important issue in the nuclear industry. The conventional methods have some problems such as the production of secondary wastes and the use of toxic solvents. We need to develop a new method of decontamination and suggest a use of microemulsion in carbon dioxide to overcome these disadvantages. The microemulsion is the clear solution that contains the water, surfactant and carbon dioxide. The surfactant surrounded the droplet into carbon dioxide and this state is thermodynamically stable. That is, the microemulsion has a structure similar to that of a conventional water-based surfactant system. Generally, the size of droplet is about 5 {approx} 10nm. The microemulsion is able to decontaminate radioactive waste so that the polar substance is removed by water and the non-polar substance is removed by carbon dioxide. After the decontamination process, the microemulsion is separated easily to surfactant and water by decreasing the pressure under the cloud point. This way, only radioactive wastes are left in the system. Cleaned carbon dioxide is then collected and reused. Thus, there are no secondary wastes. Carbon dioxide is considered an alternative process medium. This is because it is non-toxic, non-flammable, inexpensive and easy to handle. Additionally, the tunable properties of carbon dioxide through pressure and temperature control are versatile for use in extracting organic materials. In this paper, we examine the

  12. Decontamination of radioactive clothing using microemulsion in carbon dioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoo, Jaeryong; Jang, Jina; Park, Kwangheon; Kim, Hongdoo; Kim, Hakwon; Yim, Sanghak; Yoon, Weonseob

    2006-01-01

    Nuclear power is intrinsically a clean energy source due to its high energy density and low generation of waste. However, as the nuclear industry grows, a variety of radioactive wastes are increased gradually. Major subjects include contaminated components, tools, equipment, containers and facilities as well as nuclear waste such as uranium scrap and radioactive clothing. The radioactive waste can be classified by its creation. There are Trans-Uranium Nuclides (TRU), Fission Products (FP) and corrosion products. Nuclear decontamination has become an important issue in the nuclear industry. The conventional methods have some problems such as the production of secondary wastes and the use of toxic solvents. We need to develop a new method of decontamination and suggest a use of microemulsion in carbon dioxide to overcome these disadvantages. The microemulsion is the clear solution that contains the water, surfactant and carbon dioxide. The surfactant surrounded the droplet into carbon dioxide and this state is thermodynamically stable. That is, the microemulsion has a structure similar to that of a conventional water-based surfactant system. Generally, the size of droplet is about 5 ∼ 10nm. The microemulsion is able to decontaminate radioactive waste so that the polar substance is removed by water and the non-polar substance is removed by carbon dioxide. After the decontamination process, the microemulsion is separated easily to surfactant and water by decreasing the pressure under the cloud point. This way, only radioactive wastes are left in the system. Cleaned carbon dioxide is then collected and reused. Thus, there are no secondary wastes. Carbon dioxide is considered an alternative process medium. This is because it is non-toxic, non-flammable, inexpensive and easy to handle. Additionally, the tunable properties of carbon dioxide through pressure and temperature control are versatile for use in extracting organic materials. In this paper, we examine the

  13. Residentialization of Public Spaces: Bratislava Example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacová, Andrea; Puškár, Branislav; Vráblová, Edita

    2017-10-01

    The housing estates in Bratislava saturated the housing needs of a large number of inhabitants who come after World War II to the city. Design of public spaces often did not have priority in the process of designing. The solutions for mentioned exterior spaces had been planned after blocks of flat realization, but many of them are not realized to this day. The article analyzes the example of the unrealized public spaces in existing housing estates Devinska Nova Ves and Petržalka (city districts of Bratislava) and offer practical solutions in relation to residencialization method. Residencialization of missing public places is an effective method of adding identities to settlements. It improves the quality of residential environment and public spaces. The main aim is to create better conditions for social activities in public areas, which are missing on the present. The research will be focused on the examination of the urban, cultural and construction potential of the existing residential enviroment in Bratislava. The main aim of residentialization is not only to enhance the quality of spatial and building structures in the selected residential area and maintain long-term sustainability in the pertinent programme area, but mainly to improve the quality of living for the residents. The outputs of the project are proposals and practical procedures developed with regard to planning documents for local municipal authorities and regional organizations. The solutions will have a positive impact on the enhancement of the quality of public spaces, attractive social activities and of a conceptual link - residentialization.

  14. Integrated Management of Residential Energy Resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antunes C. H.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The increasing deployment of distributed generation systems based on renewables in the residential sector, the development of information and communication technologies and the expected evolution of traditional power systems towards smart grids are inducing changes in the passive role of end-users, namely with stimuli to change residential demand patterns. The residential user should be able to make decisions and efficiently manage his energy resources by taking advantages from his flexibility in load usage with the aim to minimize the electricity bill without depreciating the quality of energy services provided. The aim of this paper is characterizing electricity consumption in the residential sector and categorizing the different loads according to their typical usage, working cycles, technical constraints and possible degree of control. This categorization of end-use loads contributes to ascertain the availability of controllable loads to be managed as well as the different direct management actions that can be implemented. The ability to implement different management actions over diverse end-use load will increase the responsiveness of demand and potentially raises the willingness of end-users to accept such activities. The impacts on the aggregated national demand of large-scale dissemination of management systems that would help the end-user to make decisions regarding electricity consumption are predicted using a simulator that generates the aggregated residential sector electricity consumption under variable prices.

  15. The development of anti-heat stress clothing for construction workers in hot and humid weather.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Albert P C; Guo, Y P; Wong, Francis K W; Li, Y; Sun, S; Han, X

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop anti-heat stress clothing for construction workers in hot and humid weather. Following DeJonge's functional clothing design process, the design situation was explored, including clothing fabric heat/moisture transporting properties and UV protection and the aspects of clothing ergonomic design (mobility, convenience, and safety). The problem structure was derived from the results of the surveys in three local construction sites, which agreed well with the task requirements and observations. Specifications were consequently described and 30 commercially available fabrics were identified and tested. Fabric testing data and design considerations were inputted in S-smart system to predict the thermal functional performance of the clothing. A new uniform prototype was developed and evaluated. The results of all measurements suggest that the new uniform which incorporated fabrics with superior heat/moisture transporting properties and loose-fitting design could reduce the workers' heat stress and improve their comfort and work performance. Practitioner Summary: The construction workers' uniform currently used in Hong Kong during summer was unsatisfactory. Following DeJonge's functional clothing design process, an anti-heat stress uniform was developed by testing 30 fabrics and predicting clothing thermal functional performance using S-smart system. The new uniform could reduce the workers' heat stress and improve their comfort and work performance.

  16. Dermal uptake of phthalates from clothing: Comparison of model to human participant results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, G C; Weschler, C J; Bekö, G

    2017-05-01

    In this research, we extend a model of transdermal uptake of phthalates to include a layer of clothing. When compared with experimental results, this model better estimates dermal uptake of diethylphthalate and di-n-butylphthalate (DnBP) than a previous model. The model predictions are consistent with the observation that previously exposed clothing can increase dermal uptake over that observed in bare-skin participants for the same exposure air concentrations. The model predicts that dermal uptake from clothing of DnBP is a substantial fraction of total uptake from all sources of exposure. For compounds that have high dermal permeability coefficients, dermal uptake is increased for (i) thinner clothing, (ii) a narrower gap between clothing and skin, and (iii) longer time intervals between laundering and wearing. Enhanced dermal uptake is most pronounced for compounds with clothing-air partition coefficients between 10 4 and 10 7 . In the absence of direct measurements of cotton cloth-air partition coefficients, dermal exposure may be predicted using equilibrium data for compounds in equilibrium with cellulose and water, in combination with computational methods of predicting partition coefficients. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Correction of the heat loss method for calculating clothing real evaporative resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Faming; Zhang, Chengjiao; Lu, Yehu

    2015-08-01

    In the so-called isothermal condition (i.e., Tair [air temperature]=Tmanikin [manikin temperature]=Tr [radiant temperature]), the actual energy used for moisture evaporation detected by most sweating manikins was underestimated due to the uncontrolled fabric 'skin' temperature Tsk,f (i.e., Tsk,fclothing real evaporative resistance. In this study, correction of the real evaporative heat loss from the wet fabric 'skin'-clothing system was proposed and experimentally validated on a 'Newton' sweating manikin. The real evaporative resistance of five clothing ensembles and the nude fabric 'skin' calculated by the corrected heat loss method was also reported and compared with that by the mass loss method. Results revealed that, depending on the types of tested clothing, different amounts of heat were drawn from the ambient environment. In general, a greater amount of heat was drawn from the ambient environment by the wet fabric 'skin'-clothing system in lower thermal insulation clothing than that in higher insulation clothing. There were no significant differences between clothing real evaporative resistances calculated by the corrected heat loss method and those by the mass loss method. It was therefore concluded that the correction method proposed in this study has been successfully validated. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Economic Value of Dispensing Home-Based Preoperative Chlorhexidine Bathing Cloths to Prevent Surgical Site Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Rachel R.; Stuckey, Dianna R.; Norman, Bryan A.; Duggan, Andrew P.; Bacon, Kristina M.; Connor, Diana L.; Lee, Ingi; Muder, Robert R.; Lee, Bruce Y.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To estimate the economic value of dispensing preoperative home-based chlorhexidine bathing cloth kits to orthopedic patients to prevent surgical site infection (SSI). METHODS A stochastic decision-analytic computer simulation model was developed from the hospital’s perspective depicting the decision of whether to dispense the kits preoperatively to orthopedic patients. We varied patient age, cloth cost, SSI-attributable excess length of stay, cost per bed-day, patient compliance with the regimen, and cloth antimicrobial efficacy to determine which variables were the most significant drivers of the model’s outcomes. RESULTS When all other variables remained at baseline and cloth efficacy was at least 50%, patient compliance only had to be half of baseline (baseline mean, 15.3%; range, 8.23%–20.0%) for chlorhexidine cloths to remain the dominant strategy (ie, less costly and providing better health outcomes). When cloth efficacy fell to 10%, 1.5 times the baseline bathing compliance also afforded dominance of the preoperative bath. CONCLUSIONS The results of our study favor the routine distribution of bathing kits. Even with low patient compliance and cloth efficacy values, distribution of bathing kits is an economically beneficial strategy for the prevention of SSI. PMID:21515977

  19. A RESEARCH ON EXAMINATION OF SWIMMER CLOTHING FOR INCREASING SPORTSMAN PERFORMANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hacer ÖLÇER

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to present the problems of swimmers about swimming clothing in trainings or competitions and their expectations from swimming clothing for increasing their performan ce . Descriptive method was used in the research . Survey was developed as a data collection tool on clothing comfort parameters and functional design p roperties that swimming clothing should have . The universe of the r esearch is composed of male and female swimmers interested in swimming sport in T urkey, in the province of Çorum. And the sample is composed of 50 swimmers who participate in the research v oluntarily among the members of Olympic Indoor Swimming Pool serving in Çorum Provincial Directorate of Youth Services and Spor ts . The findings were analyzed in Statistics Package Program in Social Sciences (SPSS. As a result of the r esearch ; it was determined that the problems experienced with the clothing were quick deform ation, restriction of movements, and the fact that fabric texture and sewing properties discomfort the skin and expectations from clothing were durability, ease of movement , to accord with the body and easy maintenance . It is considered that r esearch results shall be a guide for research and development activities to be performed about clothing comfort on both academic and sector basis for increasing sportive performan ce in running sport and protection of sportsmen health .

  20. Measurements of clothing evaporative resistance using a sweating thermal manikin: an overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    WANG, Faming

    2017-01-01

    Evaporative resistance has been widely used to describe the evaporative heat transfer property of clothing. It is also a critical variable in heat stress models for predicting human physiological responses in various environmental conditions. At present, sweating thermal manikins provide a fast and cost-effective way to determine clothing evaporative resistance. Unfortunately, the measurement repeatability and reproducibility of evaporative resistance are rather low due to the complicated moisture transfer processes through clothing. This review article presents a systematical overview on major influential factors affecting the measurement precision of clothing evaporative resistance measurements. It also illustrates the state-of-the-art knowledge on the development of test protocol to measure clothing evaporative resistance by means of a sweating manikin. Some feasible and robust test procedures for measurement of clothing evaporative resistance using a sweating manikin are described. Recommendations on how to improve the measurement accuracy of clothing evaporative resistance are addressed and expected future trends on development of advanced sweating thermal manikins are finally presented. PMID:28566566

  1. Numerical simulation of thermal behaviors of a clothed human body with evaluation of indoor solar radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mao, Aihua; Luo, Jie; Li, Yi

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Solar radiation evaluation is integrated with the thermal transfer in clothed humans. • Thermal models are developed for clothed humans exposed in indoor solar radiation. • The effect of indoor solar radiation on humans can be predicted in different situations in living. • The green solar energy can be efficiently utilized in the building development. - Abstract: Solar radiation is a valuable green energy, which is important in achieving a successful building design for thermal comfort in indoor environment. This paper considers solar radiation indoors into the transient thermal transfer models of a clothed human body and offers a new numerical method to analyze the dynamic thermal status of a clothed human body under different solar radiation incidences. The evaluation model of solar radiation indoors and a group of coupled thermal models of the clothed human body are developed and integrated. The simulation capacities of these integrated models are validated through a comparison between the predicted results and the experimental data in reference. After that, simulation cases are also conducted to show the influence of solar radiation on the thermal status of individual clothed body segments when the human body is staying indoors in different seasons. This numerical simulation method provides a useful tool to analyze the thermal status of clothed human body under different solar radiation incidences indoors and thus enables the architect to efficiently utilize the green solar energy in building development.

  2. Investigation Of Sound Absorption Properties Of Bark Cloth Nonwoven Fabric And Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rwawiire Samson

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The quest for sound-absorbing materials that are not only environmentally friendly, but also sustainable is the foremost reason for natural fibre-acoustic materials. Bark cloth is a natural non-woven fabric that is largely produced from Ficus trees. An exploratory investigation of bark cloth a non-woven material and its reinforcement in epoxy polymer composites has been fabricated and investigated for the sound absorption properties so as to find the most suitable applications and also to see whether bark cloth can be used in some applications in place of man-made fibres. Three types of material species were investigated with their respective composites. The fibre morphology showed bark cloth to be a porous fabric that showed promising sound absorption properties at higher frequencies. The sound absorption results of four-layer material selections of Ficus natalensis, Ficus brachypoda and Antiaris toxicaria bark cloth showed sound absorption coefficient of 0.7; 0.71 and 0.91 at f > 6400 Hz, respectively. The bark cloth reinforced laminar epoxy composites had reduced sound absorption coefficients, which ranged from 0.1 to 0.35, which was attributed to decreased porosity and vibration in the bark cloth fibre network.

  3. Evaluation of two recommended disinfection methods for cleaning cloths used in food services of southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartz, Sabrina; Tondo, Eduardo Cesar

    2013-01-01

    In the State of Rio Grande do Sul (RS), Southern Brazil, a good manufacturing practices regulation was published recommending two disinfection methods for cleaning cloths used in food services. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy of those methods. Cleaning cloths were sampled without prior notice at food services, on common working days. For the analyses, the cloths were divided in two sub-samples, being one of them microbiologically analyzed. The second sub-sample was further divided in two pieces and submitted to hand washing for two minutes. After that, one piece was boiled in water for 15 min and the other one was soaked in a 200 ppm sodium hypochlorite solution for 15 min. Both pieces of cloth were submitted to microbiological analyses. Cleaning cloths presented total aerobic mean counts of 6.9 ± 6.7 log/cm(2). All cleaning cloths presented coliform contamination, and 40% demonstrated mean counts of 6.2 ± 5.6 log/cm(2). Presumptive S. aureus mean counts of 5.5 ± 4.9 log/cm(2) were found. No statistic correlation was observed among the number of meals served daily in the food services and the microbiological contamination levels. After washing and disinfection, microbiological counts were significantly (p cleaning cloths used in food services.

  4. Effect of posture positions on the evaporative resistance and thermal insulation of clothing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Y S; Fan, J T; Yu, W

    2011-03-01

    Evaporative resistance and thermal insulation of clothing are important parameters in the design and engineering of thermal environments and functional clothing. Past work on the measurement of evaporative resistance of clothing was, however, limited to the standing posture with or without body motion. Information on the evaporative resistance of clothing when the wearer is in a sedentary or supine posture and how it is related to that when the wearer is in a standing posture is lacking. This paper presents original data on the effect of postures on the evaporative resistance of clothing, thermal insulation and permeability index, based on the measurements under three postures, viz. standing, sedentary and supine, using the sweating fabric manikin-Walter. Regression models are also established to relate the evaporative resistance and thermal insulation of clothing under sedentary and supine postures to those under the standing posture. The study further shows that the apparent evaporated resistances of standing and sedentary postures measured in the non-isothermal condition are much lower than those in the isothermal condition. The apparent evaporative resistances measured using the mass loss method are generally lower than those measured using the heat loss method due to moisture absorption or condensation within clothing. STATEMENT OF RELEVANCE: The thermal insulation and evaporative resistance values of clothing ensembles under different postures are essential data for the ergonomics design of thermal environments (e.g. indoors or a vehicle's interior environment) and functional clothing. They are also necessary for the prediction of thermal comfort or duration of exposure in different environmental conditions.

  5. Swim performance and thermoregulatory effects of wearing clothing in a simulated cold-water survival situation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowes, Heather; Eglin, Clare M; Tipton, Michael J; Barwood, Martin J

    2016-04-01

    Accidental cold-water immersion (CWI) impairs swim performance, increases drowning risk and often occurs whilst clothed. The impact of clothing on thermoregulation and swim performance during CWI was explored with the view of making recommendations on whether swimming is viable for self-rescue; contrary to the traditional recommendations. Ten unhabituated males (age 24 (4) years; height 1.80 (0.08) m; mass 78.50 (10.93) kg; body composition 14.8 (3.4) fat %) completed four separate CWIs in 12 °C water. They either rested clothed or naked (i.e. wearing a bathing costume) or swum self-paced clothed or naked for up to 1 h. Swim speed, distance covered, oxygen consumption and thermal responses (rectal temperature (T re), mean skin temperature (T msk) and mean body temperature T b) were measured. When clothed, participants swum at a slower pace and for a significantly shorter distance (815 (482) m, 39 (19) min) compared to when naked (1264 (564) m, 52 (18) min), but had a similar oxygen consumption indicating clothing made them less efficient. Swimming accelerated the rate of T msk and T b cooling and wearing clothing partially attenuated this drop. The impairment to swimming performance caused by clothing was greater than the thermal benefit it provided; participants withdrew due to exhaustion before hypothermia developed. Swimming is a viable self-rescue method in 12 °C water, however, clothing impairs swimming capability. Self-rescue swimming could be considered before clinical hypothermia sets in for the majority of individuals. These suggestions must be tested for the wider population.

  6. A plan to reduce volatile organic compound emissions from consumer products in Canada (excluding windshield washer fluid and surface coatings) : final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-12-01

    This report highlights the recommendations made by the Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment for the development of a guideline to provide a means by which to reduce (VOC) emissions from consumer products (excluding windshield washer fluid and surface coatings) in Canada. VOCs and nitrogen oxides react photochemically in the presence of sunlight to create ground-level ozone, a primary component of urban smog which has a detrimental effect on human health, agricultural crops and building materials. In recent years, most urban areas of Canada have shown an annual increase in the maximum acceptable air quality levels for ground level ozone. Reducing emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from consumer products was first suggested in 1990 by the Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment in phase one of their program entitled the 'Management plan for nitrogen oxides and volatile organic compounds'. Phase 2 of the program was implemented in 1997 to harmonize the emissions reduction program with the United States Environmental Protection Agency regulations. The Canadian Environmental Protection Agency (CEPA) recommended the following control options: (1) a CEPA guideline should be developed which states the maximum VOC and high-volatility organic compound (HVOC) content in Canadian consumer products including hair care products, herbicides, insecticides, air fresheners, deodorants, fungicides, surface cleaners, fragrance products, anti-microbial agents, laundry products and automotive detailing products. These limits should be identical to those found in the 1998 U.S. Final Rule for Consumer Products, (2) the CEPA guideline should require that records specifying VOC content in weight-per cent be maintained for a period of three years, (3) the CEPA guideline should include a declaration procedure for Canadian importers and manufacturers of consumer products to report to Environment Canada regarding the VOC content of their products, and

  7. HCRS: A hybrid clothes recommender system based on user ratings and product features

    OpenAIRE

    Hu, Xiaosong; Zhu, Wen; Li, Qing

    2014-01-01

    Nowadays, online clothes-selling business has become popular and extremely attractive because of its convenience and cheap-and-fine price. Good examples of these successful Web sites include Yintai.com, Vancl.com and Shop.vipshop.com which provide thousands of clothes for online shoppers. The challenge for online shoppers lies on how to find a good product from lots of options. In this article, we propose a collaborative clothes recommender for easy shopping. One of the unique features of thi...

  8. Technical Design of Flexible Thin-Film Solar Heating Clothes with Switchable Output Power

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Yu Xiao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This research focuses on the research and development of thermal clothes through technical design, by adopting unique removable electronic equipment and applying carbon fiber material to thermal clothes against cold, so as to meet the requirements of active heating and passive warmth retention. Firstly, the specification of power supply system was determined in accordance with the requirements of power system, and the specification of charging system was determined according to the specification of power system. Then circuit system was designed and tested. Fianlly, the electronic device was configured on the clothes appropriately, so that it should be conforms to ergonomic principles, convenient and fast.

  9. Influence on Occupant Responses of Behavioral Modification of Clothing Insulation in Nonsteady Thermal Environments (RP-1269)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toftum, Jørn; Kolarik, Jakub; Belkowska, D.

    2010-01-01

    of the recommendations on drifting temperatures as stated in ASHRAE Standard 55-2004, Thermal Environmental Conditions for Human Occupancy (ASHRAE 2004) and to extend the scope of the recommendations to cover not only thermal comfort, but also the perception of air quality, health, and performance. The experiments....../h) condition when it was 2 h. Thermal sensation responses observed with adjustable clothing insulation did not differ from those observed with fixed clothing insulation, which were reported in an earlier paper. However, with fired clothing insulation, longer exposures (>4 h) seemed to aggravate general sick...

  10. Advanced modelling of the transport phenomena across horizontal clothing microclimates with natural convection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayor, T S; Couto, S; Psikuta, A; Rossi, R M

    2015-12-01

    The ability of clothing to provide protection against external environments is critical for wearer's safety and thermal comfort. It is a function of several factors, such as external environmental conditions, clothing properties and activity level. These factors determine the characteristics of the different microclimates existing inside the clothing which, ultimately, have a key role in the transport processes occurring across clothing. As an effort to understand the effect of transport phenomena in clothing microclimates on the overall heat transport across clothing structures, a numerical approach was used to study the buoyancy-driven heat transfer across horizontal air layers trapped inside air impermeable clothing. The study included both the internal flow occurring inside the microclimate and the external flow occurring outside the clothing layer, in order to analyze the interdependency of these flows in the way heat is transported to/from the body. Two-dimensional simulations were conducted considering different values of microclimate thickness (8, 25 and 52 mm), external air temperature (10, 20 and 30 °C), external air velocity (0.5, 1 and 3 m s(-1)) and emissivity of the clothing inner surface (0.05 and 0.95), which implied Rayleigh numbers in the microclimate spanning 4 orders of magnitude (9 × 10(2)-3 × 10(5)). The convective heat transfer coefficients obtained along the clothing were found to strongly depend on the transport phenomena in the microclimate, in particular when natural convection is the most important transport mechanism. In such scenario, convective coefficients were found to vary in wavy-like manner, depending on the position of the flow vortices in the microclimate. These observations clearly differ from data in the literature for the case of air flow over flat-heated surfaces with constant temperature (which shows monotonic variations of the convective heat transfer coefficients, along the length of the surface). The flow

  11. Technical and Sociological Approaches for Curriculum Innovation on Clothing Education Department

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tristantie, N.

    2018-02-01

    Education in the context of social and technical development is defined as the main factor in the learning process which is implied into curriculum. It needs to be anticipated responsively how the goals of Clothing Education Department should be achieved. The sociological and technological through curriculum innovation at Clothing Education Department aims to gain good profile of the professional graduates in the future. By using the literature study, it is found out that sociological development and technological approach are the main foundation for sustainability of Clothing Education Department.

  12. Advanced modelling of the transport phenomena across horizontal clothing microclimates with natural convection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayor, T. S.; Couto, S.; Psikuta, A.; Rossi, R. M.

    2015-12-01

    The ability of clothing to provide protection against external environments is critical for wearer's safety and thermal comfort. It is a function of several factors, such as external environmental conditions, clothing properties and activity level. These factors determine the characteristics of the different microclimates existing inside the clothing which, ultimately, have a key role in the transport processes occurring across clothing. As an effort to understand the effect of transport phenomena in clothing microclimates on the overall heat transport across clothing structures, a numerical approach was used to study the buoyancy-driven heat transfer across horizontal air layers trapped inside air impermeable clothing. The study included both the internal flow occurring inside the microclimate and the external flow occurring outside the clothing layer, in order to analyze the interdependency of these flows in the way heat is transported to/from the body. Two-dimensional simulations were conducted considering different values of microclimate thickness (8, 25 and 52 mm), external air temperature (10, 20 and 30 °C), external air velocity (0.5, 1 and 3 m s-1) and emissivity of the clothing inner surface (0.05 and 0.95), which implied Rayleigh numbers in the microclimate spanning 4 orders of magnitude (9 × 102-3 × 105). The convective heat transfer coefficients obtained along the clothing were found to strongly depend on the transport phenomena in the microclimate, in particular when natural convection is the most important transport mechanism. In such scenario, convective coefficients were found to vary in wavy-like manner, depending on the position of the flow vortices in the microclimate. These observations clearly differ from data in the literature for the case of air flow over flat-heated surfaces with constant temperature (which shows monotonic variations of the convective heat transfer coefficients, along the length of the surface). The flow patterns and

  13. A primer on clothing systems for cold-weather field work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denner, J.C.

    1993-01-01

    Hypothermia in cold environments can be prevented by physiological adaptation and by the proper use of cold weather clothing. The human body adjusts to cold temperature by increasing the rates of basal metabolism, specific dynamic action, and physical exercise. Heat loss is reduced by vasoconstriction. Clothing systems for cold weather reduce loss by providing insulation and protection from the elements. Satisfactory cold- weather clothing is constructed of wool fabrics or the synthetic fibers polypropylene and polyester. Outerwear suitable for cold climates is insulated with down, high-loft polyester fiberfills, or the new synthetic thin insulators. (USGS)

  14. Estimation of energy efficiency of residential buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glushkov Sergey

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Increasing energy performance of the residential buildings by means of reducing heat consumption on the heating and ventilation is the last segment in the system of energy resources saving. The first segments in the energy saving process are heat producing and transportation over the main lines and outside distribution networks. In the period from 2006 to 2013. by means of the heat-supply schemes optimization and modernization of the heating systems. using expensive (200–300 $US per 1 m though hugely effective preliminary coated pipes. the economy reached 2.7 mln tons of fuel equivalent. Considering the multi-stage and multifactorial nature (electricity. heat and water supply of the residential sector energy saving. the reasonable estimate of the efficiency of the saving of residential buildings energy should be performed in tons of fuel equivalent per unit of time.

  15. Gentrification and Residential Mobility in Philadelphia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Lei; Hwang, Jackelyn; Divringi, Eileen

    2016-11-01

    Gentrification has provoked considerable controversy surrounding its effects on residential displacement. Using a unique individual-level, longitudinal data set, this study examines mobility rates and residential destinations of residents in gentrifying neighborhoods during the recent housing boom and bust in Philadelphia for various strata of residents and different types of gentrification. We find that vulnerable residents, those with low credit scores and without mortgages, are generally no more likely to move from gentrifying neighborhoods compared with their counterparts in nongentrifying neighborhoods. When they do move, however, they are more likely to move to lower-income neighborhoods. Residents in gentrifying neighborhoods at the aggregate level have slightly higher mobility rates, but these rates are largely driven by more advantaged residents. These findings shed new light on the heterogeneity in mobility patterns across residents in gentrifying neighborhoods and suggest that researchers should focus more attention on the quality of residential moves and nonmoves for less advantaged residents, rather than mobility rates alone.

  16. Therapeutic Residential Care for Children and Youth:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Whittaker, James K.; Holmes, Lisa; del Valle, Jorge F.

    2016-01-01

    for Child and Family Research, Loughborough University in the U.K. for a Summit meeting on therapeutic residential care for children and youth funded by the Sir Halley Stewart Trust (UK). The focus centered on what is known about therapeutic residential care and what key questions should inform a priority......In many developed countries around the world, ‘group care’ interventions for children and adolescents have come under increasing scrutiny from central government, private philanthropic and child advocacy agencies desirous of (1) achieving better outcomes for vulnerable children and youth; (2) doing...... alternatives to serve high-resource needing youth has had unintended and negative consequences. It is within this context that a working group international experts representing research, policy, service delivery and families (International Work Group for Therapeutic Residential Care) convened at the Centre...

  17. Solar Photovoltaic Financing: Residential Sector Deployment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coughlin, J.; Cory, K.

    2009-03-01

    This report presents the information that homeowners and policy makers need to facilitate PV financing at the residential level. The full range of cash payments, bill savings, and tax incentives is covered, as well as potentially available solar attribute payments. Traditional financing is also compared to innovative solutions, many of which are borrowed from the commercial sector. Together, these mechanisms are critical for making the economic case for a residential PV installation, given its high upfront costs. Unfortunately, these programs are presently limited to select locations around the country. By calling attention to these innovative initiatives, this report aims to help policy makers consider greater adoption of these models to benefit homeowners interested installing a residential PV system.

  18. Energy savings in Danish residential building stock

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tommerup, Henrik M.; Svendsen, Svend

    2006-01-01

    a short account of the technical energy-saving possibilities that are present in existing dwellings and presents a financial methodology used for assessing energy-saving measures. In order to estimate the total savings potential detailed calculations have been performed in a case with two typical...... buildings representing the residential building stock and based on these calculations an assessment of the energy-saving potential is performed. A profitable savings potential of energy used for space heating of about 80% is identified over 45 years (until 2050) within the residential building stock......A large potential for energy savings exists in the Danish residential building stock due to the fact that 75% of the buildings were constructed before 1979 when the first important demands for energy performance of building were introduced. It is also a fact that many buildings in Denmark face...

  19. Dynamic integration of residential building design and green energies : the Bireth approach : building integrated renewable energy total harvest approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheung, K.P. [Hong Kong Univ., Hong Kong (China). Dept. of Architecture; Luk, C.L.P. [Chu Hai College of Higher Education, Hong Kong (China). Dept. of Architecture; Wong, S.T. [Hong Kong Univ., Hong Kong (China). Div. of Arts and Humanities, SPACE; Chung, S.L.; Fung, K.S.; Leung, M.F. [Hong Kong Inst. of Vocational Education, Hong Kong (China)

    2006-07-01

    Renewable energy sources that are commonly used in buildings include solar energy, wind energy and rainwater collection. High quality environmentally responsive residential buildings are designed to provide good insulation in winter and solar shading in summer. However, this study demonstrated that the green energy design in residential buildings is not usually well integrated. For example, windows with clear double or triple glazed glass, allow good penetration of sunlight during the day in winter, but are not further dynamically insulated for when the sun goes down to avoid heat loss from the building. Additionally, good solar static shading devices often block much needed daylight on cloudy winter days. These examples emphasize the lack of an integrated approach to gain the best advantage of green energies and to minimize energy costs in residential buildings. This study addressed issues facing the integrated approach with particular reference to the design of a small residential building in rural Beijing. The design included a new approach for interpreting a traditional Beijing court yard house in the modern Beijing rural context, while integrating multi-responding innovative green energy applications derived from first principles. This paper also presented a proposal for a village house in Hong Kong to harvest as much renewable energies as possible, primarily wind energy and solar energy, that come into contact with the building. The purpose was to work towards a renewable energy approach for buildings, namely the Bireth approach, which will benefit practically all houses by making them zero energy houses. The paper described the feasibility of integrating renewable energies in buildings to fulfill performance requirements such improving ventilation, providing warm interiors, drying clothes, or storing solar and wind energies into power batteries. The challenges facing the development of a proposed micro solar hot air turbine were also presented. 15 refs., 6

  20. Modelling and forecasting Turkish residential electricity demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dilaver, Zafer; Hunt, Lester C

    2011-01-01

    This research investigates the relationship between Turkish residential electricity consumption, household total final consumption expenditure and residential electricity prices by applying the structural time series model to annual data over the period from 1960 to 2008. Household total final consumption expenditure, real energy prices and an underlying energy demand trend are found to be important drivers of Turkish residential electricity demand with the estimated short run and the long run total final consumption expenditure elasticities being 0.38 and 1.57, respectively, and the estimated short run and long run price elasticities being -0.09 and -0.38, respectively. Moreover, the estimated underlying energy demand trend, (which, as far as is known, has not been investigated before for the Turkish residential sector) should be of some benefit to Turkish decision makers in terms of energy planning. It provides information about the impact of past policies, the influence of technical progress, the impacts of changes in consumer behaviour and the effects of changes in economic structure. Furthermore, based on the estimated equation, and different forecast assumptions, it is predicted that Turkish residential electricity demand will be somewhere between 48 and 80 TWh by 2020 compared to 40 TWh in 2008. - Research highlights: → Estimated short run and long run expenditure elasticities of 0.38 and 1.57, respectively. → Estimated short run and long run price elasticities of -0.09 and -0.38, respectively. → Estimated UEDT has increasing (i.e. energy using) and decreasing (i.e. energy saving) periods. → Predicted Turkish residential electricity demand between 48 and 80 TWh in 2020.