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Sample records for residential bill analysis

  1. Analysis of the electrical bills of residential consumers: tax and economic aspects; Analise da fatura de energia eletrica de consumidores residenciais: aspectos economicos e tributarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reis, Lindemberg Nunes; Pinto, Danilo Pereira [Universidade Federal de Juiz de Fora, MG (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia], e-mail: lnunesreis@yahoo.com.br, e-mail: danilo.pinto@ufjf.edu.br

    2008-07-01

    Residential consumers represent a significant part of the market of electric energy and are increasing by deriving tributes of the tariff of energy. These consumers are uninformed about the abuses that happen to them. This work has as objective to analyze and to argue the behavior of the tariffs of energy in the period of 2002 the 2006, demonstrating the occurred increases and pointing a relation enters the rise of the price of this energy and the increase of the number of clandestine linkings and difficulty to hold the basics statements of actually electrical regiments. ANEEL's data show that in 1995 the tariff for class residential was R$ 76.26 and industrial was R$ 43.59; in 2003 passed respectively to R$ 236.34 and R$ 110.48. This analysis is directly related to the difficulty of obtaining a national energy management totally sustainable. (author)

  2. Impact of Rate Design Alternatives on Residential Solar Customer Bills. Increased Fixed Charges, Minimum Bills and Demand-based Rates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bird, Lori [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Davidson, Carolyn [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); McLaren, Joyce [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Miller, John [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-09-01

    With rapid growth in energy efficiency and distributed generation, electric utilities are anticipating stagnant or decreasing electricity sales, particularly in the residential sector. Utilities are increasingly considering alternative rates structures that are designed to recover fixed costs from residential solar photovoltaic (PV) customers with low net electricity consumption. Proposed structures have included fixed charge increases, minimum bills, and increasingly, demand rates - for net metered customers and all customers. This study examines the electricity bill implications of various residential rate alternatives for multiple locations within the United States. For the locations analyzed, the results suggest that residential PV customers offset, on average, between 60% and 99% of their annual load. However, roughly 65% of a typical customer's electricity demand is non-coincidental with PV generation, so the typical PV customer is generally highly reliant on the grid for pooling services.

  3. Electronic billing (business-economic analysis)

    OpenAIRE

    Toman, Ivo

    2008-01-01

    The work describes the legal and technical background of the electronic billing. The core of the work is in the cost-benefit analysis, with focus on the comparison of the fully electronic billing with manual billing and the modern billing composed of several incremental technologies.

  4. Uncertainties in the Value of Bill Savings from Behind-the-Meter, Residential Photovoltaic Systems: The Roles of Electricity Market Conditions, Retail Rate Design, and Net Metering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darghouth, Naim Richard

    Net metering has become a widespread policy mechanism in the U.S. for supporting customer adoption of distributed photovoltaics (PV), allowing customers with PV systems to reduce their electric bills by offsetting their consumption with PV generation, independent of the timing of the generation relative to consumption. Although net metering is one of the principal drivers for the residential PV market in the U.S., the academic literature on this policy has been sparse and this dissertation contributes to this emerging body of literature. This dissertation explores the linkages between the availability of net metering, wholesale electricity market conditions, retail rates, and the residential bill savings from behind-the-meter PV systems. First, I examine the value of the bill savings that customers receive under net metering and alternatives to net metering, and the associated role of retail rate design, based on current rates and a sample of approximately two hundred residential customers of California's two largest electric utilities. I find that the bill savings per kWh of PV electricity generated varies greatly, largely attributable to the increasing block structure of the California utilities' residential retail rates. I also find that net metering provides significantly greater bill savings than alternative compensation mechanisms based on avoided costs. However, retail electricity rates may shift as wholesale electricity market conditions change. I then investigate a potential change in market conditions -- increased solar PV penetrations -- on wholesale prices in the short-term based on the merit-order effect. This demonstrates the potential price effects of changes in market conditions, but also points to a number of methodological shortcomings of this method, motivating my usage of a long-term capacity investment and economic dispatch model to examine wholesale price effects of various wholesale market scenarios in the subsequent analysis. By developing

  5. The impact of rate design and net metering on the bill savings from distributed PV for residential customers in California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darghouth, Naim R.; Barbose, Galen; Wiser, Ryan

    2011-01-01

    Net metering has become a widespread mechanism in the U.S. for supporting customer adoption of distributed photovoltaics (PV), but has faced challenges as PV installations grow to a larger share of generation in a number of states. This paper examines the value of the bill savings that customers receive under net metering, and the associated role of retail rate design, based on a sample of approximately two hundred residential customers of California's two largest electric utilities. We find that the bill savings per kWh of PV electricity generated varies by more than a factor of four across the customers in the sample, which is largely attributable to the inclining block structure of the utilities' residential retail rates. We also compare the bill savings under net metering to that received under three potential alternative compensation mechanisms, based on California's Market Price Referent (MPR). We find that net metering provides significantly greater bill savings than a full MPR-based feed-in tariff, but only modestly greater savings than alternative mechanisms under which hourly or monthly net excess generation is compensated at the MPR rate. - Highlights: → We examine the value of bill savings under net metering to PV owners in California. → Bill savings per kWh of PV generation varies by a factor of four with net metering. The variation is attributable to rate design, the unique inclining block structure. → The median value of bill savings is reduced by 40-67% with MPR feed-in tariff. → The median value of bill savings is reduced by 6-12% with hourly netting.

  6. Customer-economics of residential photovoltaic systems (Part 1): The impact of high renewable energy penetrations on electricity bill savings with net metering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darghouth, Naïm R.; Barbose, Galen; Wiser, Ryan H.

    2014-01-01

    Residential photovoltaic (PV) systems in the US are often compensated at the customer's underlying retail electricity rate through net metering. Given the uncertainty in future retail rates and the inherent links between rates and the customer–economics of behind-the-meter PV, there is growing interest in understanding how potential changes in rates may impact the value of bill savings from PV. In this article, we first use a production cost and capacity expansion model to project California hourly wholesale electricity market prices under two potential electricity market scenarios, including a reference and a 33% renewables scenario. Second, based on the wholesale electricity market prices generated by the model, we develop retail rates (i.e., flat, time-of-use, and real-time pricing) for each future scenario based on standard retail rate design principles. Finally, based on these retail rates, the bill savings from PV is estimated for 226 California residential customers under two types of net metering, for each scenario. We find that high renewable penetrations can drive substantial changes in residential retail rates and that these changes, together with variations in retail rate structures and PV compensation mechanisms, interact to place substantial uncertainty on the future value of bill savings from residential PV. - Highlights: • We investigate the impact of high renewables on customer economics of solar. • We model three types of residential retail electricity rates. • Based on the rates, we calculate the bill savings from photovoltaic (PV) generation. • High renewables penetration can lead to lower bill savings with time-varying rates. • There is substantial uncertainty in the future bill savings from residential PV

  7. Uncertainties in the Value of Bill Savings from Behind-the-Meter, Residential Photovoltaic Systems: The Roles of Electricity Market Conditions, Retail Rate Design, and Net Metering

    OpenAIRE

    Darghouth, Naim Richard

    2013-01-01

    Net metering has become a widespread policy mechanism in the U.S. for supporting customer adoption of distributed photovoltaics (PV), allowing customers with PV systems to reduce their electric bills by offsetting their consumption with PV generation, independent of the timing of the generation relative to consumption. Although net metering is one of the principal drivers for the residential PV market in the U.S., the academic literature on this policy has been sparse and this dissertation co...

  8. One rate does not fit all: An empirical analysis of electricity tariffs for residential microgrids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G. Fridgen (Gilbert); M.T. Kahlen (Micha); W. Ketter (Wolfgang); Rieger, A. (Alexander); Thimmel, M. (Markus)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractIncreasingly, residential customers are deploying PV units to lower electricity bills and contribute to a more sustainable use of resources. This selective decentralization of power generation, however, creates significant challenges, because current transmission and distribution grids

  9. Vibration Analysis of a Residential Building

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sampaio Regina Augusta

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to present the results of a study regarding vibration problems in a 17 storey residential building during pile driving in its vicinity. The structural design of the building was checked according to the Brazilian standards NBR6118 and NBR6123, and using commercial finite element software. An experimental analysis was also carried out using low frequency piezo-accelerometers attached to the building structure. Structure vibrations were recorded under ambient conditions. Four monitoring tests were performed on different days. The objective of the first monitoring test was an experimental modal analysis. To obtain de modal parameters, data was processed in the commercial software ARTEMIS employing two methods: the Stochastic Subspace Identification and the Frequency Domain Decomposition. Human comfort was investigated considering the International Standard ISO 2631. The Portuguese standard, NP2074, was also used as a reference, since it aims to limit the adverse effects of vibrations in structures caused by pile driving in the vicinity of the structure. The carried out experimental tests have shown that, according to ISO2301, the measure vibration levels are above the acceptance limits. However, velocity peaks are below the limits established by NP2074. It was concluded that, although the structure has adequate capacity to resist internal forces according to normative criteria, it has low horizontal stiffness, which could be verified by observing the vibration frequencies and mode shapes obtained with the finite element models, and its similarity with the experimental results. Thus, the analyses indicate the occurrence of discomfort by the residents.

  10. Portable XRF and principal component analysis for bill characterization in forensic science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Appoloni, C.R.; Melquiades, F.L.

    2014-01-01

    Several modern techniques have been applied to prevent counterfeiting of money bills. The objective of this study was to demonstrate the potential of Portable X-ray Fluorescence (PXRF) technique and the multivariate analysis method of Principal Component Analysis (PCA) for classification of bills in order to use it in forensic science. Bills of Dollar, Euro and Real (Brazilian currency) were measured directly at different colored regions, without any previous preparation. Spectra interpretation allowed the identification of Ca, Ti, Fe, Cu, Sr, Y, Zr and Pb. PCA analysis separated the bills in three groups and subgroups among Brazilian currency. In conclusion, the samples were classified according to its origin identifying the elements responsible for differentiation and basic pigment composition. PXRF allied to multivariate discriminate methods is a promising technique for rapid and no destructive identification of false bills in forensic science. - Highlights: • The paper is about a direct method for bills discrimination by EDXRF and principal component analysis. • The bills are analyzed directly, without sample preparation and non destructively. • The results demonstrates that the methodology is feasible and could be applied in forensic science for identification of origin and false banknotes. • The novelty is that portable EDXRF is very fast and efficient for bills characterization

  11. Portable XRF and principal component analysis for bill characterization in forensic science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appoloni, C R; Melquiades, F L

    2014-02-01

    Several modern techniques have been applied to prevent counterfeiting of money bills. The objective of this study was to demonstrate the potential of Portable X-ray Fluorescence (PXRF) technique and the multivariate analysis method of Principal Component Analysis (PCA) for classification of bills in order to use it in forensic science. Bills of Dollar, Euro and Real (Brazilian currency) were measured directly at different colored regions, without any previous preparation. Spectra interpretation allowed the identification of Ca, Ti, Fe, Cu, Sr, Y, Zr and Pb. PCA analysis separated the bills in three groups and subgroups among Brazilian currency. In conclusion, the samples were classified according to its origin identifying the elements responsible for differentiation and basic pigment composition. PXRF allied to multivariate discriminate methods is a promising technique for rapid and no destructive identification of false bills in forensic science. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Driving Demand for Home Energy Improvements: Motivating residential customers to invest in comprehensive upgrades that eliminate energy waste, avoid high utility bills, and spur the economy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuller, Merrian C.

    2010-09-20

    Policy makers and program designers in the U.S. and abroad are deeply concerned with the question of how to scale up energy efficiency to a level that is commensurate both to the scale of the energy and climate challenges we face, and to the potential for energy savings that has been touted for decades. When policy makers ask what energy efficiency can do, the answers usually revolve around the technical and economic potential of energy efficiency - they rarely hone in on the element of energy demand that matters most for changing energy usage in existing homes: the consumer. A growing literature is concerned with the behavioral underpinnings of energy consumption. We examine a narrower, related subject: How can millions of Americans be persuaded to divert valued time and resources into upgrading their homes to eliminate energy waste, avoid high utility bills, and spur the economy? With hundreds of millions of public dollars flowing into incentives, workforce training, and other initiatives to support comprehensive home energy improvements, it makes sense to review the history of these programs and begin gleaning best practices for encouraging comprehensive home energy improvements. Looking across 30 years of energy efficiency programs that targeted the residential market, many of the same issues that confronted past program administrators are relevant today: How do we cost-effectively motivate customers to take action? Who can we partner with to increase program participation? How do we get residential efficiency programs to scale? While there is no proven formula - and only limited success to date with reliably motivating large numbers of Americans to invest in comprehensive home energy improvements, especially if they are being asked to pay for a majority of the improvement costs - there is a rich and varied history of experiences that new programs can draw upon. Our primary audiences are policy makers and program designers - especially those that are relatively

  13. FACTOR ANALYSIS OF MULTISTOREY RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS ZONE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Петр Матвеевич Мазуркин

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available According to the UN classification of 11 classes of soil cover, the first three are grass, trees and shrubs and forests. In the city they correspond to the three elements of vegetation: lawns, tree plantings (trees and shrubs. We have adopted zoning for city-building to identify statistical regularities. Map dimensions in GIS "Map 2011" Yoshkar-Ola was allocated to "residential zone" and "Area of construction of multi-storey residential buildings (cadastral 58 quart crystals". The parameters of the elements of the vegetation cover have been considered: the number of elements of different levels, area and perimeter, the absolute and relative form, and activity of vegetation. As the result, we have obtained equations of binomial rank distributions, conducted the ratings and selected the best of cadastral quarter on environmental conditions.

  14. Residential energy consumption: A convergence analysis across Chinese regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrerias, M.J.; Aller, Carlos; Ordóñez, Javier

    2017-01-01

    The process of urbanization and the raise of living standards in China have led an increasing trend in the patterns of residential consumption. Projections for the population growth rate in urban areas do not paint a very optimistic picture for energy conservation policies. In addition, the concentration of economic activities around coastal areas calls for new prospects to be formulated for energy policy. In this context, the objective of this paper is twofold. First, we analyse the effect of the urbanization process of the Chinese economy in terms of the long-run patterns of residential energy consumption at national level. By using the concept of club convergence, we examine whether electricity and coal consumption in rural and urban areas converge to the same long-run equilibrium or whether in fact they diverge. Second, the impact of the regional concentration of the economic activity on energy consumption patterns is also assessed by source of energy across Chinese regions from 1995 to 2011. Our results suggest that the process of urbanization has led to coal being replaced by electricity in urban residential energy consumption. In rural areas, the evidence is mixed. The club convergence analysis confirms that rural and urban residential energy consumption converge to different steady-states. At the regional level, we also confirm the effect of the regional concentration of economic activity on residential energy consumption. The existence of these regional clusters converging to different equilibrium levels is indicative of the need of regional-tailored set of energy policies in China.

  15. Impact of Alternative Rate Structures on Distributed Solar Customer Electricity Bills

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLaren, Joyce A [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2018-03-02

    Electric utilities are increasingly proposing changes to residential rate structures, in order to address concerns about their inability to recover fixed system costs from customers with grid connected distributed generation. The most common proposals have been to increase fixed charges, set minimum bills or instigate residential demand charges. This presentation provides results of an analysis to explore how these rate design alternatives impact electricity bills for PV and non-PV customers.

  16. Utilization of genetic tests: analysis of gene-specific billing in Medicare claims data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Julie A; Berse, Brygida; Dotson, W David; Khoury, Muin J; Coomer, Nicole; Kautter, John

    2017-08-01

    We examined the utilization of precision medicine tests among Medicare beneficiaries through analysis of gene-specific tier 1 and 2 billing codes developed by the American Medical Association in 2012. We conducted a retrospective cross-sectional study. The primary source of data was 2013 Medicare 100% fee-for-service claims. We identified claims billed for each laboratory test, the number of patients tested, expenditures, and the diagnostic codes indicated for testing. We analyzed variations in testing by patient demographics and region of the country. Pharmacogenetic tests were billed most frequently, accounting for 48% of the expenditures for new codes. The most common indications for testing were breast cancer, long-term use of medications, and disorders of lipid metabolism. There was underutilization of guideline-recommended tumor mutation tests (e.g., epidermal growth factor receptor) and substantial overutilization of a test discouraged by guidelines (methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase). Methodology-based tier 2 codes represented 15% of all claims billed with the new codes. The highest rate of testing per beneficiary was in Mississippi and the lowest rate was in Alaska. Gene-specific billing codes significantly improved our ability to conduct population-level research of precision medicine. Analysis of these data in conjunction with clinical records should be conducted to validate findings.Genet Med advance online publication 26 January 2017.

  17. Ontario electricity bill review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Neill, G.

    2003-01-01

    Findings of an independent review of charges to electricity bills and recommendations to assist in the development of a standard, province-wide residential electricity bill for Ontario are discussed. The review was requested by the province's Minister of Energy in an effort to dispel growing confusion about the variations in customer billing practices used by the province's 90+ local distribution companies. Key recommendations and findings were as follows: (1)Consumer bill formats issued by local distribution companies should be more consumer-friendly, adhere to minimum design standards, adapt uniform terminology and common line charges; (2) charges on customer bills should be grouped into four standard line items, with full details available to customers: the four line items should be a basic service charge, a charge for delivering electricity to the customer, a charge for the electricity itself, and a separate charge for retiring the outstanding debt of the former Ontario Hydro; (3) bills should take advantage of opportunities for promoting province-wide energy conservation, such as encouraging the long-term use of interval meters, presenting historical consumption data on residential bills on a period-to-period basis, and education and communications initiatives. Details of the recommendations, including the calculation of the fixed and variable components of usage charges, an explanation of the concept of electricity system loss adjustments, a method for phasing in the recommendations, and the anticipated benefits to consumers are provided

  18. An analysis of residential energy consumption in a temperate climate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, Y.Y.; Vincent, W.

    1987-06-01

    Electrical energy consumption data have been recorded for several hundred submetered residential structures in Middle Tennessee. All houses were constructed with a common energy package.'' Specifically, daily cooling usage data have been collected for 130 houses for the 1985 and 1986 cooling seasons, and monthly heating usage data for 186 houses have been recorded by occupant participation over a seven-year period. Cooling data have been analyzed using an SPSSx multiple regression analysis and results are compared to several cooling models. Heating, base, and total energy usage are also analyzed and regression correlation coefficients are determined as a function of several house parameters.

  19. Indoor temperature changes after retrofit: inferences based on electricity billing data for nonparticipants and participants in the BPA Residential Weatherization Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirst, E.; White, D.

    1985-07-01

    This report discusses changes in indoor temperatures in response to retrofit improvements. The data on which this analysis is based are from an evaluation of the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) interim Residential Weatherization Program. The BPA program, operated through participating private and public utilities throughout the Pacific Northwest, offered financial assistance (generally a cash rebate) to encourage installation of energy-efficiency improvements to existing homes in the region. These retrofits included attic, wall, floor and heating duct insulation; storm windows and doors; clock thermostats; and caulking and weatherstripping. This program, which operated during 1982 and 1983, weatherized 104 thousand homes at a total cost to BPA of $157 million. In mid-1983, staff at Oak Ridge National Laboratory and Evaluation Research Corporation began an evaluation of the BPA program. The primary focus of this evaluation was assessment of the actual electricity saving that can be attributed to the program (Hirst, et al., 1985). These savings estimates were used to help assess the economic attractiveness of the program to participants, the BPA power system, and the Pacific Northwest region as a whole.

  20. Factors Affecting Green Residential Building Development: Social Network Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaodong Yang

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Green residential buildings (GRBs are one of the effective practices of energy saving and emission reduction in the construction industry. However, many real estate developers in China are less willing to develop GRBs, because of the factors affecting green residential building development (GRBD. In order to promote the sustainable development of GRBs in China, this paper, based on the perspective of real estate developers, identifies the influential and critical factors affecting GRBD, using the method of social network analysis (SNA. Firstly, 14 factors affecting GRBD are determined from 64 preliminary factors of three main elements, and the framework is established. Secondly, the relationships between the 14 factors are analyzed by SNA. Finally, four critical factors for GRBD, which are on the local economy development level, development strategy and innovation orientation, developer’s acknowledgement and positioning for GRBD, and experience and ability for GRBD, are identified by the social network centrality test. The findings illustrate the key issues that affect the development of GRBs, and provide references for policy making by the government and strategy formulation by real estate developers.

  1. Analysis of operating model of electronic invoice colombian Colombian electronic billing analysis of the operational model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio Roberto da Silva

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Colombia has been one of the first countries to introduce electronic billing process on a voluntary basis, from a traditional to a digital version. In this context, the article analyzes the electronic billing process implemented in Colombia and the advantages. Methodological research is applied, qualitative, descriptive and documentary; where the regulatory framework and the conceptualization of the model is identified; the process of adoption of electronic billing is analyzed, and finally the advantages and disadvantages of its implementation is analyzed. The findings indicate that the model applied in Colombia to issue an electronic billing in sending and receiving process, is not complex, but it requires a small adequate infrastructure and trained personnel to reach all sectors, especially the micro and business which is the largest business network in the country.

  2. Making residential cannabis growing operations actionable: a critical policy analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Connie

    2009-07-01

    In 2006, the British Columbia (BC) government passed amendments to its Safety Standards Act. These amendments permit the routine disclosure of electrical usage information from electrical producers to BC's municipalities, ostensibly to identify and eradicate residential cannabis growing operations (grow ops). These amendments originated in a pilot project in Surrey, BC, known as the electrical and fire safety inspection initiative (EFSI), which drew together police, firefighters and others, to identify grow ops through the process of municipal electrical inspections. This paper draws on narrative analysis to critically explore how the report of the EFSI Surrey pilot project uses a series of linked claims to generate interpretative change in the definition of the problem of grow ops. This analysis also shows how claims about grow ops are constructed and gain their potency through links with other social problems, persons, and practices. Though the report of the EFSI project is a prohibitionist text replete with stock characters and themes from the history of Canadian drug policy, the problem of residential cannabis cultivation is made actionable by establishing grow operators as "superdeviants" constructed both as dangerous outsiders and as risks to a host of public safety concerns. These claims are then linked to the notion of an overwhelmed criminal justice system that establishes a "crisis" that justifies extraordinary methods of social control outside the due process of the criminal justice system. Construction of all cannabis cultivators as "dangerous" disavows other possibilities and shores up neo-liberal practices of government that draw on multi-partner initiatives to implement extraordinary methods of social control not necessarily subject to public accountability.

  3. Analysis of Radiation Accident of Non-destructive Inspection and Rational Preparing Bills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bae, Junwoo; Yoo, Donghan; Kim, Hee Reyoung

    2013-01-01

    After 2006, according to enactment of Non-destructive Inspection Promotion Act, the number of non-destructive inspection companies and corresponding accident is increased sharply. In this research, it includes characteristic analysis of field of the non-destructive inspection. And from the result of analysis, the purpose of this research is discovering reason for 'Why there is higher accident ratio in non-destructive inspection field, relatively' and preparing effective bill for reducing radiation accidents. The number of worker for non-destructive inspect is increased steadily and non-destructive inspect worker take highest dose. Corresponding to these, it must be needed to prepare bills to protect non-destructive inspect workers. By analysis of accident case, there are many case of carelessness that tools are too heavy to carry it everywhere workers go. And there are some cases caused by deficiency of education that less understanding of radiation and poor operation by less understanding of structure of tools. Also, there is no data specialized to non-destructive inspect field. So, it has to take information from statistical data. Because of this, it is hard to analyze nondestructive inspect field accurately. So, it is required to; preparing rational bills to protect non-destructive inspect workers nondestructive inspect instrument lightening and easy manual which can understandable for low education background people accurate survey data from real worker. To accomplish these, we needs to do; analyze and comprehend the present law about non-destructive inspect worker understand non-destructive inspect instruments accurately and conduct research for developing material developing rational survey to measuring real condition for non-destructive inspect workers

  4. Accelerating residential PV expansion: demand analysis for competitive electricity markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duke, Richard; Williams, Robert; Payne, Adam

    2005-01-01

    This article quantifies the potential market for grid-connected, residential photovoltaic (PV) electricity integrated into new homes built in the US. It complements an earlier supply-side analysis by the authors that demonstrates the potential to reduce PV module prices below $1.5/W p by scaling up existing thin-film technology in 100 MW p /yr manufacturing facilities. The present article demonstrates that, at that price, PV modules may be cost effective in 125,000 new home installations per year (0.5 GW p /yr). While this market is large enough to support multiple scaled up thin-film PV factories, inefficient energy pricing and demand-side market failures will inhibit prospective PV consumers without strong public policy support. Net metering rules, already implemented in many states to encourage PV market launch, represent a crude but reasonable surrogate for efficient electricity pricing mechanisms that may ultimately emerge to internalize the externality benefits of PV. These public benefits include reduced air pollution damages (estimated costs of damage to human health from fossil fuel power plants are presented in Appendix A), deferral of transmission and distribution capital expenditures, reduced exposure to fossil fuel price risks, and increased electricity system reliability for end users. Thus, net metering for PV ought to be implemented as broadly as possible and sustained until efficient pricing is in place. Complementary PV 'buydowns' (e.g., a renewable portfolio standard with a specific PV requirement) are needed to jumpstart regional PV markets

  5. Segmentation of Residential Gas Consumers Using Clustering Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta P. Fernandes

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The growing environmental concerns and liberalization of energy markets have resulted in an increased competition between utilities and a strong focus on efficiency. To develop new energy efficiency measures and optimize operations, utilities seek new market-related insights and customer engagement strategies. This paper proposes a clustering-based methodology to define the segmentation of residential gas consumers. The segments of gas consumers are obtained through a detailed clustering analysis using smart metering data. Insights are derived from the segmentation, where the segments result from the clustering process and are characterized based on the consumption profiles, as well as according to information regarding consumers’ socio-economic and household key features. The study is based on a sample of approximately one thousand households over one year. The representative load profiles of consumers are essentially characterized by two evident consumption peaks, one in the morning and the other in the evening, and an off-peak consumption. Significant insights can be derived from this methodology regarding typical consumption curves of the different segments of consumers in the population. This knowledge can assist energy utilities and policy makers in the development of consumer engagement strategies, demand forecasting tools and in the design of more sophisticated tariff systems.

  6. Billing Trends

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Billing Trends. Internet access: Bandwidth becoming analogous to electric power. Only maximum capacity (load) is fixed; Charges based on usage (units). Leased line bandwidth: Billing analogous to phone calls. But bandwidth is variable.

  7. Intergenerational Neighborhood Attainment and the Legacy of Racial Residential Segregation: A Causal Mediation Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pais, Jeremy

    2017-08-01

    Advances in mediation analysis are used to examine the legacy effects of racial residential segregation in the United States on neighborhood attainments across two familial generations. The legacy effects of segregation are anticipated to operate through two primary pathways: a neighborhood effects pathway and an urban continuity pathway. The neighborhood effects pathway explains why parent's exposure to racial residential segregation during their family-rearing years can influence the residential outcomes of their children later in life. The urban continuity pathway captures the temporal consistency of the built and topographical environment in providing similar residential opportunities across generations. Findings from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics and U.S. Census data indicate that the legacy effect of racial residential segregation among black families operates primarily through the neighborhood effects that influence children growing up. For white families, there is less support for the legacy effects of segregation. The findings are supported by a comprehensive mediation analysis that provides a formal sensitivity analysis, deploys an instrumental variable, and assesses effect heterogeneity. Knowledge of the legacy of segregation moves neighborhood attainment research beyond point-in-time studies of racial residential segregation to provide a deeper understanding into the ways stratified residential environments are reproduced.

  8. Using Machine Learning and Data Analysis to Improve Customer Acquisition and Marketing in Residential Solar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sigrin, Benjamin O [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-10-18

    High customer acquisition costs remain a persistent challenge in the U.S. residential solar industry. Effective customer acquisition in the residential solar market is increasingly achieved with the help of data analysis and machine learning, whether that means more targeted advertising, understanding customer motivations, or responding to competitors. New research by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Sandia National Laboratories, Vanderbilt University, University of Pennsylvania, and the California Center for Sustainable Energy and funded through the U.S. Department of Energy's Solar Energy Evolution and Diffusion (SEEDS) program demonstrates novel computational methods that can help drive down costs in the residential solar industry.

  9. Hygrothermal Analysis of Indoor Environment of Residential Prefabricated Buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraus, Michal

    2017-10-01

    Recent studies show that the relative humidity and the indoor air temperature constitute an important determinant of the quality of indoor air. Hygrothermal microclimate has a significant impact on occupant’s health and their comfort. The study presents the results of experimental measurement of indoor air temperature and relative humidity in selected apartment in prefabricated panel house situated in Ostrava, Czechia. The contribution describes and analysis the relation between indoor air temperature [°C] and relative humidity [%] in this apartment. The experimental object is selected with respect to the housing stock in the Czech Republic. A third of the housing stock in the Czech Republic is composed of prefabricated panel houses. Regeneration and revitalization of these buildings were in the focus of interest during recent years. Building modifications, such as thermal insulation of building envelope or window replacement, lead to a significantly higher level of airtightness of these objects. Humidity and indoor air temperature are measured in 10-minute cycles for two periods. The values of temperature and humidity are measured for the non-heating and the heating season. The length of each experimental period is 30 days. The mean value of indoor air temperature is 22.21 °C and average relative humidity is 45.87% in the non-heating period. The values of 22.62 °C and 35.20% represent average values for the heating period. A slight increase of the average temperature of the indoor environment (+1.85%) is observed. The decrease of the relative humidity is evident at first glance. The relative humidity of the internal environment is approximately 10% lower in the heating period. Long-term decline of relative humidity below 30% brings many problems. It is necessary to take measures to increase of relative humidity in residential prefabricated building. The aquarium appears to be ineffective. The solution may be forced artificial ventilation or humidifiers.

  10. The analysis of Taiwan's residential electricity demand under the electricity tariff policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Po-Jui

    In October 2013, the Taiwan Power Company (Taipower), the monopolized state utility service in Taiwan, implemented an electricity tariff adjustment policy to reduce residential electricity demand. Using bi-monthly billing data from 6,932 electricity consumers, this study examine how consumers respond to an increase in electricity prices. This study employs an empirical approach that takes advantage of quasi-random variation over a period of time when household bills were affected by a change in electricity price. The study found that this price increase caused a 1.78% decline in residential electricity consumption, implying a price elasticity of -0.19 for summer-season months and -0.15 for non-summer-season months. The demand for electricity is therefore relatively inelastic, likely because it is hard for people to change their electricity consumption behavior in the short-term. The results of this study highlight that demand-side management cannot be the only lever used to address Taiwan's forecasted decrease in electricity supply.

  11. Analysis of Installed Measures and Energy Savings for Single-Family Residential Better Buildings Projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heaney, M. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Polly, B. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-04-30

    This report presents an analysis of data for residential single-family projects reported by 37 organizations that were awarded federal financial assistance (cooperative agreements or grants) by the U.S. Department of Energy’s Better Buildings Neighborhood Program.1 The report characterizes the energy-efficiency measures installed for single-family residential projects and analyzes energy savings and savings prediction accuracy for measures installed in a subset of those projects.

  12. Gis Based Analysis For Suitability Location Finding In The Residential Development Areas Of Greater Matara Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.K.G.M Madurika

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Urban Planning and Land utilization for the Residential is one of crucial factors in high density Cities. Many theories in Planning explain the Residential areas are moving to periphery areas in cities by its commercial development. Martara is one of developing city in Southern Sri Lanka and Residential land value are comparative high in city sub urban areas. In this study it is examined that where is the best locations for residential development in Grater Matara Region by using five criteria. GIS based Multi Criteria Method MCE method have been applied to find the suitable locations. The results of analysis have been shown that there are 5378.99 hectares area suitable within study area and however extremely importance areas only 1.40 hectares accordingly given criteria but very strongly importance and importance category have 1560.51 and 2468.22 respectively.

  13. Analysis of institutional mechanisms affecting residential and commercial buildings retrofit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-09-01

    Barriers to energy conservation in the residential and commercial sectors influence (1) the willingness of building occupants to modify their energy usage habits, and (2) the willingness of building owners/occupants to upgrade the thermal characteristics of the structures within which they live or work and the appliances which they use. The barriers that influence the willingness of building owners/occupants to modify the thermal efficiency characteristics of building structures and heating/cooling systems are discussed. This focus is further narrowed to include only those barriers that impede modifications to existing buildings, i.e., energy conservation retrofit activity. Eight barriers selected for their suitability for Federal action in the residential and commercial sectors and examined are: fuel pricing policies that in the short term do not provide enough incentive to invest in energy conservation; high finance cost; inability to evaluate contractor performance; inability to evaluate retrofit products; lack of well-integrated or one-stop marketing systems (referred to as lack of delivery systems); lack of precise or customized information; lack of sociological/psychological incentives; and use of the first-cost decision criterion (expanded to include short-term payback criterion for the commercial sector). The impacts of these barriers on energy conservation are separately assessed for the residential and commercial sectors.

  14. Retrospective analysis of billing at a standalone medication therapy management clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hager, Keri D; Gosser, Rena A

    2016-01-15

    Results of a study comparing reimbursement for medication therapy management (MTM) services with a resource-based relative value scale (RBRVS) versus a time-based billing model are reported. Reimbursement claims for MTM services provided by a standalone clinic during a 6.5-year period were reviewed. Actual billing amounts calculated according to Minnesota's RBRVS for MTM services, which emphasizes case complexity as a determinant of payment rates, were compared with hypothetical billing amounts calculated using a strictly time-based method designed to more accurately capture the costs of providing MTM services. A paired t test was conducted to analyze differences in the billable amounts calculated via the two methods. Reimbursement claims for a total of 525 face-to-face MTM encounters with 60 patients were analyzed. Using the RBRVS method, the mean ± S.D. billing amount per encounter was $83.71 ± $36.67; using the strictly time-based method, the mean ± S.D. billing amount was $111.83 ± $34.55 per encounter (mean difference, $28.12; p billing methodology would have resulted in an additional $14,763 in MTM services reimbursement for the 525 evaluated encounters. The RBRVS-based method consistently resulted in a lower billing amount per encounter than the strictly time-based billing method, suggesting that reimbursement for MTM services may not be aligned with the actual costs of providing those services. Copyright © 2016 by the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Residential energy consumption in urban China: A decomposition analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Xiaoli; Li Na; Ma, Chunbo

    2012-01-01

    Residential energy consumption (REC) is the second largest energy use category (10%) in China and urban residents account for 63% of the REC. Understanding the underlying drivers of variations of urban REC thus helps to identify challenges and opportunities and provide advices for future policy measures. This paper applies the LMDI method to a decomposition of China's urban REC during the period of 1998–2007 at disaggregated product/activity level using data collected from a wide range of sources. Our results have shown an extensive structure change towards a more energy-intensive household consumption structure as well as an intensive structure change towards high-quality and cleaner energy such as electricity, oil, and natural gas, which reflects a changing lifestyle and consumption mode in pursuit of a higher level of comfort, convenience and environmental protection. We have also found that China's price reforms in the energy sector have contributed to a reduction of REC while scale factors including increased urban population and income levels have played a key role in the rapid growth of REC. We suggest that further deregulation in energy prices and regulatory as well as voluntary energy efficiency and conservation policies in the residential sector should be promoted. - Highlights: ► We examine china's residential energy consumption (REC) at detailed product level. ► Results show significant extensive and intensive structure changed. ► Price deregulation in the energy sector has contributed a reduction of REC. ► Growth of population and income played a key role in REC rapid growth. ► We provide policy suggestions to promote REC saving.

  16. Clustering-based analysis for residential district heating data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gianniou, Panagiota; Liu, Xiufeng; Heller, Alfred

    2018-01-01

    residential heating consumption data and evaluate information included in national building databases. The proposed method uses the K-means algorithm to segment consumption groups based on consumption intensity and representative patterns and ranks the groups according to daily consumption. This paper also......The wide use of smart meters enables collection of a large amount of fine-granular time series, which can be used to improve the understanding of consumption behavior and used for consumption optimization. This paper presents a clustering-based knowledge discovery in databases method to analyze...

  17. Accelerating residential PV expansion: supply analysis for competitive electricity markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Payne, Adam; Williams, Robert H.; Duke, Richard

    2001-01-01

    Photovoltaic (PV) technology is now sufficiently advanced that market support mechanisms such as net metering plus a renewable portfolio standard (RPS) could induce rapid PV market growth in grid-connected applications. With such support mechanisms, markets would be sufficiently large that manufacturers could profitably build and operate 100 MW p /yr PV module factories, and electricity costs for residential rooftop PV systems would compare favorably with residential electricity prices in certain areas (e.g., California and the greater New York region in the US). This prospect is illustrated by economic and market analyses for one promising technology (amorphous silicon thin-film PV) from the perspectives of both module manufacturers and buyers of new homes with rooftop PV systems. With public policies that reflect the distributed and environmental benefits offered by PV-and that can sustain domestic PV market demand growth at three times the historical growth rate for a period of the order of two decades - PV could provide 3% of total US electricity supply by 2025. (Author)

  18. Planning meeting combined analysis, North America residential radon studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-10-01

    This report describes the Third International Department of Energy/ Commission of European Communities Workshop on Residential Radon Epidemiology held in February 1995 in Baltimore, MD. This culminates a major effort begun 1988, co-sponsored by the DOE and the CEC Radiation Protection Programme to identify and bring together all those scientists worldwide performing epidemiological case control studies of residential radon and lung cancer. Two prior meetings were held in 1989 and 1991. The goal of this effort is to work with the investigators and to pool these studies to increase their limited statistical power and to maximize any information that could be gained from them. That goal has now been met. At this Workshop the task moved from planning and agreement to implementation, as many of the studies were finally being completed and published. This report provides a summary of the Workshop as well as that of the first implementation workgroup meeting hosted by Health Canada. Selected papers have been indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  19. Stochastic analysis of residential micro combined heat and power system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karami, H.; Sanjari, M.J.; Gooi, H.B.; Gharehpetian, G.B.; Guerrero, J.M.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Applying colonial competitive algorithm to the problem of optimal dispatching. • Economic modeling of the residential integrated energy system. • Investigating differences of stand-alone and system-connected modes of fuel cell operation. • Considering uncertainty on the electrical load. • The effects of battery capacity and its efficiency on the system is investigated. - Abstract: In this paper the combined heat and power functionality of a fuel-cell in a residential hybrid energy system, including a battery, is studied. The demand uncertainties are modeled by investigating the stochastic load behavior by applying Monte Carlo simulation. The colonial competitive algorithm is adopted to the hybrid energy system scheduling problem and different energy resources are optimally scheduled to have optimal operating cost of hybrid energy system. In order to show the effectiveness of the colonial competitive algorithm, the results are compared with the results of the harmony search algorithm. The optimized scheduling of different energy resources is listed in an efficient look-up table for all time intervals. The effects of time of use and the battery efficiency and its size are investigated on the operating cost of the hybrid energy system. The results of this paper are expected to be used effectively in a real hybrid energy system.

  20. Perception Analysis Of Living Environment At Taman Melati Residential Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ABDUL AZEEZ Kadar Hamsa

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Rapid physical development in a residential area will deteriorate living environment of the residents especially if it takes place haphazardly without applying adequate planning guidelines. It will, eventually, exert more pressure on physical infrastructure of the area. As a result, residents of the area will be subjected to dissatisfaction on the present supporting infrastructure as the demand exceeds the supply. Evidently, it may lead to poor living conditions of the area, which ultimately slow the progressiveness of the society to achieve the quality of living standards. This paper investigates residents' perceptions on present living environmental setting at Taman Melati residential area in Kuala Lumpur. Questionnaire survey was administered to determine the perceptions of the residents on physical environmental parameters such as air, noise, streetlight illuminance, and traffic volume. The level of satisfaction of the residents on the living environment had showed nearly 64% of the respondents expressed 'satisfied strongly' or 'satisfied'. The level of willingness of the residents to stay further continuously at Taman Melati indicates about 56% of the respondents expressed 'strongly willing' or 'willing'. It is also seen that the overall satisfaction level of the residents on the living environment was high albeit satisfaction level on individual physical environmental parameters was low.

  1. The Analysis of Differences in Residential Property Price Indices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kokot Sebastian

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Residential property price indices can serve as a useful tool in the practice of real property market analysts, investment advisers, property developers, certified property appraisers, estate agents and managers. They can also be applied in property price valorization in specific legal positions. The Polish Act on Real Estate Management puts an obligation on the President of the Central Statistical Office to announce real property price indices, but the CSO fails to fulfill this obligation. The author’s rationale for this article is to contribute to works on rules of how to build property price indices. Presented within are the results of research on determining the price indices of such types of residential property as: a part of a building constituting a separate property and strata titles in housing cooperatives. The flats were divided into categories by floor area and by their location in 16 voivodeship capitals. The major purpose of the study is to prove that the prices of flats of different floor area change at different rates. Consequently, it seems worth considering whether a more detailed segmentation of the real estate market would be worthwhile for the sake of more accurate real property price indicators.

  2. Regional analysis of residential water heating options: energy use and economics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Neal, D.; Carney, J.; Hirst, E.

    1978-10-01

    This report evaluates the energy and direct economic effects of introducing improved electric-water-heating systems to the residential market. These systems are: electric heat pumps offered in 1981, solar systems offered in 1977, and solar systems offered in 1977 with a Federal tax credit in effect from 1977 through 1984. The ORNL residential energy model is used to calculate energy savings by type of fuel for each system in each of the ten Federal regions and for the nation as a whole for each year between 1977 and 2000. Changes in annual fuel bills and capital costs for water heaters are also computed at the same level of detail. Model results suggest that heat-pump water heaters are likely to offer much larger energy and economic benefits than will solar systems, even with tax credits. This is because heat pumps provide about the same savings in electricity for water heating (about half) at a much lower capital cost ($700 to $2000) than do solar systems. However, these results are based on highly uncertain estimates of future performance and cost characteristics for both heat pump and solar systems. The cumulative national energy saving by the year 2000 due to commercialization of heat-pump water heaters in 1981 is estimated to be 1.5 QBtu. Solar-energy benefits are about half this much without tax credits and two-thirds as much with tax credits. The net economic benefit to households of heat-pump water heaters (present worth of fuel bill reductions less the present worth of extra costs for more-efficient systems) is estimated to be $640 million. Again, the solar benefits are much less.

  3. Modeling and analysis of long term energy demands in residential sector of pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rashid, T.; Sahir, M.H.

    2015-01-01

    Residential sector is the core among the energy demand sectors in Pakistan. Currently, various techniques are being used worldwide to assess future energy demands including integrated system modeling (ISM). Therefore, the current study is focused on implementation of ISM approach for future energy demand analysis of Pakistan's residential sector in terms of increase in population, rapid urbanization, household size and type, and increase/decrease in GDP. A detailed business-as-usual (BAU) model is formulated in TIMES energy modeling framework using different factors like growth in future energy services, end-use technology characterization, and restricted fuel supplies. Additionally, the developed model is capable to compare the projected energy demand under different scenarios e.g. strong economy, weak economy and energy efficiency. The implementation of ISM proved a viable approach to predict the future energy demands of Pakistan's residential sector. Furthermore, the analysis shows that the energy consumption in the residential sector would be 46.5 Mtoe (Million Ton of Oil Equivalent) in 2040 compared to 23 Mtoe of the base year (2007) along with 600% increase in electricity demands. The study further maps the potential residential energy policies to congregate the future demands. (author)

  4. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the 2009 and 2012 IECC Residential Provisions – Technical Support Document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendon, Vrushali V.; Lucas, Robert G.; Goel, Supriya

    2012-12-04

    This analysis was conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) in support of the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) Building Energy Codes Program (BECP). DOE supports the development and adoption of efficient residential and commercial building energy codes. These codes set the minimum requirements for energy efficient building design and construction and ensure energy savings on a national level. This analysis focuses on one and two family dwellings, townhomes, and low-rise multifamily residential buildings. For these buildings, the basis of the energy codes is the International Energy Conservation Code (IECC). This report does not address commercial and high-rise residential buildings, which reference ANSI/ASHRAE/IES Standard 90.1.

  5. Stochastic analysis of residential micro combined heat and power system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karami, H.; Sanjari, M. J.; Gooi, H. B.

    2017-01-01

    In this paper the combined heat and power functionality of a fuel-cell in a residential hybrid energy system, including a battery, is studied. The demand uncertainties are modeled by investigating the stochastic load behavior by applying Monte Carlo simulation. The colonial competitive algorithm...... is adopted to the hybrid energy system scheduling problem and different energy resources are optimally scheduled to have optimal operating cost of hybrid energy system. In order to show the effectiveness of the colonial competitive algorithm, the results are compared with the results of the harmony search...... algorithm. The optimized scheduling of different energy resources is listed in an efficient look-up table for all time intervals. The effects of time of use and the battery efficiency and its size are investigated on the operating cost of the hybrid energy system. The results of this paper are expected...

  6. The Avenging Females: A Comparative Analysis of Kill Bill Vol.1-2, Death Proof and Sympathy for Lady Vengeance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basak Göksel Demiray

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides a comparative analysis of Quentin Tarantino’s Kill Bill Vol.1-2 (2003, 2004, Death Proof (2007 and Park Chan Wook’s Sympathy for Lady Vengeance (Chinjeolhan Geumjassi, 2005. The primary objectives of this study are: (1 to reveal the gender-biases inherent to the fundamental discursive structures of the foregoing films; (2 to compare and contrast the films through an analysis of the ‘gaze(s’ and possible ‘pleasures’,  which are inherent in their narratives, in relation to Laura Mulvey’s and Carol Clover’s approaches; and (3 to distinguish Kill Bill Vol.1-2 from the foregoing two and the ‘avenging female’ clichés of the other horror/violence movies in the context of the replaced positionings of its protagonist and antagonist inherent in its distinct narrative style.

  7. An analysis of hybrid power generation systems for a residential load

    OpenAIRE

    Ceran Bartosz; Hassan Qusay; Jaszczur Marek; Sroka Krzysztof

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents the results of an energetic and economical analysis of a hybrid power generation system (HPGS) which utilises photovoltaic modules, wind turbines, fuel cells and an electrolyzer with hydrogen tank working as the energy storage. The analysis was carried out for three different residential loads, local solar radiation and local wind speed, based on the real measurement values. The analysis shows the optimal solution and the limits of the investment costs required for the sys...

  8. Bill Maurer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren Tooker

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Professor Bill Maurer is a renowned cultural anthropologist who conducts research on law, property, money and finance, focusing on the technological infrastructures and social relations of exchange and payment. Professor Maurer graduated from Stanford University in 1994 with a PhD in Anthropology. He moved to UC Irvine in 1996 as Assistant Professor, going on to become Chair of UC Irvine’s Department of Anthropology (2005-2011 and Associate Dean for Research and Graduate Studies in the Social Sciences (2011-2013. In July 2013 he assumed his current role as Dean of UC Irvine’s School of Social Sciences. Professor Maurer has published on topics ranging from offshore financial services to mobile phone-enabled money transfers, Islamic finance, alternative currencies, and the future of money. He is founding director of the Institute for Money, Technology and Financial Inclusion, funded by the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation, and was the founding co-director of the Intel Science and Technology Center in Social Computing. He is the editor of six collections, as well as the author of Recharting the Caribbean: Land, Law and Citizenship in the British Virgin Islands (1997, Pious Property: Islamic Mortgages in the United States (2006, and Mutual Life, Limited: Islamic Banking, Alternative Currencies, Lateral Reason (2005. The latter received the Victor Turner Prize in 2005. Professor Maurer visited the University of Warwick in September 2014 under the auspices of Warwick’s Global Governance GRP.

  9. School adjustment of children in residential care: a multi-source analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín, Eduardo; Muñoz de Bustillo, María del Carmen

    2009-11-01

    School adjustment is one the greatest challenges in residential child care programs. This study has two aims: to analyze school adjustment compared to a normative population, and to carry out a multi-source analysis (child, classmates, and teacher) of this adjustment. A total of 50 classrooms containing 60 children from residential care units were studied. The "Método de asignación de atributos perceptivos" (Allocation of perceptive attributes; Díaz-Aguado, 2006), the "Test Autoevaluativo Multifactorial de Adaptación Infantil" (TAMAI [Multifactor Self-assessment Test of Child Adjustment]; Hernández, 1996) and the "Protocolo de valoración para el profesorado (Evaluation Protocol for Teachers; Fernández del Valle, 1998) were applied. The main results indicate that, compared with their classmates, children in residential care are perceived as more controversial and less integrated at school, although no differences were observed in problems of isolation. The multi-source analysis shows that there is agreement among the different sources when the externalized and visible aspects are evaluated. These results are discussed in connection with the practices that are being developed in residential child care programs.

  10. Incremental analysis of the reengineering of an outpatient billing process: an empirical study in a public hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Kuan-Yu; Huang, Chunmin

    2013-06-13

    A smartcard is an integrated circuit card that provides identification, authentication, data storage, and application processing. Among other functions, smartcards can serve as credit and ATM cards and can be used to pay various invoices using a 'reader'. This study looks at the unit cost and activity time of both a traditional cash billing service and a newly introduced smartcard billing service in an outpatient department in a hospital in Taipei, Taiwan. The activity time required in using the cash billing service was determined via a time and motion study. A cost analysis was used to compare the unit costs of the two services. A sensitivity analysis was also performed to determine the effect of smartcard use and number of cashier windows on incremental cost and waiting time. Overall, the smartcard system had a higher unit cost because of the additional service fees and business tax, but it reduced patient waiting time by at least 8 minutes. Thus, it is a convenient service for patients. In addition, if half of all outpatients used smartcards to pay their invoices, along with four cashier windows for cash payments, then the waiting time of cash service users could be reduced by approximately 3 minutes and the incremental cost would be close to breaking even (even though it has a higher overall unit cost that the traditional service). Traditional cash billing services are time consuming and require patients to carry large sums of money. Smartcard services enable patients to pay their bill immediately in the outpatient clinic and offer greater security and convenience. The idle time of nurses could also be reduced as they help to process smartcard payments. A reduction in idle time reduces hospital costs. However, the cost of the smartcard service is higher than the cash service and, as such, hospital administrators must weigh the costs and benefits of introducing a smartcard service. In addition to the obvious benefits of the smartcard service, there is also scope

  11. Residential Pesticides and Childhood Leukemia: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Michelle C.; Wigle, Donald T.; Krewski, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    Objective We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of previous observational epidemiologic studies examining the relationship between residential pesticide exposures during critical exposure time windows (preconception, pregnancy, and childhood) and childhood leukemia. Data sources Searches of MEDLINE and other electronic databases were performed (1950–2009). Reports were included if they were original epidemiologic studies of childhood leukemia, followed a case–control or cohort design, and assessed at least one index of residential/household pesticide exposure/use. No language criteria were applied. Data extraction Study selection, data abstraction, and quality assessment were performed by two independent reviewers. Random effects models were used to obtain summary odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Data synthesis Of the 17 identified studies, 15 were included in the meta-analysis. Exposures during pregnancy to unspecified residential pesticides (summary OR = 1.54; 95% CI, 1.13–2.11; I2 = 66%), insecticides (OR = 2.05; 95% CI, 1.80–2.32; I2 = 0%), and herbicides (OR = 1.61; 95% CI, 1.20–2.16; I2 = 0%) were positively associated with childhood leukemia. Exposures during childhood to unspecified residential pesticides (OR = 1.38; 95% CI, 1.12–1.70; I2 = 4%) and insecticides (OR = 1.61; 95% CI, 1.33–1.95; I2 = 0%) were also positively associated with childhood leukemia, but there was no association with herbicides. Conclusions Positive associations were observed between childhood leukemia and residential pesticide exposures. Further work is needed to confirm previous findings based on self-report, to examine potential exposure–response relationships, and to assess specific pesticides and toxicologically related subgroups of pesticides in more detail. PMID:20056585

  12. Analysis Thermal Comfort Condition in Complex Residential Building, Case Study: Chiangmai, Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juangjandee, Warangkana

    2017-10-01

    Due to the increasing need for complex residential buildings, it appears that people migrate into the high-density urban areas because the infrastructural facilities can be easily found in the modern metropolitan areas. Such rapid growth of urbanization creates congested residential buildings obstructing solar radiation and wind flow, whereas most urban residents spend 80-90% of their time indoor. Furthermore, the buildings were mostly built with average materials and construction detail. This causes high humidity condition for tenants that could promote mould growth. This study aims to analyse thermal comfort condition in complex residential building, Thailand for finding the passive solution to improve indoor air quality and respond to local conditions. The research methodology will be in two folds: 1) surveying on case study 2) analysis for finding the passive solution of reducing humidity indoor air The result of the survey indicated that the building need to find passive solution for solving humidity problem, that can be divided into two ways which raising ventilation and indoor temperature including increasing wind-flow ventilation and adjusting thermal temperature, for example; improving building design and stack driven ventilation. For raising indoor temperature or increasing mean radiant temperature, daylight can be passive solution for complex residential design for reducing humidity and enhance illumination indoor space simultaneous.

  13. [The flexibilization of the Brazilian legislation on pesticides and the risks to human health: analysis of Bill of Law 3,200/2015].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Mirella Dias; Cavendish, Thais Araújo; Bueno, Priscila Campos; Ervilha, Iara Campos; Gregório, Luisa De Sordi; Kanashiro, Natiela Beatriz de Oliveira; Rohlfs, Daniela Buosi; Carmo, Thenille Faria Machado do

    2017-07-27

    This article aims to contribute to a reflection on pesticides, based on the Brazilian legal framework, from the perspective of protecting human health and the environment. This initiative is due to successive attempts to flexibilize the regulation of pesticides in Brazil, through bills of law in progress in the Brazilian National Congress. An analysis of Bill of Law 3,200/2015 was carried out. This bill of law represents a major setback to the legislative achievements for the regulation of pesticides, in order to alert to the risks to human health from exposure to these products and aggravated by other similar proposals.

  14. Assessing National Employment Impacts of Investment in Residential and Commercial Sector Energy Efficiency: Review and Example Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, David M.; Belzer, David B.; Livingston, Olga V.; Scott, Michael J.

    2014-06-18

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) modeled the employment impacts of a major national initiative to accelerate energy efficiency trends at one of two levels: • 15 percent savings by 2030. In this scenario, efficiency activities save about 15 percent of the Annual Energy Outlook (AEO) Reference Case electricity consumption by 2030. It is assumed that additional energy savings in both the residential and commercial sectors begin in 2015 at zero, and then increase in an S-shaped market penetration curve, with the level of savings equal to about 7.0 percent of the AEO 2014 U.S. national residential and commercial electricity consumption saved by 2020, 14.8 percent by 2025, and 15 percent by 2030. • 10 percent savings by 2030. In this scenario, additional savings begin at zero in 2015, increase to 3.8 percent in 2020, 9.8 percent by 2025, and 10 percent of the AEO reference case value by 2030. The analysis of the 15 percent case indicates that by 2030 more than 300,000 new jobs would likely result from such policies, including an annual average of more than 60,000 jobs directly supporting the installation and maintenance of energy efficiency measures and practices. These are new jobs resulting initially from the investment associated with the construction of more energy-efficient new buildings or the retrofit of existing buildings and would be sustained for as long as the investment continues. Based on what is known about the current level of building-sector energy efficiency jobs, this would represent an increase of more than 10 percent from the current estimated level of over 450,000 such jobs. The more significant and longer-lasting effect comes from the redirection of energy bill savings toward the purchase of other goods and services in the general economy, with its attendant influence on increasing the total number of jobs. This example analysis utilized PNNL’s ImSET model, a modeling framework that PNNL has used over the past two decades to assess

  15. Analysis of rural residential energy consumption and corresponding carbon emissions in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao Chunsheng; Chen Chongying; Li Ming

    2012-01-01

    The analysis of rural residential energy consumption in China from 2001 to 2008 and corresponding impacts on climate change is presented in the paper. It is found that rural residential energy consumption has shown obvious transition from non-commercial energy to commercial energy. The percentage of biomass energy consumption dropped from 81.5% in 2001 to 70.9% in 2008, while the percentage of commercial energy increased from 17.1% to 25.1%. Besides, other renewable energy increased very fast with annual growth rate of 19.8%. Correspondingly, total CO 2 emissions from rural residential energy consumption had significant increase from 152.2 Million tons in 2001 to 283.6 Million tons in 2008. The annual growth rate of per capita CO 2 emissions was nearly 2 times faster than that of urban area. The major driving force for the consumption of commercial energy was the income of rural farmers, while strong rural energy policies supported the development of renewable energy. To satisfy the goals of energy supply and CO 2 emissions reduction in rural areas, it is advised to change the energy structure and improve the energy efficiency, such as to generate electricity using renewable technologies and to replace coal with modern biomass energy for cooking and heating. - Highlights: ► This study analyzed rural residential energy consumption in China 2001–2008. ► It shows obvious transition from non-commercial energy to commercial energy. ► CO 2 emissions from rural residential energy consumption have significant increases. ► Major driving forces are income of rural farmers and rural energy policies. ► Generate electricity using renewable technology and replace coal with modern biomass.

  16. Contribution of price/expenditure factors of residential energy consumption in China from 1993 to 2011: A decomposition analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Zengming; Zhao, Tao

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Analysis about energy prices and the residential expenditure on energy in China. • Though the prices of energy declined, the price effect was negative. • The effect of price was the strongest restraining contribution. • Discussion on the proportion of energy expenditure in residential incomes. - Abstract: Since the establishment of the market economy in 1993, the residential consumption of commodities, including energy, has been highly influenced by prices in China. However, the contribution of the factors related to prices in residential energy consumption is relatively unexplored. This paper extends the KAYA identity with price and expenditure factors and then applies the LMDI method to a decomposition of residential energy consumption in China from 1993 to 2011. Our results show the following: (1) Though the prices of a majority of residential energy sources in China declined, the effect of energy prices restrained residential energy consumption because the expenditure structure changed during the period. (2) During the research period, the urban energy expenditure proportion experienced two progresses of rising and falling, and the rural proportion, which was stable before 2002, sharply increased. (3) The energy consumption intensity effect, which is the negative of the average energy price effect, contributed to most of the decrease in energy consumption, whereas residential income played a key role in the growth of consumption. According to the conclusions, we suggest further marketization and deregulation of energy prices, the promotion of advanced energy types and guidance for better energy consumption patterns

  17. An analysis of hybrid power generation systems for a residential load

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ceran Bartosz

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of an energetic and economical analysis of a hybrid power generation system (HPGS which utilises photovoltaic modules, wind turbines, fuel cells and an electrolyzer with hydrogen tank working as the energy storage. The analysis was carried out for three different residential loads, local solar radiation and local wind speed, based on the real measurement values. The analysis shows the optimal solution and the limits of the investment costs required for the system construction. The presented results confirm the effectiveness of the proposed approach, which could be assumed as a very useful tool in the design and analysis of a hybrid power generation system.

  18. Factor Analysis of Residential Energy Consumption at the Provincial Level in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weibin Lin

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the differences in the amount and the structure of residential energy consumption at the provincial level in China and identifies the hidden factors behind such differences. The econometrical analysis reveals that population, economic development level, energy resource endowment and climatic conditions are the main factors driving residential energy consumption; while the regional differences in energy consumption per capita and the consumption structure can be mainly illustrated by various economic development levels, energy resource endowments and climatic conditions. Economic development level has a significant positive impact on the proportion of gasoline consumption, whereas its impact on the proportion of electricity consumption is not notable; energy resource endowment and climatic condition indirectly affect both the proportion of electricity consumption and that of gasoline consumption, primarily through their impacts on the proportions of coal consumption and heat consumption.

  19. Understanding your hospital bill

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000881.htm Understanding your hospital bill To use the sharing features on this ... help you save money. Charges Listed on Your Hospital Bill A hospital bill will list the major ...

  20. Major models and data sources for residential and commercial sector energy conservation analysis. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-09-01

    Major models and data sources are reviewed that can be used for energy-conservation analysis in the residential and commercial sectors to provide an introduction to the information that can or is available to DOE in order to further its efforts in analyzing and quantifying their policy and program requirements. Models and data sources examined in the residential sector are: ORNL Residential Energy Model; BECOM; NEPOOL; MATH/CHRDS; NIECS; Energy Consumption Data Base: Household Sector; Patterns of Energy Use by Electrical Appliances Data Base; Annual Housing Survey; 1970 Census of Housing; AIA Research Corporation Data Base; RECS; Solar Market Development Model; and ORNL Buildings Energy Use Data Book. Models and data sources examined in the commercial sector are: ORNL Commercial Sector Model of Energy Demand; BECOM; NEPOOL; Energy Consumption Data Base: Commercial Sector; F.W. Dodge Data Base; NFIB Energy Report for Small Businesses; ADL Commercial Sector Energy Use Data Base; AIA Research Corporation Data Base; Nonresidential Buildings Surveys of Energy Consumption; General Electric Co: Commercial Sector Data Base; The BOMA Commercial Sector Data Base; The Tishman-Syska and Hennessy Data Base; The NEMA Commercial Sector Data Base; ORNL Buildings Energy Use Data Book; and Solar Market Development Model. Purpose; basis for model structure; policy variables and parameters; level of regional, sectoral, and fuels detail; outputs; input requirements; sources of data; computer accessibility and requirements; and a bibliography are provided for each model and data source.

  1. The residential dual-energy program of Hydro-Quebec: An economic analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergeron, C.; Bernard, J.-T.

    1991-01-01

    Higher than expected electricity consumption in recent years and increasing objections to capacity expansion on environmental grounds have led Quebec's government-owned electric utility, Hydro-Quebec, to launch an innovative program to reduce peak period residential electric heating demand. When the outside temperature drops below -12 degree C, customers who have opted for the program are charged 10 cents/kWh for their electricity (substantially above the 4.46 cents/kWh paid by normal residential customers) and they are automatically switched to a non-electric heating source, whereas above -12 degree C they pay 2.75 cents/kWh for all uses. A cost benefit analysis of this dual energy program finds that if, as Hydro-Quebec forecasts, 150,000 residential customers were to opt for this program, they would benefit by $19.0 million per year, while the utility and the government would lose $21.6 million and $1.6 million respectively, with a total net loss to Quebec society of $4.25 million a year. 12 refs., 4 figs., 6 tabs

  2. Performance Analysis of Secure and Private Billing Protocols for Smart Metering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom Eccles

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Traditional utility metering is to be replaced by smart metering. Smart metering enables fine-grained utility consumption measurements. These fine-grained measurements raise privacy concerns due to the lifestyle information which can be inferred from the precise time at which utilities were consumed. This paper outlines and compares two privacy-respecting time of use billing protocols for smart metering and investigates their performance on a variety of hardware. These protocols protect the privacy of customers by never transmitting the fine-grained utility readings outside of the customer’s home network. One protocol favors complexity on the trusted smart meter hardware while the other uses homomorphic commitments to offload computation to a third device. Both protocols are designed to operate on top of existing cryptographic secure channel protocols in place on smart meters. Proof of concept software implementations of these protocols have been written and their suitability for real world application to low-performance smart meter hardware is discussed. These protocols may also have application to other privacy conscious aggregation systems, such as electronic voting.

  3. Residential Exposure to Pesticide During Childhood and Childhood Cancers: A Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Mei; Chang, Chi-Hsuan; Tao, Lin; Lu, Chensheng

    2015-10-01

    There is an increasing concern about chronic low-level pesticide exposure during childhood and its influence on childhood cancers. In this meta-analysis, we aimed to examine associations between residential childhood pesticide exposures and childhood cancers. We searched all observational studies published in PubMed before February 2014 and reviewed reference sections of articles derived from searches. The literature search yielded 277 studies that met inclusion criteria. Sixteen studies were included in the meta-analysis. We calculated effect sizes and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) by using a random effect model with inverse variance weights. We found that childhood exposure to indoor but not outdoor residential insecticides was associated with a significant increase in risk of childhood leukemia (odds ratio [OR] = 1.47; 95% CI, 1.26-1.72; I(2) = 30%) and childhood lymphomas (OR = 1.43; 95% CI, 1.15-1.78; I(2) = 0%). A significant increase in risk of leukemia was also associated with herbicide exposure (OR = 1.26; 95% CI, 1.10-1.44; I(2) = 0%). Also observed was a positive but not statistically significant association between childhood home pesticide or herbicide exposure and childhood brain tumors. The small number of studies included in the analysis represents a major limitation of the current analysis. Results from this meta-analysis indicated that children exposed to indoor insecticides would have a higher risk of childhood hematopoietic cancers. Additional research is needed to confirm the association between residential indoor pesticide exposures and childhood cancers. Meanwhile, preventive measures should be considered to reduce children's exposure to pesticides at home. Copyright © 2015 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  4. Decomposition analysis of gas consumption in the residential sector in Ireland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogan, Fionn; Cahill, Caiman J.; Ó Gallachóir, Brian P.

    2012-01-01

    To-date, decomposition analysis has been widely used at the macro-economic level and for in-depth analyses of the industry and transport sectors; however, its application in the residential sector has been rare. This paper uses the Log-Mean Divisia Index I (LMDI-I) methodology to decompose gas consumption trends in the gas-connected residential sector in Ireland from 1990 to 2008, which despite an increasing number of energy efficiency policies, experienced total final consumption growth of 470%. The analysis decomposes this change in gas consumption into a number of effects, examining the impact over time of market factors such as a growing customer base, varying mix of dwelling types, changing share of vacant dwellings, changing size of new dwellings, the impact of building regulations policy and other factors such as the weather. The analysis finds the most significant effects are changing customer numbers and changing intensity; the analysis also quantifies the impact of building regulations and compares it with other effects such as changing size of new dwellings. By comparing the historical impact on gas consumption of policy factors and non-policy factors, this paper highlights the challenge for policy-makers in achieving overall energy consumption reduction. - Highlights: ► Contribution to a gap in the literature with a residential sector decomposition analysis of gas TFC. ► Activity effect had the largest impact and was cumulatively the best explainer of total TFC change. ► Intensity effect was the second biggest effect with a 19% share of total TFC change. ► In line with rising surface temperatures, the weather effect is declining over time. ► Building regulations are having a diminishing impact but are being negated by larger dwellings.

  5. AGA predicts winter jump in residential gas price

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    The American Gas Association predicts the average heating bill for residential gas consumers could increase by as much as 18% this winter. AGA Pres. Mike Baly said, Last year's winter was warmer than normal. If the 1992-93 winter is similar, AGA projects that residential natural gas heating bills will go up about 6%. If we see a return to normal winter weather, our projection show the average bill could rise by almost 18%

  6. Analysis and modeling of active occupancy of the residential sector in Spain: An indicator of residential electricity consumption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    López-Rodríguez, M.A.; Santiago, I.; Trillo-Montero, D.; Torriti, J.; Moreno-Munoz, A.

    2013-01-01

    The growing energy consumption in the residential sector represents about 30% of global demand. This calls for Demand Side Management solutions propelling change in behaviors of end consumers, with the aim to reduce overall consumption as well as shift it to periods in which demand is lower and where the cost of generating energy is lower. Demand Side Management solutions require detailed knowledge about the patterns of energy consumption. The profile of electricity demand in the residential sector is highly correlated with the time of active occupancy of the dwellings; therefore in this study the occupancy patterns in Spanish properties was determined using the 2009–2010 Time Use Survey (TUS), conducted by the National Statistical Institute of Spain. The survey identifies three peaks in active occupancy, which coincide with morning, noon and evening. This information has been used to input into a stochastic model which generates active occupancy profiles of dwellings, with the aim to simulate domestic electricity consumption. TUS data were also used to identify which appliance-related activities could be considered for Demand Side Management solutions during the three peaks of occupancy. -- Highlights: •Active occupancy profiles of Spanish dwellings has been obtained and modeled from Time Use Survey data. •Occupancy profiles resulting from the model can be used to model domestic energy consumption. •The presence of three peaks of active occupation was verified, which coincide with morning, noon and evening. •Manual and incentive-based DSM programmes are considered the most suitable for Spanish dwellings. •TV electricity consumption becomes important at aggregate level

  7. An analysis of residential energy consumption in a temperate climate. Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, Y.Y.; Vincent, W.

    1987-06-01

    Electrical energy consumption data have been recorded for several hundred submetered residential structures in Middle Tennessee. All houses were constructed with a common ``energy package.`` Specifically, daily cooling usage data have been collected for 130 houses for the 1985 and 1986 cooling seasons, and monthly heating usage data for 186 houses have been recorded by occupant participation over a seven-year period. Cooling data have been analyzed using an SPSSx multiple regression analysis and results are compared to several cooling models. Heating, base, and total energy usage are also analyzed and regression correlation coefficients are determined as a function of several house parameters.

  8. An analysis of residential energy consumption in a temperate climate. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, Y.Y.; Vincent, W.

    1987-06-01

    Electrical energy consumption data have been recorded for several hundred submetered residential structures in Middle Tennessee. All houses were constructed with a common ``energy package.`` Specifically, daily cooling usage data have been collected for 130 houses for the 1985 and 1986 cooling seasons, and monthly heating usage data for 186 houses have been recorded by occupant participation over a seven-year period. Cooling data have been analyzed using an SPSSx multiple regression analysis and results are compared to several cooling models. Heating, base, and total energy usage are also analyzed and regression correlation coefficients are determined as a function of several house parameters.

  9. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Residential Provisions of the 2015 IECC for South Carolina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendon, Vrushali V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhao, Mingjie [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Taylor, Zachary T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Poehlman, Eric A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-02-15

    The 2015 IECC provides cost-effective savings for residential buildings in South Carolina. Moving to the 2015 IECC from the 2009 IECC base code is cost-effective for residential buildings in all climate zones in South Carolina.

  10. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Residential Provisions of the 2015 IECC for Nebraska

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendon, Vrushali V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhao, Mingjie [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Taylor, Zachary T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Poehlman, Eric A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-02-15

    The 2015 IECC provides cost-effective savings for residential buildings in Nebraska. Moving to the 2015 IECC from the 2009 IECC base code is cost-effective for residential buildings in all climate zones in Nebraska.

  11. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Residential Provisions of the 2015 IECC for Georgia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendon, Vrushali V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhao, Mingjie [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Taylor, Zachary T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Poehlman, Eric A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-02-15

    The 2015 IECC provides cost-effective savings for residential buildings in Georgia. Moving to the 2015 IECC from the 2011 Georgia State Code base code is cost-effective for residential buildings in all climate zones in Georgia.

  12. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Residential Provisions of the 2015 IECC for Wisconsin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendon, Vrushali V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhao, Mingjie [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Taylor, Zachary T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Poehlman, Eric A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-02-15

    The 2015 IECC provides cost-effective savings for residential buildings in Wisconsin. Moving to the 2015 IECC from the 2006 IECC base code is cost-effective for residential buildings in all climate zones in Wisconsin.

  13. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Residential Provisions of the 2015 IECC for Illinois

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendon, Vrushali V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhao, Mingjie [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Taylor, Zachary T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Poehlman, Eric A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-02-15

    The 2015 IECC provides cost-effective savings for residential buildings in Illinois. Moving to the 2015 IECC from the 2012 IECC base code is cost-effective for residential buildings in all climate zones in Illinois.

  14. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Residential Provisions of the 2015 IECC for Pennsylvania

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendon, Vrushali V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhao, Mingjie [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Taylor, Zachary T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Poehlman, Eric A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-02-15

    The 2015 IECC provides cost-effective savings for residential buildings in Pennsylvania. Moving to the 2015 IECC from the 2009 IECC base code is cost-effective for residential buildings in all climate zones in Pennsylvania.

  15. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Residential Provisions of the 2015 IECC for Arkansas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendon, Vrushali V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhao, Mingjie [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Taylor, Zachary T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Poehlman, Eric A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-02-15

    The 2015 IECC provides cost-effective savings for residential buildings in Arkansas. Moving to the 2015 IECC from the 2009 IECC base code is cost-effective for residential buildings in all climate zones in Arkansas.

  16. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Residential Provisions of the 2015 IECC for Alabama

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendon, Vrushali V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhao, Mingjie [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Taylor, Zachary T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Poehlman, Eric A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-02-15

    The 2015 IECC provides cost-effective savings for residential buildings in Alabama. Moving to the 2015 IECC from the 2009 IECC base code is cost-effective for residential buildings in all climate zones in Alabama.

  17. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Residential Provisions of the 2015 IECC for Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendon, Vrushali V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhao, Mingjie [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Taylor, Zachary T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Poehlman, Eric A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-02-15

    The 2015 IECC provides cost-effective savings for residential buildings in Nevada. Moving to the 2015 IECC from the 2012 IECC base code is cost-effective for residential buildings in all climate zones in Nevada.

  18. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Residential Provisions of the 2015 IECC for Texas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendon, Vrushali V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhao, Mingjie [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Taylor, Zachary T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Poehlman, Eric A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-02-15

    The 2015 IECC provides cost-effective savings for residential buildings in Texas. Moving to the 2015 IECC from the 2009 IECC base code is cost-effective for residential buildings in all climate zones in Texas.

  19. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Residential Provisions of the 2015 IECC for Maine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendon, Vrushali V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhao, Mingjie [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Taylor, Zachary T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Poehlman, Eric A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-02-15

    The 2015 IECC provides cost-effective savings for residential buildings in Maine. Moving to the 2015 IECC from the 2009 IECC base code is cost-effective for residential buildings in all climate zones in Maine.

  20. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Residential Provisions of the 2015 IECC for Oklahoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendon, Vrushali V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhao, Mingjie [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Taylor, Zachary T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Poehlman, Eric A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-02-15

    The 2015 IECC provides cost-effective savings for residential buildings in Oklahoma. Moving to the 2015 IECC from the 2009 IECC base code is cost-effective for residential buildings in all climate zones in Oklahoma.

  1. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Residential Provisions of the 2015 IECC for Missouri

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendon, Vrushali V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhao, Mingjie [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Taylor, Zachary T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Poehlman, Eric A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-02-15

    The 2015 IECC provides cost-effective savings for residential buildings in Missouri. Moving to the 2015 IECC from the 2009 IECC base code is cost-effective for residential buildings in all climate zones in Missouri.

  2. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Residential Provisions of the 2015 IECC for Indiana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendon, Vrushali V.; Zhao, Mingjie; Taylor, Zachary T.; Poehlman, Eric A.

    2016-02-15

    The 2015 IECC provides cost-effective savings for residential buildings in Indiana. Moving to the 2015 IECC from the 2009 IECC base code is cost-effective for residential buildings in all climate zones in Indiana.

  3. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Residential Provisions of the 2015 IECC for Rhode Island

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendon, Vrushali V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhao, Mingjie [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Taylor, Zachary T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Poehlman, Eric A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-02-15

    The 2015 IECC provides cost-effective savings for residential buildings in Rhode Island. Moving to the 2015 IECC from the 2012 IECC base code is cost-effective for residential buildings in all climate zones in Rhode Island.

  4. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Residential Provisions of the 2015 IECC for Florida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendon, Vrushali V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhao, Mingjie [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Taylor, Zachary T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Poehlman, Eric A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-02-15

    The 2015 IECC provides cost-effective savings for residential buildings in Florida. Moving to the 2015 IECC from the 2012 IECC base code is cost-effective for residential buildings in all climate zones in Florida.

  5. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Residential Provisions of the 2015 IECC for New Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendon, Vrushali V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhao, Mingjie [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Taylor, Zachary T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Poehlman, Eric A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-02-15

    The 2015 IECC provides cost-effective savings for residential buildings in New Mexico. Moving to the 2015 IECC from the 2009 IECC base code is cost-effective for residential buildings in all climate zones in New Mexico.

  6. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Residential Provisions of the 2015 IECC for North Dakota

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendon, Vrushali V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhao, Mingjie [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Taylor, Zachary T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Poehlman, Eric A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-02-15

    The 2015 IECC provides cost-effective savings for residential buildings in North Dakota. Moving to the 2015 IECC from the 2009 IECC base code is cost-effective for residential buildings in all climate zones in North Dakota.

  7. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Residential Provisions of the 2015 IECC for Ohio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendon, Vrushali V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhao, Mingjie [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Taylor, Zachary T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Poehlman, Eric A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-02-15

    The 2015 IECC provides cost-effective savings for residential buildings in Ohio. Moving to the 2015 IECC from the 2009 IECC base code is cost-effective for residential buildings in all climate zones in Ohio.

  8. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Residential Provisions of the 2015 IECC for Arizona

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendon, Vrushali V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhao, Mingjie [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Taylor, Zachary T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Poehlman, Eric A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-02-15

    The 2015 IECC provides cost-effective savings for residential buildings in Arizona. Moving to the 2015 IECC from the 2009 IECC base code is cost-effective for residential buildings in all climate zones in Arizona.

  9. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Residential Provisions of the 2015 IECC for Louisiana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendon, Vrushali V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhao, Mingjie [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Taylor, Zachary T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Poehlman, Eric A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-02-15

    The 2015 IECC provides cost-effective savings for residential buildings in Louisiana. Moving to the 2015 IECC from the 2009 IECC base code is cost-effective for residential buildings in all climate zones in Louisiana.

  10. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Residential Provisions of the 2015 IECC for Connecticut

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendon, Vrushali V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhao, Mingjie [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Taylor, Zachary T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Poehlman, Eric A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-02-15

    The 2015 IECC provides cost-effective savings for residential buildings in Connecticut. Moving to the 2015 IECC from the 2009 IECC base code is cost-effective for residential buildings in all climate zones in Connecticut.

  11. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Residential Provisions of the 2015 IECC for New York

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendon, Vrushali V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhao, Mingjie [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Taylor, Zachary T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Poehlman, Eric A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-02-15

    The 2015 IECC provides cost-effective savings for residential buildings in New York. Moving to the 2015 IECC from the 2009 IECC base code is cost-effective for residential buildings in all climate zones in New York.

  12. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Residential Provisions of the 2015 IECC for Delaware

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendon, Vrushali V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhao, Mingjie [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Taylor, Zachary T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Poehlman, Eric A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-02-15

    The 2015 IECC provides cost-effective savings for residential buildings in Delaware. Moving to the 2015 IECC from the 2012 IECC base code is cost-effective for residential buildings in all climate zones in Delaware.

  13. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Residential Provisions of the 2015 IECC for Kansas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendon, Vrushali V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhao, Mingjie [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Taylor, Zachary T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Poehlman, Eric A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-02-15

    The 2015 IECC provides cost-effective savings for residential buildings in Kansas. Moving to the 2015 IECC from the 2009 IECC base code is cost-effective for residential buildings in all climate zones in Kansas.

  14. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Residential Provisions of the 2015 IECC for Iowa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendon, Vrushali V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhao, Mingjie [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Taylor, Zachary T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Poehlman, Eric A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-02-15

    The 2015 IECC provides cost-effective savings for residential buildings in Iowa. Moving to the 2015 IECC from the 2014 Iowa State Code base code is cost-effective for residential buildings in all climate zones in Iowa.

  15. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Residential Provisions of the 2015 IECC for Massachusetts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendon, Vrushali V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhao, Mingjie [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Taylor, Zachary T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Poehlman, Eric A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-02-15

    The 2015 IECC provides cost-effective savings for residential buildings in Massachusetts. Moving to the 2015 IECC from the 2012 IECC base code is cost-effective for residential buildings in all climate zones in Massachusetts.

  16. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Residential Provisions of the 2015 IECC for Vermont

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendon, Vrushali V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhao, Mingjie [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Taylor, Zachary T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Poehlman, Eric A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-02-15

    The 2015 IECC provides cost-effective savings for residential buildings in Vermont. Moving to the 2015 IECC from the 2012 IECC base code is cost-effective for residential buildings in all climate zones in Vermont.

  17. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Residential Provisions of the 2015 IECC for Kentucky

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendon, Vrushali V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhao, Mingjie [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Taylor, Zachary T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Poehlman, Eric A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-02-15

    The 2015 IECC provides cost-effective savings for residential buildings in Kentucky. Moving to the 2015 IECC from the 2009 IECC base code is cost-effective for residential buildings in all climate zones in Kentucky.

  18. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Residential Provisions of the 2015 IECC for Mississippi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendon, Vrushali V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhao, Mingjie [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Taylor, Zachary T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Poehlman, Eric A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-02-15

    The 2015 IECC provides cost-effective savings for residential buildings in Mississippi. Moving to the 2015 IECC from the 2009 IECC base code is cost-effective for residential buildings in all climate zones in Mississippi.

  19. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Residential Provisions of the 2015 IECC for Virginia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendon, Vrushali V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhao, Mingjie [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Taylor, Zachary T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Poehlman, Eric A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-02-15

    The 2015 IECC provides cost-effective savings for residential buildings in Virginia. Moving to the 2015 IECC from the 2012 IECC base code is cost-effective for residential buildings in all climate zones in Virginia.

  20. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Residential Provisions of the 2015 IECC for Wyoming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendon, Vrushali V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhao, Mingjie [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Taylor, Zachary T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Poehlman, Eric A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-02-15

    The 2015 IECC provides cost-effective savings for residential buildings in Wyoming. Moving to the 2015 IECC from the 2009 IECC base code is cost-effective for residential buildings in all climate zones in Wyoming.

  1. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Residential Provisions of the 2015 IECC for Idaho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendon, Vrushali V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhao, Mingjie [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Taylor, Zachary T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Poehlman, Eric A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-02-15

    The 2015 IECC provides cost-effective savings for residential buildings in Idaho. Moving to the 2015 IECC from the 2015 Idaho State Code base code is cost-effective for residential buildings in all climate zones in Idaho.

  2. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Residential Provisions of the 2015 IECC for West Virginia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendon, Vrushali V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhao, Mingjie [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Taylor, Zachary T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Poehlman, Eric A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-02-15

    The 2015 IECC provides cost-effective savings for residential buildings in West Virginia. Moving to the 2015 IECC from the 2009 IECC base code is cost-effective for residential buildings in all climate zones in West Virginia.

  3. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Residential Provisions of the 2015 IECC for Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendon, Vrushali V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhao, Mingjie [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Taylor, Zachary T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Poehlman, Eric A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-02-15

    The 2015 IECC provides cost-effective savings for residential buildings in Colorado. Moving to the 2015 IECC from the 2009 IECC base code is cost-effective for residential buildings in all climate zones in Colorado.

  4. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Residential Provisions of the 2015 IECC for Alaska

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendon, Vrushali V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhao, Mingjie [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Taylor, Zachary T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Poehlman, Eric A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-02-15

    The 2015 IECC provides cost-effective savings for residential buildings in Alaska. Moving to the 2015 IECC from the 2009 IECC base code is cost-effective for residential buildings in all climate zones in Alaska.

  5. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Residential Provisions of the 2015 IECC for Utah

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendon, Vrushali V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhao, Mingjie [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Taylor, Zachary T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Poehlman, Eric A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-02-15

    The 2015 IECC provides cost-effective savings for residential buildings in Utah. Moving to the 2015 IECC from the 2012 Utah State Code base code is cost-effective for residential buildings in all climate zones in Utah.

  6. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Residential Provisions of the 2015 IECC for Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendon, Vrushali V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhao, Mingjie [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Taylor, Zachary T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Poehlman, Eric A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-02-15

    The 2015 IECC provides cost-effective savings for residential buildings in Tennessee. Moving to the 2015 IECC from the 2006 IECC base code is cost-effective for residential buildings in all climate zones in Tennessee.

  7. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Residential Provisions of the 2015 IECC for South Dakota

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendon, Vrushali V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhao, Mingjie [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Taylor, Zachary T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Poehlman, Eric A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-02-15

    The 2015 IECC provides cost-effective savings for residential buildings in South Dakota. Moving to the 2015 IECC from the 2009 IECC base code is cost-effective for residential buildings in all climate zones in South Dakota.

  8. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Residential Provisions of the 2015 IECC for Hawaii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendon, Vrushali V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhao, Mingjie [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Taylor, Zachary T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Poehlman, Eric A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-02-15

    The 2015 IECC provides cost-effective savings for residential buildings in Hawaii. Moving to the 2015 IECC from the 2006 IECC base code is cost-effective for residential buildings in all climate zones in Hawaii.

  9. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Residential Provisions of the 2015 IECC for Maryland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendon, Vrushali V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhao, Mingjie [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Taylor, Zachary T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Poehlman, Eric A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-02-15

    The 2015 IECC provides cost-effective savings for residential buildings in Maryland. Moving to the 2015 IECC from the 2012 IECC base code is cost-effective for residential buildings in all climate zones in Maryland.

  10. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Residential Provisions of the 2015 IECC for Michigan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendon, Vrushali V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhao, Mingjie [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Taylor, Zachary T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Poehlman, Eric A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-02-15

    The 2015 IECC provides cost-effective savings for residential buildings in Michigan. Moving to the 2015 IECC from the 2009 IECC base code is cost-effective for residential buildings in all climate zones in Michigan.

  11. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Residential Provisions of the 2015 IECC for Minnesota

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendon, Vrushali V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhao, Mingjie [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Taylor, Zachary T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Poehlman, Eric A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-02-15

    The 2015 IECC provides cost-effective savings for residential buildings in Minnesota. Moving to the 2015 IECC from the 2012 IECC base code is cost-effective for residential buildings in all climate zones in Minnesota.

  12. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Residential Provisions of the 2015 IECC for Montana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendon, Vrushali V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhao, Mingjie [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Taylor, Zachary T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Poehlman, Eric A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-02-15

    The 2015 IECC provides cost-effective savings for residential buildings in Montana. Moving to the 2015 IECC from the 2014 Montana State Code base code is cost-effective for residential buildings in all climate zones in Montana.

  13. Energy, economic and environmental analysis on RET-hydrogen systems in residential buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beccali, M.; Brunone, S.; Cellura, M.; Franzitta, V. [Dipartimento di Ricerche Energetiche e Ambientali, Universita degli Studi di Palermo, Viale delle Scienze, 90128 Palermo (Italy)

    2008-03-15

    The aim of this study was to analyze energy, economic and environmental performances of a set of scenarios dealing with the production and the use of hydrogen as energy carriers in residential applications in combination with renewable energy (RE). The authors also made an investigation into the required economic conditions necessary for making H{sub 2}-RE residential systems competitive with conventional ones, which are based on the use of grid electricity and natural gas. A case study was enacted in a small residential district in Palermo (Italy) made by five multi-storey buildings. Many energy systems have been considered according to several fuel-device combinations (electric grid, fuel cell, PV panels, wind turbines, boiler etc.). The software HOMER (hybrid optimization model for electric renewables), developed by NREL and Midwest Research Institute (USA), was used, in order to study the energy balance of the system and its components. Moreover, it was possible to simulate the hourly operation of each system and to calculate technical, economic and environmental performance parameters. The net present cost and the cost of energy are the two main parameters used to compare economic performances of the systems with both actual and expected costs in the medium term. A sensitivity analysis was carried out in order to appreciate the most important parameters influencing the economic performances of the systems and to define possible future scenarios of competitiveness between technologies. Emissions of CO{sub 2} (the most important greenhouse gas) and other pollutants have been considered for an environmental benefits analysis. (author)

  14. Zebra finch females prefer males with redder bills independent of song rate-a meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simons, Mirre J.P.; Verhulst, Simon

    2011-01-01

    Male zebra finches display multiple secondary sexual traits such as song and red bill coloration. This color is dependent on carotenoids, which enhance immune function and are antioxidants. A red bill may thus function as an indicator signal. The zebra finch is extensively used in the study of

  15. Cost of placement and complications associated with osseointegrated bone-conducting hearing prostheses: a retrospective analysis of medicare billing data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pross, Seth E; Layton, Andrew; Tong, Kuo; Lustig, Lawrence R

    2014-03-01

    To report the cost of placement and complications related to osseointegrated bone-conducting hearing prostheses (OBHPs) in a Medicare population. We performed a retrospective analysis of nationwide Medicare claims data for operative and nonoperative complications associated with the placement of percutaneous OBHPs between the first quarter of 2007 and the second quarter of 2009 for which there were 6 subsequent quarters of follow-up. We used Medicare Standard Analytical Files (SAF), which contain a 5% random sample of Medicare fee-for-service beneficiaries, excluding those that also were enrolled in a managed-care organization. We identified 118 patients who had OBHPs placed in the requisite period. Their complication billing data were analyzed for the six-quarters after initial placement. Seventy patients (59%) had no billing codes for complications or repeat procedures after receiving the implant, whereas 48 patients (41%) had such codes. The total adjusted mean cost with repeat/revision operations or complications was $7,812 per patient compared with $6,733 for those without these issues, an increase of $1,079 or 16%. We estimate that complications associated with the implantation of percutaneous OBHPs led to $417,616 in additional costs in the entire Medicare fee-for-service population during the study period and that the total cost of placement of these devices together with the cost of their complications totaled $6,789,248. In conclusion, the Medicare SAF database suggests that complications associated with OBHP increased the overall cost of placement by 16%. Like all surgical procedures, these complications and their associated costs should be taken into account when considering treatment options for patients who experience hearing loss.

  16. Residential relocation by older adults in response to incident cardiovascular health events : A case-crossover analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lovasi, G.; Richardson, J.M.; Rodriguez, C.J.; Kop, W.J.; Ahmed, A.; Brown, A.F.; Greenlee, H.; Siscovick, D.S.

    2014-01-01

    Objective. We use a case-crossover analysis to explore the association between incident cardiovascular events and residential relocation to a new home address. Methods. We conducted an ambidirectional case-crossover analysis to explore the association between incident cardiovascular events and

  17. Construction and the Analysis of the Models of Mass Appraisal of Residential Real Estate in Riga and Daugavpils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oksana Ruzha

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Mass appraisal of real estate is one of the most classical economic tasks in accomplishing of which econometric modeling is successfully applied. The following article dwells upon three models used for estimating the commercial value of residential real estate. For the purposes of the research the market of residential real estate of two cities (i.e. capital of Latvia - Riga and the regional centre – Daugavpils has been studied. The statistical analysis of the sales data for 2010-2011 has allowed distinguishing pricing factors of the residential real estate, both at the regional level, and at the level of a building and object of real estate. Modeling was conducted with the use of correlation and regression and cluster analyses. The additive and multiplicative models based on the regression equation and the model of the cluster analysis based on the method of parallel sectioning have been presented

  18. Public, official, and industry submissions on a Bill to increase the alcohol minimum purchasing age: A critical analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kypri, Kypros; Wolfenden, Luke; Hutchesson, Melinda; Langley, John; Voas, Robert

    2014-07-01

    In 2005 a Bill was introduced to the New Zealand parliament to increase the alcohol minimum purchasing age (MPA) from 18 to 20 years and submissions were invited from interested parties. We sought to characterise and critique the arguments tendered for and against the proposal. We used template analysis to study written submissions on the Bill from 178 people and organisations in New Zealand. Independent raters coded submissions according to the source, whether for or opposed, and the arguments employed. The most common sources of submissions were members of the public (28%), the alcohol industry (20%), and NGOs (20%). Overall, 40% opposed increasing the MPA, 40% were in favour, 4% supported a split MPA (18 years for on-premise, 20 years for off-premise), 7% were equivocal, and 8% offered no comment. The most common proponents of increasing the MPA were NGOs (36%) and members of the public (30%) and their arguments concerned the expected positive effects on public health (36%) and public disorder/property damage (16%), while 24% argued that other strategies should be used as well. The most common sources of opposition to increasing the MPA were the alcohol industry (50%) and the public (20%). It was commonly claimed that the proposed law change would be ineffective in reducing harm (22%), that other strategies should be used instead (16%), that it would infringe adult rights (15%), and that licensed premises are safe environments for young people (14%). There were noteworthy examples of NGOs and government agencies opposing the law change. The alcohol industry maximised its impact via multiple submissions appealing to individual rights while neglecting to report or accurately characterise the scientific evidence. Several health and welfare agencies presented confused logic and/or were selective in their use of scientific evidence. In contrast to the fragmented and inconsistent response from government and NGOs, the alcohol industry was organised and united, with

  19. Motivational factors influencing the homeowners’ decisions between residential heating systems: An empirical analysis for Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michelsen, Carl Christian; Madlener, Reinhard

    2013-01-01

    Heating demand accounts for a large fraction of the overall energy demand of private households in Germany. A better understanding of the adoption and diffusion of energy-efficient and renewables-based residential heating systems (RHS) is of high policy relevance, particularly against the background of climate change, security of energy supply and increasing energy prices. In this paper, we explore the multi-dimensionality of the homeowners’ motivation to decide between competing RHS. A questionnaire survey (N=2440) conducted in 2010 among homeowners who had recently installed a RHS provides the empirical foundation. Principal component analysis shows that 25 items capturing different adoption motivations can be grouped around six dimensions: (1) cost aspects, (2) general attitude towards the RHS, (3) government grant, (4) reactions to external threats (i.e., environmental or energy supply security considerations), (5) comfort considerations, and (6) influence of peers. Moreover, a cluster analysis with the identified motivational factors as segmentation variables reveals three adopter types: (1) the convenience-oriented, (2) the consequences-aware, and (3) the multilaterally-motivated RHS adopter. Finally, we show that the influence of the motivational factors on the adoption decision also differs by certain characteristics of the homeowner and features of the home. - Highlights: ► Study of the multi-dimensionality of the motivation to adopt residential heating systems (RHS). ► Principal component and cluster analysis are applied to representative survey data for Germany. ► Motivation has six dimensions, including rational decision-making and emotional factors. ► Adoption motivation differs by certain characteristics of the homeowner and of the home. ► Many adopters are driven by existing habits and perceptions about the convenience of the RHS

  20. An Economic Analysis of Residential Photovoltaic Systems with and without Energy Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kizito, Rodney

    Residential photovoltaic (PV) systems serve as a source of electricity generation that is separate from the traditional utilities. Investor investment into residential PV systems provides several financial benefits such as federal tax credit incentives for installation, net metering credit from excess generated electricity added back to the grid, and savings in price per kilowatt-hour (kWh) from the PV system generation versus the increasing conventional utility price per kWh. As much benefit as stand-alone PV systems present, the incorporation of energy storage yields even greater benefits. Energy storage (ES) is capable of storing unused PV provided energy from daytime periods of high solar supply but low consumption. This allows the investor to use the stored energy when the cost of conventional utility power is high, while also allowing for excess stored energy to be sold back to the grid. This paper aims to investigate the overall returns for investor's investing in solely PV and ES-based PV systems by using a return of investment (ROI) economic analysis. The analysis is carried out over three scenarios: (1) residence without a PV system or ES, (2) residence with just a PV system, and (3) residence with both a PV system and ES. Due to the variation in solar exposure across the regions of the United States, this paper performs an analysis for eight of the top solar market states separately, accounting for the specific solar generation capabilities of each state. A Microsoft Excel tool is provided for computation of the ROI in scenario 2 and 3. A benefit-cost ration (BCR) is used to depict the annual economic performance of the PV system (scenario 2) and PV + ES system (scenario 3). The tool allows the user to adjust the variables and parameters to satisfy the users' specific investment situation.

  1. Residential outage cost estimation: Hong Kong

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woo, C.K.; Ho, T.; Shiu, A.; Cheng, Y.S.; Horowitz, I.; Wang, J.

    2014-01-01

    Hong Kong has almost perfect electricity reliability, the result of substantial investments ultimately financed by electricity consumers who may be willing to accept lower reliability in exchange for lower bills. But consumers with high outage costs are likely to reject the reliability reduction. Our ordered-logit regression analysis of the responses by 1876 households to a telephone survey conducted in June 2013 indicates that Hong Kong residents exhibit a statistically-significant preference for their existing service reliability and rate. Moreover, the average residential cost estimate for a 1-h outage is US$45 (HK$350), topping the estimates reported in 10 of the 11 studies published in the last 10 years. The policy implication is that absent additional compelling evidence, Hong Kong should not reduce its service reliability. - Highlights: • Use a contingent valuation survey to obtain residential preferences for reliability. • Use an ordered logit analysis to estimate Hong Kong's residential outage costs. • Find high outage cost estimates that imply high reliability requirements. • Conclude that sans new evidence, Hong Kong should not reduce its reliability

  2. Multicriteria Decision Analysis of Material Selection of High Energy Performance Residential Building

    Science.gov (United States)

    Čuláková, Monika; Vilčeková, Silvia; Katunská, Jana; Krídlová Burdová, Eva

    2013-11-01

    In world with limited amount of energy sources and with serious environmental pollution, interest in comparing the environmental embodied impacts of buildings using different structure systems and alternative building materials will be increased. This paper shows the significance of life cycle energy and carbon perspective and the material selection in reducing energy consumption and emissions production in the built environment. The study evaluates embodied environmental impacts of nearly zero energy residential structures. The environmental assessment uses framework of LCA within boundary: cradle to gate. Designed alternative scenarios of material compositions are also assessed in terms of energy effectiveness through selected thermal-physical parameters. This study uses multi-criteria decision analysis for making clearer selection between alternative scenarios. The results of MCDA show that alternative E from materials on nature plant base (wood, straw bales, massive wood panel) present possible way to sustainable perspective of nearly zero energy houses in Slovak republic

  3. Wound center facility billing: A retrospective analysis of time, wound size, and acuity scoring for determining facility level of service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fife, Caroline E; Walker, David; Farrow, Wade; Otto, Gordon

    2007-01-01

    Outpatient wound center facility reimbursement for Medicare beneficiaries can be a challenge to determine and obtain. To compare methods of calculating facility service levels for outpatient wound centers and to demonstrate the advantages of an acuity-based billing system (one that incorporates components of facility work that is non-reimbursable by procedure codes and that represents an activity-based costing approach to medical billing), a retrospective study of 5,098 patient encounters contained in a wound care-specific electronic medical record database was conducted. Approximately 500 patient visits to the outpatient wound center of a Texas regional hospital between April 2003 and November 2004 were categorized by service level in documentation and facility management software. Visits previously billed using a time-based system were compared to the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services' proposed three-tiered wound size-based system. The time-based system also was compared to an acuity-based scoring system. The Pearson correlation coefficient between billed level of service by time and estimated level of service by acuity was 0.442 and the majority of follow-up visits were billed as Level 3 and above (on a time level of 1 to 5) , confirming that time is not a surrogate for actual work performed. Wound size also was found to be unrelated to service level (Pearson correlation = 0.017) and 97% of wound areas were billings than extremes; no other method produced this distribution. Hospital-based outpatient wound centers should develop, review, and refine acuity score-based models on which to determine billed level of service.

  4. Auditing hospital bills: an analysis of the main reasons of glosses in a private institution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marinaldo Pereira dos Santos

    2013-12-01

    Objective: costs auditing is considered fundamental for the survival of health institutions. Thus, this article aims to investigate the reasons for glosses which occurred in a hospital in São Paulo, capital. Methods: data survey included the glosses identified from its resources, along with a health care operator. Results and Discussion: nine hundred and twenty-one glossed items were found in the analyzed resources, whose total value was of R$173,603.36. Ninety-one percent of the resources concern administrative glosses and 9% concern technical glosses. As for the value appealed, around 22% are accepted. Final results reveal that 75% of the glosses can be avoided. Conclusion: most of the reasons for the glosses analyzed concern failures in the patient-care, administrative and paying resources areas. In order to obtain a successful result, it is necessary that the manager perform a critical analysis of the reasons for glosses, thus making people aware of the problems caused by glossing and developing action plans for solving them

  5. Income Trends of Residential PV Adopters: An analysis of household-level income estimates [PowerPoint presentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbose, Galen L.; Darghouth, Naim R.; Hoen, Ben; Wiser, Ryan H.

    2018-04-09

    The residential photovoltaic (PV) market has expanded rapidly over the past decade, but questions exist about how equitably that growth has occurred across income groups. Prior studies have investigated this question but are often limited by narrow geographic study regions, now-dated analysis timeframes, or coarse estimates of PV-adopter incomes. At the same time, a spate of new programs and initiatives, as well as innovations in business models and product design, have emerged in recent years with the aim of making solar more accessible and affordable to broader segments of the population. Yet, many of those efforts are proceeding without robust underlying information about the income characteristics of recent residential PV adopters. This work aims to establish basic factual information about income trends among U.S. residential solar adopters, with some emphasis on low- and moderate-income (LMI) households. The analysis is unique in its relatively extensive coverage of the U.S. solar market, relying on Berkeley Lab’s Tracking the Sun dataset, which contains project-level data for the vast majority of all residential PV systems in the country (a subset of which are ultimately included in the analysis sample). This analysis is also unique in its use of household-level income estimates that provide a more-precise characterization of PV-adopter incomes than in most prior studies.

  6. An analysis of representative heating load lines for residential HSPF ratings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rice, C. Keith [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Shen, Bo [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Shrestha, Som S. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-07-01

    This report describes an analysis to investigate representative heating loads for single-family detached homes using current EnergyPlus simulations (DOE 2014a). Hourly delivered load results are used to determine binned load lines using US Department of Energy (DOE) residential prototype building models (DOE 2014b) developed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). The selected residential single-family prototype buildings are based on the 2006 International Energy Conservation Code (IECC 2006) in the DOE climate regions. The resulting load lines are compared with the American National Standards Institute (ANSI)/Air-Conditioning, Heating, and Refrigeration Institute (AHRI) Standard 210/240 (AHRI 2008) minimum and maximum design heating requirement (DHR) load lines of the heating seasonal performance factor (HSPF) ratings procedure for each region. The results indicate that a heating load line closer to the maximum DHR load line, and with a lower zero load ambient temperature, is more representative of heating loads predicted for EnergyPlus prototype residential buildings than the minimum DHR load line presently used to determine HSPF ratings. An alternative heating load line equation was developed and compared to binned load lines obtained from the EnergyPlus simulation results. The effect on HSPF of the alternative heating load line was evaluated for single-speed and two-capacity heat pumps, and an average HSPF reduction of 16% was found. The alternative heating load line relationship is tied to the rated cooling capacity of the heat pump based on EnergyPlus autosizing, which is more representative of the house load characteristics than the rated heating capacity. The alternative heating load line equation was found to be independent of climate for the six DOE climate regions investigated, provided an adjustable zero load ambient temperature is used. For Region IV, the default DOE climate region used for HSPF ratings, the higher load line results in an ~28

  7. Residential energy-consumption analysis utilizing the DOE-1 computer program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arentsen, S K

    1979-04-01

    The DOE-1 computer program is used to examine energy consumption in a typical middle-class household in Cincinnati, Ohio. The program is used to compare energy consumption under different structural and environmental conditions, including various levels of insulation in the walls and ceiling, double and single glazing of windows, and thermostat setback schedules. In addition, the DOE-1 program is used to model the house under three energy distribution systems: a unit heater, a single-zone fan system with optional subzone reheat; and a unitary heat pump. A plant equipment simulation is performed to model the heating and cooling plant currently installed in the house. A simple economic analysis of life-cycle costs for the house is done utilizing the economic simulation portion of DOE-1. Utility bills over the past six years are analyzed to gain an actual energy-use profile for the house to compare with computer results. Results indicate that a 35% savings in heating load may be obtained with addition of proper amounts of insulation as compared with the house with no insulation. The installation of double glazing on windows may save close to 6% on heating load. Thermostat setbacks may result in savings of around 25% on energy consumed for heating. Similar results are achieved with regard to cooling load. Comparison of actual energy consumed by the household (from utility bills) with the computer results shows a 4.25% difference in values between the two. This small percent difference certainly strengthens the case for future use of computer programs in comparing construction alternatives and predicting building energy consumption.

  8. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Residential Provisions of the 2015 IECC for New Jersey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendon, Vrushali V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhao, Mingjie [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Taylor, Zachary T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Poehlman, Eric A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-02-15

    The 2015 IECC provides cost-effective savings for residential buildings in New Jersey. Moving to the 2015 IECC from the 2015 New Jersey State Code base code is cost-effective for residential buildings in all climate zones in New Jersey.

  9. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Residential Provisions of the 2015 IECC for New Hampshire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendon, Vrushali V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhao, Mingjie [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Taylor, Zachary T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Poehlman, Eric A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-02-15

    The 2015 IECC provides cost-effective savings for residential buildings in New Hampshire. Moving to the 2015 IECC from the 2010 New Hampshire State Code base code is cost-effective for residential buildings in all climate zones in New Hampshire.

  10. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Residential Provisions of the 2015 IECC for North Carolina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendon, Vrushali V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhao, Mingjie [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Taylor, Zachary T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Poehlman, Eric A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-02-15

    The 2015 IECC provides cost-effective savings for residential buildings in North Carolina. Moving to the 2015 IECC from the 2012 North Carolina State Code base code is cost-effective for residential buildings in all climate zones in North Carolina.

  11. Spatial analysis of participation in the Waterloo Residential Energy Efficiency Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Ge Bella

    Researchers are in broad agreement that energy-conserving actions produce economic as well as energy savings. Household energy rating systems (HERS) have been established in many countries to inform households of their house's current energy performance and to help reduce their energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions. In Canada, the national EnerGuide for Houses (EGH) program is delivered by many local delivery agents, including non-profit green community organizations. Waterloo Region Green Solutions is the local non-profit that offers the EGH residential energy evaluation service to local households. The purpose of this thesis is to explore the determinants of household's participation in the residential energy efficiency program (REEP) in Waterloo Region, to explain the relationship between the explanatory variables and REEP participation, and to propose ways to improve this kind of program. A spatial (trend) analysis was conducted within a geographic information system (GIS) to determine the spatial patterns of the REEP participation in Waterloo Region from 1999 to 2006. The impact of sources of information on participation and relationships between participation rates and explanatory variables were identified. GIS proved successful in presenting a visual interpretation of spatial patterns of the REEP participation. In general, the participating households tend to be clustered in urban areas and scattered in rural areas. Different sources of information played significant roles in reaching participants in different years. Moreover, there was a relationship between each explanatory variable and the REEP participation rates. Statistical analysis was applied to obtain a quantitative assessment of relationships between hypothesized explanatory variables and participation in the REEP. The Poisson regression model was used to determine the relationship between hypothesized explanatory variables and REEP participation at the CDA level. The results show that

  12. Integrated seismic risk analysis using simple weighting method: the case of residential Eskişehir, Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pekkan, E.; Tun, M.; Guney, Y.; Mutlu, S.

    2015-06-01

    A large part of the residential areas in Turkey are at risk from earthquakes. The main factors that threaten residential areas during an earthquake are poor quality building stock and soil problems. Liquefaction, loss of bearing capacity, amplification, slope failure, and landslide hazards must be taken into account for residential areas that are close to fault zones and covered with younger sediments. Analyzing these hazards separately and then combining the analyses would ensure a more realistic risk evaluation according to population density than analyzing several risks based on a single parameter. In this study, an integrated seismic risk analysis of central Eskişehir was performed based on two earthquake related parameters, liquefaction and amplification. The analysis used a simple weighting method. Other earthquake-related problems such as loss of bearing capacity, landslides, and slope failures are not significant for Eskişehir because of the geological and the topographical conditions of the region. According to the integrated seismic risk analysis of the Eskişehir residential area, the populated area is found to be generally at medium to high risk during a potential earthquake.

  13. Did residential electricity rates fall after retail competition? A dynamic panel analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swadley, Adam; Yücel, Mine

    2011-01-01

    A key selling point for the restructuring of electricity markets was the promise of lower prices. There is not much consensus in earlier studies on the effects of electricity deregulation in the U.S., particularly for residential customers. Part of the reason for not finding a consistent link with deregulation and lower prices was that the removal of transitional price caps led to higher prices. In addition, the timing of the removal of price caps coincided with rising fuel prices, which were passed on to consumers in a competitive market. Using a dynamic panel model, we analyze the effect of participation rates, fuel costs, market size, a rate cap and switch to competition for 16 states and the District of Columbia. We find that an increase in participation rates, price controls, a larger market, and high shares of hydro in electricity generation lower retail prices, while increases in natural gas and coal prices increase rates. We also find that retail competition makes the market more efficient by lowering the markup of retail prices over wholesale costs. The effects of a competitive retail electricity market are mixed across states, but generally appear to lower prices in states with high participation rates. - Highlights: ► We analyze the effects of retail competition in electricity markets on residential retail prices. ► Analysis carried out using a dynamic panel model; monthly data for 17 U.S. states. ► More customer participation and larger market lead to lower prices. ► Higher fuel costs increase retail prices, but with a lag. ► Retail competition leads to a more efficient electricity market.

  14. Residential patterns in older homeless adults: Results of a cluster analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Christopher Thomas; Guzman, David; Ponath, Claudia; Tieu, Lina; Riley, Elise; Kushel, Margot

    2016-03-01

    Adults aged 50 and older make up half of individuals experiencing homelessness and have high rates of morbidity and mortality. They may have different life trajectories and reside in different environments than do younger homeless adults. Although the environmental risks associated with homelessness are substantial, the environments in which older homeless individuals live have not been well characterized. We classified living environments and identified associated factors in a sample of older homeless adults. From July 2013 to June 2014, we recruited a community-based sample of 350 homeless men and women aged fifty and older in Oakland, California. We administered structured interviews including assessments of health, history of homelessness, social support, and life course. Participants used a recall procedure to describe where they stayed in the prior six months. We performed cluster analysis to classify residential venues and used multinomial logistic regression to identify individual factors prior to the onset of homelessness as well as the duration of unstable housing associated with living in them. We generated four residential groups describing those who were unsheltered (n = 162), cohabited unstably with friends and family (n = 57), resided in multiple institutional settings (shelters, jails, transitional housing) (n = 88), or lived primarily in rental housing (recently homeless) (n = 43). Compared to those who were unsheltered, having social support when last stably housed was significantly associated with cohabiting and institution use. Cohabiters and renters were significantly more likely to be women and have experienced a shorter duration of homelessness. Cohabiters were significantly more likely than unsheltered participants to have experienced abuse prior to losing stable housing. Pre-homeless social support appears to protect against street homelessness while low levels of social support may increase the risk for becoming homeless immediately after

  15. Reconstruction of residential buildings by detail analysis of multi-aspect InSAR data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiele, Antje; Cadario, Erich; Schulz, Karsten; Thoennessen, Ulrich; Soergel, Uwe

    2008-10-01

    State-of-the-art SAR sensors suggest utilizing InSAR-Data for the analysis of dense urban areas. The appearance of buildings in SAR or InSAR data is characterized by the effects of the inherent oblique scene illumination, such as layover, occlusion by radar shadow and multipath signal propagation. Therefore, especially in dense built-up areas reconstruction quality can be improved by a combined analysis of multi-aspect data. The presented approach focuses on reconstruction of buildings in residential districts supported by knowledge based analysis considering the mentioned SAR-specific effects. The algorithm of building extraction starts with the segmentation of primitives, such as lines and edges, followed by the assembly of building hypotheses based on typical building features like linearity and right-angularity. The subsequent post-processing of building hypotheses contains the analysis of InSAR phases to improve footprint or to detect roof-type of buildings. The results are presented by using optical data and a high resolution LIDAR surface model as ground truth data.

  16. What Does C-51 Mean for Academic Freedom & Campus Free Speech? CAUT Analysis of Bill C-51

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canadian Association of University Teachers, 2015

    2015-01-01

    Bill C-51, the Canadian federal government's "Anti-Terrorism Act," has sparked serious concerns about the potential impact on the basic civil liberties of all Canadians. The proposed legislation would establish criminal offences that infringe upon the right to free expression. Security agencies would be granted unprecedented and…

  17. Electricity consumption in G7 countries: A panel cointegration analysis of residential demand elasticities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narayan, Paresh Kumar; Smyth, Russell; Prasad, Arti

    2007-01-01

    This article applies recently developed panel unit root and panel cointegration techniques to estimate the long-run and short-run income and price elasticities for residential demand for electricity in G7 countries. The panel results indicate that in the long-run residential demand for electricity is price elastic and income inelastic. The study concludes that from an environmental perspective there is potential to use pricing policies in the G7 countries to curtail residential electricity demand, and thus curb carbon emissions, in the long run

  18. Experimental Analysis of Cool Traditional Solar Shading Systems for Residential Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Laura Pisello

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In recent years there has been a growing interest in the development and thermal-energy analysis of passive solutions for reducing building cooling needs and thus improving indoor thermal comfort conditions. In this view, several studies were carried out about cool roofs and cool coatings, producing acknowledged mitigation effects on urban heat island phenomenon. The purpose of this work is to investigate the thermal-energy performance of cool louvers of shutters, usually installed in residential buildings, compared to dark color traditional shading systems. To this aim, two full-scale prototype buildings were continuously monitored under summer conditions and the role of the cool shutter in reducing the overheating of the shading system and the energy requirements for cooling was analyzed. After an in-lab optical analysis of the cool coating, showing a huge solar reflectance increase with respect to the traditional configuration, i.e., by about 75%, field monitoring results showed that the cool shutter is able to decrease the indoor air temperature up to 2 °C under free floating conditions. The corresponding energy saving was about 25%, with even much higher peaks during very hot summer conditions.

  19. Stories of change: the text analysis of handovers in an Italian psychiatric residential care home.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Accordini, M; Saita, E; Irtelli, F; Buratti, M; Savuto, G

    2017-05-01

    two decades. Method Emotional text analysis (ETA) was used to analyse the MHWs' handovers completed from 1990 to 2011. Results The analysis generated four clusters and three main factors illustrating the change in the MHWs' representations of the residential care home and its occupants. The factors showed: (1) the shift from an individualistic, problem-focused view to an inclusive, community-based approach; (2) the presence of a descriptive as well as a specialized language; and (3) the presence of a double focus: on patients and professionals. Conclusions Handovers transcripts document the following changes: (1) a shift from a symptom-based to a recovery-oriented approach; (2) a modification of the MHWs values towards an holistic view of the patient; (3) a growing importance assigned to accountability, services integration and teamwork. The paper shows that handovers can be used diachronically to document organizational change. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Energy consumption behavior in the commercial sector: An ethnographic analysis of utility bill information and customer comprehension in the workplace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Christopher Todd

    The commercial and industrial sectors of the United States compose roughly one-third of total United States energy consumption. Many studies have suggested that significant cost-effective energy savings opportunities exist in this sector, but there is a gap between predictions of potential and actual investment in energy-efficient technologies. Very few studies have been conducted to examine the decision-making environment of the business sector. In particular, there is essentially no information about how small-business decision-makers make choices about energy consumption. My research is intended to begin the process of understanding this important arena of energy consumption behavior. Using semi-structured interview techniques, I interviewed forty-four businesses in ten states. The focus of the interviews was the business decision-maker's handling and use of the utility bill---the main (often sole) piece of information that links energy consumption to cost. Through the interviews, I collected information about how utility bills are understood and misunderstood, what components of the bill are seen as useful or confusing, and how energy consumption was seen in the context of larger business decision-making. In addition, I collected data on two forms of energy consumption feedback: historic consumption feedback, in which informants compared their current energy use to patterns of their own energy consumption over time; and group comparison consumption feedback, in which informants compared their energy consumption to the consumption of a group of similar energy consumers. Finally, I collected data on sources of information to which decision-makers turned when they wanted to seek more information about energy consumption alternatives. Overall, my findings suggest that the current utility bill format is often misunderstood. In many cases, particularly in the small-business and medium-size-business categories, the link between energy consumption and energy cost is

  1. Models for residential- and commercial-sector energy-conservation analysis: applications, limitations, and future potential. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cole, Henry E.; Fullen, Robert E.

    1980-09-01

    This report reviews four of the major models used by the Department of Energy (DOE) for energy conservation analyses in the residential- and commercial-building sectors. The objective is to provide a critical analysis of how these models can serve as tools for DOE and its Conservation Policy Office in evaluating and quantifying their policy and program requirements. For this, the study brings together information on the models' analytical structure and their strengths and limitations in policy applications these are then employed to assess the most-effective role for each model in addressing future issues of buildings energy-conservation policy and analysis. The four models covered are: Oak Ridge Residential Energy Model; Micro Analysis of Transfers to Households/Comprehensive Human Resources Data System (MATH/CHRDS) Model; Oak Ridge Commercial Energy Model; and Brookhaven Buildings Energy Conservation Optimization Model (BECOM).

  2. Quantitative analysis of residential parking intrusions by passenger vehicles in New York City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-01

    This paper investigates the spatial patterns of residential parking intrusions in New York City, their determinants, and an : estimated number and spatial patterns of induced excessive vehicle miles traveled (VMT). The paper analyzes parking tickets ...

  3. Selection and Exergy Analysis of Fuel Cell System to Meet all Energy Needs of Residential Buildings

    OpenAIRE

    G.R. Ashari; N.Hedayat; S. Shalbaf; E.Hajidavalloo

    2011-01-01

    In this paper a polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cell power system including burner, steam reformer, heat exchanger and water heater has been considered to meet the electrical, heating, cooling and domestic hot water loads of residential building which in Tehran. The system uses natural gas as fuel and works in CHP mode. Design and operating conditions of a PEM fuel cell system is considered in this study. The energy requirements of residential building and the num...

  4. Development of a solar-powered residential air conditioner: Screening analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    Screening analysis aimed at the definition of an optimum configuration of a Rankine cycle solar-powered air conditioner designed for residential application were conducted. Initial studies revealed that system performance and cost were extremely sensitive to condensing temperature and to the type of condenser used in the system. Consequently, the screening analyses were concerned with the generation of parametric design data for different condenser approaches; i. e., (1) an ambient air condenser, (2) a humidified ambient air condenser (3) an evaporative condenser, and (4) a water condenser (with a cooling tower). All systems feature a high performance turbocompressor and a single refrigerant (R-11) for the power and refrigeration loops. Data were obtained by computerized methods developed to permit system characterization over a broad range of operating and design conditions. The criteria used for comparison of the candidate system approaches were (1) overall system COP (refrigeration effect/solar heat input), (2) auxiliary electric power for fans and pumps, and (3) system installed cost or cost to the user.

  5. Complex analysis of energy efficiency in operated high-rise residential building: Case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korniyenko Sergey

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Energy conservation and human thermal comfort enhancement in buildings is a topical issue of modern architecture and construction. The innovative solution of this problem makes it possible to enhance building ecological and maintenance safety, to reduce hydrocarbon fuel consumption, and to improve life standard of people. The requirements to increase of energy efficiency in buildings should be provided at all the stages of building's life cycle that is at the stage of design, construction and maintenance of buildings. The research purpose is complex analysis of energy efficiency in operated high-rise residential building. Many actions for building energy efficiency are realized according to the project; mainly it is the effective building envelope and engineering systems. Based on results of measurements the energy indicators of the building during annual period have been calculated. The main reason of increase in heat losses consists in the raised infiltration of external air in the building through a building envelope owing to the increased air permeability of windows and balcony doors (construction defects. Thermorenovation of the building based on ventilating and infiltration heat losses reduction through a building envelope allows reducing annual energy consumption. Energy efficiency assessment based on the total annual energy consumption of building, including energy indices for heating and a ventilation, hot water supply and electricity supply, in comparison with heating is more complete. The account of various components in building energy balance completely corresponds to modern direction of researches on energy conservation and thermal comfort enhancement in buildings.

  6. Magnetic fields in a residential neighbourhood by network analysis and field calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mader, D.L.

    1992-01-01

    A magnetic field research facility has been used for validation of a method to compute 60-Hz magnetic fields in a residential neighbourhood. Network analysis is used to solve for currents in a mathematical model of the electric power distribution system including grounding conductors and metallic water supply pipes. Then, magnetic fields are calculated using the currents and the locations of all conductors. The critical role of joint resistance was highlighted by this study as follows. With initial estimates of resistances in the model, a fitting algorithm was able to obtain excellent agreement between the model and measurements, and provide confidence in its predictive capability. Simulations are then done to illustrate the effects of a poor joint, multiple unbalanced loads, heavy balanced loads, a heavy feeder line going through the neighbourhood, injection of current into the local neutral from an adjacent neighbourhood, use of plastic water pipes instead of metal, wet soil, increasing the distance from the power line, changing from twisted wires to an open secondary bus, and primary current loops caused by poor joints in the interconnected system neutral. 8 refs., 24 figs., 8 tabs

  7. Complex analysis of energy efficiency in operated high-rise residential building: Case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korniyenko, Sergey

    2018-03-01

    Energy conservation and human thermal comfort enhancement in buildings is a topical issue of modern architecture and construction. The innovative solution of this problem makes it possible to enhance building ecological and maintenance safety, to reduce hydrocarbon fuel consumption, and to improve life standard of people. The requirements to increase of energy efficiency in buildings should be provided at all the stages of building's life cycle that is at the stage of design, construction and maintenance of buildings. The research purpose is complex analysis of energy efficiency in operated high-rise residential building. Many actions for building energy efficiency are realized according to the project; mainly it is the effective building envelope and engineering systems. Based on results of measurements the energy indicators of the building during annual period have been calculated. The main reason of increase in heat losses consists in the raised infiltration of external air in the building through a building envelope owing to the increased air permeability of windows and balcony doors (construction defects). Thermorenovation of the building based on ventilating and infiltration heat losses reduction through a building envelope allows reducing annual energy consumption. Energy efficiency assessment based on the total annual energy consumption of building, including energy indices for heating and a ventilation, hot water supply and electricity supply, in comparison with heating is more complete. The account of various components in building energy balance completely corresponds to modern direction of researches on energy conservation and thermal comfort enhancement in buildings.

  8. The potential for bias in Cohen's ecological analysis of lung cancer and residential radon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lubin, Jay H.

    2002-01-01

    Cohen's ecological analysis of US lung cancer mortality rates and mean county radon concentration shows decreasing mortality rates with increasing radon concentration (Cohen 1995 Health Phys. 68 157-74). The results prompted his rejection of the linear-no-threshold (LNT) model for radon and lung cancer. Although several authors have demonstrated that risk patterns in ecological analyses provide no inferential value for assessment of risk to individuals, Cohen advances two arguments in a recent response to Darby and Doll (2000 J. Radiol. Prot. 20 221-2) who suggest Cohen's results are and will always be burdened by the ecological fallacy. Cohen asserts that the ecological fallacy does not apply when testing the LNT model, for which average exposure determines average risk, and that the influence of confounding factors is obviated by the use of large numbers of stratification variables. These assertions are erroneous. Average dose determines average risk only for models which are linear in all covariates, in which case ecological analyses are valid. However, lung cancer risk and radon exposure, while linear in the relative risk, are not linearly related to the scale of absolute risk, and thus Cohen's rejection of the LNT model is based on a false premise of linearity. In addition, it is demonstrated that the deleterious association for radon and lung cancer observed in residential and miner studies is consistent with negative trends from ecological studies, of the type described by Cohen. (author)

  9. Efficiency Analysis of Independent and Centralized Heating Systems for Residential Buildings in Northern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Rinaldi

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The primary energy consumption in residential buildings is determined by the envelope thermal characteristics, air change, outside climatic data, users’ behaviour and the adopted heating system and its control. The new Italian regulations strongly suggest the installation of centralized boilers in renovated buildings with more than four apartments. This work aims to investigate the differences in primary energy consumption and efficiency among several independent and centralized heating systems installed in Northern Italy. The analysis is carried out through the following approach: firstly building heating loads are evaluated using the software TRNSYS® and, then, heating system performances are estimated through a simplified model based on the European Standard EN 15316. Several heating systems have been analyzed, evaluating: independent and centralized configurations, condensing and traditional boilers, radiator and radiant floor emitters and solar plant integration. The heating systems are applied to four buildings dating back to 2010, 2006, 1960s and 1930s. All the combinations of heating systems and buildings are analyzed in detail, evaluating efficiency and primary energy consumption. In most of the cases the choice between centralized and independent heating systems has minor effects on primary energy consumption, less than 3%: the introduction of condensing technology and the integration with solar heating plant can reduce energy consumption by 11% and 29%, respectively.

  10. Economic analysis of photovoltaic systems for the residential market under China's new regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodrigues, Sandy; Chen, Xiaoju; Morgado-Dias, F.

    2017-01-01

    China has recently changed its regulation for producing energy from photovoltaic solar panels in order to encourage the use of the solar resource. This new regulation started with offering subsidies at a national level and this was later followed by local subsidies in addition to the national one. Being a large country, China has regions with good solar exposure and others with poor exposure. Each region has a different electricity price and the energy is purchased based on the Grid Coal Power electricity price that also varies throughout the country. In this work we analyze the economic profitability of different regions considering the solar radiation levels, savings in self-consumption, cash flows from injecting power into the grid and local prices for installations to show that the best return is obtained in the places with better solar radiation or where the electricity price is higher. The regional Feed-In tariffs help to compensate for lower radiation levels but do not make these regions very attractive from an investment perspective. - Highlights: • Summarizes national and local feed in tariffs for China for the residential market. • Provides average local prices for 1 kW, 3 kW and 5 kW photovoltaic installations. • Selects city with best IRR, NPV and DPBP based on prices, subsidies and radiation. • Performs sensitivity analysis to check which parameter has more effect on results.

  11. Analysis of the systems of ventilation of residential houses of Ukraine and Estonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savchenko, Olena; Zhelykh, Vasyl; Voll, Hendrik

    2017-12-01

    The most common ventilation system in residential buildings in Ukraine is natural ventilation. In recent years, due to increased tightness of structures, an increase in the content of synthetic finishing materials in them, the quality of microclimate parameters deteriorated. One of the measures to improve the parameters of indoor air in residential buildings is the use of mechanical inflow and exhaust ventilation system. In this article the regulatory documents concerning the design of ventilation systems in Ukraine and Estonia and the requirements for air exchange in residential buildings are considered. It is established that the existing normative documents in Ukraine are analogous to European norms, which allow design the system of ventilation of residential buildings according to European standards. However, the basis for the design of ventilation systems in Ukraine is the national standards, in which mechanical ventilation, unfortunately, is provided only for the design of high-rise buildings. To maintain acceptable microclimate parameters in residential buildings, it is advisable for designers to apply the requirements for designing ventilation systems in accordance with European standards.

  12. Analysis of the systems of ventilation of residential houses of Ukraine and Estonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savchenko Olena

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The most common ventilation system in residential buildings in Ukraine is natural ventilation. In recent years, due to increased tightness of structures, an increase in the content of synthetic finishing materials in them, the quality of microclimate parameters deteriorated. One of the measures to improve the parameters of indoor air in residential buildings is the use of mechanical inflow and exhaust ventilation system. In this article the regulatory documents concerning the design of ventilation systems in Ukraine and Estonia and the requirements for air exchange in residential buildings are considered. It is established that the existing normative documents in Ukraine are analogous to European norms, which allow design the system of ventilation of residential buildings according to European standards. However, the basis for the design of ventilation systems in Ukraine is the national standards, in which mechanical ventilation, unfortunately, is provided only for the design of high-rise buildings. To maintain acceptable microclimate parameters in residential buildings, it is advisable for designers to apply the requirements for designing ventilation systems in accordance with European standards.

  13. Analysis of Energy Consumption and Possibilities of Thermal-Modernization in Residential Buildings in Poland Case Study: The Town of Zielona Góra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsabry, A.; Truszkiewicz, P.; Szymański, K.; Łaskawiec, K.; Rojek, Ł.

    2017-12-01

    The article presents an analysis of buildings belonging the Department of Public Utilities and Housing in Zielona Góra. The research was based on a set of questions for building operators. The questionnaires consisted of 30 questions concerning general and detailed information about the buildings. In order to clearly present the results, this article includes data only about residential and residential-commercial buildings. Forty building built in different periods were selected for analysis.

  14. Atomic Energy Authority Bill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, J.H.N.; Stoddart, D.L.; Sinclair, R.M.; Ezra, D.

    1985-01-01

    The House, in Committee, discussed the following matters in relation to the Atomic Energy Authority Bill; financing; trading; personnel conditions of employment; public relations; organization; research programmes; fuels; energy sources; information dissemination. (U.K.)

  15. Residential Passive House Development In China : Technica lAnd Economic Feasibility Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Chen

    2011-01-01

    As the energy price goes up, more and more concern has been focused on the sustainable development of residential houses. One of the best solution will be the low energy housing-passive house. The concept of passive house has been popular in Germany and whole Europe in the last 10 years, however, there is no official residential passive house standard project in China now. In this thesis, the feasibility of developing passive house in China will be analysed. Combined with the mature experienc...

  16. Electricity Bill [Part 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parkinson, C.; Hogg, N.; Salmond, A.

    1988-01-01

    The paper presents the first part of the Parliamentary debate on the second reading of the Electricity Bill, House of Commons, London 1988. The Bill sets out the government's proposals for the restructuring and privatisation of the electricity supply industry throughout Great Britain. Customers and suppliers, choice for the consumer, competition promotion, security of supply, nuclear power stations, and cost, are all discussed. (U.K.)

  17. Medication errors in residential aged care facilities: a distributed cognition analysis of the information exchange process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tariq, Amina; Georgiou, Andrew; Westbrook, Johanna

    2013-05-01

    Medication safety is a pressing concern for residential aged care facilities (RACFs). Retrospective studies in RACF settings identify inadequate communication between RACFs, doctors, hospitals and community pharmacies as the major cause of medication errors. Existing literature offers limited insight about the gaps in the existing information exchange process that may lead to medication errors. The aim of this research was to explicate the cognitive distribution that underlies RACF medication ordering and delivery to identify gaps in medication-related information exchange which lead to medication errors in RACFs. The study was undertaken in three RACFs in Sydney, Australia. Data were generated through ethnographic field work over a period of five months (May-September 2011). Triangulated analysis of data primarily focused on examining the transformation and exchange of information between different media across the process. The findings of this study highlight the extensive scope and intense nature of information exchange in RACF medication ordering and delivery. Rather than attributing error to individual care providers, the explication of distributed cognition processes enabled the identification of gaps in three information exchange dimensions which potentially contribute to the occurrence of medication errors namely: (1) design of medication charts which complicates order processing and record keeping (2) lack of coordination mechanisms between participants which results in misalignment of local practices (3) reliance on restricted communication bandwidth channels mainly telephone and fax which complicates the information processing requirements. The study demonstrates how the identification of these gaps enhances understanding of medication errors in RACFs. Application of the theoretical lens of distributed cognition can assist in enhancing our understanding of medication errors in RACFs through identification of gaps in information exchange. Understanding

  18. Badali recommends simplified bills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon

    2003-01-01

    A report on the variety of retail electricity bills across the province, authored by Salvatore Badali of Deloitte Consulting, was recently released by the Ontario Government. The report was commissioned by the Government to examine the underlying reasons for the significant format differences and the wide variation of fixed and variable charges among the approximately 95 local electricity distribution companies across the province. Regarding the appropriateness of the charges the report recommends common definitions for local distribution company (LDC) fixed and variable costs, and consideration of options for reducing LDC charges, mainly by consolidating the sector and sharing such services as customer billing, accounting and out sourcing operations. Seven recommendations deal with bill simplification. These include bills that are clear and easy to read and provide sufficient information for consumers to verify charges; promote energy conservation, e.g. by including historical information; allow comparisons between retail suppliers and distributors; accommodate revenue collection, marketing needs and other billing services. The report also recommends clearly defined and consistently used terminology for standardized line items, suggests ways to provide consumer information in a form useful for making energy conservation decisions, development of an LDC scorecard to enable stake holders to compare their own LDCs with LDCs around the province, creation of a conservation and bill calculation website, consideration of further use of shared services, and solutions to address the removal of line losses from invoices

  19. Analysis of Minimum Efficiency Performance Standards for Residential General Service Lighting in Chile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Letschert, Virginie E.; McNeil, Michael A.; Leiva Ibanez, Francisco Humberto; Ruiz, Ana Maria; Pavon, Mariana; Hall, Stephen

    2011-06-01

    Minimum Efficiency Performance Standards (MEPS) have been chosen as part of Chile's national energy efficiency action plan. As a first MEPS, the Ministry of Energy has decided to focus on a regulation for lighting that would ban the sale of inefficient bulbs, effectively phasing out the use of incandescent lamps. Following major economies such as the US (EISA, 2007) , the EU (Ecodesign, 2009) and Australia (AS/NZS, 2008) who planned a phase out based on minimum efficacy requirements, the Ministry of Energy has undertaken the impact analysis of a MEPS on the residential lighting sector. Fundacion Chile (FC) and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) collaborated with the Ministry of Energy and the National Energy Efficiency Program (Programa Pais de Eficiencia Energetica, or PPEE) in order to produce a techno-economic analysis of this future policy measure. LBNL has developed for CLASP (CLASP, 2007) a spreadsheet tool called the Policy Analysis Modeling System (PAMS) that allows for evaluation of costs and benefits at the consumer level but also a wide range of impacts at the national level, such as energy savings, net present value of savings, greenhouse gas (CO2) emission reductions and avoided capacity generation due to a specific policy. Because historically Chile has followed European schemes in energy efficiency programs (test procedures, labelling program definitions), we take the Ecodesign commission regulation No 244/2009 as a starting point when defining our phase out program, which means a tiered phase out based on minimum efficacy per lumen category. The following data were collected in order to perform the techno-economic analysis: (1) Retail prices, efficiency and wattage category in the current market, (2) Usage data (hours of lamp use per day), and (3) Stock data, penetration of efficient lamps in the market. Using these data, PAMS calculates the costs and benefits of efficiency standards from two distinct but related perspectives: (1) The

  20. An application of energy and exergy analysis in residential sector of Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saidur, R.; Masjuki, H.H.; Jamaluddin, M.Y.

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, the useful concept of energy and exergy utilization is defined, analyzed and applied to the residential sector of Malaysia by taking into account the energy and exergy flows for a period of 8 years from the year 1997 to 2004. The energy and exergy efficiencies are determined for the devices used in this sector and found to be 70% and 28%, respectively. Energy and exergy flow diagrams for the overall efficiencies of Malaysian residential sector are also illustrated in this paper. It is found that the current methodology applied in Saudi Arabia is suitable to analyze energy and exergy use in Malaysian residential sector. It has been found that the exergy efficiency of the Malaysian residential sector appears to be much lower than its corresponding energy efficiency. It has been observed that about 21% of total exergy losses are caused by refrigerator-freezer and 12% of total loss is caused by air conditioner. Washing machine, fan and rice cooker contribute about 11%, 10% and 8% of total exergy losses, respectively

  1. The relationship between residential yard management and neighborhood crime: An analysis from Baltimore City and County

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin Troy; Ashley Nunery; Morgan Grove

    2016-01-01

    We analyzed the relationship between crime and indicators of residential yard management in Baltimore City and County. Data came from a survey we conducted of over one thousand front yards that included more than 40 indicators relating to lawns, trees, shrubs, beds and other features. These indicators were related to point counts of crime at the 150 m scale using a...

  2. Infectious Intestinal Diseases and Residential Water Services in Mexico: a Spatial Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas P. Sisto

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Infectious intestinal diseases (IID represent a widespread public health problem in Mexico. The country also faces major challenges with respect to the provision of residential water services (piped water and sewer—an essential input for hygiene and cleanliness in homes. This paper analyzes morbidity rates from several IID associated with unsanitary living conditions along with a series of residential water services indicators for Mexico’s 2,456 municipalities. With data obtained through a special request to the federal epidemiological authority as well as official census data for 2010, we find stark regional contrasts and identify interesting spatial structures for both IID morbidity and residential water services indicators. In particular, municipalities tend to present values similar to neighboring municipalities, forming clusters of relatively high-value (or low-value municipalities. Moreover we find that municipalities with a relatively high level of access to residential water services tend to present relatively low IID morbidity rates. These results have multiple public policy implications. In order to reduce the incidence of IID effectively and efficiently, interventions should explicitly consider the spatial structure of morbidity and target problem spots—which typically spill over state, municipal and other administrative boundaries. Moreover, improvements in the quality of access to piped water (for example, increasing the frequency of supply may be as important for reducing morbidity as the expansion of basic access to this service.

  3. Economic analysis of the gypsy moth problem in the northeast: II. applied to residential property

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brian R. Payne; William B. White; Roger E. McCay; Robert R. McNichols

    1973-01-01

    Guidelines are presented for determining dollar losses in residential property values from tree mortality caused by the gypsy moth. The method is based on an earlier study in Amherst, Massachusetts, of the contribution of trees to property values. For each target area, the method requires data on property value, lot size, and number of trees 6 inches dbh and larger for...

  4. The effects of utility cost reduction on residential energy consumption in Hungary – a decomposition analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tekla Sebestyén Szép

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The residential energy consumption is influenced by a lot of factors. Understanding and calculating these factors is essential to making conscious energy policy decisions and feedbacks. Since 2013 the energy prices for households have been controlled by the government in Hungary and as a result of the utility cost reduction program a sharp decline can be observed in residential electricity, district heating and natural gas prices. This paper applies the LMDI (~Logarithmic Mean Division Index method to decompose the absolute change of the residential energy consumption during the period of 2010-2015. We calculate the price, the intensive structure (it means the change of energy expenditure share on energy sources, the extensive structure (it is in connection with the change of energy expenditure share in total expenditure, expenditure (it is the change of per capita total expenditure and population effect. All of that shows the impact of the specific factor on the residential energy consumption by income deciles. Our results have verified the preliminary expectations: the decreasing energy prices for households have a positive impact on energy use and it has been strengthened by the expenditure effect as well. However, the intensive structure, the extensive structure and the population effect have largely offset it.

  5. An analysis of the physical properties of recovered CCA-treated wood from residential decks

    Science.gov (United States)

    David Bailey; Robert L. Smith; Philip A. Araman

    2004-01-01

    A large volume of CCA-treated wood removed from residential decks is disposed of in landfills every year, and better environmentally conscious alternatives are needed. Recycling CCA-treated wood from the decks could be a feasible alternative, but there is a lack of knowledge regarding the physical properties of the material. This research analyzed the chemical and...

  6. Rooftop Surface Temperature Analysis in an Urban Residential Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qunshan Zhao

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The urban heat island (UHI phenomenon is a significant worldwide problem caused by rapid population growth and associated urbanization. The UHI effect exacerbates heat waves during the summer, increases energy and water consumption, and causes the high risk of heat-related morbidity and mortality. UHI mitigation efforts have increasingly relied on wisely designing the urban residential environment such as using high albedo rooftops, green rooftops, and planting trees and shrubs to provide canopy coverage and shading. Thus, strategically designed residential rooftops and their surrounding landscaping have the potential to translate into significant energy, long-term cost savings, and health benefits. Rooftop albedo, material, color, area, slope, height, aspect and nearby landscaping are factors that potentially contribute. To extract, derive, and analyze these rooftop parameters and outdoor landscaping information, high resolution optical satellite imagery, LIDAR (light detection and ranging point clouds and thermal imagery are necessary. Using data from the City of Tempe AZ (a 2010 population of 160,000 people, we extracted residential rooftop footprints and rooftop configuration parameters from airborne LIDAR point clouds and QuickBird satellite imagery (2.4 m spatial resolution imagery. Those parameters were analyzed against surface temperature data from the MODIS/ASTER airborne simulator (MASTER. MASTER images provided fine resolution (7 m surface temperature data for residential areas during daytime and night time. Utilizing these data, ordinary least squares (OLS regression was used to evaluate the relationships between residential building rooftops and their surface temperature in urban environment. The results showed that daytime rooftop temperature was closely related to rooftop spectral attributes, aspect, slope, and surrounding trees. Night time temperature was only influenced by rooftop spectral attributes and slope.

  7. Dynamic behavior of PEM FCPPs under various load conditions and voltage stability analysis for stand-alone residential applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uzunoglu, M.; Onar, O. C.; Alam, M. S.

    In this paper, dynamic behavior and performance of a fuel cell power plant (FCPP) which operates in parallel with a battery bank is tested under classified load conditions, such as mostly resistive, mostly inductive, resistive-inductive and non-linear loads. Thereafter, voltage stability analysis is performed using the dynamic response of the FCPP for stand-alone residential applications. Simulation results are obtained using the MATLAB ® and Simulink ® software packages, based on the mathematical and dynamic electrical models of the system. Using the experimental results, a validated model has been realized and voltage stability analysis is performed through this model.

  8. An SEM Analysis of Bearing Failure Due to Electrical Arcing (Analyse par Microscopie Electronique a Balayage de l’Endommagement d’un Roulement a Billes a la Suite de Decharges Electriques Internes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    ANALYSIS OF BEARING FAILURE DUE TO ELECTRICAL ARCING ANALYSE PAR MICROSCOPIE ELECTRONIQUE A BALAYAGE DE L’ENIDOMMAGEMENT D’UN ROULEMENT A BILLES A LA SUITE...cause of subsequent fatigue and other mechanical damage to these components. RESUME Une analyse par microscopie 6lectronique A balayage a permis de...6vidence a la surface des billes de roulements et des voies de glissement par microscopie 6lectronique i balayage . Cela sugg~re que des d~charges

  9. Re-thinking residential mobility

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Ham, Maarten; Findlay, Allan M.

    2015-01-01

    While researchers are increasingly re-conceptualizing international migration, far less attention has been devoted to re-thinking short-distance residential mobility and immobility. In this paper we harness the life course approach to propose a new conceptual framework for residential mobility research. We contend that residential mobility and immobility should be re-conceptualized as relational practices that link lives through time and space while connecting people to structural conditions. Re-thinking and re-assessing residential mobility by exploiting new developments in longitudinal analysis will allow geographers to understand, critique and address pressing societal challenges. PMID:27330243

  10. Residential Waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Fruergaard, Thilde; Matsufuji, Y.

    2011-01-01

    are discussed in this chapter. Characterizing residential waste is faced with the problem that many residences already divert some waste away from the official collection systems, for example performing home composting of vegetable waste and garden waste, having their bundled newspaper picked up by the scouts...... twice a year or bringing their used furniture to the flea markets organized by charity clubs. Thus, much of the data available on residential waste represents collected waste and not necessarily all generated waste. The latter can only be characterized by careful studies directly at the source...

  11. Association of residential dampness and mold with respiratory tract infections and bronchitis: a meta-analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisk, William J.; Eliseeva, Ekaterina A.; Mendell, Mark J.

    2010-11-15

    Dampness and mold have been shown in qualitative reviews to be associated with a variety of adverse respiratory health effects, including respiratory tract infections. Several published meta-analyses have provided quantitative summaries for some of these associations, but not for respiratory infections. Demonstrating a causal relationship between dampness-related agents, which are preventable exposures, and respiratory tract infections would suggest important new public health strategies. We report the results of quantitative meta-analyses of published studies that examined the association of dampness or mold in homes with respiratory infections and bronchitis. For primary studies meeting eligibility criteria, we transformed reported odds ratios (ORs) and confidence intervals (CIs) to the log scale. Both fixed and random effects models were applied to the log ORs and their variances. Most studies contained multiple estimated ORs. Models accounted for the correlation between multiple results within the studies analyzed. One set of analyses was performed with all eligible studies, and another set restricted to studies that controlled for age, gender, smoking, and socioeconomic status. Subgroups of studies were assessed to explore heterogeneity. Funnel plots were used to assess publication bias. The resulting summary estimates of ORs from random effects models based on all studies ranged from 1.38 to 1.50, with 95% CIs excluding the null in all cases. Use of different analysis models and restricting analyses based on control of multiple confounding variables changed findings only slightly. ORs (95% CIs) from random effects models using studies adjusting for major confounding variables were, for bronchitis, 1.45 (1.32-1.59); for respiratory infections, 1.44 (1.31-1.59); for respiratory infections excluding nonspecific upper respiratory infections, 1.50 (1.32-1.70), and for respiratory infections in children or infants, 1.48 (1.33-1.65). Little effect of publication

  12. An analysis of roadway noise at residential estates in close proximity to expressways in Singapore

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indraneel Bhanap

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Singapore is a city-state of 5 million people. The entire urban population has expanded from 4.4 million to 5 million in a matter of 5 years. Because of the scarcity of land available, more major roads and expressways are being run close to residential developments, exposing the residents to expressway noise. Recognizing the problems of noise in a high-density urban society such as Singapore, the National Environmental Agency of Singapore (NEA has set prescribed noise limits for residential areas. The purpose of this paper is to analyze the noise level in one such development that is adjacent to an expressway, examine the effect of building height on noise and to compare the results with the NEA standards. The paper concludes with the implications of the results and a discussion on the solution to the problem.

  13. Mosaic analysis for personal water consumption in residential buildings in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Yuet Fai; Wong, Ling Tim; Mui, Kwok Wai

    2018-02-01

    This paper investigates the daily per capita residential water use based on the demographic and socio-economic factors described by Mosaic Hong Kong and provides insights into future water supply planning. A survey was conducted to collect information on household water use behaviours and water consumption patterns. The survey results indicate that considerable consumption differences (in the range of 115.6 to 167.7 litres per person per day) exist among the Mosaic Groups, and the average daily per capita residential water consumption is estimated to be 139.6 litres per person per day. The results also reveal that the daily per capita water consumption is inversely proportional to household size in the range of 2 to 6. Moreover, consumption differences among housing types and districts are reported.

  14. Spatial analysis of low carbon development 2050: A case of residential sector, Bhopal, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheolikar, P; Kapshe, M; Yawale, S; Puntambekar, K

    2014-01-01

    Indian cities are witnessing economic development, urbanization and lifestyle changes, leading to increase in Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions. In cities, sectors contributing to GHG emission are residential sector, transport and waste sector. In order to reduce emission, it is important to assess how individual city can contribute to emission reduction to become a Low Carbon Society (LCS). In this paper, we have analyzed residential sector of Bhopal City at ward level for demand side management through energy efficiency and lifestyle change. Two LCS, countermeasure scenarios CM1 and CM2 along with a Business as Usual scenario are developed and emission reduction potential is quantified using the AIM/Enduse model up to year 2050. The quantitative results are represented in spatial format using Geographical Information System (GIS) software providing a better understanding for decision makers

  15. Environmental Impact Analysis on Residential Building in Malaysia Using Life Cycle Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmad Faiz Abd Rashid; Juferi Idris; Sumiani Yusoff

    2017-01-01

    The building industry has a significant impact on the environment due to massive natural resources and energy it uses throughout its life cycle. This study presents a life cycle assessment of a semi-detached residential building in Malaysia as a case study and assesses the environmental impact under cradle-to-grave which consists of pre-use, construction, use, and end-of-life phases by using Centre of Environmental Science of Leiden University (CML) 2001. Four impact categories were evaluated...

  16. Analysis of heat source selection for residential buildings in rural areas

    OpenAIRE

    Szul Tomasz

    2018-01-01

    The research aiming to check whether the output of currently installed boilers matches the use requirements together with estimation of their energy efficiency was carried out on a group of 84 single-family residential buildings located in rural areas. Heating and hot water energy needs were calculated for each building in order to determine the use requirements. This enabled verification whether the currently installed boilers match the actual use requirements in the buildings. Based on the ...

  17. ANALYSIS ON BILLING SYSTEM IMPLEMENTATION QUALITY IN ENDEAVOR TO INCREASE CUSTOMER SATISFACTION IN IMPORT ACTIVITY: STUDY OF SURABAYA CONTAINER TERMINAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dzulkirom M.

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to determine and explain the simultaneous and partial effects of service quality components consisting of reliability, responsiveness, assurance to customer satisfaction in PT. Terminal Petikemas Surabaya, аnd to know аnd explаin which between the three service quаlity vаriаbles thаt hаve а dominаnt effect on customer sаtisfаction. The type of reseаrch used is explаnаtory reseаrch with populаtion or census method with quаntitаtive аpproаch. Sаmples taken were 35 Billing Service users registered in PT. Terminal Petikemas Surabaya. Dаtа collection method used is questionnаire. The result of multiple lineаr regression аnаlysis shows thаt the three independent vаriаbles reliability, responsiveness, аssurаnce hаve significаnt influence on the dependent vаriаble thаt is customer sаtisfаction.

  18. Sutherland, Prof. Bill

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Fellow Profile. Elected: 2000 Honorary. Sutherland, Prof. Bill. Date of birth: 1942. Address: Department of Physics, University of Utah, 115 S 1400 E Rm 201, Salt Lake City, UT 8412-0830, U.S.A.. Contact: Office: (+1-801) 581 6424. Residence: (+1-801) 355 8342. Fax: (+1-801) 581 4801. Email: suther@physics.utah.edu, ...

  19. Essays in economics of energy efficiency in residential buildings - An empirical analysis[Dissertation 17157

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jakob, M.

    2007-07-01

    for policy priority setting and design, for inputs in energy models, and for building owners, developers and builders as decision support elements. Scope of the research was the sector of new and existing residential buildings in Switzerland. Based on price and technical data of additional insulation, improved window, ventilation and heating systems, and architectural concepts, it was found that the marginal and average costs of energy efficiency are to a large extent below or in the range of the marginal costs of energy (heat) generation, especially from a societal perspective. Many energy efficiency investments are economically viable also from a private perspective; particularly if best practice is applied and if long-term considerations are being made. The flat character of the curve of annualized capital and energy costs as a function of increasing energy efficiency levels implies that advanced energy efficiency levels are as cost-effective as low ones, having the advantage of a decreased energy price risk exposure. (...) The analysis of the total benefits of energy efficiency attributes from the building user perspective such as increased thermal comfort, constantly high indoor air quality, protection from external noise nuisance, property value and energy price risk hedging, revealed a considerable willingness-to-pay of a relevant proportion of home-purchasers and tenants for these benefits, making such investments also attractive for multi-family house owners due to potentially increased rental revenues. The willingness-to-pay, which was estimated by a choice experiment based on stated preferences, is generally higher than the costs of implementing these attributes. Particularly, this applies also to housing ventilation systems which makes them economically interesting although their costs cannot be covered by energy cost savings alone. The low-cost energy efficiency potentials and the considerable valuation of their benefits by a large proportion of the

  20. Reading and Calculating Billing Through Mobile Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilar Alexandra Moreno

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This article broadly describes the analysis, design and development of the system utilitarian, called “Reading and billing calculation site through mobile devices.” The application is oriented Public Services Companies, first water services, to perform part of the billing process “in place” through phones or any mobile devices compatible with Android. Will enable you to take readings of service consumption, recording new gauging, online update and control the information for users and turnover. This technology is considered as such one site billing method as through Internet is connected with the database of the company, sending and receiving date information, which makes the calculation of the billing for the reading period, bringing benefits to the client and the service generating company.

  1. Potential Effect and Analysis of High Residential Solar Photovoltaic (PV Systems Penetration to an Electric Distribution Utility (DU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey Tamba Dellosa

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The Renewable Energy Act of 2008 in the Philippines provided an impetus for residential owners to explore solar PV installations at their own rooftops through the Net-Metering policy. The Net-Metering implementation through the law however presented some concerns with inexperienced electric DU on the potential effect of high residential solar PV system installations. It was not known how a high degree of solar integration to the grid can possibly affect the operations of the electric DU in terms of energy load management. The primary objective of this study was to help the local electric DU in the analysis of the potential effect of high residential solar PV system penetration to the supply and demand load profile in an electric distribution utility (DU grid in the province of Agusan del Norte, Philippines. The energy consumption profiles in the year 2015 were obtained from the electric DU operating in the area. An average daily energy demand load profile was obtained from 0-hr to the 24th hour of the day based from the figures provided by the electric DU. The assessment part of the potential effect of high solar PV system integration assumed four potential total capacities from 10 Mega Watts (MW to 40 MW generated by all subscribers in the area under study at a 10 MW interval. The effect of these capacities were measured and analyzed with respect to the average daily load profile of the DU. Results of this study showed that a combined installations beyond 20 MWp coming from all subscribers is not viable for the local electric DU based on their current energy demand or load profile. Based from the results obtained, the electric DU can make better decisions in the management of high capacity penetration of solar PV systems in the future, including investment in storage systems when extra capacities are generated. Article History: Received July 15th 2016; Received in revised form Sept 23rd 2016; Accepted Oct 1st 2016; Available online How to Cite

  2. Objectively measured residential environment and self-reported health: a multilevel analysis of UK census data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Dunstan

    Full Text Available Little is known about the association between health and the quality of the residential environment. What is known is often based on subjective assessments of the environment rather than on measurements by independent observers. The aim of this study, therefore, was to determine the association between self-reported general health and an objectively assessed measure of the residential environment. We studied over 30,000 residents aged 18 or over living in 777 neighbourhoods in south Wales. Built environment quality was measured by independent observers using a validated tool, the Residential Environment Assessment Tool (REAT, at unit postcode level. UK Census data on each resident, which included responses to a question which assessed self-reported general health, was linked to the REAT score. The Census data also contained detailed information on socio-economic and demographic characteristics of all respondents and was also linked to the Welsh Index of Multiple Deprivation. After adjusting for both the individual characteristics and area deprivation, respondents in the areas of poorest neighbourhood quality were more likely to report poor health compared to those living in areas of highest quality (OR 1.36, 95% confidence interval 1.22-1.49. The particular neighbourhood characteristics associated with poor health were physical incivilities and measures of how well the residents maintained their properties. Measures of green space were not associated with self-reported health. This is the first full population study to examine such associations and the results demonstrate the importance for health of the quality of the neighbourhood area in which people live and particularly the way in which residents behave towards their own and their neighbours' property. A better understanding of causal pathways that allows the development of interventions to improve neighbourhood quality would offer significant potential health gains.

  3. An analysis of the impact of Renewable Portfolio Standards on residential electricity prices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Andrew James

    A Renewable Portfolio Standard (RPS) has become a popular policy for states seeking to increase the amount of renewable energy generated for consumers of electricity. The success of these state programs has prompted debate about the viability of a national RPS. The impact that these state level policies have had on the price consumers pay for electricity is the subject of some debate. Several federal organizations have conducted studies of the impact that a national RPS would have on electricity prices paid by consumers. NREL and US EIA utilize models that analyze the inputs in electricity generation to examine the future price impact of changes to electricity generation and show marginal increases in prices paid by end users. Other empirical research has produced similar results, showing that the existence of an RPS increases the price of electricity. These studies miss important aspects of RPS policies that may change how we view these price increases from RPS policies. By examining the previous empirical research on RPS policies, this study seeks to identify the controls necessary to build an effective model. These controls are utilized in a fixed effects model that seeks to show how the controls and variables of interest impact electricity prices paid by residential consumers of electricity. This study utilizes a panel data set from 1990 to 2014 to analyze the impact of these policies controlling for generating capacity, the regulatory status of utilities in each state, demographic characteristics of the states, and fuel prices. The results of the regressions indicate that prices are likely to be higher in states that have an RPS compared to states that do not have such a policy. Several of the characteristics mentioned above have price impacts, and so discussing RPS policies in the context of other factors that contribute to electricity prices is essential. In particular, the regulatory status of utilities in each state is an important determinate of price as

  4. Senate approves global warming bill; House bill introduced

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yates, M.

    1990-01-01

    This article examines the Senate approved global warming bill and its impact to the Department of Energy (DOE) and the power industry. The bill requires stabilization or reduction of the greenhouse gases produced by the United States by the year 2005. DOE is required to develop a least-cost national energy strategy. A similar bill has been introduced into the House

  5. Analysis of risk factors linked to social educator profession in different residential settings of Alicante Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Heliz Llopis

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important professions in the field of intervention with underage at social risk that are cared for in different residential settings is, undoubtedly, that of the social educator. In that sense, although there are many professionals involved with these underage (psychologists, social workers, psychiatrists, teachers, etc., social educators are the ones who, through the carrying out of functions specific to their profession, often work as the "front line" of action, given that they are the ones who are more in touch with the underage and therefore the most likely to be exposed to different variables that could eventually put them in a situation of risk of psycho-social problems related to their work. Hence, the task of identifying the risk variables related to the teaching profession becomes a key objective in order to prevent the occurrence of likely problems that could undermine their psychosocial health. Therefore, through this communication we intend to expose the results that we obtained with a sample of 50 educators who perform their work in different residential-type services in the province of Alicante.

  6. Environmental Impact Analysis on Residential Building in Malaysia Using Life Cycle Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Faiz Abd Rashid

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The building industry has a significant impact on the environment due to massive natural resources and energy it uses throughout its life cycle. This study presents a life cycle assessment of a semi-detached residential building in Malaysia as a case study and assesses the environmental impact under cradle-to-grave which consists of pre-use, construction, use, and end-of-life phases by using Centre of Environmental Science of Leiden University (CML 2001. Four impact categories were evaluated, namely, acidification, eutrophication, global warming potential (GWP, and ozone layer depletion (ODP. The building operation under use phase contributed the highest global warming potential and acidification with 2.41 × 103 kg CO2 eq and 1.10 × 101 kg SO2 eq, respectively. In the pre-use phase, concrete in the substructure has the most significant overall impact with cement as the primary raw material. The results showed that the residential building in Malaysia has a fairly high impact in GWP but lower in acidification and ODP compared to other studies.

  7. Electricity Bill [second reading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hooper, G.; Williams, C.C.P.; Ezra, D.

    1989-01-01

    The Parliamentary Under-Secretary at the Department of Energy introduced the second reading of the Electricity Bill which provides for the restructuring and privatisation of the electricity supply industry throughout Great Britain. Three features at the heart of the Government's proposals are mentioned - first that the proposals will promote competition in electricity generation and supply of electricity so there will be a downward pressure on costs and prices, second is a new deal for customers and third is the security of electricity supply which will be ensured by the diversity of suppliers. The benefits of the scheme are outlined and then specific details of the Bill are considered. The debate which followed lasted six hours and is reported verbatim. The issues raised included environmental effects, efficiency, energy conservation, research and development and investment. (UK)

  8. Gravity models to classify commuting vs. resident workers. An application to the analysis of residential risk in a contaminated area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Signorino, Guido; Pasetto, Roberto; Gatto, Elisa; Mucciardi, Massimo; La Rocca, Marina; Mudu, Pierpaolo

    2011-01-27

    The analysis of risk for the population residing and/or working in contaminated areas raises the topic of commuting. In fact, especially in contaminated areas, commuting groups are likely to be subject to lower exposure than residents. Only very recently environmental epidemiology has started considering the role of commuting as a differential source of exposure in contaminated areas. In order to improve the categorization of groups, this paper applies a gravitational model to the analysis of residential risk for workers in the Gela petrochemical complex, which began life in the early 60s in the municipality of Gela (Sicily, Italy) and is the main source of industrial pollution in the local area. A logistic regression model is implemented to measure the capacity of Gela "central location" to attract commuting flows from other sites. Drawing from gravity models, the proposed methodology: a) defines the probability of finding commuters from municipalities outside Gela as a function of the origin's "economic mass" and of its distance from each destination; b) establishes "commuting thresholds" relative to the origin's mass. The analysis includes 367 out of the 390 Sicilian municipalities. Results are applied to define "commuters" and "residents" within the cohort of petrochemical workers. The study population is composed of 5,627 workers. Different categories of residence in Gela are compared calculating Mortality Rate Ratios for lung cancer through a Poisson regression model, controlling for age and calendar period. The mobility model correctly classifies almost 90% of observations. Its application to the mortality analysis confirms a major risk for lung cancer associated with residence in Gela. Commuting is a critical aspect of the health-environment relationship in contaminated areas. The proposed methodology can be replicated to different contexts when residential information is lacking or unreliable; however, a careful consideration of the territorial

  9. Small distributed generation versus centralised supply: a social cost-benefit analysis in the residential and service sectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gulli, Francesco

    2006-01-01

    This paper aims at measuring the social benefits of small CHP distributed generation (DG) in the residential and service sectors. We do this by comparing the social costs of decentralised and centralised supplies, simulating 'ideal' situations in which any source of allocative inefficiencies is eliminated. This comparison focuses on assessing internal and external costs. The internal costs are calculated by simulating the optimal prices of the electricity and gas inputs. The external costs are estimated by using and elaborating the results of the dissemination process of the ExternE project, one of the most recent and accurate methodologies in this field. The analysis takes into account the main sources of uncertainty about the parameter values, including uncertainty about external cost estimations. Despite these sources of uncertainty, the paper concludes that centralised supply is still preferable to small DG. In fact, the overall range of DG social competitiveness is restricted, even considering further remarkable improvements in DG electrical efficiency and investment costs. The results are particularly unfavourable for the residential sector, whereas, in the service sector, the performance of DG technologies is slightly better

  10. Evolution of residential electricity demand by end-use in Quebec 1979-1989: A conditional demand analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lafrance, G.; Perron, D.

    1994-01-01

    Some of the main conclusions are presented from a temporal analysis of three large-scale electricity demand surveys (1979, 1984, and 1989) for the Quebec residential sector. A regression method called conditional demand analysis was used. The study allows a number of conclusions about certain electricity consumption trends by end-uses from 1979 to 1989 by household type and by vintage category. For example, the results indicate that decreasing electricity consumption between 1979 and 1984 for a typical dwelling equipped with electric space heating was mainly related to a large decline in net heating consumption. Overall, the results suggest that some permanent energy savings have been realized by a typical household equipped with an electric heating system due to improvements in standards and changes in customer behavior. These energy savings were partly offset by increased electricity consumption from the purchase of new appliances and an increase in the demand for hot water. 7 refs., 1 fig., 8 tabs

  11. Experimental analysis of an air-to-air heat recovery unit for balanced ventilation systems in residential buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez-Seara, Jose; Diz, Ruben; Uhia, Francisco J.; Dopazo, Alberto; Ferro, Jose M. [Area de Maquinas y Motores Termicos, E.T.S. de Ingenieros Industriales, University of Vigo, Campus Lagoas-Marcosende No. 9, 36310 Vigo (Spain)

    2011-01-15

    This paper deals with the experimental analysis of an air-to-air heat recovery unit equipped with a sensible polymer plate heat exchanger (PHE) for balanced ventilation systems in residential buildings. The PHE is arranged in parallel triangular ducts. An experimental facility was designed to reproduce the typical outdoor and exhaust air conditions with regard to temperature and humidity. The unit was tested under balanced operation conditions, as commonly used in practice. A set of tests was conducted under the reference operating conditions to evaluate the PHE performance. Afterwards, an experimental parametric analysis was conducted to investigate the influence of changing the operating conditions on the PHE performance. Experiments were carried out varying the inlet fresh air temperature, the exhaust air relative humidity and the air flow rate. The experimental results are shown and discussed in this paper. (author)

  12. Big five personality and residential mobility: a state-level analysis of the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCann, Stewart J H

    2015-01-01

    Relations of the state-aggregated Big Five personality scores of 619,397 residents to four 2005 state-level residential mobility criteria were examined with the 50 states as cases. Multiple regression controlling for five state demographic variables showed (a) higher state neuroticism was strongly associated with lower mobility, lower same-county mobility, and lower between-county mobility; (b) higher state extraversion was associated with lower mobility and lower same-county mobility, but only with neuroticism and/or conscientiousness controlled; and (c) conscientiousness was related to same-residence, same-county, and different-county mobility, but only without demographic variables controlled. Discussion is grounded in the dangers of cross-level speculation and the potential of a basic assumption of geographical psychology that an area's aggregate position on a dispositional variable is associated there with behavioral and psychological tendencies related to that variable.

  13. ANALYSIS OF THE FLORA OF RESIDENTIAL AND TECHNOGENIC AREAS OF GROZNY CITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Kh. Alikhadzhiev

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. The process of territorial expansion of the city is accompanied by intensive construction of industrial and social facilities, road network is actively developed, that leads to the transformation of natural vegetation, the appearance of manmade habitats which are actively colonized by segetal-ruderal species.Aim of the work is inventory of flora of disturbed habitats and the study of its current state, identify the taxonomic composition of phytocenoses.Field works were carried with help of route-floristic method in different growing seasons 2010-2012., technogenic and residential area of the city were studied.According to research a list of vascular plants of disturbed habitats numbering 237 species was compiled. Biomorphological and geographic structure is showed, adventive and indigenous flora fraction is determined.

  14. Analysis of flow maldistribution in fin-and-tube evaporators for residential air-conditioning systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kærn, Martin Ryhl

    validated and showed that a slip flow model need be used. A test case 8.8 kW residential air-conditioning system with R410A as refrigerant is chosen as baseline for the numerical investigations, and the simulations are performed at standard rating conditions from ANSI/AHRI Standard 210/240 (2008...... cases are standard tube circuitry designs and these results are thus tube circuitry specific. In addition, a novel method of compensating flow maldistribution is analyzed, i.e. the discontinuous liquid injection principle. The method is based upon the recently developed EcoFlowTM valve by Danfoss A...... profile across the A-coil evaporator was predicted by means of CFD simulation software STAR-CD 3.26 (2005) and applied in the numerical model. The main reason for the better face split evaporator performance at uniform conditions or when compensating, is that the superheated "weak" zones with low UA...

  15. Development of a solar-powered residential air conditioner: Economic analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    The results of investigations aimed at the development of cost models to be used in the economic assessment of Rankine-powered air conditioning systems for residential application are summarized. The rationale used in the development of the cost model was to: (1) collect cost data on complete systems and on the major equipment used in these systems; (2) reduce these data and establish relationships between cost and other engineering parameters such as weight, size, power level, etc; and (3) derive simple correlations from which cost-to-the-user can be calculated from performance requirements. The equipment considered in the survey included heat exchangers, fans, motors, and turbocompressors. This kind of hardware represents more than 2/3 of the total cost of conventional air conditioners.

  16. Analysis of heat-conducting inclusions in exterior walls of residential building

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larionov, Arkady; Minnullina, Anna

    2017-10-01

    The study is aimed at detecting the zones of major heat losses in exterior walls of residential buildings and developing recommendations on their elimination. The “ELCUT” software program calculated the temperature fields of the external wall under the design temperature of the outside air. The calculation was carried out for three options: the thermal characteristics of the materials of the layers of the outer wall correspond to the design parameters; thermal characteristics of the materials of the layers of the outer wall correspond to the actual measured values; Thermal technical characteristics of the materials of the layers of the outer wall correspond to the actual indicators and additional insulation is made. It is established that with additional insulation, the irregularity of the temperature field on the external surface of the wall is eliminated and normalized thermal resistance complies with the requirements.

  17. An Analysis on Optimization of Living and Fire Water Supply Systems of Small High-Rise Residential Blocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Min

    2017-11-01

    With the rapid growth of our population, the demand for housing quality of urban residents has been gradually raised. Due to the shortage of traditional multi-storey residential and high-rise residential, it is difficult to achieve a balance between quality and quantity of housing. As a result, a new type of residential building, small high-rise residential building, came into being. The so-called small high-rise residential generally refers to buildings of 7 to 11 layers, including unit buildings and tower buildings. In view of the problems existing in the water supply system of the small high-rise residential blocks, this paper presents a new system, namely a combined system of living and fire water supply. This system can be, according to the available pressure of municipal pipeline network, divided into three types, and has been optimized in order to fully utilize the municipal pipeline network pressure

  18. The Importance of the Distance to a Non-Residential Parent - An analysis of Children's Health, Behavior, and Educational Outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Astrid Würtz; Stratton, Leslie S.

    between the household where the child resides and the child‟s other parent‟s household is employed to proxy for contact and instrumental variables techniques are employed to control for endogeneity. The preliminary results suggest that educational and behavioral outcomes are better for children who live......Abstract. A substantial and growing fraction of children across Europe and the US live in households with only one parent or in households with a step-parent. At the same time there has been a growing tendency to grant joint custody or otherwise ensure that children of divorced parents spend time...... with each of their biological parents. This shift away from maternal custody is based on the belief that having contact with each parent is in the child‟s best interest. As our concern in this study is the impact of contact with the non-residential parent on child outcomes, we limit our analysis to children...

  19. Smart households: Dispatch strategies and economic analysis of distributed energy storage for residential peak shaving

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, Menglian; Meinrenken, Christoph J.; Lackner, Klaus S.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Cost-effectiveness of building-based storage for peak shaving has hitherto not been well understood. • Several existing storage technologies are shown to provide cost-effective peak shaving. • Setting grid demand targets rather than hard demand limits improves economics. • Accounting for seasonal demand variations in storage dispatch strategy improves economics further. • Total-energy-throughput approach is used to determine storage lifetimes. - Abstract: Meeting time-varying peak demand poses a key challenge to the U.S. electricity system. Building-based electricity storage – to enable demand response (DR) without curtailing actual appliance usage – offers potential benefits of lower electricity production cost, higher grid reliability, and more flexibility to integrate renewables. DR tariffs are currently available in the U.S. but building-based storage is still underutilized due to insufficiently understood cost-effectiveness and dispatch strategies. Whether DR schemes can yield a profit for building operators (i.e., reduction in electricity bill that exceeds levelized storage cost) and which particular storage technology yields the highest profit is yet to be answered. This study aims to evaluate the economics of providing peak shaving DR under a realistic tariff (Con Edison, New York), using a range of storage technologies (conventional and advanced batteries, flywheel, magnetic storage, pumped hydro, compressed air, and capacitors). An agent-based stochastic model is used to randomly generate appliance-level demand profiles for an average U.S. household. We first introduce a levelized storage cost model which is based on a total-energy-throughput lifetime. We then develop a storage dispatch strategy which optimizes the storage capacity and the demand limit on the grid. We find that (i) several storage technologies provide profitable DR; (ii) annual profit from such DR can range from 1% to 39% of the household’s non-DR electricity

  20. Unit billed services for HANDI 2000 business management system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, D.

    1998-08-24

    Unit billed services are those services provided internally by project to other projects, except for those services furnished by Lockheed Martin Services,Inc., an Enterprise Company. These services are billed when the actual work is performed, based on a published rate for the service. Examples of this would be crane and rigging, duplicating, or lab analysis. The providers of these services collect their costs in a pool. The pool is then liquidated by the billings.

  1. Insurance billing and coding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napier, Rebecca H; Bruelheide, Lori S; Demann, Eric T K; Haug, Richard H

    2008-07-01

    The purpose of this article is to highlight the importance of understanding various numeric and alpha-numeric codes for accurately billing dental and medically related services to private pay or third-party insurance carriers. In the United States, common dental terminology (CDT) codes are most commonly used by dentists to submit claims, whereas current procedural terminology (CPT) and International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD.9.CM) codes are more commonly used by physicians to bill for their services. The CPT and ICD.9.CM coding systems complement each other in that CPT codes provide the procedure and service information and ICD.9.CM codes provide the reason or rationale for a particular procedure or service. These codes are more commonly used for "medical necessity" determinations, and general dentists and specialists who routinely perform care, including trauma-related care, biopsies, and dental treatment as a result of or in anticipation of a cancer-related treatment, are likely to use these codes. Claim submissions for care provided can be completed electronically or by means of paper forms.

  2. Transition issues in an unbundled residential market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brett, J.D.

    1996-01-01

    Aspects of an unbundled residential gas market were discussed, among them (1) the role of a local distribution company (LDC), (2) the context and the issues, (3) the customers'needs and desires, (4) long term planning responsibility, (5) consumer protection and dealing with abuses, (6) the obligation to serve, (7) the bad credit risk customer, (8) billing, credit and collection, and (9) metering and CIS

  3. Space and place concepts analysis based on semiology approach in residential architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojtaba Parsaee

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Space and place are among the fundamental concepts in architecture about which many discussions have been held and the complexity and importance of these concepts were focused on. This research has introduced an approach to better cognition of the architectural concepts based on theory and method of semiology in linguistics. Hence, at first the research investigates the concepts of space and place and explains their characteristics in architecture. Then, it reviews the semiology theory and explores its concepts and ideas. After obtaining the principles of theory and also the method of semiology, they are redefined in an architectural system based on an adaptive method. Finally, the research offers a conceptual model which is called the semiology approach by considering the architectural system as a system of signs. The approach can be used to decode the content of meanings and forms and analyses of the architectural mechanism in order to obtain its meanings and concepts. In this way and based on this approach, the residential architecture of the traditional city of Bushehr – Iran was analyzed as a case of study and its concepts were extracted. The results of this research demonstrate the effectiveness of this approach in structure detection and identification of an architectural system. Besides, this approach has the capability to be used in processes of sustainable development and also be a basis for deconstruction of architectural texts. The research methods of this study are qualitative based on comparative and descriptive analyses.

  4. BASECALC - software for residential basement and slab-on-grade heat-loss analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beausoleil-Morrison, I. [Natural Resources Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). Office of Energy Efficiency

    1999-11-01

    BASECALC models heat losses from residential building basements and slabs-on-grade by calculating heat loss based on thermal and physical properties of individual construction, insulation type and location, ground properties and weather. BASECALC provides bilingual software and numerical, graphical and parametric output. It can model above-grade and below-grade heat losses and include the effects of thermal bridging between the basement and the main-floor envelope. This is then validated against the National Research Council of Canada`s Mitalas method. The software can calculate insulation configurations with code implications and carry out batch processing for multiple runs. It includes libraries of common insulation and construction materials. BASECALC has the potential in other applications to develop more accurate basement algorithms for building simulation programs, establish building and energy code requirements for basement and slab-on-grade insulation, assess and demonstrate the performance of new products and novel insulation placements, and validate and calibrate basement heat-loss predictions from building simulation programs.

  5. Future Residential Water Heating Prospects in Brazil: A Scenario Building Ground Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe de Albuquerque Sgarbi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In Brazil, electricity is the prime energy carrier for bath shower heating purposes. However, since analyses indicate that expansion of the country´s electricity generation capacity shall spruce from an increased non-renewable sources’ stake in detriment to that of hydroelectricity, high electricity consumption rates that spring from home end uses of the kind have drawn the attention of those who are involved with local energy planning. Furthermore, massive use of electric showers in a short timeframe largely drive electricity demands to culminate in peak loads. For water heating purposes, this context has favoured an alternative to electricity, deemed feasible from both an efficiency and energy infrastructure standpoint: promote fuel gas consumption (liquefied petroleum gas and natural gas in particular. A scenario methodology is herein employed to map electric shower use related variables and players and assess the future behaviour of the core elements that condition resorting to this technology. Thereafter, strategies and opportunities to promote the rational consumption of the country´s power sources ground on the increased use of fuel gases for residential water heating purposes are discussed.

  6. Part-sales as an investment strategy : Analysis of part-selling of residential units in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hordijk, A.C.; Janssen, J.E.; Teuben, B.

    2006-01-01

    The ROZ/IPD Property index was established in 1994 to publicize an independent index on directly held real estate in the Netherlands. The real estate universe is split into the sectors: retail, offices, industrial, residential and mixed use/other. The residential sector consists of almost 50 % of

  7. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Residential Provisions of the 2015 IECC for the District of Columbia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendon, Vrushali V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhao, Mingjie [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Taylor, Zachary T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Poehlman, Eric A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-02-15

    The 2015 IECC provides cost-effective savings for residential buildings in the District of Columbia. Moving to the 2015 IECC from the 2013 Washington DC Code base code is cost-effective for residential buildings in all climate zones in the District of Columbia.

  8. Under one roof : A review and selective meta-analysis on the outcomes of residential child and youth care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knorth, Erik J.; Harder, Annemiek T.; Zandberg, Tjalling; Kendrick, Andrew J.

    Residential child and youth care is a radical intervention that in many countries is perceived as a 'last resort' solution that should be avoided if at all possible - not least because of scepticism about its effectiveness. Against this, there is the view that a residential placement can contribute

  9. Space-time analysis of testicular cancer clusters using residential histories: a case-control study in Denmark.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chantel D Sloan

    Full Text Available Though the etiology is largely unknown, testicular cancer incidence has seen recent significant increases in northern Europe and throughout many Western regions. The most common cancer in males under age 40, age period cohort models have posited exposures in the in utero environment or in early childhood as possible causes of increased risk of testicular cancer. Some of these factors may be tied to geography through being associated with behavioral, cultural, sociodemographic or built environment characteristics. If so, this could result in detectable geographic clusters of cases that could lead to hypotheses regarding environmental targets for intervention. Given a latency period between exposure to an environmental carcinogen and testicular cancer diagnosis, mobility histories are beneficial for spatial cluster analyses. Nearest-neighbor based Q-statistics allow for the incorporation of changes in residency in spatial disease cluster detection. Using these methods, a space-time cluster analysis was conducted on a population-wide case-control population selected from the Danish Cancer Registry with mobility histories since 1971 extracted from the Danish Civil Registration System. Cases (N=3297 were diagnosed between 1991 and 2003, and two sets of controls (N=3297 for each set matched on sex and date of birth were included in the study. We also examined spatial patterns in maternal residential history for those cases and controls born in 1971 or later (N= 589 case-control pairs. Several small clusters were detected when aligning individuals by year prior to diagnosis, age at diagnosis and calendar year of diagnosis. However, the largest of these clusters contained only 2 statistically significant individuals at their center, and were not replicated in SaTScan spatial-only analyses which are less susceptible to multiple testing bias. We found little evidence of local clusters in residential histories of testicular cancer cases in this Danish

  10. Space-time analysis of testicular cancer clusters using residential histories: a case-control study in Denmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloan, Chantel D; Nordsborg, Rikke B; Jacquez, Geoffrey M; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole; Meliker, Jaymie R

    2015-01-01

    Though the etiology is largely unknown, testicular cancer incidence has seen recent significant increases in northern Europe and throughout many Western regions. The most common cancer in males under age 40, age period cohort models have posited exposures in the in utero environment or in early childhood as possible causes of increased risk of testicular cancer. Some of these factors may be tied to geography through being associated with behavioral, cultural, sociodemographic or built environment characteristics. If so, this could result in detectable geographic clusters of cases that could lead to hypotheses regarding environmental targets for intervention. Given a latency period between exposure to an environmental carcinogen and testicular cancer diagnosis, mobility histories are beneficial for spatial cluster analyses. Nearest-neighbor based Q-statistics allow for the incorporation of changes in residency in spatial disease cluster detection. Using these methods, a space-time cluster analysis was conducted on a population-wide case-control population selected from the Danish Cancer Registry with mobility histories since 1971 extracted from the Danish Civil Registration System. Cases (N=3297) were diagnosed between 1991 and 2003, and two sets of controls (N=3297 for each set) matched on sex and date of birth were included in the study. We also examined spatial patterns in maternal residential history for those cases and controls born in 1971 or later (N= 589 case-control pairs). Several small clusters were detected when aligning individuals by year prior to diagnosis, age at diagnosis and calendar year of diagnosis. However, the largest of these clusters contained only 2 statistically significant individuals at their center, and were not replicated in SaTScan spatial-only analyses which are less susceptible to multiple testing bias. We found little evidence of local clusters in residential histories of testicular cancer cases in this Danish population.

  11. Uncertainty analysis of daily potable water demand on the performance evaluation of rainwater harvesting systems in residential buildings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Arthur Santos; Ghisi, Enedir

    2016-09-15

    The objective of this paper is to perform a sensitivity analysis of design variables and an uncertainty analysis of daily potable water demand to evaluate the performance of rainwater harvesting systems in residential buildings. Eight cities in Brazil with different rainfall patterns were analysed. A numeric experiment was performed by means of computer simulation of rainwater harvesting. A sensitivity analysis was performed using variance-based indices for identifying the most important design parameters for rainwater harvesting systems when assessing the potential for potable water savings and underground tank capacity sizing. The uncertainty analysis was performed for different scenarios of potable water demand with stochastic variations in a normal distribution with different coefficients of variation throughout the simulated period. The results have shown that different design variables, such as potable water demand, number of occupants, rainwater demand, and roof area are important for obtaining the ideal underground tank capacity and estimating the potential for potable water savings. The stochastic variations on the potable water demand caused amplitudes of up to 4.8% on the potential for potable water savings and 9.4% on the ideal underground tank capacity. Average amplitudes were quite low for all cities. However, some combinations of parameters resulted in large amplitude of uncertainty and difference from uniform distribution for tank capacities and potential for potable water savings. Stochastic potable water demand generated low uncertainties in the performance evaluation of rainwater harvesting systems; therefore, uniform distribution could be used in computer simulation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Radiant floor cooling coupled with dehumidification systems in residential buildings: A simulation-based analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zarrella, Angelo; De Carli, Michele; Peretti, Clara

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The floor radiant cooling in a typical apartment is analyzed. • Dehumidification devices, fan-coil and mechanical ventilation are compared. • The results are analyzed in terms of both thermal comfort and energy consumption. • The energy consumption of the dehumidifiers is higher than that of other systems. • The mechanical ventilation decreases the moisture level better than other systems. - Abstract: The development of radiant cooling has stimulated an interest in new systems based on coupling ventilation with radiant cooling. However, radiant cooling systems may cause condensation to form on an active surface under warm and humid conditions during the cooling season. This phenomenon occurs when surface temperature falls below dew point. To prevent condensation, air humidity needs to be reduced with a dehumidification device or a mechanical ventilation system. There are two main options to achieve this. The first is to use dehumidification devices that reduce humidity, but are not coupled with ventilation, i.e. devices that handle room air and leave air change to infiltrations. The second is to combine a mechanical ventilation system with dehumidifying finned coils. This study analyzes the floor radiant cooling of a typical residential apartment within a multi-storey building in three Italian climate zones by means of a detailed simulation tool. Five systems were compared in terms of both indoor thermal comfort and energy consumption: radiant cooling without dehumidification; radiant cooling with a soft dehumidification device; radiant cooling with a dehumidification device which also supplies sensible cooling; radiant cooling coupled with fan coils; and radiant cooling with a mechanical ventilation system which dehumidifies and cools

  13. To Bill or Not to Bill: Medicaid Billing for Special Education Related Services in Arkansas Public Schools

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Myra Kay Davis

    1997-01-01

    TO BILL OR NOT TO BILL: MEDICAID BILLING FOR SPECIAL EDUCATION RELATED SERVICES IN ARKANSAS PUBLIC SCHOOLS Myra Kay Davis Smith (ABSTRACT) Medicaid is a complicated system for educators to access. LEAs can access Medicaid funds by: billing through a contracted service, establishing their own billing system, or may choose not billing Medicaid. The purpose of this study was to investigate the Medicaid billing processes used in Arkansas public schools. The study ...

  14. Atomic Energy Bill (Lords)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spicer, M.; Barron, K.; Lloyd, I.

    1989-01-01

    The main purpose of the Bill is to raise the financial limit imposed on BNFL from Pound 1,500 million to Pound 2000 million. Other clauses deal with the costs of nuclear safety research, technical amendments to the rules on insurance cover for third party compensation claims in the event of a nuclear incident. Clause 5 makes the necessary changes to enable the United Kingdom to ratify the international convention on assistance in the case of a nuclear incident (mutual assistance convention). The debate, which lasted over 2 hours and is reported verbatim, was mainly about BNFL funding and the increased cost of building the Thermal Oxide Reprocessing Plant at Sellafield. However the general problems of radioactive waste disposal, reprocessing, the privatisation of the electricity supply industry and the disposal of nuclear submarines were also discussed. (U.K.)

  15. 2004 energy bill of the France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    This document analyzes the energy bill in France (28,35 milliards of euros), which increased of 24,1 % in 2004. This increase is due to the net imports and especially the fossil fuels. Statistical data and the presentation of Patrick Devedjian, delegated ministry for the Industry, illustrate this economic analysis. (A.L.B.)

  16. Solar Photovoltaic Financing: Residential Sector Deployment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coughlin, J.; Cory, K.

    2009-03-01

    This report presents the information that homeowners and policy makers need to facilitate PV financing at the residential level. The full range of cash payments, bill savings, and tax incentives is covered, as well as potentially available solar attribute payments. Traditional financing is also compared to innovative solutions, many of which are borrowed from the commercial sector. Together, these mechanisms are critical for making the economic case for a residential PV installation, given its high upfront costs. Unfortunately, these programs are presently limited to select locations around the country. By calling attention to these innovative initiatives, this report aims to help policy makers consider greater adoption of these models to benefit homeowners interested installing a residential PV system.

  17. Spatiotemporal trend analysis of metal concentrations in sediments of a residential California stream with toxicity and regulatory implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Lenwood W; Anderson, Ronald D; Killen, William D

    2017-06-07

    The objective of this study was to determine if concentrations of arsenic, cadmium, chromium, copper, lead, nickel and zinc measured in the sediments of a residential stream in California (Pleasant Grove Creek) have changed temporally or spatially from 2006 to 2016. Threshold Effect Levels (TELs), conservative ecological effects benchmarks, and exceedances for the seven metals were also evaluated over the 11-year time period to provide insight into potential metal toxicity to resident benthic communities. In addition, the bioavailability of metals in sediments was also determined by calculating Simultaneous Extracted Metal/Acid Volatle Sulfide (SEM/AVS) ratios to allow an additional assessment of toxicity. Regulatory implications of this data set and the role of metal toxicity are also discussed. Stream-wide temporal trend analysis showed no statistically significant trends for any of the metals. However, spatial analysis for several sites located near storm drains did show a significant increase for most metals over the 11-year period. TEL exceedances during the 7 years of sampling, spanning 2006-2016, were reported for all metals with the number of exceedances ranging from 47 for copper and zinc to 1 for lead. A spatial analysis showed that the highest number of TEL exceedances and the highest number of SEM/AVS ratios greater than one with at least one metal exceeding a TEL occurred at upstream sites. The potentially toxic metal concentrations reported in Pleasant Grove Creek should be used in the 303 (d) listing process for impaired water bodies in California.

  18. An electricity billing model | Adetona | Journal of Applied Science ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Linear regression analysis has been employed to develop a model for predicting accurately the electricity billing for commercial consumers in Ogun State (Nigeria) at faster rate. The electricity billing model was implement-ed, executed and tested using embedded MATLAB function blocks. The correlations between the ...

  19. Safe RESIDential Environments? A longitudinal analysis of the influence of crime-related safety on walking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Sarah; Hooper, Paula; Knuiman, Matthew; Christian, Hayley; Bull, Fiona; Giles-Corti, Billie

    2016-02-16

    Numerous cross-sectional studies have investigated the premise that the perception of crime will cause residents to constrain their walking; however the findings to date are inconclusive. In contrast, few longitudinal or prospective studies have examined the impact of crime-related safety on residents walking behaviours. This study used longitudinal data to test whether there is a causal relationship between crime-related safety and walking in the local neighbourhood. Participants in the RESIDential Environments Project (RESIDE) in Perth, Australia, completed a questionnaire before moving to their new neighbourhood (n = 1813) and again approximately one (n = 1467), three (n = 1230) and seven years (n = 531) after relocating. Self-report measures included neighbourhood perceptions (modified NEWS items) and walking inside the neighbourhood (min/week). Objective built environmental measures were generated for each participant's 1600 m neighbourhood at each time-point, and the count of crimes reported to police were generated at the suburb-level for the first three time-points only. The impact of crime-related safety on walking was examined in SAS using the Proc Mixed procedure (marginal repeated measures model with unrestricted variance pattern). Initial models controlled for demographics, time and self-selection, and subsequent models progressively adjusted for other built and social environment factors based on a social ecological model. For every increase of one level on a five-point Likert scale in perceived safety from crime, total walking within the local neighbourhood increased by 18.0 min/week (p = 0.000). This relationship attenuated to an increase of 10.5 min/week after accounting for other built and social environment factors, but remained significant (p = 0.008). Further analyses examined transport and recreational walking separately. In the fully adjusted models, each increase in safety from crime was associated with a 7.0

  20. Residential water demand and water consumption: an econometric analysis on municipal panel data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Musolesi, Antonio; Nosvelli, Mario

    2005-01-01

    This paper focuses on residential water demand estimation, a rather neglected issue in the Italian environmental economics literature as compared to other European countries and the USA. This may depend on the difficulties in gathering proper data and, most of all, panel data. In some cases statistical information are not suitably collected, while in other cases legal privacy ties put some obstacles to data set transfer. Our panel data set refers to 102 municipalities in Lombardy (Italy) for the period 1998-2002. When estimating the effect of water price, we control for other relevant variables such as: income, households demographical variables - (age structure, number of component for each family) number of firms in tertiary sector, water system length. In the considered period, the data show both an increase in population (1,5 %) and in the number of water consumers (7%) associated, on aggregate, with a slight reduction in water consumption (-1,1 %). Water demand models are estimated both in a static and in a dynamic framework. In the former, the emphasis is set on the sources of endogeneity in the average price by estimating a system of simultaneous equations and relevant variables for assessing consumer behaviour - such as socio demographic ones - are incorporated in the model. In the latter, econometric methods especially designed for endogeneity in panel data models (Arellano e Bond, 1991), are employed in order to estimate the long run elasticity of water demand with respect to average price. We find evidence both that consumers significantly respond to average price only in the long run with an elasticity of about - 0,3-0,4 and that income and demographic variables are crucial in explaining consumers' behaviour. Furthermore, water consumption presents a strong auto-regressive component, showing the emergence of inertia and path dependency in consumption habits. Such results suggest important implications for water policy planning. On one side demographic

  1. Emergency department coding and billing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edelberg, Caral

    2004-02-01

    ED coding and billing are challenging additions to the responsibilities of emergency physicians. Assurances that each is performed in the most efficient and accurate manner possible is an essential component of today's emergency medicine practice. Minimizing the risk for submitting fraudulent claims is critical, because it assures the efficient and timely billing of all ED services. For the practice to thrive, each is necessary.

  2. Guidelines for residential commissioning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wray, Craig P.; Walker, Iain S.; Sherman, Max H.

    2003-01-31

    Currently, houses do not perform optimally or even as many codes and forecasts predict, largely because they are field assembled and there is no consistent process to identify problems or to correct them. Residential commissioning is a solution to this problem. This guide is the culmination of a 30-month project that began in September 1999. The ultimate objective of the project is to increase the number of houses that undergo commissioning, which will improve the quality, comfort, and safety of homes for California citizens. The project goal is to lay the groundwork for a residential commissioning industry in California focused on end-use energy and non-energy issues. As such, we intend this guide to be a beginning and not an end. Our intent is that the guide will lead to the programmatic integration of commissioning with other building industry processes, which in turn will provide more value to a single site visit for people such as home energy auditors and raters, home inspectors, and building performance contractors. Project work to support the development of this guide includes: a literature review and annotated bibliography, which facilitates access to 469 documents related to residential commissioning published over the past 20 years (Wray et al. 2000), an analysis of the potential benefits one can realistically expect from commissioning new and existing California houses (Matson et al. 2002), and an assessment of 107 diagnostic tools for evaluating residential commissioning metrics (Wray et al. 2002). In this guide, we describe the issues that non-experts should consider in developing a commissioning program to achieve the benefits we have identified. We do this by providing specific recommendations about: how to structure the commissioning process, which diagnostics to use, and how to use them to commission new and existing houses. Using examples, we also demonstrate the potential benefits of applying the recommended whole-house commissioning approach to

  3. Solar Ray Tracing Analysis to Determine Energy Availability in a CPC Designed for Use as a Residential Water Heater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Terrón-Hernández

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Compound parabolic concentrators are relevant systems used in solar thermal technology. With adequate tailoring, they can be used as an efficient and low-cost alternative in residential water heating applications. This work presents a simulation study using a ray tracing analysis. With this technique, we simulate the interaction between solar rays and solar concentrator to quantify the amount of energy that impinges on the receiver at a particular time. Energy availability is evaluated in a comparison of two configurations throughout the year: static setup at 21° and multi-position setup; tilted with respect to the horizontal, depending on three seasonal positions: 0° for summer, 16° for spring/autumn, and 32° for winter, with the aim to evaluate the amount of available energy in each season. The fact that a tracking system can be dispensed with also represents an economical option for the proposed application. The results showed that at 21°, the proposed solar Compound Parabolic Concentrator (CPC works satisfactorily; however, by carrying out the selected angular adjustments, the overall energy availability increased by 22%, resulting in a more efficient option. The most effective design was also built and analyzed outdoors. The obtained thermal efficiency was of ~43%. The optical design and its evaluation developed herein proved to be a valuable tool for prototype design and performance evaluation.

  4. Comparative economic analysis of supporting policies for residential solar PV in the United States: Solar Renewable Energy Credit (SREC) potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burns, John Edward; Kang, Jin-Su

    2012-01-01

    Numerous studies and market reports suggest that the solar photovoltaic markets rely heavily, if not entirely, upon governmental support policies at present. Unlike in other countries where these policies are enacted at a national level, the 50 states in the US pursue different policies in an attempt to foster the growth of renewable energy, and specifically solar photovoltaics. This paper provides an economic and financial analysis of the US federal and state level policies in states with solar-targeted policies that have markets. After putting a value on SRECs, this study further compares solar carve-outs with other incentives including the federal tax credit, net metering, and state personal tax credits. Our findings show that SREC markets can certainly be strong, with New Jersey, Delaware, and Massachusetts having the most potential. Despite their strong potential as effective renewable policies, the lack of a guaranteed minimum and the uncertainty attached are major drawbacks of SREC markets. However, the leveraging of this high value offers hope that the policies will indeed stimulate residential solar photovoltaic markets. - Highlights: ► We measure solar support incentives in eight US states with set-asides that include SREC policies. ► Compare each financial incentive using DCF, NPV, IRR, and Present Value/Watt-capacity. ► Most US SREC markets have strong potential to stimulate solar photovoltaics. ► SREC success requires price floors to alleviate uncertainty issues. ► Private financial entities can leverage SRECs to provide necessary price floors.

  5. Assessing the Vulnerability of Structures and Residential Communities to Storm Surge: An Analysis of Flood Impact during Hurricane Sandy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Hatzikyriakou

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available With 6.5 million households in the United States located in areas prone to storm surge, assessing the vulnerability of structures and residential communities to coastal flooding is an important concern. Of particular interest is understanding how the performance of structures during surge events is influenced by flood conditions, coastal defenses, and building design at both the house and community level. This study presents such a vulnerability analysis by investigating the impact of coastal flooding from Hurricane Sandy (2012 on 95 km of developed coastline across New Jersey and New York. Exterior structural damage observed from a Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA aerial survey of the study area is related to (1 a hindcast simulation of flood inundation and wave action, (2 a classification of coastal defenses and storm-induced erosion, and (3 minimum building design elevations specified in FEMA’s flood hazard mapping. Findings indicate that the hardest hit communities experienced significant dune erosion, which coincided with severe flood and wave exposure. Furthermore, structures were considerably more susceptible to flood impact if Sandy’s flood level exceeded FEMA’s 100-year Base Flood Elevation dictating building design. These results are quantified by developing fragility curves relating both house and community-level performance to the considered vulnerability parameters. Findings from this study can be used to inform decision making for improving coastal resilience.

  6. Life satisfaction and perceived stress among young offenders in a residential therapeutic community: Latent change score analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Kristen N S; Chan, Christian S

    2017-06-01

    Recent rehabilitation frameworks underscore the importance of strength-based interventions for young offenders who may lack internal and external resources to manage their stress and plan for their life. This multi-wave longitudinal study investigated the dynamic relationship between perceived stress and life satisfaction among a group of young ex-offenders in a residential therapeutic community. Four waves of data were collected from 117 Hong Kong youths (24.0% female, mean age = 17.7) over one year. Latent change score analysis was employed to examine the univairate and bivariate changes of their perceived stress and life satisfaction. Results suggest a positive growth trajectory in life satisfaction over time. The results of perceived stress were less conclusive. Bivariate models indicated that the previous level of life satisfaction was negatively linked to the subsequent perceived stress level but not vice versa. The findings suggest that improvement in life satisfaction may reduce perceived stress in young ex-offenders. Copyright © 2017 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Residential implementation of critical-peak pricing of electricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herter, Karen

    2007-01-01

    This paper investigates how critical-peak pricing (CPP) affects households with different usage and income levels, with the goal of informing policy makers who are considering the implementation of CPP tariffs in the residential sector. Using a subset of data from the California Statewide Pricing Pilot of 2003-04, average load change during summer events, annual percent bill change, and post-experiment satisfaction ratings are calculated across six customer segments, categorized by historical usage and income levels. Findings show that high-use customers respond significantly more in kW reduction than do low-use customers, while low-use customers save significantly more in percentage reduction of annual electricity bills than do high-use customers-results that challenge the strategy of targeting only high-use customers for CPP tariffs. Across income levels, average load and bill changes were statistically indistinguishable, as were satisfaction rates-results that are compatible with a strategy of full-scale implementation of CPP rates in the residential sector. Finally, the high-use customers earning less than $50,000 annually were the most likely of the groups to see bill increases-about 5% saw bill increases of 10% or more-suggesting that any residential CPP implementation might consider targeting this customer group for increased energy efficiency efforts

  8. Life cycle cost analysis of solar heating and DHW systems in residential buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colombo, R.; Gilliaert, D.

    1992-01-01

    Economic Life Cycle Cost Analysis (ELCCA) is an easy and friendly computer program, IBM compatible for economic evaluation of solar energy system which involves comparison of the capital and operating costs of a conventional system. In this section we would like to suggest the ELCCA-PC program as a new tools using life cycle cost analysis for annual and cumulative cash flow methodology that take into account all future expenses. ELCCA-PC program considers fixed and changeable items that are involved in installing the equipment such as interest of money borrowed, property and income taxes, current energy cost for electricity operating system, maintenance, insurance and fuel costs and other economic operating expenses. Moreover fraction of annual heating load supplied from solar system is considered in this analysis. ECC-PC program determines the yearly outflow of money over the period of an economic analysis that can be converted to a series of equal payments in today's money

  9. Integrated Management of Residential Energy Resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antunes C. H.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The increasing deployment of distributed generation systems based on renewables in the residential sector, the development of information and communication technologies and the expected evolution of traditional power systems towards smart grids are inducing changes in the passive role of end-users, namely with stimuli to change residential demand patterns. The residential user should be able to make decisions and efficiently manage his energy resources by taking advantages from his flexibility in load usage with the aim to minimize the electricity bill without depreciating the quality of energy services provided. The aim of this paper is characterizing electricity consumption in the residential sector and categorizing the different loads according to their typical usage, working cycles, technical constraints and possible degree of control. This categorization of end-use loads contributes to ascertain the availability of controllable loads to be managed as well as the different direct management actions that can be implemented. The ability to implement different management actions over diverse end-use load will increase the responsiveness of demand and potentially raises the willingness of end-users to accept such activities. The impacts on the aggregated national demand of large-scale dissemination of management systems that would help the end-user to make decisions regarding electricity consumption are predicted using a simulator that generates the aggregated residential sector electricity consumption under variable prices.

  10. Post-Retrofit Residential Assessments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lancaster, Ross; lutzenhiser, Loren; Moezzi, Mithra; Widder, Sarah H.; Chandra, Subrato; Baechler, Michael C.

    2012-04-30

    This study examined a range of factors influencing energy consumption in households that had participated in residential energy-efficiency upgrades. The study was funded by a grant from the U.S. Department of Energy’s Pacific Northwest National Laboratory and was conducted by faculty and staff of Portland State University Center for Urban Studies and Department of Economics. This work was made possible through the assistance and support of the Energy Trust of Oregon (ETO), whose residential energy-efficiency programs provided the population from which the sample cases were drawn. All households in the study had participated in the ETO Home Performance with Energy Star (HPwES) program. A number of these had concurrently pursued measures through other ETO programs. Post-retrofit energy outcomes are rarely investigated on a house-by-house basis. Rather, aggregate changes are ordinarily the focus of program impact evaluations, with deviation from aggregate expectations chalked up to measurement error, the vagaries of weather and idiosyncrasies of occupants. However, understanding how homes perform post-retrofit on an individual basis can give important insights to increase energy savings at the participant and the programmatic level. Taking a more disaggregated approach, this study analyzed energy consumption data from before and after the retrofit activity and made comparisons with engineering estimates for the upgrades, to identify households that performed differently from what may have been expected based on the estimates. A statistical analysis using hierarchal linear models, which accounted for weather variations, was performed looking separately at gas and electrical use during the periods before and after upgrades took place. A more straightforward comparison of billing data for 12-month periods before and after the intervention was also performed, yielding the majority of the cases examined. The later approach allowed total energy use and costs to be

  11. Life Cycle Cost Analysis of a Multi-Storey Residential Net Zero Energy Building in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marszal, Anna Joanna; Heiselberg, Per

    2011-01-01

    renewable energy technologies? This analysis adopts the LCC methodology and uses a multi-family Net ZEB to find the answer to this question. Moreover, it looks at the issue from the building owner’s perspective, hence it should be seen as a private economy analysis. The study includes three levels of energy......It is well recognized that in the long run, the implementation of energy efficiency measures is a more cost-optimal solution in contrast to taking no action. However, the Net ZEB concept raises a new issue: how far should we go with energy efficiency measures and when should we start to apply...

  12. Analysis of PG&E`s residential end-use metered data to improve electricity demand forecasts -- final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eto, J.H.; Moezzi, M.M.

    1993-12-01

    This report summarizes findings from a unique project to improve the end-use electricity load shape and peak demand forecasts made by the Pacific Gas and Electric Company (PG&E) and the California Energy Commission (CEC). First, the direct incorporation of end-use metered data into electricity demand forecasting models is a new approach that has only been made possible by recent end-use metering projects. Second, and perhaps more importantly, the joint-sponsorship of this analysis has led to the development of consistent sets of forecasting model inputs. That is, the ability to use a common data base and similar data treatment conventions for some of the forecasting inputs frees forecasters to concentrate on those differences (between their competing forecasts) that stem from real differences of opinion, rather than differences that can be readily resolved with better data. The focus of the analysis is residential space cooling, which represents a large and growing demand in the PG&E service territory. Using five years of end-use metered, central air conditioner data collected by PG&E from over 300 residences, we developed consistent sets of new inputs for both PG&E`s and CEC`s end-use load shape forecasting models. We compared the performance of the new inputs both to the inputs previously used by PG&E and CEC, and to a second set of new inputs developed to take advantage of a recently added modeling option to the forecasting model. The testing criteria included ability to forecast total daily energy use, daily peak demand, and demand at 4 P.M. (the most frequent hour of PG&E`s system peak demand). We also tested the new inputs with the weather data used by PG&E and CEC in preparing their forecasts.

  13. Market segmentation and analysis of Japan's residential post and beam construction market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph A. Roos; Ivan L. Eastin; Hisaaki. Matsuguma

    2005-01-01

    A mail survey of Japanese post and beam builders was conducted to measure their level of ethnocentrism, market orientation, risk aversion, and price consciousness. The data were analyzed utilizing factor and cluster analysis. The results showed that Japanese post and beam builders can be divided into three distinct market segments: open to import...

  14. Montgomery County Council Legislation - Bills

    Data.gov (United States)

    Montgomery County of Maryland — The Council enacts local public laws for the ‘peace, good government, health, and welfare of the county’. The bills dataset contains all legislation considered by...

  15. Patients Bill of Rights Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Reducing Costs, Protecting Consumers - The Affordable Care Act on the One Year Anniversary of the Patients Bill of Rights For too long, too many hard working...

  16. Geophysical log analysis of selected test and residential wells at the Shenandoah Road National Superfund Site, East Fishkill, Dutchess County, New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Richard J.; Anderson, J. Alton; Williams, John H.

    2015-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey collected and analyzed geophysical logs from 20 test wells and 23 residential wells at the Shenandoah Road National Superfund Site in East Fishkill, New York, from 2006 through 2010 as part of an Interagency Agreement to provide hydrogeologic technical support to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Region 2. The geophysical logs collected include caliper, gamma, acoustic and optical televiewer, deviation, electromagnetic-induction, magnetic-susceptibility, fluid-property, and flow under ambient and pumped conditions. The geophysical logs were analyzed along with single-well aquifer test data and drilling logs to characterize the lithology, fabric, fractures, and flow zones penetrated by the wells. The results of the geophysical log analysis were used as part of the hydrogeologic characterization of the site and in the design of discrete-zone monitoring installations in the test wells and selected residential wells.

  17. Economic Analysis of Ilumex, A Project to Promote Energy-Efficient Residential Lighting in Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sathaye, Jayant A.; Friedmann, R.; Meyers, S.; de Buen, O.; Gadgil, A.J.; Vargas, E.; Saucedo, R.

    1993-11-01

    A higher penetration of compact fluorescent lamps (CFLs) for household lighting can reduce growth in peak electricity demand, reduce sales of subsidized electricity, and lessen environmental impacts. This paper describes an economic analysis of a project designed to promote high penetration rates of CFLs in two cities in Mexico. Our analysis indicates that the project will bring substantial net economic benefits to Mexico, the utility, and the average customer. In the absence of any subsidy to CFLs, most customers will see a payback period longer than two years. By sharing some of the anticipated net benefit, CFE, the utility company, can reduce the payback period to a maximum of two years for all customers. CFE's role is thus crucial to the successful implementation of the project. Expanding the Ilumex project to a Mexico-wide program would make a significant contribution towards meeting the planned addition of generation capacity by the year 2000.

  18. Scenario analysis of energy saving and CO2 emissions reduction potentials to ratchet up Japanese mitigation target in 2030 in the residential sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wakiyama, Takako; Kuramochi, Takeshi

    2017-01-01

    This paper assesses to what extent CO 2 emissions from electricity in the residential sector can be further reduced in Japan beyond its post-2020 mitigation target (known as “Intended Nationally Determined Contribution (INDC)”). The paper examines the reduction potential of electricity demand and CO 2 emissions in the residential sector by conducting a scenario analysis. Electricity consumption scenarios are set up using a time-series regression model, and used to forecast the electricity consumption patterns to 2030. The scenario analysis also includes scenarios that reduce electricity consumption through enhanced energy efficiency and energy saving measures. The obtained results show that Japan can reduce electricity consumption and CO 2 emissions in the residential sector in 2030 more than the Japanese post-2020 mitigation target indicates. At the maximum, the electricity consumption could be reduced by 35 TWh, which contributes to 55.4 MtCO 2 of emissions reduction in 2030 compared to 2013 if the voluntarily targeted CO 2 intensity of electricity is achieved. The result implies that Japan has the potential to ratchet up post-2020 mitigation targets discussed under the Paris Agreement of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). - Highlights: • Further reduction of electricity consumption is possible beyond Japan's post-2020 mitigation target. • Energy saving efforts by households and incentives to reduce electricity demands are required. • Improvement of CO 2 intensity from electricity is a key factor in the reduction of CO 2 emissions.

  19. An econometric analysis of residential consumption of fuelwood in a mountainous prefecture of Northern Greece

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arabatzis, G.; Malesios, Ch.

    2011-01-01

    Biomass is a renewable energy source of increasing importance, especially since the energy policies of countries today are largely focused on renewable energy. It is a renewable energy source with significant potential to contribute to the energy needs of modern society, both for developing and developed countries around the world. One very important source of biomass is wood and fuelwood in particular. This article aims at providing an empirical analysis of household fuelwood consumption and the determinants of the choice to use the specific energy for heating and cooking in a district of Northern Greece. In the current empirical analysis several household fuelwood consumption models are employed, such as GLM, Tobit and Heckman regression-based techniques. The results show that household sociological and economical characteristics as well as more general environmental issues are suitable to explain differences towards fuelwood consumption for space heating and cooking. We additionally evaluate the household fuelwood consumption for heating through the statistical analyses conducted. - Highlights: ► In this study we provide an empirical analysis of household fuel wood consumption. ► Determinants of the choice of specific energy for heating/cooking in Northern Greece are examined. ► Several household fuelwood consumption models are employed (GLM, Tobit and Heckman). ► Household's sociological/economical characteristics are suitable to explain fuel wood consumption. ► Also more general environmental issues explain differences towards fuel wood consumption.

  20. Cluster analysis of residential heat load profiles and the role of technical and household characteristics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carmo, Carolina; Christensen, Toke Haunstrup

    2016-01-01

    of the temporality of the energy demand is needed. This paper contributes to this by focusing on the daily load profiles of energy demand for heating of Danish dwellings with heat pumps. Based on hourly recordings from 139 dwellings and employing cluster and regression analysis, the paper explores patterns...... (typologies) in daily heating load profiles and how these relate to socio-economic and technical characteristics of the included households. The study shows that the load profiles vary according to the external load conditions. Two main clusters were identified for both weekdays and weekends and across load...

  1. Analysis of Applications to Improve the Energy Savings in Residential Buildings Based on Systemic Quality Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoni Fonseca i Casas

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Creating a definition of the features and the architecture of a new Energy Management Software (EMS is complex because different professionals will be involved in creating that definition and in using the tool. To simplify this definition and aid in the eventual selection of an existing EMS to fit a specific need, a set of metrics that considers the primary issues and drawbacks of the EMS is decisive. This study proposes a set of metrics to evaluate and compare EMS applications. Using these metrics will allow professionals to highlight the tendencies and detect the drawbacks of current EMS applications and to eventually develop new EMS applications based on the results of the analysis. This study presents a list of the applications to be examined and describes the primary issues to be considered in the development of a new application. This study follows the Systemic Quality Model (SQMO, which has been used as a starting point to develop new EMS, but can also be used to select an existing EMS that fits the goals of a company. Using this type of analysis, we were able to detect the primary features desired in an EMS software. These features are numerically scaled, allowing professionals to select the most appropriate EMS that fits for their purposes. This allows the development of EMS utilizing an iterative and user-centric approach. We can apply this methodology to guide the development of future EMS and to define the priorities that are desired in this type of software.

  2. Analysis of a fuel cell on-site integrated energy system for a residential complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons, S. N.; Maag, W. L.

    1979-01-01

    The energy use and costs of the on-site integrated energy system (OS/IES) which provides electric power from an on-site power plant and recovers heat that would normally be rejected to the environment is compared to a conventional system purchasing electricity from a utility and a phosphoric acid fuel cell powered system. The analysis showed that for a 500-unit apartment complex a fuel OS/IES would be about 10% more energy conservative in terms of total coal consumption than a diesel OS/IES system or a conventional system. The fuel cell OS/IES capital costs could be 30 to 55% greater than the diesel OS/IES capital costs for the same life cycle costs. The life cycle cost of a fuel cell OS/IES would be lower than that for a conventional system as long as the cost of electricity is greater than $0.05 to $0.065/kWh. An analysis of several parametric combinations of fuel cell power plant and state-of-art energy recovery systems and annual fuel requirement calculations for four locations were made. It was shown that OS/IES component choices are a major factor in fuel consumption, with the least efficient system using 25% more fuel than the most efficient. Central air conditioning and heat pumps result in minimum fuel consumption while individual air conditioning units increase it, and in general the fuel cell of highest electrical efficiency has the lowest fuel consumption.

  3. The Impact of Wind Power Projects on Residential Property Values in the United States: A Multi-Site Hedonic Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoen, Ben; Wiser, Ryan; Cappers, Peter; Thayer, Mark; Sethi, Gautam

    2009-12-02

    With wind energy expanding rapidly in the U.S. and abroad, and with an increasing number of communities considering wind power development nearby, there is an urgent need to empirically investigate common community concerns about wind project development. The concern that property values will be adversely affected by wind energy facilities is commonly put forth by stakeholders. Although this concern is not unreasonable, given property value impacts that have been found near high voltage transmission lines and other electric generation facilities, the impacts of wind energy facilities on residential property values had not previously been investigated thoroughly. The present research collected data on almost 7,500 sales of singlefamily homes situated within 10 miles of 24 existing wind facilities in nine different U.S. states. The conclusions of the study are drawn from eight different hedonic pricing models, as well as both repeat sales and sales volume models. The various analyses are strongly consistent in that none of the models uncovers conclusive evidence of the existence of any widespread property value impacts that might be present in communities surrounding wind energy facilities. Specifically, neither the view of the wind facilities nor the distance of the home to those facilities is found to have any consistent, measurable, and statistically significant effect on home sales prices. Although the analysis cannot dismiss the possibility that individual homes or small numbers of homes have been or could be negatively impacted, it finds that if these impacts do exist, they are either too small and/or too infrequent to result in any widespread, statistically observable impact.

  4. Life-cycle cost analysis of energy efficiency design options for residential furnaces and boilers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lutz, James; Lekov, Alex; Chan, Peter; Whitehead, Camilla Dunham; Meyers, Steve; McMahon, James

    2006-01-01

    In 2001, the US Department of Energy (DOE) initiated a rulemaking process to consider whether to amend the existing energy efficiency standards for furnaces and boilers. A key factor in DOE's consideration of new standards is the economic impacts on consumers of possible revisions to energy-efficiency standards. Determining cost-effectiveness requires an appropriate comparison of the additional first cost of energy efficiency design options with the savings in operating costs. DOE's preferred approach involves comparing the total life-cycle cost (LCC) of owning and operating a more efficient appliance with the LCC for a baseline design. This study describes the method used to conduct the LCC analysis and presents the estimated change in LCC associated with more energy-efficient equipment. The results indicate that efficiency improvement relative to the baseline design can reduce the LCC in each of the product classes considered

  5. Environmental benefit analysis of strategies for potable water savings in residential buildings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinoski, Ana Kelly; Rupp, Ricardo Forgiarini; Ghisi, Enedir

    2018-01-15

    The objective of this study is to assess the environmental benefit of using rainwater, greywater, water-efficient appliances and their combinations in low-income houses. The study was conducted surveying twenty households located in southern Brazil, which resulted in water end-uses estimation. Then, embodied energy, potential for potable water savings and sewage reduction when using the different strategies were estimated. The environmental benefit analysis of these strategies was performed using an indicator that includes embodied energy, potable water savings, reduction of sewage and energy consumption in the water utility, and sewage production during the life cycle of the system. The results indicated that the strategy with the greatest environmental benefit is the use of water-efficient appliances, which resulted in substantial water savings and reduction of sewage, causing low environmental impact due to lower embodied energy over the life cycle. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. A scenario analysis of the future residential requirements for people with mental health problems in Eindhoven.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bierbooms, Joyce J P A; Bongers, Inge M B; van Oers, Hans A M

    2011-01-06

    Despite large-scale investments in mental health care in the community since the 1990 s, a trend towards reinstitutionalization has been visible since 2002. Since many mental health care providers regard this as an undesirable trend, the question arises: In the coming 5 years, what types of residence should be organized for people with mental health problems? The purpose of this article is to provide mental health care providers, public housing corporations, and local government with guidelines for planning organizational strategy concerning types of residence for people with mental health problems. A scenario analysis was performed in four steps: 1) an exploration of the external environment; 2) the identification of key uncertainties; 3) the development of scenarios; 4) the translation of scenarios into guidelines for planning organizational strategy. To explore the external environment a document study was performed, and 15 semi-structured interviews were conducted. During a workshop, a panel of experts identified two key uncertainties in the external environment, and formulated four scenarios. The study resulted in four scenarios: 1) Integrated and independent living in the community with professional care; 2) Responsible healthcare supported by society; 3) Differentiated provision within the walls of the institution; 4) Residence in large-scale institutions but unmet need for care. From the range of aspects within the different scenarios, the panel was able to work out concrete guidelines for planning organizational strategy. In the context of residence for people with mental health problems, the focus should be on investment in community care and their re-integration into society. A joint effort is needed to achieve this goal. This study shows that scenario analysis leads to useful guidelines for planning organizational strategy in mental health care.

  7. Effective Moisture Penetration Depth Model for Residential Buildings: Sensitivity Analysis and Guidance on Model Inputs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woods, Jason D [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Winkler, Jonathan M [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2018-01-31

    Moisture buffering of building materials has a significant impact on the building's indoor humidity, and building energy simulations need to model this buffering to accurately predict the humidity. Researchers requiring a simple moisture-buffering approach typically rely on the effective-capacitance model, which has been shown to be a poor predictor of actual indoor humidity. This paper describes an alternative two-layer effective moisture penetration depth (EMPD) model and its inputs. While this model has been used previously, there is a need to understand the sensitivity of this model to uncertain inputs. In this paper, we use the moisture-adsorbent materials exposed to the interior air: drywall, wood, and carpet. We use a global sensitivity analysis to determine which inputs are most influential and how the model's prediction capability degrades due to uncertainty in these inputs. We then compare the model's humidity prediction with measured data from five houses, which shows that this model, and a set of simple inputs, can give reasonable prediction of the indoor humidity.

  8. An Analysis of the Effects of Photovoltaic Energy Systems on Residential Selling Prices in California.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cappers, Peter; Wiser, Ryan; Thayer, Mark; Hoen, Ben

    2011-04-12

    An increasing number of homes with existing photovoltaic (PV) energy systems have sold in the U.S., yet relatively little research exists that estimates the marginal impacts of those PV systems on the sales price. A clearer understanding of these effects might influence the decisions of homeowners, home buyers and PV home builders. This research analyzes a large dataset of California homes that sold from 2000 through mid-2009 with PV installed. Across a large number of hedonic and repeat sales model specifications and robustness tests, the analysis finds strong evidence that homes with PV systems sold for a premium over comparable homes without. The effects range, on average, from approximately $3.9 to $6.4 per installed watt (DC), with most models coalescing near $5.5/watt, which corresponds to a premium of approximately $17,000 for a 3,100 watt system. The research also shows that, as PV systems age, the premium enjoyed at the time of home sale decreases. Additionally, existing homes with PV systems are found to have commanded a larger sales price premium than new homes with similarly sized PV systems. Reasons for this discrepancy are suggested, yet further research is warranted in this area as well as a number of other areas that are highlighted.

  9. Greywater Reuse System Design and Economic Analysis for Residential Buildings in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Kai Juan

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The concept of greywater recycling and reuse has gradually become one of the most important strategies in water stressed countries. Due to a high population density and uneven rainfall distribution, the annual average rainfall distribution per capita in Taiwan is one fifth of the global average, which makes Taiwan a seriously water-stressed country. This study used the unit of a family of four as the target and reexamined the zoning concepts of water usage areas, followed by integrating pipeline configuration, water storage design and a filtering system to propose an Interior Customized Greywater System (ICGS which is based on the application for the family unit. This system can be customized and flexibly adjusted according to household space. In order to verify the feasibility and viability of system, this study performed system configuration and design based on real cases and proposed three scenarios to simulate a 20 year life cycle for cost economic analysis. The result reveals that this system has a minimum payback period of 4 years and provides investment incentives. For regions or countries which have higher water cost or are more water stressed, ICGS can significantly improve the processing and utilization of water.

  10. The Impact of Residential and Nonresidential Drug Treatment on Recidivism among Drug-Involved Probationers: A Survival Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krebs, Christopher P.; Strom, Kevin J.; Koetse, Willem H.; Lattimore, Pamela K.

    2009-01-01

    A variety of approaches for addressing drug use and drug-related crime among the nearly 5 million offenders on community supervision in the United States has been tried and evaluated, but questions remain about which policies or programs are most effective. The authors use a large data set to assess the impact of residential and nonresidential…

  11. Analysis of federal policy options for improving US lighting energy efficiency: Commercial and residential buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atkinson, B.A.; McMahon, J.E.; Mills, E.; Chan, P.; Chan, T.W.; Eto, J.H.; Jennings, J.D.; Koomey, J.G.; Lo, K.W.; Lecar, M.; Price, L.; Rubinstein, F.; Sezgen, O.; Wenzel, T.

    1992-12-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has recognized the opportunity to achieve energy, economic, and environmental benefits by promoting energy-efficient lighting through federal policies, including lighting standards, financial incentives, and information programs. To assist in this process, the Office of Conservation and Renewable Energy`s Office of Codes and Standards invited Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory to assess prospective national impacts for a variety of policy options. Some progress has already been made in developing lighting policies at both the federal and state levels. The US DOE`s Office of Building Technologies has evaluated lighting efficiency incentives as part of its analysis for the National Energy Strategy. Fluorescent and incandescent lamp standards are included in the national Energy Policy Act of 1992 (P.L. 102-486, October 24, 1992). A few states have analyzed or implemented lamp and luminaire standards. Many policy-related issues merit further investigation. For example, there is considerable debate over issues such as mandatory or voluntary standards versus component labeling and other education-oriented strategies. Several different technologies are involved that interact with each other-lamps (incandescent, compact fluorescent, and HID), ballasts (for fluorescent and HID lamps), and fixtures with reflectors and lenses. Control systems and operation patterns must also be considered (timers, automated dimming, or occupancy sensors). Lighting applications are diverse, ranging from offices, restaurants, hallways, hospital operating rooms, to exterior lights. Lighting energy use influences heating and cooling requirements in buildings. Successful lighting system design must also address interactions between architectural design elements and daylighting availability. Proper system installation and ongoing operation and maintenance are crucial. The economic aspects of the preceding points must also be considered for policy making.

  12. Analysis of federal policy options for improving US lighting energy efficiency: Commercial and residential buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atkinson, B.A.; McMahon, J.E.; Mills, E.; Chan, P.; Chan, T.W.; Eto, J.H.; Jennings, J.D.; Koomey, J.G.; Lo, K.W.; Lecar, M.; Price, L.; Rubinstein, F.; Sezgen, O.; Wenzel, T.

    1992-12-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has recognized the opportunity to achieve energy, economic, and environmental benefits by promoting energy-efficient lighting through federal policies, including lighting standards, financial incentives, and information programs. To assist in this process, the Office of Conservation and Renewable Energy's Office of Codes and Standards invited Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory to assess prospective national impacts for a variety of policy options. Some progress has already been made in developing lighting policies at both the federal and state levels. The US DOE's Office of Building Technologies has evaluated lighting efficiency incentives as part of its analysis for the National Energy Strategy. Fluorescent and incandescent lamp standards are included in the national Energy Policy Act of 1992 (P.L. 102-486, October 24, 1992). A few states have analyzed or implemented lamp and luminaire standards. Many policy-related issues merit further investigation. For example, there is considerable debate over issues such as mandatory or voluntary standards versus component labeling and other education-oriented strategies. Several different technologies are involved that interact with each other-lamps (incandescent, compact fluorescent, and HID), ballasts (for fluorescent and HID lamps), and fixtures with reflectors and lenses. Control systems and operation patterns must also be considered (timers, automated dimming, or occupancy sensors). Lighting applications are diverse, ranging from offices, restaurants, hallways, hospital operating rooms, to exterior lights. Lighting energy use influences heating and cooling requirements in buildings. Successful lighting system design must also address interactions between architectural design elements and daylighting availability. Proper system installation and ongoing operation and maintenance are crucial. The economic aspects of the preceding points must also be considered for policy making.

  13. Estimating length of stay in publicly-funded residential and nursing care homes: a retrospective analysis using linked administrative data sets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steventon Adam

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Information about how long people stay in care homes is needed to plan services, as length of stay is a determinant of future demand for care. As length of stay is proportional to cost, estimates are also needed to inform analysis of the long-term cost effectiveness of interventions aimed at preventing admissions to care homes. But estimates are rarely available due to the cost of repeatedly surveying individuals. Methods We used administrative data from three local authorities in England to estimate the length of publicly-funded care homes stays beginning in 2005 and 2006. Stays were classified into nursing home, permanent residential and temporary residential. We aggregated successive placements in different care home providers and, by linking to health data, across periods in hospital. Results The largest group of stays (38.9% were those intended to be temporary, such as for rehabilitation, and typically lasted 4 weeks. For people admitted to permanent residential care, median length of stay was 17.9 months. Women stayed longer than men, while stays were shorter if preceded by other forms of social care. There was significant variation in length of stay between the three local authorities. The typical person admitted to a permanent residential care home will cost a local authority over £38,000, less payments due from individuals under the means test. Conclusions These figures are not apparent from existing data sets. The large cost of care home placements suggests significant scope for preventive approaches. The administrative data revealed complexity in patterns of service use, which should be further explored as it may challenge the assumptions that are often made.

  14. [Time-series analysis of ambient PM₁₀ pollution on residential mortality in Beijing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Jiang-li; Wang, Qi; Cai, Yue; Zhou, Mai-geng

    2012-05-01

    To explore the short-term impact of ambient PM(10) on daily non-accidental death, cardiovascular and respiratory death of residents in Beijing. Mortality data of residents in Beijing during 2006 to 2009 were obtained from public health surveillance and information service center of Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, contemporaneous data of average daily air concentration of PM(10), SO(2), NO(2) were obtained from Beijing Environment Protection Bureau (year 2005 - 2006) and public website of Beijing environmental protection (year 2007 - 2009), respectively, contemporaneous meteorological data were obtained from china meteorological data sharing service system. Generalized addictive model (GAM) of time serial analysis was applied. In additional to the control of confounding factors such as long-term trend, day of the week effect, meteorological factors, lag effect and the effects of other atmospheric pollutants were also analyzed. During year 2006 to 2009, the number of average daily non-accidental death, respiratory disease caused death, cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases caused death among Beijing residents were 140.1, 15.0, 65.8, respectively;contemporaneous medians of average daily air concentration of PM(10), SO(2), NO(2) were 123.0, 26.0, 58.0 µg/m(3), respectively;contemporaneous average atmosphere pressure, temperature and relative humidity were 10.1 kPa, 13.5°C and 51.9%, respectively. An exposure-response relationship between exposure to ambient PM(10) and increased daily death number was found as every 10 µg/m(3) increase in daily average concentration of PM(10), there was a 0.1267% (95%CI: 0.0824% - 0.1710%) increase in daily non-accidental death of residents, 0.1365% (95%CI: 0.0010% - 0.2720%) increase in respiratory death and 0.1239% (95%CI: 0.0589% - 0.1889%) increase in cardiovascular death. Ambient PM(10) had greatest influence on daily non-accidental and cardiovascular death of the same day, while its greatest influence

  15. 49 CFR 373.103 - Expense bills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Expense bills. 373.103 Section 373.103... Carrier Receipts and Bills § 373.103 Expense bills. (a) Property. Every motor common carrier shall issue a freight or expense bill for each shipment transported containing the following information: (1) Names of...

  16. Residential implementation of critical-peak pricing ofelectricity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herter, Karen

    2006-06-29

    This paper investigates how critical-peak pricing (CPP)affects households with different usage and income levels, with the goalof informing policy makers who are considering the implementation of CPPtariffs in the residential sector. Using a subset of data from theCalifornia Statewide Pricing Pilot of 2003-2004, average load changeduring summer events, annual percent bill change, and post-experimentsatisfaction ratings are calculated across six customer segments,categorized by historical usage and income levels. Findings show thathigh-use customers respond significantly more in kW reduction than dolow-use customers, while low-use customers save significantly more inpercentage reduction of annual electricity bills than do high-usecustomers results that challenge the strategy of targeting only high-usecustomers for CPP tariffs. Across income levels, average load and billchanges were statistically indistinguishable, as were satisfaction ratesresults that are compatible with a strategy of full-scale implementationof CPP rates in the residential sector. Finally, the high-use customersearning less than $50,000 annually were the most likely of the groups tosee bill increases about 5 percent saw bill increases of 10 percent ormore suggesting that any residential CPP implementation might considertargeting this customer group for increased energy efficiencyefforts.

  17. Atomic Energy Bill (second reading)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hooper, Baroness; Williams, Lord; Ezra, Lord.

    1988-01-01

    The Bill contains a number of unrelated proposals. The first would increase the financial limit imposed on British Nuclear Fuels plc by Acts of Parliament to Pound 2,000 million in line with current investment plans. The second would enable the Health and Safety Executive to recover the costs of nuclear safety research which it sponsors, from nuclear site licensees and applicants for licences. The next two proposals make minor technical amendments to the rules on insurance cover for meeting third party compensation claims in the event of nuclear incidents. Finally, the Bill would enable the United Kingdom to ratify the International Convention on Assistance in the case of nuclear accident or radiological emergency (mutual assistance convention). The Bill was debated for half an hour and is reported verbatim. In particular the financing of the Thermal Oxide Reprocessing Plant at BNFL's Sellafield site was discussed. Questions on vitrification of radioactive wastes were raised. (U.K.)

  18. Disrupting the Continuities Among Residential Schools, the Sixties Scoop, and Child Welfare: An Analysis of Colonial and Neocolonial Discourses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holly A. McKenzie

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In Canada, it is estimated that 3 times as many Indigenous children are currently in the care of the state compared to when the residential schools’ populations were at their peak. It is imperative that action be taken. This article explores the continuities among residential schools, the Sixties Scoop, and child welfare in Canada today. In particular, we examine how colonial and neocolonial discourses operate through and justify these policies and practices. We propose nine policy recommendations, which aim to transform child welfare and support Indigenous families to care for their children. Although transformative policy change is unlikely within this neocolonial and neoliberal climate, the recent change in federal leadership has made it more possible to move these policy recommendations forward.

  19. Refusal to pay electricity bill is illegal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hermann, H.P.

    1979-01-01

    Pursuant to a judgement passed by the Lower Court of Hamburg, the author discusses probable legal arguments justifying the refusal to pay one's electricity bill, the so-called electricity bill boycott. Following an analysis of the power supply contract and of the content and the limits of the fundamental right of freedom of conscience, as well as of the concept of free enterprise and of the legal effect of licenses under the nuclear law, his point of view stated in the article is to agree with the decision of the court saying that the operation of a nuclear power plant licensed under the nuclear law does not mean an infringement of the right of freedom of conscience. It can further not be accepted to let people refuse to pay their electricity bill by referring to the right of freedom of speech, by alleging conduct against public policy on the part of the public utilities, or by referring to the right of opposition. (HSCH) [de

  20. Impact of Residential Mobility on Exposure Assessment in Longitudinal Air Pollution Studies: A Sensitivity Analysis within the ESCAPE Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Oudin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Exposure misclassification in longitudinal studies of air pollution exposure and health effects can occur due to residential mobility in a study population over followup. The aim of this study was to investigate to what extent residential mobility during followup can be expected to cause exposure misclassification in such studies, where exposure at the baseline address is used as the main exposure assessment. The addresses for each participant in a large population-based study (N>25,000 were obtained via national registers. We used a Land Use Regression model to estimate the NOx concentration for each participant's all addresses during the entire follow-up period (in average 14.6 years and calculated an average concentration during followup. The Land Use Regression model explained 83% of the variation in measured levels. In summary, the NOx concentration at the inclusion address was similar to the average concentration over followup with a correlation coefficient of 0.80, indicating that air pollution concentration at study inclusion address could be used as indicator of average air pollution concentrations over followup. The differences between an individual's inclusion and average follow-up mean concentration were small and seemed to be nondifferential with respect to a large range of factors and disease statuses, implying that bias due to residential mobility was small.

  1. Thermal analysis of Brazilian standards proposals for social residential buildings; Avaliacao termica das propostas de normas brasileiras para edificacoes de interesse social

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dilkin, Pedro [Universidade Regional do Noroeste do Estado do Rio Grande do Sul, Ijui, RSA (Brazil). Dept. de Fisica, Estatistica e Matematica]. E-mail: dilkin@main.unijui.tche.br; Schneider, Paulo Smith [Rio Grande do Sul Univ., Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica]. E-mail: pss@mecanica.ufrgs.br

    2000-07-01

    This work presents a critical analysis of national proposals of standards for the thermal performance of simple residential buildings. A review of some international standards is performed together with the description of the national proposals of standards, and a prototype of a house is assembled, following each one of the texts. Results are displayed and the prototypes are simulated using the TRNSYS environment, concerning winter and summer periods of Porto Alegre. Finally, the national proposal that achieved the best performance is improved by means new simulations. (author)

  2. Bill Gates eyes healthcare market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunbar, C

    1995-02-01

    The entrepreneurial spirit is still top in Bill Gates' mind as he look toward healthcare and other growth industries. Microsoft's CEO has not intention of going the way of other large technology companies that became obsolete before they could compete today.

  3. Students Lobby for Bottle Bill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Nathan H.

    1980-01-01

    Summarizes the 10-year accomplishments of Students for Environmental Quality from Bellport High School, New York, including successful halting of local waste oil pollution, instigating state laws to prohibit seal killing and protect the Carmans River wetlands, and details current efforts to assist in passage of a state "bottle bill."…

  4. Residential exposure to pesticides as risk factor for childhood and young adult brain tumors: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Maele-Fabry, Geneviève; Gamet-Payrastre, Laurence; Lison, Dominique

    2017-09-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests a positive association between exposure to non-agricultural pesticides and childhood brain tumors (CBT). (1) To conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of published studies on the association between residential/household/domestic exposure to pesticides and childhood brain tumors. (2) To clarify variables that could impact the results. Publications in English were identified from a MEDLINE search through 28 February 2017 and from the reference list of identified publications. Risk estimates were extracted from 18 case-control studies published between 1979 and 2016 and study quality assessments were performed. Summary odds ratios (mOR) were calculated according to fixed and random-effect meta-analysis models. Separate analyses were conducted after stratification for study quality, critical exposure period, exposure location, specific exposures, pesticide category, application methods, type of pest treated, type of CBT, child's age at diagnosis and geographic location. Statistically significant associations were observed with CBT after combining all studies (mOR: 1.26; 95% CI: 1.13-1.40) without evidence of inconsistency between study results or publication bias. Specifically, increased risks were observed for several groupings and more particularly for gliomas and exposure involving insecticides. Statistical significance was also reached for high quality studies, for all exposure periods, for indoor exposure and, more particularly, during the prenatal period for all stratifications involving insecticides (except for outdoor use), for pet treatments, for flea/tick treatment, for studies from USA/Canada and studies from Europe (borderline) as well as for data from studies including children of up to 10years at diagnosis and of up to 15years. Our findings support an association between residential exposure to pesticides and childhood brain tumors. Although causality cannot be established, these results add to the evidence leading

  5. Comparison groups on bills: Automated, personalized energy information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iyer, Maithili; Kempton, Willett; Payne, Christopher

    2006-07-01

    A program called ``Innovative Billing?? has been developed to provide individualized energy information for a mass audience?the entireresidential customer base of an electric or gas utility. Customers receive a graph on the bill that compares that customer?s consumption with othersimilar customers for the same month. The program aims to stimulate customers to make ef?ciency improvements. To group as many as severalmillion customers into small ``comparison groups??, an automated method must be developed drawing solely from the data available to the utility.This paper develops and applies methods to compare the quality of resulting comparison groups.A data base of 114,000 customers from a utility billing system was used to evaluate Innovative Billing comparison groups, comparing fouralternative criteria: house characteristics (?oor area, housing type, and heating fuel); street; meter read route; billing cycle. Also, customers wereinterviewed to see what forms of comparison graphs made most sense and led to fewest errors of interpretation. We ?nd that good qualitycomparison groups result from using street name, meter book, or multiple house characteristics. Other criteria we tested, such as entire cycle, entiremeter book, or single house characteristics such as ?oor area, resulted in poor quality comparison groups. This analysis provides a basis forchoosing comparison groups based on extensive user testing and statistical analysis. The result is a practical set of guidelines that can be used toimplement realistic, inexpensive innovative billing for the entire customer base of an electric or gas utility.

  6. Progress towards Managing Residential Electricity Demand: Impacts of Standards and Labeling for Refrigerators and Air Conditioners in India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McNeil, Michael A.; Iyer, Maithili

    2009-05-30

    The development of Energy Efficiency Standards and Labeling (EES&L) began in earnest in India in 2001 with the Energy Conservation Act and the establishment of the Indian Bureau of Energy Efficiency (BEE). The first main residential appliance to be targeted was refrigerators, soon to be followed by room air conditioners. Both of these appliances are of critical importance to India's residential electricity demand. About 15percent of Indian households own a refrigerator, and sales total about 4 million per year, but are growing. At the same time, the Indian refrigerator market has seen a strong trend towards larger and more consumptive frost-free units. Room air conditioners in India have traditionally been sold to commercial sector customers, but an increasing number are going to the residential sector. Room air conditioner sales growth in India peaked in the last few years at 20percent per year. In this paper, we perform an engineering-based analysis using data specific to Indian appliances. We evaluate costs and benefits to residential and commercial sector consumers from increased equipment costs and utility bill savings. The analysis finds that, while the BEE scheme presents net benefits to consumers, there remain opportunities for efficiency improvement that would optimize consumer benefits, according to Life Cycle Cost analysis. Due to the large and growing market for refrigerators and air conditioners in India, we forecast large impacts from the standards and labeling program as scheduled. By 2030, this program, if fully implemented would reduce Indian residential electricity consumption by 55 TWh. Overall savings through 2030 totals 385 TWh. Finally, while efficiency levels have been set for several years for refrigerators, labels and MEPS for these products remain voluntary. We therefore consider the negative impact of this delay of implementation to energy and financial savings achievable by 2030.

  7. Central Bank (Supervision and Enforcement) (Amendment) Bill 2016: Legislative Bill

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Butler, Graham; Rock, Noel

    2016-01-01

    Private Members' Bill (legislation) introduced in Dáil Éireann (House of Deputies), Houses of the Oireachtas (Irish Parliament). An Act to amend sections 49 and 51 of the Central Bank (Supervision and Enforcement) Act 2013 to ensure the powers exercised by the Central Bank of Ireland to make...... regulations, conferred by the Central Bank (Supervision and Enforcement) Act 2013 are fit for purpose; and to provide for related matters....

  8. Impacts of Urbanization on Water Use and Energy-related CO2 Emissions of Residential Consumption in China: A Spatio-temporal Analysis during 2003-2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, J.; Yin, H.; Varis, O.

    2017-12-01

    China has been undergoing unprecedented urbanization since the 1978 economic reform, especially with the present growth rate for the last decade at approximately 20 million people per year. This rapid and perennial progress has been raising soaring concerns on environmental sustainability, due to a severe nationwide deterioration of China's environment and ecosystems in the context of ceaselessly increasing demand for water and energy. It is therefore of prime necessity and importance to comprehend China's water and energy security under the effect of its dramatic demographic changes. Analyses of this issue still remain few and far between, and a comprehensive picture has not been available that would help understand China's recent development in urbanization, its spatial features and links to water and energy security, particularly regarding residential consumption, as well as national policy-making in the context of its water-energy nexus. Consequently, we addressed these knowledge gaps by performing an integrated and quantitative spatio-temporal analysis of the impacts of China's urbanization on water use of residential consumption (WURC) and energy-related CO2 emissions of residential consumption (ERCERC). We proposed per capita WURC and per capita ERCERC as potential national indicators for policy-making targets of its water and energy security. Our study, conducted over the period 2003-2012, for the first time demonstrated strong evidence of the significant impacts of China's urbanization on WURC and ERCERC. Its highlights can be portrayed as follows: (1) rural areas dominated per capita WURC at both national and provincial scales, with a significant increasing trend, while WURC share and per capita WURC in urban areas decreased, despite the fact that the urban population was soaring; (2) per capita ERCERC was significantly augmented in both urban and rural areas nationwide; and (3) per capita WURC and per capita ERCERC had a significant positive correlation

  9. Benchmarking energy performance of residential buildings using two-stage multifactor data envelopment analysis with degree-day based simple-normalization approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Endong; Shen, Zhigang; Alp, Neslihan; Barry, Nate

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Two-stage DEA model is developed to benchmark building energy efficiency. • Degree-day based simple normalization is used to neutralize the climatic noise. • Results of a real case study validated the benefits of this new model. - Abstract: Being able to identify detailed meta factors of energy performance is essential for creating effective residential energy-retrofitting strategies. Compared to other benchmarking methods, nonparametric multifactor DEA (data envelopment analysis) is capable of discriminating scale factors from management factors to reveal more details to better guide retrofitting practices. A two-stage DEA energy benchmarking method is proposed in this paper. This method includes (1) first-stage meta DEA which integrates the common degree day metrics for neutralizing noise energy effects of exogenous climatic variables; and (2) second-stage Tobit regression for further detailed efficiency analysis. A case study involving 3-year longitudinal panel data of 189 residential buildings indicated the proposed method has advantages over existing methods in terms of its efficiency in data processing and results interpretation. The results of the case study also demonstrated high consistency with existing linear regression based DEA.

  10. State laws related to billing third parties for healthcare services at public STD clinics in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cramer, Ryan; Loosier, Penny S; Krasner, Andee; Kawatu, Jennifer

    2018-02-07

    Health departments (HDs) cite state laws as barriers to billing third parties for sexually transmitted disease (STD) services, but the association between legal/policy barriers and third party HD billing has not been examined. This study investigates the relationship between laws that may limit HDs' ability to bill, clinic perceptions of billing barriers, and billing practices. Two surveys (1) clinic managers [N=246], 2) STD program managers [N=63]) conducted via a multi-regional needs assessment of federally funded HD clinics' capacity to bill for STD services, billing/reimbursement practices, and perceived barriers were combined with an analysis of state laws regarding third party billing for STD services. Statistical analyses examined relationships between laws that may limit HDs' ability to bill, clinic perceptions, and billing practices. Clinic managers reported clinics were less likely to bill Medicaid and other third parties in jurisdictions with a state law limiting their ability to bill compared to respondents who billed neither or one payer (OR=0.31, CI=0.10,0.97) and cited practical concerns as a primary barrier to billing (OR=2.83 CI=1.50,5.37). STD program managers' reports that staff believed STD services should be free (OR=0.34, CI=0.13, 0.90) was associated with not billing (not sure versus no resistance to billing); confidentiality concerns was not a reported barrier to billing among either sample. Practical concerns and clinic staff beliefs that STD services should be free emerged as possible barriers to billing, and laws less so. Attempts to initiate HD billing for STD services may benefit from staff education as well as addressing perceived legal barriers and staff concerns.

  11. Analysis of the residential location choice and household energy consumption behavior by incorporating multiple self-selection effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Biying; Junyi Zhang; Fujiwara, Akimasa

    2012-01-01

    It is expected that the residential location choice and household energy consumption behavior might correlate with each other. Besides, due to the existence of self-selection effects, the observed inter-relationship between them might be the spurious result of the fact that some unobserved variables are causing both. These concerns motivate us to (1) consider residential location choice and household energy consumption behavior (for both in-home appliances and out-of-home cars) simultaneously and, (2) explicitly control self-selection effects so as to capture a relatively true effect of land-use policy on household energy consumption behavior. An integrated model termed as joint mixed Multinomial Logit-Multiple Discrete-Continuous Extreme Value model is presented here to identify the sensitivity of household energy consumption to land use policy by considering multiple self-selection effects. The model results indicate that land-use policy do play a great role in changing Beijing residents’ energy consumption pattern, while the self-selection effects cannot be ignored when evaluating the effect of land-use policy. Based on the policy scenario design, it is found that increasing recreational facilities and bus lines in the neighborhood can greatly promote household's energy-saving behavior. Additionally, the importance of “soft policy” and package policy is also emphasized in the context of Beijing. - Highlights: ► Representing residential choice and household energy consumption behavior jointly. ► Land use policy is found effective to control the household energy use in Beijing. ► Multiple self-selection effects are posed to get the true effect of land use policy. ► Significant self-selection effects call an attention to the soft policy in Beijing. ► The necessity of package policy on saving Beijing residents’ energy use is confirmed.

  12. Energy refurbishment of the Italian residential building stock: energy and cost analysis through the application of the building typology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ballarini, Ilaria; Corrado, Vincenzo; Madonna, Francesco; Paduos, Simona; Ravasio, Franco

    2017-01-01

    The European residential building stock is largely composed of buildings with poor energy performance, therefore basic retrofit actions could lead to significant energy savings. However, energy refurbishment measures should be identified in accurate way, taking into account the technical viability and aiming both to increase the building energy performance and to restrain the costs. The present article investigates the effects of different measures applied to the Italian residential building stock by using the building typology, which consists of 120 building types, representative of six construction ages, four building sizes and five climatic zones. A quasi-steady state model has been used to calculate the energy performance; the economic evaluation has been carried out as specified in the EU cost-optimal comparative methodology (Directive 2010/31/EU). The most effective measures and packages of measures, in terms of energy saving and global cost reduction, are identified and discussed. The results are addressed to important purposes for energy policy, as for instance: (a) to provide political authorities with the most effective energy efficiency measures as to encourage retrofit processes through the allocation of financial incentives, (b) to offer a knowledge-base for developing energy refurbishment scenarios of residential building stocks and forecasting future energy resource demand. - Highlights: • Investigation of energy savings and cost effectiveness of the Italian housing stock refurbishments. • Application of the building typology approach of the IEE-TABULA project. • Knowledge-base for bottom-up models of the building stock energy performance. • Supporting the political authorities to promote effective refurbishment measures.

  13. Residential Customer Enrollment in Time-based Rate and Enabling Technology Programs: Smart Grid Investment Grant Consumer Behavior Study Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Todd, Annika [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Cappers, Peter [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Goldman, Charles [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2013-05-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Smart Grid Investment Grant (SGIG) program is working with a subset of the 99 SGIG projects undertaking Consumer Behavior Studies (CBS), which examine the response of mass market consumers (i.e., residential and small commercial customers) to time-varying electricity prices (referred to herein as time-based rate programs) in conjunction with the deployment of advanced metering infrastructure (AMI) and associated technologies. The effort presents an opportunity to advance the electric industry’s understanding of consumer behavior.

  14. Critical analysis about solutions and models of solar shades in non-residential buildings from tropical regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castañon, J A B; Caldeira, L F D; Gervásio, M F; Brum, F M

    2012-01-01

    Whereas the non-residential buildings consume a significant percentage of the total energy produced by the city, is important that these buildings have for such consumption is reduced or consumed in a conscious way. To do so, using concepts of energy efficiency, this work is to explain passive strategies with the use of flexible solar shades that help to get a favorable outcome with respect to the performance of the building right in the initial stages of planning and design. Once initial gains can be obtained and the architecture constants that value at the same time provide better working conditions and indoor comfort.

  15. Billing of Household Goods Accessorial Charges

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1997-01-01

    The audit objectives were to evaluate the process of submitting bills for household goods accessorial charges for payment, and to evaluate procedures used to conduct prepayment reviews of billed accessorial charges...

  16. Tracing residential mobility during the Merovingian period: An isotopic analysis of human remains from the Upper Rhine Valley, Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuh, Christine; Makarewicz, Cheryl A

    2016-09-01

    Written sources have provided information about the rise of Merovingian power and their territorial conquests after the disintegration of the Western Roman Empire, but the extent to which altered power relations in the newly annexed territories reshaped regional and local communities is poorly understood. The early medieval cemetery of Dirmstein, located in the Upper Rhine Valley, is one of the rare sites bearing archeological evidence of simultaneous use by an indigenous community and newcomers from outside the Merovingian core area, and it offers the opportunity to investigate residential mobility at the former Roman Rhine frontier during the Merovingian period. We conducted strontium, oxygen, and carbon isotope analyses on human tooth enamel recovered from 25 sixth century inhumations at the Dirmstein cemetery to establish the presence of newcomers to the Upper Rhine region. The low δ(13) C values exhibited by the Dirmstein individuals revealed ingestion of a C3 terrestrial based diet, with no detectable contribution of C4 plants, which indicates the absence of individuals from regions where a C4 -based diet was common. Human (87) Sr/(86) Sr values well outside the local range of bioavailable strontium, in combination with low δ(18) O values, suggest a notable presence of newcomers from more eastern or high altitude regions. The isotopic evidence indicates that residential mobility was important and new settlers, most likely from outside the Merovingian core area, contributed to the settlement of the northern Upper Rhine Valley during the sixth century AD. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Bill Gates vil redde Folkeskolen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fejerskov, Adam Moe

    2014-01-01

    Det amerikanske uddannelsessystem bliver for tiden udsat for hård kritik, ledt an af Microsoft stifteren Bill Gates. Gates har indtil videre brugt 3 mia. kroner på at skabe opbakning til tiltag som præstationslønning af lærere og strømlining af pensum på tværs af alle skoler i landet...

  18. Estimating Response to Price Signals in Residential Electricity Consumption

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Yizhang

    2013-01-01

    Based on a previous empirical study of the effect of a residential demand response program in Sala, Sweden, this project  investigated the economic consequences of consumer behaviour change after a demand-based time of use distribution tariff was employed. The economic consequences of consumers were proven to be disadvantageous in terms of unit electricity price. Consumers could achieve more electricity bill saving through stabilising their electricity consumption during peak hours, and this ...

  19. 25 CFR 175.30 - Billing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... provided in the customer's special contract. (c) Service fee billing. The utility shall render service fee... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Billing. 175.30 Section 175.30 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER INDIAN ELECTRIC POWER UTILITIES Billing, Payments, and...

  20. 48 CFR 42.704 - Billing rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... CONTRACT ADMINISTRATION AND AUDIT SERVICES Indirect Cost Rates 42.704 Billing rates. (a) The contracting... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Billing rates. 42.704... final indirect cost rates also shall be responsible for determining the billing rates. (b) The...

  1. 48 CFR 942.704 - Billing rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION AND AUDIT SERVICES Indirect Cost Rates 942.704 Billing rates. (b) When the contracting officer or auditor responsible for establishing billing rates, in accordance with 48 CFR 42.704, has not established... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Billing rates. 942.704...

  2. Change in consumer sensitivity to electricity prices in response to retail deregulation: A panel empirical analysis of the residential demand for electricity in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakajima, Tadahiro; Hamori, Shigeyuki

    2010-01-01

    About ten years have passed since the deregulation of the U.S. retail electricity market, and it is now generally accepted that the available data is adequate to quantitatively assess and compare conditions before and after deregulation. This study, therefore, estimates the changes in price elasticity in the residential electricity market to examine the changes, if any, in household sensitivity (as a result of retail electricity market deregulation policies) to residential electricity rates. Specifically, six types of panel data are prepared, based on three cross-sections-all states (except for Alaska and Hawaii) and the District of Columbia, deregulated states, and non-deregulated states-and two time series-the period before deregulation and the period after deregulation. The panel empirical analysis techniques are used to determine whether or not the variables are stationary, and to estimate price elasticity. We find that there is no substantial difference in the price elasticity between deregulated and non-deregulated states for both periods-before deregulation and after deregulation. Thus, it can be said that the deregulation of the retail electricity market has not made consumers more sensitive to electricity rates and that retail deregulation policies are not the cause of price elasticity differences between deregulated and non-deregulated states.

  3. End use technology choice in the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS): An analysis of the residential and commercial building sectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilkerson, Jordan T.; Cullenward, Danny; Davidian, Danielle; Weyant, John P.

    2013-01-01

    The National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) is arguably the most influential energy model in the United States. The U.S. Energy Information Administration uses NEMS to generate the federal government's annual long-term forecast of national energy consumption and to evaluate prospective federal energy policies. NEMS is considered such a standard tool that other models are calibrated to its forecasts, in both government and academic practice. As a result, NEMS has a significant influence over expert opinions of plausible energy futures. NEMS is a massively detailed model whose inner workings, despite its prominence, receive relatively scant critical attention. This paper analyzes how NEMS projects energy demand in the residential and commercial sectors. In particular, we focus on the role of consumers' preferences and financial constraints, investigating how consumers choose appliances and other end-use technologies. We identify conceptual issues in the approach the model takes to the same question across both sectors. Running the model with a range of consumer preferences, we estimate the extent to which this issue impacts projected consumption relative to the baseline model forecast for final energy demand in the year 2035. In the residential sector, the impact ranges from a decrease of 0.73 quads (− 6.0%) to an increase of 0.24 quads (+ 2.0%). In the commercial sector, the impact ranges from a decrease of 1.0 quads (− 9.0%) to an increase of 0.99 quads (+ 9.0%). - Highlights: • This paper examines the impact of consumer preferences on final energy in the Commercial and Residential sectors of the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS). • We describe the conceptual and empirical basis for modeling consumer technology choice in NEMS. • We offer a range of alternative parameters to show the energy demand sensitivity to technology choice. • We show there are significant potential savings available in both building sectors. • Because the model uses its own

  4. Analysis of the effect of passive strategies on a nearly zero Danish residential building by means of dynamic simulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Avantaggiato, Marta; Simone, Angela; de Carli, Michele

    2014-01-01

    Increase of outdoors temperature, due to climate changes, results in warmer summers even in cold climate regions. Moreover the use of wider glazing surfaces leads to high amount of incoming solar radiation. As a consequence, the moving toward low energy buildings with the improved air tightness.......The main result is that a crossed use of both strategies leads to a cooling demand reduction (21 kWh/m2year) that varies between 98%-100% depending on the building’s tightness. Behavioural actions of the occupants were also considered in the calculation of the cooling energy demand and their impact...... is raising the issue of overheating even in the middle seasons creating not negligible thermal discomfort. Through building simulation program, the effect of passive cooling strategies, such as solar shading and natural night-time ventilation, on a residential building under Copenhagen climate conditions...

  5. Performance Assessment of a Hybrid Solar-Geothermal Air Conditioning System for Residential Application: Energy, Exergy, and Sustainability Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasser Abbasi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the performance of a ground source heat pump that is coupled with a photovoltaic system to provide cooling and heating demands of a zero-energy residential building. Exergy and sustainability analyses have been conducted to evaluate the exergy destruction rate and SI of different compartments of the hybrid system. The effects of monthly thermal load variations on the performance of the hybrid system are investigated. The hybrid system consists of a vertical ground source heat exchanger, rooftop photovoltaic panels, and a heat pump cycle. Exergetic efficiency of the solar-geothermal heat pump system does not exceed 10 percent, and most exergy destruction takes place in photovoltaic panel, condenser, and evaporator. Although SI of PV system remains constant during a year, SI of GSHP varies depending on cooling and heating mode. The results also show that utilization of this hybrid system can reduce CO2 emissions by almost 70 tons per year.

  6. Market power and the sale of Ontario residential natural gas: An institutional analysis and a laboratory experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloemhof, Barbara Lynn

    2005-11-01

    The Ontario residential natural gas market underwent a significant institutional change in 1986, after the federal government decontrolled natural gas prices. Currently, consumers may sign up for fixed-cost natural gas from a broker, or they may continue to be served by the regulated distribution company. This thesis examines the economic effects on consumers of the institutional change, and particularly whether or not market power was enhanced by the change. In the thesis, I first present the industrial organization of the residential natural gas sector, and explain the institutional evolution using an institutional economic approach. I then construct a model of the market environment, with sellers acting as middlemen in a well-defined Bertrand oligopoly setting with no production constraints and single-unit consumer demands. In this model, the only Nash equilibrium in the one-period game is the joint profit maximizing price, and its likelihood of obtaining depends on the nature of the cost of signing up new customers. I then take a version of this model into the laboratory with human subject sellers and simulated buyers and run six replications each of a balanced treatment design under a unique information mechanism that parallels individual customer canvassing used by sellers in the naturally-occurring market. Treatment variables are: number of sellers, number of simulated at-cost sellers present, and presence of input cost uncertainty for sellers. I find that adding any seller to the market has about the same impact on market price, irrespective of whether it is a human subject or a simulated at-cost seller. Although increasing the number of sellers does decrease the market price somewhat, it does not bring about the competitive outcome predicted by the benchmark microeconomic model. This research contributes to the literature on policy making and energy market design, as well as to experimental methodology aimed at policy evaluation.

  7. Determinant factors of residential consumption and perception of energy conservation: Time-series analysis by large-scale questionnaire in Suita, Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hara, Keishiro; Uwasu, Michinori; Kishita, Yusuke; Takeda, Hiroyuki

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we examined determinant factors associated with the residential consumption and perception of savings of electricity and city gas; this was based on data collected from a large-scale questionnaire sent to households in Suita, Osaka Prefecture, Japan, in two different years: 2009 and 2013. We applied an ordered logit model to determine the overall trend of the determinant factors, and then we performed a more detailed analysis in order to understand the reasons why the determinant factors changed between the two periods. Results from the ordered logit model reveal that electricity and gas consumption was primarily determined by such factors as household income, number of family members, the number of home appliances, and the perceptions of energy savings; there was not much difference between the two years, although in 2013, household income did not affect the perception of energy savings. Detailed analysis demonstrated that households with high energy consumption and those with moderate consumption are becoming polarized and that there was a growing gap between consumption behavior and the perception of conservation. The implications derived from the analyses provide an essential insight into the design of a municipal policy to induce lifestyle changes for an energy-saving society. - Highlights: • Questionnaire was conducted to households in two years for time-series analysis. • We analyzed residential energy consumption and perception of savings in households. • Determinant factors for consumption and perception of savings were identified. • Households being wasteful of energy are also found willing to cut consumption. • Policy intervention could affect consumption pattern and perception of savings.

  8. BILLING IS A DEVELOPING MEANS OF BRANDS PROMOTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir A. Polyakov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The article gives a concept of the billing as a developing means of marketing promotion. Examples of comparative analysis for a rating are considered. The author presents technology of two-factor rating of trade marks on the basis of expert and comparative analysis.

  9. Incentive Pass-through for Residential Solar Systems in California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dong, C. G. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States); Wiser, Ryan [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Rai, Varun [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States)

    2014-10-01

    The deployment of solar photovoltaic (PV) systems has grown rapidly over the last decade, partly because of various government incentives. In the United States, among the largest and longest-running incentives have been those established in California. Building on past research, this report addresses the still-unanswered question: to what degree have the direct PV incentives in California been passed through from installers to consumers? This report helps address this question by carefully examining the residential PV market in California (excluding a certain class of third-party-owned PV systems) and applying both a structural-modeling approach and a reduced-form regression analysis to estimate the incentive pass-through rate. The results suggest an average pass-through rate of direct incentives of nearly 100%, though with regional differences among California counties. While these results could have multiple explanations, they suggest a relatively competitive market and well-functioning subsidy program. Further analysis is required to determine whether similar results broadly apply to other states, to other customer segments, to all third-party-owned PV systems, or to all forms of financial incentives for solar (considering not only direct state subsidies, but also utility electric bill savings and federal tax incentives).

  10. Analyzing the Operations with Bills by Means of the Table Processor LIBRE CALC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hlotov Yevhen O.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article conducts an analysis of the existing methodological framework for assessment of bill, which is one of the most complicated categories of securities. This arises from the variety of functions that a bill can perform during the process of treatment. In this publication, bill refers to securities based on statutory form and containing an unconditional obligation to pay a specified sum within a stipulated time frame, it is also specified that the Ukrainian exchange law is still in a formative stage. Simulations of calculations of bills, which differ in agreements and payers, are considered. The focus of the work is given to simulation of calculations related to common operations with bills, as well as to technology of automation of bills' accounting computation in the Libre Calc environment, using the built-in functions: ACCRINTM(, PRICEDISC(, YIELDDISC(, DISC(, INTRATE(, RECEIVED(. An electronic worksheet in the environment of the table processor LibreOffice Calc has been developed, which is a tool to automate the analysis of accounting operations with bills and may be supplemented and adapted to the analysis of operations in more complex terms. Thus, the analyzed methodological framework of bills and the developed electronic worksheet provide to analyze accounting operations with bills, and to develop a program for their analysis in a high-level language that is useful both in practice and in the educational process

  11. Analysis of technical feasibility, economic and environmental operation of the lift system Tiete-Billings in the supply of water and electricity in the metropolitan region of Sao Paulo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martins, Luiz

    2010-01-01

    organic matter and 14% for ammonia nitrogen. There was an increase of 34% for oxygen and a decrease of 46% in turbidity. The analysis of the technical operation of the lift system Tiete-Billings, held in the AHP-Analytic Hierarchy Process, showed that 65.62% of the water entering the reservoir Billings can be used to generate electricity, while 34.38% this water can be used to supply the 'RMSP'. The feasibility study compared the economic cost of the flotation process with the cost of input of water from other sources and concluded that the cost of the flotation of the waters of the Pinheiros river to serve the supply of the metropolitan region is economically viable. (author)

  12. Residential mobility and childhood leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amoon, A T; Oksuzyan, S; Crespi, C M; Arah, O A; Cockburn, M; Vergara, X; Kheifets, L

    2018-07-01

    Studies of environmental exposures and childhood leukemia studies do not usually account for residential mobility. Yet, in addition to being a potential risk factor, mobility can induce selection bias, confounding, or measurement error in such studies. Using data collected for California Powerline Study (CAPS), we attempt to disentangle the effect of mobility. We analyzed data from a population-based case-control study of childhood leukemia using cases who were born in California and diagnosed between 1988 and 2008 and birth certificate controls. We used stratified logistic regression, case-only analysis, and propensity-score adjustments to assess predictors of residential mobility between birth and diagnosis, and account for potential confounding due to residential mobility. Children who moved tended to be older, lived in housing other than single-family homes, had younger mothers and fewer siblings, and were of lower socioeconomic status. Odds ratios for leukemia among non-movers living mobility, including dwelling type, increased odds ratios for leukemia to 2.61 (95% CI: 1.76-3.86) for living mobility of childhood leukemia cases varied by several sociodemographic characteristics, but not by the distance to the nearest power line or calculated magnetic fields. Mobility appears to be an unlikely explanation for the associations observed between power lines exposure and childhood leukemia. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. RESIDENTIAL MORTGAGE IN MODERN RUSSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dementiev N. P.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The article presents a comparative analysis of residential mortgages in Russia and the United States. The primary ways of mortgage refinancing are outlined. Predominance of the elements of two-level refinancing system of residential mortgage in Russia and the United States is shown. The activity of the Agency for Housing Mortgage Lending (AHML, the basic tool of the Russian government’s mortgage policy, is described in detail. In its objectives and functions the AHML is similar to the American mortgage agencies Ginnie Mae, Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac. Similarities were identified in the Russian and US residential mortgages in the pre-crisis period (high rates of mortgage growth, favourable economic conjuncture, low interest rates, large increase in house prices, speculative housing demand. During the mortgage crisis, the policies of the Russian and US governments and monetary authorities had also much in common (monetary policy easing, cheap central banks loans, extended facilities of mortgage refinancing on the part of state agencies, mortgage rescue scheme, social mortgage programs. But the scope of mortgage in Russia is enormously narrow as compared to the US mortgage. The most important reason for that - low incomes of the Russian population.

  14. Energy Analysis of a Complementary Heating System Combining Solar Energy and Coal for a Rural Residential Building in Northwest China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhen, Xiaofei; Abdalla Osman, Yassir Idris; Feng, Rong; Zhang, Xuemin

    2018-01-01

    In order to utilize solar energy to meet the heating demands of a rural residential building during the winter in the northwestern region of China, a hybrid heating system combining solar energy and coal was built. Multiple experiments to monitor its performance were conducted during the winter in 2014 and 2015. In this paper, we analyze the efficiency of the energy utilization of the system and describe a prototype model to determine the thermal efficiency of the coal stove in use. Multiple linear regression was adopted to present the dual function of multiple factors on the daily heat-collecting capacity of the solar water heater; the heat-loss coefficient of the storage tank was detected as well. The prototype model shows that the average thermal efficiency of the stove is 38%, which means that the energy input for the building is divided between the coal and solar energy, 39.5% and 60.5% energy, respectively. Additionally, the allocation of the radiation of solar energy projecting into the collecting area of the solar water heater was obtained which showed 49% loss with optics and 23% with the dissipation of heat, with only 28% being utilized effectively. PMID:29651424

  15. Design and Analysis of an Optical Coupler for Concentrated Solar Light Using Optical Fibers in Residential Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afshin Aslian

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Concentrated sunlight that is transmitted by fiber optics has been used for generating electricity, heat, and daylight. On the other hand, multijunction photovoltaic cells provide high efficiency for generating electricity from highly concentrated sunlight. This study deals with designing and simulating a high-efficiency coupler, employing a mathematical model to connect sunlight with fiber optics for multiple applications. The coupler concentrates and distributes irradiated light from a primary concentrator. In this study, a parabolic dish was used as the primary concentrator, a coupler that contains nine components called a compound truncated pyramid and a cone (CTPC, all of which were mounted on a plate. The material of both the CTPC and the plate was BK7 optical glass. Fiber optics cables and multijunction photovoltaic cells were connected to the cylindrical part of the CTPC. The fibers would transmit the light to the building to provide heat and daylight, whereas multijunction photovoltaic cells generate electricity. Theoretical and simulation results showed high performance of the designed coupler. The efficiency of the coupler was as high as 92%, whereas the rim angle of the dish increased to an optimum angle. Distributed sunlight in the coupler increased the flexibility and simplicity of the design, resulting in a system that provided concentrated electricity, heat, and lighting for residential buildings.

  16. Paying the full cost of power : an indicative comparative analysis of residential electricity rates across Canadian provinces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goulding, A.J.; Sabatier, G.

    2005-01-01

    This study was commissioned to review electricity rates charged to residential consumers across Canada and to determine how the basics of ratemaking change from province to province. Rates in each province vary significantly due to differences in the industry structure and their resource base. It was noted that direct comparisons are difficult because some rates reflect the financing, fuel and opportunity costs of power. For that reason, a simple adjustment factor was developed for fair comparison between jurisdictions. This assessment compared the all-in cost to final consumers which includes power generation, transmission, distribution and all other charges, as calculated by Statistics Canada. It was revealed that Alberta is Canada's only province where prices to final consumers reflect the market value of the underlying commodity. Ratepayers have the advantage of not being responsible for bad investment choices in the power sector and there are no hidden subsidies due to provincial ownership of power resources. Another consumer advantage is that they receive appropriate price signals in terms of energy consumption and conservation. This report suggests that low electricity rates in other provinces can be expected to rise much more rapidly than those in Alberta in the coming decade as consumers may be charged the full value of the electricity they use. 18 refs., 9 figs

  17. Energy saving analysis on mine-water source heat pump in a residential district of Henan province, central China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hong; Duan, Huanlin; Chen, Aidong

    2018-02-01

    In this paper, the mine-water source heat pump system is proposed in residential buildings of a mining community. The coefficient of performance (COP) and the efficiency of exergy are analyzed. The results show that the COP and exergy efficiency of the mine-water source heat pump are improved, the exergy efficiency of mine-water source heat pump is more than 10% higher than that of the air source heat pump.The electric power conservation measure of “peak load shifting” is also emphasized in this article. It shows that itis a very considerable cost in the electric saving by adopting the trough period electricity to produce hot water. Due to the proper temperature of mine water, the mine-watersource heat pump unit is more efficient and stable in performance, which further shows the advantage of mine-water source heat pump in energy saving and environmental protection. It provides reference to the design of similar heat pump system as well.

  18. Energy Analysis of a Complementary Heating System Combining Solar Energy and Coal for a Rural Residential Building in Northwest China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhen, Xiaofei; Li, Jinping; Abdalla Osman, Yassir Idris; Feng, Rong; Zhang, Xuemin; Kang, Jian

    2018-01-01

    In order to utilize solar energy to meet the heating demands of a rural residential building during the winter in the northwestern region of China, a hybrid heating system combining solar energy and coal was built. Multiple experiments to monitor its performance were conducted during the winter in 2014 and 2015. In this paper, we analyze the efficiency of the energy utilization of the system and describe a prototype model to determine the thermal efficiency of the coal stove in use. Multiple linear regression was adopted to present the dual function of multiple factors on the daily heat-collecting capacity of the solar water heater; the heat-loss coefficient of the storage tank was detected as well. The prototype model shows that the average thermal efficiency of the stove is 38%, which means that the energy input for the building is divided between the coal and solar energy, 39.5% and 60.5% energy, respectively. Additionally, the allocation of the radiation of solar energy projecting into the collecting area of the solar water heater was obtained which showed 49% loss with optics and 23% with the dissipation of heat, with only 28% being utilized effectively.

  19. Jamaica National Net-Billing Pilot Program Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doris, Elizabeth [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Stout, Sherry [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Peterson, Kimberly [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-12-18

    This technical report discusses the effectiveness of the Jamaica Public Service Company Limited Net-Billing Pilot Program. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) collected and analyzed data from a wide range of stakeholders, conducted in-country research, and compared program elements to common interconnection practices to form programmatic recommendations for the Jamaica context. NREL finds that the net-billing pilot program has successfully contributed to the support of the emerging solar market in Jamaica with the interconnection of 80 systems under the program for a total of 1.38 megawatts (MW) at the time of original analysis.

  20. How sailfish use their bills to capture schooling prey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Domenici, P.; Wilson, A.D.M.; Kurvers, R.H.J.M.

    2014-01-01

    The istiophorid family of billfishes is characterized by an extended rostrum or ‘bill’. While various functions (e.g. foraging and hydrodynamic benefits) have been proposed for this structure, until now no study has directly investigated the mechanisms by which billfishes use their rostrum to feed...... on prey. Here, we present the first unequivocal evidence of how the bill is used by Atlantic sailfish (Istiophorus albicans) to attack schooling sardines in the open ocean. Using high-speed video-analysis, we show that (i) sailfish manage to insert their bill into sardine schools without eliciting...... an evasive response and (ii) subsequently use their bill to either tap on individual prey targets or to slash through the school with powerful lateral motions characterized by one of the highest accelerations ever recorded in an aquatic vertebrate. Our results demonstrate that the combination of stealth...

  1. Application analysis of solar total energy systems to the residential sector. Volume III, conceptual design. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-07-01

    The objective of the work described in this volume was to conceptualize suitable designs for solar total energy systems for the following residential market segments: single-family detached homes, single-family attached units (townhouses), low-rise apartments, and high-rise apartments. Conceptual designs for the total energy systems are based on parabolic trough collectors in conjunction with a 100 kWe organic Rankine cycle heat engine or a flat-plate, water-cooled photovoltaic array. The ORC-based systems are designed to operate as either independent (stand alone) systems that burn fossil fuel for backup electricity or as systems that purchase electricity from a utility grid for electrical backup. The ORC designs are classified as (1) a high temperature system designed to operate at 600/sup 0/F and (2) a low temperature system designed to operate at 300/sup 0/F. The 600/sup 0/F ORC system that purchases grid electricity as backup utilizes the thermal tracking principle and the 300/sup 0/F ORC system tracks the combined thermal and electrical loads. Reject heat from the condenser supplies thermal energy for heating and cooling. All of the ORC systems utilize fossil fuel boilers to supply backup thermal energy to both the primary (electrical generating) cycle and the secondary (thermal) cycle. Space heating is supplied by a central hot water (hydronic) system and a central absorption chiller supplies the space cooling loads. A central hot water system supplies domestic hot water. The photovoltaic system uses a central electrical vapor compression air conditioning system for space cooling, with space heating and domestic hot water provided by reject heat from the water-cooled array. All of the systems incorporate low temperature thermal storage (based on water as the storage medium) and lead--acid battery storage for electricity; in addition, the 600/sup 0/F ORC system uses a therminol-rock high temperature storage for the primary cycle. (WHK)

  2. Improving benefit-cost analysis to overcome financing difficulties in promoting energy-efficient renovation of existing residential buildings in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Xiaotong; Lu, Meijun; Mao, Wei; Ouyang, Jinlong; Zhou, Bo; Yang, Yunkai

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Financing difficulties hinder energy retrofit of aging residential buildings in China. • New indices based on benefit-cost analysis are presented to overcome barriers. • New indices can be applied to rank energy measures and propose optimum plans. • Improved benefit-cost analysis will attract the government and residents to co-invest. • A “win–win” model means the governments and residents can co-invest and co-benefit. - Abstract: Energy-efficient renovation of existing residential buildings is an important energy policy in China, but financing difficulties seriously hinder the promotion of the policy. In this article, novel indices based on benefit-cost analysis are presented to overcome the barriers. Firstly, benefit-cost analysis is expanded to include the ratio of energy-saving benefit to investment cost (EnIR), the ratio of environmental benefit to investment cost (EvIR), and the ratio of economic benefit to investment cost (EcIR). The above ratios are applied to determine the optimum plans with the highest cost-effectiveness for the buildings to be renovated. Secondly, according to the actual situation regarding both the government and residents, EnIR is modified to the ratio of energy-saving benefit from the retrofit plan to the part of the investment cost undertaken by the government (EnIgR), EvIR to the ratio of environmental benefit from the retrofit plan to the part of the investment cost undertaken by the government (EvIgR), and EcIR to the ratio of economic benefit from the retrofit plan to the part of the investment cost undertaken by residents (EcIrR). The modified ratios can increase awareness of residents in respect of their individual benefits from the adoption of the optimum plans, and can attract them to co-invest. Through these two steps, financing difficulties could be eased or even no longer considered as obstacles to some extent. The ratios are applied to a case study building in Hangzhou. Based on the results

  3. A Barking Dog That Never Bites? The British Sign Language (Scotland) Bill

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Meulder, Maartje

    2015-01-01

    This article describes and analyses the pathway to the British Sign Language (Scotland) Bill and the strategies used to reach it. Data collection has been done by means of interviews with key players, analysis of official documents, and participant observation. The article discusses the bill in relation to the Gaelic Language (Scotland) Act 2005…

  4. Sizing a solar dish Stirling micro-CHP system for residential application in diverse climatic conditions based on 3E analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moghadam, Ramin Shabanpour; Sayyaadi, Hoseyn; Hosseinzade, Hadi

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • 3E analysis was performed on solar CHP systems. • Significant primary energy saving and greenhouse gas reduction were obtained. • The engine was sized so that it had the best economic sound. • Various criteria at different weathers were used for sizing the engine. - Abstract: A solar dish Stirling cogeneration system is considered to provide energy demands of a residential building. As energy demands of the building and output power of the engine are functions of weather condition and solar irradiation flux, the benchmark building was considered to be located in five different cities in Iran with diverse climatic and solar irradiation conditions. The proposed solar dish Stirling micro-CHP system was analyzed based on 3E analysis. The 3E analysis evaluated primary energy saving analysis (energy analysis), carbon dioxide emission reduction (environmental analysis) and payback period for return of investment (economic analysis) and was compared to a reference building that utilized primary energy carriers for its demands. Three scenarios were considered for assessment and sizing the solar dish Stirling engine. In the first scenario, size of the solar dish Stirling engine was selected based on the lowest annual electric power demand while, in second, the highest annual electric power consumption was considered to specify size of the engine. In the third scenario, a solar dish Stirling engine with constant output capacity was considered for the five locations. It was shown that implementing the solar dish Stirling micro-CHP system had good potential in primary energy saving and carbon dioxide emission reduction in all scenarios and acceptable payback period for return of the investment in some scenarios. Finally, the best scenario for selecting size of the engine in each city was introduced using the TOPSIS decision making method. It was demonstrated that, for dry weather, the first scenario was the best while, for hot and humid cities and

  5. 46 CFR 296.40 - Billing procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... OPERATORS MARITIME SECURITY PROGRAM (MSP) Billing and Payment Procedures § 296.40 Billing procedures. Submission of voucher. For contractors operating under more than one MSP Operating Agreement, the contractor may submit a single monthly voucher applicable to all its MSP Operating Agreements. Each voucher...

  6. Intervention and societal costs of residential community reintegration for patients with acquired brain injury: a cost-analysis of the Brain Integration Programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Heugten, Caroline M; Geurtsen, Gert J; Derksen, R Elze; Martina, Juan D; Geurts, Alexander C H; Evers, Silvia M A A

    2011-06-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the intervention costs of a residential community reintegration programme for patients with acquired brain injury and to compare the societal costs before and after treatment. A cost-analysis was performed identifying costs of healthcare, informal care, and productivity losses. The costs in the year before the Brain Integration Programme (BIP) were compared with the costs in the year after the BIP using the following cost categories: care consumption, caregiver support, productivity losses. Dutch guidelines were used for cost valuation. Thirty-three cases participated (72% response). Mean age was 29.8 years, 59% traumatic brain injury. The BIP costs were €68,400. The informal care and productivity losses reduced significantly after BIP (p costs per patient were €48,449. After BIP these costs were €39,773; a significant reduction (p costs after the BIP advocates the allocation of resources and, from an economic perspective, favours reimbursement of the BIP costs by healthcare insurance companies. However, this cost-analysis is limited as it does not relate costs to clinical effectiveness. :

  7. Residential Mechanical Precooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    German, a. [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI), Davis, CA (United States); Hoeschele, M. [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI), Davis, CA (United States)

    2014-12-01

    This research conducted by the Alliance for Residential Building Innovation team evaluated mechanical air conditioner pre-cooling strategies in homes throughout the United States. EnergyPlus modeling evaluated two homes with different performance characteristics in seven climates. Results are applicable to new construction homes and most existing homes built in the last 10 years, as well as fairly efficient retrofitted homes.

  8. Residential Solar Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulkerson, Dan

    This publication contains student and teacher instructional materials for a course in residential solar systems. The text is designed either as a basic solar course or as a supplement to extend student skills in areas such as architectural drafting, air conditioning and refrigeration, and plumbing. The materials are presented in four units…

  9. Price and expenditure elasticities of residential energy demand during urbanization: An empirical analysis based on the household-level survey data in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Chuanwang; Ouyang, Xiaoling

    2016-01-01

    Urbanization, one of the most obvious characteristics of economic growth in China, has an apparent “lock-in effect” on residential energy consumption pattern. It is expected that residential sector would become a major force that drives China's energy consumption after urbanization process. We estimate price and expenditure elasticities of residential energy demand using data from China's Residential Energy Consumption Survey (CRECS) that covers households at different income levels and from different regional and social groups. Empirical results from the Almost Ideal Demand System model are in accordance with the basic expectations: the demands for electricity, natural gas and transport fuels are inelastic in the residential sector due to the unreasonable pricing mechanism. We further investigate the sensitivities of different income groups to prices of the three types of energy. Policy simulations indicate that rationalizing energy pricing mechanism is an important guarantee for energy sustainable development during urbanization. Finally, we put forward suggestions on energy pricing reform in the residential sector based on characteristics of China's undergoing urbanization process and the current energy consumption situations.

  10. Billing for outpatient transplant pharmacy services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maldonado, Angela Q; Seiger, Todd C; Urann, Christina L; McCleary, Jo Ann; Goroski, Angela L; Ojogho, Okechukwu N

    2012-01-15

    The economic impact of out-patient pharmacy services in a transplant program was evaluated. Full-time kidney transplant pharmacy services were implemented at Providence Sacred Heart Medical Center (PSHMC) in the fall of 2008, with two pharmacists combining hours to provide one full-time-equivalent position. At PSHMC, posttransplantation patients are seen three times per week. The number of patient visits with pharmacists for 2010 was compared with the total number of patient visits. The face-to-face time spent with the patient was translated to a level of billing that was associated with a set reimbursement schedule. For each patient encounter in which a pharmacist was involved, the incremental difference between the nursing and pharmacy levels of billing was examined, as were the levels most often billed by pharmacists. The difference in billing levels between pharmacists and nurses for the same patient encounter was also evaluated. Overall, pharmacist visits accounted for 208 (22%) of the 994 out-patient kidney transplant visits in 2010, with pharmacists billing at a higher level of acuity compared with nursing for the same patient encounter 48% of the time. This translated to an approximate increase of $100 per patient visit. For the one-year study period, pharmacists utilizing facility- fee billing increased out-patient reimbursement by approximately $10,000. By utilizing outpatient facility-fee billing for pharmacy services, the transplant program at PSHMC increased reimbursement in the outpatient setting.

  11. Cloning and structural analysis of two highly divergent IgA isotypes, IgA1 and IgA2 from the duck billed platypus, Ornithorhynchus anatinus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernersson, M; Belov, K; Aveskogh, M; Hellman, L

    2010-01-01

    To trace the emergence of modern IgA isotypes during vertebrate evolution we have studied the immunoglobulin repertoire of a model monotreme, the platypus. Two highly divergent IgA-like isotypes (IgA1 and IgA2) were identified and their primary structures were determined from full-length cDNAs. A comparative analysis of the amino acid sequences for IgA from various animal species showed that the two platypus IgA isotypes form a branch clearly separated from their eutherian (placental) counterparts. However, they still conform to the general structure of eutherian IgA, with a hinge region and three constant domains. This indicates that the deletion of the second domain and the formation of a hinge region in IgA did occur very early during mammalian evolution, more than 166 million years ago. The two IgA isotypes in platypus differ in primary structure and appear to have arisen from a very early gene duplication, possibly preceding the metatherian eutherian split. Interestingly, one of these isotypes, IgA1, appears to be expressed in only the platypus, but is present in the echidna based on Southern blot analysis. The platypus may require a more effective mucosal immunity, with two highly divergent IgA forms, than the terrestrial echidna, due to its lifestyle, where it is exposed to pathogens both on land and in the water. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Bill McSweeney: a remembrance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berdon, W.E.

    1999-01-01

    Pediatric radiologists (both SPR and ESPR) are a family growing in numbers. When founders such as John Caffey, Ed Neuhauser and Jacques Le Febvre died, we grieved while remembering them fondly. The death of Bill McSweeney from acute airway obstruction in August 1998 came as a shock. Yet Bill had been ill for many years. His once promising effects of been cut short by the inexorable; devastating effects of Parkinson disease and the complications of this therapy. Most current SPR and ESPR members never knew Bill McSweeney. These remembrances are designed to correct that

  13. Billing in the cloud - an advantageous method of mass billing; Billing in der Cloud. Eine guenstige Alternative fuer Massenabrechnungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muecke, Michael; Hamester, Ralf [Muecke, Sturm and Company, Muenchen (Germany)

    2011-06-15

    To date many companies in the energy sector use software with classical licensing models for billing their customers. These systems are associated with high costs of procurement and maintenance. Here new billing systems based on the Software-as-a-service (SaaS) concept pose a serious alternative to the classical licensing model. Not only do they offer price advantages, they are also attractive for their flexibility.

  14. The Impact of Wind Power Projects on Residential Property Values in the United States: A Multi-Site Hedonic Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoen, Ben [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Wiser, Ryan [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Cappers, Peter [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Thayer, Mark [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Sethi, Gautam [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2009-12-01

    This report uses statistical analysis to evaluate the impact of wind power projects on property values, and fails to uncovers conclusive evidence of the existence of any widespread property value impacts.

  15. Kill Bill! Ugandan human rights organizations' attempts to influence the media's coverage of the Anti-Homosexuality Bill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strand, Cecilia

    2011-09-01

    The Ugandan Anti-Homosexuality Bill of October 2009 caused an international outcry and sparked intense debate in the local and international media. Particularly contentious was its proposal to impose the death penalty for acts of 'aggravated homosexuality'. Through a quantitative content analysis of 176 items from two main daily newspapers, the government-owned New Vision and the privately-owned Daily Monitor, over the period October 2009-June 2010, combined with qualitative interviews with human rights defenders in Uganda, this study explores attempts made by local human rights advocates to influence the media's coverage of the Bill and the extent to which these attempts were successful. The study finds that while there are significant differences between the frequency of reporting on the Bill in the two newspapers, both papers devoted little editorial space to the public health and human rights concerns put forward by local human rights organizations. Despite Uganda's recent and often lauded history of openly addressing HIV/AIDS, human right organizations' attempts to highlight the Bill's potentially adverse effects on the country's ability to tackle the epidemic effectively were only partially successful and, interestingly, awarded much less attention than the potential human rights implications of the proposed change in legislation.

  16. Simulation and performance analysis of 110 kWp grid-connected photovoltaic system for residential building in India: A comparative analysis of various PV technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akash Kumar Shukla

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available System simulation is necessary to investigate the feasibility of Solar PV system at a given location. This study is done to evaluate the feasibility of grid connected rooftop solar photovoltaic system for a residential Hostel building at MANIT, Bhopal, India (Latitude: 23° 16′ N, Longitude: 77° 36′ E. The study focuses on the use of Solargis PV Planner software as a tool to analyze the performance a 110 kWp solar photovoltaic rooftop plant and also compares the performances of different PV technologies based on simulated energy yield and performance ratio. Solargis proves to easy, fast, accurate and reliable software tool for the simulation of solar PV system.

  17. Energy bill of France in 2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    The energy situation in France is presented. Data and charts illustrate the prices evolution at the import for the petroleum and the other energies, the exchanged energies volume and the bill for each energy sector. (A.L.B.)

  18. Utility Bill Insert for Wastewater Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intended for use by wastewater and water supply utilities, one side of the utility bill insert has information for customers that discharge to sanitary sewer systems; the other side is for customers with septic systems.

  19. How to Bill Your Computer Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dooskin, Herbert P.

    1981-01-01

    A computer facility billing procedure should be designed so that the full costs of a computer center operation are equitably charged to the users. Design criteria, costing methods, and management's role are discussed. (Author/MLF)

  20. Residential damage in an area of underground coal mining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Padgett, M.F.

    1988-01-01

    In order to estimate the potential for future subsidence-related residential damage, a statistical analysis of past residential damage in the Boulder-Weld, Colorado, coal field was performed. The objectives of this study were to assess the difference in damage severity and frequency between undermined and non-undermined areas, and to determine, where applicable, which mining factors significantly influence the severity and frequency of residential damage. The results of this study suggest that undermined homes have almost three times the risk of having some type of structural damage than do non-undermined homes. The study also indicated that both geologic factors, such as the ratio of sandstone/claystone in the overburden, and mining factors, such as the mining feature (room, pillar, entry, etc.), can significantly affect the severity of overlying residential damage. However, the results of this study are dependent on local conditions and should not be applied elsewhere unless the geologic, mining, and residential conditions are similar

  1. Residential heat pumps in the future Danish energy system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petrovic, Stefan; Karlsson, Kenneth Bernard

    2016-01-01

    Denmark is striving towards 100% renewable energy system in 2050. Residential heat pumps are expected to be a part of that system.We propose two novel approaches to improve the representation of residential heat pumps: Coefficients of performance (COPs) are modelled as dependent on air and ground...... temperature while installation of ground-source heat pumps is constrained by available ground area. In this study, TIMES-DK model is utilised to test the effects of improved modelling of residential heat pumps on the Danish energy system until 2050.The analysis of the Danish energy system was done...... for politically agreed targets which include: at least 50% of electricity consumption from wind power starting from 2020, fossil fuel free heat and power sector from 2035 and 100% renewable energy system starting from 2050. Residential heat pumps supply around 25% of total residential heating demand after 2035...

  2. Detailed residential electric determination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-06-01

    Data on residential loads has been collected from four residences in real time. The data, measured at 5-second intervals for 53 days of continuous operation, were statistically characterized. An algorithm was developed and incorporated into the modeling code SOLCEL. Performance simulations with SOLCEL using these data as well as previous data collected over longer time intervals indicate that no significant errors in system value are introduced through the use of long-term average data.

  3. Factors affecting general practitioner charges and Medicare bulk-billing: results of a survey of Australians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Abreu Lourenco, Richard; Kenny, Patricia; Haas, Marion R; Hall, Jane P

    2015-02-02

    To identify factors affecting bulk-billing by general practitioners in Australia. A community-based survey was administered to Australians aged 16 years or older in July 2013 via an online panel. Survey questions focused on patient characteristics, visit characteristics, practice characteristics. Factors associated with GP bulk-billing. 2477 respondents completed the survey, of whom 2064 (83.33%) reported that the practice that they went to for their most recent GP visit bulk billed some or all patients. Overall, 1763 respondents (71.17%) reported that their most recent GP visit was bulk billed. Taking into account the duration of visits and the corresponding Medicare Benefits Schedule rebate, the mean out-of-pocket cost for those who were not bulk billed was $34.09. RESULTS of a multivariate logistic regression analysis suggest that the odds of being bulk billed was negatively associated with larger practice size, respondents having had an appointment for their visit, higher household income and inner or outer regional area of residence. It was positively associated with the presence of a chronic disease, being a concession card holder and having private health insurance. There was no association between bulk-billing and duration of GP visit, age or sex. Our results indicate that there are associations between patient characteristics and bulk-billing, and between general practice characteristics and bulk-billing. This suggests that caution is needed when considering changes to GP fees and Medicare rebates because of the many possible paths by which patients' access to services could be affected. Our results do not support the view that bulk-billing is associated with shorter consultation times.

  4. 'Nothing works' in secure residential youth care?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Souverein, F.A.; van der Helm, G.H.P.; Stams, G.J.J.M.

    2013-01-01

    A debate about the effectiveness of secure residential youth care is currently going on. While some continue to support secure residential youth care, others conclude that ‘nothing works’ in secure residential youth care, and argue that non-residential treatment is superior to secure residential

  5. Second life battery energy storage system for residential demand response service

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saez-de-Ibarra, Andoni; Martinez-Laserna, Egoitz; Koch-Ciobotaru, Cosmin

    2015-01-01

    The integration of renewable energies and the usage of battery energy storage systems (BESS) into the residential buildings opens the possibility for minimizing the electricity bill for the end-user. This paper proposes the use of batteries that have already been aged while powering electric...... vehicles, during their main first life application, for providing residential demand response service. The paper considers the decayed characteristics of these batteries and optimizes the rating of such a second life battery energy storage system (SLBESS) for maximizing the economic benefits of the user...

  6. Economic evaluation of small wind turbines and hybrid systems for residential use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Predescu Mihail

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Renewable electricity generating systems are gaining ground in residential sector for the purpose of diminishing the electricity bills or to reaching some degree of energy independence. The decision to invest in small wind turbines or hybrid energy generation technologies should be based on an economic estimation of money invested in such systems. Levelized Cost of Energy (LCOE calculation for local technologies of choice for residential energy generation is a very meaningful figure for deciding whether the investment can bring financial satisfaction and for selecting which type of technology is the best suited for a specific location.

  7. Large-Scale Residential Demolition

    Science.gov (United States)

    The EPA provides resources for handling residential demolitions or renovations. This includes planning, handling harmful materials, recycling, funding, compliance assistance, good practices and regulations.

  8. Integrating mental health care into residential homes for the elderly: an analysis of six Dutch programs for older people with severe and persistent mental illness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Depla, Marja F. I. A.; Pols, Jeannette; de Lange, Jacomine; Smits, Carolien H. M.; de Graaf, Ron; Heeren, Thea J.

    2003-01-01

    Integrating mental health care into residential homes for the elderly is a potentially effective model to address the complex care needs of older chronically mentally ill people. Because no research was available on the implementation of such integrated care in practice, six programs already

  9. Quantitative Analysis of Organophosphate and Pyrethroid Insecticides, PyrethroidTransformation Products, Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers and Bisphenol A in Residential Surface Wipe Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surface wipe sampling is a frequently used technique for measuring persistent pollutants in residential environments. One characteristic of this form of sampling is the need to extract the entire wipe sample to achieve adequate sensitivity and to ensure representativeness. Most s...

  10. An Analysis of Associations between Residential and School Mobility and Educational Outcomes in South African Urban Children: The Birth to Twenty Cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginsburg, Carren; Richter, Linda M.; Fleisch, Brahm; Norris, Shane A.

    2011-01-01

    Using data from Birth to Twenty, a cohort of South African urban children, the current paper investigates the relationships between residential and school mobility and a set of educational outcomes. The findings provide some evidence of a positive association between changes in residence and numeracy and literacy scores, and school mobility was…

  11. Solar Adoption and Energy Consumption in the Residential Sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAllister, Joseph Andrew

    This dissertation analyzes the energy consumption behavior of residential adopters of solar photovoltaic systems (solar-PV). Based on large data sets from the San Diego region that have been assembled or otherwise acquired by the author, the dissertation quantifies changes in energy consumption after solar-PV installation and determines whether certain household characteristics are correlated with such changes. In doing so, it seeks to answer two related questions: First, "Do residential solar adopters increase or decrease their electricity consumption after they install a solar-PV system?" Assuming that certain categories of residential adopters increase and others decrease, the second question is "Which residential adopters increase and which decrease their consumption and why?" The database that was used to conduct this analysis includes information about 5,243 residential systems in San Diego Gas & Electric's (SDG&E) service territory installed between January 2007 and December 2010. San Diego is a national leader in the installation of small-scale solar-electric systems, with over 12,000 systems in the region installed as of January 2012, or around 14% of the total number installed in California. The author performed detailed characterization of a significant subset of the solar installations in the San Diego region. Assembled data included technical and economic characteristics of the systems themselves; the solar companies that sold and installed them; individual customer electric utility billing data; metered PV production data for a subgroup of these solar systems; and data about the properties where the systems are located. Primarily, the author was able to conduct an electricity consumption analysis at the individual household level for 2,410 PV systems installed in SDG&E service territory between January 2007 and December 2010. This analysis was designed to detect changes in electricity consumption from the pre-solar to the post-installation period. To

  12. 44 CFR 354.6 - Billing and payment of fees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Billing and payment of fees... EMERGENCY PREPAREDNESS PROGRAM § 354.6 Billing and payment of fees. (a) Electronic billing and payment. We... statutory authority. Working with the Department of the Treasury we now provide for payment of bills by...

  13. 42 CFR 408.62 - Initial and subsequent billings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Initial and subsequent billings. 408.62 Section 408... MEDICARE PROGRAM PREMIUMS FOR SUPPLEMENTARY MEDICAL INSURANCE Direct Remittance: Individual Payment § 408.62 Initial and subsequent billings. (a) Monthly billing. (1) The first premium bill is for the period...

  14. 42 CFR 460.110 - Bill of rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Bill of rights. 460.110 Section 460.110 Public...) Participant Rights § 460.110 Bill of rights. (a) Written bill of rights. A PACE organization must have a written participant bill of rights designed to protect and promote the rights of each participant. Those...

  15. Should we provide oral health training for staff caring for people with intellectual disabilities in community based residential care? A cost-effectiveness analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mac Giolla Phadraig, Caoimhin; Nunn, June; Guerin, Suzanne; Normand, Charles

    2016-04-01

    Oral health training is often introduced into community-based residential settings to improve the oral health of people with intellectual disabilities (ID). There is a lack of appropriate evaluation of such programs, leading to difficulty in deciding how best to allocate scarce resources to achieve maximum effect. This article reports an economic analysis of one such oral health program, undertaken as part of a cluster randomized controlled trial. Firstly, we report a cost-effectiveness analysis of training care-staff compared to no training, using incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs). Effectiveness was measured as change in knowledge, reported behaviors, attitude and self-efficacy, using validated scales (K&BAS). Secondly, we costed training as it was scaled up to include all staff within the service provider in question. Data were collected in Dublin, Ireland in 2009. It cost between €7000 and €10,000 more to achieve modest improvement in K&BAS scores among a subsample of 162 care-staff, in comparison to doing nothing. Considering scaled up first round training, it cost between €58,000 and €64,000 to train the whole population of staff, from a combined dental and disability service perspective. Less than €15,000-€20,000 of this was additional to the cost of doing nothing (incremental cost). From a dental perspective, a further, second training cycle including all staff would cost between €561 and €3484 (capital costs) and €5815 (operating costs) on a two yearly basis. This study indicates that the program was a cost-effective means of improving self-reported measures and possibly oral health, relative to doing nothing. This was mainly due to low cost, rather than the large effect. In this instance, the use of cost effectiveness analysis has produced evidence, which may be more useful to decision makers than that arising from traditional methods of evaluation. There is a need for CEAs of effective interventions to allow comparison

  16. Spatial access to residential care resources in Beijing, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng Yang

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background As the population is ageing rapidly in Beijing, the residential care sector is in a fast expansion process with the support of the municipal government. Understanding spatial accessibility to residential care resources by older people supports the need for rational allocation of care resources in future planning. Methods Based on population data and data on residential care resources, this study uses two Geographic Information System (GIS based methods – shortest path analysis and a two-step floating catchment area (2SFCA method to analyse spatial accessibility to residential care resources. Results Spatial accessibility varies as the methods and considered factors change. When only time distance is considered, residential care resources are more accessible in the central city than in suburban and exurban areas. If care resources are considered in addition to time distance, spatial accessibility is relatively poor in the central city compared to the northeast to southeast side of the suburban and exurban areas. The resources in the northwest to southwest side of the city are the least accessible, even though several hotspots of residential care resources are located in these areas. Conclusions For policy making, it may require combining various methods for a comprehensive analysis. The methods used in this study provide tools for identifying underserved areas in order to improve equity in access to and efficiency in allocation of residential care resources in future planning.

  17. ASHRAE and residential ventilation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sherman, Max H.

    2003-10-01

    In the last quarter of a century, the western world has become increasingly aware of environmental threats to health and safety. During this period, people psychologically retreated away from outdoors hazards such as pesticides, smog, lead, oil spills, and dioxin to the seeming security of their homes. However, the indoor environment may not be healthier than the outdoor environment, as has become more apparent over the past few years with issues such as mold, formaldehyde, and sick-building syndrome. While the built human environment has changed substantially over the past 10,000 years, human biology has not; poor indoor air quality creates health risks and can be uncomfortable. The human race has found, over time, that it is essential to manage the indoor environments of their homes. ASHRAE has long been in the business of ventilation, but most of the focus of that effort has been in the area of commercial and institutional buildings. Residential ventilation was traditionally not a major concern because it was felt that, between operable windows and envelope leakage, people were getting enough outside air in their homes. In the quarter of a century since the first oil shock, houses have gotten much more energy efficient. At the same time, the kinds of materials and functions in houses changed in character in response to people's needs. People became more environmentally conscious and aware not only about the resources they were consuming but about the environment in which they lived. All of these factors contributed to an increasing level of public concern about residential indoor air quality and ventilation. Where once there was an easy feeling about the residential indoor environment, there is now a desire to define levels of acceptability and performance. Many institutions--both public and private--have interests in Indoor Air Quality (IAQ), but ASHRAE, as the professional society that has had ventilation as part of its mission for over 100 years, is the

  18. The billing process at a teaching hospital specialized in cardiology and pulmonology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Favaro Faria Guerrer

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this exploratory study was to describe and map out the billing process in a public tertiary-level university hospital specialized in cardiology and pulmonology. In the period between May and June of 2012, we identified and documented the steps in the process validated by the professionals involved in the hospital bill audit service. We found that during billing pre-analysis, auditors make corrections to justify the billing of procedures and to avoid unwarranted billing and loss of revenue. Mapping out the process allowed us to propose strategies to minimize the time for presenting bills to payment sources. By bringing visibility to this process, which is fundamental for the economic-financial balance of the studied hospital, we bring such knowledge to the public domain. Thus, it is accessible to other health organizations that wish to increment their revenue and reduce divergences between patient charts and the patient’s hospital bill. doi: 10.5216/ree.v16i3.23487.

  19. Red-billed Leiothrix (Leiothrix lutea)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Male, Timothy D.; Fancy, Steven G.; Ralph, C. John

    1998-01-01

    Known in the cage bird trade as the Japanese Hill-Robin, Peking Robin, or Peking Nightingale, the Red-billed Leiothrix was first imported into the Hawaiian Islands in 1911 ( Fisher and Baldwin 1947 ), with intentional releases to the wild occurring after 1918 ( Caum 1933 ). A native of Southeast Asia, southern China, and the Himalayan regions of India, this species is a medium-sized, green and yellow babbler with a conspicuous red bill and strongly notched tail. The species is extremely active, but individuals are somewhat secretive and difficult to see as they flit around in the understory, often in small groups. The Red-billed Leiothrix is found in a wide variety of habitats in the Hawaiian Islands, including both native and exotic forests from sea level to near mountain summits exceeding 4,000 m elevation.

  20. Residential Mechanical Precooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    German, Alea [Davis Energy Group, Davis, CA (United States). Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI); Hoeschele, Marc [Davis Energy Group, Davis, CA (United States). Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI)

    2014-12-01

    Residential air conditioning (AC) represents a challenging load for many electric utilities with poor load factors. Mechanical precooling improves the load factor by shifting cooling operation from on-peak to off-peak hours. This provides benefits to utilities and the electricity grid, as well as to occupants who can take advantage of time-of-use (TOU) electricity rates. Performance benefits stem from reduced compressor cycling, and shifting condensing unit operation to earlier periods of the day when outdoor temperatures are more favorable to operational efficiency. Finding solutions that save energy and reduce demand on the electricity grid is an important national objective and supports key Building America goals. The Alliance for Residential Building Innovation team evaluated mechanical AC precooling strategies in homes throughout the United States. EnergyPlus modeling was used to evaluate two homes with different performance characteristics in seven climates. Results are applicable to new construction homes and most existing homes built in the last 10 years, as well as fairly efficient retrofitted homes. A successful off-peak AC strategy offers the potential for increased efficiency and improved occupant comfort, and promotes a more reliable and robust electricity grid. Demand response capabilities and further integration with photovoltaic TOU generation patterns provide additional opportunities to flatten loads and optimize grid impacts.

  1. Building global billing and payment systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitz, R B

    1999-01-01

    Global fees for episodes of care is perhaps one of the most progressive risk-based contracting techniques to emerge in managed care. Although global fees are theoretically a far more advanced and efficient payment technique than either fee-for-service or capitation, the chief obstacle preventing their implementation is the archaic billing and claims transaction systems operating in most "modern" health plans, hospitals, and physician offices. This article discusses various billing techniques available to interested parties who desire to enter into episode of care contracting venues.

  2. Analysis of Social Return on Investment in two systems of support for people with severe disabilities: personal assistance and residential service. A case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agustín Huete García

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available At present, there are several alternatives to support daily life of people with disabilities, which require different resources: human, institutional, technical, material, financial, etc. In addition, these alternatives involve different impacts on both the life of people with disabilites and their immediate environment. This paper presents a case study that compares an user of personal assistance services of the Program for Independent Living (PAVI with an user of a residential service. The study method used is based on the approach of Social Return on Investment (SROI. It also specifies the selection of cases, the partners consulted to gather concepts and values, data collection, variables and formulas for calculating and monetization. Despite its limited scope, it is possible to draw conclusions about the social return on investment in a “standard profile” receiving personal assistance services compared with a “standard profile” in a residential service.

  3. Seeing Savings from an ESPC Project in Fort Polk's Utility Bills

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shonder, J.A.

    2005-03-08

    Federal agencies have implemented many energy efficiency projects over the years with direct funding or alternative financing vehicles such as energy savings performance contracts (ESPCs). While it is generally accepted that these projects save energy and costs, the savings are usually not obvious in the utility bills. This is true for many valid technical reasons, even when savings are verified in other ways to the highest degree of certainty. However, any perceived deficiency in the evidence for savings is problematic when auditors or other observers evaluate the outcome of energy projects and the achievements of energy management programs. This report discusses under what circumstances energy savings should or should not be evident in utility bills. In the special case of a large ESPC project at the Army's Fort Polk, the analysis of utility bills carried out by the authors does unequivocally confirm and quantify savings. The data requirements and methods for arriving at definitive answers through utility bill analysis are demonstrated in our discussion of the Fort Polk project. The following paragraphs address why the government generally should not expect to see savings from ESPC projects in their utility bills. We also review lessons learned and best practices for measurement and verification (M&V) that can assure best value for the government and are more practical, straightforward, and cost-effective than utility bill analysis.

  4. Distributed photovoltaic generation in Brazil: An economic viability analysis of small-scale photovoltaic systems in the residential and commercial sectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holdermann, Claudius; Kissel, Johannes; Beigel, Jürgen

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines the economic viability of small-scale, grid-connected photovoltaics in the Brazilian residential and commercial sectors after the introduction of the net metering regulation in April 2012. This study uses the discounted cash flow method to calculate the specific investment costs that are necessary for photovoltaic systems to be economically viable for each of the 63 distribution networks in Brazil. We compare these values to the system costs that are estimated in the comprehensive study on photovoltaics that was developed by the Brazilian Association of Electric and Electronic Industries (ABINEE). In our calculation, we utilize the current electricity tariffs, including fees and taxes, which we obtained through telephone interviews and publicly available information. We obtained a second important parameter by simulating PV-systems with the program PV ⁎ Sol at the distribution company headquarters' locations. In our base case scenario that reflects the current situation, in none of the distribution networks photovoltaics is economically viable in either the commercial or residential sectors. We improved the environment for grid-connected photovoltaics in our scenarios by assuming both lower PV-system costs and a lower discount rate to determine the effect on photovoltaics viability. - Highlights: • We calculate the economic viability of photovoltaics in the residential and commercial sectors in Brazil. • The PV ⁎ Sol simulations are carried out at the headquarter locations for the 63 distribution companies. • Currently in none of the distribution networks, photovoltaics is economically viable in either the commercial or residential sectors. • We analyze how the variation of the specific investment costs and of the discount rate affects the economic viability

  5. 7 CFR 91.42 - Billing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Billing. 91.42 Section 91.42 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) COMMODITY LABORATORY TESTING PROGRAMS SERVICES...

  6. The character bill and migration rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betts, K

    1998-01-01

    Many foreigners apply for visas to visit or live in Australia. A small proportion of these applications are refused, however, because they are judged to be of bad character and a danger to Australian society. Some have their visas canceled after they have been issued. Australia's executive branch and judiciary have been struggling for a decade and a half to see who should have the final say on questions of immigration control. The Character Bill is the most recent development in this struggle. The Bill aims to protect communities from non-citizens who may be of bad character, especially those who may be criminals, when they apply for visas. It does this by making such people prove that they are of good character, by limiting their capacity to seek review of character-based decisions to deny them visas or to cancel already issued visas, and by restricting their access to information about them provided by law enforcement agencies. In some cases, non-citizens who are refused or deprived of visas on the basis of character will not have access to proper justice. The political and legal backgrounds to the Character Bill are described, as well as the substance and status of, and responses to the new bill.

  7. THE UGANDA COPYRIGHT AND NEIGHBOURING RIGHTS BILL ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper discusses the concept and philosophy of copyright. It also discusses copyright infringement with special reference to ICT. Furthermore, the paper examines international provisions related to copyright and reviews the Copyright Law Model. The paper also identifies gaps in the Uganda Copyright Bill, 2002 and ...

  8. Electoral (Amendment) (Hours of Polling) Bill 2013

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Butler, Graham; Hunt, Brian; Doyle, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    Private Members' Bill (legislation) introduced in Dáil Éireann (House of Deputies), Houses of the Oireachtas (Parliament of Ireland). An Act to set voting hours for Dáil Elections, Dáil Bye-Elections, Presidential Elections, European Parliament Elections, Local Government Elections and Referenda ...

  9. Typical electric bills, January 1, 1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    The Typical Electric Bills report is prepared by the Electric Power Division; Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels; Energy Information Administration; Department of Energy. The publication is geared to a variety of applications by electric utilities, industry, consumes, educational institutions, and government in recognition of the growing importance of energy planning in contemporary society. 19 figs., 18 tabs

  10. Residential Energy Performance Metrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Wright

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Techniques for residential energy monitoring are an emerging field that is currently drawing significant attention. This paper is a description of the current efforts to monitor and compare the performance of three solar powered homes built at Missouri University of Science and Technology. The homes are outfitted with an array of sensors and a data logger system to measure and record electricity production, system energy use, internal home temperature and humidity, hot water production, and exterior ambient conditions the houses are experiencing. Data is being collected to measure the performance of the houses, compare to energy modeling programs, design and develop cost effective sensor systems for energy monitoring, and produce a cost effective home control system.

  11. College residential sleep environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sexton-Radek, Kathy; Hartley, Andrew

    2013-12-01

    College students regularly report increased sleep disturbances as well as concomitant reductions in performance (e.g., academic grades) upon entering college. Sleep hygiene refers to healthy sleep practices that are commonly used as first interventions in sleep disturbances. One widely used practice of this sort involves arranging the sleep environment to minimize disturbances from excessive noise and light at bedtime. Communal sleep situations such as those in college residence halls do not easily support this intervention. Following several focus groups, a questionnaire was designed to gather self-reported information on sleep disturbances in a college population. The present study used The Young Adult Sleep Environment Inventory (YASEI) and sleep logs to investigate the sleep environment of college students living in residential halls. A summary of responses indicated that noise and light are significant sleep disturbances in these environments. Recommendations are presented related to these findings.

  12. Analysis of urban residential environments using color infrared aerial photography: An examination of socioeconomic variables and physical characteristics of selected areas in the Los Angeles basin, with addendum: An application of the concepts of the Los Angeles residential environment study to the Ontario-Upland region of California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullens, R. H., Jr.; Senger, L. W.

    1969-01-01

    Aerial photographs taken with color infrared film were used to differentiate various types of residential areas in the Los Angeles basin, using characteristics of the physical environment which vary from one type of residential area to another. Residential areas of varying quality were classified based on these characteristics. Features of the physical environment, identifiable on CIR aerial photography were examined to determine which of these are the best indicators of quality of residential areas or social areas, as determined by the socioeconomic characteristics of the inhabitants of the selected areas. Association between several physical features and the socioeconomic variables was found to exist.

  13. Homophobia as a barrier to comprehensive media coverage of the Ugandan anti-homosexual bill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strand, Cecilia

    2012-01-01

    The Ugandan Anti-Homosexuality Bill of October 2009 caused an international outcry and sparked intense debate in the local media. This article explores to what degree a discriminatory social environment manifests itself in the Ugandan print media and discusses the potential implications for media's coverage of contentious policy options such as the Anti-Homosexuality Bill. A content analysis of 115 items from two daily newspapers (the government-owned New Vision and the privately owned the Daily Monitor, between October and December 2009) indicates the existence of two separate house styles; this is in spite of the fact that both newspapers reproduce the surrounding society's homophobia, albeit with different frequency. Unlike the New Vision, the Daily Monitor includes coverage on homophobia and discrimination, as well as provides space for criticism of the Bill. By acknowledging discrimination and its negative impact, the newspaper de-legitimizes homophobia and problematizes the proposed Anti-homosexuality Bill for their readers.

  14. Costs of day hospital and community residential chemical dependency treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaskutas, Lee Ann; Zavala, Silvana K; Parthasarathy, Sujaya; Witbrodt, Jane

    2008-03-01

    Patient placement criteria developed by the American Society of Addiction Medicine (ASAM) have identified a need for low-intensity residential treatment as an alternative to day hospital for patients with higher levels of severity. A recent clinical trial found similar outcomes at social model residential treatment and clinically-oriented day hospital programs, but did not report on costs. This paper addresses whether the similar outcomes in the recent trial were delivered with comparable costs, overall and within gender and ethnicity stratum. This paper reports on clients not at environmental risk who participated in a randomized trial conducted in three metropolitan areas served by a large pre-paid health plan. Cost data were collected using the Drug Abuse Treatment Cost Analysis Program (DATCAP). Costs per episode were calculated by multiplying DATCAP-derived program-specific costs by each client's length of stay. Differences in length of stay, and in per-episode costs, were compared between residential and day hospital subjects. Lengths of stay at residential treatment were significantly longer than at day hospital, in the sample overall and in disaggregated analyses. This difference was especially marked among non-Whites. The average cost per week was USD 575 per week at day hospital, versus USD 370 per week at the residential programs. However, because of the longer stays in residential, per-episode costs were significantly higher in the sample overall and among non-Whites (and marginally higher for men). These cost results must be considered in light of the null findings comparing outcomes between subjects randomized to residential versus day hospital programs. The longer stays in the sample overall and for non-White clients at residential programs came at higher costs but did not lead to better rates of abstinence. The short stays in day hospital among non-Whites call into question the attractiveness of day hospital for minority clients. Outcomes and costs

  15. Ilmumised ja mediteerimised / Bill Viola ; interv. Harry Liivrand

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Viola, Bill

    1998-01-01

    Bill Viola videoretrospektiiv Stedelijk Museumis, Rijksmuseumis, New Metropolises jm. Amsterdamis 29. novembrini. H. Liivrand Bill Violast ja tema loomingust. B. Viola oma videokunstist praegu ja 25 aastat tagasi, mil tema alustas, mõjutustest loomingule.

  16. Residential energy usage comparison: Findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, B.A.; Uhlaner, R.T.; Cason, T.N.; Courteau, S. (Quantum Consulting, Inc., Berkeley, CA (United States))

    1991-08-01

    This report presents the research methods and results from the Residential Energy Usage Comparison (REUC) project, a joint effort by Southern California Edison Company (SCE) and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI). The REUC project design activities began in early 1986. The REUC project is an innovative demand-site project designed to measure and compare typical energy consumption patterns of energy efficient residential electric and gas appliances. 95 figs., 33 tabs.

  17. Battling the chargemaster: a simple remedy to balance billing for unavoidable out-of-network care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richman, Barak D; Kitzman, Nick; Milstein, Arnold; Schulman, Kevin A

    2017-04-01

    To develop an effective legal mechanism to combat chargemaster abuses and to facilitate price transparency. Applying legal doctrines to out-of-network (OON) billing disputes. We reviewed rudimentary contract law and examined the law's handling of contracts where prices have not been specified in advance. These cases are the controlling authority to guide courts, handling of surprise and OON billing problems. We then compared legal remedies that correct OON billing abuses to prevailing legislative and regulatory approaches. Our analysis suggests that providers have no legal authority to collect chargemaster rates from surprise and OON billing abuses. A proper application of contract law can end such abuses and would facilitate superior pricing incentives to other strategies designed to end balance billing disputes. Chargemaster rates on uninsured and OON patients impose significant financial burdens on the vulnerable, distort medical prices, and inflate healthcare costs. Applying rudimentary contract law to these practices offers a solution that is simpler and more effective than other administrative and legislative schemes recently adopted in several states. It will prevent providers from hiding behind a convoluted hospital pricing system, encourage the development of attractive narrow-network insurance products, and shield urgently sick individuals from the dread of medical predation. Patients and payers should know that they are under no obligation to pay surprise bills containing chargemaster rates, and state attorneys general can use the law to prevent providers from pursuing chargemaster-related collection efforts against patients.

  18. Maximizing collections from patient services billing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orenstein, Gil C; Kaye, Alan David; Fox, Charles J; Urman, Richard D

    2014-01-01

    The field of medical billing and collections continues to evolve along with current developments in U.S. healthcare reform. Although there has been a significant shift of payment responsibility from third-party payers to patients, many practices are not equipped to handle this change. As patients' financial obligations increase, the physician's ability to collect from patients will become increasingly important. Inability to collect bills receivable can adversely affect the revenue cycle of the practice. Solutions include improvement of the point-of-service collection processes, properly trained office staff, written financial policies, and the use of technology to facilitate online payments. Patients should fully understand their financial responsibilities and options available to them for payment of services rendered.

  19. Performance improvement planning : developing effective billing and collection practices

    OpenAIRE

    anonymous

    2008-01-01

    Effective billing and collection systems are a critical component for ensuring the viability of a service provider. Improving billing and collection activities has an immediate impact on the revenue streams of a service provider that can, in turn, help the service provider in improving services. However, while effective billing and collection practices depend on many internal factors (including customer databases, the extent of metered and unmetered service provision, tariff and billing struc...

  20. Atomic Energy Authority Bill (Lords) - second reading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    In the debate in the House of Commons on the second reading of the Atomic Energy Bill, the objective of which is to put the finances of the Authority on to a trading fund basis, the discussion included the following: proposed changes in method of financing the Authority; safety; underlying research; customer relations; accountability; personnel; public relations; radioactive waste management; energy research; parliamentary scrutiny; energy policy; nuclear power; fast reactors; fusion research; government policy. (U.K.)

  1. The effect of social group size on feather corticosterone in the co-operatively breeding Smooth-billed Ani (Crotophaga ani: An assay validation and analysis of extreme social living.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua K Robertson

    Full Text Available Living closely with others can provide a myriad of fitness benefits, from shared territory defense to co-operative resource acquisition. Costs of social aggregation are not absent, however, and likely influence optimal and observed groups' sizes in a social species. Here, we explored optimal group size in a joint-nesting cuckoo species (the Smooth-billed Ani, Crotophaga ani using endocrine markers of stress physiology (corticosterone, or CORT. Smooth-billed Anis exhibit intense reproductive competition that is exacerbated in atypically large groups. We therefore hypothesized that intra-group competition (measured by social group size mediates the desirability and physiological cost of social group membership in this species. To test this hypothesis, we captured 47 adult Smooth-billed Anis (31 males, 16 females during the breeding seasons of 2012-2014 in south-western Puerto Rico, and documented social group sizes. Tail feathers were sampled and used to quantify CORT (pg/mg in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs (n = 50. Our analyses show significant differences in feather-CORT of adults between categorical group sizes, with individuals from atypically large social groups (≥ x + 1SD having highest mean concentrations (33.319 pg/mg, and individuals from atypically small social groups (≤ x - 1SD having lowest mean concentrations (8.969 pg/mg. Whether reproductive competition or effort is responsible for elevated CORT in atypically large social groups, however, remains unclear. Our results suggest that living in atypically large groups is physiologically expensive and may represent an evolutionarily unstable strategy. To our knowledge, this is the first study to explore a correlation between stress physiology and group size in a joint-nesting species.

  2. Market Potential for Residential Biomass Heating Equipment: Stochastic and Econometric Assessments

    OpenAIRE

    Adee Athiyaman

    2015-01-01

    This paper provides estimates of market potential for biomass-residential-heating equipment in the US: that is, the greatest amount of biomass-residential-heating equipment that can be sold by the industry. The author's analysis is limited to biomass equipment used most to heat the housing unit. Assuming that households equipped with 10+ year old primary heating devices will replace rather than repair the devices he predicts that approximately 1.4 million units of residential home heating equ...

  3. 47 CFR 64.2401 - Truth-in-Billing Requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... conspicuous disclosure of inquiry contacts. Telephone bills must contain clear and conspicuous disclosure of any information that the subscriber may need to make inquiries about, or contest, charges on the bill. Common carriers must prominently display on each bill a toll-free number or numbers by which subscribers...

  4. 48 CFR 252.204-7006 - Billing Instructions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Provisions And Clauses 252.204-7006 Billing Instructions. As prescribed in 204.7109, use the following clause: Billing Instructions (OCT 2005) When submitting a request for payment, the Contractor shall— (a) Identify... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Billing Instructions. 252...

  5. 42 CFR 408.90 - Termination of group billing arrangement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Termination of group billing arrangement. 408.90... SERVICES MEDICARE PROGRAM PREMIUMS FOR SUPPLEMENTARY MEDICAL INSURANCE Direct Remittance: Group Payment § 408.90 Termination of group billing arrangement. (a) A group billing arrangement may be terminated...

  6. 9 CFR 590.130 - Basis of billing plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Basis of billing plants. 590.130... of Service § 590.130 Basis of billing plants. Overtime and/or holiday services shall be billed to the official plant on the basis of each 15 minutes of overtime and/or holiday service performed by each...

  7. 46 CFR 282.31 - Subsidy billing procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Subsidy billing procedures. 282.31 Section 282.31... OPERATORS OPERATING-DIFFERENTIAL SUBSIDY FOR LINER VESSELS ENGAGED IN ESSENTIAL SERVICES IN THE FOREIGN COMMERCE OF THE UNITED STATES Subsidy Payment and Billing Procedures § 282.31 Subsidy billing procedures...

  8. 14 CFR 1215.115 - Payment and billing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... is applicable toward TDRSS operational services. (b) The procedure for billing and payment of... billings as the actual service time is tabulated. Amounts due to the user will be credited to the next... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Payment and billing. 1215.115 Section 1215...

  9. 46 CFR 252.41 - Subsidy billing procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Subsidy billing procedures. 252.41 Section 252.41... OPERATORS OPERATING-DIFFERENTIAL SUBSIDY FOR BULK CARGO VESSELS ENGAGED IN WORLDWIDE SERVICES Subsidy Payment and Billing Procedures § 252.41 Subsidy billing procedures. (a) Subsidy voucher—(1) Form. Requests...

  10. 46 CFR 9.16 - Billing for services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Billing for services. 9.16 Section 9.16 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY PROCEDURES APPLICABLE TO THE PUBLIC EXTRA COMPENSATION FOR OVERTIME SERVICES § 9.16 Billing for services. Overtime services shall be billed to the steamship companies...

  11. 42 CFR 408.82 - Conditions for group billing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Conditions for group billing. 408.82 Section 408.82 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES MEDICARE... for group billing. CMS agrees to a group billing arrangement only if the following conditions are met...

  12. Validation of the standardized and simplified cutting bill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urs Buehlmann; D. Earl Kline; Janice K. Wiedenbeck; R., Jr. Noble

    2008-01-01

    This research validated the framework for the standardized and simplified cutting bill presented in an earlier paper. The cutting bill validation was carried out in two ways. First, all 20 of the cutting bill's part groups were examined to determine if significant yield influences resulted from changing specific part sizes within the boundaries of a given part...

  13. An Evaluation of an OSGi-based Residential Pervasive Computing Platform

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Klaus Marius; Larsen, Simon Bo; Pagter, Jakob Illeborg

    2004-01-01

    and opportunities. As a step towards that, we present an analysis and evaluation of a widely-used setup for residential pervasive computing applications, viz., a setup based on a residential gateway with an Open Services Gateway Initiative (OSGi) implementation. The analysis is anchored in use, through scenarios...

  14. Metal contamination in environmental media in residential ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hard-rock mining for metals, such as gold, silver, copper, zinc, iron and others, is recognized to have a significant impact on the environmental media, soil and water, in particular. Toxic contaminants released from mine waste to surface water and groundwater is the primary concern, but human exposure to soil contaminants either directly, via inhalation of airborne dust particles, or indirectly, via food chain (ingestion of animal products and/or vegetables grown in contaminated areas), is also, significant. In this research, we analyzed data collected in 2007, as part of a larger environmental study performed in the Rosia Montana area in Transylvania, to provide the Romanian governmental authorities with data on the levels of metal contamination in environmental media from this historical mining area. The data were also considered in policy decision to address mining-related environmental concerns in the area. We examined soil and water data collected from residential areas near the mining sites to determine relationships among metals analyzed in these different environmental media, using the correlation procedure in SAS statistical software. Results for residential soil and water analysis indicate that the average values for arsenic (As) (85 mg/kg), cadmium (Cd) (3.2 mg/kg), mercury (Hg) (2.3 mg/kg) and lead (Pb) (92 mg/kg) exceeded the Romanian regulatory exposure levels [the intervention thresholds for residential soil in case of As (25 mg/kg) and Hg

  15. Target-oriented obstacle analysis by PESTEL modeling of energy efficiency retrofit for existing residential buildings in China's northern heating region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shilei, Lv; Wu Yong

    2009-01-01

    According to the 'Comprehensive Work Program of Energy Efficiency and Emission Reduction' of the Chinese government, during the period of the '11th Five-Year Plan', 1.5x10 8 m 2 of existing residential buildings in China's northern heating region are to be retrofitted for energy efficiency. However, at present, this 'Energy Efficiency Retrofit for Existing Residential Buildings' (EERFERB) faces many obstacles. Under the current working and market system, both the central and local governments and the energy supply companies can not push on this work smoothly. Using both the results of the annual national special inspection of building energy efficiency and some case analyses, this paper examines the necessity for energy efficiency retrofit, along with the relationships among the various Political, Economic, Social, Technological, Environmental and Legal (PESTEL) factors affecting it. Furthermore, organizational, financial and technical support systems are explored to promote the development of retrofit. Finally, some primary principles to be followed toward the implementation of EERFERB are suggested.

  16. Target-oriented obstacle analysis by PESTEL modeling of energy efficiency retrofit for existing residential buildings in China's northern heating region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shilei, Lv [School of Environment Science and Technology, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Yong, Wu [Department of Science and Technology, Ministry of Housing and Urban-Rural Development of the People' s Republic of China, Beijing 100835 (China)

    2009-06-15

    According to the 'Comprehensive Work Program of Energy Efficiency and Emission Reduction' of the Chinese government, during the period of the '11th Five-Year Plan', 1.5 x 10{sup 8} m{sup 2} of existing residential buildings in China's northern heating region are to be retrofitted for energy efficiency. However, at present, this 'Energy Efficiency Retrofit for Existing Residential Buildings' (EERFERB) faces many obstacles. Under the current working and market system, both the central and local governments and the energy supply companies can not push on this work smoothly. Using both the results of the annual national special inspection of building energy efficiency and some case analyses, this paper examines the necessity for energy efficiency retrofit, along with the relationships among the various Political, Economic, Social, Technological, Environmental and Legal (PESTEL) factors affecting it. Furthermore, organizational, financial and technical support systems are explored to promote the development of retrofit. Finally, some primary principles to be followed toward the implementation of EERFERB are suggested. (author)

  17. The potential demand for bioenergy in residential heating applications (bio-heat) in the UK based on a market segment analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jablonski, S.; Pantaleo, A.; Bauen, A.; Pearson, P.; Panoutsou, C.; Slade, R.

    2008-01-01

    How large is the potential demand for bio-heat in the UK? Whilst most research has focused on the supply of biomass for energy production, an understanding of the potential demand is crucial to the uptake of heat from bioenergy. We have designed a systematic framework utilising market segmentation techniques to assess the potential demand for biomass heat in the UK. First, the heat market is divided into relevant segments, characterised in terms of their final energy consumption, technological and fuel supply options. Second, the key technical, economic and organisational factors that affect the uptake of bioenergy in each heat segment are identified, classified and then analysed to reveal which could be strong barriers, which could be surmounted easily, and for which bioenergy heat represents an improvement compared to alternatives. The defined framework is applied to the UK residential sector. We identify provisionally the most promising market segments for bioenergy heat, and their current levels of energy demand. We find that, depending on the assumptions, the present potential demand for bio-heat in the UK residential sector ranges between 3% (conservative estimate) and 31% (optimistic estimate) of the total energy consumed in the heat market. (author)

  18. Integrated residential photovoltaic array development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royal, G. C., III

    1981-04-01

    Sixteen conceptual designs of residential photovoltaic arrays are described. Each design concept was evaluated by an industry advisory panel using a comprehensive set of technical, economic and institutional criteria. Key electrical and mechanical concerns that effect further array subsystem development are also discussed. Three integrated array design concepts were selected by the advisory panel for further optimization and development. From these concepts a single one will be selected for detailed analysis and prototype fabrication. The three concepts selected are: (1) An array of frameless panels/modules sealed in a T shaped zipper locking neoprene gasket grid pressure fitted into an extruded aluminum channel grid fastened across the rafters. (2) An array of frameless modules pressure fitted in a series of zipper locking EPDM rubber extrusions adhesively bonded to the roof. Series string voltage is developed using a set of integral tongue connectors and positioning blocks. (3) An array of frameless modules sealed by a silicone adhesive in a prefabricated grid of rigid tape and sheet metal attached to the roof.

  19. Wind energy potential in Chile: Assessment of a small scale wind farm for residential clients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becerra, Miguel; Morán, José; Jerez, Alejandro; Cepeda, Francisco; Valenzuela, Miguel

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • An assessment of a small scale wind farm was carried out. • Two Chilean locations were selected, which are geographically dissimilar. • The software tool selected for the project’s evaluation was HOMER. • All the project’s financial evaluations were negative. • Government policy tools and their applications were discussed. - Abstract: This work presents a techno-financial evaluation of two Chilean locations with promising wind potential: Laguna Verde placed in the central region of the country, and Porvenir in the southern region. A small scale wind farm was studied, considering a nominal electrical production capacity of 90 kW. This facility is comprised of three wind turbine models, all available in the national market. Currently, the tariff method used in Chile is the net billing scheme, where the energy bought and sold to the grid has different prices. The study is based on 300 hypothetical residential households. The software tool used to perform the assessment was the Hybrid Optimization of Multiple Energy Resources (HOMER). For all the scenarios the results showed a Net Present Cost (NPC), instead of a financial profit from the proposed projects. A sensitivity analysis was also carried out. From the group of variables studied, the NPC exhibited itself as more sensitive to the price of buying energy from the grid and to the annual average wind speed. Finally, a few government policies and their applications are discussed.

  20. Managing Residential Electricity Demand Through Provision of Better Feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Myles

    New and affordable technology for providing detailed feedback on household electricity usage presents a host of opportunities for utilities and policy-makers to manage demand. This dissertation examines ways to use these devices to reduce - and shift the timing of - energy use in the residential sector by influencing consumers' behavior. The first portion of the study analyzes the impact of programmable thermostats (PTs) on energy use, focusing on residents' knowledge of climate control settings in the dwelling. I found that of households with natural gas heating systems, young households with PTs used 17 percent less heating energy on average. In addition, residents who did not know their thermostat settings tended to use 10 percent more energy for heating. The main portion of the dissertation focuses specifically on the potential for better feedback on electricity usage to reduce household energy consumption. The existing literature suggests that feedback can reduce electricity consumption in homes by 5 to 20 percent, but that significant uncertainties remain in our knowledge of the effectiveness of feedback. These uncertainties include the variation in feedback effectiveness between demographic groups and consumers in different climate regions. This analysis uses these uncertainties to perform an exploratory analysis to determine the conditions under which the benefits of feedback outweigh the costs and to compare the cost-effectiveness of providing feedback against that of other DSM programs. I found that benefits would likely outweigh costs for enhanced monthly billing and real-time feedback and that cost-effectiveness was superior to that of other DSM programs for these types of feedback. For feedback that is disaggregated by appliance type, cost effectiveness was competitive with other DSM programs under a limited set of cases. This study also examines how energy consumption devices should display feedback on GHG emissions from electricity use under a real

  1. Shifting racial hierarchies: An analysis of residential segregation among multi-racial and mono-racial groups in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Ronald; Kposowa, Augustine

    2017-03-01

    Multi-racial (mixed-race) people constitute a growing percentage of the United States (US) population. The study reported in this paper used residential segregation measures as a proxy for social distance, to examine whether segregation levels of multi-racial groups differ from those of mono-racial groups in the US in 2010. First, we find that all multi-racial groups considered in the study experience lower levels of segregation at county level than their mono-racial counterparts. However, black-whites and Hispanic-whites experience higher levels of segregation than other multi-racial groups. Second, we find region and minority composition of counties are associated significantly with segregation levels for multi-racial groups, but relative income is not.

  2. Energy efficiency standards for residential and commercial equipment: Additional opportunities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenquist, Greg; McNeil, Michael; Iyer, Maithili; Meyers, Steve; McMahon, Jim

    2004-08-02

    Energy efficiency standards set minimum levels of energy efficiency that must be met by new products. Depending on the dynamics of the market and the level of the standard, the effect on the market for a given product may be small, moderate, or large. Energy efficiency standards address a number of market failures that exist in the buildings sector. Decisions about efficiency levels often are made by people who will not be responsible for the energy bill, such as landlords or developers of commercial buildings. Many buildings are occupied for their entire lives by very temporary owners or renters, each unwilling to make long-term investments that would mostly reward subsequent users. And sometimes what looks like apathy about efficiency merely reflects inadequate information or time invested to evaluate it. In addition to these sector-specific market failures, energy efficiency standards address the endemic failure of energy prices to incorporate externalities. In the U.S., energy efficiency standards for consumer products were first implemented in California in 1977. National standards became effective starting in 1988. By the end of 2001, national standards were in effect for over a dozen residential appliances, as well as for a number of commercial sector products. Updated standards will take effect in the next few years for several products. Outside the U.S., over 30 countries have adopted minimum energy performance standards. Technologies and markets are dynamic, and additional opportunities to improve energy efficiency exist. There are two main avenues for extending energy efficiency standards. One is upgrading standards that already exist for specific products. The other is adopting standards for products that are not covered by existing standards. In the absence of new and upgraded energy efficiency standards, it is likely that many new products will enter the stock with lower levels of energy efficiency than would otherwise be the case. Once in the stock

  3. Women and minorities science bill becomes law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showstack, Randy

    U.S. President Bill Clinton has signed into law a measure to establish a commission to identify and address problems associated with the recruitment, retention, and advancement of women, minorities, and persons with disabilities in science and engineering fields."Today, we have taken a positive step forward to strengthen and expand our high-tech workforce by ensuring that women, minorities, and persons with disabilities have the skills necessary to compete in the Information Age," said U.S. Rep. Connie Morella (R.-Md.), who introduced the measure.

  4. What do customers want from improved residential electricity services? Evidence from a choice experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huh, Sung-Yoon; Woo, JongRoul; Lim, Sesil; Lee, Yong-Gil; Kim, Chang Seob

    2015-01-01

    Improvements in customer satisfaction as well as product/service quality represent a common objective of all businesses, and electricity services are no exception. Using choice experiments and a mixed logit model, this study quantitatively analyzes customers' preferences and their marginal willingness to pay for improved residential electricity services. The study provides an ex ante evaluation of customers' acceptance of hypothetical electricity services. According to the results, customers consider the electricity bill and the electricity mix as the two most important attributes when choosing their electricity services. Customers are willing to pay 2.2% more in the average electricity bill (an additional monthly electricity bill of KRW 1,064; USD 0.96) for a significant increase in the share of renewable energy, which is far less than the actual cost of achieving this renewable target. Therefore, it is better to maintain the current electricity mix in principle, and the renewable share should be gradually expanded instead of making a sudden change in the electricity mix. In addition, customers are willing to pay KRW 6,793 (USD 6.15) more to reduce blackouts once in a year and KRW 64/year (USD 0.06/year) to reduce a minute of each blackout. -- Highlights: •Customers' preferences for improved residential electricity services are analyzed. •Empirical setting is a sample of residents in South Korea. •The electricity bills and electricity mix are important to customers. •Increase in electricity bill of different electricity mix is considered

  5. Architecture and craftsmanship: Residential building "Kaldera", Banjaluka, architect Branislav Stojanovic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marić-Milašinović Dijana

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The subjects of analysis were the multi-layered expressions applied by the author in designing the residential building in Banjaluka. These are foremost the site, the location, and the corner motif, as the building’s outstanding formal accents. Next is the analysis of the applied materials their treatment and the accomplished effects. The craftsmanship has been emphasised since it demanded a close cooperation of the architect and the craftsman. Furthermore, the interior organisation of this non-standard residential building has been elucidated.

  6. Risks from Radon: Reconciling Miner and Residential Epidemiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chambers, Douglas B.; Harley, Naomi H.

    2008-01-01

    baseline lung cancer rate for smokers is much higher than for non or never smokers, smokers account for nearly 90% of the population risk from residential exposure to radon. As described in the paper, an excess relative risk (ERR) of 0.12(95% CI: 0.08-0.2)per 100 Bq m -3 (radon gas) can be estimated from combined miner studies. This compares well with the ERR from pooled residential case-control studies (for restricted analysis) for Europe of 0.16(95% CI: 0.05-0.31) and for North America of 0.11(95% CI: 0.0-0.28)

  7. The Influence Of Tax Billing By Forced Letter Intensity Against Taxpayer Compliance In Tax Service Office €˜Pratama€™ Manado

    OpenAIRE

    Pangemanan, Sifrid; Kawulur, Cecilya Helmy

    2015-01-01

    Tax Billing by forced letter is the governments efforts to improve the welfare of the people and encourage people to be responsible and participate in economic development. This study aims to determine the influence of tax billing by forced letter intensity against taxpayer compliance in Tax Service Office €˜Pratama€™ Manado. The analysis method used in this research is associative research methods to describe the influence of tax billing by forced letter intensity against taxpayer compliance...

  8. The impact of a standardized consultation form for facial trauma on billing and evaluation and management levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levesque, Andre Y; Tauber, David M; Lee, Johnson C; Rodriguez-Feliz, Jose R; Chao, Jerome D

    2014-02-01

    Facial trauma is among the most frequent consultations encountered by plastic surgeons. Unfortunately, the reimbursement from these consultations can be low, and qualified plastic surgeons may exclude facial trauma from their practice. An audit of our records found insufficient documentation to justify higher evaluation and management (EM) levels of service resulting in lower reimbursement. Utilizing a standardized consultation form can improve documentation resulting in higher billing and EM levels. A facial trauma consultation form was developed in conjunction with the billing department. Three plastic surgery residents completed 30 consultations without the aid of the consult form followed by 30 consultations with the aid of the form. The EM levels and billing data for each consultation were obtained from the billing department for analysis. The 2 groups were compared using χ2 analysis and t tests to determine statistical significance. Using our standardized consultation form, the mean EM level increased from 2.97 to 3.60 (P = 0.002). In addition, the mean billed amount increased from $391 to $501 per consult (P = 0.051) representing a 28% increase in billing. In our institution, the development and implementation of a facial trauma consultation form has resulted in more complete documentation and a subsequent increase in EM level and billed services.

  9. Beyond the game: the legacy of Bill Masterton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonfield, Christopher M; Kondziolka, Douglas

    2016-07-01

    Bill Masterton is the only man to die of injuries sustained in a National Hockey League (NHL) game. He remains the last fatality in any professional team sport involving a direct in-game injury in North America. While Masterton was originally thought to have suffered a fatal brain injury while being checked on the ice, later analysis of the case revealed evidence of second-impact syndrome and the effects of prior concussions. Masterton's death sparked both an immediate debate in the NHL on whether helmets should be compulsory and the NHL's first vote on mandatory helmet use. Although the subject of mandated helmet use met with resistance in the 10 years after Masterton's death, especially from hockey owners and coaches, the NHL finally legislated helmet use by all players entering the league beginning in the 1979-1980 season. Several awards, including one recognizing the NHL player who best exemplifies the qualities of perseverance, sportsmanship, and dedication to hockey, have been created in memory of Masterton. However, his legacy extends far beyond the awards that bear his name. His death was the seminal event bringing head safety to the forefront of a game that was both unready and unwilling to accept change. An increase in mainstream media attention in recent years has led to unprecedented public awareness of brain injury and concussion in hockey and other sports. Advances in the diagnosis and treatment of head injury in sports have occurred recently, the impetus for which started over 45 years ago, when Bill Masterton died.

  10. Conservation in the residential sector: two alternatives as strategies for ordering the market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lins, M.E.

    1990-01-01

    This work purposes an economic flow analysis in order to be driven conservation strategies by the electric sector. Two strategies for three conservation measures are considered here in the residential sector. The results obtained increase the reliability of an action plan to be elaborated for the electric energy conservation in the residential sector. (author)

  11. Design and optimization of zero-energy-consumption based solar energy residential building systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, D. L.; Yu, L. J.; Tan, H. W.

    2017-11-01

    Energy consumption of residential buildings has grown fast in recent years, thus raising a challenge on zero energy residential building (ZERB) systems, which aim at substantially reducing energy consumption of residential buildings. Thus, how to facilitate ZERB has become a hot but difficult topic. In the paper, we put forward the overall design principle of ZERB based on analysis of the systems’ energy demand. In particular, the architecture for both schematic design and passive technology is optimized and both energy simulation analysis and energy balancing analysis are implemented, followed by committing the selection of high-efficiency appliance and renewable energy sources for ZERB residential building. In addition, Chinese classical residential building has been investigated in the proposed case, in which several critical aspects such as building optimization, passive design, PV panel and HVAC system integrated with solar water heater, Phase change materials, natural ventilation, etc., have been taken into consideration.

  12. Bill Barbour : mõned ideed kasvavatele firmadele / Bill Barbour ; interv. Taivo Paju

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Barbour, Bill

    2005-01-01

    Suurbritannia üks kogenumaid ärikonsultante firmade ärikasvumudelist, mis aitab ettevõttel järgmisesse etappi üle minna. Mida peaks ettevõtja enne äri alustamist läbi mõtlema ning millised eesmärgid ja ülesanded enda jaoks paika panema. Lisad: Bill Barbour; Universaalne kriisimudel

  13. Urban Neighborhood and Residential Factors Associated with Breast Cancer in African American Women: a Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Brandi Patrice; Madak-Erdogan, Zeynep

    2018-04-01

    Residential characteristics in urban neighborhoods impact health and might be important factors contributing to health disparities, especially in the African American population. The purpose of this systematic review is to understand the relationship between urban neighborhood and residential factors and breast cancer incidence and prognosis in African American women. Using PubMed and Web of Science, the existing literature was reviewed. Observational, cross-sectional, cohort, and prospective studies until February 2017 were examined. Studies including populations of African American women, setting in "urban" areas, and a measure of a neighborhood or residential factor were reviewed. Four parameters related to neighborhood or residential factors were extracted including: neighborhood socioeconomic status (nSES), residential segregation, spatial access to mammography, and residential pollution. Our analysis showed that African American women living in low nSES have greater odds of late stage diagnosis and mortality. Furthermore, African American women living in segregated areas (higher percentage of Blacks) have higher odds of late stage diagnosis and mortality compared to White and Hispanic women living in less segregated areas (lower percentage of Blacks). Late stage diagnosis was also shown to be significantly higher in areas with poor mammography access and areas with higher Black residential segregation. Lastly, residential pollution did not affect breast cancer risk in African American women. Overall, this systematic review provides a qualitative synthesis of major neighborhood and residential factors on breast cancer outcomes in African American women.

  14. Comparative Analysis of a MOOC and a Residential Community Using Introductory College Physics: Documenting How Learning Environments Are Created, Lessons Learned in the Process, and Measurable Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Jack Ryan

    Higher education institutions, such as the University of Colorado Boulder (CU-Boulder), have as a core mission to advance their students' academic performance. On the frontier of education technologies that hold the promise to address our educational mission are Massively Open Online Courses (MOOCs) which are new enough to not be fully understood or well-researched. MOOCs, in theory, have vast potential for being cost-effective and for reaching diverse audiences across the world. This thesis examines the implementation of one MOOC, Physics 1 for Physical Science Majors, implemented in the augural round of institutionally sanctioned MOOCs in Fall 2013. While comparatively inexpensive to a brick-and-mortar course and while it initially enrolled audience of nearly 16,000 students, this MOOC was found to be time-consuming to implement, and only roughly 1.5% of those who enrolled completed the course---approximately 1/4 of those who completed the standard brick and mortar course that the MOOC was designed around. An established education technology, residential communities, contrast the MOOCs by being high-touch and highly humanized, but by being expensive and locally-based. The Andrews Hall Residential College (AHRC) on the CU campus fosters academic success and retention by engaging and networking students outside of the standard brick and mortar courses and enculturating students into an environment with vertical integration through the different classes: freshman, sophomore, junior, etc. The physics MOOC and the AHRC were studied to determine how the environments were made and what lessons were learned in the process. Also, student performance was compared for the physics MOOC, a subset of the AHRC students enrolled in a special physics course, and the standard CU Physics 1 brick and mortar course. All yielded similar learning gains for physics 1 performance, for those who completed the courses. These environments are presented together to compare and contrast their

  15. Impacts of Water Quality on Residential Water Heating Equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Widder, Sarah H.; Baechler, Michael C.

    2013-11-01

    Water heating is a ubiquitous energy use in all residential housing, accounting for 17.7% of residential energy use (EIA 2012). Today, there are many efficient water heating options available for every fuel type, from electric and gas to more unconventional fuel types like propane, solar, and fuel oil. Which water heating option is the best choice for a given household will depend on a number of factors, including average daily hot water use (total gallons per day), hot water draw patterns (close together or spread out), the hot water distribution system (compact or distributed), installation constraints (such as space, electrical service, or venting accommodations) and fuel-type availability and cost. While in general more efficient water heaters are more expensive than conventional water heating technologies, the savings in energy use and, thus, utility bills can recoup the additional upfront investment and make an efficient water heater a good investment over time in most situations, although the specific payback period for a given installation will vary widely. However, the expected lifetime of a water heater in a given installation can dramatically influence the cost effectiveness and savings potential of a water heater and should be considered, along with water use characteristics, fuel availability and cost, and specific home characteristics when selecting the optimum water heating equipment for a particular installation. This report provides recommendations for selecting and maintaining water heating equipment based on local water quality characteristics.

  16. Main challenges of residential areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oana Luca

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The present article is a position paper aiming to initiate a professional debate related to the aspects related to the urban dysfunctions leading to the wear of the residential areas. The paper proposes a definition of the wear process, identify the main causes leading to its occurrence and propose a number of solutions to neutralise the dysfunctions. The three wearing phases of residential areas components are emphasized, exploring their lifecycle. In order to perform the study of urban wear, the status of the residential areas components can be established and monitored, and also the variables of the function that can mathematically model the specific wear process may be considered. The paper is considered a first step for the model adjustment, to be tested and validated in the following steps. Based on the mathematical method and model, there can be created, in a potential future research, the possibility of determining the precarity degree for residential areas/neighbourhoods and cities, by minimising the subjective component of the analyses preceding the decision for renovation or regeneration.

  17. Trends of Sustainable Residential Architecture

    OpenAIRE

    Narvydas, A

    2014-01-01

    The article is based on Master’s research conducted during Scottish Housing Expo 2010. The aim of the research was to determine the prevailing trends in sustainable residential architecture. Each trend can be described by features detected during visual and technical observation of project data. Based on that architects may predict possible problems related to a specific trend.

  18. Technical Problems of Residential Construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowogońska, Beata; Cibis, Jerzy

    2017-10-01

    Beauty, utility, durability - these are the features of good architecture and should also be the distinguishing qualities of every residential building. But do beauty and utility remain along with the passing of time? Performance characteristics are an indicator of both, the technical as well as aesthetic state of buildings. Aesthetic needs are in disagreement with the merciless aging process. The beauty of a city is formed not only by the original forms of new residential buildings, but also by existing tenement housing; thus preserving their aesthetics becomes a necessity. Time is continuously passing and along with it, aging intensifies. The aging process is a natural phenomenon for every material. The life expectancy of building materials is also limited. Along with the passing of time, the technical state of residential buildings continuously deteriorates. With the passing of time, the aesthetic values and preferences of users of flats change and the usability of the building decreases. The permanence of buildings, including residential buildings, is shaped not only by the forces of nature but also by activities of humans. A long lifespan is ensured by carrying out ongoing, systematic renovation-repair works. It is thanks to them that buildings derived from past centuries are still being used, and their market attractiveness is not decreasing.

  19. Congestion and residential moving behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Morten Marott; Pilegaard, Ninette; Van Ommeren, Jos

    2008-01-01

    we study how congestion and residential moving behaviour are interrelated, using a two-region job search model. Workers choose between interregional commuting and residential moving, in order to live closer to their place of work. This choice affects the external costs of commuting, due to conges......we study how congestion and residential moving behaviour are interrelated, using a two-region job search model. Workers choose between interregional commuting and residential moving, in order to live closer to their place of work. This choice affects the external costs of commuting, due...... to congestion. We focus on the equilibrium in which some workers currently living in one region accept jobs in the other, with a fraction of them choosing to commute from their current residence to the new job in the other region and the remainder choosing to move to the region in which the new job is located....... The welfare-maximising road tax is derived, which is essentially the Pigouvian tax, given the absence of a tax on moving. Given the presence of moving taxes, which are substantial in Europe, the optimal road tax for commuters is the Pigouvian tax plus the amortised value of the moving tax, evaluated...

  20. Convergence of Residential Gateway Technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartog, F.T.H. den; Balm, M.; Jong, C.M. de; Kwaaitaal, J.J.B.

    2004-01-01

    A new OSI-based model is described that can be used for the classification of residential gateways. It is applied to analyze current gateway solutions and draw evolutionary paths for the medium to long term. From this it is concluded that particularly set-top boxes and broadband modems, as opposed

  1. Influence of India’s transformation on residential energy demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhattacharyya, Subhes C.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The middle income group emerges as the dominant segment by 2030. • Commercial residential energy demand increases 3–4 folds compared to 2010. • Electricity and LPG demand grows above 6% per year in the reference scenario. • India faces the potential of displacing the domination of biomass by 2030. - Abstract: India’s recent macro-economic and structural changes are transforming the economy and bringing significant changes to energy demand behaviour. Life-style and consumption behaviour are evolving rapidly due to accelerated economic growth in recent times. The population structure is changing, thereby offering the country with the potential to reap the population dividend. The country is also urbanising rapidly, and the fast-growing middle class segment of the population is fuelling consumerism by mimicking international life-styles. These changes are likely to have significant implications for energy demand in the future, particularly in the residential sector. Using the end-use approach of demand analysis, this paper analyses how residential energy demand is likely to evolve as a consequence of India’s transformation and finds that by 2030, India’s commercial energy demand in the residential sector can quadruple in the high scenario compared to the demand in 2010. Demand for modern fuels like electricity and liquefied petroleum gas is likely to grow at a faster rate. However, there is a window of opportunity to better manage the evolution of residential demand in India through energy efficiency improvement

  2. Avoiding Contract Audit Citations by Improving Billing Submissions

    OpenAIRE

    Brewer, David; Morgan, Bill

    2018-01-01

    In this session, INDOT auditors address common billing errors for different contract payment methodologies. Attendees responsible for preparing bills and submitting invoices will gain a better understanding of how contracts are designed and what is accepted for payment. Local agencies will understand how to review a consultant’s billing before making payment, thus avoiding citations. This presentation should be of particular interest to both engineering consulting firms and local agencies who...

  3. The development of application for billing of services

    OpenAIRE

    Šinko, Žiga

    2013-01-01

    Diploma is a description of a programming solution for preparing billing invoices of Mikrocop services. Developed system can easily manage billing invoices specifications for all customers and set schedules for generating invoices. These settings are than used by the service module generating invoices on schedule. Generated invoices can be seen and managed with help of Windows Reporting Services technology. First chapter describes services billing in general. Second chapter shortly de...

  4. Residential pesticides and childhood leukemia: a systematic review and meta-analysis Pesticidas residenciais e leucemia na infância: revisão sistemática e meta-análise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle C. Turner

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available It is a systematic review and meta-analysis of previous observational epidemiologic studies examining the relationship between residential pesticide exposures during critical exposure time windows (preconception, pregnancy, and childhood and childhood leukemia. Searches of Medline and other electronic databases were performed (1950-2009. Study selection, data abstraction, and quality assessment were performed by two independent reviewers. Random effects models were used to obtain summary odds ratios (ORs and 95% confidence intervals (Cis. Of the 17 identified studies, 15 were included in the meta-analysis. Exposures during pregnancy to unspecified residential pesticides insecticides, and herbicides were positively associated with childhood leukemia. Exposures during childhood to unspecified residential pesticides and insecticides were also positively associated with childhood leukemia, but there was no association with herbicides. Positive associations were observed between childhood leukemia and residential pesticide exposures. Further work is needed to confirm previous findings based on self-report, to examine potential exposure-response relationships, and to assess specific pesticides and toxicologically related subgroups of pesticides in more detail.Trata-se de uma revisão sistemática e meta-análise de estudos epidemiológicos observacionais anteriores que examinaram a relação entre a exposição de pesticidas residenciais durante as janelas de exposição crítica do tempo (pré-concepção, gravidez e infância e leucemia infantil. Foram realizadas pesquisas de dados em diversas bases de dados eletrônicas como Medline e outras. Dois revisores independentes realizaram o estudo de seleção, abstração de dados e avaliação da qualidade. Foram utilizados modelos de efeitos aleatórios para obtenção de razões chances (odds ratio e intervalos de confiança de 95% (IC. Dos 17 estudos identificados, 15 foram incluídos na meta

  5. The evolution of the avian bill as a thermoregulatory organ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tattersall, Glenn J; Arnaout, Bassel; Symonds, Matthew R E

    2017-08-01

    The avian bill is a textbook example of how evolution shapes morphology in response to changing environments. Bills of seed-specialist finches in particular have been the focus of intense study demonstrating how climatic fluctuations acting on food availability drive bill size and shape. The avian bill also plays an important but under-appreciated role in body temperature regulation, and therefore in energetics. Birds are endothermic and rely on numerous mechanisms for balancing internal heat production with biophysical constraints of the environment. The bill is highly vascularised and heat exchange with the environment can vary substantially, ranging from around 2% to as high as 400% of basal heat production in certain species. This heat exchange may impact how birds respond to heat stress, substitute for evaporative water loss at elevated temperatures or environments of altered water availability, or be an energetic liability at low environmental temperatures. As a result, in numerous taxa, there is evidence for a positive association between bill size and environmental temperatures, both within and among species. Therefore, bill size is both developmentally flexible and evolutionarily adaptive in response to temperature. Understanding the evolution of variation in bill size however, requires explanations of all potential mechanisms. The purpose of this review, therefore, is to promote a greater understanding of the role of temperature on shaping bill size over spatial gradients as well as developmental, seasonal, and evolutionary timescales. © 2016 Cambridge Philosophical Society.

  6. The Effects of Bill 4330/2004 on Union Relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Prata Mendes

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This work aims to analyze in which way the bill 4330/2004 affects the union representativeness of outsourced workers. In order to accomplish the settled purpose, it is necessary firstly to frame the outsourcing phenomena in the context of the evolution of capitalism. In relation to the main problem of the work, it’s necessary to investigate if the bill 4330/2004 implies an offense to the union representativeness of outsourced workers. The conclusions obtained show that bill 4330/2004 compounds the representativeness trouble, since this bill proposes the agglutination of workers pertained to very different realities, what stunts the collective protection of interests.

  7. Industry wins, loses in House bill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that the House of Representatives has approved a plan to limit U.S. gas prorationing by the states but rejected a move to require petroleum refiners and importers to place 1% of their oil or products volumes into the Strategic Petroleum Reserve. The oil industry lobbied heavily against the SPR provision, which went down 263-135. The House then passed its omnibus energy bill 381-37. It is designed to facilitate all types of energy production while promoting conservation. The legislation also imposes bans on offshore leasing but gives independent producers limited relief from the alternative minimum tax (AMT) and does not include a mandate for use of ethanol in gasoline

  8. Radioactive material (road transport) bill. [Third reading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fishburn, D.; Walley, J.; Currie, E.

    1991-01-01

    This is a private members Bill which will enable new rules to be set out that will govern the way in the which nearly 500,000 shipments of radioactive and nuclear material go by road in the United Kingdom every year. It would give the Department of Transport, which would become the enforcing authority, the powers of entry and inspection and allows penalties to be exacted from those breaking the rules. The present regulations for transport by road are those set out in 1947 and these need to be updated to comply with International Atomic Energy Authority Standards. The debate which lasted over one and a half hours is reported verbatim. The main points raised were about which emergency services if any should be notified on the transport of nuclear materials, with particular reference to Derbyshire. Nuclear power in general was also discussed. (UK)

  9. Micro-CHP systems for residential applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paepe, Michel de; D'Herdt, Peter; Mertens, David

    2006-01-01

    Micro-CHP systems are now emerging on the market. In this paper, a thorough analysis is made of the operational parameters of 3 types of micro-CHP systems for residential use. Two types of houses (detached and terraced) are compared with a two storey apartment. For each building type, the energy demands for electricity and heat are dynamically determined. Using these load profiles, several CHP systems are designed for each building type. Data were obtained for two commercially available gas engines, two Stirling engines and a fuel cell. Using a dynamic simulation, including start up times, these five system types are compared to the separate energy system of a natural gas boiler and buying electricity from the grid. All CHP systems, if well sized, result in a reduction of primary energy use, though different technologies have very different impacts. Gas engines seem to have the best performance. The economic analysis shows that fuel cells are still too expensive and that even the gas engines only have a small internal rate of return (<5%), and this only occurs in favourable economic circumstances. It can, therefore, be concluded that although the different technologies are technically mature, installation costs should at least be reduced by 50% before CHP systems become interesting for residential use. Condensing gas boilers, now very popular in new homes, prove to be economically more interesting and also have a modest effect on primary energy consumption

  10. A Descriptive Study of Students with Disabilities at Montana State University Billings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dell, Thomas Francis

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe and analyze how the characteristics of age, major and type of disabilities for students who received services through Disability Support Services at Montana State University-Billings have changed from 1999 to 2011. Furthermore, this analysis contrasted local trends for types of disabilities with national…

  11. 2004 energy bill of the France; Facture energetique de la France en 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    This document analyzes the energy bill in France (28,35 milliards of euros), which increased of 24,1 % in 2004. This increase is due to the net imports and especially the fossil fuels. Statistical data and the presentation of Patrick Devedjian, delegated ministry for the Industry, illustrate this economic analysis. (A.L.B.)

  12. THE PULL FACTORS OF INTRA-URBAN RESIDENTIAL MOBILITY ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. The principal objective of this study is to identify the major dimensions of the pull factors of residential mobility in Calabar, Nigeria. The data used in the study were generated from a comprehensive questionnaire survey involving. 869 households in the study area. The Principal Component Analysis (PCA).

  13. Research report for fiscal 1997 on analysis and evaluation of demonstration tests for establishment of residential photovoltaic power generation load leveling technology; 1997 nendo kenkyu hokokusho. Jutaku you taiyoko hatsuden fuka heijunka gijutsu tou kakuritsu jissho shiken ni kansuru kaiseki hyoka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    Tests and researches have been performed with the objectives to establish an evaluation technology for load leveling effect by using a small photovoltaic power generation system for residential use, to clarify the effectiveness of the system as a discrete power supply source through demonstration operation, and furthermore to achieve optimization of designs of the small photovoltaic power generation system for residential use. This paper summarizes the achievements in fiscal 1997. The current fiscal year has performed the continued collection of data of the demonstration operation, and analysis and evaluation on the photovoltaic power generation characteristics and the house load characteristics. According to the data analysis result for fiscals 1995 through 1997, it was shown that, although the photovoltaic power generation system for residential use does not contribute much to load leveling in a house, it contributes to load leveling in the distribution line on the whole or a case as large as a grid. In addition, according to the survey on users who have installed the photovoltaic power generation system, it was indicated that the consciousness of electric power and energy conservation has heightened. The capacity of a photovoltaic power generation system for residential use is 3 kW for a standard type of home, which can take care of more than 60% of the house load. It was concluded that, if a storage battery of small capacity is accommodated, the system is effective for reduction of momentary peak load, enhancement of the power quality, and supply of power at a disaster. (NEDO)

  14. Billing for pharmacists' cognitive services in physicians' offices: multiple methods of reimbursement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Mollie Ashe; Hitch, William J; Wilson, Courtenay Gilmore; Lugo, Amy M

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate the charges and reimbursement for pharmacist services using multiple methods of billing and determine the number of patients that must be managed by a pharmacist to cover the cost of salary and fringe benefits. Large teaching ambulatory clinic in North Carolina. Annual charges and reimbursement, patient no-show rate, clinic capacity, number of patients seen monthly and annually, and number of patients that must be seen to pay for a pharmacist's salary and benefits. A total of 6,930 patient encounters were documented during the study period. Four different clinics were managed by the pharmacists, including anticoagulation, pharmacotherapy, osteoporosis, and wellness clinics. "Incident to" level 1 billing was used for the anticoagulation and pharmacotherapy clinics, whereas level 4 codes were used for the osteoporosis clinic. The wellness clinic utilized a negotiated fee-for-service model. Mean annual charges were $65,022, and the mean reimbursement rate was 47%. The mean charge and collection per encounter were $41 and $19, respectively. Eleven encounters per day were necessary to generate enough charges to pay for the cost of the pharmacist. Considering actual reimbursement rates, the number of patient encounters necessary increased to 24 per day. "What if" sensitivity analysis indicated that billing at the level of service provided instead of level 1 decreased the number of patients needed to be seen daily. Billing a level 4 visit necessitated that five patients would need to be seen daily to generate adequate charges. Taking into account the 47% reimbursement rate, 10 level 4 encounters per day were necessary to generate appropriate reimbursement to pay for the pharmacist. Unique opportunities for pharmacists to provide direct patient care in the ambulatory setting continue to develop. Use of a combination of billing methods resulted in sustainable reimbursement. The ability to bill at the level of service provided instead of a level 1 visit would

  15. Economic aspects of possible residential heating conservation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hopkowicz, M.; Szul, A. [Technical Univ., Cracow (Poland)

    1995-12-31

    The paper presents methods of evaluation of energy and economy related effects of different actions aimed at conservation in residential buildings. It identifies also the method of selecting the most effective way of distribution funds assigned to weatherization as well as necessary improvements to be implemented within the heating node and the internal heating system of the building. The analysis of data gathered for four 11-stories high residential buildings of {open_quotes}Zeran{close_quotes} type being subject of the Conservation Demonstrative Project, included a differentiated scope of weatherization efforts and various actions aimed at system upgrading. Basing upon the discussion of the split of heat losses in a building as well as the established energy savings for numerous options of upgrading works, the main problem has been defined. It consists in optimal distribution of financial means for the discussed measures if the total amount of funds assigned for modifications is defined. The method based upon the principle of relative increments has been suggested. The economical and energy specifications of the building and its components, required for this method have also been elaborated. The application of this method allowed to define the suggested optimal scope of actions within the entire fund assigned for the comprehensive weatherization.

  16. Human-Centered Design Bill of Rights for Educators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugar, William A.

    This paper presents a potential solution to encourage technology adoption and integration within schools by proposing a human-centered technology "bill of rights" for educators. The intention of this bill of rights it to influence educators' beliefs towards technology and to enable educators to confront with confidence the seemingly…

  17. China : Development of National Heat Pricing and Billing Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Meyer, Anke Sofia; Kalkum, Bernd

    2008-01-01

    Market-based reforms in China's urban centralized heating sector are essential to addressing the perpetual inefficiency of a sector built on welfare based principles. The reform of heat pricing and billing is a crucial part of overall heat reform, since it will commodity heat and thus create economic incentives to provide and use heat much more efficiently. Heat pricing and billing reform ...

  18. An assessment of billing electricity consumers via analogue meters ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study also revealed poor and unreliable power supply and most often the bills issued for the electricity consumption are based on estimates, thus contributing to poor consumers' response to payments of electricity bills. Some suggestions that can facilitate the improvements of the operation of the Distribution Company ...

  19. 42 CFR 408.86 - Responsibilities under group billing arrangement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Payment § 408.86 Responsibilities under group billing arrangement. (a) Enrollee responsibilities. (1) The enrollee is still responsible for premium payments; the group payer simply acts as his agent. If the agent... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Responsibilities under group billing arrangement...

  20. 42 CFR 408.207 - Billing and payment procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Billing and payment procedures. 408.207 Section 408... Surcharge Agreements § 408.207 Billing and payment procedures. (a) Adding and removing enrollees. The State... terminates, or the month of the enrollee's death, whichever comes first. (b) Payment and grace period...

  1. 47 CFR 76.981 - Negative option billing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Negative option billing. 76.981 Section 76.981 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES MULTICHANNEL VIDEO AND CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Cable Rate Regulation § 76.981 Negative option billing. (a) A cable operator...

  2. 42 CFR 408.84 - Billing and payment procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Billing and payment procedures. 408.84 Section 408.84 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... Billing and payment procedures. (a) Initial premium notice. (1) CMS or its agent always sends the initial...

  3. 42 CFR 424.540 - Deactivation of Medicare billing privileges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... change in practice location, a change of any managing employee, and a change in billing services. A... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Deactivation of Medicare billing privileges. 424.540 Section 424.540 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND...

  4. An Investigation of Telecom Mobile Data Billing Plans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Bing Lin

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In the recent years, mobile operators have provided many billing alternatives such as limited and unlimited billing plans, and shared and non-shared data plans for the users with different needs. A non-shared data plan is designed for a single user with a limited monthly data allowance. On the other hand, the monthly data allowance of a shared data plan is shared by a group of users with multiple devices. The mobile operators often conduct the primary price study to compare their billing plans, which shows the relationship between the prices of the billing plans against the fixed amounts of data usage. Although the primary price study can easily and quickly draw the conclusions, it only provides rough billing plan suggestions. In reality, the amounts of data usage are not fixed, and therefore should be measured from commercial mobile networks to reflect the user behaviors on data usage. This paper proposes an analytical approach by using the measured data of Chunghwa Telecom Co., Ltd. (CHT, the largest telecommunications company in Taiwan, to derive the expected payments of various billing plans. The results of the analytical model are more accurate than those of the primary price study, and therefore provide better suggestions for billing plan selection. Other mobile operators can easily use our model to analyze the billing alternatives with their measured data.

  5. 17 CFR 256.01-10 - Billing procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...) UNIFORM SYSTEM OF ACCOUNTS FOR MUTUAL SERVICE COMPANIES AND SUBSIDIARY SERVICE COMPANIES, PUBLIC UTILITY HOLDING COMPANY ACT OF 1935 General Instructions § 256.01-10 Billing procedures. All invoices for services... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Billing procedures. 256.01-10...

  6. 31 CFR 206.3 - Billing policy and procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Billing policy and procedures. 206.3... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT SERVICE MANAGEMENT OF FEDERAL AGENCY RECEIPTS, DISBURSEMENTS, AND OPERATION OF THE CASH MANAGEMENT IMPROVEMENTS FUND § 206.3 Billing policy and procedures. The...

  7. The Evolution of a Bill: Teaching Legislative Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackerby, Christine

    2005-01-01

    This article features Congressman Edward Rees's bill. Congressman Edward Rees of Kansas introduced a bill (H.R. 7786) in the U.S. House of Representatives on February 8, 1954, to create a national holiday that would honor the nation's veterans. He said in a speech on the floor of the House that he did it so that "a grateful nation may pay…

  8. Nigeria's freedom of information bill and national development ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper revealed the genesis of Freedom of Information (FOI) Bill in Nigeria and the organizations instrumental to its enactment. The Bill is to ensure free flow of information and to protect Public Officers for giving out information in their possession. It also mandates organizations to preserve its information in such manner ...

  9. an assessment of billing electricity consumers via analogue meters

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    monopoly of National Electric Power Authority (NEPA) to Power Holding ... amount of electric energy supplied to consumers. The most common ..... drive. In Table 9, 45.7% of respondent agreed to be getting bills on time and 35.8% disagreed while. 18.5% were indifferent. The mean of 2.45 shows that bills are distributed on ...

  10. 27 CFR 28.250 - Bills of lading required.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... the case may be, and (5) The total quantity in wine gallons or liters, (b) As to beer: (1) The name of... bill of lading), and (3) The number and size of containers. Where a copy of an export bill of lading or...

  11. 19 CFR 142.14 - Delinquent payment of Customs bills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Delinquent payment of Customs bills. 142.14 Section 142.14 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... of Customs bills. The following procedure shall be followed if an importer is substantially or...

  12. 19 CFR 142.26 - Delinquent payment of Customs bills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Delinquent payment of Customs bills. 142.26 Section 142.26 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... Delinquent payment of Customs bills. The following procedures shall be followed if an importer is...

  13. 42 CFR 71.11 - Bills of health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Bills of health. 71.11 Section 71.11 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES QUARANTINE, INSPECTION, LICENSING FOREIGN QUARANTINE Measures at Foreign Ports § 71.11 Bills of health. A carrier at any foreign port clearing or...

  14. Acid rain: What the final bill looks like

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burkhardt, D.A.

    1990-01-01

    This article examines the possible financial impacts of the 1990 amendments to the Clean Air Act. Topics include an overview of the bill, impact on utility companies, and implications for utility investors. The author feels the bill has important implications for investors who own utility stocks, particularly the stocks of coal-burning utilities in the Midwest and Appalachia

  15. Reducing trauma payment denials with computerized collaborative billing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, R Lawrence; Davis, Kimberly A; Silver, Geoffrey M; Esposito, Thomas J; Tsitlik, Victoria; O'Hern, Timothy; Gamelli, Richard L

    2003-10-01

    Trauma care demands constant physician availability, resulting in rotational coverage systems. Third-party payors consider separate trauma surgeon bills as originating from the same individual. Trauma surgeons may be unaware of their colleagues' billing history on jointly managed patients. Not all postoperative procedures and evaluation and management services are denied by global surgical package rules. We investigated whether a networked billing program designed to crosscheck for global package coding concerns would reduce payment denials. A networked relational database was created for trauma surgeons to enter billable encounters, displaying global periods and operative diagnoses while prompting for postoperative modifiers. Denials were compared for equivalent time periods before and after program initiation. Payment denials fell from 361 to 16 for "bundled" evaluation and management services and from 55 to 13 for bundled postoperative procedures. Time spent on billing decreased and legibility improved. Overall savings totaled $183,404. Collaborative billing can improve payments for professional trauma care.

  16. High spectral resolution image of Barnacle Bill

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    The rover Sojourner's first target for measurement by the Alpha-Proton-Xray Spectrometer (APXS) was the rock named Barnacle Bill, located close to the ramp down which the rover made its egress from the lander. The full spectral capability of the Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP), consisting of 13 wavelength filters, was used to characterize the rock's surface. The measured area is relatively dark, and is shown in blue. Nearby on the rock surface, soil material is trapped in pits (shown in red).Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) was developed by the University of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Laboratory under contract to JPL. Peter Smith is the Principal Investigator. JPL is an operating division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech).

  17. 16 CFR 308.7 - Billing and collection for pay-per-call services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... responsibility for receiving and responding to billing error complaints or inquiries. (2) Billing error means any... or other toll free telephone number. (v) The failure to reflect properly on a billing statement a... billing error complaint or inquiry. (6) Telephone-billed purchase means any purchase that is completed...

  18. POSSIBLE ROLE OF INDOOR RADON REDUCTION SYSTEMS IN BACK-DRAFTING RESIDENTIAL COMBUSTION APPLIANCES

    Science.gov (United States)

    The article gives results of a computational sensitivity analysis conducted to identify conditions under which residential active soil depressurization (ASD) systems for indoor radon reduction might contribute to or create back-drafting of natural draft combustion appliances. Par...

  19. Deep Residential Retrofits in East Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boudreaux, Philip R [ORNL; Hendrick, Timothy P [ORNL; Christian, Jeffrey E [ORNL; Jackson, Roderick K [ORNL

    2012-04-01

    Executive Summary Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is furthering residential energy retrofit research in the mixed-humid climate of East Tennessee by selecting 10 homes and guiding the homeowners in the energy retrofit process. The homeowners pay for the retrofits, and ORNL advises which retrofits to complete and collects post-retrofit data. This effort is in accordance with the Department of Energy s Building America program research goal of demonstrating market-ready energy retrofit packages that reduce home energy use by 30 50%. Through this research, ORNL researchers hope to understand why homeowners decide to partake in energy retrofits, the payback of home energy retrofits, and which retrofit packages most economically reduce energy use. Homeowner interviews help the researchers understand the homeowners experience. Information gathered during the interviews will aid in extending market penetration of home energy retrofits by helping researchers and the retrofit industry understand what drives homeowners in making positive decisions regarding these retrofits. This report summarizes the selection process, the pre-retrofit condition, the recommended retrofits, the actual cost of the retrofits (when available), and an estimated energy savings of the retrofit package using EnergyGauge . Of the 10 households selected to participate in the study, only five completed the recommended retrofits, three completed at least one but no more than three of the recommended retrofits, and two households did not complete any of the recommended retrofits. In the case of the two homes that did none of the recommended work, the pre-retrofit condition of the homes and the recommended retrofits are reported. The five homes that completed the recommended retrofits are monitored for energy consumption of the whole house, appliances, space conditioning equipment, water heater, and most of the other circuits with miscellaneous electric loads (MELs) and lighting. Thermal comfort is

  20. Residential care : Dutch and Italian residents of residential care facilities compared

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Heer-Wunderink, Charlotte; Caro-Nienhuis, Annemarie D.; Sytema, Sjoerd; Wiersma, Durk

    2008-01-01

    Aims - Characteristics of patients living in residential care facilities and the availability of mental hospital- and residential beds in Italy and The Netherlands were compared to assess whether differences in the process of deinstitutionalisation have influenced the composition of their

  1. Tracking the Sun IX: The Installed Price of Residential and Non-Residential Photovoltaic Systems in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbose, Galen [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Energy Technologies Area; Darghouth, Naïm [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Energy Technologies Area; Millstein, Dev [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Cates, Sarah [Exeter Associates, Columbia, MD (United States); DiSanti, Nicholas [Exeter Associates, Columbia, MD (United States); Widiss, Rebecca [Exeter Associates, Columbia, MD (United States)

    2016-08-16

    Now in its ninth edition, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL)’s Tracking the Sun report series is dedicated to summarizing trends in the installed price of grid-connected solar photovoltaic (PV) systems in the United States. The present report focuses on residential and non-residential systems installed through year-end 2015, with preliminary trends for the first half of 2016. An accompanying LBNL report, Utility-Scale Solar, addresses trends in the utility-scale sector. This year’s report incorporates a number of important changes and enhancements from prior editions. Among those changes, LBNL has made available a public data file containing all non-confidential project-level data underlying the analysis in this report. Installed pricing trends presented within this report derive primarily from project-level data reported to state agencies and utilities that administer PV incentive programs, solar renewable energy credit (SREC) registration systems, or interconnection processes. Refer to the text box to the right for several key notes about these data. In total, data were collected and cleaned for more than 820,000 individual PV systems, representing 85% of U.S. residential and non-residential PV systems installed cumulatively through 2015 and 82% of systems installed in 2015. The analysis in this report is based on a subset of this sample, consisting of roughly 450,000 systems with available installed price data.

  2. A Method for Determining Optimal Residential Energy Efficiency Packages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polly, B. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Gestwick, M. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Bianchi, M. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Anderson, R. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Horowitz, S. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Christensen, C. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Judkoff, R. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2011-04-01

    This report describes an analysis method for determining optimal residential energy efficiency retrofit packages and, as an illustrative example, applies the analysis method to a 1960s-era home in eight U.S. cities covering a range of International Energy Conservation Code (IECC) climate regions. The method uses an optimization scheme that considers average energy use (determined from building energy simulations) and equivalent annual cost to recommend optimal retrofit packages specific to the building, occupants, and location.

  3. Investigate and Comparsion Self-Esteem and Happiness Among Residential and Non-Residential Old People

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zakieh Nasiri

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The main aim of this study was to investigate and to compare elderly happiness and self-esteem among residential and non-residential. Methods & Materials: This research was designed as descriptive. Two groups were selected in convenience method. Member of residential elderly (416 elderly were chosen based on Morgan Table. Hundred-twenty elderly, 60 residential (30 men and 30 women and 60 non-residential (30 men and 30 women were chosen for study. Data used the three questionnaires, like Demographic questionnaires, Oxford Happiness Inventory and Self-esteem Scale’s Rozenberg. Data were gathered and analyzed with Pearson test, t-student test. Results: The results were indicated that a significant relationship between happiness and self-esteem, among residential and non- residential old people. The findings showed significant difference in happiness, self-esteem among residential and home participants in both groups (P<0.01. Conclusion: The results were showed that a significant relationship between social support and self-esteem, among residential and non-residential old people. Also, the results were indicated that significant difference between social support. In general, residential participants had lower social support and self-esteem than non-residential participants.

  4. Residential mobility and migration of the separated

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maarten van Ham

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Separation is known to have a disruptive effect on the housing careers of those involved, mainly because a decrease in resources causes (temporary downward moves on the housing ladder. Little is known about the geographies of the residential mobility behaviour of the separated. Applying a hazard analysis to retrospective life-course data for the Netherlands, we investigate three hypotheses: individuals who experienced separation move more often than do steady singles and people in intact couple relationships, they are less likely to move over long distances, and they move more often to cities than people in intact couple relationships. The results show that separation leads to an increase in mobility, to moves over short distance for men with children, and to a prevalence of the city as a destination of moves.

  5. Probabilistic Quantification of Potentially Flexible Residential Demand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kouzelis, Konstantinos; Mendaza, Iker Diaz de Cerio; Bak-Jensen, Birgitte

    2014-01-01

    The balancing of power systems with high penetration of renewable energy is a serious challenge to be faced in the near future. One of the possible solutions, recently capturing a lot of attention, is demand response. Demand response can only be achieved by power consumers holding loads which allow...... them to modify their normal power consumption pattern, namely flexible consumers. However flexibility, despite being constantly mentioned, is usually not properly defined and even rarer quantified. This manuscript introduces a methodology to identify and quantify potentially flexible demand...... of residential consumers. The procedure is based on non-flexible consumer clustering and subsequent statistical analysis. Consequently, the power consumption pattern of a flexible consumer is compared to a 3D probability distribution created by the previously referred methodology. The results show a strong...

  6. Quebec residential electricity demand: a microeconometric approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernard, J.T.; Bolduc, D.; Belanger, D.

    1996-01-01

    An economic analysis of Quebec residential electricity demand was studied by micro-simulation models. These structural models describe all components which lead to decisions upon durable holdings and electric appliance usage. The demand for space and water heating systems was evaluated. Recent price change in favour of energy sources other than electricity were taken into account. Price and income elasticity ratios were found to be low, as expected when estimating short term use. The role played by socio-economic variables on the choice of space-water heating systems and electricity use was also examined. Recent conversions have indicated a trend toward preference by households in favour of natural gas or oil over electricity. 18 refs., 5 tabs., 1 fig

  7. Books not closed on U.S. omnibus energy bill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports on omnibus energy legislation which went down to the wire in the closing days of the 102nd U.S. Congress. The House adjourned after approving the compromise energy bill, 363-60. The Senate planned to resume debate on the wide-ranging legislation late last week. Proponents of the bill also faced the problem of getting enough senators to return from a recess and vote to override the filibuster. Sixty senators would have to vote to limit debate on the energy bill, a vote that energy lobbyists the could be close

  8. 78 FR 70584 - ATOS IT Solutions & Services, Inc., Billing and Collections Department, Including Workers Whose...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-26

    ... & Services, Inc., Billing and Collections Department, Including Workers Whose Unemployment Insurance (UI... Solutions & Services, Inc., Billing and Collections Department, Mason, Ohio. The workers are engaged in... of ATOS IT Solutions & Services, Inc., Billing and Collections Department, including workers whose...

  9. Frequency Based Real-time Pricing for Residential Prosumers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hambridge, Sarah Mabel

    stability in a free, competitive, market. Frequency based pricing is applied to secondary frequency control in this work, providing support at one to five minute time intervals. In Chapter 2, a frequency based pricing curve is designed as a preliminary study and the response of the prosumer is optimized for economic dispatch. In Chapter 3, a day-ahead schedule and real-time adjustment energy management framework is presented for the prosumer, creating a market structure similar to the existing energy market supervised by Independent System Operators (ISOs). Enabling technology, such as the solid state transformer (SST) is described for prosumer energy transactions, controlling power flow from the prosumer's energy cell to the grid or neighboring prosumer as an energy router. Experimental results are shown to demonstrate this capability. Additionally, the SST is capable of measuring the grid frequency. Lastly, a frequency based real-time hybrid electricity rate is presented in Chapter 4 and Chapter 5. Chapter 4 specializes in a single direction rate while Chapter 5 presents a bi-directional rate. A Time-of-use (TOU) rate is combined with the real-time frequency based price to lower energy bills for a residential prosumer with ESS, in agreement with the proposed day-ahead and real-time energy management framework. The cost to the ESS is also considered in this section. Linear programming and strategic rule based methods are utilized to find the lowest energy bill. As a result, prosumers can use ESS to balance the grid, reducing their bill as much per kWh as PV or DG under a TOU net-metering price scheme, while providing distributed frequency support to the grid authority. The variability of the frequency based rate is similar to variability in the stock market, which gives a sense of how prosumers will interact with variable prices in a system supported by The Energy Internet.

  10. Empirically Derived Strength of Residential Roof Structures for Solar Installations.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dwyer, Stephen F.; Sanchez, Alfred; Campos, Ivan A.; Gerstle, Walter H.

    2014-12-01

    Engineering certification for the installation of solar photovoltaic (PV) modules on wood roofs is often denied because existing wood roofs do not meet structural design codes. This work is intended to show that many roofs are actually sufficiently strong given the conservatism in codes, documented allowable strengths, roof structure system effects, and beam composite action produced by joist-sheathing interaction. This report provides results from a testing program to provide actual load carrying capacity of residential rooftops. The results reveal that the actual load carrying capacity of structural members and systems tested are significantly stronger than allowable loads provided by the International Residential Code (IRC 2009) and the national structural code found in Minimum Design Loads for Buildings and Other Structures (ASCE 7-10). Engineering analysis of residential rooftops typically ignores the system affects and beam composite action in determining rooftop stresses given a potential PV installation. This extreme conservatism combined with conservatism in codes and published allowable stress values for roof building materials (NDS 2012) lead to the perception that well built homes may not have adequate load bearing capacity to enable a rooftop PV installation. However, based on the test results presented in this report of residential rooftop structural systems, the actual load bearing capacity is several times higher than published values (NDS 2012).

  11. Chapter 17: Residential Behavior Protocol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stewart, James [Cadmus Group, Waltham, MA (United States); Todd, Annika [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Residential behavior-based (BB) programs use strategies grounded in the behavioral social sciences to influence household energy use. Strategies may include providing households with real-time or delayed feedback about their energy use; supplying energy-efficiency education and tips; rewarding households for reducing their energy use; comparing households to their peers; and establishing games, tournaments, and competitions. BB programs often target multiple energy end uses and encourage energy savings, demand savings, or both. Savings from BB programs are usually a small percentage of energy use, typically less than 5%.

  12. Employment impacts of energy conservation schemes in the residential sector. Calculation of direct and indirect employment effects using a dedicated input/output simulation approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeeninga, H.; Weber, C.; Maeenpaeae, I.; Rivero Garcia, F.; Wiltshire, V.; Wade, J.

    1999-10-01

    The relationship between investments in energy efficiency and employment is investigated. The employment effects of several energy conservation schemes implemented in the residential sector are determined by means of a dedicated input/output simulation approach. The employment effects of energy conservation schemes were determined for France, Germany, the Netherlands, Spain and the United Kingdom. Within the time frame of the project, it was not feasible to perform a comparable analysis for Greece, Ireland and Austria. For Finland, the employment effects of energy auditing schemes were investigated by means of a macro economic simulation model. The main driving force behind the positive employment effect of investment in energy efficiency in the residential sector is the fact that the energy sector has a rather low labour intensity. The resulting shift of expenditures from the energy sector to other sectors with higher labour intensity leads to increased employment. The main mechanisms that determine the net shift in employment resulting from investments in energy conservation are: 1. The employment effect related to the initial investment in energy efficiency; 2. The energy saving effect. Due to lower energy bill, a shift in expenditure pattern will occur from the labour extensive energy sector towards sectors with higher labour intensity, thus inducing a net positive effect on employment; 3. The effects of money transfers between sectors. For example, when the investment is subsidised by the government, money is transferred from the governmental sector to the residential sector; 4. Changes in the total government budget as a result of changes in total tax revenue and expenditures on unemployment benefits. Different financing methods for the investment in energy efficiency are analysed. The initial investment can be financed from the general household consumption budget, by means of a loan, using a subsidy or using private savings. The following input parameters

  13. TRANSFORMING THE LEGACY OF INDIAN RESIDENTIAL SCHOOLS IN CANADA INTO A PUBLIC ISSUE: A CRITICAL ANALYSIS OF MICHAEL BURAWOY’S PUBLIC SOCIOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petoukhov, Konstantin S.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The Canadian government designed Indian residential school (IRS system to assimilate Indigenous children into European settler society by dispossessing them of their cultures, languages and traditions. By severing the children’s ties to families and communities, and thus integrating them into Euro-Canadian society, the Crown sought to gain control of Indigenous lands (Miller, 2000. In the schools, which were run by church officials, many children died of neglect and diseases and often faced various other injustices perpetrated by staff, including physical, emotional, cultural, and sexual abuse. (Milloy, 1999. Although the last school was closed in 1996, IRS left behind a devastating legacy characterized by sexual and physical abuse in Indigenous communities, substance abuse, loss of Indigenous languages, over-representation of Indigenous people in correctional facilities, and others. Until recently, these were considered to be private issues. However, the growing body of evidence demonstrates that IRS were responsible for the negative impacts and the government and churches were compelled to recognize the damage done. This article explores Michael Burawoy’s (2005 four types of sociology (policy, critical, professional, and public and assesses the relative contributions of each type in the process of transforming “private troubles” of the IRS legacy into “public issues.” The main thesis of the article is that each type of sociology, with varying degrees of success, promotes the recognition of the injustices inflicted by IRS. The article concludes that Burawoy’s sociology possesses its strengths and weaknesses in identifying private troubles as public issues.Le gouvernement canadien a conçu des pensionnats autochtones (PA pour assimiler les enfants indigènes dans la société des colons européens en les dépossédant de leurs cultures, langues et traditions. En rompant les liens de l'enfant avec ses familles et communautés, et

  14. Residential energy use in Mexico: Structure, evolution, environmental impacts, and savings potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masera, O.; Friedmann, R.; deBuen, O.

    1993-05-01

    This article examines the characteristics of residential energy use in Mexico, its environmental impacts, and the savings potential of the major end-uses. The main options and barriers to increase the efficiency of energy use are discussed. The energy analysis is based on a disaggregation of residential energy use by end-uses. The dynamics of the evolution of the residential energy sector during the past 20 years are also addressed when the information is available. Major areas for research and for innovative decision-making are identified and prioritized.

  15. Particulate emissions from residential wood combustion: Final report: Norteast regional Biomass Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-01-01

    The objective of this study was to provide a resource document for the Northeastern states when pursuing the analysis of localized problems resulting from residential wood combustion. Specific tasks performed include assigning emission rates for total suspended particulates (TSP) and benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) from wood burning stoves, estimating the impact on ambient air quality from residential wood combustion and elucidating the policy options available to Northeastern states in their effort to limit any detrimental effects resulting from residential wood combustion. Ancillary tasks included providing a comprehensive review on the relevant health effects, indoor air pollution and toxic air pollutant studies. 77 refs., 11 figs., 25 tabs.

  16. H2NG (hydrogen-natural gas mixtures) effects on energy performances of a condensing micro-CHP (combined heat and power) for residential applications: An expeditious assessment of water condensation and experimental analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lo Basso, Gianluigi; Santoli, Livio de; Albo, Angelo; Nastasi, Benedetto

    2015-01-01

    In order to accomplish significant primary energy saving and GHG (greenhouse gas) emissions reduction, CHP (combined heat and power) technology can be adopted largely for industrial and civil sectors. Waiting for the cutting-edge appliances (i.e. Fuel Cell) wide deployment, ICEs (internal combustion engines) fuelled with an environmentally-friendly fuel, such as H 2 NG (hydrogen-natural gas mixtures) could represent the bridge technology towards the forthcoming pure hydrogen economy. This paper deals with the results of an experimental campaign carried out on a Single Cylinder ICE, fuelled with NG (natural gas) and H 2 NG @ 15% vol. In detail, energy performances were assessed at rated and partial loads. From data analysis, it emerged that the electrical efficiency increased up to 2.28%, at the expense of the heat recovery one, having added hydrogen. Additionally, due to the higher water content in exhaust gas when H 2 NG is burned, it was investigated on how heat recovery efficiency has been affected by condensing operating conditions. Finally, to estimate this benefit, an expeditious procedure was developed building three maps for H 2 NG blends condensing properties from 0% up to 30% vol. of H 2 . Their outputs provided the condensation efficiency value and the absolute gain of heat recovery one with varying exhaust gas temperatures and hydrogen fraction in the mixture. - Highlights: • H 2 NG mixture effects on a commercial technology μCHP for residential applications. • Experimental analysis and methodology for H 2 NG condensing properties assessment. • CO 2 specific emissions calculation accounting for electrical and thermal outputs. • Uncertainty analysis on the μCHP energy performances and methodology validation. • H 2 addition coupling a condensing heat exchanger enhance CHP First Law efficiency

  17. Tracking the Sun VIII. The Installed Price of Residential and Non-Residential Photovoltaic Systems in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbose, Galen L. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Darghouth, Naïm R. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Millstein, Dev [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Spears, Mike [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Wiser, Ryan H. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Buckley, Michael [Exeter Associates, Columbia, MD (United States); Widiss, Rebecca [Exeter Associates, Columbia, MD (United States); Grue, Nick [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-08-01

    Now in its eighth edition, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL)’s Tracking the Sun report series is dedicated to summarizing trends in the installed price of grid-connected solar photovoltaic (PV) systems in the United States. The present report focuses on residential and nonresidential systems installed through year-end 2014, with preliminary trends for the first half of 2015. As noted in the text box below, this year’s report incorporates a number of important changes and enhancements. Among those changes, this year's report focuses solely on residential and nonresidential PV systems; data on utility-scale PV are reported in LBNL’s companion Utility-Scale Solar report series. Installed pricing trends presented within this report derive primarily from project-level data reported to state agencies and utilities that administer PV incentive programs, solar renewable energy credit (SREC) registration systems, or interconnection processes. In total, data were collected for roughly 400,000 individual PV systems, representing 81% of all U.S. residential and non-residential PV capacity installed through 2014 and 62% of capacity installed in 2014, though a smaller subset of this data were used in analysis.

  18. Bill project on a new organisation of the electricity market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    A first text discusses the motivations of this bill project: to guarantee French supply security, to contribute to France economical competitiveness, to protect the environment, to give everybody access to energy, and to comply with the European energy market. It also comments the bill project content, the objectives aimed at through the different bill articles. These articles settle a regulated access to electricity and a regulatory frame for pricing, define provider responsibilities, deal with installation dismantling expenses. This presentation is followed by the bill text and by the report of an impact study of the implementation of a regulated access to electricity, of a capacity obligation, and of the evolution of regulated selling prices

  19. Soul / Randy Becker, Bill Evans, Evelin Samuel ; interv. Sven Sapelson

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Becker, Randy

    2007-01-01

    The Soulbop Bandi rajajad Randy Becker ja Bill Evans ning meie Evelin Samuel gospeli ja rhytmblues'i juurtega soulist. Lk. 72-73 Inessa Josingu ja Ande Kaalepi souliteemaline fotolavastusega ruumikujundus

  20. 47 CFR 76.985 - Subscriber bill itemization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...) The amount of the total bill assessed as a franchise fee and the identity of the franchising authority... imposed on the cable operator by the franchise agreement to support public, educational, or governmental...

  1. Marketer consolidated billing : realizing the value of customer relationships

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schiratti, A.

    2001-01-01

    This presentation focused on timely issues regarding marketer consolidated billing (MCB). MCB allows energy marketers to directly bill customers for both gas and electric commodities and distribution services. MCB is mandated by the Ontario Energy Board (OEB) in the electricity sector through the Retail Settlements Task Force and is proposed by the OEB in the Gas Distributor Access Rule. The main topics discussed in this paper were the new relationship under MCB, benefits for customers and challenges for marketers. The major obstacles for a successful MCB model were also proposed. The new MCB approach strengthens the relationship between the marketer and the customer. The MCB will allow both electricity and natural gas customers to choose marketers who bill for both delivery and gas on one bill

  2. Plümtoonia Bill - nagu orkester / Tiit Tuumalu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tuumalu, Tiit, 1971-

    2008-01-01

    19.-23. nov. toimuvast animafilmide festivalist "Animated Dreams". Pikemalt USA tuntuimast sõltumatust animaatorist Bill Plymtonist, kes näitab festivalil oma täispikka joonisfilmi "Idioodid ja inglid" ("Idiots and Angels")

  3. Geographic Distribution of Nonphysician Clinicians Who Independently Billed Medicare for Common Dermatologic Services in 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamson, Adewole S; Suarez, Elizabeth A; McDaniel, Philip; Leiphart, Paul A; Zeitany, Alana; Kirby, Joslyn S

    2018-01-01

    Nurse practitioners (NPs) and physician assistants (PAs) are nonphysician clinicians (NPCs) who can deliver dermatology services. Many of these services are provided independently. Little is known about the types of services provided or where NPCs provide independent care. To examine characteristics of dermatology care for Medicare enrollees billed independently by NPCs. Retrospective review of the 2014 Medicare Provider Utilization and Payment Data: Physician and Other Supplier Public Use File, which reflects fee-for-service payments to clinicians for services rendered to Medicare beneficiaries. Clinician location was matched with county-level demographic data from the American Community Survey, US Census Bureau. Clinicians identified using National Provider Identifier as NPs or PAs with at least 11 claims for common dermatology-associated Healthcare Common Procedure Coding System procedure codes were included. Total services provided by service type category, density of dermatologists and nondermatologists who perform dermatology-related services, and geographic location by county. Among the cohort of NPCs were 824 NPs (770 [93.5%] female) and 2083 PAs (1602 [76.9%] female) who independently billed Medicare $59 438 802 and $171 645 943, respectively. Dermatologists were affiliated with 2667 (92%) independently billing NPCs. Most payments were for non-evaluation and management services including destruction of premalignant lesions, biopsies, excisions of skin cancer, surgical repairs, flaps/grafts, and interpretation of pathologic analysis. Nurse practitioners and PAs billed for a similar distribution of service categories overall. A total of 2062 (70.9%) NPCs practiced in counties with dermatologist density of greater than 4 per 100 000 population. Only 3.0% (86) of independently billing NPCs practiced in counties without a dermatologist. Both dermatologists and NPCs were less likely to be in rural counties than in urban counties. Nonphysician

  4. Optimum residential load management strategy for real time pricing (RTP) demand response programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lujano-Rojas, Juan M.; Monteiro, Cláudio; Dufo-López, Rodolfo; Bernal-Agustín, José L.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents an optimal load management strategy for residential consumers that utilizes the communication infrastructure of the future smart grid. The strategy considers predictions of electricity prices, energy demand, renewable power production, and power-purchase of energy of the consumer in determining the optimal relationship between hourly electricity prices and the use of different household appliances and electric vehicles in a typical smart house. The proposed strategy is illustrated using two study cases corresponding to a house located in Zaragoza (Spain) for a typical day in summer. Results show that the proposed model allows users to control their diary energy consumption and adapt their electricity bills to their actual economical situation. - Highlights: ► This work shows an optimal load management strategy for residential consumers. ► It has been considered the communication infrastructure of the future smart grid. ► A study case shows the optimal utilization of some appliances and electric vehicles. ► Results showed that the proposed model allows users to reduce their electricity bill.

  5. Impact of natural gas prices on Saskatchewan residential consumers : A report prepared for SaskEnergy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-07-01

    Major trends in the natural gas industry, including deregulation and the impact of natural gas commodity competition on consumers, and SaskEnergy's current and historical residential rate structures were reviewed. The object of the exercise was to provide the Utility (i.e. SaskEnergy) with independent advice on the proposed changes to rate structures and billing practices for residential customers in Saskatchewan. It was concluded that SaskEnergy 's historical and current rate methodologies are consistent with generally accepted practices in the natural gas industry. The proposed changes to rate structures and billing practices to unbundle the gas commodity from delivery services is an important step in the evolution of competition in the supply of natural gas. Customers will not only have more choice in terms of supplier, they will be able to have a better understanding of both the impact of volatile commodity prices and any changes in the cost of delivery services on rates charged by SaskEnergy

  6. Residential ventilation standards scoping study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKone, Thomas E.; Sherman, Max H.

    2003-10-01

    The goals of this scoping study are to identify research needed to develop improved ventilation standards for California's Title 24 Building Energy Efficiency Standards. The 2008 Title 24 Standards are the primary target for the outcome of this research, but this scoping study is not limited to that timeframe. We prepared this scoping study to provide the California Energy Commission with broad and flexible options for developing a research plan to advance the standards. This document presents the findings of a scoping study commissioned by the Public Interest Energy Research (PIER) program of the California Energy Commission to determine what research is necessary to develop new residential ventilation requirements for California. This study is one of three companion efforts needed to complete the job of determining the ventilation needs of California residences, determining the bases for setting residential ventilation requirements, and determining appropriate ventilation technologies to meet these needs and requirements in an energy efficient manner. Rather than providing research results, this scoping study identifies important research questions along with the level of effort necessary to address these questions and the costs, risks, and benefits of pursuing alternative research questions. In approaching these questions and corresponding levels of effort, feasibility and timing were important considerations. The Commission has specified Summer 2005 as the latest date for completing this research in time to update the 2008 version of California's Energy Code (Title 24).

  7. Residential Electricity Consumption in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edyta Ropuszyńska-Surma

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Key factors influencing electricity consumption in the residential sector in Poland have been identified. A fixed-effects model was used, which includes time effects, and a set of covariates, based on the model developed by Houthakker et al. This model estimates electricity demand by using lagged values of the dependent variable along with current and lagged values of electricity prices, and other variables that affect electricity demand such as: population, economic growth, income per capita, price of related goods, etc. The model has been identified according to the research results of the authors and those obtained by Bentzen and Engsted. The set of covariates was extended to the lagged electricity price given by a tariff (taken from two years previous to the time of interest and heating degree days index, a very important factor in European Union countries, where the climate is temperate. The authors propose four models of residential electricity demand, for which a confidence interval of 95% has been assumed. Estimation was based on Polish quarterly data for the years 2003-2013. (original abstract

  8. Ambulatory care at the end of a billing period

    OpenAIRE

    Himmel, Konrad; Schneider, Udo

    2017-01-01

    The ambulatory physician payment system in the German Social Health Insurance (SHI) offers incentives to reduce practice activity at the end of a billing period. Most services within a period are reimbursed at full cost only up to a certain threshold. Furthermore, capitated payments make follow-up treatments within a billing period less profitable. Using claims data from Germany's largest sickness fund with about nine million members, we find a decrease of all services limited by a threshold ...

  9. Impact of the Balance Billing Ban on California Emergency Providers

    OpenAIRE

    Bing Pao; Myles Riner; Theodore C. Chan

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: The objective of this study was to examine reimbursement trends for emergency provider professional services following the balance billing ban in California.Methods: We conducted a blinded web-based survey to collect claims data from emergency providers and billing companies. Members of the California Chapter of the American College of Emergency Physicians (California ACEP) reimbursement committee were invited to participate in the survey. We used a convenience sample of claims ...

  10. Hackers ring up big phone bills for hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, E

    1992-11-02

    A big telephone bill--possibly in six figures--can be a painful way for a hospital to find out its phone system isn't secure. When unusually large long-distance bills start to show up, chances are a professional telephone hacker has broken in. According to experts, one in 15 businesses has been victimized by long-distance toll fraud, and loss estimates range from $900 million to $4 billion a year.

  11. Defense Authorization and Appropriations Bills: FY1970-FY2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-18

    authority were made available in: (1) the Agriculture, Rural Development , Food and Drug Administration, and Related Agencies Appropriations Act, 2010...appropriations bills for the entire U.S. government . This report is a research aid that lists the DOD authorization bills (Table 1) and...2) the Energy and Water Development and Related Agencies Appropriations Act, 2010; (3) the Department of Homeland Security Appropriations Act, 2010

  12. Residential instability: a perspective on system imbalance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appleby, Lawrence; Desai, Prakash

    1987-10-01

    In an exploration of residential instability and recidivism in chronic mental patients, 215 psychiatric admissions were followed for a year after the initial episode. In addition to an unusually high incidence of residential mobility, a relationship between mobility and number of hospitalizations was evident, as were isolation, disruptive family situations, and homelessness. The needed response of the mental health system is discussed.

  13. Credit Scores, Race, and Residential Sorting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Ashlyn Aiko

    2010-01-01

    Credit scores have a profound impact on home purchasing power and mortgage pricing, yet little is known about how credit scores influence households' residential location decisions. This study estimates the effects of credit scores on residential sorting behavior using a novel mortgage industry data set combining household demographic, credit, and…

  14. Does immigrant residential crowding reflect hidden homelessness?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Haan

    2011-12-01

    the extent to which heightened levels of residential crowding might reflect “hidden homelessness.” I find mixed evidence to support this link, and, if anything, find some evidence to suggest that the link between residential crowding and hidden homelessness, if one exists, is strongest for the Canadian-born.

  15. Roles of income, price and household size on residential electricity consumption: Comparison of Hawaii with similar climate zone states

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melek Yalcintas

    2017-11-01

    Linear regression analysis indicates that household size is an important variable in determining the residential electricity consumption in Oahu, however is not a determining factor in other islands. It was also observed that unlike Oahu, income and price alone are not good indicators of residential electricity consumption for the islands of Hawaii, Maui and Kauai.

  16. Impact of the balance billing ban on California emergency providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pao, Bing; Riner, Myles; Chan, Theodore C

    2014-07-01

    The objective of this study was to examine reimbursement trends for emergency provider professional services following the balance billing ban in California. We conducted a blinded web-based survey to collect claims data from emergency providers and billing companies. Members of the California Chapter of the American College of Emergency Physicians (California ACEP) reimbursement committee were invited to participate in the survey. We used a convenience sample of claims to determine payment rates before and after the balance billing ban. We examined a total of 55,243 claims to determine the percentage of charges paid before and after the balance billing ban took effect on October 15, 2008. The overall reduction in percentage of charges paid was 13% in the first year and 19% in the second year following the balance billing ban. The average percentage of charges paid by health plans decreased from 91% to 86% from 2008 to 2010. Payments by risk-bearing organizations decreased from 72% to 46% of charges during the same time frame. Payment rates by subcontracted risk-bearing organizations for non-contracted emergency department professional services declined significantly following the balanced billing ban whereas payment rates by health plans remained relatively stable.

  17. Impact of the Balance Billing Ban on California Emergency Providers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bing Pao

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The objective of this study was to examine reimbursement trends for emergency provider professional services following the balance billing ban in California. Methods: We conducted a blinded web-based survey to collect claims data from emergency providers and billing companies. Members of the California Chapter of the American College of Emergency Physicians (California ACEP reimbursement committee were invited to participate in the survey. We used a convenience sample of claims to determine payment rates before and after the balance billing ban. Results: We examined a total of 55,243 claims to determine the percentage of charges paid before and after the balance billing ban took effect on October 15, 2008. The overall reduction in percentage of charges paid was 13% in the first year and 19% in the second year following the balance billing ban. The average percentage of charges paid by health plans decreased from 91% to 86% from 2008 to 2010. Payments by risk-bearing organizations decreased from 72% to 46% of charges during the same time frame. Conclusion: Payment rates by subcontracted risk-bearing organizations for non-contracted emergency department professional services declined significantly following the balanced billing ban whereas payment rates by health plans remained relatively stable.

  18. Senate Republican leadership releases revised ACA repeal and replace bill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moore NS

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available No abstract available. Article truncated after first 150 words. Today, the Senate Republican leadership released a revised version of a bill to repeal and replace the Affordable Care Act (ACA. The new bill draft includes an amendment sponsored by Sen. Cruz (R-TX that permits insurers to offer health insurance plans on the ACA exchanges that do not cover the ACA’s 10 essential health benefits (EHB as long as they offer at least one other plan that provides full coverage of EHB’s. The bill also includes more funding for opioid addiction and for state initiatives to reduce insurance premiums and additionally, some flexibility for state Medicaid funding in the event of a public health crisis. The bill must still receive a cost estimate from the Congressional Budget Office (CBO, which will include the impact of the bill on insurance coverage levels, expected out Monday. The ATS remains deeply concerned about the bill because under the Cruz proposal, insurance coverage costs …

  19. Working towards residential Radon survey in South America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zielinski, Jan M.; University of Ottawa, ON; Canoba, Analia C.; Shilnikova, Natalia S.; Veiga, Lene H. S.

    2008-01-01

    Information about residential radon levels in low and middle income countries is very sparse. In response to the World Health Organization initiative in the International Radon Project, we propose a research project that will address this knowledge gap in South America by conducting a residential radon survey. Following initial in vitro and in vivo studies of radon and studies of uranium miners exposed to radon, over twenty large case-control studies of lung cancer risk from exposure to residential radon have been completed worldwide by year 2004. Recently pooled data from these individual studies have been analyzed. These collaborative analyses of the indoor studies in Europe, North America, and China provide strong direct evidence that radon is causing a substantial number of lung cancers in the general population. To reduce radon lung cancer risk, national authorities must have methods and tools based on solid scientific evidence to develop sound public health policies. We propose to conduct a survey in ten South American countries using the distribution and analysis of passive alpha tracking detectors in houses selected at random in pre-selected cities in each participating country. We also present an approach to estimate the cost of carrying out such a survey and the radon laboratory infrastructure needed. The results of the proposed survey will allow to conduct assessment of the exposure to residential radon in the populations of South American countries and to assess the health impact of this exposure. The results of the project will also help national health authorities in developing national residential radon action levels and regulations, as well as provide public health guidance for radon awareness and mitigation. (author)

  20. Community Design Parameters and the Performance of Residential Cogeneration Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hazem Rashed-Ali

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The integration of cogeneration systems in residential and mixed-use communities has the potential of reducing their energy demand and harmful emissions and can thus play asignificant role in increasing their environmental sustainability. This study investigated the impact of selected planning and architectural design parameters on the environmental and economic performances of centralized cogeneration systems integrated into residential communities in U.S.cold climates. Parameters investigated include: 1 density, 2 use mix, 3 street configuration, 4 housing typology, 5 envelope and building systems’ efficiencies, and 6 passive solar energyutilization. The study integrated several simulation tools into a procedure to assess the impact of each design parameter on the cogeneration system performance. This assessment procedure included: developing a base-line model representing typical design characteristics of U.S. residential communities; assessing the cogeneration system’s performance within this model using three performance indicators: percentage of reduction in primary energy use, percentage of reduction in CO2 emissions; and internal rate of return; assessing the impact of each parameter on the system performance through developing 46 design variations of the base-line model representing potential changes in each parameter and calculating the three indicators for each variation; and finally, using a multi-attribute decision analysis methodology to evaluate the relative impact of each parameter on the cogeneration system performance. The study results show that planning parameters had a higher impact on the cogeneration system performance than architectural ones. Also, a significant correlation was found between design characteristics identified as favorable for the cogeneration system performance and those of sustainable residential communities. These include high densities, high use mix, interconnected street networks, and mixing of

  1. Assessment of Residential History Generation Using a Public-Record Database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David C. Wheeler

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In studies of disease with potential environmental risk factors, residential location is often used as a surrogate for unknown environmental exposures or as a basis for assigning environmental exposures. These studies most typically use the residential location at the time of diagnosis due to ease of collection. However, previous residential locations may be more useful for risk analysis because of population mobility and disease latency. When residential histories have not been collected in a study, it may be possible to generate them through public-record databases. In this study, we evaluated the ability of a public-records database from LexisNexis to provide residential histories for subjects in a geographically diverse cohort study. We calculated 11 performance metrics comparing study-collected addresses and two address retrieval services from LexisNexis. We found 77% and 90% match rates for city and state and 72% and 87% detailed address match rates with the basic and enhanced services, respectively. The enhanced LexisNexis service covered 86% of the time at residential addresses recorded in the study. The mean match rate for detailed address matches varied spatially over states. The results suggest that public record databases can be useful for reconstructing residential histories for subjects in epidemiologic studies.

  2. Assessment of Alternative Scenarios for CO2 Reduction Potential in the Residential Building Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young-Sun Jeong

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The South Korean government announced its goals of reducing the country’s CO2 emissions by up to 30% below the business as usual (BAU projections by 2020 in 2009 and 37% below BAU projections by 2030 in 2015. This paper explores the potential energy savings and reduction in CO2 emissions offered by residential building energy efficiency policies and plans in South Korea. The current and future energy consumption and CO2 emissions in the residential building were estimated using an energy–environment model from 2010 to 2030. The business as usual scenario is based on the energy consumption characteristic of residential buildings using the trends related to socio-economic prospects and the number of dwellings. The alternative scenarios took into account energy efficiency for new residential buildings (scenario I, refurbishment of existing residential buildings (scenario II, use of highly efficient boilers (scenario III, and use of a solar thermal energy system (scenario IV. The results show that energy consumption in the residential building sector will increase by 33% between 2007 and 2030 in the BAU scenario. Maximum reduction in CO2 emissions in the residential building sector of South Korea was observed by 2030 in scenario I. In each alternative scenario analysis, CO2 emissions were 12.9% lower than in the business as usual scenario by the year 2030.

  3. Indoor Environment in Residential Prefabricated Buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraus, Michal; Juhásová Šenitková, Ingrid

    2017-10-01

    The contribution presents results of the experimental measurement of indoor air quality in residential prefabricated buildings. People spend about 90% of their life in the indoor environment of buildings. Hygrothermal parameters and indoor air quality are the essential component that define the quality of the indoor environment. The results of case study characterize the quality of the indoor environment of the ordinary occupants in housing unit of residential prefabricated building. A current problem of revitalized prefabricated buildings is inadequate air exchange and related thereto to poor indoor air quality. The experimental measurements were carried out just before and at the beginning of the heating season (from 1st October to 30th November 2016). Heating season was launched in the middle of experimental measurement. The wireless indoor sensor Elgato Eve Room was used for measurements. The obtained values of indoor air temperature [°C], relative humidity [%] and indoor air quality [ppm] are describe and analysis in this study. The results of the study indicate that the values of temperature and indoor air quality meet optimal levels during the experiment with nuances. The mean air temperature in the indoor environment is 22.43 °C. The temperature of the indoor environment is held at the optimum level (18-24 °C) for 94.50% time of the experimental measurements. In addition, the indoor air quality in the context of the content of harmful volatile organic compounds (VOCs) has been excellent for almost 91% time of the total experiment. However, the values of relative humidity were less than the optimum value nearly 40% of the total observed time. The mean 10-minutes values of relative humidity during the heating season is about 10% lower than the mean 10-minutes relative humidity before the heating season.

  4. How might residential PV change the energy demand curve in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jurasz Jakub

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Photovoltaics (PV in terms of installed capacity play a minor role in the portfolio of renewable energy sources (RES in Poland. However current market tendencies indicate that residential PV installations are gaining on popularity and may in future significantly contribute to covering national energy demand. This study investigates the potential impact of numerous residential PV installations on the shape and statistical properties of the polish energy demand curve. Analysis employed statistical data on mean household energy consumption in different districts, typical energy demand patterns and hourly values of irradiation for the year 2012. Obtained results indicate that there is a possibility to integrate in total as much as 300 000 residential PV installations (0.9 GW from which generated energy will be utilized by households within given district. Further analysis has shown that to some extent increasing number of residential PV decreases the value of energy demand coefficient of variation.

  5. Public submissions on the Uganda national biotechnology and biosafety bill, 2012 reveal consensus for Uganda legislators to pass the bill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clet Wandui Masiga

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety to the Convention on Biological Diversity is an internationally binding instrument addressing issues of biosafety. Biosafety refers to the need to protect human health and the environment from the possible adverse effects of the products of modern biotechnology. Accordingly all countries to the convention are required to put in place regulatory mechanisms to enhance the safety of biotechnology in the context of the Convention’s overall goal of reducing all potential threats to biological diversity, while taking into account the risks to human health. Therefore each country party to the convention has its own procedures to enact laws to guide the safe use of biotechnology. In Uganda the process involves the drafting of the bill by the first parliamentary counsel, approval by cabinet, first reading at the parliament, committal to the responsible parliamentary sessional committee, tabling of the bill for public hearing, consultations, and final approval. In Uganda, the Committee on Science and Technology is responsible for the Biosafety Bill. In March 2013, the Committee tabled the bill for public hearing and submissions from public institutions. There were comments supporting the passage of the Bill and comments in objection.The reasons for objection are mainly due to precaution, speculation, lack of knowledge about biotechnology and biosafety, and alleged influence from biosafety entrepreneurs. This article reviews these public views, revealing controversy and possible consensus to pass the bill.

  6. Small towns resisting urban decay through residential attractiveness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fertner, Christian; Groth, Niels Boje; Herslund, Lise Byskov

    2015-01-01

    composition, residential migration, social organisation and community engagement form and affect small town (1000–5000 inhabitants) development patterns in Denmark and specific place-based endowments. The study is carried out with mixed methods, comprising a quantitative analysis of development trends......Small towns are often considered as losing out in the current trend towards urban development. However, research from around Europe shows a great diversity of small town development, including successful development trajectories despite geographical disadvantages. Investigations...

  7. Psychological Indicators and Perceptions of Adolescents in Residential Care

    OpenAIRE

    Fernandes, Amanda Oliveira; Oliveira-Monteiro, Nancy Ramacciotti de

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The institutionalization of adolescents has been mentioned in the literature with positive and negative aspects. This study investigated 61 adolescents in residential care aiming to evaluate psychological problems and perceptions related to the care, using interviews and the YSR. Data was evaluated using quantitative and qualitative analysis, using gender, age and length of institutionalization as variables. Results indicated clinical scores for psychological problems, except for ext...

  8. Parametric Design Strategy Aiming at Environmentally Sustainable Residential Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Hanne Tine Ring; Knudstrup, Mary-Ann; Heiselberg, Per

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents the preliminary conclusions from a PhD study about methodical approaches to environmentally sustainable architecture. The presented results are from a local sensitivity analysis focused on the energy consumption of a typical residential reference building, when it is subjected...... to a parametric study of the impact of changes in input parameters relating to the design and the use of the building....

  9. Residential radon survey in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arvela, H.; Maekelaeinen, I.; Castren, O.

    1993-02-01

    The study measured the indoor radon concentration in the dwellings of 3074 persons, selected randomly from the central population register of Finland. Alpha track detectors and two consecutive half year measuring periods were used. The national mean of indoor radon concentration for persons living in low-rise residential buildings as well as blocks of flats was 145 and 82 Bq/m 3 , respectively. The mean for the total population was 123 Bq/m 3 . Based on the decision of the Ministry of Social Affairs and Health in 1992, the indoor radon concentration should not exceed 400 Bq/m 3 in already existing houses, the target for new construction being less than 200 Bq/m 3 . According to the study, the percentage of the Finnish population living in houses with an indoor radon concentration exceeding 200, 400 and 800 Bq/m 3 was 12.3 %, 3.6 % and 1.0 %

  10. Towards Cost and Comfort Based Hybrid Optimization for Residential Load Scheduling in a Smart Grid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadeem Javaid

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In a smart grid, several optimization techniques have been developed to schedule load in the residential area. Most of these techniques aim at minimizing the energy consumption cost and the comfort of electricity consumer. Conversely, maintaining a balance between two conflicting objectives: energy consumption cost and user comfort is still a challenging task. Therefore, in this paper, we aim to minimize the electricity cost and user discomfort while taking into account the peak energy consumption. In this regard, we implement and analyse the performance of a traditional dynamic programming (DP technique and two heuristic optimization techniques: genetic algorithm (GA and binary particle swarm optimization (BPSO for residential load management. Based on these techniques, we propose a hybrid scheme named GAPSO for residential load scheduling, so as to optimize the desired objective function. In order to alleviate the complexity of the problem, the multi dimensional knapsack is used to ensure that the load of electricity consumer will not escalate during peak hours. The proposed model is evaluated based on two pricing schemes: day-ahead and critical peak pricing for single and multiple days. Furthermore, feasible regions are calculated and analysed to develop a relationship between power consumption, electricity cost, and user discomfort. The simulation results are compared with GA, BPSO and DP, and validate that the proposed hybrid scheme reflects substantial savings in electricity bills with minimum user discomfort. Moreover, results also show a phenomenal reduction in peak power consumption.

  11. Energy Impacts of Envelope Tightening and Mechanical Ventilation for the U.S. Residential Sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Logue, J. M. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Sherman, M. H. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Walker, I. S. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Singer, B. C. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Effective residential envelope air sealing reduces infiltration and associated energy costs for thermal conditioning, yet often creates a need for mechanical ventilation to protect indoor air quality. This study estimated the potential energy savings of implementing airtightness improvements or absolute standards along with mechanical ventilation throughout the U.S. housing stock. We used a physics-based modeling framework to simulate the impact of envelope tightening, providing mechanical ventilation as needed. There are 113 million homes in the US. We calculated the change in energy demand for each home in a nationally representative sample of 50,000 virtual homes developed from the 2009 Residential Energy Consumption Survey. Ventilation was provided as required by 2010 and proposed 2013 versions of ASHRAE Standard 62.2. Ensuring that all current homes comply with 62.2-2010 would increase residential site energy demand by 0.07 quads (0.07 exajoules (EJ)) annually. Improving airtightness of all homes at current average retrofit performance levels would decrease demand by 0.7 quads (0.74 EJ) annually and upgrading all homes to be as airtight as the top 10% of similar homes would double the savings, leading to roughly $22 billion in annual savings in energy bills. We also analyzed the potential benefits of bringing the entire stock to airtightness specifications of IECC 2012, Canada's R2000, and Passive House standards.

  12. A model of residential energy end-use in Canada: Using conditional demand analysis to suggest policy options for community energy planners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newsham, Guy R.; Donnelly, Cara L.

    2013-01-01

    We applied conditional demand analysis (CDA) to estimate the average annual energy use of various electrical and natural gas appliances, and derived energy reductions associated with certain appliance upgrades and behaviours. The raw data came from 9773 Canadian households, and comprised annual electricity and natural gas use, and responses to >600 questions on dwelling and occupant characteristics, appliances, heating and cooling equipment, and associated behaviours. Replacing an old (>10 years) refrigerator with a new one was estimated to save 100 kW h/year; replacing an incandescent lamp with a CFL/LED lamp was estimated to save 20 kW h/year; and upgrading an old central heating system with a new one was estimated to save 2000 kW h/year. This latter effect was similar to that of reducing the number of walls exposed to the outside. Reducing the winter thermostat setpoint during occupied, waking hours was estimated to lower annual energy use by 200 kW h/°C-reduction, and lowering the thermostat setting overnight in winter relative to the setting during waking hours (night-time setback) was estimated to have a similar effect. This information may be used by policy-makers to optimize incentive programs, information campaigns, or other energy use change instruments. - Highlights: ► Conditional demand analysis (CDA) applied to data from 9773 Canadian households. ► Energy savings associated with certain appliance upgrades estimated. ► Energy savings associated with thermostat behaviours estimated. ► Policy-makers can use findings to optimize incentives and information campaigns

  13. Energetic, exergetic and economic analysis of an innovative Solar CombiSystem (SCS) producing thermal and electric energies: Application in residential and tertiary households

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hazami, Majdi; Mehdaoui, Farah; Naili, Nabiha; Noro, Marco; Lazzarin, Renato; Guizani, AmenAllah

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • The present work studies the potential of using innovative SCS in Tunisia. • In cold months the SCS provide about 50–75% of the total exergy provides. • The SCS produces between 70–150% of electric energy needs. • The SCS payback period (Pb) based on electric water heater was 10.2 years. • The SCS payback period (Pb) based on gas/gas town was about and 8.7 years. - Abstract: The endeavor of this paper is to study of the potential offered by the expenditure of an innovative Solar CombiSystem, SCS, used for the space heating load, the domestic hot water supply and the electric energy production. The investigation achieved in this work was based on an experimental and a simulation studies. A TRNSYS simulation program was achieved in order to evaluate the SCS monthly/annual thermal and electric performances. It was found that the proposed SCS covered between 20 and 45% of the SH energy needs by considering only solar energy. The result shows also that the SCS provided from 40 to 70% of the total DHW needs. It was also found that the SCS electric production ranged between 32 and 225 MJ/m 2 with a gain factor varying between 49 and 125%. An economic appraisal was also achieved to appraise the SCS feasibility. The results of the economic analysis show that the annual energy saved (ARE) and the payback period (Pb) based on electric water heater were respectively equal to 7618.3 kW h/year and 10.2 years. It was found that ARE and Pb based on gas/gas town were about 5825 m 3 and 8.7 years, respectively. The results of the economic analysis shows that the adoption of the SCS saves about 48% of electric energy and about 46% of gas/gas town kept back by the conventional system.

  14. 78 FR 70580 - Apria Healthcare LLC, Billing Department, Overland Park, Kansas; Notice of Negative Determination...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-26

    ... the supply of medical billing services. On September 5, 2013, the Department issued a negative... workers of Apria-Billing was based on the Department's findings that neither increased of billing services like or directly competitive with the medical billing services supplied by the subject workers, a shift...

  15. [Differences in factors associated with health checkup participation between persons with differing income levels. A cross-sectional analysis using residential taxation as a measure of household income].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsukishima, Eri; Takahashi, Kyoko; Yano, Koichi; Mori, Mitsuru

    2012-11-01

    Health insurers in Japan are required to provide health checkups specifically designed to detect signs of metabolic syndrome. Since National Health Insurance organizations have been increasing their numbers of low-income beneficiaries, this observational study was carried out to investigate the differences between persons with differing household income levels based on the factors associated with their participation in health checkups. The data source for this study was a database of scored answers in collected, unsigned questionnaires provided by the National Health Insurance of Sapporo City. The survey was conducted in 2009, approaching 3000 beneficiaries aged 40-74 years and sampling 4 groups divided by household income and participation in the 2008 health checkup. The survey included questions about demographics, awareness of the details of the health checkup, and knowledge of lifestyle-related diseases. Valid answers from 1656 respondents were analyzed using multiple logistic regression analysis. After analyzing the level of awareness of health checkup details among subjects and its association with checkup participation, knowledge of the locations where the checkups were held showed the highest adjusted odds ratios. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that the following factors were associated with participation in checkups in both lower- and higher-income groups: previous and regular participation in health checkups, willingness to attend the next checkup, and status of family or friends regarding checkup participation. In addition, that a substantial out-of-pocket cost for the checkup was not levied had a significant relationship with checkup attendance in lower-income beneficiaries, while personal obligation to undergo regular health checkups regardless of the busyness of their schedules was found to have a significant relationship in higher-income beneficiaries. In addition, logistic models that excluded factors of previous and future health

  16. Identifying Cost-Effective Residential Energy Efficiency Opportunities for the Kauai Island Utility Cooperative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Busche, S.; Hockett, S.

    2010-06-01

    This analysis is an update to the 2005 Energy Efficiency Potential Study completed by KEMA for the Kauai Island Utility Cooperative (KIUC) and identifies potential energy efficiency opportunities in the residential sector on Kauai (KEMA 2005). The Total Resource Cost (TRC) test is used to determine which of the energy efficiency measures analyzed in the KEMA report are cost effective for KIUC to include in a residential energy efficiency program. This report finds that there remains potential energy efficiency savings that could be cost-effectively incentivized through a utility residential demand-side management program on Kauai if implemented in such a way that the program costs per measure are consistent with the current residential program costs.

  17. Price impact on urban residential water demand: A dynamic panel data approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    ArbuéS, Fernando; BarberáN, Ramón; Villanúa, Inmaculada

    2004-11-01

    In this paper, we formulate and estimate a model of residential water demand with the aim of evaluating the potential of pricing policies as a mechanism for managing residential water. The proposed econometric model offers a new perspective on urban water demand analysis by combining microlevel data with a dynamic panel data estimation procedure. The empirical application suggests that residential users are more responsive to a lagged average price specification. Another result of the estimated model is that price is a moderately effective tool in reducing residential water demand within the present range of prices, with the estimated values for income elasticity and "elasticity of consumption with respect to family size" reinforcing this conclusion.

  18. Feeling of women regarding the use of the Billings Ovulation Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliane Vieira dos Santos

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available To know the feelings of women regarding the use of the Billings Ovulation Method as family planning. Methods: a qualitative study was carried out with eight women through a semi-structured interview and data were analyzed through the thematic analysis. Results: the results were organized into four main thematic categories: Use of the method and self-knowledge of the body; Insecurity as to the use of the method; Choice based on religious principles; and Complicity of the couple in the execution of the method. Conclusion: participants using the Billings Ovulation Method were satisfied and safe, and the participation of the partner was critical to the use of the method as natural family planning.

  19. In Sickness and in Debt: Do Mounting Medical Bills Predict Payday Loan Debt?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bickham, Trey; Lim, Younghee

    2015-01-01

    Cash-strapped families sometimes turn to small, short-term loans with exorbitant fees—payday loans—to cope with mounting medical bills. Given that about three-fourths of payday loan customers are repeat borrowers, consumer advocates and policymakers have increasingly raised voices of concern about the use of payday loans to finance various household expenses, including, among other things, medical bills. The present study hypothesized that increases in medical debt are associated with increases in payday loan debt among a sample of Chapter 7 bankruptcy filers. The results of a multivariate tobit regression analysis showed that medical debt was associated with increased payday loan debt, controlling for various types of debt and other socioeconomic variables. This article concludes with implications of the results for social work policy- and direct-practice.

  20. User Acceptance Model on E-Billing Adoption: A Study of Tax Payment by Government Agencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maulana Yusup

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The development of information technology is to create the paradigm shift in public services by government agencies, particularly in the payment of taxes. The purpose of this study is to determine the user's perception of e-billing in paying taxes. The study population were employees of the 17 companies in the textile and garment industry in Bandung, West Java and the sample was taken by simple random sampling with as many as 269 people involved from 17 industries in textile and garment units. Analysis of data was using Structural Equation Modelling (SEM. The results showed that there was a significant effect of perceived ease of use, subjective norm, perceived usefulness, facilitating condition of the attitude, toward the attitude and the intention to use. Thus, it is evidence that e-billing based services may be one way to improve service of government agencies to facilitate the payment of taxes.