WorldWideScience

Sample records for residential air infiltration

  1. Effects of climate change on residential infiltration and air pollution exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilacqua, Vito; Dawson, John; Breen, Michael; Singer, Sarany; Berg, Ashley

    2017-01-01

    Air exchange through infiltration is driven partly by indoor/outdoor temperature differences, and as climate change increases ambient temperatures, such differences could vary considerably even with small ambient temperature increments, altering patterns of exposures to both indoor and outdoor pollutants. We calculated changes in air fluxes through infiltration for prototypical detached homes in nine metropolitan areas in the United States (Atlanta, Boston, Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, Minneapolis, New York, Phoenix, and Seattle) from 1970-2000 to 2040-2070. The Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory model of infiltration was used in combination with climate data from eight regionally downscaled climate models from the North American Regional Climate Change Assessment Program. Averaged over all study locations, seasons, and climate models, air exchange through infiltration would decrease by ~5%. Localized increased infiltration is expected during the summer months, up to 20-30%. Seasonal and daily variability in infiltration are also expected to increase, particularly during the summer months. Diminished infiltration in future climate scenarios may be expected to increase exposure to indoor sources of air pollution, unless these ventilation reductions are otherwise compensated. Exposure to ambient air pollution, conversely, could be mitigated by lower infiltration, although peak exposure increases during summer months should be considered, as well as other mechanisms.

  2. Modeling the residential infiltration of outdoor PM(2.5) in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis and Air Pollution (MESA Air).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Ryan W; Adar, Sara D; Avol, Ed; Cohen, Martin; Curl, Cynthia L; Larson, Timothy; Liu, L-J Sally; Sheppard, Lianne; Kaufman, Joel D

    2012-06-01

    Epidemiologic studies of fine particulate matter [aerodynamic diameter ≤ 2.5 μm (PM(2.5))] typically use outdoor concentrations as exposure surrogates. Failure to account for variation in residential infiltration efficiencies (F(inf)) will affect epidemiologic study results. We aimed to develop models to predict F(inf) for > 6,000 homes in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis and Air Pollution (MESA Air), a prospective cohort study of PM(2.5) exposure, subclinical cardiovascular disease, and clinical outcomes. We collected 526 two-week, paired indoor-outdoor PM(2.5) filter samples from a subset of study homes. PM(2.5) elemental composition was measured by X-ray fluorescence, and F(inf) was estimated as the indoor/outdoor sulfur ratio. We regressed F(inf) on meteorologic variables and questionnaire-based predictors in season-specific models. Models were evaluated using the R² and root mean square error (RMSE) from a 10-fold cross-validation. The mean ± SD F(inf) across all communities and seasons was 0.62 ± 0.21, and community-specific means ranged from 0.47 ± 0.15 in Winston-Salem, North Carolina, to 0.82 ± 0.14 in New York, New York. F(inf) was generally greater during the warm (> 18°C) season. Central air conditioning (AC) use, frequency of AC use, and window opening frequency were the most important predictors during the warm season; outdoor temperature and forced-air heat were the best cold-season predictors. The models predicted 60% of the variance in 2-week F(inf), with an RMSE of 0.13. We developed intuitive models that can predict F(inf) using easily obtained variables. Using these models, MESA Air will be the first large epidemiologic study to incorporate variation in residential F(inf) into an exposure assessment.

  3. Assessment of infiltration heat recovery and its impact on energy consumption for residential buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solupe, Mikel; Krarti, Moncef

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Five steady-state air infiltration heat recovery or IHR models are described and compared. • IHR models are incorporated within whole-building simulation analysis tool. • IHR can reduce the thermal loads of residential buildings by 5–30%. - Abstract: Infiltration is a major contributor to the energy consumption of buildings, particularly in homes where it accounts for one-third of the heating and cooling loads. Traditionally, infiltration is calculated independent of the building envelope performance, however, it has been established that a thermal coupling exists between the infiltration and conduction heat transfer of the building envelope. This effect is known as infiltration heat recovery (IHR). Experiments have shown that infiltration heat recovery can typically reduce the infiltration thermal load by 10–20%. Currently, whole-building energy simulation tools do not account for the effect of infiltration heat recovery on heating and cooling loads. In this paper, five steady-state IHR models are described to account for the thermal interaction between infiltration air and building envelope components. In particular, inter-model and experimental comparisons are carried out to assess the prediction accuracy of five IHR models. In addition, the results from a series of sensitivity analyses are presented, including an evaluation of the predictions for heating energy use associated with four audited homes obtained from whole-building energy simulation analysis with implemented infiltration heat recovery models. Experimental comparison of the IHR models reveal that the predictions from all the five models are consistent and are within 2% when 1-D flow and heat transfer conditions are considered. When implementing IHR models to a whole-building simulation environment, a reduction of 5–30% in heating consumption is found for four audited residential homes

  4. Technical solutions for reducing indoor residential exposures to ultrafine particles from second-hand cigarette smoke infiltration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Afshari, Alireza; Ardkapan, Siamak Rahimi; Bergsøe, Niels Christian

    2011-01-01

    An emerging public issue in Denmark is passive smoking in residential environments where non-smokers are exposed to harmful smoke from their neighbours. There are various ways that smoke infiltrates one flat from another. The air infiltration rate between two flats in a multi-storey building...... in which smoke infiltrates from one flat to another and also to examine technical solutions for preventing or reducing infiltration of ultrafine particles from the source flat to the receiving flat. One of the technical solutions examined was sealing of the floor in the receiving flat. The study...

  5. 24 CFR 3280.505 - Air infiltration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Air infiltration. 3280.505 Section 3280.505 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR HOUSING-FEDERAL HOUSING COMMISSIONER, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT MANUFACTURED HOME...

  6. Investigation and modeling of the residential infiltration of fine particulate matter in Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Chunyu; Li, Na; Yang, Yibing; Li, Yunpu; Liu, Zhe; Wang, Qin; Zheng, Tongzhang; Civitarese, Anna; Xu, Dongqun

    2017-06-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate the residential infiltration factor (Finf) of fine particulate matter (PM 2.5 ) and to develop models to predict PM 2.5 Finf in Beijing. Eighty-eight paired indoor-outdoor PM 2.5 samples were collected by Teflon filters for seven consecutive days during both non-heating and heating seasons (from a total of 55 families between August, 2013 and February, 2014). The mass concentrations of PM 2.5 were measured by gravimetric method, and elemental concentrations of sulfur in filter deposits were determined by energy-dispersive x-ray fluorescence (ED-XRF) spectrometry. PM 2.5 Finf was estimated as the indoor/outdoor sulfur ratio. Multiple linear regression was used to construct Finf predicting models. The residential PM 2.5 Finf in non-heating season (0.70 ± 0.21, median = 0.78, n = 43) was significantly greater than in heating season (0.54 ± 0.18, median = 0.52, n = 45, p air conditioner use were the most important predictors during non-heating season, which could explain 57% variations across residences, while the outdoor temperature was the only predictor identified in heating season, which could explain 18% variations across residences. The substantial variations of PM 2.5 Finf between seasons and among residences found in this study highlight the importance of incorporating Finf into exposure assessment in epidemiological studies of air pollution and human health in Beijing. The Finf predicting models developed in this study hold promise for incorporating PM 2.5 Finf into large epidemiology studies, thereby reducing exposure misclassification. Failure to consider the differences between indoor and outdoor PM 2.5 may contribute to exposure misclassification in epidemiological studies estimating exposure from a central site measurement. This study was conducted in Beijing to investigate residential PM 2.5 infiltration factor and to develop a localized predictive model in both nonheating and heating seasons. High variations

  7. Probabilistic estimation of residential air exchange rates for population-based human exposure modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Residential air exchange rates (AERs) are a key determinant in the infiltration of ambient air pollution indoors. Population-based human exposure models using probabilistic approaches to estimate personal exposure to air pollutants have relied on input distributions from AER meas...

  8. Investigation of infiltration and indoor air quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-03-01

    A multitask study was performed in the State of New York to provide information for guiding home energy conservation programs while maintaining acceptable indoor air quality. During the study, the statistical distribution of radon concentrations inside 2,400 homes was determined. The relationships among radon levels, house characteristics, and sources were also investigated. The direct impact that two specific air infiltration reduction measures--caulking and weatherstripping of windows and doors, and installation of storm windows and storm doors--have on house air leakage was investigated in 60 homes. The effect of house age on the impact of weatherization was also evaluated. Indoor and outdoor measurements of NO 2 , CO, SO 2 , and respirable suspended particulates (RSP) were made for 400 homes to determine the effect of combustion sources on indoor air quality and to characterize the statistical distribution of the concentrations. Finally, the combustion source data were combined with the information on air infiltration reduction measures to estimate the potential impact of these measures on indoor air quality

  9. Clustering cities with similar fine particulate matter exposure characteristics based on residential infiltration and in-vehicle commuting factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baxter, Lisa K; Sacks, Jason D

    2014-02-01

    Epidemiological studies have observed between city heterogeneity in PM2.5-mortality risk estimates. These differences could potentially be due to the use of central-site monitors as a surrogate for exposure which do not account for an individual's activities or ambient pollutant infiltration to the indoor environment. Therefore, relying solely on central-site monitoring data introduces exposure error in the epidemiological analysis. The amount of exposure error produced by using the central-site monitoring data may differ by city. The objective of this analysis was to cluster cities with similar exposure distributions based on residential infiltration and in-vehicle commuting characteristics. Factors related to residential infiltration and commuting were developed from the American Housing Survey (AHS) from 2001 to 2005 for 94 Core-Based Statistical Areas (CBSAs). We conducted two separate cluster analyses using a k-means clustering algorithm to cluster CBSAs based on these factors. The first only included residential infiltration factors (i.e. percent of homes with central air conditioning (AC) mean year home was built, and mean home size) while the second incorporated both infiltration and commuting (i.e. mean in-vehicle commuting time and mean in-vehicle commuting distance) factors. Clustering on residential infiltration factors resulted in 5 clusters, with two having distinct exposure distributions. Cluster 1 consisted of cities with older, smaller homes with less central AC while homes in Cluster 2 cities were newer, larger, and more likely to have central AC. Including commuting factors resulted in 10 clusters. Clusters with shorter in-vehicle commuting times had shorter in-vehicle commuting distances. Cities with newer homes also tended to have longer commuting times and distances. This is the first study to employ cluster analysis to group cities based on exposure factors. Identifying cities with similar exposure distributions may help explain city

  10. Residential indoor air quality guideline : ozone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    Ozone (O 3 ) is a colourless gas that reacts rapidly on surfaces and with other constituents in the air. Sources of indoor O 3 include devices sold as home air cleaners, and some types of office equipment. Outdoor O 3 is also an important contributor to indoor levels of O 3 , depending on the air exchange rate with indoor environments. This residential indoor air quality guideline examined factors that affect the introduction, dispersion and removal of O 3 indoors. The health effects of prolonged exposure to O 3 were discussed, and studies conducted to evaluate the population health impacts of O 3 were reviewed. The studies demonstrated that there is a significant association between ambient O 3 and adverse health impacts. Exposure guidelines for residential indoor air quality were discussed. 14 refs.

  11. Flexible Residential Test Facility: Impact of Infiltration and Ventilation on Measured Cooling Season Energy and Moisture Levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parker, D.; Kono, J.; Vieira, R.; Fairey, P.; Sherwin, J.; Withers, C.; Hoak, D.; Beal, D.

    2014-05-01

    Air infiltration and ventilation in residential buildings is a very large part of the heating loads, but empirical data regarding the impact on space cooling has been lacking. Moreover, there has been little data on how building tightness might relate to building interior moisture levels in homes in a hot and humid climate. To address this need, BA-PIRC has conducted research to assess the moisture and cooling load impacts of airtightness and mechanical ventilation in two identical laboratory homes in the hot-humid climate over the cooling season.

  12. Flexible Residential Test Facility: Impact of Infiltration and Ventilation on Measured Cooling Season Energy and Moisture Levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parker, Danny S. [BA-PIRC/Florida Solar Energy Center, Cocoa, FL (United States); Cummings, Jamie E. [BA-PIRC/Florida Solar Energy Center, Cocoa, FL (United States); Vieira, Robin K. [BA-PIRC/Florida Solar Energy Center, Cocoa, FL (United States); Fairey, III, Phillip W. [BA-PIRC/Florida Solar Energy Center, Cocoa, FL (United States); Sherwin, John S. [BA-PIRC/Florida Solar Energy Center, Cocoa, FL (United States); Withers, Jr., Charles [BA-PIRC/Florida Solar Energy Center, Cocoa, FL (United States); Hoak, David [BA-PIRC/Florida Solar Energy Center, Cocoa, FL (United States); Beal, David [BA-PIRC/Florida Solar Energy Center, Cocoa, FL (United States)

    2016-09-01

    Air infiltration and ventilation in residential buildings is a very large part of the heating loads, but empirical data regarding the impact on space cooling has been lacking. Moreover, there has been little data on how building tightness might relate to building interior moisture levels in homes in a hot and humid climate. To address this need, BA-PIRC has conducted research to assess the moisture and cooling load impacts of airtightness and mechanical ventilation in two identical laboratory homes in the hot-humid climate over the cooling season.

  13. Probabilistic estimation of residential air exchange rates for ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Residential air exchange rates (AERs) are a key determinant in the infiltration of ambient air pollution indoors. Population-based human exposure models using probabilistic approaches to estimate personal exposure to air pollutants have relied on input distributions from AER measurements. An algorithm for probabilistically estimating AER was developed based on the Lawrence Berkley National Laboratory Infiltration model utilizing housing characteristics and meteorological data with adjustment for window opening behavior. The algorithm was evaluated by comparing modeled and measured AERs in four US cities (Los Angeles, CA; Detroit, MI; Elizabeth, NJ; and Houston, TX) inputting study-specific data. The impact on the modeled AER of using publically available housing data representative of the region for each city was also assessed. Finally, modeled AER based on region-specific inputs was compared with those estimated using literature-based distributions. While modeled AERs were similar in magnitude to the measured AER they were consistently lower for all cities except Houston. AERs estimated using region-specific inputs were lower than those using study-specific inputs due to differences in window opening probabilities. The algorithm produced more spatially and temporally variable AERs compared with literature-based distributions reflecting within- and between-city differences, helping reduce error in estimates of air pollutant exposure. Published in the Journal of

  14. Measured Air Distribution Effectiveness for Residential Mechanical Ventilation Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sherman, Max; Sherman, Max H.; Walker, Iain S.

    2008-05-01

    The purpose of ventilation is dilute or remove indoor contaminants that an occupant is exposed to. In a multi-zone environment such as a house, there will be different dilution rates and different source strengths in every zone. Most US homes have central HVAC systems, which tend to mix the air thus the indoor conditions between zones. Different types of ventilation systems will provide different amounts of exposure depending on the effectiveness of their air distribution systems and the location of sources and occupants. This paper will report on field measurements using a unique multi-tracer measurement system that has the capacity to measure not only the flow of outdoor air to each zone, but zone-to-zone transport. The paper will derive seven different metrics for the evaluation of air distribution. Measured data from two homes with different levels of natural infiltration will be used to evaluate these metrics for three different ASHRAE Standard 62.2 compliant ventilation systems. Such information can be used to determine the effectiveness of different systems so that appropriate adjustments can be made in residential ventilation standards such as ASHRAE Standard 62.2.

  15. An investigation of infiltration and indoor air quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-09-01

    A multitask study was performed in the State of New York to provide information for guiding home energy conservation programs while maintaining acceptable indoor air quality. During this study, the statistical distribution of radon concentrations inside 2400 homes was determined. The relationships among radon levels, house characteristics, and sources were also investigated. The direct impact that two specific air infiltration reduction measures -- caulking and weatherstripping of windows and doors, and installation of storm windows and storm doors -- have on house air leakage was investigated in 60 homes. The effect of house age on the impact of weatherization was also evaluated. Indoor and outdoor measurements of NO{sub 2}, CO, SO{sub 2}, and respirable suspended particulates (RSP) were made for 400 homes to determine the effect of combustion sources on indoor air quality and to characterize the statistical distribution of the concentrations. Finally, the combustion source data were combined with the information on air infiltration reduction measures to estimate the potential impact of these measures on indoor air quality. 87 tabs.

  16. Water infiltration in an aquifer recharge basin affected by temperature and air entrapment

    OpenAIRE

    Loizeau Sébastien; Rossier Yvan; Gaudet Jean-Paul; Refloch Aurore; Besnard Katia; Angulo-Jaramillo Rafael; Lassabatere Laurent

    2017-01-01

    Artificial basins are used to recharge groundwater and protect water pumping fields. In these basins, infiltration rates are monitored to detect any decrease in water infiltration in relation with clogging. However, miss-estimations of infiltration rate may result from neglecting the effects of water temperature change and air-entrapment. This study aims to investigate the effect of temperature and air entrapment on water infiltration at the basin scale by conducting successive infiltration c...

  17. Assessment of air pollution in residential areas of Kinondoni ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The quality of the ambient air at residential areas has been assessed for Kinondoni Municipality in Dar es Salaam City. Three air pollutants namely Nitrogen dioxide (NO2), suspended particulate matter (SPM), and particulate lead (Pb) were measured in Mikocheni, Kijitonyama, Sinza, and Manzese. Saltzman, filtrations, and ...

  18. Water infiltration in an aquifer recharge basin affected by temperature and air entrapment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loizeau Sébastien

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Artificial basins are used to recharge groundwater and protect water pumping fields. In these basins, infiltration rates are monitored to detect any decrease in water infiltration in relation with clogging. However, miss-estimations of infiltration rate may result from neglecting the effects of water temperature change and air-entrapment. This study aims to investigate the effect of temperature and air entrapment on water infiltration at the basin scale by conducting successive infiltration cycles in an experimental basin of 11869 m2 in a pumping field at Crepieux-Charmy (Lyon, France. A first experiment, conducted in summer 2011, showed a strong increase in infiltration rate; which was linked to a potential increase in ground water temperature or a potential dissolution of air entrapped at the beginning of the infiltration. A second experiment was conducted in summer, to inject cold water instead of warm water, and also revealed an increase in infiltration rate. This increase was linked to air dissolution in the soil. A final experiment was conducted in spring with no temperature contrast and no entrapped air (soil initially water-saturated, revealing a constant infiltration rate. Modeling and analysis of experiments revealed that air entrapment and cold water temperature in the soil could substantially reduce infiltration rate over the first infiltration cycles, with respective effects of similar magnitude. Clearly, both water temperature change and air entrapment must be considered for an accurate assessment of the infiltration rate in basins.

  19. Development of a solar-powered residential air conditioner

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    The initial objective of the program was the optimization (in terms of cost and performance) of a Rankine cycle mechanical refrigeration system which utilizes thermal energy from a flat solar collector for air conditioning residential buildings. However, feasibility investigations of the adsorption process revealed that a dessicant-type air conditioner offers many significant advantages. As a result, limited efforts were expended toward the optimization of such a system.

  20. Challenges in assessing air pollution from residential wood combustion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Helge Rørdam

    2016-01-01

    The paper highlights a number of important challenges in quantifying the impact of residential wood combustion on air quality. The fact that real life emissions are controlled by the behaviour of the users makes it a challenge to determine representative emission factors. Further, in respect...... to determination of particle emissions factors, there are inconsistences between countries due to different handling of condensable gases released from wood combustion. These and other challenges are discussed in the paper....

  1. A Non-linear Stochastic Model for an Office Building with Air Infiltration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thavlov, Anders; Madsen, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a non-linear heat dynamic model for a multi-room office building with air infiltration. Several linear and non-linear models, with and without air infiltration, are investigated and compared. The models are formulated using stochastic differential equations and the model param...... heat load reduction during peak load hours, control of indoor air temperature and for generating forecasts of power consumption from space heating....

  2. Impacts of Residential Biofuel Emissions on Air Quality and Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Y.; Unger, N.; Harper, K.; Storelvmo, T.

    2016-12-01

    The residential biofuel sector is defined as fuelwood, agricultural residues and dung used for household cooking and heating. Aerosol emissions from this human activity play an important role affecting local, regional and global air quality, climate and public health. However, there are only few studies available that evaluate the net impacts and large uncertainties persist. Here we use the Community Atmosphere Model version 5.3 (CAM v5.3) within the Community Earth System Model version 1.2.2, to quantify the impacts of cook-stove biofuel emissions on air quality and climate. The model incorporates a novel advanced treatment of black carbon (BC) effects on mixed-phase/ice clouds. We update the global anthropogenic emission inventory in CAM v5.3 to a state-of-the-art emission inventory from the Greenhouse Gas-Air Pollution Interactions and Synergies integrated assessment model. Global in-situ and aircraft campaign observations for BC and organic carbon are used to evaluate and validate the model performance. Sensitivity simulations are employed to assess the impacts of residential biofuel emissions on regional and global direct and indirect radiative forcings in the contemporary world. We focus the analyses on several key regions including India, China and Sub-Saharan Africa.

  3. Residential air-conditioner usage in China and efficiency standardization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Jianghong; Liu, Chaopeng; Li, Hongqi; Ouyang, Dong; Cheng, Jianhong; Wang, Yuanxia; You, Shaofang

    2017-01-01

    Determining the real energy consumption and usage pattern of a room air-conditioner (RAC) are important issues from the point of view of both RAC design and evaluation of its energy efficiency. An air-conditioner's running time is fundamental data for the calculation of SEER and APF values. Therefore, in 2010, a nationwide investigation of RAC usage was conducted and 400 selected air-conditioning-units were monitored for a full year to obtain data on their cooling and heating usage. Two running time curves (cooling and heating) were obtained for the air-conditioners as a function of outdoor air temperatures using statistical analysis. The results show that the 27–30 °C temperature range accounts for more than 52% of the cooling time. Conversely, the 0–8 °C temperature range is associated with more than 75% of the heating time. The research presented in this paper has significantly contributed to China's new variable-speed RAC efficiency standard (GB21455-2013). It also has far-reaching implications for both the air-conditioner industry and energy policy in China due to its different method of calculating energy efficiency. - Highlights: • A nationwide survey to realize China's residential air-conditions usage behaviors. • Air-conditioner running time-environment temperature curves are obtained. • The peak heating demand and peak cooling demand happen at 28 °C and 4 °C, respectively. • The temperature of 27 °C–30 °C accounts for over 52% refrigeration time. • The temperature of 0 °C–8 °C occupies more than 75% heating time.

  4. Development of a solar powered residential air conditioner (General optimization)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowen, D. J.

    1976-01-01

    A commercially available 3-ton residential Lithium Bromide (LiBr) absorption air conditioner was modified for use with lower temperature solar heated water. The modification included removal of components such as the generator, concentration control chamber, liquid trap, and separator; and the addition of a Chrysler designed generator, an off-the-shelf LiBr-solution pump. The design goal of the modified unit was to operate with water as the heat-transfer fluid at a target temperature of 85 C (185 F), 29.4 C (85 F) cooling water inlet, producing 10.5 kW (3 tons) of cooling. Tests were performed on the system before and after modification to provide comparative data. At elevated temperatures (96 C, 205 F), the test results show that Lithium Bromide was carried into the condenser due to the extremely violent boiling and degraded the evaporator performance.

  5. Secondary air systems for improved residential wood stove combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poirot, R.L.; Sanborn, C.R.

    1982-12-21

    Three wood burning stoves were modified by the addition of preheated secondary air systems to keep burn volatile gases given off during the initial stage of combustion. This report describes the modifications and the performance of the stoves after modification. Stoves tested during the year's study included a Jotul 118, a Garrison IV and a Hearthstone I. After modification, total particulate emissions decreased in the three stoves by 56%, 69% and 4%, respectively. Flue gas CO/sub 2/ (a by-product of combustion and an indicator of the completeness of combustion) increased by 15%, 15% and 17%, respectively. Temperatures in the secondary combustion zones increased by 17%, 50% and 6%. On the basis of these measurements, other internal temperatures and visual observations, we believe the modifications significantly increased the combustion efficiencies of the Jotul and the Garrison. No improvement was discerned in the Hearthstone's performance (possibly due to unrealistic burn rate compared to firebox size). The design concepts developed, refined and tested under this year's study should be readily applicable to the majority of residential wood stoves on the market.

  6. Improved Modeling of Residential Air Conditioners and Heat Pumps for Energy Calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cutler, D.; Winkler, J.; Kruis, N.; Christensen, C.; Brendemuehl, M.

    2013-01-01

    This report presents improved air conditioner and heat pump modeling methods in the context of whole-building simulation tools, with the goal of enabling more accurate evaluation of cost effective equipment upgrade opportunities and efficiency improvements in residential buildings.

  7. Price freezes, durables and residential electricity demand - Evidence from the Greater Buenos Aires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casarin, Ariel; Delfino, Maria Eugenia

    2010-09-15

    This paper examines the determinants of residential electricity demand in the Greater Buenos Aires between 1997 and 2006. During the second half of this period, residential tariffs remained nominally fixed, while an income boom boosted up the sales of durables. This study differs from previous works in that it explicitly considers the impact of the stock of air-conditioners on residential demand. The paper reports short- and long-run elasticities and examines the contribution of prices and durables to recent demand growth. Simulations illustrate the impact of prices and durables on future demand.

  8. Residential Pre-Cooling: Mechanical Cooling and Air-Side Economizers:

    OpenAIRE

    Turner, William J.N; Walker, Iain S.; Roux, Jordan

    2012-01-01

    This study used an advanced airflow, energy and humidity modeling tool to evaluate residential air-side economizers and mechanical pre-cooling strategies using the air conditioner, in all US DOE Climate Zones for a typical new home with ASHRAE Standard 62.2 compliant ventilation. A residential air-side economizer is a large supply fan used for night ventilation. Mechanical pre-cooling used the building air conditioner operating at lower than usual set before the peak demand period. The simula...

  9. Proposed residential indoor air quality guidelines for formaldehyde

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilbert, N.

    2005-07-01

    This paper proposed a set of revised residential indoor air quality guidelines for formaldehyde. In the earlier guidelines, target and action levels were set at 60 {mu}g/m{sup 3} and 120 {mu}g/. However, epidemiological studies on the effects of chronic formaldehyde exposure have consistently found respiratory and allergic effects at levels below 123 {mu}g/m{sup 3}. Formaldehyde levels in home have been associated with increased risk of atopy and have also been associated with the hospitalization of children. Summaries of various epidemiological studies were presented. A summary of critical effects and the derivation of the guidelines was provided. Based on clinical studies and animal experiments, the primary effects of acute exposure to formaldehyde are the irritation of the mucosa of the upper respiratory tract and the eyes. The no observable adverse effects level (NOAEL) and lowest observable adverse effects level (LOAEL) for this outcome are 615 and 1,230 {mu}g/m{sup 3}. It was noted that an association between low-level exposure to formaldehyde and the development of allergic sensitization and asthma is biologically plausible as it is consistent with observations in animals. It was concluded that short-term exposure to formaldehyde should be limited to 123{mu}g/m{sup 3}. It was recommended that long term exposure to formaldehyde be limited to 50 {mu}g/m{sup 3}. Although formaldehyde is carcinogenic to humans, the cancer risk associated with lifelong exposure at the recommended levels is estimated to be negligible. 73 refs., 9 tabs.

  10. Measuring Infiltration Rates in Homes as a Basis for Understanding Indoor Air Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerz, G. G.; Lamb, B. K.; Pressley, S. N.; O'Keeffe, P.; Fuchs, M.; Kirk, M.

    2015-12-01

    Infiltration rates, or the rate of air exchange, of houses are important to understand because ventilation can be a dominate factor in determining indoor air quality. There are chemicals that are emitted from surfaces or point sources inside the home which are harmful to humans; these chemicals come from various objects including furniture, cleaning supplies, building materials, gas stoves, and the surrounding environment. The use of proper ventilation to cycle cleaner outdoor air into the house can be crucial for maintaining healthy living conditions in the home. At the same time, there can also be outdoor pollutants which infiltrate the house and contribute to poor indoor air quality. In either case, it is important to determine infiltration rates as a function of outdoor weather conditions, the house structure properties and indoor heating and cooling systems. In this work, the objective is to measure ventilation rates using periodic releases of a tracer gas and measuring how quickly the tracer concentration decays. CO2 will be used as the tracer gas because it is inert and harmless at low levels. An Arduino timer is connected to a release valve which controls the release of 9.00 SLPM of CO2 into the uptake vent within the test home. CO2 will be released until there is at least a 200 to 300 ppm increase above ambient indoor levels. Computers with CO2 sensors and temperature/pressure sensors attached will be used to record data from different locations within the home which will continuously record data up to a week. The results from these periodic ventilation measurements will be analyzed with respect to outdoor wind and temperature conditions and house structure properties. The data will be used to evaluate an established indoor air quality model.

  11. Preliminary design package for residential heating/cooling system: Rankine air conditioner redesign

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    A summary of the preliminary redesign and development of a marketable single family heating and cooling system is presented. The interim design and schedule status of the residential (3-ton) redesign, problem areas and solutions, and the definition of plans for future design and development activities were discussed. The proposed system for a single-family residential heating and cooling system is a single-loop, solar-assisted, hydronic-to-warm-air heating subsystem with solar-assisted domestic water heating and a Rankine-driven expansion air-conditioning subsystem.

  12. Preliminary design package for residential heating/cooling system--Rankine air conditioner redesign

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-12-01

    This report contains a summary of the preliminary redesign and development of a marketable single-family heating and cooling system. The objectives discussed are the interim design and schedule status of the Residential (3-ton) redesign, problem areas and solutions, and the definition of plans for future design and development activities. The proposed system for a single-family residential heating and cooling system is a single-loop, solar-assisted, hydronic-to-warm-air heating subsystem with solar-assisted domestic water heating and a Rankine-driven expansion air-conditioning subsystem.

  13. Rational use of supply air in residential buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Dorthe Kragsig; Nielsen, Toke Rammer; Svendsen, Svend

    2009-01-01

    The ventilation rate influences the air quality by determining the intensity of pollution sources. This paper compared the intensity of the sensory pollution during occupied hours in an apartment ventilated by a constant air volume system and demand controlled ventilation systems controlled...... by occupancy. The systems supplied the same total volume of air daily. It was found that the supply air could be used more rationally by redistributing it according to occupancy compared to maintaining a constant ventilation rate during all hours....

  14. IEA Project on Indoor Air Quality Design and Control in Low Energy Residential Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rode, Carsten; Abadie, Marc; Qin, Menghao

    2016-01-01

    with heat recovery systems, one of the next focal points to limiting energy consumption for thermally conditioning the indoor environment will be to possibly reducing the ventilation rate, or to make it in a new way demand controlled. However, this must be done such that it has no have adverse effects...... on Indoor Air Quality (IAQ). Annex 68, Indoor Air Quality Design and Control in Low Energy Residential Buildings, is a project under IEA’s Energy Conservation in Buildings and Communities Program (EBC), which will endeavor to investigate how future residential buildings are able to have very high energy...... the hygrothermal parameters, the chemical conditions, ventilation and the wellbeing of occupants. A flagship outcome of the project is anticipated to be a guidebook on design and operation of ventilation in residential buildings to achieve high IAQ with smallest possible energy consumption....

  15. An International Project on Indoor Air Quality Design and Control in Low Energy Residential Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rode, Carsten; Abadie, Marc; Qin, Menghao

    2016-01-01

    focal points to limiting energy consumption for thermally conditioning the indoor environment will be to possibly reducing the ventilation rate, or making it in a new way demand controlled. However, this must be done such that it does not have adverse effects on indoor air quality (IAQ). Annex 68......, Indoor Air Quality Design and Control in Low Energy Residential Buildings, is a project under IEA’s Energy Conservation in Buildings and Communities Program (EBC), which will endeavor to investigate how future residential buildings are able to have very high energy performance whilst providing...... studies. A flagship outcome of the project will be a guidebook on design and operation of ventilation in residential buildings to achieve high IAQ with least possible energy consumption. The paper illustrates the working program of each of these activities....

  16. Development of a solar-powered residential air conditioner. Program review

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    Progress in the effort to develop a residential solar-powered air conditioning system is reported. The topics covered include the objectives, scope and status of the program. The results of state-of-art, design, and economic studies and component and system data are also presented.

  17. Improved Modeling of Residential Air Conditioners and Heat Pumps for Energy Calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cutler, D. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Winkler, J. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Kruis, N. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Christensen, C. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Brandemuehl, M. [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States)

    2013-01-01

    This report presents improved air conditioner and heat pump modeling methods in the context of whole-building simulation tools, with the goal of enabling more accurate evaluation of cost-effective equipment upgrade opportunities and efficiency improvements in residential buildings.

  18. Experimental evaluation of air distribution in mechanically ventilated residential rooms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tomasi, R.; Krajčík, M.; Simone, A.

    2013-01-01

    removal effectiveness (CRE) and local air change index was measured in order to characterize ventilation effectiveness in the occupied zone. Acceptable thermal comfort was found in most experiments; however, air temperature differences higher than 3 °C occurred when floor cooling was combined...

  19. Indoor air mycoflora of residential dwellings in Jos metropolis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The quality of air in the environment where one lives or works can have potential effects on human health. There are strong indications that in many parts of the world, our homes, schools and workplaces are heavily contaminated with air-borne molds and other biological contaminants. Objectives: This study ...

  20. Experimental analysis of an air-to-air heat recovery unit for balanced ventilation systems in residential buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez-Seara, Jose; Diz, Ruben; Uhia, Francisco J.; Dopazo, Alberto; Ferro, Jose M. [Area de Maquinas y Motores Termicos, E.T.S. de Ingenieros Industriales, University of Vigo, Campus Lagoas-Marcosende No. 9, 36310 Vigo (Spain)

    2011-01-15

    This paper deals with the experimental analysis of an air-to-air heat recovery unit equipped with a sensible polymer plate heat exchanger (PHE) for balanced ventilation systems in residential buildings. The PHE is arranged in parallel triangular ducts. An experimental facility was designed to reproduce the typical outdoor and exhaust air conditions with regard to temperature and humidity. The unit was tested under balanced operation conditions, as commonly used in practice. A set of tests was conducted under the reference operating conditions to evaluate the PHE performance. Afterwards, an experimental parametric analysis was conducted to investigate the influence of changing the operating conditions on the PHE performance. Experiments were carried out varying the inlet fresh air temperature, the exhaust air relative humidity and the air flow rate. The experimental results are shown and discussed in this paper. (author)

  1. Residential Central Air Conditioning and Heat Pump Installation – Workshop Outcomes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goetzler, William [Navigant Consulting, Burlington, MA (United States); Zogg, Robert [Navigant Consulting, Burlington, MA (United States); Young, Jim [Navigant Consulting, Burlington, MA (United States); Bargach, Youssef [Navigant Consulting, Burlington, MA (United States)

    2016-11-01

    DOE's Building Technologies Office works with researchers and industry partners to develop and deploy technologies that can substantially reduce energy consumption in residential and commercial buildings. This report aims to advance BTO’s energy savings, emissions reduction, and other program goals by identifying research and development (R&D), demonstration and deployment, and other non-regulatory initiatives for improving the design and installation of residential central air conditioners (CAC) and central heat pumps (CHP). Improving the adoption of CAC/CHP design and installation best practices has significant potential to reduce equipment costs, improve indoor air quality and comfort, improve system performance, and most importantly, reduce household energy consumption and costs for heating and cooling by addressing a variety of common installation issues.

  2. Effects of an ozone-generating air purifier on indoor secondary particles in three residential dwellings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbard, H F; Coleman, B K; Sarwar, G; Corsi, R L

    2005-12-01

    The use of indoor ozone generators as air purifiers has steadily increased over the past decade. Many ozone generators are marketed to consumers for their ability to eliminate odors and microbial agents and to improve health. In addition to the harmful effects of ozone, recent studies have shown that heterogeneous and homogeneous reactions between ozone and some unsaturated hydrocarbons can be an important source of indoor secondary pollutants, including free radicals, carbonyls, carboxylic acids, and fine particles. Experiments were conducted in one apartment and two detached single-family dwellings in Austin, TX, to assess the effects of an ozone generator on indoor secondary organic aerosol concentrations in actual residential settings. Ozone was generated using a commercial ozone generator marketed as an air purifier, and particle measurements were recorded before, during, and after the release of terpenes from a pine oil-based cleaning product. Particle number concentration, ozone concentration, and air exchange rate were measured during each experiment. Particle number and mass concentrations increased when both terpenes and ozone were present at elevated levels. Experimental results indicate that ozone generators in the presence of terpene sources facilitate the growth of indoor fine particles in residential indoor atmospheres. Human exposure to secondary organic particles can be reduced by minimizing the intentional release of ozone, particularly in the presence of terpene sources. Past studies have shown that ozone-initiated indoor chemistry can lead to elevated concentrations of fine particulate matter, but have generally been completed in controlled laboratory environments and office buildings. We explored the effects of an explicit ozone generator marketed as an air purifier on the formation of secondary organic aerosol mass in actual residential indoor settings. Results indicate significant increases in number and mass concentrations for particles

  3. Residential Air Pollution, Road Traffic, Greenness and Maternal Hypertension: Results from GINIplus and LISAplus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jendrossek, Mario; Standl, Marie; Koletzko, Sibylle; Lehmann, Irina; Bauer, Carl-Peter; Schikowski, Tamara; von Berg, Andrea; Berdel, Dietrich; Heinrich, Joachim; Markevych, Iana

    2017-07-01

    The public health burden of hypertension is high, but its relationship with long-term residential air pollution, road traffic, and greenness remains unclear. To investigate associations between residential air pollution, traffic, greenness, and hypertension among mothers. Information on doctor-diagnosed maternal hypertension was collected at the 15-year follow-up of two large population-based multicenter German birth cohorts-GINIplus and LISAplus (n=3063). Residential air pollution was modelled by land use regression models within the ESCAPE and universal kriging within the APMoSPHERE projects. Road traffic was defined as traffic load on major roads within a 100-m buffer around residences. Vegetation level ( ie , greenness) was defined as the mean Normalized Difference Vegetation Index in a 500-m buffer around residences and was assessed from Landsat 5 TM satellite images. All the exposure variables were averaged over three residential addresses during the last 10 years and categorized into tertiles or dichotomized. The individual associations between each of the exposure variables and hypertension were assessed using logistic regression analysis. No significant and consistent associations across different levels of adjustment were observed between the exposures of interest and hypertension. The only significant estimate was found with coarse particulate matter concentrations (OR 1.66, 95% CI 1.01 to 2.74; 3 rd vs 1 st tertile) among mothers residing in the Wesel area. No significant associations were observed with traffic load or greenness. This study does not provide evidence on detrimental effects of air pollution and road traffic or beneficial effects of greenness on hypertension among German adults.

  4. Towards a Residential Air-Conditioner Usage Model for Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Goldsworthy

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Realistic models of occupant behaviour in relation to air-conditioner (a/c use are fundamentally important for developing accurate building energy simulation tools. In Australia and elsewhere, such simulation tools are inextricably bound both in legislation and in the design of new technology, electricity infrastructure and regulatory schemes. An increasing number of studies in the literature confirm just how important occupants are in determining overall energy consumption, but obtaining the data on which to build behaviour models is a non-trivial task. Here data is presented on air-conditioner usage derived from three different types of case study analyses. These are: (i use of aggregate energy consumption data coupled with weather, demographic and building statistics across Australia to estimate key predictors of energy use at the aggregate level; (ii use of survey data to determine characteristic a/c switch on/off behaviours and usage frequencies; and (iii use of detailed household level sub-circuit monitoring from 140 households to determine a/c switch on/off probabilities and their dependence on different building and occupant parameters. These case studies are used to assess the difficulties associated with translation of different forms of individual, aggregate and survey based information into a/c behaviour simulation models. Finally a method of linking the data gathering methodologies with the model development is suggested. This method would combine whole-of-house “smart”-meter data measurements with linked targeted occupant surveying.

  5. Laboratory Evaluation of Air Flow Measurement Methods for Residential HVAC Returns for New Instrument Standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, Iain [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Stratton, Chris [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2015-08-01

    This project improved the accuracy of air flow measurements used in commissioning California heating and air conditioning systems in Title 24 (Building and Appliance Efficiency Standards), thereby improving system performance and efficiency of California residences. The research team at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory addressed the issue that typical tools used by contractors in the field to test air flows may not be accurate enough to measure return flows used in Title 24 applications. The team developed guidance on performance of current diagnostics as well as a draft test method for use in future evaluations. The study team prepared a draft test method through ASTM International to determine the uncertainty of air flow measurements at residential heating ventilation and air conditioning returns and other terminals. This test method, when finalized, can be used by the Energy Commission and other entities to specify required accuracy of measurement devices used to show compliance with standards.

  6. Indoor Air Quality and Ventilation in Residential Deep Energy Retrofits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Less, Brennan [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Walker, Iain [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Because airtightening is a significant part of Deep Energy Retrofits (DERs), concerns about ventilation and Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) have emerged. To investigate this, ventilation and IAQ were assessed in 17 non-smoking California Deep Energy Retrofit homes. Inspections and surveys were used to assess household activities and ventilation systems. Pollutant sampling performed in 12 homes included six-day passive samples of nitrogen dioxide (NO2), formaldehyde and air exchange rate (AER); time-resolved data loggers were used to measure particle counts. Half of the homes provided continuous mechanical ventilation. Despite these homes being twice as airtight (3.0 and 7.6 ACH50, respectively), their median AER was indistinguishable from naturally vented homes (0.36 versus 0.37 hr-1). Numerous problems were found with ventilation systems; however, pollutant levels did not reach levels of concern in most homes. Ambient NO2 standards were exceeded in some gas cooking homes that used legacy ranges with standing pilots, and in Passive House-style homes without range hoods exhausted to outside. Cooking exhaust systems were installed and used inconsistently. The majority of homes reported using low-emitting materials, and formaldehyde levels were approximately half those in conventional new CA homes (19.7 versus 36 μg/m3), with emissions rates nearly 40percent less (12.3 versus 20.6 μg/m2/hr.). Presence of air filtration systems led to lower indoor particle number concentrations (PN>0.5: 8.80E+06 PN/m3 versus 2.99E+06; PN>2.5: 5.46E+0.5 PN/m3 versus 2.59E+05). The results indicate that DERs can provide adequate ventilation and IAQ, and that DERs should prioritize source control, particle filtration and well-designed local exhaust systems, while still providing adequate continuous ventilation.

  7. The effect of an ion generator on indoor air quality in a residential room.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waring, M S; Siegel, J A

    2011-08-01

    Ion generators charge particles with a corona prior to their removal on collector plates or indoor surfaces and also emit ozone, which can react with terpenes to yield secondary organic aerosol, carbonyls, carboxylic acids, and free radicals. This study characterized the indoor air quality implications of operating an ion generator in a 27 m(3) residential room, with four different test room configurations. Two room configurations had carpet overlaying the original flooring of stained/sealed concrete, and for one configuration with and without carpet, a plug-in air freshener was used as a terpene source. Measurements included airborne sampling of particulate matter (0.015-20 μm), terpenes and C(1) -C(4) and C(6) -C(10) aldehydes, ozone concentrations, and air exchange rates. When the heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning system was not operating (room air exchange rate = ∼0.5/h), the use of the ion generator in the presence of the air freshener led to a net increase in ultrafine particles (ozone were observed regardless of air freshener presence, as well as increases in formaldehyde and nonanal, albeit within measurement uncertainty in some cases. Thus, it may be prudent to limit ion generator use indoors until evidence of safety can be ascertained. Portable ion generators are intended to clean the air of particles, but they may emit ozone as a byproduct of their operation, which has the potential to degrade indoor air quality. This study showed that under certain conditions in a residential room, the use of a portable ion generator can increase concentrations of ozone and, to a lesser degree, potentially aldehydes. Also, if operated in the presence of a plug-in air freshener that emits terpenes, its use can increase concentrations of secondary organic aerosol in the ultrafine size range. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  8. Effect of energy renovation on indoor air quality in multifamily residential buildings in Slovakia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Földváry, Veronika; Bekö, Gabriel; Langer, Sarka

    2017-01-01

    efficiency of these buildings rarely consider their impact on the indoor air quality (IAQ). The objective of the present study was to evaluate the impact of simple energy renovation on IAQ, air exchange rates (AER) and occupant satisfaction in Slovak residential buildings. Three pairs of identical naturally...... of nitrogen dioxide (NO2), formaldehyde and total and individual volatile organic compounds (VOC) were also measured. CO2 concentrations were significantly higher and AERs were lower in the renovated buildings. Formaldehyde concentrations increased after renovation and were positively correlated with CO2...

  9. Preventive Effect of Residential Green Space on Infantile Atopic Dermatitis Associated with Prenatal Air Pollution Exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ji-Young; Lamichhane, Dirga Kumar; Lee, Myeongjee; Ye, Shinhee; Kwon, Jung-Hyun; Park, Myung-Sook; Kim, Hwan-Cheol; Leem, Jong-Han; Hong, Yun-Chul; Kim, Yangho; Ha, Mina; Ha, Eunhee

    2018-01-09

    Few birth cohort studies have examined the role of traffic-related air pollution (TRAP) in the development of infantile atopic dermatitis (AD), but none have investigated the role of preventive factors such as green spaces. The aim of this study was to investigate whether exposure to nitrogen dioxide (NO₂) and particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter of Health study. Subjects were geocoded to their residential addresses and matched with air pollution data modeled using land-use regression. Information on infantile AD was obtained by using a questionnaire administered to the parents or guardians of the children. The association between infantile AD and exposure to NO₂ and PM 10 was determined using logistic regression models. We assessed the effects of residential green spaces using stratified analyses and by entering product terms into the logistic regression models. The risk of infantile AD significantly increased with an increase in air pollution exposure during the first trimester of pregnancy. The adjusted odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) were 1.219 (1.023-1.452) per 10 μg/m³ increase in PM 10 and 1.353 (1.027-1.782) per 10 ppb increase in NO₂. An increase in the green space within 200 m of residence was associated with a decreased risk of AD (OR = 0.996, 95% CI: 0.993-0.999). The stratified analysis of residential green space revealed stronger associations between infantile AD and PM 10 and NO₂ exposure during the first trimester in the areas in the lower tertiles of green space. This study indicated that exposure to TRAP during the first trimester of pregnancy is associated with infantile AD. Less residential green space may intensify the association between TRAP exposure and infantile AD.

  10. Residential exposure to traffic-related air pollution and survival after heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina-Ramón, Mercedes; Goldberg, Robert; Melly, Steven; Mittleman, Murray A; Schwartz, Joel

    2008-04-01

    Although patients with heart failure (HF) have been identified as particularly susceptible to the acute effects of air pollution, the effects of long-term exposure to air pollution on patients with this increasingly prevalent disease are largely unknown. This study was designed to examine the mortality risk associated with residential exposure to traffic-related air pollution among HF patients. A total of 1,389 patients hospitalized with acute HF in greater Worcester, Massachusetts, during 2000 were followed for survival through December 2005. We used daily traffic within 100 and 300 m of residence as well as the distance from residence to major roadways and to bus routes as proxies for residential exposure to traffic-related air pollution. We assessed mortality risks for each exposure variable using Cox proportional hazards models adjusted for prognostic factors. After the 5-year follow-up, only 334 (24%) subjects were still alive. An interquartile range increase in daily traffic within 100 m of home was associated with a mortality hazard ratio (HR) of 1.15 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.05-1.25], whereas for traffic within 300 m this association was 1.09 (95% CI, 1.01-1.19). The mortality risk decreased with increasing distance to bus routes (HR = 0.88; 95% CI, 0.81-0.96) and was larger for those living within 100 m of a major roadway or 50 m of a bus route (HR = 1.30; 95% CI, 1.13-1.49). Adjustment for area-based income and educational level slightly attenuated these associations. Residential exposure to traffic-related air pollution increases the mortality risk after hospitalization with acute HF. Reducing exposure to traffic-related emissions may improve the long-term prognosis of HF patients.

  11. Development of residential-conservation-survey methodology for the US Air Force. Interim report. Task two

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abrams, D. W.; Hartman, T. L.; Lau, A. S.

    1981-11-13

    A US Air Force (USAF) Residential Energy Conservation Methodology was developed to compare USAF needs and available data to the procedures of the Residential Conservation Service (RCS) program as developed for general use by utility companies serving civilian customers. Attention was given to the data implications related to group housing, climatic data requirements, life-cycle cost analysis, energy saving modifications beyond those covered by RCS, and methods for utilizing existing energy consumption data in approaching the USAF survey program. Detailed information and summaries are given on the five subtasks of the program. Energy conservation alternatives are listed and the basic analysis techniques to be used in evaluating their thermal performane are described. (MCW)

  12. Indoor air-quality measurements in energy-efficient residential buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berk, J.V.; Hollowell, C.D.; Pepper, J.H.; Young, R.

    1980-05-01

    The potential impact on indoor air quality of energy-conserving measures that reduce ventilation is being assessed in a field-monitoring program conducted by the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. Using a mobile laboratory, on-site monitoring of infiltration rate, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, nitric oxide, ozone, sulfur dioxide, formaldehyde, total aldehydes, and particulates was conducted in three houses designed to be energy-efficient. Preliminary results show that energy-conserving design features that reduce air-exchange rates compromise indoor air quality; specifically, indoor levels of several pollutants were found to exceed levels detected outdoors. Although the indoor levels of most pollutants are within limits established by present outdoor air-quality standards, considerable work remains to be accomplished before health-risk effects can be accurately assessed and broad-scale regulatory guidelines revised to comply with energy-conservation goals.

  13. Preventive Effect of Residential Green Space on Infantile Atopic Dermatitis Associated with Prenatal Air Pollution Exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji-Young Lee

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Few birth cohort studies have examined the role of traffic-related air pollution (TRAP in the development of infantile atopic dermatitis (AD, but none have investigated the role of preventive factors such as green spaces. The aim of this study was to investigate whether exposure to nitrogen dioxide (NO2 and particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter of <10 μm (PM10 during pregnancy is associated with increased risk of development of AD in 6-month-old children and also to examine how this association changes with residential green space. This study used prospective data from 659 participants of the Mothers and Children’s Environmental Health study. Subjects were geocoded to their residential addresses and matched with air pollution data modeled using land-use regression. Information on infantile AD was obtained by using a questionnaire administered to the parents or guardians of the children. The association between infantile AD and exposure to NO2 and PM10 was determined using logistic regression models. We assessed the effects of residential green spaces using stratified analyses and by entering product terms into the logistic regression models. The risk of infantile AD significantly increased with an increase in air pollution exposure during the first trimester of pregnancy. The adjusted odds ratio (OR and 95% confidence interval (CI were 1.219 (1.023–1.452 per 10 μg/m3 increase in PM10 and 1.353 (1.027–1.782 per 10 ppb increase in NO2. An increase in the green space within 200 m of residence was associated with a decreased risk of AD (OR = 0.996, 95% CI: 0.993–0.999. The stratified analysis of residential green space revealed stronger associations between infantile AD and PM10 and NO2 exposure during the first trimester in the areas in the lower tertiles of green space. This study indicated that exposure to TRAP during the first trimester of pregnancy is associated with infantile AD. Less residential green space may intensify

  14. Hollow core photonic bandgap fiber with microfluid-infiltrated air holes for slow-light propagation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Liyong; Liang, Jian; Yun, Maojin

    2012-10-01

    Slow light plays an important role in the fields of all-optical signal processing and integration photonics. It has shown many potential applications, such as realizing optical delay lines or buffers, enhancing linear and nonlinear light-matter interactions, as well as increasing the sensitivity of the interferometers and transducers. In this paper, hollow-core photonic bandgap fibers made from high index glasses are designed by infiltrating microfluid into the air-holes to tailor the fiber dispersion for slow-light propagation under low pulse distortion. In such a fiber made from Si material, group index ng~8 is obtained with a bandwidth up to 30 nm, where the group index fluctuation is restricted in ±10 % of the ng, while ng~6 is obtained with a bandwidth over 100 nm when the chalcogenide material is selected instead. Such a ±10 % criterion determines a regarded flatland region accordingly, and in this region the group velocity dispersion can be negligible. It is found that for the same fiber length the slow-light time delay in the photonic bandgap fiber is much larger as compared with that in the single mode fiber. This kind of photonic bandgap fiber may have many potential applications in short-distance fiber communications and delay lines.

  15. The effects of aircraft noise at Williams Air Force Base Auxiliary Field on residential property values

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morey, M.J.

    1990-11-01

    This report considers the environmental consequences of moving the flight training operations of the US Air Force's 82nd Flying Training Wing from the auxiliary airfield, Coolidge-Florence Municipal Airport (CFMA), to a more remote location in Pinal County, Arizona. It examines how actual noise from touch-and-go flights of T-37 aircraft and perceived (anticipated) noise affect the market value of residential property near CFMA. Noise, measured by a noise index, is correlated with market values through a regression analysis applied to a hedonic price model of the Coolidge-Florence housing market. Prices and characteristics of 42 residential properties sold in 1987 and 1988 were used to estimate a perceived noise effect. The report finds that the coefficient on the measure of perceived noise, based on the noise exposure forecast (NEF) index, is statistically insignificant, even though the sign and value are consistent with those estimated in other studies. It concludes that current flights do not have a significant effect on residential property values, partially because there is no housing near CFMA. This and larger studies indicate that flight operations at a new auxiliary airfield would not affect property values if runways were at least 12,000 feet away from housing. 12 refs., 2 tabs.

  16. Performance of residential air-conditioning systems with flow maldistribution in fin-and-tube evaporators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kærn, Martin Ryhl; Brix, Wiebke; Elmegaard, Brian

    2011-01-01

    Refrigerant and airflow maldistribution in fin-and-tube evaporators for residential air-conditioning was investigated with numerical modeling. Fin-and-tube heat exchangers usually have a pre-defined circuitry. However, the objective in this study was to perform a generic investigation of each...... in this paper. The maldistribution sources of interest were: inlet liquid/vapor phase distribution, feeder tube bending and airflow distribution. The results show that maldistribution reduced the cooling capacity and the coefficient of performance of the system. In particular, different phase distribution...

  17. More than clean air and tranquillity: Residential green is independently associated with decreasing mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vienneau, Danielle; de Hoogh, Kees; Faeh, David; Kaufmann, Marco; Wunderli, Jean Marc; Röösli, Martin

    2017-11-01

    Green space may improve health by enabling physical activity and recovery from stress or by decreased pollution levels. We investigated the association between residential green (greenness or green space) and mortality in adults using the Swiss National Cohort (SNC) by mutually considering air pollution and transportation noise exposure. To reflect residential green at the address level, two different metrics were derived: normalised difference vegetation index (NDVI) for greenness, and high resolution land use classification data to identify green spaces (LU-green). We used stratified Cox proportional hazard models (stratified by sex) to study the association between exposure and all natural cause mortality, respiratory and cardiovascular disease (CVD), including ischemic heart disease, stroke and hypertension related mortality. Models were adjusted for civil status, job position, education, neighbourhood socio-economic position (SEP), geographic region, area type, altitude, air pollution (PM 10 ), and transportation noise. From the nation-wide SNC, 4.2 million adults were included providing 7.8years of follow-up and respectively 363,553, 85,314 and 232,322 natural cause, respiratory and CVD deaths. Hazard ratios (and 95%-confidence intervals) for NDVI [and LU-green] per interquartile range within 500m of residence were highly comparable: 0.94 (0.93-0.95) [0.94 (0.93-0.95)] for natural causes; 0.92 (0.91-0.94) [0.92 (0.90-0.95)] for respiratory; and 0.95 (0.94-0.96) [0.96 (0.95-0.98)] for CVD mortality. Protective effects were stronger in younger individuals and in women and, for most outcomes, in urban (vs. rural) and in the highest (vs. lowest) SEP quartile. Estimates remained virtually unchanged after incremental adjustment for air pollution and transportation noise, and mediation by these environmental factors was found to be small. We found consistent evidence that residential green reduced the risk of mortality independently from other environmental

  18. LABORATORY EVALUATION OF AIR FLOW MEASUREMENT METHODS FOR RESIDENTIAL HVAC RETURNS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, Iain; Stratton, Chris

    2015-02-01

    This project improved the accuracy of air flow measurements used in commissioning California heating and air conditioning systems in Title 24 (Building and Appliance Efficiency Standards), thereby improving system performance and efficiency of California residences. The research team at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory addressed the issue that typical tools used by contractors in the field to test air flows may not be accurate enough to measure return flows used in Title 24 applications. The team developed guidance on performance of current diagnostics as well as a draft test method for use in future evaluations. The series of tests performed measured air flow using a range of techniques and devices. The measured air flows were compared to reference air flow measurements using inline air flow meters built into the test apparatus. The experimental results showed that some devices had reasonable results (typical errors of 5 percent or less) but others had much bigger errors (up to 25 percent). Because manufacturers’ accuracy estimates for their equipment do not include many of the sources of error found in actual field measurements (and replicated in the laboratory testing in this study) it is essential for a test method that could be used to determine the actual uncertainty in this specific application. The study team prepared a draft test method through ASTM International to determine the uncertainty of air flow measurements at residential heating ventilation and air conditioning returns and other terminals. This test method, when finalized, can be used by the Energy Commission and other entities to specify required accuracy of measurement devices used to show compliance with standards.

  19. Development of a solar-powered residential air conditioner: Economic analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    The results of investigations aimed at the development of cost models to be used in the economic assessment of Rankine-powered air conditioning systems for residential application are summarized. The rationale used in the development of the cost model was to: (1) collect cost data on complete systems and on the major equipment used in these systems; (2) reduce these data and establish relationships between cost and other engineering parameters such as weight, size, power level, etc; and (3) derive simple correlations from which cost-to-the-user can be calculated from performance requirements. The equipment considered in the survey included heat exchangers, fans, motors, and turbocompressors. This kind of hardware represents more than 2/3 of the total cost of conventional air conditioners.

  20. Prenatal exposure to residential air pollution and infant mental development: modulation by antioxidants and detoxification factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guxens, Mònica; Aguilera, Inmaculada; Ballester, Ferran; Estarlich, Marisa; Fernández-Somoano, Ana; Lertxundi, Aitana; Lertxundi, Nerea; Mendez, Michelle A; Tardón, Adonina; Vrijheid, Martine; Sunyer, Jordi

    2012-01-01

    Air pollution effects on children's neurodevelopment have recently been suggested to occur most likely through the oxidative stress pathway. We aimed to assess whether prenatal exposure to residential air pollution is associated with impaired infant mental development, and whether antioxidant/detoxification factors modulate this association. In the Spanish INfancia y Medio Ambiente (INMA; Environment and Childhood) Project, 2,644 pregnant women were recruited during their first trimester. Nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and benzene were measured with passive samplers covering the study areas. Land use regression models were developed for each pollutant to predict average outdoor air pollution levels for the entire pregnancy at each residential address. Maternal diet was obtained at first trimester through a validated food frequency questionnaire. Around 14 months, infant mental development was assessed using Bayley Scales of Infant Development. Among the 1,889 children included in the analysis, mean exposure during pregnancy was 29.0 μg/m3 for NO2 and 1.5 μg/m3 for benzene. Exposure to NO2 and benzene showed an inverse association with mental development, although not statistically significant, after adjusting for potential confounders [β (95% confidence interval) = -0.95 (-3.90, 1.89) and -1.57 (-3.69, 0.56), respectively, for a doubling of each compound]. Stronger inverse associations were estimated for both pollutants among infants whose mothers reported low intakes of fruits/vegetables during pregnancy [-4.13 (-7.06, -1.21) and -4.37 (-6.89, -1.86) for NO2 and benzene, respectively], with little evidence of associations in the high-intake group (interaction p-values of 0.073 and 0.047). Inverse associations were also stronger in non-breast-fed infants and infants with low maternal vitamin D, but effect estimates and interactions were not significant. Our findings suggest that prenatal exposure to residential air pollutants may adversely affect infant mental

  1. Indoor air pollutants in residential settings : respiratory health effects and remedial measures to minimize exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Small, B.M. [Small and Fleming Ltd., Georgetown, ON (Canada)

    2002-04-01

    The Ontario Lung Association's Movement for Clean Air Now (CAN DO) program focuses on educating the population about the possible adverse health effects of indoor air pollutants. The program is aimed at providing information on how to minimize exposure to pollutants in homes. This report presents an overview of the current understanding of, and recent developments in, specific indoor air quality issues and the extent to which they are know to present a risk to the respiratory health of the population, particularly the residential setting. Indoor air pollutants were assessed individually from a respiratory health perspective. The report describes the health problems associated with dampness, mould, bacteria, viruses, dust mites, cockroach antigen, animal dander, environmental tobacco smoke, products of combustion, products of emissions, radon, pesticides, and particulate matter. Each pollutant varies in nature, along with their potential respiratory effects, the degree of risk and the means of reducing exposure. Adverse respiratory health risks resulting from indoor pollutants can usually be reduced or eliminated by simple and practical measures such as eliminating dampness and water leakage, mould removal, sealing of soil gas entry points, cessation of smoking, and proper ventilation. the causal links between specific indoor pollutant exposures and specific adverse respiratory health symptoms was also examined. refs.

  2. Comparative economic assessment of the energy performance of air-conditioning within the Mexican residential sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Oropeza-Perez

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This work shows a sensitivity analysis of the economic impact of different energy performances of air-conditioning within the Mexican housing sector. For this purpose, a cooling-load calculator program in function of the indoor temperature is developed. The program also calculates the electricity consumption along with the expenditure with the different residential rates of the Mexican Federal Commission of Electricity (CFE, initials in Spanish set according to the season of the year and zone of the country. After the results onto the national-scale scenario are validated with the literature, a sensitivity analysis is carried out by changing three parameters that are considered as influential on the consumption and which can be considered as energy saving strategies. With these strategies, it is found that the indoor temperature decrease due to the use of a passive cooling system is the most important characteristic to take into account followed by the coefficient of performance (COP of the air-conditioning and the increase of the comfort temperature set-point, respectively. Thereby, an economic analysis is carried out, finding an annual saving up to 770 USD within a single air-conditioned dwelling having a payback period of 3 years for using a combination of passive cooling techniques and increasing the comfort temperature set-point; or a 2 years payback period if the air-conditioning is changed by a high-efficient equipment.

  3. Using a Ventilation Controller to Optimize Residential Passive Ventilation For Energy and Indoor Air Quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turner, William [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Walker, Iain [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2014-08-01

    One way to reduce the energy impact of providing residential ventilation is to use passive and hybrid systems. However, these passive and hybrid (sometimes called mixed-mode) systems must still meet chronic and acute health standards for ventilation. This study uses a computer simulation approach to examine the energy and indoor air quality (IAQ) implications of passive and hybrid ventilation systems, in 16 California climate zones. Both uncontrolled and flow controlled passive stacks are assessed. A new hybrid ventilation system is outlined that uses an intelligent ventilation controller to minimise energy use, while ensuring chronic and acute IAQ standards are met. ASHRAE Standard 62.2-2010 – the United States standard for residential ventilation - is used as the chronic standard, and exposure limits for PM2.5, formaldehyde and NO2 are used as the acute standards.The results show that controlled passive ventilation and hybrid ventilation can be used in homes to provide equivalent IAQ to continuous mechanical ventilation, for less use of energy.

  4. Analysis of flow maldistribution in fin-and-tube evaporators for residential air-conditioning systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kærn, Martin Ryhl

    validated and showed that a slip flow model need be used. A test case 8.8 kW residential air-conditioning system with R410A as refrigerant is chosen as baseline for the numerical investigations, and the simulations are performed at standard rating conditions from ANSI/AHRI Standard 210/240 (2008...... cases are standard tube circuitry designs and these results are thus tube circuitry specific. In addition, a novel method of compensating flow maldistribution is analyzed, i.e. the discontinuous liquid injection principle. The method is based upon the recently developed EcoFlowTM valve by Danfoss A...... profile across the A-coil evaporator was predicted by means of CFD simulation software STAR-CD 3.26 (2005) and applied in the numerical model. The main reason for the better face split evaporator performance at uniform conditions or when compensating, is that the superheated "weak" zones with low UA...

  5. Compensation of flow maldistribution in fin-and-tube evaporators for residential air-conditioning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kærn, Martin Ryhl; Brix, Wiebke; Elmegaard, Brian

    2011-01-01

    Compensation of flow maldistribution in multi-channel fin-and-tube evaporators for residential air-conditioning is investigated by numerical modeling. The considered sources of maldistribution are distribution of the liquid and vapor phases in the distributor and non-uniform airflow distribution....... Fin-and-tube heat exchangers usually have a predefined circuitry, however, the evaporator model is simplified to have straight tubes, in order to perform a generic investigation. The compensation of flow maldistribution is performed by control of the superheat in the individual channels. Furthermore......, the effect of combinations of individual maldistribution sources is investigated for different evaporator sizes and outdoor temperatures. It is shown that a decrease in cooling capacity and coefficient of performance by flow maldistribution can be compensated by the control of individual channel superheat...

  6. Exergy characteristics of a ceiling-type residential air conditioning system operating under different climatic conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozbek, Arif [Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Ceyhan Engineering Faculty, Cukurova University, Adana (Turkmenistan)

    2016-11-15

    In this study an energy and exergy analysis of a Ceiling-type residential air conditioning (CTRAC) system operating under different climatic conditions have been investigated for provinces within the different geographic regions of Turkey. Primarily, the hourly cooling load capacities of a sample building (Q{sub evap}) during the months of April, May, June, July, August and September were determined. The hourly total heat gain of the sample building was determined using the Hourly analysis program (HAP). The Coefficient of performance (COP), exergy efficiency (η) and exergy destruction (Ex{sub dest}) values for the whole system and for each component were obtained. The results showed that lower atmospheric temperature (T{sub atm}) influenced the performance of the system and each of its components.

  7. Air condensation thermo-pumps for residential and small commercial buildings; Les thermopompes a condensation par air dans le residentiel et le petit tertiaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carteret, P. [Societe Airwell, (France)

    1997-12-31

    The advantages of recent air conditioning systems in terms of temperature control, air quality, air renewal, humidity control, air distribution, acoustic comfort, flexibility, are reviewed and some aspects concerning the evolution of the market in France are discussed (steady growth of the AC residential market). The different types of air conditioning systems are presented (direct expansion with the split-system, and cool water system); the characteristics, advantages and investment/operation costs of split-system and multi-splits thermo-pumps and hot water / cooled water production central units are described

  8. Development of a solar-powered residential air conditioner: Screening analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    Screening analysis aimed at the definition of an optimum configuration of a Rankine cycle solar-powered air conditioner designed for residential application were conducted. Initial studies revealed that system performance and cost were extremely sensitive to condensing temperature and to the type of condenser used in the system. Consequently, the screening analyses were concerned with the generation of parametric design data for different condenser approaches; i. e., (1) an ambient air condenser, (2) a humidified ambient air condenser (3) an evaporative condenser, and (4) a water condenser (with a cooling tower). All systems feature a high performance turbocompressor and a single refrigerant (R-11) for the power and refrigeration loops. Data were obtained by computerized methods developed to permit system characterization over a broad range of operating and design conditions. The criteria used for comparison of the candidate system approaches were (1) overall system COP (refrigeration effect/solar heat input), (2) auxiliary electric power for fans and pumps, and (3) system installed cost or cost to the user.

  9. Emission Rates of Multiple Air Pollutants Generated from Chinese Residential Cooking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chen; Zhao, Yuejing; Zhao, Bin

    2018-02-06

    Household air pollution generated from cooking is severe, especially for Chinese-style cooking. We measured the emission rates of multiple air pollutants including fine particles (PM 2.5 ), ultrafine particles (UFPs), and volatile organic compounds (VOCs, including formaldehyde, benzene, and toluene) that were generated from typical Chinese cooking in a residential kitchen. The experiment was designed through five-factor and five-level orthogonal testing. The five key factors were cooking method, ingredient weight, type of meat, type of oil, and meat/vegetable ratio. The measured emission rates (mean value ± standard deviation) of PM 2.5 , UFPs, formaldehyde, total volatile organic compounds (TVOCs), benzene, and toluene were 2.056 ± 3.034 mg/min, 9.102 ± 6.909 × 10 12 #/min, 1.273 ± 0.736 mg/min, 1.349 ± 1.376 mg/min, 0.074 ± 0.039 mg/min, and 0.004 ± 0.004 mg/min. Cooking method was the most influencing factor for the emission rates of PM 2.5 , UFPs, formaldehyde, TVOCs, and benzene but not for toluene. Meanwhile, the emission rate of PM 2.5 was also significantly influenced by ingredient weight, type of meat, and meat/vegetable ratio. Exhausting the range hood decreased the emission rates by approximately 58%, with a corresponding air change rate of 21.38/h for the kitchen room.

  10. Experimental Assessment of residential split type air-conditioning systems using alternative refrigerants to R-22 at high ambient temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joudi, Khalid A.; Al-Amir, Qusay R.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • R290, R407C and R410A in residential split A/C units at high ambient. • 1 and 2 TR residential air conditioners with R22 alternatives at high ambient. • Residential split unit performance at ambients up to 55 °C with R22 alternatives. - Abstract: Steady state performance of residential air conditioning systems using R22 and alternatives R290, R407C, R410A, at high ambient temperatures, have been investigated experimentally. System performance parameters such as optimum refrigerant charge, coefficient of performance, cooling capacity, power consumption, pressure ratio, power per ton of refrigeration and TEWI environmental factor have been determined. All refrigerants were tested in the cooling mode operation under high ambient air temperatures, up to 55 °C, to determine their suitability. Two split type air conditioner of 1 and 2 TR capacities were used. A psychrometric test facility was constructed consisting of a conditioned cool compartment and an environmental duct serving the condenser. Air inside the conditioned compartment was maintained at 25 °C dry bulb and 19 °C wet bulb for all tests. In the environmental duct, the ambient air temperature was varied from 35 °C to 55 °C in 5 °C increments. The study showed that R290 is the better candidate to replace R22 under high ambient air temperatures. It has lower TEWI values and a better coefficient of performance than the other refrigerants tested. It is suitable as a drop-in refrigerant. R407C has the closest performance to R22, followed by R410A

  11. Respiratory hospitalizations of children and residential exposure to traffic air pollution in Jerusalem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nirel, Ronit; Schiff, Michal; Paltiel, Ora

    2015-01-01

    Although exposure to traffic-related air pollution has been reported to be associated with respiratory morbidity in children, this association has not been examined in Israel. Jerusalem is ranked among the leading Israeli cities in transport-related air pollution. This case-control study examined whether pediatric hospitalization for respiratory diseases in Jerusalem is related to residential exposure to traffic-related air pollution. Cases (n=4844) were Jerusalem residents aged 0-14 years hospitalized for respiratory illnesses between 2000 and 2006. These were compared to children admitted electively (n=2161) or urgently (n=3085) for non-respiratory conditions. Individual measures of exposure included distance from residence to nearest main road, the total length of main roads, traffic volume, and bus load within buffers of 50, 150, and 300m around each address. Cases were more likely to have any diesel buses passing within 50m of their home (adjusted odds ratios=1.16 and 1.10, 95% confidence intervals 1.04-1.30 and 1.01-1.20 for elective and emergency controls, respectively). Our findings indicated that older girls (5-14) and younger boys (0-4) had increased risks of respiratory hospitalization, albeit with generally widened confidence intervals due to small sample sizes. Our results add to the limited body of evidence regarding associations between diesel exhaust particles and respiratory morbidity. The findings also point to possible differential associations between traffic-related air pollution and pediatric hospitalization among boys and girls in different age groups. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  12. Progress towards Managing Residential Electricity Demand: Impacts of Standards and Labeling for Refrigerators and Air Conditioners in India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McNeil, Michael A.; Iyer, Maithili

    2009-05-30

    The development of Energy Efficiency Standards and Labeling (EES&L) began in earnest in India in 2001 with the Energy Conservation Act and the establishment of the Indian Bureau of Energy Efficiency (BEE). The first main residential appliance to be targeted was refrigerators, soon to be followed by room air conditioners. Both of these appliances are of critical importance to India's residential electricity demand. About 15percent of Indian households own a refrigerator, and sales total about 4 million per year, but are growing. At the same time, the Indian refrigerator market has seen a strong trend towards larger and more consumptive frost-free units. Room air conditioners in India have traditionally been sold to commercial sector customers, but an increasing number are going to the residential sector. Room air conditioner sales growth in India peaked in the last few years at 20percent per year. In this paper, we perform an engineering-based analysis using data specific to Indian appliances. We evaluate costs and benefits to residential and commercial sector consumers from increased equipment costs and utility bill savings. The analysis finds that, while the BEE scheme presents net benefits to consumers, there remain opportunities for efficiency improvement that would optimize consumer benefits, according to Life Cycle Cost analysis. Due to the large and growing market for refrigerators and air conditioners in India, we forecast large impacts from the standards and labeling program as scheduled. By 2030, this program, if fully implemented would reduce Indian residential electricity consumption by 55 TWh. Overall savings through 2030 totals 385 TWh. Finally, while efficiency levels have been set for several years for refrigerators, labels and MEPS for these products remain voluntary. We therefore consider the negative impact of this delay of implementation to energy and financial savings achievable by 2030.

  13. Differential effects of air conditioning type on residential endotoxin levels in a semi-arid climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, J D; Kruman, B A; Nelson, M C; Merrill, R M; Graul, R J; Hoybjerg, T G; Tuttle, S C; Myers, S J; Cook, R B; Weber, K S

    2017-09-01

    Residential endotoxin exposure is associated with protective and pathogenic health outcomes. Evaporative coolers, an energy-efficient type of air conditioner used in dry climates, are a potential source of indoor endotoxins; however, this association is largely unstudied. We collected settled dust biannually from four locations in homes with evaporative coolers (n=18) and central air conditioners (n=22) in Utah County, Utah (USA), during winter (Jan-Apr) and summer (Aug-Sept), 2014. Dust samples (n=281) were analyzed by the Limulus amebocyte lysate test. Housing factors were measured by survey, and indoor temperature and relative humidity measures were collected during both seasons. Endotoxin concentrations (EU/mg) were significantly higher in homes with evaporative coolers from mattress and bedroom floor samples during both seasons. Endotoxin surface loads (EU/m 2 ) were significantly higher in homes with evaporative coolers from mattress and bedroom floor samples during both seasons and in upholstered furniture during winter. For the nine significant season-by-location comparisons, EU/mg and EU/m 2 were approximately three to six times greater in homes using evaporative coolers. A plausible explanation for these findings is that evaporative coolers serve as a reservoir and distribution system for Gram-negative bacteria or their cell wall components in homes. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Investigating the Impact of Maternal Residential Mobility on Identifying Critical Windows of Susceptibility to Ambient Air Pollution During Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Joshua L; Son, Ji-Young; Pereira, Gavin; Leaderer, Brian P; Bell, Michelle L

    2017-10-19

    Identifying periods of increased vulnerability during pregnancy to air pollution with respect to the development of adverse birth outcomes can improve understanding of possible mechanisms of disease development and provide guidelines for protection of the child. Exposure to air pollution during pregnancy is typically based on the residence at delivery, potentially resulting in exposure misclassification and biasing the estimation of critical windows. In this work, we determine the impact of maternal residential mobility during pregnancy on defining weekly exposure to PM10 and the estimation of windows of susceptibility for term low birth weight utilizing birth cohort datasets from Connecticut (1988-2008) that include information on all residential addresses for each woman between conception and delivery. A simulation study is designed to investigate the impact of increasing levels of mobility on critical window identification. Increased PM10 exposure during pregnancy weeks 16-18 is associated with an increased probability of term low birth weight. Ignoring residential mobility when defining weekly exposure has only minor impact on the identification of critical windows for PM10 and term low birth weight in the data application and simulation study. Critical window identification is robust to exposure misclassification caused by ignoring residential mobility in these Connecticut birth cohorts. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Effect of Air Cleaning Technologies in Conjunction With the Use of Rotary Heat Exchangers in Residential Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Afshari, Alireza; Bergsøe, Niels Christian; Ekberg, Lars

    2013-01-01

    with rotary air-to-air heat exchangers. For this purpose, a mechanical filter with low pressure drop and a 4 cm thick activated carbon filter were selected for testing in a laboratory environment. The measurements included testing of the filters, separately and combined, in a ductwork to study the efficiency......This study is part of a research project concerning the possibilities of applying efficient air cleaning technologies using rotary heat exchanger in residential buildings. The purpose of this project was to identify and adapt new air-cleaning technologies for implementation in HVAC systems...... was approximately 5 Pascal at an airflow rate of 216 m3/h. The air velocity through the filter was 0.49 m/s. Furthermore, the removal efficiency of the combined filter for 6 chemical substances were examined using Hexane, Butanol, 2-Ethylhexanol, Heptane, 2-Heptanone and Acetaldehyde as sources for emission...

  16. Impact of Residential Mobility on Exposure Assessment in Longitudinal Air Pollution Studies: A Sensitivity Analysis within the ESCAPE Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Oudin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Exposure misclassification in longitudinal studies of air pollution exposure and health effects can occur due to residential mobility in a study population over followup. The aim of this study was to investigate to what extent residential mobility during followup can be expected to cause exposure misclassification in such studies, where exposure at the baseline address is used as the main exposure assessment. The addresses for each participant in a large population-based study (N>25,000 were obtained via national registers. We used a Land Use Regression model to estimate the NOx concentration for each participant's all addresses during the entire follow-up period (in average 14.6 years and calculated an average concentration during followup. The Land Use Regression model explained 83% of the variation in measured levels. In summary, the NOx concentration at the inclusion address was similar to the average concentration over followup with a correlation coefficient of 0.80, indicating that air pollution concentration at study inclusion address could be used as indicator of average air pollution concentrations over followup. The differences between an individual's inclusion and average follow-up mean concentration were small and seemed to be nondifferential with respect to a large range of factors and disease statuses, implying that bias due to residential mobility was small.

  17. The contribution of residential coal combustion to the air quality in Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei (BTH), China: A case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, X.; Li, G.; Junji, C.

    2017-12-01

    In the present study, a persistent heavy haze episode from 13 to 20 January 2014 in Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei (BTH) is simulated using the WRF-CHEM model to evaluate the contribution of residential coal combustion to the air quality. The residential coal used in BTH is replaced by the water-quenched semi-coke with much lower emission factors (EFs) in simulations. The EFs of OC for water-quenched semi-coke (0.12 g kg-1) is 2.42 times lower than that for residential coal used in Beijing-Tianjin (0.29 g kg-1) and 9.17 times in Hebei (1.1 g kg-1). The WRF-CHEM model reasonably well reproduces the spatial distributions and temporal variations of PM2.5 mass concentrations in BTH against the observations over monitoring sites and the temporal variations of aerosol species compared to the AMS measurements in Beijing. On average, the PM2.5 concentration is reduced by around 20 µg m-3 due to the residential coal replacement. Organic aerosols constitute about 62.3% of the PM2.5 reduction in BTH, much higher than the contribution from sulfate (7.0%), nitrate (3.1%), and ammonium (3.1%). In addition, the usage of water-quenched semi-coke in BTH also significantly reduces polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAHs) concentrations by 50-450 ng m-3 on average. Therefore, the usage of water-quenched semi-coke in BTH could considerably reduce the emissions of air pollutants and decrease the PM2.5 level, beneficial to improvement of the air quality in BTH.

  18. Residential heating contribution to level of air pollutants (PAHs, major, trace, and rare earth elements): a moss bag case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuković, Gordana; Aničić Urošević, Mira; Pergal, Miodrag; Janković, Milan; Goryainova, Zoya; Tomašević, Milica; Popović, Aleksandar

    2015-12-01

    In areas with moderate to continental climates, emissions from residential heating system lead to the winter air pollution peaks. The EU legislation requires only the monitoring of airborne concentrations of particulate matter, As, Cd, Hg, Ni, and B[a]P. Transition metals and rare earth elements (REEs) have also arisen questions about their detrimental health effects. In that sense, this study examined the level of extensive set of air pollutants: 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and 41 major elements, trace elements, and REEs using Sphagnum girgensohnii moss bag technique. During the winter of 2013/2014, the moss bags were exposed across Belgrade (Serbia) to study the influence of residential heating system to the overall air quality. The study was set as an extension to our previous survey during the summer, i.e., non-heating season. Markedly higher concentrations of all PAHs, Sb, Cu, V, Ni, and Zn were observed in the exposed moss in comparison to the initial values. The patterns of the moss REE concentrations normalized to North American Shale Composite and Post-Archean Australian Shales were identical across the study area but enhanced by anthropogenic activities. The results clearly demonstrate the seasonal variations in the moss enrichment of the air pollutants. Moreover, the results point out a need for monitoring of air quality during the whole year, and also of various pollutants, not only those regulated by the EU Directive.

  19. Indoor air quality environmental information handbook: Building system characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    This manual, the third in a series, focuses on residential building system characteristics and their effects on indoor air quality. The manual addresses: residential indoor air pollutants by source, indoor concentrations, health effects, source control and mitigation techniques, standards and guidelines; building system characteristics of air exchange, pollutant source strength, residence volume, site characteristics, structural design, construction, and operation, infiltration and ventilation system, building occupancy; and monitoring methods

  20. Studying the Infleunce of Burning Fireworks on Air Quality and Human Health in a Residential Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kota, S. H.; Garaga, R.

    2016-12-01

    India observes Diwali as the celebration of lights, which fully brightens the nation with its splendour, and amazes all with its happiness. To understand the impact of fireworks on air quality and human health, a ten-day short term study was conducted in one of the residential colleges in North-East India. The PM10 concentration during fireworks was 311µg/m3, which was 81% higher than a normal day. Additionally, ambient noise level measured during fireworks day was found to be 101 dB, which was 65% higher than a normal day's mean noise level. SO42-, NO3-, Cl-, F-, Na+, Ca2+, NH4+, K+, Zn, Fe, Cd, Co, Ni and Sr increased by 1.29, 0.51, 0.48, 1.08, 0.6, 0.54, 1.79, 1.43, 1.72, 0.34, 0.42, 0.82, 0.56, 0.17 times respectively, on fireworks compared to a normal day. Additionally, microorganisms decreased by 40% to the concentration of CFU/m3, on fireworks day. This implies that the fireworks burning inhibit the growth of microbial activity. The source apportionment studies carried out using principal component analysis revealed five factors related to fireworks, construction activities, biomass burning, vehicle emission and industries. The average number of patients in the hospital increased three folds, evidently signifying the negative impact of fireworks on human health. Patients suffering from cough, sneezing, headache and nasal congestion increased by 64, 69, 65 and 82%, respectively. This study stresses the importance of regulated and monitored practice of burning of fireworks in regions with high population density.

  1. Modeling global residential sector energy demand for heating and air conditioning in the context of climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isaac, Morna; Vuuren, Detlef P. van

    2009-01-01

    In this article, we assess the potential development of energy use for future residential heating and air conditioning in the context of climate change. In a reference scenario, global energy demand for heating is projected to increase until 2030 and then stabilize. In contrast, energy demand for air conditioning is projected to increase rapidly over the whole 2000-2100 period, mostly driven by income growth. The associated CO 2 emissions for both heating and cooling increase from 0.8 Gt C in 2000 to 2.2 Gt C in 2100, i.e. about 12% of total CO 2 emissions from energy use (the strongest increase occurs in Asia). The net effect of climate change on global energy use and emissions is relatively small as decreases in heating are compensated for by increases in cooling. However, impacts on heating and cooling individually are considerable in this scenario, with heating energy demand decreased by 34% worldwide by 2100 as a result of climate change, and air-conditioning energy demand increased by 72%. At the regional scale considerable impacts can be seen, particularly in South Asia, where energy demand for residential air conditioning could increase by around 50% due to climate change, compared with the situation without climate change

  2. Quantifying the impact of residential heating on the urban air quality in a typical European coal combustion region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junninen, Heikki; Mønster, Jacob; Rey, Maria; Cancelinha, Jose; Douglas, Kevin; Duane, Matthew; Forcina, Victtorio; Müller, Anne; Lagler, Fritz; Marelli, Luisa; Borowiak, Annette; Niedzialek, Joanna; Paradiz, Bostian; Mira-Salama, Daniel; Jimenez, Jose; Hansen, Ute; Astorga, Covadonga; Stanczyk, Krzysztof; Viana, Mar; Querol, Xavier; Duvall, Rachelle M; Norris, Gary A; Tsakovski, Stefan; Wåhlin, Peter; Horák, Jiri; Larsen, Bo R

    2009-10-15

    The present investigation, carried out as a case study in a typical major city situated in a European coal combustion region (Krakow, Poland), aims at quantifying the impact on the urban air quality of residential heating by coal combustion in comparison with other potential pollution sources such as power plants, industry, and traffic. Emissions were measured for 20 major sources, including small stoves and boilers, and the particulate matter (PM) was analyzed for 52 individual compounds together with outdoor and indoor PM10 collected during typical winter pollution episodes. The data were analyzed using chemical mass balance modeling (CMB) and constrained positive matrix factorization (CMF) yielding source apportionments for PM10, B(a)P, and other regulated air pollutants namely Cd, Ni, As, and Pb. The results are potentially very useful for planning abatement strategies in all areas of the world, where coal combustion in small appliances is significant. During the studied pollution episodes in Krakow, European air quality limits were exceeded with up to a factor 8 for PM10 and up to a factor 200 for B(a)P. The levels of these air pollutants were accompanied by high concentrations of azaarenes, known markers for inefficient coal combustion. The major culprit for the extreme pollution levels was demonstrated to be residential heating by coal combustion in small stoves and boilers (>50% for PM10 and >90% B(a)P), whereas road transport (industrial emission of the precursors SO2 and NOx.

  3. Indoor air quality in mechanically ventilated residential dwellings/low-rise buildings: A review of existing information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aganovic, Amar; Hamon, Mathieu; Kolarik, Jakub

    Mechanical ventilation has become a mandatory requirement in multiple European standards addressing indoor air quality (IAQ) and ventilation in residential dwellings (single family houses and low-rise apartment buildings). This article presents the state of the art study through a review...... of the existing literature, to establish a link between ventilation rate and key indoor air pollutants. Design characteristics of a mechanical ventilation system such as supply/exhaustairflow, system and design of supply and exhaust outlets were considered. The performance of various ventilation solutionswas......-house ventilation rate was reported below 0.5h-1 or 14 l/s·person in bedrooms, the concentrations of the pollutants elevated above minimum threshold limits (CO2>1350 ppm; TVOC >3000 μg/m3) defined by the standard. Insufficient or non-existent supply of air was related to significantly higher pollutant...

  4. Comparison of adsorption systems using natural gas fired fuel cell as heat source, for residential air conditioning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clausse, M.; Meunier, F. [LGP2ES, Cnam-IFFI (EA21), case 331, 292 rue Saint-Martin, 75141 Paris Cedex 03 (France); Coulie, J.; Herail, E. [N-GHY, Site Industriel Saint Antoine, ZI Montplaisir, 51 rue Isaac Newton, 81000 Albi (France)

    2009-06-15

    This article aims to evaluate the performances of an adsorption system driven thanks to the heat rejected by the post-combustion exhaust gases of a reformer/fuel cell system for residential air-conditioning application. Three adsorption pairs were compared: activated carbon/methanol, silica gel/water and zeolite/water. Taking into account both cooling power and sensitivity to performances of the heat rejection and recovery exchangers, it appears that zeolite 13X/water is the adsorption pair giving the best performance for this application. Nevertheless, a more detailed model would be of interest to better quantify the heat transfer impact on performance. (author)

  5. Energy Savings Potential and Research, Development, & Demonstration Opportunities for Residential Building Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goetzler, William [Navigant Consulting, Inc., Burlington, MA (United States); Zogg, Robert [Navigant Consulting, Inc., Burlington, MA (United States); Young, Jim [Navigant Consulting, Inc., Burlington, MA (United States); Schmidt, Justin [Navigant Consulting, Inc., Burlington, MA (United States)

    2012-10-01

    This report is an assessment of 135 different heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) technologies for U.S. residential buildings to identify and provide analysis on 19 priority technology options in various stages of development. The analyses include an estimation of technical energy-savings potential, descriptions of technical maturity, descriptions of non-energy benefits, descriptions of current barriers for market adoption, and descriptions of the technology's applicability to different building or HVAC equipment types. From these technology descriptions, are suggestions for potential research, development and demonstration (RD&D) initiatives that would support further development of the priority technology options.

  6. Effect of air infiltration in the reactor refrigerant on the radiation measurement systems of gaseous effluents treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zorrilla, S.; Padilla, I.

    1991-01-01

    The system of treatment of gassy effluents of the CLV, well-known as the off-gas this gifted one in turn of a mensuration system and registration (monitoring) that consists of diverse established radiation monitors in the discharge point to the atmosphere and in other intermediate points of the process. The purpose of the monitoring system is to maintain continually informed to the operators about the effectiveness of the treatment system, to take registrations of the total quantity of liberated radioactive materials and to give warning by means of an alarm system of any abnormal situation that could end in an approach to the limits marked by the technical specifications. In September 1989 an event happened in the one that the high alarms corresponding to the post-treatment of the off-gas were activated. For this situation the personnel proceeded to diminish the power of the reactor to be able to investigate the causes that gave place to the event. It was observed that the alarms of the monitor were activated by significant infiltrations of air in the primary circuit of the refrigerant, for what it was proceeded to enlarge the scales of the implied monitor or to reduce the sensibility of their readings

  7. Optimal replacement of residential air conditioning equipment to minimize energy, greenhouse gas emissions, and consumer cost in the US

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Kleine, Robert D.; Keoleian, Gregory A.; Kelly, Jarod C.

    2011-01-01

    A life cycle optimization of the replacement of residential central air conditioners (CACs) was conducted in order to identify replacement schedules that minimized three separate objectives: life cycle energy consumption, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, and consumer cost. The analysis was conducted for the time period of 1985-2025 for Ann Arbor, MI and San Antonio, TX. Using annual sales-weighted efficiencies of residential CAC equipment, the tradeoff between potential operational savings and the burdens of producing new, more efficient equipment was evaluated. The optimal replacement schedule for each objective was identified for each location and service scenario. In general, minimizing energy consumption required frequent replacement (4-12 replacements), minimizing GHG required fewer replacements (2-5 replacements), and minimizing cost required the fewest replacements (1-3 replacements) over the time horizon. Scenario analysis of different federal efficiency standards, regional standards, and Energy Star purchases were conducted to quantify each policy's impact. For example, a 16 SEER regional standard in Texas was shown to either reduce primary energy consumption 13%, GHGs emissions by 11%, or cost by 6-7% when performing optimal replacement of CACs from 2005 or before. The results also indicate that proper servicing should be a higher priority than optimal replacement to minimize environmental burdens. - Highlights: → Optimal replacement schedules for residential central air conditioners were found. → Minimizing energy required more frequent replacement than minimizing consumer cost. → Significant variation in optimal replacement was observed for Michigan and Texas. → Rebates for altering replacement patterns are not cost effective for GHG abatement. → Maintenance levels were significant in determining the energy and GHG impacts.

  8. Towards the definition of indicators for assessment of indoor air quality and energy performance in low-energy residential buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cony Renaud Salis, Louis; Abadie, Marc; Wargocki, Pawel

    2017-01-01

    -pinene, benzene, carbon dioxide, formaldehyde, naphthalene, nitrogen dioxide, PM10, PM2.5, radon, styrene, toluene, trichloroethylene, TVOC and mould. Both short-term and long-term effects of these pollutants were considered. The compound with the highest ratio of concentration to its exposure limit value...... to develop such an IAQ index is that hundreds of chemical compounds are present in indoor air, including residential environments, at concentrations much lower than occurring during occupational exposures. There is a lack of clear consensus on which pollutant or group of pollutants should be used to form...... was proposed as the IAQ index for the short term effects so that the existing exposure limits could be referred to and to avoid problems associated with the aggregation of many air quality indices. The same approach was proposed for the IAQ index for the long-term effects together with the calculation...

  9. Long Term Stability Investigation of Solid Oxide Electrolysis Cell with Infiltrated Porous YSZ Air Electrode Under High Current

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Veltzé, Sune; Ovtar, Simona; Simonsen, Søren Bredmose

    2015-01-01

    The increased interest in stable and low cost electrodes for solid oxide cells (SOC) has driven the research of electrode preparation to infiltration of catalyst material into porous backbone material. The infiltration method enables a reduction of amount of catalyst material and increases its ac...

  10. Application of multicriteria decision making methods to air quality in the microenvironments of residential houses in Brisbane, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayoko, Godwin A; Morawska, Lidia; Kokot, Serge; Gilbert, Dale

    2004-05-01

    This paper reports the first application of the multicriteria decision making methods, PROMETHEE and GAIA, to indoor and outdoor air quality data. Fourteen residential houses in a suburb of Brisbane, Australia were investigated for 21 air quality-influencing criteria, which included the characteristics of the houses as well as the concentrations of volatile organic compounds, fungi, bacteria, submicrometer, and supermicrometer particles in their indoor and outdoor air samples. Ranking information necessary to select one house in preference to all others and to assess the parameters influencing the differentiation of the houses was found with the aid of PROMETHEE and GAIA. There was no correlation between the rank order of each house and the health complaints of its occupants. Patterns in GAIA plots show that indoor air quality in these houses is strongly dependent on the characteristics of the houses (construction material, distance of the house from a major road, and the presence of an in-built garage). Marked similarities were observed in the patterns obtained when GAIA and factor analysis were applied to the data. This underscores the potential of PROMETHEE and GAIA to provide information that can assist source apportionment and elucidation of effective remedial measures for indoor air pollution.

  11. Observation of elevated air pollutant concentrations in a residential neighborhood of Los Angeles California using a mobile platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Shishan; Paulson, Suzanne E.; Fruin, Scott; Kozawa, Kathleen; Mara, Steve; Winer, Arthur M.

    2012-05-01

    We observed elevated air pollutant concentrations, especially of ultrafine particles (UFP), black carbon (BC) and NO, across the residential neighborhood of the Boyle Heights Community (BH) of Los Angeles, California. Using an electric vehicle mobile platform equipped with fast response instruments, real-time air pollutant concentrations were measured in BH in spring and summer of 2008. Pollutant concentrations varied significantly in the two seasons, on different days, and by time of day, with an overall average UFP concentration in the residential areas of ∼33 000 cm-3. The averaged UFP, BC, and NO concentrations measured on Soto St, a major surface street in BH, were 57 000 cm-3, 5.1 μg m-3, and 67 ppb, respectively. Concentrations of UFP across the residential areas in BH were nearly uniform spatially, in contrast to other areas in the greater metropolitan area of Los Angeles where UFP concentrations exhibit strong gradients downwind of roadways. We attribute this “UFP cloud” to high traffic volumes, including heavy duty diesel trucks on the freeways which surround and traverse BH, and substantial numbers of high-emitting vehicles (HEVs) on the surface streets traversing BH. Additionally, the high density of stop signs and lights and short block lengths, requiring frequent accelerations of vehicles, may contribute. The data also support a role for photochemical production of UFP in the afternoon. UFP concentration peaks (5 s average) of up to 9 million particles cm-3 were also observed immediately behind HEVs when they accelerated from stop lights in the BH neighborhood and areas immediately adjacent. Although encounters with HEV during mornings accounted for only about 6% and 17% of time spent monitoring residential areas and major surface streets, HEV contributed to about 28% and 53% of total ultrafine particles measured on the route, respectively. The observation of elevated pollutant concentrations across the Boyle Heights community highlights

  12. Mitigating the Impacts of Uncontrolled Air Flow on Indoor Environmental Quality and Energy Demand in Non-Residential Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hugh I. Henderson; Jensen Zhang; James B. Cummings; Terry Brennan

    2006-07-31

    This multi-faceted study evaluated several aspects of uncontrolled air flows in commercial buildings in both Northern and Southern climates. Field data were collected from 25 small commercial buildings in New York State to understand baseline conditions for Northern buildings. Laboratory wall assembly testing was completed at Syracuse University to understand the impact of typical air leakage pathways on heat and moisture transport within wall assemblies for both Northern and Southern building applications. The experimental data from the laboratory tests were used to verify detailed heat and moisture (HAM) simulation models that could be used to evaluate a wider array of building applications and situations. Whole building testing at FSEC's Building Science Laboratory (BSL) systematically evaluated the energy and IAQ impacts of duct leakage with various attic and ceiling configurations. This systematic test carefully controlled all aspects of building performance to quantify the impact of duct leakage and unbalanced flow. The newest features of the EnergyPlus building simulation tool were used to model the combined impacts of duct leakage, ceiling leakage, unbalanced flows, and air conditioner performance. The experimental data provided the basis to validate the simulation model so it could be used to study the impact of duct leakage over a wide range of climates and applications. The overall objective of this project was to transfer work and knowledge that has been done on uncontrolled air flow in non-residential buildings in Florida to a national basis. This objective was implemented by means of four tasks: (1) Field testing and monitoring of uncontrolled air flow in a sample of New York buildings; (2) Detailed wall assembly laboratory measurements and modeling; (3) Whole building experiments and simulation of uncontrolled air flows; and (4) Develop and implement training on uncontrolled air flows for Practitioners in New York State.

  13. Residential outdoor air pollution and allergen sensitization in schoolchildren in Oslo, Norway

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oftedal, B.; Brunekreef, B.; Nystad, W.; Nafstad, P.

    2007-01-01

    Background Epidemiological studies that have investigated the association between air pollution and atopy have found inconsistent results. Furthermore, often exposure to outdoor air pollution has had limited quality, and more individual exposure is needed. Objective To investigate the relations

  14. Quantification of emissions from domestic heating in residential areas of İzmir, Turkey and assessment of the impact on local/regional air-quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sari, Deniz; Bayram, Abdurrahman

    2014-01-01

    Air pollution in cities is a major environmental problem principally in the developing countries. The quantification of emissions is a basic requirement to assess the human influence to the atmosphere. The air quality generally shows decreases with the major contribution residential emissions and meteorology in the winter season in the big cities. Poor meteorological conditions especially inversion events for the efficient mixing of air pollutants occurred during the winter months in İzmir. With this work we quantify the amount of domestic heating emissions for particulate matter (PM10), sulfur dioxides (SO 2 ), nitrogen dioxides (NO 2 ), volatile organic compounds (VOC) and carbon monoxide (CO) together with greenhouse gases which are carbon dioxide (CO 2 ), nitrous oxide (N 2 O) and methane (CH 4 ) in İzmir for 2008–2009 winter season. The results showed that the most affected residential areas were central districts in the city center from domestic heating emissions due to meteorological condition and demographic reasons. Air quality modeling is a great tool for assisting policy makers how to decrease emissions and improve air quality. At the second part of the study, calculated emissions were modeled by using CALMET/CALPUFF dispersion modeling system and plotted in the form of air pollution maps by using geographical information system to determine the locations and estimate the effects of the new residential areas that will be established in the future in İzmir. - Highlights: • The air pollution in cities especially shows raises with the opening of winter season. • Air pollution has become a problem due to rapid urbanization in İzmir, Turkey. • The air quality shows decreases with the residential emissions in İzmir's winter. • With this work we quantify the amount of domestic heating emissions for pollutants. • The impact of emissions on local air-quality is determined by using dispersion model

  15. Quantification of emissions from domestic heating in residential areas of İzmir, Turkey and assessment of the impact on local/regional air-quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sari, Deniz, E-mail: deniz.sari@tubitak.gov.tr [TUBITAK Marmara Research Center, Environment and Cleaner Production Institute, 41470 Kocaeli (Turkey); Bayram, Abdurrahman [Department of Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Dokuz Eylul University, Kaynaklar Campus, 35160 Buca, Izmir (Turkey)

    2014-08-01

    Air pollution in cities is a major environmental problem principally in the developing countries. The quantification of emissions is a basic requirement to assess the human influence to the atmosphere. The air quality generally shows decreases with the major contribution residential emissions and meteorology in the winter season in the big cities. Poor meteorological conditions especially inversion events for the efficient mixing of air pollutants occurred during the winter months in İzmir. With this work we quantify the amount of domestic heating emissions for particulate matter (PM10), sulfur dioxides (SO{sub 2}), nitrogen dioxides (NO{sub 2}), volatile organic compounds (VOC) and carbon monoxide (CO) together with greenhouse gases which are carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O) and methane (CH{sub 4}) in İzmir for 2008–2009 winter season. The results showed that the most affected residential areas were central districts in the city center from domestic heating emissions due to meteorological condition and demographic reasons. Air quality modeling is a great tool for assisting policy makers how to decrease emissions and improve air quality. At the second part of the study, calculated emissions were modeled by using CALMET/CALPUFF dispersion modeling system and plotted in the form of air pollution maps by using geographical information system to determine the locations and estimate the effects of the new residential areas that will be established in the future in İzmir. - Highlights: • The air pollution in cities especially shows raises with the opening of winter season. • Air pollution has become a problem due to rapid urbanization in İzmir, Turkey. • The air quality shows decreases with the residential emissions in İzmir's winter. • With this work we quantify the amount of domestic heating emissions for pollutants. • The impact of emissions on local air-quality is determined by using dispersion model.

  16. Development of residential solar air conditioning system for electricity power peak cut 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Gwon Jong [Korea Inst. of Energy and Resources, Daeduk (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-12-31

    In this research, the converter rectifier unit of the inverter air conditioner is substituted into the bidirectional PWM converter. The DC/DC power converter is established on the DC link between the photovoltaic array and the inverter air conditioner, and the photovoltaic air conditioning system which can be parallel driven which utility is developed. (author). 35 ref., 112 figs.

  17. RESULTS OF A PILOT FIELD STUDY TO EVALUATE THE EFFECTIVENESS OF CLEANING RESIDENTIAL HEATING AND AIR-CONDITIONING SYSTEMS AND THE IMPACT ON INDOOR AIR QUALITY AND SYSTEM PERFORMANCE

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report discusses and gives results of a pilot field study to evaluate the effectiveness of air duct cleaning (ADC) as a source removal technique in residential heating and air-conditioning (HAC) systems and its impact on airborne particle, fiber, and bioaerosol concentrations...

  18. Laboratory Evaluation of Air Flow Measurement Methods for Residential HVAC Returns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, Iain; Stratton, Chris

    2015-07-01

    This project improved the accuracy of air flow measurements used in commissioning California heating and air conditioning systems in Title 24 (Building and Appliance Efficiency Standards), thereby improving system performance and efficiency of California residences. The research team at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory addressed the issue that typical tools used by contractors in the field to test air flows may not be accurate enough to measure return flows used in Title 24 applications. The team developed guidance on performance of current diagnostics as well as a draft test method for use in future evaluations. The series of tests performed measured air flow using a range of techniques and devices. The measured air flows were compared to reference air flow measurements using inline air flow meters built into the test apparatus. The experimental results showed that some devices had reasonable results (typical errors of 5 percent or less) but others had much bigger errors (up to 25 percent).

  19. Bacterial community structures in air conditioners installed in Japanese residential buildings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatayama, Kouta; Oikawa, Yurika; Ito, Hiroyuki

    2018-01-01

    The bacterial community structures in four Japanese split-type air conditioners were analyzed using a next-generation sequencer. A variety of bacteria were detected in the air filter of an air conditioner installed on the first floor. In the evaporator of this air conditioner, bacteria belonging to the genus Methylobacterium, or the family of Sphingomonadaceae, were predominantly detected. On the other hand, the majority of bacteria detected in the air filters and evaporators of air conditioners installed on the fifth and twelfth floors belonged to the family Enterobacteriaceae. The source of bacteria belonging to the family Enterobacteriaceae may have been aerosols generated by toilet flushing in the buildings. Our results suggested the possibility that the bacterial contamination in the air conditioners was affected by the floor level on which they were installed. The air conditioner installed on the lower floor, near the ground, may have been contaminated by a variety of outdoor bacteria, whereas the air conditioners installed on floors more distant from the ground may have been less contaminated by outdoor bacteria. However, these suppositions may apply only to the specific split-type air conditioners that we analyzed, because our sample size was small.

  20. [On the question of occurrence and the problem of hygiene rating of fungal air pollution of the environment of residential and public buildings].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gubernskiĭ, Iu D; Beliaeva, N N; Kalinina, N V; Mel'nikova, A I; Chuprina, O V

    2013-01-01

    Comprehensive sanitary examinations of fungal pollution of the environment of residential and public buildings were performed. There is established the occurrence of sensitization of the population associated with the fungal contamination of the wallings of buildings and presence of viable mold spores in the indoor air environment. Major factors determining the degree of fungal contamination of indoor environments: increasing humidity of indoor air due to leaks and bays, the area of enclosure structures and the temperature factor have been identified.

  1. Quantification of emissions from domestic heating in residential areas of İzmir, Turkey and assessment of the impact on local/regional air-quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sari, Deniz; Bayram, Abdurrahman

    2014-08-01

    Air pollution in cities is a major environmental problem principally in the developing countries. The quantification of emissions is a basic requirement to assess the human influence to the atmosphere. The air quality generally shows decreases with the major contribution residential emissions and meteorology in the winter season in the big cities. Poor meteorological conditions especially inversion events for the efficient mixing of air pollutants occurred during the winter months in İzmir. With this work we quantify the amount of domestic heating emissions for particulate matter (PM10), sulfur dioxides (SO2), nitrogen dioxides (NO2), volatile organic compounds (VOC) and carbon monoxide (CO) together with greenhouse gases which are carbon dioxide (CO2), nitrous oxide (N2O) and methane (CH4) in İzmir for 2008-2009 winter season. The results showed that the most affected residential areas were central districts in the city center from domestic heating emissions due to meteorological condition and demographic reasons. Air quality modeling is a great tool for assisting policy makers how to decrease emissions and improve air quality. At the second part of the study, calculated emissions were modeled by using CALMET/CALPUFF dispersion modeling system and plotted in the form of air pollution maps by using geographical information system to determine the locations and estimate the effects of the new residential areas that will be established in the future in İzmir. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Development of a solar-powered residential air conditioner: System optimization preliminary specification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rousseau, J.; Hwang, K. C.

    1975-01-01

    Investigations aimed at the optimization of a baseline Rankine cycle solar powered air conditioner and the development of a preliminary system specification were conducted. Efforts encompassed the following: (1) investigations of the use of recuperators/regenerators to enhance the performance of the baseline system, (2) development of an off-design computer program for system performance prediction, (3) optimization of the turbocompressor design to cover a broad range of conditions and permit operation at low heat source water temperatures, (4) generation of parametric data describing system performance (COP and capacity), (5) development and evaluation of candidate system augmentation concepts and selection of the optimum approach, (6) generation of auxiliary power requirement data, (7) development of a complete solar collector-thermal storage-air conditioner computer program, (8) evaluation of the baseline Rankine air conditioner over a five day period simulating the NASA solar house operation, and (9) evaluation of the air conditioner as a heat pump.

  3. Dataset for Probabilistic estimation of residential air exchange rates for population-based exposure modeling

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This dataset provides the city-specific air exchange rate measurements, modeled, literature-based as well as housing characteristics. This dataset is associated with...

  4. The Impact of Green Space Layouts on Microclimate and Air Quality in Residential Districts of Nanjing, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liyan Rui

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This study numerically investigates the influence of different vegetation types and layouts on microclimate and air quality in residential districts based on the morphology and green layout of Nanjing, China. Simulations were performed using Computational Fluid Dynamics and the microclimate model ENVI-met. Four green indices, i.e., the green cover ratio, the grass and shrub cover ratio, the ecological landscaping plot ratio and the landscaping isolation index, were combined to evaluate thermal and wind fields, as well as air quality in district models. Results show that under the same green cover ratio (i.e., the same quantity of all types of vegetation, the reduction of grass and shrub cover ratio (i.e., the quantity of grass and shrubs, replaced by trees, has an impact, even though small, on thermal comfort, wind speed and air pollution, and increases the leisure space for occupants. When trees are present, a low ecological landscaping plot ratio (which expresses the weight of carbon dioxide absorption and is larger in the presence of trees is preferable due to a lower blocking effect on wind and pollutant dispersion. In conjunction with a low landscaping plot ratio, a high landscaping isolation index (which means a distributed structure of vegetation enhances the capability of local cooling and the general thermal comfort, decreasing the average temperature up to about 0.5 °C and the average predicted mean vote (PMV up to about 20% compared with the non-green scenario. This paper shows that the relationship vegetation-microclimate-air quality should be analyzed taking into account not only the total area covered by vegetation but also its layout and degree of aggregation.

  5. Risk of leukaemia and residential exposure to air pollution in an industrial area in Northern Italy: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parodi, Stefano; Santi, Irene; Casella, Claudia; Puppo, Antonella; Montanaro, Fabio; Fontana, Vincenzo; Pescetto, Massimiliano; Stagnaro, Emanuele

    2015-01-01

    Leukaemia risk in adult populations exposed to environmental air pollution is poorly investigated. We have carried out a population-based case-control study in an area that included a fossil fuel power plant, a coke oven and two big chemical industries. Information on residential history and several risk factors for leukaemia was obtained from 164 cases, diagnosed between 2002 and 2005, and 279 controls. A higher risk for subjects residing in polluted areas was observed, but statistical significance was not reached (adjusted OR = 1.11 and 1.56 for subjects living in moderately and in heavily polluted zones, respectively, p = 0.190). Results suggest a possible aetiological role of residential air pollution from industrial sites on the risk of developing leukaemia in adult populations. However, the proportion of eligible subjects excluded from the study and the lack of any measure of air pollution prevent definitive conclusions from being drawn.

  6. Effect of heat recovery water heater system on the performance of residential split air conditioner using hydrocarbon refrigerant (HCR22)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, A.; Thalal; Amri, I.; Herisiswanto; Mainil, A. K.

    2017-09-01

    This This paper presents the performance of residential split air conditioner (RSAC) using hydrocarbon refrigerant (HCR22) as the effect on the use of heat recovery water heater system (HRWHS). In this study, RSAC was modified with addition of dummy condenser (trombone coil type) as heat recovery water heater system (HRWHS). This HRWHS is installed between a compressor and a condenser by absorbing a part of condenser waste heat. The results show that RSAC with HRWHS is adequate to generate hot water with the temperature range about 46.58˚C - 48.81˚C when compared to without HRWHS and the use of dummy condenser does not give significant effect to the split air conditioner performance. When the use of HRWHS, the refrigerant charge has increase about 19.05%, the compressor power consumption has slightly increase about 1.42% where cooling capacity almost the same with slightly different about 0.39%. The condenser heat rejection is lower about 2.68% and the COP has slightly increased about 1.05% when compared to without HRWHS. The use of HRWHS provide free hot water, it means there is energy saving for heating water without negative impact to the system performance of RSAC.

  7. Envelope Thermal Design Optimization for Urban Residential Buildings in Malawi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amos Kalua

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This study sought to optimize the envelope thermal design of free-running urban residential buildings in Malawi. It specifically set out to improve the urban residential buildings’ thermal comfort and suggest optimal envelope thermal design features for these buildings. The research study was primarily dependent on computer simulations in EnergyPlus to replicate the typical Malawian urban residential building’s thermal behaviour and then study the impacts of various envelope configurations on the thermal comfort conditions registered in the building. The simulation model was experimentally validated to check its appropriateness to the climatic design conditions prevalent in Malawi and out of the three major cities that were considered, the model was found to be appropriate for use in the two cities of Mzuzu and Lilongwe leaving out the city of Blantyre. The optimization methodology that was employed involved the use of orthogonal arrays, statistical analyses and the listing method. It was found that the optimal envelope thermal design, which registered up to 18% lower discomfort hours than that of the typical urban residential building, consists of a 50 mm concrete floor slab, 230 mm burnt brick walls with an external layer of 19 mm EPS, tiled roof with an internal layer of sarking and 50 mm EPS, double Low-E Glazing with a transparency ratio of 45% and 0.2408 m2 of adaptable operational surface area for the air bricks. Out of all the envelope features that were studied, air infiltration registered the most significant contribution towards the ultimate residential building thermal performance. It was demonstrated that controlled air infiltration through the use of operable air bricks whose operational surface area is adaptable can be very effective in enhancing the building’s comfort levels. It was further observed that excessive insulation of the building envelope generally has a detrimental effect on the indoor space thermal comfort

  8. Estimation of bias with the single-zone assumption in measurement of residential air exchange using the perfluorocarbon tracer gas method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Ryswyk, K; Wallace, L; Fugler, D; MacNeill, M; Héroux, M È; Gibson, M D; Guernsey, J R; Kindzierski, W; Wheeler, A J

    2015-12-01

    Residential air exchange rates (AERs) are vital in understanding the temporal and spatial drivers of indoor air quality (IAQ). Several methods to quantify AERs have been used in IAQ research, often with the assumption that the home is a single, well-mixed air zone. Since 2005, Health Canada has conducted IAQ studies across Canada in which AERs were measured using the perfluorocarbon tracer (PFT) gas method. Emitters and detectors of a single PFT gas were placed on the main floor to estimate a single-zone AER (AER(1z)). In three of these studies, a second set of emitters and detectors were deployed in the basement or second floor in approximately 10% of homes for a two-zone AER estimate (AER(2z)). In total, 287 daily pairs of AER(2z) and AER(1z) estimates were made from 35 homes across three cities. In 87% of the cases, AER(2z) was higher than AER(1z). Overall, the AER(1z) estimates underestimated AER(2z) by approximately 16% (IQR: 5-32%). This underestimate occurred in all cities and seasons and varied in magnitude seasonally, between homes, and daily, indicating that when measuring residential air exchange using a single PFT gas, the assumption of a single well-mixed air zone very likely results in an under prediction of the AER. The results of this study suggest that the long-standing assumption that a home represents a single well-mixed air zone may result in a substantial negative bias in air exchange estimates. Indoor air quality professionals should take this finding into consideration when developing study designs or making decisions related to the recommendation and installation of residential ventilation systems. © 2014 Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Canada. Indoor Air published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd Reproduced with the permission of the Minister of Health Canada.

  9. Semivolatile organic compounds in residential air along the Arizona - Mexico border

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gale, R.W.; Cranor, W.L.; Alvarez, D.A.; Huckins, J.N.; Petty, J.D.; Robertson, G.L.

    2009-01-01

    Concerns about indoor air quality and the potential effects on people living in these environments are increasing as more reports about the toxicities and the potential indoor air exposure levels of household-use chemicals and chemicals fromhousingandfurnishingmanufactureinairarebeingassessed. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry was used to confirm numerous airborne contaminants obtained from the analysis of semipermeable membrane devices deployed inside of 52 homes situated along the border between Arizona and Mexico. We also describe nontarget analytes in the organochlorine pesticide fractions of 12 of these homes; this fraction is also the most likelytocontainthebroadestscopeofbioconcentratablechemicals accumulated from the indoor air. Approximately 400 individual components were identified, ranging from pesticides to a wide array of hydrocarbons, fragrances such as the musk xylenes, flavors relating to spices, aldehydes, alcohols, esters and phthalate esters, and other miscellaneous types of chemicals. The results presented in this study demonstrate unequivocally that the mixture of airborne chemicals present indoors is far more complex than previously demonstrated. ?? 2009 American Chemical Society.

  10. Reducing burden of disease from residential indoor air exposures in Europe (HEALTHVENT project)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asikainen, Arja; Carrer, Paolo; Kephalopoulos, Stylianos

    2016-01-01

    ), approximately 90 % of EU citizens live in areas where the World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines for air quality of particulate matter sized PM2.5) are not met. Since sources of pollution reside in both indoor and outdoor air, selecting the most appropriate ventilation strategy is not a simple...... matter (PM2.5), outdoor bioaerosols, volatile organic compounds (VOC), carbon oxide (CO) radon and dampness was estimated. The analysis was based on scenario comparison, using an outdoor-indoor mass-balance model and varying the ventilation rates. Health effects were estimated with burden of diseases (Bo...... air; and (iii) indoor source control, showed that all three approaches are able to provide substantial reductions in the health risks, varying from approximately 20 % to 44 %, corresponding to 400 000 and 900 000 saved healthy life years in EU-26. PM2.5 caused majority of the health effects in all...

  11. Comparing land use regression and dispersion modelling to assess residential exposure to ambient air pollution for epidemiological studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Hoogh, Kees; Korek, Michal; Vienneau, Danielle; Keuken, Menno; Kukkonen, Jaakko; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J; Badaloni, Chiara; Beelen, Rob; Bolignano, Andrea; Cesaroni, Giulia; Pradas, Marta Cirach; Cyrys, Josef; Douros, John; Eeftens, Marloes; Forastiere, Francesco; Forsberg, Bertil; Fuks, Kateryna; Gehring, Ulrike; Gryparis, Alexandros; Gulliver, John; Hansell, Anna L; Hoffmann, Barbara; Johansson, Christer; Jonkers, Sander; Kangas, Leena; Katsouyanni, Klea; Künzli, Nino; Lanki, Timo; Memmesheimer, Michael; Moussiopoulos, Nicolas; Modig, Lars; Pershagen, Göran; Probst-Hensch, Nicole; Schindler, Christian; Schikowski, Tamara; Sugiri, Dorothee; Teixidó, Oriol; Tsai, Ming-Yi; Yli-Tuomi, Tarja; Brunekreef, Bert; Hoek, Gerard; Bellander, Tom

    2014-12-01

    Land-use regression (LUR) and dispersion models (DM) are commonly used for estimating individual air pollution exposure in population studies. Few comparisons have however been made of the performance of these methods. Within the European Study of Cohorts for Air Pollution Effects (ESCAPE) we explored the differences between LUR and DM estimates for NO2, PM10 and PM2.5. The ESCAPE study developed LUR models for outdoor air pollution levels based on a harmonised monitoring campaign. In thirteen ESCAPE study areas we further applied dispersion models. We compared LUR and DM estimates at the residential addresses of participants in 13 cohorts for NO2; 7 for PM10 and 4 for PM2.5. Additionally, we compared the DM estimates with measured concentrations at the 20-40 ESCAPE monitoring sites in each area. The median Pearson R (range) correlation coefficients between LUR and DM estimates for the annual average concentrations of NO2, PM10 and PM2.5 were 0.75 (0.19-0.89), 0.39 (0.23-0.66) and 0.29 (0.22-0.81) for 112,971 (13 study areas), 69,591 (7) and 28,519 (4) addresses respectively. The median Pearson R correlation coefficients (range) between DM estimates and ESCAPE measurements were of 0.74 (0.09-0.86) for NO2; 0.58 (0.36-0.88) for PM10 and 0.58 (0.39-0.66) for PM2.5. LUR and dispersion model estimates correlated on average well for NO2 but only moderately for PM10 and PM2.5, with large variability across areas. DM predicted a moderate to large proportion of the measured variation for NO2 but less for PM10 and PM2.5. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Ambient air pollution exposure, residential mobility and term birth weight in Oslo, Norway.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Madsen, C.; Gehring, U.; Walker, S.K.; Brunekreef, B.; Stigum, H.; Naess, O.; Nafstad, P.

    2010-01-01

    Environmental exposure during pregnancy may have lifelong health consequences for the offspring and some studies have association between maternal exposure to air pollution during pregnancy and offspring's birth weight. However, many of these studies do not take into account small-scale variations

  13. Duct System Flammability and Air Sealing Fire Separation Assemblies in the International Residential Code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rudd, A.; Prahl, D.

    2014-12-01

    IBACOS identified two barriers that limit the ability of builders to cost-effectively achieve higher energy efficiency levels in housing. These are (1) the use of duct system materials that inherently achieve airtightness and are appropriately sized for low-load houses and (2) the ability to air seal fire separation assemblies. The issues identified fall into a gray area of the codes.

  14. Duct System Flammability and Air Sealing Fire Separation Assemblies in the International Residential Code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rudd, A. [ABT Systems, LLC, Annville, PA (United States); Prahl, D. [IBACOS, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2014-12-01

    IBACOS identified two barriers that limit the ability of builders to cost-effectively achieve higher energy efficiency levels in housing. These are the use of duct system materials that inherently achieve airtightness and are appropriately sized for low-load houses and the ability to air seal fire separation assemblies. The issues identified fall into a gray area of the codes.

  15. Integrated Management of Residential Indoor Air Quality: A Call for Stakeholders in a Changing Climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levasseur, Marie-Eve; Poulin, Patrick; Campagna, Céline; Leclerc, Jean-Marc

    2017-11-25

    A paradigm change in the management of environmental health issues has been observed in recent years: instead of managing specific risks individually, a holistic vision of environmental problems would assure sustainable solutions. However, concrete actions that could help translate these recommendations into interventions are lacking. This review presents the relevance of using an integrated indoor air quality management approach to ensure occupant health and comfort. At the nexus of three basic concepts (reducing contaminants at the source, improving ventilation, and, when relevant, purifying the indoor air), this approach can help maintain and improve indoor air quality and limit exposure to several contaminants. Its application is particularly relevant in a climate change context since the evolving outdoor conditions have to be taken into account during building construction and renovation. The measures presented through this approach target public health players, building managers, owners, occupants, and professionals involved in building design, construction, renovation, and maintenance. The findings of this review will help the various stakeholders initiate a strategic reflection on the importance of indoor air quality and climate change issues for existing and future buildings. Several new avenues and recommendations are presented to set the path for future research activities.

  16. Investigation of indoor air quality at residential homes in Hong Kong - case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shun Cheng Lee; Waiming Li; Chiohang Ao

    2002-01-01

    Indoor air quality (IAQ) has been a matter of public concern in Hong Kong. Recently, the Hong Kong Government has recognized the potential risk and problems related to indoor air pollution, and it is striving to establish IAQ objectives for different types of indoor environments. This study attempts to provide more information about the present IAQ of local resident flats. Air pollutants measured in this study included carbon dioxide (CO 2 ), respirable suspended particulate matter (PM 10 ), formaldehyde (HCHO), volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and airborne bacteria. The results of this study indicate that the 8-h average concentrations of CO 2 and PM 10 in the domestic kitchens investigated were 14% and 67% higher than those measured in the living rooms. The indoor air pollution caused by PM 10 was more serious in domestic kitchens than in living rooms as almost all of the kitchens investigated had higher indoor levels of PM 10 . The majority of the domestic living rooms and kitchens studied had average concentrations of airborne bacteria higher than 500CFU/m 3 . The mean total bacteria count recorded in kitchens was greater than that obtained in living rooms by 23%. In homes where occupants smoke, the negative impact of benzene, toluene and m,p-xylene on the IAQ was greatly enhanced. The use of liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) stove has more significant impact on indoor VOCs than the use of cooking stoves with natural gas as cooking fuel. (Author)

  17. Semivolatile organic compounds in residential air along the Arizona-Mexico border.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gale, Robert W; Cranor, Walter L; Alvarez, David A; Huckins, James N; Petty, Jimmie D; Robertson, Gary L

    2009-05-01

    Concerns about indoor air quality and the potential effects on people living in these environments are increasing as more reports about the toxicities and the potential indoor air exposure levels of household-use chemicals and chemicals from housing and fumishing manufacture in air are being assessed. Gas chromatography/mass spectromery was used to confirm numerous airborne contaminants obtained from the analysis of semipermeable membrane devices deployed inside of 52 homes situated along the border between Arizona and Mexico. We also describe nontarget analytes in the organochlorine pesticide fractions of 12 of these homes; this fraction is also the most likely to contain the broadest scope of bioconcentratable chemicals accumulated from the indoor air. Approximately 400 individual components were identified, ranging from pesticides to a wide array of hydrocarbons, fragrances such as the musk xylenes, flavors relating to spices, aldehydes, alcohols, esters and phthalate esters, and other miscellaneous types of chemicals. The results presented in this study demonstrate unequivocally that the mixture of airborne chemicals present indoors is far more complex than previously demonstrated.

  18. Predicting residential air exchange rates from questionnaires and meteorology: model evaluation in central North Carolina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breen, Michael S; Breen, Miyuki; Williams, Ronald W; Schultz, Bradley D

    2010-12-15

    A critical aspect of air pollution exposure models is the estimation of the air exchange rate (AER) of individual homes, where people spend most of their time. The AER, which is the airflow into and out of a building, is a primary mechanism for entry of outdoor air pollutants and removal of indoor source emissions. The mechanistic Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) AER model was linked to a leakage area model to predict AER from questionnaires and meteorology. The LBL model was also extended to include natural ventilation (LBLX). Using literature-reported parameter values, AER predictions from LBL and LBLX models were compared to data from 642 daily AER measurements across 31 detached homes in central North Carolina, with corresponding questionnaires and meteorological observations. Data was collected on seven consecutive days during each of four consecutive seasons. For the individual model-predicted and measured AER, the median absolute difference was 43% (0.17 h(-1)) and 40% (0.17 h(-1)) for the LBL and LBLX models, respectively. Additionally, a literature-reported empirical scale factor (SF) AER model was evaluated, which showed a median absolute difference of 50% (0.25 h(-1)). The capability of the LBL, LBLX, and SF models could help reduce the AER uncertainty in air pollution exposure models used to develop exposure metrics for health studies.

  19. [Methodical problems of monitoring of fine particulate matters in atmospheric air of residential areas].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karelin, A O; Lomtev, A Yu; Mozzhukhina, N A; Yeremin, G B; Nikonov, V A

    Inhalation of fine particulate matters (PM and PM ) poses a threat for the health of population. Purpose of the study the analysis of the monitoring of fine particulate matters in the atmospheric air of Saint-Petersburg and identification of the main problems of the monitoring. Research methods methods of scientific hypothetical deductive cognition, sanitary-statistical methods, general logical methods and approaches of researches: analysis, synthesis, abstracting, generalization, induction. Results. The article represents the analysis of the monitoring of fine particulate matters in the atmospheric air of Saint- Petersburg. Only 11 in automatic monitoring stations out of 22 there is carried out the control of fine particulate matters: in 7 - PM and PM, and in 4 - PM The average year concentrations were below MAC in all the stations. The maximum concentrations achieved 3 MAC, but the repeatance of cases of exceedence of concentrations more than MAC was very rare. On the average of the city concentrations of PM were decreased from 0,8 MAC in 2006 and 1,1 MAC in 2007 to 0,5 MAC in 2013-14. The executed analysis revealed main problems of the monitoring of fine particulate matters in the Russian Federation. They include the absence of the usage 1of the officially approved methods of controlling of PM and PM in the atmospheric air until March 1, 2016, lack of the modern equipment for measurement of fine particulate matters. Conclusions. Therefore, the state of the monitoring of fine particulate matters in the atmospheric air in the Russian Federation fails to be satisfactory. It is necessary to improve system of the monitoring, create modern Russian appliances, methods and means for measurement of fine particulate matters concentrations in the atmospheric air.

  20. Modeling of an Air Conditioning System with Geothermal Heat Pump for a Residential Building

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Cocchi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The need to address climate change caused by greenhouse gas emissions attaches great importance to research aimed at using renewable energy. Geothermal energy is an interesting alternative concerning the production of energy for air conditioning of buildings (heating and cooling, through the use of geothermal heat pumps. In this work a model has been developed in order to simulate an air conditioning system with geothermal heat pump. A ground source heat pump (GSHP uses the shallow ground as a source of heat, thus taking advantage of its seasonally moderate temperatures. GSHP must be coupled with geothermal exchangers. The model leads to design optimization of geothermal heat exchangers and to verify the operation of the geothermal plant.

  1. Test Protocol for Room-to-Room Distribution of Outside Air by Residential Ventilation Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barley, C. D.; Anderson, R.; Hendron, B.; Hancock, E.

    2007-12-01

    This test and analysis protocol has been developed as a practical approach for measuring outside air distribution in homes. It has been used successfully in field tests and has led to significant insights on ventilation design issues. Performance advantages of more sophisticated ventilation systems over simpler, less-costly designs have been verified, and specific problems, such as airflow short-circuiting, have been identified.

  2. Organochlorine pesticides in ambient air in selected urban and rural residential areas in the Philippines derived from passive samplers with polyurethane disks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santiago, Evangeline C; Cayetano, Mylene G

    2011-01-01

    The passive sampler with PUF disk was applied to investigate the types and concentrations of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in ambient air in three urban and rural residential areas simultaneously at different weather conditions in the Philippines. The concentrations of OCPs derived from the passive samplers indicated clear distinctions in the predominance of certain types and amounts of OCPs in air at different sampling sites and periods of sampling. Chlordanes were detected in concentrations ranging from 218 to 2,324 pg/m³ in the urban residential sites in all the sampling periods, indicating the possible use of these pesticides as termiticides in houses. Endosulfans were detected in two rural sites at 491 pg/m³ and 904 pg/m³ during one sampling period; indicating the possible use of the pesticide in the farm areas at that period.

  3. Residential proximity to major roads and term low birth weight: the roles of air pollution, heat, noise, and road-adjacent trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dadvand, Payam; Ostro, Bart; Figueras, Francesc; Foraster, Maria; Basagaña, Xavier; Valentín, Antònia; Martinez, David; Beelen, Rob; Cirach, Marta; Hoek, Gerard; Jerrett, Michael; Brunekreef, Bert; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J

    2014-07-01

    Maternal residential proximity to roads has been associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes. However, there is no study investigating mediators or buffering effects of road-adjacent trees on this association. We investigated the association between mothers' residential proximity to major roads and term low birth weight (LBW), while exploring possible mediating roles of air pollution (PM(2.5), PM(2.5-10), PM(10), PM(2.5) absorbance, nitrogen dioxide, and nitrogen oxides), heat, and noise and buffering effect of road-adjacent trees on this association. This cohort study was based on 6438 singleton term births in Barcelona, Spain (2001-2005). Road proximity was measured as both continuous distance to and living within 200 m from a major road. We assessed individual exposures to air pollution, noise, and heat using, respectively, temporally adjusted land-use regression models, annual averages of 24-hour noise levels across 50 m and 250 m, and average of satellite-derived land-surface temperature in a 50-m buffer around each residential address. We used vegetation continuous fields to abstract tree coverage in a 200-m buffer around major roads. Living within 200 m of major roads was associated with a 46% increase in term LBW risk; an interquartile range increase in heat exposure with an 18% increase; and third-trimester exposure to PM(2.5), PM(2.5-10), and PM10 with 24%, 25%, and 26% increases, respectively. Air pollution and heat exposures together explained about one-third of the association between residential proximity to major roads and term LBW. Our observations on the buffering of this association by road-adjacent trees were not consistent between our 2 measures of proximity to major roads. An increased risk of term LBW associated with proximity to major roads was partly mediated by air pollution and heat exposures.

  4. Air pollution from residential wood combustion in a Danish village. Measuring campaign and analysis of results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waahlin, P.; Roerdam Olesen, H.; Bossi, R.; Stubkjaer, J.

    2010-05-15

    A campaign took place in the winter 2006/2007 comprising measurements of many air pollution components at two sites: a wood smoke exposed site within the village Slagslunde, and a background site 500 m outside of the village. The report describes the campaign and its results. A central result is a so-called 'wood smoke source profile', which relates several measures of wood smoke pollution to each other. This is based on a 'cleaned' data set, for which the effect of other sources than wood smoke was small. The wood smoke profile links the measures PM2.5, particle volume, soot, monosaccharide anhydrides (levoglucosan and mannosan) and different PAHs to each other. Particle number N does not have a close link to the other measures. (author)

  5. Infiltration deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khasanov, A.Kh.

    1988-01-01

    Infiltration deposits-is concentration of minerals matters formed by concretion on the some depth of readily soluble of descending waters of hyper genes zone. In the process of rocks chemical decomposition a great deal of readily soluble components in the form of sulfates, carbonates, bicarbonates, hydro-oxides and complex compounds, including ore element compounds become free

  6. GridLAB-D Technical Support Document: Residential End-Use Module Version 1.0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, Zachary T.; Gowri, Krishnan; Katipamula, Srinivas

    2008-07-31

    1.0 Introduction The residential module implements the following end uses and characteristics to simulate the power demand in a single family home: • Water heater • Lights • Dishwasher • Range • Microwave • Refrigerator • Internal gains (plug loads) • House (heating/cooling loads) The house model considers the following four major heat gains/losses that contribute to the building heating/cooling load: 1. Conduction through exterior walls, roof and fenestration (based on envelope UA) 2. Air infiltration (based on specified air change rate) 3. Solar radiation (based on CLTD model and using tmy data) 4. Internal gains from lighting, people, equipment and other end use objects. The Equivalent Thermal Parameter (ETP) approach is used to model the residential loads and energy consumption. The following sections describe the modeling assumptions for each of the above end uses and the details of power demand calculations in the residential module.

  7. Air quality and residential wood combustion - application of the model system SIMAIRrwc for some Swedish municipalities; Luftkvalitet och smaaskalig biobraensleeldning. Tillaempningar av SIMAIRved foer naagra kommuner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Omstedt, Gunnar; Andersson, Stefan; Johansson, Christer; Loefgren, Bengt-Erik

    2008-11-15

    SIMAIRrwc is a Web based evaluation tool for meeting the EU directive on air pollution limits in residential areas using wood combustion. The background is a four-year research program (2001-2004) called Biomass Combustion Health and Environment. Some conclusions from this program were that emissions from small scale wood combustion can influence human health mainly due to high emitting old wood stoves during cold weather conditions and that the air quality in such areas can improve significantly if old wood stoves were replaced by modern wood boilers attached to a storage tank or with a pellet boiler. SIMAIRrwc is based on the same principles as SIMAIRroad, which is a Web based evaluation tool for road traffic i.e. coupled model system using different models on local, urban and regional geographical scales, best available emission data, but at the same time presented in a very simplified way. In this project SIMAIRrwc has been applied in five different Swedish municipalities. The aim has been to apply and improve the model in cooperation with the municipalities. The conclusions from the project are: Small scale wood combustions in residential areas are local problems which sometimes include only a few houses and/or wood-burners. Air quality problems related to the EU directive are mainly due to particles. Combinations of residential areas with wood combustion and emissions from nearby dense traffic roads might give rise to bad air quality. Actions require knowledge about individual equipment which needs information from the local chimney sweeps. The best way to identify problem areas is to use model calculations. If model calculations indicate risks of exceeding air quality limits, then new calculations should be made with improved input data taking into account for example information of district heating or other installations that can effect the emissions. Before actions are taken it may also be useful to make measurements. The measurement site can then be

  8. A Bayesian kriging model for estimating residential exposure to air pollution of children living in a high-risk area in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana M. Vicedo-Cabrera

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available A core challenge in epidemiological analysis of the impact of exposure to air pollution on health is assessment of the individual exposure for subjects at risk. Geographical information systems (GIS-based pollution mapping, such as kriging, has become one of the main tools for evaluating individual exposure to ambient pollutants. We applied universal Bayesian kriging to estimate the residential exposure to gaseous air pollutants for children living in a high-risk area (Milazzo- Valle del Mela in Sicily, Italy. Ad hoc air quality monitoring campaigns were carried out: 12 weekly measurements for sulphur dioxide (SO2 and nitrogen dioxide (NO2 were obtained from 21 passive dosimeters located at each school yard of the study area from November 2007 to April 2008. Universal Bayesian kriging was performed to predict individual exposure levels at each residential address for all 6- to 12-years-old children attending primary school at various locations in the study area. Land use, altitude, distance to main roads and population density were included as covariates in the models. A large geographical heterogeneity in air quality was recorded suggesting complex exposure patterns. We obtained a predicted mean level of 25.78 (±10.61 μg/m3 of NO2 and 4.10 (±2.71 μg/m3 of SO2 at 1,682 children’s residential addresses, with a normalised root mean squared error of 28% and 25%, respectively. We conclude that universal Bayesian kriging approach is a useful tool for the assessment of realistic exposure estimates with regard to ambient pollutants at home addresses. Its prediction uncertainty is highly informative and can be used for both designing subsequent campaigns and for improved modelling of epidemiological associations.

  9. Effects of ground surface decontamination on the air radiation dose rate. Results of a decontamination trial at a playground lot in a Fukushima residential area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tagawa, Akihiro

    2012-01-01

    The Japan Atomic Energy Agency decontaminated schools, playgrounds, swimming pools, and houses in nonevacuated, less-contaminated areas in Fukushima for environmental restoration. A small, 150 m 2 playground lot in the residential area was chosen for decontamination demonstration, which used routinely available tools and commodities to carry out the work. The surfaces of playground lot equipment, such as swings, slides, and horizontal iron bars, were completely decontaminated by brushing with water and/or detergent. Side gutters around the playground lot were cleaned by removing the mud and then brushed and washed with a high-pressure water jet (7 MPa). The air dose rate at the playground lot was dominated by radiation from the ground surface and adjacent surroundings, such as apartments and rice fields. Two or three centimeters of the surface soil contaminated with cesium was removed manually with shovels, hoes, and other gardening tools. This significantly reduced the average air dose rate of the entire playground lot from 1.5 μSv/h before decontamination to 0.6 μSv/h. These results showed that ground surface decontamination can contribute measurably to the reduction in air dose rate in relatively small areas in residential areas. (author)

  10. Effects of hyperbaric oxygen at 1.25 atmospheres absolute with normal air on macrophage number and infiltration during rat skeletal muscle regeneration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naoto Fujita

    Full Text Available Use of mild hyperbaric oxygen less than 2 atmospheres absolute (2026.54 hPa with normal air is emerging as a common complementary treatment for severe muscle injury. Although hyperbaric oxygen at over 2 atmospheres absolute with 100% O2 promotes healing of skeletal muscle injury, it is not clear whether mild hyperbaric oxygen is equally effective. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the impact of hyperbaric oxygen at 1.25 atmospheres absolute (1266.59 hPa with normal air on muscle regeneration. The tibialis anterior muscle of male Wistar rats was injured by injection of bupivacaine hydrochloride, and rats were randomly assigned to a hyperbaric oxygen experimental group or to a non-hyperbaric oxygen control group. Immediately after the injection, rats were exposed to hyperbaric oxygen, and the treatment was continued for 28 days. The cross-sectional area of centrally nucleated muscle fibers was significantly larger in rats exposed to hyperbaric oxygen than in controls 5 and 7 days after injury. The number of CD68- or CD68- and CD206-positive cells was significantly higher in rats exposed to hyperbaric oxygen than in controls 24 h after injury. Additionally, tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-10 mRNA expression levels were significantly higher in rats exposed to hyperbaric oxygen than in controls 24 h after injury. The number of Pax7- and MyoD- or MyoD- and myogenin-positive nuclei per mm2 and the expression levels of these proteins were significantly higher in rats exposed to hyperbaric oxygen than in controls 5 days after injury. These results suggest that mild hyperbaric oxygen promotes skeletal muscle regeneration in the early phase after injury, possibly due to reduced hypoxic conditions leading to accelerated macrophage infiltration and phenotype transition. In conclusion, mild hyperbaric oxygen less than 2 atmospheres absolute with normal air is an appropriate support therapy for severe muscle injuries.

  11. Effect of air pollution on respiratory tract diseases in small children. Morbidity rate in residential areas with varying degrees of severe pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muehling, P.; Bory, J.; Haupt, H.

    1984-09-13

    In a retrospective study of hospitalized patients (children aged between 0 and 4 years) covering four years the dependence of the incidence of croup (infectious laryngitis) and obstructive bronchitis on air pollution was investigated. For this reason the incidence of morbidity in residential areas with various levels of SO/sub 2/ and sedimenting dust were compared. The results show a definitive connection between a high level of SO/sub 2/ and dust, respectively and a high rate of morbidity. This connection was particularly marked in areas with simultaneous high levels of both SO/sub 2/ and dust. The effects of confounding factors, such as infection incidence, meteorological influences, distances from hospital, social status, especially the percentage of foreign guest worker families and population density were investigated and separated from air pollution effects.

  12. Residential Mechanical Precooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    German, a. [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI), Davis, CA (United States); Hoeschele, M. [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI), Davis, CA (United States)

    2014-12-01

    This research conducted by the Alliance for Residential Building Innovation team evaluated mechanical air conditioner pre-cooling strategies in homes throughout the United States. EnergyPlus modeling evaluated two homes with different performance characteristics in seven climates. Results are applicable to new construction homes and most existing homes built in the last 10 years, as well as fairly efficient retrofitted homes.

  13. Residential Solar Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulkerson, Dan

    This publication contains student and teacher instructional materials for a course in residential solar systems. The text is designed either as a basic solar course or as a supplement to extend student skills in areas such as architectural drafting, air conditioning and refrigeration, and plumbing. The materials are presented in four units…

  14. High Performance Residential Housing Units at U.S. Coast Guard Base Kodiak: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romero, R.; Hickey, J.

    2013-10-01

    The United States Coast Guard (USCG) constructs residential housing throughout the country using a basic template that must meet the minimum Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) Silver criteria or better for the units. In Kodiak, Alaska, USCG is procuring between 24 and 100 residential multi-family housing units. Priorities for the Kodiak project were to reduce overall energyconsumption by at least 20% over existing units, improve envelope construction, and evaluate space heating options. USCG is challenged with maintaining similar existing units that have complicated residential diesel boilers. Additionally, fuel and material costs are high in Kodiak. While USCG has worked to optimize the performance of the housing units with principles of improved buildingenvelope, the engineers realize there are still opportunities for improvement, especially within the heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) system and different envelope measures. USCG staff also desires to balance higher upfront project costs for significantly reduced life-cycle costs of the residential units that have an expected lifetime of 50 or more years. To answer thesequestions, this analysis used the residential modeling tool BEoptE+ to examine potential energy- saving opportunities for the climate. The results suggest criteria for achieving optimized housing performance at the lowest cost. USCG will integrate the criteria into their procurement process. To achieve greater than 50% energy savings, USCG will need to specify full 2x 6 wood stud R-21 insulationwith two 2 inches of exterior foam, R-38 ceiling insulation or even wall insulation in the crawl space, and R-49 fiberglass batts in a the vented attic. The air barrier should be improved to ensure a tight envelope with minimal infiltration to the goal of 2.0 ACH50. With the implementation of an air source heat pump for space heating requirements, the combination of HVAC and envelope savings inthe residential unit can save

  15. Indoor air quality in green buildings: A case-study in a residential high-rise building in the northeastern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Youyou; Krogmann, Uta; Mainelis, Gediminas; Rodenburg, Lisa A; Andrews, Clinton J

    2015-01-01

    Improved indoor air quality (IAQ) is one of the critical components of green building design. Green building tax credit (e.g., New York State Green Building Tax Credit (GBTC)) and certification programs (e.g., Leadership in Energy & Environmental Design (LEED)) require indoor air quality measures and compliance with allowable maximum concentrations of common indoor air pollutants. It is not yet entirely clear whether compliance with these programs results in improved IAQ and ultimately human health. As a case in point, annual indoor air quality measurements were conducted in a residential green high-rise building for five consecutive years by an industrial hygiene contractor to comply with the building's GBTC requirements. The implementation of green design measures resulted in better IAQ compared to data in references of conventional homes for some parameters, but could not be confirmed for others. Relative humidity and carbon dioxide were satisfactory according to existing standards. Formaldehyde levels during four out of five years were below the most recent proposed exposure limits found in the literature. To some degree, particulate matter (PM) levels were lower than that in studies from conventional residential buildings. Concentrations of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) with known permissible exposure limits were below levels known to cause chronic health effects, but their concentrations were inconclusive regarding cancer health effects due to relatively high detection limits. Although measured indoor air parameters met all IAQ maximum allowable concentrations in GBTC and applicable LEED requirements at the time of sampling, we argue that these measurements were not sufficient to assess IAQ comprehensively because more sensitive sampling/analytical methods for PM and VOCs are needed; in addition, there is a need for a formal process to ensure rigor and adequacy of sampling and analysis methods. Also, we suggest that a comprehensive IAQ assessment should

  16. Air pollution, land price development and assessment of immission control needs in urban development plans. The impact of immission pollution by sulphur dioxide and dust precipitation on property prices in residential areas of Dortmund and Duisburg

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee Chenjai.

    1993-01-01

    Air pollution, land price development and assessment of immission control needs in urban development plans. The impact of immission pollution by sulphur dioxide and dust precipitation on property prices in residential areas of Dortmund and Duisburg. The focus of this thesis is on studying the links between property prices and air pollution. The ground rent theory which goes back to the 16th century provides the theoretical basis for this work. RICARDO put forward the theory, that air may, under certain circumstances, - as for instance different local air pollution levels or sensitivity of locals to air quality -, which did not apply 200 years ago actually produce rent. These circumstances do indeed apply widely today - different air pollution levels in urban areas are just a case in point. Various empiricial studies in the U.S. proved that air pollution with different substances does actually influence the value of property. The ground rent influenced by air pollution is called ''air rent''. This study contains empirical studies on the influence of air pollution by sulphur dioxide SO 2 and dust precipitation on general property prices in residential areas of Dortmund between 1979 and 1989 and Duisburg between 1981 and 1989. (orig./UA) [de

  17. Performance Assessment of a Hybrid Solar-Geothermal Air Conditioning System for Residential Application: Energy, Exergy, and Sustainability Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasser Abbasi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the performance of a ground source heat pump that is coupled with a photovoltaic system to provide cooling and heating demands of a zero-energy residential building. Exergy and sustainability analyses have been conducted to evaluate the exergy destruction rate and SI of different compartments of the hybrid system. The effects of monthly thermal load variations on the performance of the hybrid system are investigated. The hybrid system consists of a vertical ground source heat exchanger, rooftop photovoltaic panels, and a heat pump cycle. Exergetic efficiency of the solar-geothermal heat pump system does not exceed 10 percent, and most exergy destruction takes place in photovoltaic panel, condenser, and evaporator. Although SI of PV system remains constant during a year, SI of GSHP varies depending on cooling and heating mode. The results also show that utilization of this hybrid system can reduce CO2 emissions by almost 70 tons per year.

  18. Assessment of windows on noise intrusion, energy efficiency, and indoor air quality for residential buildings near airports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    The continuing increase in air traffic has implications for the preservation of our common : resources and causes global and micro-environmental pollution. This pollution affects public : health and causes damage to the prospects of future generation...

  19. Air Leakage Rates in Typical Air Barrier Assemblies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hun, Diana E. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Atchley, Jerald Allen [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Childs, Phillip W. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-11-01

    Estimates for 2010 indicate that infiltration in residential buildings was responsible for 2.85 quads of energy (DOE 2014), which is about 3% of the total energy consumed in the US. One of the mechanisms being implemented to reduce this energy penalty is the use of air barriers as part of the building envelope. These technologies decrease airflow through major leakage sites such as oriented strand board (OSB) joints, and gaps around penetrations (e.g., windows, doors, pipes, electrical outlets) as indicated by Hun et al. (2014). However, most air barrier materials do not properly address leakage spots such as wall-to-roof joints and wall-to-foundation joints because these are difficult to seal, and because air barrier manufacturers usually do not provide adequate instructions for these locations. The present study focuses on characterizing typical air leakage sites in wall assemblies with air barrier materials.

  20. Volatile organic compound conversion by ozone, hydroxyl radicals, and nitrate radicals in residential indoor air: Magnitudes and impacts of oxidant sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waring, Michael S.; Wells, J. Raymond

    2015-04-01

    Indoor chemistry may be initiated by reactions of ozone (O3), the hydroxyl radical (OH), or the nitrate radical (NO3) with volatile organic compounds (VOC). The principal indoor source of O3 is air exchange, while OH and NO3 formation are considered as primarily from O3 reactions with alkenes and nitrogen dioxide (NO2), respectively. Herein, we used time-averaged models for residences to predict O3, OH, and NO3 concentrations and their impacts on conversion of typical residential VOC profiles, within a Monte Carlo framework that varied inputs probabilistically. We accounted for established oxidant sources, as well as explored the importance of two newly realized indoor sources: (i) the photolysis of nitrous acid (HONO) indoors to generate OH and (ii) the reaction of stabilized Criegee intermediates (SCI) with NO2 to generate NO3. We found total VOC conversion to be dominated by reactions both with O3, which almost solely reacted with D-limonene, and also with OH, which reacted with D-limonene, other terpenes, alcohols, aldehydes, and aromatics. VOC oxidation rates increased with air exchange, outdoor O3, NO2 and D-limonene sources, and indoor photolysis rates; and they decreased with O3 deposition and nitric oxide (NO) sources. Photolysis was a strong OH formation mechanism for high NO, NO2, and HONO settings, but SCI/NO2 reactions weakly generated NO3 except for only a few cases.

  1. A comparison of four methods to evaluate the effect of a utility residential air-conditioner load control program on peak electricity use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newsham, Guy R., E-mail: guy.newsham@nrc-cnrc.gc.ca [National Research Council Canada-Institute for Research in Construction, Building M24, 1200 Montreal Road, Ottawa, Ontario, K1A 0R6 (Canada); Birt, Benjamin J. [National Research Council Canada-Institute for Research in Construction, Building M24, 1200 Montreal Road, Ottawa, Ontario, K1A 0R6 (Canada); Rowlands, Ian H. [University of Waterloo, Ontario (Canada)

    2011-10-15

    We analyzed the peak load reductions due to a residential direct load control program for air-conditioners in southern Ontario in 2008. In this program, participant thermostats were increased by 2 deg. C for four hours on five event days. We used hourly, whole-house data for 195 participant households and 268 non-participant households, and four different methods of analysis ranging from simple spreadsheet-based comparisons of average loads on event days, to complex time-series regression. Average peak load reductions were 0.2-0.9 kWh/h per household, or 10-35%. However, there were large differences between event days and across event hours, and in results for the same event day/hour, with different analysis methods. There was also a wide range of load reductions between individual households, and only a minority of households contributed to any given event. Policy makers should be aware of how the choice of an analysis method may affect decisions regarding which demand-side management programs to support, and how they might be incentivized. We recommend greater use of time-series methods, although it might take time to become comfortable with their complexity. Further investigation of what type of households contribute most to aggregate load reductions would also help policy makers better target programs. - Highlights: > We analyzed peak load reductions due to residential a/c load control. > We used four methods, ranging from simple comparisons to time-series regression. > Average peak load reductions were 0.2-0.9 kW per household, varying by method. > We recommend a move towards time-series regression for future studies. > A minority of participant households contributed to a given load control event.

  2. Health impacts due to personal exposure to fine particles caused by insulation of residential buildings in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gens, Alexandra; Hurley, J. Fintan; Tuomisto, Jouni T.; Friedrich, Rainer

    2014-02-01

    The insulation of residential buildings affects human exposure to fine particles. According to current EU guidelines, insulation is regulated for energy saving reasons. As buildings become tighter, the air exchange rate is reduced and, thus, the indoor concentration of pollutants is increased if there are significant indoor sources. While usually the effects of heat insulation and increase of the air-tightness of buildings on greenhouse gas emissions are highlighted, the negative impacts on human health due to higher indoor concentrations are not addressed. Thus, we investigated these impacts using scenarios in three European countries, i. e. Czech Republic, Switzerland and Greece. The assessment was based on modelling the human exposure to fine particles originating from sources of particles within outdoor and indoor air, including environmental tobacco smoke. Exposure response relationships were derived to link (adverse) health effects to the exposure. Furthermore, probable values for the parameters influencing the infiltration of fine particles into residential buildings were modelled. Results show that the insulation and increase of the air-tightness of residential buildings leads to an overall increase of the mean population exposure - and consequently adverse health effects - in all considered countries (ranging for health effects from 0.4% in Czech Republic to 11.8% in Greece for 100% insulated buildings) due to an accumulation of particles indoors, especially from environmental tobacco smoke. Considering only the emission reductions in outdoor air (omitting changes in infiltration parameters) leads to a decrease of adverse health effects. This study highlights the importance of ensuring a sufficient air exchange rate when insulating buildings, e. g. by prescribing heat ventilation and air conditioning systems in new buildings and information campaigns on good airing practice in renovated buildings. It also shows that assessing policy measures based on the

  3. Infiltration into Fractured Bedrock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salve, Rohit; Ghezzehei, Teamrat A.; Jones, Robert

    2007-09-01

    One potential consequence of global climate change and rapid changes in land use is an increased risk of flooding. Proper understanding of floodwater infiltration thus becomes a crucial component of our preparedness to meet the environmental challenges of projected climate change. In this paper, we present the results of a long-term infiltration experiment performed on fractured ash flow tuff. Water was released from a 3 x 4 m{sup 2} infiltration plot (divided into 12 square subplots) with a head of {approx}0.04 m, over a period of {approx}800 days. This experiment revealed peculiar infiltration patterns not amenable to current infiltration models, which were originally developed for infiltration into soils over a short duration. In particular, we observed that in part of the infiltration plot, the infiltration rate abruptly increased a few weeks into the infiltration tests. We suggest that these anomalies result from increases in fracture permeability during infiltration, which may be caused by swelling of clay fillings and/or erosion of infill debris. Interaction of the infiltration water with subsurface natural cavities (lithophysal cavities) could also contribute to such anomalies. This paper provides a conceptual model that partly describes the observed infiltration patterns in fractured rock and highlights some of the pitfalls associated with direct extension of soil infiltration models to fractured rock over a long period.

  4. INFILTRATION CHARACTERISTICS IN MULTI-FLOOR BUILDINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilek KUMLUTAŞ

    1999-02-01

    Full Text Available Infiltration or in other words the air leakage in buildings has an important role on heat load calculations. The rate of this loss has been estimated as 20 to 30 % of the total load. The indicated important effect of infiltration on the load calculations needs a reliable method for the determination of air leakeage level in buildings. Meantime, the rate of infiltration has an additional importance at the area of thermal comfort studies which deals with the air quality of enclosed volumes. During this research study, first the mechanism of infiltration and the major components of the phenomena (wind pressure, temperature difference was discussed together with the theoretical considerations. Later, several conventional engineering approachs and emprical methods was reviewed and compared among each others. At the last part of the paper, the modified DIN 4701 method which is presently used in Turkey, and some other algorithms was applied to some pilot buildings and the predictions was compared with experimental results.

  5. Residential Waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Fruergaard, Thilde; Matsufuji, Y.

    2011-01-01

    are discussed in this chapter. Characterizing residential waste is faced with the problem that many residences already divert some waste away from the official collection systems, for example performing home composting of vegetable waste and garden waste, having their bundled newspaper picked up by the scouts...... twice a year or bringing their used furniture to the flea markets organized by charity clubs. Thus, much of the data available on residential waste represents collected waste and not necessarily all generated waste. The latter can only be characterized by careful studies directly at the source...

  6. Evaluation of Technical and Utility Programmatic Challenges With Residential Forced-Air Integrated Space/Water Heat Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kingston, Tim [Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit, Des Plaines, IL (United States); Vadnal, Hillary [Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit, Des Plaines, IL (United States); Scott, Shawn [Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit, Des Plaines, IL (United States); Kalensky, Dave [Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit, Des Plaines, IL (United States)

    2016-12-01

    This multi-unit field demonstration of combined space and water heating (combi) systems was conducted to help document combi system installation and performance issues that needed to be addressed through research. The objective of the project was to put commercialized forced-air tankless combi units into the field through local contractors that were trained by manufacturers and GTI staff under the auspices of utility-implemented ETPs.

  7. Land use regression modeling of intra-urban residential variability in multiple traffic-related air pollutants

    OpenAIRE

    Clougherty, Jane E; Wright, Rosalind J; Baxter, Lisa K; Levy, Jonathan I

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background There is a growing body of literature linking GIS-based measures of traffic density to asthma and other respiratory outcomes. However, no consensus exists on which traffic indicators best capture variability in different pollutants or within different settings. As part of a study on childhood asthma etiology, we examined variability in outdoor concentrations of multiple traffic-related air pollutants within urban communities, using a range of GIS-based predictors and land ...

  8. Infiltrated carbon foam composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Rick D. (Inventor); Danford, Harry E. (Inventor); Plucinski, Janusz W. (Inventor); Merriman, Douglas J. (Inventor); Blacker, Jesse M. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    An infiltrated carbon foam composite and method for making the composite is described. The infiltrated carbon foam composite may include a carbonized carbon aerogel in cells of a carbon foam body and a resin is infiltrated into the carbon foam body filling the cells of the carbon foam body and spaces around the carbonized carbon aerogel. The infiltrated carbon foam composites may be useful for mid-density ablative thermal protection systems.

  9. Determining Infiltration Rates and Predicting Building Occupancy Using CO2 Concentration Curves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Parsons

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Demand controlled ventilation (DCV reduces energy loss by reducing the air exchange flow rate to the minimum required to maintain acceptable indoor air quality (IAQ. DCV commonly uses carbon dioxide (CO2 as a proxy for human activity and increases the ventilation rate once a preset CO2 threshold is exceeded. Significant improvements over threshold based ODV strategies are possible if the natural infiltration rate of the building is measured and the occupancy schedule determined by analysing the CO2 concentration continuously. These calculated parameters allow mathematical modeling of the ventilated space and the determination of future CO2 concentrations and allow prediction of future ventilation demands. The natural infiltration rate and the onset and duration of vacancy periods in a residential dwelling were determined by analysing CO2 concentration data. Concentration declines which fit an exponential decay curve with a correlation coefficient >0.90 identified all vacancy periods. The measured natural infiltration rate was found statistically correlated with average wind speed. A dynamic predicted occupancy map was constructed that has the potential to facilitate significant energy savings via deferred ventilation and intelligent cooling and heating strategies.

  10. Comparison between predicted duct effectiveness from proposed ASHRAE Standard 152P and measured field data for residential forced air cooling systems; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siegel, Jeffrey A.; McWilliams, Jennifer A.; Walker, Iain S.

    2002-01-01

    The proposed ASHRAE Standard 152P ''Method of Test for Determining the Design and Seasonal Efficiencies of Residential Thermal Distribution Systems'' (ASHRAE 2002) has recently completed its second public review. As part of the standard development process, this study compares the forced air distribution system ratings provided by the public review draft of Standard 152P to measured field results. 58 field tests were performed on cooling systems in 11 homes in the summers of 1998 and 1999. Seven of these houses had standard attics with insulation on the attic floor and a well-vented attic space. The other four houses had unvented attics where the insulation is placed directly under the roof deck and the attic space is not deliberately vented. Each house was tested under a range of summer weather conditions at each particular site, and in some cases the amount of duct leakage was intentionally varied. The comparison between 152P predicted efficiencies and the measured results includes evaluation of the effects of weather, duct location, thermal conditions, duct leakage, and system capacity. The results showed that the difference between measured delivery effectiveness and that calculated using proposed Standard 152P is about 5 percentage points if weather data, duct leakage and air handler flow are well known. However, the accuracy of the standard is strongly dependent on having good measurements of duct leakage and system airflow. Given that the uncertainty in the measured delivery effectiveness is typically also about 5 percentage points, the Standard 152P results are acceptably close to the measured data

  11. Comparison of a Constant Air Volume (CAV) and a Demand Controlled Ventilation (DCV) System in a Residential Building

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Dorthe Kragsig; Nielsen, Toke Rammer; Topp, Claus

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to compare the indoor climate and the energy performance of a Constant Air Volume (CAV) system of 0.5h-1 with a Demand Controlled Ventilation (DCV) system controlled by occupancy and relative humidity for a studio apartment. Furthermore the impact of building materials...... it was found that the energy consumption for heating and operating the ventilation system could be reduced by respectively 8.0% and 10.6 % in the case of DCV without negative impact on the indoor climate. Including the hygroscopic properties of the materials resulted in a reduction of the energy consumption...... for heating and operating the ventilation system by respectively 9.5% and 17.1 % in favour of the DCV system....

  12. Place of work and residential exposure to ambient air pollution and birth outcomes in Scotland, using geographically fine pollution climate mapping estimates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dibben, Chris; Clemens, Tom

    2015-07-01

    A relationship between ambient air pollution and adverse birth outcomes has been found in a large number of studies that have mainly used a nearest monitor methodology. Recent research has suggested that the effect size may have been underestimated in these studies. This paper examines associations between birth outcomes and ambient levels of residential and workplace sulphur dioxide, particulates and Nitrogen Dioxide estimated using an alternative method - pollution climate mapping. Risk of low birthweight and mean birthweight (for n=21,843 term births) and risk of preterm birth (for n=23,086 births) were modelled against small area annual mean ambient air pollution concentrations at work and residence location adjusting for potential confounding factors for singleton live births (1994-2008) across Scotland. Odds ratios of low birthweight of 1.02 (95% CI, 1.01-1.03) and 1.07 (95% CI, 1.01-1.12) with concentration increases of 1 µg/m(3) for NO2 and PM10 respectively. Raised but insignificant risks of very preterm birth were found with PM10 (relative risk ratio=1.08; 95% CI, 1.00 to 1.17 per 1 µg/m(3)) and NO2 (relative risk ratio=1.01; 95% CI, 1.00 to 1.03 per 1 µg/m(3)). An inverse association between mean birthweight and mean annual NO2(-1.24 g; 95% CI, -2.02 to -0.46 per 1 µg/m(3)) and PM10 (-5.67 g; 95% CI, -9.47 to -1.87 per 1 µg/m(3)). SO2 showed no significant associations. This study highlights the association between air pollution exposure and reduced newborn size at birth. Together with other recent work it also suggests that exposure estimation based on the nearest monitor method may have led to an under-estimation of the effect size of pollutants on birth outcomes. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Assessment of natural ventilation for Canadian residential buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reardon, J.T. [National Research Council of Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada)

    2007-08-13

    There are generally two types of ventilation in houses, notably natural infiltration produced by stack and wind pressures, and mechanical ventilation by exhaust or intake fans operating across the house envelope. This research paper utilized historical data collected in Ottawa to establish those periods of low natural ventilation, when stack and wind pressures become so low that sufficient natural ventilation does not occur. Modelling and weather data was used to extend the analysis to other locations in Canada. This paper described the research project including its objectives and work plan. Each of the tasks in the study were explained. These included establishing a definition of adequate residential ventilation; establishing typical characteristics of Canadian dwellings; selecting a suitable air infiltration/natural ventilation model for houses; identifying measured data sets suitable for analysis; and reviewing selected data to determine periods of inadequate natural ventilation. Conclusions and future work were also presented. It was concluded that natural ventilation, at least due to air filtration, cannot be relied upon to provide all the ventilation needs in Canadian houses. Mechanical ventilation is needed in most Canadian houses to supplement natural ventilation during mild weather. 73 refs., 74 tabs., 7 figs., 3 appendices.

  14. Formaldehyde as a basis for residential ventilation rates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sherman, M.H.; Hodgson, A.T.

    2002-04-28

    Traditionally, houses in the U.S. have been ventilated by passive infiltration in combination with active window opening. However in recent years, the construction quality of residential building envelopes has been improved to reduce infiltration, and the use of windows for ventilation also may have decreased due to a number of factors. Thus, there has been increased interest in engineered ventilation systems for residences. The amount of ventilation provided by an engineered system should be set to protect occupants from unhealthy or objectionable exposures to indoor pollutants, while minimizing energy costs for conditioning incoming air. Determining the correct ventilation rate is a complex task, as there are numerous pollutants of potential concern, each having poorly characterized emission rates, and poorly defined acceptable levels of exposure. One ubiquitous pollutant in residences is formaldehyde. The sources of formaldehyde in new houses are reasonably understood, and there is a large body of literature on human health effects. This report examines the use of formaldehyde as a means of determining ventilation rates and uses existing data on emission rates of formaldehyde in new houses to derive recommended levels. Based on current, widely accepted concentration guidelines for formaldehyde, the minimum and guideline ventilation rates for most new houses are 0.28 and 0.5 air changes per hour, respectively.

  15. Hereditary Diffuse Infiltrating Retinoblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schedler, Katharina J E; Traine, Peter G; Lohmann, Dietmar R; Haritoglou, Christos; Metz, Klaus A; Rodrigues, Eduardo B

    2016-01-01

    Retinoblastoma is one of the most common childhood cancers. The diffuse infiltrating retinoblastoma is a rare subtype of this neoplasm. The majority of cases of diffuse infiltrating retinoblastoma are unilateral and occur sporadically. Herein we report on a family with three children affected by retinoblastoma, among them one girl with diffuse infiltrating retinoblastoma. This girl was diagnosed at the age of 8 years with a unilateral diffuse infiltrating retinoblastoma. By contrast, the two brothers became clinically apparent in the first 2 years of life with bilateral retinoblastoma. The parents were clinically unremarkable. Genetic analysis of RB1 gene was performed. The girl with diffuse infiltrating RB was found to be heterozygous for an oncogenic mutation in the RB1 gene that was also carried by both brothers and the father of the family. These results show that diffuse infiltrating retinoblastoma can develop on the background of a hereditary predisposition to retinoblastoma.

  16. Land use regression modeling of intra-urban residential variability in multiple traffic-related air pollutants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baxter Lisa K

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is a growing body of literature linking GIS-based measures of traffic density to asthma and other respiratory outcomes. However, no consensus exists on which traffic indicators best capture variability in different pollutants or within different settings. As part of a study on childhood asthma etiology, we examined variability in outdoor concentrations of multiple traffic-related air pollutants within urban communities, using a range of GIS-based predictors and land use regression techniques. Methods We measured fine particulate matter (PM2.5, nitrogen dioxide (NO2, and elemental carbon (EC outside 44 homes representing a range of traffic densities and neighborhoods across Boston, Massachusetts and nearby communities. Multiple three to four-day average samples were collected at each home during winters and summers from 2003 to 2005. Traffic indicators were derived using Massachusetts Highway Department data and direct traffic counts. Multivariate regression analyses were performed separately for each pollutant, using traffic indicators, land use, meteorology, site characteristics, and central site concentrations. Results PM2.5 was strongly associated with the central site monitor (R2 = 0.68. Additional variability was explained by total roadway length within 100 m of the home, smoking or grilling near the monitor, and block-group population density (R2 = 0.76. EC showed greater spatial variability, especially during winter months, and was predicted by roadway length within 200 m of the home. The influence of traffic was greater under low wind speed conditions, and concentrations were lower during summer (R2 = 0.52. NO2 showed significant spatial variability, predicted by population density and roadway length within 50 m of the home, modified by site characteristics (obstruction, and with higher concentrations during summer (R2 = 0.56. Conclusion Each pollutant examined displayed somewhat different spatial patterns

  17. Smart Control System to Optimize Time of Use in a Solar-Assisted Air-Conditioning by Ejector for Residential Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanna Avedian-González

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The present work provides a series of theoretical improvements of a control strategy in order to optimize the time of use of solar air-conditioning by an ejector distributed in multiple solar collectors of vacuum tubes for the residential sector, which will allow us to reduce carbon-dioxide emissions, costs and electrical energy consumption. In a solar ejector cooling system, the instability of the solar source of energy causes an operational conflict between the solar thermal system and ejector cooling cycle. A fuzzy control structure for the supervisory ejector cycle and multi-collector control system is developed: the first control is applied to control the mass flow of the generator and the evaporator for different cooling capacities (3, 3.5, 4, 4.5 and 5 kW and set a temperature reference according to the operating conditions; the second is applied to keep a constant temperature power source that feeds the low-grade ejector cooling cycle using R134aas refrigerant. For the present work, the temperature of the generator oscillates between 65 °C and 90 °C, a condenser temperature of 30 °C and an evaporator temperature of 10 °C. For the purpose of optimization, there are different levels of performance for time of use: the Mode 0 (economic gives a performance of 17.55 h, Mode 5 (maximum cooling power 14.86 h and variable mode (variable mode of capacities 16.25 h, on average. Simulations are done in MATLAB-Simulink applying fuzzy logic for a mathematical model of the thermal balance. They are compared with two different types of solar radiation: real radiation and disturbed radiation.

  18. ASHRAE and residential ventilation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sherman, Max H.

    2003-10-01

    In the last quarter of a century, the western world has become increasingly aware of environmental threats to health and safety. During this period, people psychologically retreated away from outdoors hazards such as pesticides, smog, lead, oil spills, and dioxin to the seeming security of their homes. However, the indoor environment may not be healthier than the outdoor environment, as has become more apparent over the past few years with issues such as mold, formaldehyde, and sick-building syndrome. While the built human environment has changed substantially over the past 10,000 years, human biology has not; poor indoor air quality creates health risks and can be uncomfortable. The human race has found, over time, that it is essential to manage the indoor environments of their homes. ASHRAE has long been in the business of ventilation, but most of the focus of that effort has been in the area of commercial and institutional buildings. Residential ventilation was traditionally not a major concern because it was felt that, between operable windows and envelope leakage, people were getting enough outside air in their homes. In the quarter of a century since the first oil shock, houses have gotten much more energy efficient. At the same time, the kinds of materials and functions in houses changed in character in response to people's needs. People became more environmentally conscious and aware not only about the resources they were consuming but about the environment in which they lived. All of these factors contributed to an increasing level of public concern about residential indoor air quality and ventilation. Where once there was an easy feeling about the residential indoor environment, there is now a desire to define levels of acceptability and performance. Many institutions--both public and private--have interests in Indoor Air Quality (IAQ), but ASHRAE, as the professional society that has had ventilation as part of its mission for over 100 years, is the

  19. Energy Impacts of Envelope Tightening and Mechanical Ventilation for the U.S. Residential Sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Logue, J. M. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Sherman, M. H. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Walker, I. S. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Singer, B. C. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Effective residential envelope air sealing reduces infiltration and associated energy costs for thermal conditioning, yet often creates a need for mechanical ventilation to protect indoor air quality. This study estimated the potential energy savings of implementing airtightness improvements or absolute standards along with mechanical ventilation throughout the U.S. housing stock. We used a physics-based modeling framework to simulate the impact of envelope tightening, providing mechanical ventilation as needed. There are 113 million homes in the US. We calculated the change in energy demand for each home in a nationally representative sample of 50,000 virtual homes developed from the 2009 Residential Energy Consumption Survey. Ventilation was provided as required by 2010 and proposed 2013 versions of ASHRAE Standard 62.2. Ensuring that all current homes comply with 62.2-2010 would increase residential site energy demand by 0.07 quads (0.07 exajoules (EJ)) annually. Improving airtightness of all homes at current average retrofit performance levels would decrease demand by 0.7 quads (0.74 EJ) annually and upgrading all homes to be as airtight as the top 10% of similar homes would double the savings, leading to roughly $22 billion in annual savings in energy bills. We also analyzed the potential benefits of bringing the entire stock to airtightness specifications of IECC 2012, Canada's R2000, and Passive House standards.

  20. Technology Solutions Case Study: Impact of Infiltration and Ventilation on Measured Space Conditioning Energy and Moisture Levels in the Hot-Humid Climate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2014-04-01

    Air infiltration and ventilation in residential buildings is a very large part of the heating loads, but empirical data regarding the impact on space cooling has been lacking. Moreover, there has been little data on how building tightness might relate to building interior moisture levels in homes in a hot and humid climate. To address this need, BA-PIRC conducted research to assess the moisture and cooling load impacts of airtightness and mechanical ventilation in two identical laboratory homes in the hot-humid climate over the cooling season.

  1. Impact of Infiltration and Ventilation on Measured Space Conditioning Energy and Moisture Levels in the Hot-Humid Climate, Cocoa, Florida (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2014-04-01

    Air infiltration and ventilation in residential buildings is a very large part of the heating loads, but empirical data regarding the impact on space cooling has been lacking. Moreover, there has been little data on how building tightness might relate to building interior moisture levels in homes in a hot and humid climate. To address this need, BA-PIRC has conducted research to assess the moisture and cooling load impacts of airtightness and mechanical ventilation in two identical laboratory homes in the hot-humid climate over the cooling season.

  2. Air

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gov/ Home The environment and your health Air Air While we don’t often think about the ... do to protect yourself from dirty air . Indoor air pollution and outdoor air pollution Air can be ...

  3. Acoustic location of infiltration openings in buildings. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keast, D.N.

    1978-10-01

    Unnecessary air infiltration (''draftiness'') in buildings can be a major cause for excessive energy consumption. A method for using sound to locate, for subsequent sealing, the openings of air infiltration leakage paths in buildings has been investigated. The results of pertinent analytical studies, laboratory experiments, and field applications of this acoustic-location method are reported; and a plan is provided to encourage national implementation of the method. Low-cost, readily available equipment and procedures are described whereby the average building contractor or homeowner can use acoustic leak location to pinpoint many of the air infiltration openings in a building.

  4. Residential Mechanical Precooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    German, Alea [Davis Energy Group, Davis, CA (United States). Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI); Hoeschele, Marc [Davis Energy Group, Davis, CA (United States). Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI)

    2014-12-01

    Residential air conditioning (AC) represents a challenging load for many electric utilities with poor load factors. Mechanical precooling improves the load factor by shifting cooling operation from on-peak to off-peak hours. This provides benefits to utilities and the electricity grid, as well as to occupants who can take advantage of time-of-use (TOU) electricity rates. Performance benefits stem from reduced compressor cycling, and shifting condensing unit operation to earlier periods of the day when outdoor temperatures are more favorable to operational efficiency. Finding solutions that save energy and reduce demand on the electricity grid is an important national objective and supports key Building America goals. The Alliance for Residential Building Innovation team evaluated mechanical AC precooling strategies in homes throughout the United States. EnergyPlus modeling was used to evaluate two homes with different performance characteristics in seven climates. Results are applicable to new construction homes and most existing homes built in the last 10 years, as well as fairly efficient retrofitted homes. A successful off-peak AC strategy offers the potential for increased efficiency and improved occupant comfort, and promotes a more reliable and robust electricity grid. Demand response capabilities and further integration with photovoltaic TOU generation patterns provide additional opportunities to flatten loads and optimize grid impacts.

  5. Urban Stormwater Infiltration Perspectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geldof, Govert; Jacobsen, Per; Fujita, Shoichi

    1994-01-01

    In urban areas there are many problems with water management: combined sewer overflows, peak flows, man-induced droughts, consolidation of the soil, damage from frost penetration, etc. It is preferable to look at all these problems in relation to each other, according the concept of integrated....... The second study concerns combined sewer overflows and the discharge from treatment plants for catchments in Denmark and the Netherlands. When looking at the total yearly discharge from the combined sewer and the treatment plant, it is shown that infiltration is more effective than detention. The third study...... water management. This paper focuses on the possibilities for urban stormwater infiltration. The results of three studies are presented. The first study concerns the flooding of the Shirako River in Tokyo. It is shown that with the help of stormwater infiltration the floods can be reduced remarkably...

  6. Analysis of Infiltration Uncertainty

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. McCurley

    2003-10-27

    The primary objectives of this uncertainty analysis are: (1) to develop and justify a set of uncertain parameters along with associated distributions; and (2) to use the developed uncertain parameter distributions and the results from selected analog site calculations done in ''Simulation of Net Infiltration for Modern and Potential Future Climates'' (USGS 2001 [160355]) to obtain the net infiltration weighting factors for the glacial transition climate. These weighting factors are applied to unsaturated zone (UZ) flow fields in Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA), as outlined in the ''Total System Performance Assessment-License Application Methods and Approach'' (BSC 2002 [160146], Section 3.1) as a method for the treatment of uncertainty. This report is a scientific analysis because no new and mathematical physical models are developed herein, and it is based on the use of the models developed in or for ''Simulation of Net Infiltration for Modern and Potential Future Climates'' (USGS 2001 [160355]). Any use of the term model refers to those developed in the infiltration numerical model report. TSPA License Application (LA) has included three distinct climate regimes in the comprehensive repository performance analysis for Yucca Mountain: present-day, monsoon, and glacial transition. Each climate regime was characterized using three infiltration-rate maps, including a lower- and upper-bound and a mean value (equal to the average of the two boundary values). For each of these maps, which were obtained based on analog site climate data, a spatially averaged value was also calculated by the USGS. For a more detailed discussion of these infiltration-rate maps, see ''Simulation of Net Infiltration for Modern and Potential Future Climates'' (USGS 2001 [160355]). For this Scientific Analysis Report, spatially averaged values were calculated for the lower-bound, mean, and upper

  7. Spatial analysis of water infiltration in urban soils. Case study of Iasi municipality (Romania)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cristian Vasilica, Secu; Ionut, Minea

    2013-04-01

    The post-communist period (after 1989) caused important changes in the functional structure of Iasi municipality. The partly dismantling of the industrial area, the urban sprawl against the periurban and agricultural space, the new infrastructure works, all these determined important changes of soils' physical and morphological properties (e.g. porosity, density, compaction, infiltration rate etc., in the first case, and changes in soil horizons, in the second case etc.). This study aims to prove the variability of physical properties through the combination of statistical and geostatistical methods intended for a correct spatial representation. Water infiltration in urban soils was analyzed in relation to land use and the age of parental materials. Field investigations consisted in measurements of the water infiltration (by the means of Turf Tech infiltrometer), resistance to penetration (penetrologger), moisture deficit (Theta Probe) and resistivity (EC) for 70 equally distanced points (750 m x 750 m) placed in a grid covering more than 33 km2. In the laboratory, there were determined several parameters as density, porosity (air pycnometer), gravimetric moisture and other hydrophysical indicators. Filed investigations results are very heterogeneous, because of the human intervention on soils. The curves of variation for the rate water infiltration in soils indicate a downward trend, from high values in first time interval (one minute), between 5000 and 60 mm/h-1, gradually decreasing to the interval of 5-10 minutes (between 30 and 1000 mm/ h-1 to a general trend of flattening after a large time interval (in the timeframe of 50-60 minutes, the infiltration rate ranges between 4 and 142 mm•h-1). The highest frequency (≥65%) caracterizes the infiltration rates between 20 and 65 mm•h-1. For each analyzed sector (residential areas, industrial areas, degraded lands, recreational areas - parks and botanical gardens, forests heterogeneous agricultural lands), the

  8. Urban Stormwater Infiltration Perspectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geldof, Govert; Jacobsen, Per; Fujita, Shoichi

    1994-01-01

    shows the impact of urban stormwater infiltration on the groundwater flux in an area in the south of the Netherlands. To relate the different results from the three studies an analogy is introduced with the human body. The combination of problems results in a so-called urban hang-over. It is shown...

  9. Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase Promoter Haplotypes and Residential Traffic-Related Air Pollution Jointly Influence Exhaled Nitric Oxide Level in Children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad T Salam

    Full Text Available Exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO, a biomarker of airway inflammation, predicts asthma risk in children. We previously found that the promoter haplotypes in inducible nitric oxide synthase (NOS2 and exposure to residential traffic independently influence FeNO level. Because NOS2 is inducible by environmental exposures such as traffic-related exposure, we tested the hypothesis that common NOS2 promoter haplotypes modulate the relationship between residential traffic-related exposure and FeNO level in children.In a cross-sectional population-based study, subjects (N = 2,457; 7-11 year-old were Hispanic and non-Hispanic white children who participated in the Southern California Children's Health Study and had FeNO measurements. For residential traffic, lengths of local roads within circular buffers (50m, 100m and 200m radii around homes around the subjects' homes were estimated using geographic information system (GIS methods. We interrogated the two most common NOS2 promoter haplotypes that were found to affect FeNO level.The relationship between local road lengths within 100m and 200m circular buffers and FeNO level varied significantly by one of the NOS2 promoter haplotypes (P-values for interaction between road length and NOS2 promoter haplotype = 0.02 and 0.03, respectively. In children who had ≤250m of local road lengths within 100m buffer around their homes, those with two copies of the haplotype had significantly lower FeNO (adjusted geometric mean = 11.74ppb; 95% confidence intervals (CI: 9.99 to 13.80 than those with no copies (adjusted geometric mean = 15.28ppb; 95% CI: 14.04 to 16.63 with statistically significant trend of lower FeNO level with increasing number of haplotype copy (P-value for trend = 0.002. In contrast, among children who had >250m of local road lengths within 100m buffer, FeNO level did not significantly differ by the haplotype copy-number (P-value for trend = 0.34. Similar interactive effects of this haplotype and local

  10. Infiltration: pressuriztion correlations: detailed measurement on a California house

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grimsrud, D.T.; Sherman, M.H.; Diamond, R.C.; Condon, P.E.; Rosenfeld, A.H.

    1978-12-01

    Infiltration studies have been carried out in a typical tract home in the San Francisco Bay area. Houses in this region as a result of the mild climate are loosely constructed, and show large air leakage rates. Infiltration rates of up to 1-1/4 air changes an hour were measured using a controlled flow tracer gas technique with nitrous oxide as the tracer gas. Air leakage rates were meausured using fan pressurization of the house with a range of pressures from 7.5 to 75 Pascals. In addition to weather data taken on site, pressure sensors mounted on the exterior walls were critical in establishing a pressure model for air infiltration. Measured inside--outside pressure differences were less than a tenth of those expected based upon wind speed measurements made on site. Measurements also show significant (20%) duct leakage and air flow between the attic, living space and crawl space.

  11. Resin infiltration transfer technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, David V [Pittsburgh, PA; Baranwal, Rita [Glenshaw, PA

    2009-12-08

    A process has been developed for fabricating composite structures using either reaction forming or polymer infiltration and pyrolysis techniques to densify the composite matrix. The matrix and reinforcement materials of choice can include, but are not limited to, silicon carbide (SiC) and zirconium carbide (ZrC). The novel process can be used to fabricate complex, net-shape or near-net shape, high-quality ceramic composites with a crack-free matrix.

  12. Effects on annual cost of solar/air-heat utilization system of carbon tax and interest rate for a residential house; Jutakuyo taiyo/taikinetsu riyo system no nenkan keihi ni oyobosu tansozei kinri no eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, Q.; Kenmoku, Y.; Sakakibara, T. [Toyohashi University of Technology, Aichi (Japan); Nakagawa, S. [Maizuru National College of Technology, Kyoto (Japan); Kawamoto, T. [Shizuoka University, Shizuoka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1996-10-27

    In recent years, a system has been proposed that utilizes river heat, air-heat, exhaust heat from a cooler, etc., in addition to natural energy for the heat pump. With the introduction of such system, the amount of energy used and that of CO2 exhaust will be greatly reduced, but annual expenses will be increased as it stands. In order to improve the cost efficiency of the system, a proposal has been made for the introduction of an economic policy such as the carbon tax and a low interest financing system. With these matters in the background, the subject study predicts the production of solar cells in the future and, on the basis of this production, determines the price, conversion efficiency and equipment energy of solar cells in the future. Using these values and taking into consideration the introduction of the carbon tax and the low interest financing system, the optimum area was determined for solar cells and heat concentrators in a future residential solar/air-heat energy system. The carbon tax, being imposed on all CO2 discharges, had a large effect. Moreover, as the tax increased, annual expenses decreased for the solar/air-heat system. 3 refs., 6 figs.

  13. Air-Supported Anti-Infiltration Barrier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1966-08-01

    traff isuon tho r ation its cant in an nanner an u thorix orson i rohibito by low. EX OMf E DOWNGRADDTOROM CNFIDENTIL TO U0C -IN ACCORDANCE WJWH...shod foot. They would be sown in great density along well -used trails, on the assumption that they would be much harder to sweep than Gravel. W Their...new mines (such as tripwire, smaller and more effectively camouflaged Gravel, and various other kinds of mines), as well as still better sensor/inforJ

  14. Impenetrable infiltration: air permeability of Dutch dwellings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Entrop, Alexis Gerardus; Hensen, Jan; Loomans, Marcel; Brons, Ron; Veldhoff, Alex; Averink, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Het is wenselijk dat gebouwen beschikken over voldoende en de juiste mogelijkheden om te ventileren. Buiten de benodigde ventilatievoorzieningen is het echter de bedoeling een gebouw zo luchtdicht mogelijk te maken ten einde comfortklachten en onnodig energiegebruik te voorkomen. In het Bouwbesluit

  15. Complex analysis of energy efficiency in operated high-rise residential building: Case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korniyenko Sergey

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Energy conservation and human thermal comfort enhancement in buildings is a topical issue of modern architecture and construction. The innovative solution of this problem makes it possible to enhance building ecological and maintenance safety, to reduce hydrocarbon fuel consumption, and to improve life standard of people. The requirements to increase of energy efficiency in buildings should be provided at all the stages of building's life cycle that is at the stage of design, construction and maintenance of buildings. The research purpose is complex analysis of energy efficiency in operated high-rise residential building. Many actions for building energy efficiency are realized according to the project; mainly it is the effective building envelope and engineering systems. Based on results of measurements the energy indicators of the building during annual period have been calculated. The main reason of increase in heat losses consists in the raised infiltration of external air in the building through a building envelope owing to the increased air permeability of windows and balcony doors (construction defects. Thermorenovation of the building based on ventilating and infiltration heat losses reduction through a building envelope allows reducing annual energy consumption. Energy efficiency assessment based on the total annual energy consumption of building, including energy indices for heating and a ventilation, hot water supply and electricity supply, in comparison with heating is more complete. The account of various components in building energy balance completely corresponds to modern direction of researches on energy conservation and thermal comfort enhancement in buildings.

  16. Complex analysis of energy efficiency in operated high-rise residential building: Case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korniyenko, Sergey

    2018-03-01

    Energy conservation and human thermal comfort enhancement in buildings is a topical issue of modern architecture and construction. The innovative solution of this problem makes it possible to enhance building ecological and maintenance safety, to reduce hydrocarbon fuel consumption, and to improve life standard of people. The requirements to increase of energy efficiency in buildings should be provided at all the stages of building's life cycle that is at the stage of design, construction and maintenance of buildings. The research purpose is complex analysis of energy efficiency in operated high-rise residential building. Many actions for building energy efficiency are realized according to the project; mainly it is the effective building envelope and engineering systems. Based on results of measurements the energy indicators of the building during annual period have been calculated. The main reason of increase in heat losses consists in the raised infiltration of external air in the building through a building envelope owing to the increased air permeability of windows and balcony doors (construction defects). Thermorenovation of the building based on ventilating and infiltration heat losses reduction through a building envelope allows reducing annual energy consumption. Energy efficiency assessment based on the total annual energy consumption of building, including energy indices for heating and a ventilation, hot water supply and electricity supply, in comparison with heating is more complete. The account of various components in building energy balance completely corresponds to modern direction of researches on energy conservation and thermal comfort enhancement in buildings.

  17. Training Munitions Health Risk Assessment No. 39-EJ-1485-00. Residential Exposure from Inhalation of Air Emissions from the M33 .50 Caliber Ball Cartridge

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Coakley, Stafford

    2001-01-01

    ... .50 Caliber Ball Cartridge. This document present the evaluation of the potential for adverse human health effects to the offsite residents breathing air emissions following the use of military firing ranges during training exercises...

  18. Training Munitions Health Risk Assessment No. 39-EJ-1485-00 Residential Exposure from Inhalation of Air Emissions from the M80 7.62-MM Ball Cartridge

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chang, Hsieng-Ye

    2001-01-01

    ... of the 7.62 mm Ball Cartridge. This document presents the evaluation of the potential for adverse human health effects to the offsite residents breathing air emissions following the use of military firing ranges during training exercises...

  19. Training Munitions Health Risk Assessment No. 39-EJ-1485-00 Residential Exposure from Inhalation of Air Emissions from the M855 5.56-MM Ball Cartridge

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mobley, Joleen

    2001-01-01

    .... This document present the evaluation of the potential for adverse human health effects to the offsite residents breathing air emissions following the use of military firing ranges during training exercises...

  20. STAR Measurements and Modeling for Quantifying Air Quality and Climatic Impacts of Residential Biomass or Coal Combustion for Cooking, Heating and Lighting Kick-off Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    STAR grantees and EPA scientists will discuss progress on their projects which aim to quantify the extent to which interventions for cleaner cooking, heating, or lighting can impact air quality and climate, which in turn affect human health and welfare

  1. Residential Radon Exposure and Risk of Lung Cancer in Missouri

    Science.gov (United States)

    A case-control study of lung cancer and residential radon exposure in which investigators carried out both standard year-long air measurements and CR-39 alpha detector measurements (call surface monitors)

  2. Chemical Emissions of Residential Materials and Products: Review of Available Information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willem, Henry; Singer, Brett

    2010-09-15

    This report is prepared in the context of a larger program whose mission is to advance understanding of ventilation and indoor air quality in U.S. homes. A specific objective of this program is to develop the scientific basis ? through controlled experiments, monitoring and analysis ? for health risk-based ventilation standards. Appropriate and adequate ventilation is a basic element of a healthy home. Ventilation provides outdoor air and in the process removes indoor odors and contaminants including potentially unhealthful chemicals emitted by indoor materials, products and activities. Ventilation traditionally was assured to occur via infiltration of outdoor air through cracks and other leakage pathways in the residential building envelope. As building air tightness is improved for energy efficiency, infiltration can be reduced to inadequate levels. This has lead to the development of standards requiring mechanical ventilation. Though nominally intended to ensure acceptable indoor air quality, the standards are not explicitly tied to health risk or pollutant exposure targets. LBNL is currently designing analyses to assess the impact of varying ventilation standards on pollutant concentrations, health risks and energy use. These analyses require information on sources of chemical pollutant emissions, ideally including emission rates and the impact of ventilation on emissions. Some information can be obtained from recent studies that report measurements of various air contaminants and their concentrations in U.S. residences. Another way to obtain this information is the bottom-up approach of collecting and evaluating emissions data from construction and interior materials and common household products. This review contributes to the latter approach by summarizing available information on chemical emissions from new residential products and materials. We review information from the scientific literature and public sources to identify and discuss the databases that

  3. Correlation between air flow rate and pollutant concentrations during two-stage oak log combustion in a 25 KW residential boiler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juszczak Marek

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available It can be expected that there is a considerable correlation between combustion air flow rate and the concentrations of carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons and nitrogen oxide in the flue gas. The influence of temperature and oxygen concentration in the combustion zone on the concentrations of carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons and nitrogen oxide in the flue gas, for high and low combustion air flow, was analysed. Oxygen concentration for which the concentration of carbon monoxide is the lowest was determined, as well as the mutual relation between carbon monoxide and nitrogen oxide concentration.

  4. DEEP INFILTRATING ENDOMETRIOSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Ribič-Pucelj

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Endometriosis is not considered a unified disease, but a disease encompassing three differ- ent forms differentiated by aetiology and pathogenesis: peritoneal endometriosis, ovarian endometriosis and deep infiltrating endometriosis (DIE. The disease is classified as DIE when the lesions penetrate 5 mm or more into the retroperitoneal space. The estimated incidence of endometriosis in women of reproductive age ranges from 10–15 % and that of DIE from 3–10 %, the highest being in infertile women and in those with chronic pelvic pain. The leading symptoms of DIE are chronic pelvic pain which increases with age and correlates with the depth of infiltration and infertility. The most important diagnostic procedures are patient’s history and proper gynecological examination. The diagnosis is confirmed with laparoscopy. DIE can affect, beside reproductive organs, also bowel, bladder and ureters, therefore adi- tional diagnostic procedures must be performed preopertively to confirm or to exclude the involvement of the mentioned organs. Endometriosis is hormon dependent disease, there- fore several hormonal treatment regims are used to supress estrogen production but the symptoms recurr soon after caesation of the treatment. At the moment, surgical treatment with excision of all lesions, including those of bowel, bladder and ureters, is the method of choice but requires frequently interdisciplinary approach. Surgical treatment significantly reduces pain and improves fertility in inferile patients. Conclusions: DIE is not a rare form of endometriosis characterized by chronic pelvic pain and infertility. Medical treatment is not efficient. The method of choice is surgical treatment with excision of all lesions. It significantly reduces pelvic pain and enables high spontaneus and IVF preg- nacy rates.Therefore such patients should be treated at centres with experience in treatment of DIE and with possibility of interdisciplinary approach.

  5. Apply Woods Model in the Predictions of Ambient Air Particles and Metallic Elements (Mn, Fe, Zn, Cr, and Cu at Industrial, Suburban/Coastal, and Residential Sampling Sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guor-Cheng Fang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose for this study was to monitor ambient air particles and metallic elements (Mn, Fe, Zn, Cr, and Cu in total suspended particulates (TSPs concentration, dry deposition at three characteristic sampling sites of central Taiwan. Additionally, the calculated/measured dry deposition flux ratios of ambient air particles and metallic elements were calculated with Woods models at these three characteristic sampling sites during years of 2009-2010. As for ambient air particles, the results indicated that the Woods model generated the most accurate dry deposition prediction results when particle size was 18 μm in this study. The results also indicated that the Woods model exhibited better dry deposition prediction performance when the particle size was greater than 10 μm for the ambient air metallic elements in this study. Finally, as for Quan-xing sampling site, the main sources were many industrial factories under process around these regions and were severely polluted areas. In addition, the highest average dry deposition for Mn, Fe, Zn, and Cu species occurred at Bei-shi sampling site, and the main sources were the nearby science park, fossil fuel combustion, and Taichung thermal power plant (TTPP. Additionally, as for He-mei sampling site, the main sources were subjected to traffic mobile emissions.

  6. Evaluating the Long-Term Health and Economic Impacts of Central Residential Air Filtration for Reducing Premature Mortality Associated with Indoor Fine Particulate Matter (PM2.5 of Outdoor Origin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Zhao

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Much of human exposure to fine particulate matter (PM2.5 of outdoor origin occurs in residences. High-efficiency particle air filtration in central heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC systems is increasingly being used to reduce concentrations of particulate matter inside homes. However, questions remain about the effectiveness of filtration for reducing exposures to PM2.5 of outdoor origin and adverse health outcomes. Here we integrate epidemiology functions and mass balance modeling to estimate the long-term health and economic impacts of HVAC filtration for reducing premature mortality associated with indoor PM2.5 of outdoor origin in residences. We evaluate 11 classifications of filters (MERV 5 through HEPA using six case studies of single-family home vintages and ventilation system combinations located in 22 U.S. cities. We estimate that widespread use of higher efficiency filters would reduce premature mortality by 0.002–2.5% and increase life expectancy by 0.02–1.6 months, yielding annual monetary benefits ranging from $1 to $1348 per person in the homes and locations modeled herein. Large differences in the magnitude of health and economic impacts are driven largely by differences in rated filter efficiency and building and ventilation system characteristics that govern particle infiltration and persistence, with smaller influences attributable to geographic location.

  7. Diffuse Infiltrative Lymphocytosis Syndrome (DILS)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. Diffuse infiltrative lymphocytosis syndrome (DILS) is characterised by a persistent CD8+ lymphocytosis and lymphocytic infiltration of various organs. The reported prevalence varies between 0.85 – 3%, and appears to be more common in Africans. Patients with. DILS tend to have higher CD4+ cell counts and ...

  8. Modeling indoor air pollution of outdoor origin in homes of SAPALDIA subjects in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Reto; Schindler, Christian; Eeftens, Marloes; Aguilera, Inmaculada; Ducret-Stich, Regina E; Ineichen, Alex; Davey, Mark; Phuleria, Harish C; Probst-Hensch, Nicole; Tsai, Ming-Yi; Künzli, Nino

    2015-09-01

    Given the shrinking spatial contrasts in outdoor air pollution in Switzerland and the trends toward tightly insulated buildings, the Swiss Cohort Study on Air Pollution and Lung and Heart Diseases in Adults (SAPALDIA) needs to understand to what extent outdoor air pollution remains a determinant for residential indoor exposure. The objectives of this paper are to identify determining factors for indoor air pollution concentrations of particulate matter (PM), ultrafine particles in the size range from 15 to 300nm, black smoke measured as light absorbance of PM (PMabsorbance) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and to develop predictive indoor models for SAPALDIA. Multivariable regression models were developed based on indoor and outdoor measurements among homes of selected SAPALDIA participants in three urban (Basel, Geneva, Lugano) and one rural region (Wald ZH) in Switzerland, various home characteristics and reported indoor sources such as cooking. Outdoor levels of air pollutants were important predictors for indoor air pollutants, except for the coarse particle fraction. The fractions of outdoor concentrations infiltrating indoors were between 30% and 66%, the highest one was observed for PMabsorbance. A modifying effect of open windows was found for NO2 and the ultrafine particle number concentration. Cooking was associated with increased particle and NO2 levels. This study shows that outdoor air pollution remains an important determinant of residential indoor air pollution in Switzerland. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Speciated VOC Emissions from an Outdoor Residential Pellet burning Hydronic Heater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Outdoor hydronic heaters used for residential heating emit air pollutants such as particulate matter and volatile organic compounds (VOCs), which can lead to deleterious impacts on local air quality and human health. Detailed speciated emissions measurements are required to accur...

  10. The soil apparent infiltrability observed with ponded infiltration experiment in a permanent grid of infiltration rings

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Votrubová, J.; Jelínková, V.; Němcová, R.; Tesař, Miroslav; Vogel, T.; Císlerová, M.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 12, - (2010), s. 11898 ISSN 1607-7962. [European Geosciences Union General Assembly 2010. 02.05.2010-07.05.2010, Wienna] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA205/08/1174 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20600510 Keywords : soil hydraulic conductivity * infiltration * infiltration ring Subject RIV: DA - Hydrology ; Limnology

  11. Durability and Performance of High Performance Infiltration Cathodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Samson, Alfred Junio; Søgaard, Martin; Hjalmarsson, Per

    2013-01-01

    The performance and durability of solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) cathodes consisting of a porous Ce0.9Gd0.1O1.95 (CGO) infiltrated with nitrates corresponding to the nominal compositions La0.6Sr0.4Co1.05O3-δ (LSC), LaCoO3-δ (LC), and Co3O4 are discussed. At 600°C, the polarization resistance, Rp......, varied as: LSC (0.062Ωcm2)originate...... of the infiltrate but also from a better surface exchange property. A 450h test of an LSC-infiltrated CGO cathode showed an Rp with final degradation rate of only 11mΩcm2kh-1. An SOFC with an LSC-infiltrated CGO cathode tested for 1,500h at 700°C and 0.5Acm-2 (60% fuel, 20% air utilization) revealed no measurable...

  12. Pollution from Urban Stormwater Infiltration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Peter Steen; Weyer, G.; Berry, C.

    1994-01-01

    Stormwater infiltration in urban areas gives cause for concern with regard to the risk of soil and groundwater pollution. Compared with conventional storm drainage, infiltration introduces different and widely unknown conditions governing the impacts and the fate of the pollutants, and it is ther......Stormwater infiltration in urban areas gives cause for concern with regard to the risk of soil and groundwater pollution. Compared with conventional storm drainage, infiltration introduces different and widely unknown conditions governing the impacts and the fate of the pollutants......, and it is therefore difficult to assess the overall environmental impact. This paper gives a state of the art assessment of the water quality aspects of stormwater infiltration and proposes ways of managing the inherent problems. The major stormwater pollution sources are highlighted and the different processes...... operating in the soil and groundwater are described. The paper also discusses how the environmental risk of urban stormwater infiltration can be assessed, and outlines the possibilities for designing environmentally safe infiltration systems....

  13. Residential heat pumps in the future Danish energy system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petrovic, Stefan; Karlsson, Kenneth Bernard

    2016-01-01

    Denmark is striving towards 100% renewable energy system in 2050. Residential heat pumps are expected to be a part of that system.We propose two novel approaches to improve the representation of residential heat pumps: Coefficients of performance (COPs) are modelled as dependent on air and ground...... temperature while installation of ground-source heat pumps is constrained by available ground area. In this study, TIMES-DK model is utilised to test the effects of improved modelling of residential heat pumps on the Danish energy system until 2050.The analysis of the Danish energy system was done...... for politically agreed targets which include: at least 50% of electricity consumption from wind power starting from 2020, fossil fuel free heat and power sector from 2035 and 100% renewable energy system starting from 2050. Residential heat pumps supply around 25% of total residential heating demand after 2035...

  14. Prioritizing investment in residential energy efficiency and renewable energy-A case study for the U.S. Midwest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brecha, R.J.; Mitchell, A.; Hallinan, K.; Kissock, K.

    2011-01-01

    Residential building energy use is an important contributor to greenhouse gas emissions and in the United States represents about 20% of total energy consumption. A number of previous macro-scale studies of residential energy consumption and energy-efficiency improvements are mainly concerned with national or international aggregate potential savings. In this paper we look into the details of how a collection of specific homes in one region might reduce energy consumption and carbon emissions, with particular attention given to some practical limits to what can be achieved by upgrading the existing residential building stock. Using a simple model of residential, single-family home construction characteristics, estimates are made for the efficacy of (i) changes to behavioral patterns that do not involve building shell modifications; (ii) straightforward air-infiltration mitigation measures, and (iii) insulation measures. We derive estimates of net lifetime savings resulting from these measures, in terms of energy, carbon emissions and dollars. This study points out explicitly the importance of local and regional patterns in decision-making about what fraction of necessary regional or national emissions reduction might be accomplished through energy-efficiency measures and how much might need to concentrate more heavily on renewable or other carbon-free sources of energy. - Highlights: → Macro-scale estimates of building energy efficiency measures are not adequate for implementing policy decisions. → Measures taken to implement building energy efficiency upgrades will likely encounter practical limits given the existing building stock. → Energy efficiency measures combined with increases in renewable energy use will be necessary for climate change mitigation. → Regional and local variations in building energy use must be taken into account in energy and climate policy.

  15. Pollution from Urban Stormwater Infiltration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Peter Steen; Weyer, G.; Berry, C.

    1994-01-01

    Stormwater infiltration in urban areas gives cause for concern with regard to the risk of soil and groundwater pollution. Compared with conventional storm drainage, infiltration introduces different and widely unknown conditions governing the impacts and the fate of the pollutants......, and it is therefore difficult to assess the overall environmental impact. This paper gives a state of the art assessment of the water quality aspects of stormwater infiltration and proposes ways of managing the inherent problems. The major stormwater pollution sources are highlighted and the different processes...

  16. Conjunction of Multizone Infiltration Specialists (COMIS) fundamentals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feustel, H.E.; Rayner-Hooson, A. (eds.)

    1990-05-01

    The COMIS workshop (Conjunction of Multizone Infiltration Specialists) was a joint research effort to develop a multizone infiltration mode. This workshop (October 1988--September 1989) was hosted by the Energy Performance of Buildings Group at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory's Applied Science Division. The task of the workshop was to develop a detailed multizone infiltration program taking crack flow, HVAC-systems, single-sided ventilation and transport mechanism through large openings into account. This work was accomplished not by investigating into numerical description of physical phenomena but by reviewing the literature for the best suitable algorithm. The numerical description of physical phenomena is clearly a task of IEA-Annex XX Air Flow Patterns in Buildings,'' which will be finished in September 1991. Multigas tracer measurements and wind tunnel data will be used to check the model. The agenda integrated all participants' contributions into a single model containing a large library of modules. The user-friendly program is aimed at researchers and building professionals. From its announcement in December 1986, COMIS was well received by the research community. Due to the internationality of the group, several national and international research programmes were co-ordinated with the COMIS workshop. Colleagues for France, Italy, Japan, The Netherlands, People's Republic of China, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, and the United States of America were working together on the development of the model. Even though this kind of co-operation is well known in other fields of research, e.g., high energy physics; for the field of building physics it is a new approach. This document contains an overview about infiltration modelling as well as the physics and the mathematics behind the COMIS model. 91 refs., 38 figs., 9 tabs.

  17. Novel approach for evaluation of air change rate in naturally ventilated occupied spaces based on metabolic CO2 time variation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melikov, Arsen Krikor; Markov, Detelin G.

    2014-01-01

    IAQ in many residential buildings relies on non-organized natural ventilation. Accurate evaluation of air change rate (ACR) in this situation is difficult due to the nature of the phenomenon - intermittent infiltration-exfiltration periods of mass exchange between the room air and the outdoor air...... at low rate. This paper describes a new approach for ACR evaluation in naturally ventilated occupied spaces. Actual metabolic CO2 time variation record in an interval of time is compared with the computed variation of metabolic CO2 for the same time interval under reference conditions: sleeping occupants......, air-tight space, constant indoor pressure and temperature. The proposed approach for ACR evaluation can be applied to time intervals with any length, even with varying parameters of both indoor and outdoor air, in which metabolic CO2 generation rate is known and constant. This approach makes possible...

  18. Energy and IAQ Implications of Residential Ventilation Cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turner, William [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Walker, Iain [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2014-08-01

    This study evaluates the energy, humidity and indoor air quality (IAQ) implications of residential ventilation cooling in all U.S. IECC climate zones. A computer modeling approach was adopted, using an advanced residential building simulation tool with airflow, energy and humidity models. An economizer (large supply fan) was simulated to provide ventilation cooling while outdoor air temperatures were lower than indoor air temperatures (typically at night). The simulations were performed for a full year using one-minute time steps to allow for scheduling of ventilation systems and to account for interactions between ventilation and heating/cooling systems.

  19. Air

    CERN Document Server

    Rivera, Andrea

    2017-01-01

    Air is all around us. Learn how it is used in art, technology, and engineering. Five easy-to-read chapters explain the science behind air, as well as its real-world applications. Vibrant, full-color photos, bolded glossary words, and a key stats section let readers zoom in even deeper. Aligned to Common Core Standards and correlated to state standards. Abdo Zoom is a division of ABDO.

  20. A MODFLOW Infiltration Device Package for Simulating Storm Water Infiltration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeppesen, Jan; Christensen, Steen

    2015-01-01

    This article describes a MODFLOW Infiltration Device (INFD) Package that can simulate infiltration devices and their two-way interaction with groundwater. The INFD Package relies on a water balance including inflow of storm water, leakage-like seepage through the device faces, overflow, and change in storage. The water balance for the device can be simulated in multiple INFD time steps within a single MODFLOW time step, and infiltration from the device can be routed through the unsaturated zone to the groundwater table. A benchmark test shows that the INFD Package's analytical solution for stage computes exact results for transient behavior. To achieve similar accuracy by the numerical solution of the MODFLOW Surface-Water Routing (SWR1) Process requires many small time steps. Furthermore, the INFD Package includes an improved representation of flow through the INFD sides that results in lower infiltration rates than simulated by SWR1. The INFD Package is also demonstrated in a transient simulation of a hypothetical catchment where two devices interact differently with groundwater. This simulation demonstrates that device and groundwater interaction depends on the thickness of the unsaturated zone because a shallow groundwater table (a likely result from storm water infiltration itself) may occupy retention volume, whereas a thick unsaturated zone may cause a phase shift and a change of amplitude in groundwater table response to a change of infiltration. We thus find that the INFD Package accommodates the simulation of infiltration devices and groundwater in an integrated manner on small as well as large spatial and temporal scales. © 2014, National Ground Water Association.

  1. Infiltrating to Win: The Conduct of Border Denial Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-04

    must believe 14 Robert A. Pape, Bombing to Win : Air Power and Coercion in War (Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1996), 4. 15 Ibid., 7. 16 Ibid...Vietnam. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press, 2002. Pape, Robert A. Bombing to Win : Air Power and Coercion in War. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University...Infiltrating to Win : The Conduct of Border Denial Operations A Monograph by MAJ Craig A. Broyles United

  2. Air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gugele, B.; Scheider, J.; Spangl, W.

    2001-01-01

    In recent years several regulations and standards for air quality and limits for air pollution were issued or are in preparation by the European Union, which have severe influence on the environmental monitoring and legislation in Austria. This chapter of the environmental control report of Austria gives an overview about the legal situation of air pollution control in the European Union and in specific the legal situation in Austria. It gives a comprehensive inventory of air pollution measurements for the whole area of Austria of total suspended particulates, ozone, volatile organic compounds, nitrogen oxides, sulfur dioxide, carbon monoxide, heavy metals, benzene, dioxin, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and eutrophication. For each of these pollutants the measured emission values throughout Austria are given in tables and geographical charts, the environmental impact is discussed, statistical data and time series of the emission sources are given and legal regulations and measures for an effective environmental pollution control are discussed. In particular the impact of fossil-fuel power plants on the air pollution is analyzed. (a.n.)

  3. Solute breakthrough during repeated ponded infiltration into columns of repacked sand and heterogeneous soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobotkova, M.; Snehota, M.; Cislerova, M.

    2010-12-01

    Water flow during recurrent ponded infiltration may be affected by presence of entrapped air in heterogeneous soils. It is likely that presence of entrapped air influences also the solute transport. The aim of this contribution is to experimentally investigate the effect of entrapped air on tracer breakthrough by means of experiments conducted on two large samples in laboratory. A modified recurrent ponded infiltration, conducted on each soil sample consisted of three infiltration runs. The same level of ponding was maintained during each infiltration run at the top of the sample. Water drained freely through the perforated plate at the bottom of the sample. First infiltration run was done into naturally dry soil while two subsequent runs were conducted into wetter soil. It is assumed that infiltration in wet media causes more air trapping and reduced effective saturated hydraulic conductivity in some heterogeneous soils. In order to demonstrate effect of entrapped air dissolution the third infiltration was conducted with partly de-aerated water. The experiments were conducted using an automated set-up with frequent monitoring of pressure heads in three tensiometers, water contents in three TDR probes, cumulative infiltration and outflow, weight of the sample monitored by load cell and concentration of oxygen in the effluent. During each infiltration run the concentration pulse of bromide tracer was applied at the top of the soil core during steady state flow. Bromide breakthrough curve was acquired by electrochemical in-line analysis of bromide ions in the effluent. The results of the experiment conducted on repacked sand show that the steady state outflow rates measured during the first and second infiltration run were similar, while the outflow rates during third infiltration runs were steadily increasing. The shapes of all three BTC’s plotted against the cumulative outflow were nearly identical. In contrast to the repacked sand, steady state outflow rates

  4. Integrating travel behavior with land use regression to estimate dynamic air pollution exposure in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Robert; Tian, Linwei; Thach, Thuan-Quoc; Tsui, Tsz Him; Brauer, Michael; Lee, Martha; Allen, Ryan; Yuchi, Weiran; Lai, Poh-Chin; Wong, Paulina; Barratt, Benjamin

    2018-04-01

    Epidemiological studies typically use subjects' residential address to estimate individuals' air pollution exposure. However, in reality this exposure is rarely static as people move from home to work/study locations and commute during the day. Integrating mobility and time-activity data may reduce errors and biases, thereby improving estimates of health risks. To incorporate land use regression with movement and building infiltration data to estimate time-weighted air pollution exposures stratified by age, sex, and employment status for population subgroups in Hong Kong. A large population-representative survey (N = 89,385) was used to characterize travel behavior, and derive time-activity pattern for each subject. Infiltration factors calculated from indoor/outdoor monitoring campaigns were used to estimate micro-environmental concentrations. We evaluated dynamic and static (residential location-only) exposures in a staged modeling approach to quantify effects of each component. Higher levels of exposures were found for working adults and students due to increased mobility. Compared to subjects aged 65 or older, exposures to PM 2.5 , BC, and NO 2 were 13%, 39% and 14% higher, respectively for subjects aged below 18, and 3%, 18% and 11% higher, respectively for working adults. Exposures of females were approximately 4% lower than those of males. Dynamic exposures were around 20% lower than ambient exposures at residential addresses. The incorporation of infiltration and mobility increased heterogeneity in population exposure and allowed identification of highly exposed groups. The use of ambient concentrations may lead to exposure misclassification which introduces bias, resulting in lower effect estimates than 'true' exposures. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Applying power electronics to residential HVAC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sulfstede, L.

    1991-01-01

    This paper outlines several of the market and application issues bearing on the economics residential variable speed air conditioners and heat pumps. Technical details of capacity modulized systems have been avoided, along with design issues and tradeoffs involving power semiconductors, motor torque and speed control strategies- and silicon integration for these applications. The intention is to provoke new creative technical solutions but perhaps more importantly, to involve new marketing strategies that will develop the mature potential of air conditioning products containing power electronics to enable them to generate the tough HVAC market, competing successfully against conventional systems

  6. Development of a Residential Integrated Ventilation Controller

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Staff Scientist; Walker, Iain; Sherman, Max; Dickerhoff, Darryl

    2011-12-01

    The goal of this study was to develop a Residential Integrated Ventilation Controller (RIVEC) to reduce the energy impact of required mechanical ventilation by 20percent, maintain or improve indoor air quality and provide demand response benefits. This represents potential energy savings of about 140 GWh of electricity and 83 million therms of natural gas as well as proportional peak savings in California. The RIVEC controller is intended to meet the 2008 Title 24 requirements for residential ventilation as well as taking into account the issues of outdoor conditions, other ventilation devices (including economizers), peak demand concerns and occupant preferences. The controller is designed to manage all the residential ventilation systems that are currently available. A key innovation in this controller is the ability to implement the concept of efficacy and intermittent ventilation which allows time shifting of ventilation. Using this approach ventilation can be shifted away from times of high cost or high outdoor pollution towards times when it is cheaper and more effective. Simulations, based on the ones used to develop the new residential ventilation requirements for the California Buildings Energy code, were used to further define the specific criteria and strategies needed for the controller. These simulations provide estimates of the energy, peak power and contaminant improvement possible for different California climates for the various ventilation systems. Results from a field test of the prototype controller corroborate the predicted performance.

  7. Procedures for Calculating Residential Dehumidification Loads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winkler, Jon [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Booten, Chuck [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-06-01

    Residential building codes and voluntary labeling programs are continually increasing the energy efficiency requirements of residential buildings. Improving a building's thermal enclosure and installing energy-efficient appliances and lighting can result in significant reductions in sensible cooling loads leading to smaller air conditioners and shorter cooling seasons. However due to fresh air ventilation requirements and internal gains, latent cooling loads are not reduced by the same proportion. Thus, it's becoming more challenging for conventional cooling equipment to control indoor humidity at part-load cooling conditions and using conventional cooling equipment in a non-conventional building poses the potential risk of high indoor humidity. The objective of this project was to investigate the impact the chosen design condition has on the calculated part-load cooling moisture load, and compare calculated moisture loads and the required dehumidification capacity to whole-building simulations. Procedures for sizing whole-house supplemental dehumidification equipment have yet to be formalized; however minor modifications to current Air-Conditioner Contractors of America (ACCA) Manual J load calculation procedures are appropriate for calculating residential part-load cooling moisture loads. Though ASHRAE 1% DP design conditions are commonly used to determine the dehumidification requirements for commercial buildings, an appropriate DP design condition for residential buildings has not been investigated. Two methods for sizing supplemental dehumidification equipment were developed and tested. The first method closely followed Manual J cooling load calculations; whereas the second method made more conservative assumptions impacting both sensible and latent loads.

  8. Indoor Environment in Residential Prefabricated Buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraus, Michal; Juhásová Šenitková, Ingrid

    2017-10-01

    The contribution presents results of the experimental measurement of indoor air quality in residential prefabricated buildings. People spend about 90% of their life in the indoor environment of buildings. Hygrothermal parameters and indoor air quality are the essential component that define the quality of the indoor environment. The results of case study characterize the quality of the indoor environment of the ordinary occupants in housing unit of residential prefabricated building. A current problem of revitalized prefabricated buildings is inadequate air exchange and related thereto to poor indoor air quality. The experimental measurements were carried out just before and at the beginning of the heating season (from 1st October to 30th November 2016). Heating season was launched in the middle of experimental measurement. The wireless indoor sensor Elgato Eve Room was used for measurements. The obtained values of indoor air temperature [°C], relative humidity [%] and indoor air quality [ppm] are describe and analysis in this study. The results of the study indicate that the values of temperature and indoor air quality meet optimal levels during the experiment with nuances. The mean air temperature in the indoor environment is 22.43 °C. The temperature of the indoor environment is held at the optimum level (18-24 °C) for 94.50% time of the experimental measurements. In addition, the indoor air quality in the context of the content of harmful volatile organic compounds (VOCs) has been excellent for almost 91% time of the total experiment. However, the values of relative humidity were less than the optimum value nearly 40% of the total observed time. The mean 10-minutes values of relative humidity during the heating season is about 10% lower than the mean 10-minutes relative humidity before the heating season.

  9. Citizens Utilities Company's successful residential new construction market transformation program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caulfield, T.O.; Shepherd, M.A.

    1998-07-01

    Citizens Utilities Company, Arizona Electric Division (CUC/AED) fielded a Residential New Construction Program (RNC) in the forth quarter of 1994 that had been designed from conception as a market transformation program. The CUC RNC Program encouraged builders to adopt energy efficient building practices for new homes by supplying builders estimates of energy savings, supplying inspections services to assist builders in applying energy efficient building practices while verifying compliance, and posting and promoting the home as energy efficient during the sales period. Measures generally required to qualify for the program were R-38 ceiling insulation, R-21 wall insulation, polysealing of all infiltration gaps during construction, well sealed air-conditioning ducts, and an air conditioner Seasonal Energy Efficiency Rating (SEER) of 11.0 or greater. In less than two years the program achieved over 17% market penetration without offering rebates to builders. This paper reviews the design of the program, including a discussion of the features felt to be primarily responsible for its success. It reviews the levels of penetration achieved, free-ridership, spillover, and market barriers encountered. Finally it proposes improvements to the program designed to carry it the next step toward a self-sustaining market transformation program.

  10. Using lithium glass infiltration to enhance the properties of alumina bodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson Acchar

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The use of an infiltration process to improve the properties of sintered materials has been widely investigated. This work describes the research carried out in the manufacturing of lithium glass-infiltrated alumina. The infiltration material consisted of a mixture of elements such as Li2O, ZrO2, SiO2 Al2O3, CaO and La2O3. Alumina specimens were sintered in air at 1400 °C for 2 hours. A number of samples were then submitted to the infiltration process at 1400 °C for 15 minutes. Sintered and infiltrated specimens were characterized by X ray diffraction, apparent density, open porosity, flexural strengths and scanning electron microscopy. The results showed that the infiltration process considerably improves the properties of alumina bodies.

  11. Acoustic building infiltration measurement system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muehleisen, Ralph T.; Raman, Ganesh

    2018-04-10

    Systems and methods of detecting and identifying a leak from a container or building. Acoustic pressure and velocity are measured. Acoustic properties are acquired from the measured values. The acoustic properties are converted to infiltration/leakage information. Nearfield Acoustic Holography (NAH) may be one method to detect the leakages from a container by locating the noise sources.

  12. Particulate emissions from residential wood combustion: Final report: Norteast regional Biomass Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-01-01

    The objective of this study was to provide a resource document for the Northeastern states when pursuing the analysis of localized problems resulting from residential wood combustion. Specific tasks performed include assigning emission rates for total suspended particulates (TSP) and benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) from wood burning stoves, estimating the impact on ambient air quality from residential wood combustion and elucidating the policy options available to Northeastern states in their effort to limit any detrimental effects resulting from residential wood combustion. Ancillary tasks included providing a comprehensive review on the relevant health effects, indoor air pollution and toxic air pollutant studies. 77 refs., 11 figs., 25 tabs.

  13. MICRO-CHP System for Residential Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joseph Gerstmann

    2009-01-31

    This is the final report of progress under Phase I of a project to develop and commercialize a micro-CHP system for residential applications that provides electrical power, heating, and cooling for the home. This is the first phase of a three-phase effort in which the residential micro-CHP system will be designed (Phase I), developed and tested in the laboratory (Phase II); and further developed and field tested (Phase III). The project team consists of Advanced Mechanical Technology, Inc. (AMTI), responsible for system design and integration; Marathon Engine Systems, Inc. (MES), responsible for design of the engine-generator subsystem; AO Smith, responsible for design of the thermal storage and water heating subsystems; Trane, a business of American Standard Companies, responsible for design of the HVAC subsystem; and AirXchange, Inc., responsible for design of the mechanical ventilation and dehumidification subsystem.

  14. Methodology to determine the consumption and potential of saving of electrical energy in the systems of air-conditioning in the residential sector: case the Northwest of Mexico; Metodologia para determinar el consumo y potencial de ahorro de energia electrica en los sistemas de climatizacion en el sector residencial: caso Noroeste de Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosas Flores, J. A.; Morillon Galvez, D.

    2008-07-01

    In this work there are studied the characteristics of the consumption of electrical residential energy due to the systems of air conditioning and to cos mell, in the region Northwest of Mexico (Sonora, Sinaloa, Baja California Norte, Baja California Sur, and Nayarit) and the North region (Coahuila, Chihuahua, Durango, Nuevo Leon). Between the principal results one finds that the potential saving of electrical energy, with base in the use of passive systems as the isolation of the housings, decided in 3,356 GWh (similar to the electrical annual supply that there needs the state of Durango or Guerrero). (Author)

  15. Trench infiltration for managed aquifer recharge to permeable bedrock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heilweil, V.M.; Watt, D.E.

    2011-01-01

    Managed aquifer recharge to permeable bedrock is increasingly being utilized to enhance resources and maintain sustainable groundwater development practices. One such target is the Navajo Sandstone, an extensive regional aquifer located throughout the Colorado Plateau of the western United States. Spreading-basin and bank-filtration projects along the sandstone outcrop's western edge in southwestern Utah have recently been implemented to meet growth-related water demands. This paper reports on a new cost-effective surface-infiltration technique utilizing trenches for enhancing managed aquifer recharge to permeable bedrock. A 48-day infiltration trench experiment on outcropping Navajo Sandstone was conducted to evaluate this alternative surface-spreading artificial recharge method. Final infiltration rates through the bottom of the trench were about 0.5 m/day. These infiltration rates were an order of magnitude higher than rates from a previous surface-spreading experiment at the same site. The higher rates were likely caused by a combination of factors including the removal of lower permeability soil and surficial caliche deposits, access to open vertical sandstone fractures, a reduction in physical clogging associated with silt and biofilm layers, minimizing viscosity effects by maintaining isothermal conditions, minimizing chemical clogging caused by carbonate mineral precipitation associated with algal photosynthesis, and diminished gas clogging associated with trapped air and biogenic gases. This pilot study illustrates the viability of trench infiltration for enhancing surface spreading of managed aquifer recharge to permeable bedrock. ?? 2010.

  16. Solar Heating and Cooling of Residential Buildings: Sizing, Installation and Operation of Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colorado State Univ., Ft. Collins. Solar Energy Applications Lab.

    This training course and a companion course titled "Design of Systems for Solar Heating and Cooling of Residential Buildings," are designed to train home designers and builders in the fundamentals of solar hydronic and air systems for space heating and cooling and domestic hot water heating for residential buildings. Each course, organized in 22…

  17. Guidelines for residential commissioning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wray, Craig P.; Walker, Iain S.; Sherman, Max H.

    2003-01-31

    Currently, houses do not perform optimally or even as many codes and forecasts predict, largely because they are field assembled and there is no consistent process to identify problems or to correct them. Residential commissioning is a solution to this problem. This guide is the culmination of a 30-month project that began in September 1999. The ultimate objective of the project is to increase the number of houses that undergo commissioning, which will improve the quality, comfort, and safety of homes for California citizens. The project goal is to lay the groundwork for a residential commissioning industry in California focused on end-use energy and non-energy issues. As such, we intend this guide to be a beginning and not an end. Our intent is that the guide will lead to the programmatic integration of commissioning with other building industry processes, which in turn will provide more value to a single site visit for people such as home energy auditors and raters, home inspectors, and building performance contractors. Project work to support the development of this guide includes: a literature review and annotated bibliography, which facilitates access to 469 documents related to residential commissioning published over the past 20 years (Wray et al. 2000), an analysis of the potential benefits one can realistically expect from commissioning new and existing California houses (Matson et al. 2002), and an assessment of 107 diagnostic tools for evaluating residential commissioning metrics (Wray et al. 2002). In this guide, we describe the issues that non-experts should consider in developing a commissioning program to achieve the benefits we have identified. We do this by providing specific recommendations about: how to structure the commissioning process, which diagnostics to use, and how to use them to commission new and existing houses. Using examples, we also demonstrate the potential benefits of applying the recommended whole-house commissioning approach to

  18. Detailed residential electric determination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-06-01

    Data on residential loads has been collected from four residences in real time. The data, measured at 5-second intervals for 53 days of continuous operation, were statistically characterized. An algorithm was developed and incorporated into the modeling code SOLCEL. Performance simulations with SOLCEL using these data as well as previous data collected over longer time intervals indicate that no significant errors in system value are introduced through the use of long-term average data.

  19. Global design of a reversible air/water heat pump with variable power for the residential sector; Conception globale d'une pompe a chaleur air/eau inversable a puissance variable pour le secteur residentiel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flach-Malaspina, N.

    2004-10-15

    Variable power is one of the means to improve the seasonal energy efficiency of heat pump space heating systems. The dual compressors technology is energetically efficient and is available in Europe. The main results of this work are: 1 - the identification of the origin of cycling losses in heating and cooling mode of existing mono-compressor air/water systems. The standby consumption of the heat pump is the only element which can efficiently contribute to reduce the energy losses at partial load. 2 - The quantification of the energy gains by adapting the dual compressors technology to a prototype of reference heat pump. 3 - A dynamic model of calculation of the seasonal coefficient of performance has been developed. 4 - The optimization of compressors operation and of the unfreezing system has permitted to increase the seasonal coefficient of performance from 14.7% to 18.6% with respect to the outdoor temperature. To carry out this study, design, experimental and modeling works have been done. The design of a heat pump fitted with two compressors has required the development of a new partial load testing bench. The several experimental and standardized tests have permitted to characterize an existing heat pump and a dual compressor heat pump whatever the operation mode and the outdoor climate. The dynamical model obtained has permitted to optimize the energy efficiency of the system thanks to a better management of the unfreezing system and to a proper regulation of the compressors. Some ways of improvement concern the dimensioning of compressors and the management of exchangers flow rates for an additional improvement of seasonal coefficients of performance. (J.S.)

  20. A simplified model for estimating population-scale energy impacts of building envelope air-tightening and mechanical ventilation retrofits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Logue, Jennifer M. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Turner, William J. N. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Trinity College Dublin, Dublin (Ireland); Walker, Iain S. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Singer, Brett C. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2015-01-19

    Changing the air exchange rate of a home (the sum of the infiltration and mechanical ventilation airflow rates) affects the annual thermal conditioning energy. Large-scale changes to air exchange rates of the housing stock can significantly alter the residential sector's energy consumption. However, the complexity of existing residential energy models is a barrier to the accurate quantification of the impact of policy changes on a state or national level. The Incremental Ventilation Energy (IVE) model developed in this study combines the output of simple air exchange models with a limited set of housing characteristics to estimate the associated change in energy demand of homes. The IVE model was designed specifically to enable modellers to use existing databases of housing characteristics to determine the impact of ventilation policy change on a population scale. The IVE model estimates of energy change when applied to US homes with limited parameterisation are shown to be comparable to the estimates of a well-validated, complex residential energy model.

  1. Symmetrical parahiliar infiltrated, cough and dyspnoea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giraldo Estrada, Horacio; Escalante, Hector

    2004-01-01

    It is the case a patient to who is diagnosed symmetrical parahiliar infiltrated; initially she is diagnosed lymphoma Hodgkin, treaty with radiotherapy and chemotherapy, but the X rays of the thorax demonstrated parahiliars and paramediastinals infiltrated

  2. Application of spreadsheet to estimate infiltration parameters

    OpenAIRE

    Zakwan, Mohammad; Muzzammil, Mohammad; Alam, Javed

    2016-01-01

    Infiltration is the process of flow of water into the ground through the soil surface. Soil water although contributes a negligible fraction of total water present on earth surface, but is of utmost importance for plant life. Estimation of infiltration rates is of paramount importance for estimation of effective rainfall, groundwater recharge, and designing of irrigation systems. Numerous infiltration models are in use for estimation of infiltration rates. The conventional graphical approach ...

  3. 'Nothing works' in secure residential youth care?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Souverein, F.A.; van der Helm, G.H.P.; Stams, G.J.J.M.

    2013-01-01

    A debate about the effectiveness of secure residential youth care is currently going on. While some continue to support secure residential youth care, others conclude that ‘nothing works’ in secure residential youth care, and argue that non-residential treatment is superior to secure residential

  4. 76 FR 56339 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Test Procedures for Residential Furnaces and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-13

    ...-Conditioning and Warm Air Heating Equipment and Commercial and Industrial Refrigeration Equipment Manufacturing... Refrigeration Institute (AHRI) recommended that to avoid unnecessary burden, the existing test procedure..., and Refrigeration Institute's Directory of Certified Product Performance for Residential Furnaces and...

  5. Re-thinking residential mobility

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Ham, Maarten; Findlay, Allan M.

    2015-01-01

    While researchers are increasingly re-conceptualizing international migration, far less attention has been devoted to re-thinking short-distance residential mobility and immobility. In this paper we harness the life course approach to propose a new conceptual framework for residential mobility research. We contend that residential mobility and immobility should be re-conceptualized as relational practices that link lives through time and space while connecting people to structural conditions. Re-thinking and re-assessing residential mobility by exploiting new developments in longitudinal analysis will allow geographers to understand, critique and address pressing societal challenges. PMID:27330243

  6. Large-Scale Residential Demolition

    Science.gov (United States)

    The EPA provides resources for handling residential demolitions or renovations. This includes planning, handling harmful materials, recycling, funding, compliance assistance, good practices and regulations.

  7. Emissions Characterization of Residential Wood-Fired Hydronic Heater Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Residential wood-fired hydronic heaters (RWHHs) can negatively impact the local ambient air quality and thus are of major environmental concern in wood burning areas of the U. S. Few studies have been conducted which characterize the emissions from RWHHs. To address the lack of e...

  8. FUGACITY-BASED INDOOR RESIDENTIAL PESTICIDE FATE MODEL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dermal and non-dietary pathways are possibly important for exposure to pesticides used in residences. Limited data have been collected on pesticide concentrations in residential air and surfaces following application. Models may be useful for interpreting these data and to make...

  9. RESIDENTIAL WOOD COMBUSTION TECHNOLOGY REVIEW VOLUME 1. TECHNICAL REPORT

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report gives results of a review of the current state-of-the-art of residential wood combustion (RWC). The key environmental parameter of concern was the air emission of particles. The technological status of all major RWC categories -- cordwood stoves, fireplaces, masonry h...

  10. RESIDENTIAL WOOD COMBUSTION TECHNOLOGY REVIEW - VOLUME 2. APPENDICES

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report gives results of a review of the current state-of-the-art of residential wood combustion (RWC). The key environmental parameter of concern was the air emission of particles. The technological status of all major RWC categories--cordwood stoves, fireplaces, masonry heat...

  11. Sorption of organic gases in residential rooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, Brett C.; Hodgson, Alfred T.; Hotchi, Toshifumi; Ming, Katherine Y.; Sextro, Richard G.; Wood, Emily E.; Brown, Nancy J.

    Experiments were conducted to characterize organic gas sorption in residential rooms studied "as-is" with furnishings and material surfaces unaltered and in a furnished chamber designed to simulate a residential room. Results are presented for 10 rooms (five bedrooms, two bathrooms, a home office, and two multi-function spaces) and the chamber. Exposed materials were characterized and areas quantified. A mixture of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) was rapidly volatilized within each room as it was closed and sealed for a 5-h Adsorb phase; this was followed by 30-min Flush and 2-h closed-room Desorb phases. Included were alkane, aromatic, and oxygenated VOCs representing a range of ambient and indoor air pollutants. Three organophosphorus compounds served as surrogates for Sarin-like nerve agents. Measured gas-phase concentrations were fit to three variations of a mathematical model that considers sorption occurring at a surface sink and potentially a second, embedded sink. The 3-parameter sink-diffusion model provided acceptable fits for most compounds and the 4-parameter two-sink model provided acceptable fits for the others. Initial adsorption rates and sorptive partitioning increased with decreasing vapor pressure for the alkanes, aromatics and oxygenated VOCs. Best-fit sorption parameters obtained from experimental data from the chamber produced best-fit sorption parameters similar to those obtained from the residential rooms.

  12. Residential firewood use in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipfert, F W; Dungan, J L

    1983-03-25

    An empirical relation between residential firewood use and population density was developed from survey data for 64 counties in New England and was corroborated by data from other states. The results indicate that usage is concentrated in urbanized areas of the Northeast and north central states and that about 9.0 to 11.0 percent of U.S. space heating input is from firewood. No constraints due to the supply of wood were apparent in 1978-1979. These findings have implications for effects on air quality.

  13. Measure Guideline: Combustion Safety for Natural Draft Appliances Using Indoor Air

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brand, L.

    2014-04-01

    This measure guideline covers how to assess and carry out the combustion safety procedures for appliances and heating equipment that uses indoor air for combustion in low-rise residential buildings. Only appliances installed in the living space, or in an area freely communicating with the living space, vented alone or in tandem with another appliance are considered here. A separate measure guideline addresses combustion appliances located either within the living space in enclosed closets or side rooms or outside the living space in an adjacent area like an attic or garage that use outdoor air for combustion. This document is for inspectors, auditors, and technicians working in homes where energy upgrades are being conducted whether or not air infiltration control is included in the package of measures being applied. In the indoor combustion air case, guidelines summarized here are based on language provided in several of the codes to establish minimum requirements for the space using simplified prescriptive measures. In addition, building performance testing procedures are provided by testing agencies. The codes in combination with the test procedures offer comprehensive combustion safety coverage to address safety concerns, allowing inexperienced residential energy retrofit inspectors to effectively address combustion safety issues and allow energy retrofits to proceed.

  14. Radiant floor cooling coupled with dehumidification systems in residential buildings: A simulation-based analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zarrella, Angelo; De Carli, Michele; Peretti, Clara

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The floor radiant cooling in a typical apartment is analyzed. • Dehumidification devices, fan-coil and mechanical ventilation are compared. • The results are analyzed in terms of both thermal comfort and energy consumption. • The energy consumption of the dehumidifiers is higher than that of other systems. • The mechanical ventilation decreases the moisture level better than other systems. - Abstract: The development of radiant cooling has stimulated an interest in new systems based on coupling ventilation with radiant cooling. However, radiant cooling systems may cause condensation to form on an active surface under warm and humid conditions during the cooling season. This phenomenon occurs when surface temperature falls below dew point. To prevent condensation, air humidity needs to be reduced with a dehumidification device or a mechanical ventilation system. There are two main options to achieve this. The first is to use dehumidification devices that reduce humidity, but are not coupled with ventilation, i.e. devices that handle room air and leave air change to infiltrations. The second is to combine a mechanical ventilation system with dehumidifying finned coils. This study analyzes the floor radiant cooling of a typical residential apartment within a multi-storey building in three Italian climate zones by means of a detailed simulation tool. Five systems were compared in terms of both indoor thermal comfort and energy consumption: radiant cooling without dehumidification; radiant cooling with a soft dehumidification device; radiant cooling with a dehumidification device which also supplies sensible cooling; radiant cooling coupled with fan coils; and radiant cooling with a mechanical ventilation system which dehumidifies and cools

  15. Pressureless infiltration of porous Al2O3 preform in molten 6061 commercial aluminium alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marin, J.; Olivares, L.; Moreno, C.; Ordonez, S.; Martinez, V.

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents an infiltration study of Al 2 O 3 samples containing, approximately, 40% of pores with 1μ average radios. These samples were totally infiltrated with Al-6061 at 1100 deg C for 24 hs in air. Microstructural analysis showed the presence of an alumina matrix infiltrated through mechanisms that combine reactive processes and capillarity, and thus being coherent with the presence of open and closed porosity. The metallographic analysis showed open porosity infiltrated with Al-6061 by capillarity, while SEM micrographs corresponding to this system also showed closed pores filled with metal, that was transported into the ceramic matrix through a reactivate infiltration mechanism. The EDAX analysis for the Al 2 O 3 /Al 6061 system showed areas rich in silicon and copper at the metal-ceramic interface, while the ceramic phase showed the presence of Mg. XRD identified the presence of the MgAl 2 O 4 spinel in the ceramic phase

  16. Infiltrating giant cellular blue naevus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bittencourt, A L; Monteiro, D A; De Pretto, O J

    2007-01-01

    Cellular blue naevi (CBN) measure 1-2 cm in diameter and affect the dermis, occasionally extending into the subcutaneous fat. The case of a 14-year-old boy with a giant CBN (GCBN) involving the right half of the face, the jugal mucosa and the lower eyelid with a tumour that had infiltrated the bone and the maxillary and ethmoidal sinuses is reported. Biopsies were taken from the skin, jugal mucosa and maxillary sinus. The following markers were used in the immunohistochemical evaluation: CD34, CD56, HMB-45, anti-S100, A-103, Melan A and MIB-1. The biopsy specimens showed a biphasic pattern affecting the lower dermis, subcutaneous fat, skeletal muscle, bone, jugal mucosa and maxillary sinus, but there was no histological evidence of malignancy. The tumour cells were CD34-, CD56-, HMB45+, anti-S100+ and A-103+. Melan A was focally expressed. No positive MIB-1 cells were identified. The present case shows that GCBN may infiltrate deeply, with no evidence of malignancy.

  17. Infiltration of SOFC Stacks: Evaluation of the Electrochemical Performance Enhancement and the Underlying Changes in the Microstructure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiebach, Wolff-Ragnar; Zielke, Philipp; Høgh, Jens Valdemar Thorvald

    2016-01-01

    Experimental SOFC stacks with 10 SOFCs (LSM-YSZ/YSZ/Ni-YSZ) were infiltrated with CGO and Ni-CGO on the air and fuel side, respectively in an attempt to counter degradation and improve the output. The electrochemical performance of each cell was characterized (i) before infiltration, (ii) after i...

  18. Solar ejector refrigerant system in China’s residential buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng Hui-Fan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A simulation program describing the performance of solar ejector refrigerant system for air conditioning of China’s residential buildings was established. Hourly performance of the system under different operate conditions, the collector efficiency, coefficient of performance, cooling capacity and cooling load were analyzed. It is found that the collector efficiency and the overall coefficient of performance increase first and then decline, and it can be concluded that the application of solar ejector refrigerant system will have a better developmental prospect in China’s residential buildings.

  19. Residential Energy Performance Metrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Wright

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Techniques for residential energy monitoring are an emerging field that is currently drawing significant attention. This paper is a description of the current efforts to monitor and compare the performance of three solar powered homes built at Missouri University of Science and Technology. The homes are outfitted with an array of sensors and a data logger system to measure and record electricity production, system energy use, internal home temperature and humidity, hot water production, and exterior ambient conditions the houses are experiencing. Data is being collected to measure the performance of the houses, compare to energy modeling programs, design and develop cost effective sensor systems for energy monitoring, and produce a cost effective home control system.

  20. College residential sleep environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sexton-Radek, Kathy; Hartley, Andrew

    2013-12-01

    College students regularly report increased sleep disturbances as well as concomitant reductions in performance (e.g., academic grades) upon entering college. Sleep hygiene refers to healthy sleep practices that are commonly used as first interventions in sleep disturbances. One widely used practice of this sort involves arranging the sleep environment to minimize disturbances from excessive noise and light at bedtime. Communal sleep situations such as those in college residence halls do not easily support this intervention. Following several focus groups, a questionnaire was designed to gather self-reported information on sleep disturbances in a college population. The present study used The Young Adult Sleep Environment Inventory (YASEI) and sleep logs to investigate the sleep environment of college students living in residential halls. A summary of responses indicated that noise and light are significant sleep disturbances in these environments. Recommendations are presented related to these findings.

  1. Ozone Reductions Using Residential Building Envelopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, Iain S.; Sherman, Max; Nazaroff, William W.

    2009-02-01

    Ozone is an air pollutant with that can have significant health effects and a significant source of ozone in some regions of California is outdoor air. Because people spend the vast majority of their time indoors, reduction in indoor levels of ozone could lead to improved health for many California residents. Ozone is removed from indoor air by surface reactions and can also be filtered by building envelopes. The magnitude of the envelope impact depends on the specific building materials that the air flows over and the geometry of the air flow paths through the envelope that can be changes by mechanical ventilation operation. The 2008 Residential Building Standards in California include minimum requirements for mechanical ventilation by referencing ASHRAE Standard 62.2. This study examines the changes in indoor ozone depending on the mechanical ventilation system selected to meet these requirements. This study used detailed simulations of ventilation in a house to examine the impacts of different ventilation systems on indoor ozone concentrations. The simulation results showed that staying indoors reduces exposure to ozone by 80percent to 90percent, that exhaust ventilation systems lead to lower indoor ozone concentrations, that opening of windows should be avoided at times of high outdoor ozone, and that changing the time at which mechanical ventilation occurs has the ability to halve exposure to ozone. Future work should focus on the products of ozone reactions in the building envelope and the fate of these products with respect to indoor exposures.

  2. Residential radon and lung cancer incidence in a Danish cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bräuner, Elvira Vaclavik; Andersen, Claus Erik; Sørensen, Mette

    2012-01-01

    High-level occupational radon exposure is an established risk factor for lung cancer. We assessed the long-term association between residential radon and lung cancer risk using a prospective Danish cohort using 57,053 persons recruited during 1993–1997. We followed each cohort member for cancer...... occurrence until 27 June 2006, identifying 589 lung cancer cases. We traced residential addresses from 1 January 1971 until 27 June 2006 and calculated radon at each of these addresses using information from central databases regarding geology and house construction. Cox proportional hazards models were used...... to estimate incidence rate ratios (IRR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for lung cancer risk associated with residential radon exposure with and without adjustment for sex, smoking variables, education, socio-economic status, occupation, body mass index, air pollution and consumption of fruit and alcohol...

  3. Application of spreadsheet to estimate infiltration parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Zakwan

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Infiltration is the process of flow of water into the ground through the soil surface. Soil water although contributes a negligible fraction of total water present on earth surface, but is of utmost importance for plant life. Estimation of infiltration rates is of paramount importance for estimation of effective rainfall, groundwater recharge, and designing of irrigation systems. Numerous infiltration models are in use for estimation of infiltration rates. The conventional graphical approach for estimation of infiltration parameters often fails to estimate the infiltration parameters precisely. The generalised reduced gradient (GRG solver is reported to be a powerful tool for estimating parameters of nonlinear equations and it has, therefore, been implemented to estimate the infiltration parameters in the present paper. Field data of infiltration rate available in literature for sandy loam soils of Umuahia, Nigeria were used to evaluate the performance of GRG solver. A comparative study of graphical method and GRG solver shows that the performance of GRG solver is better than that of conventional graphical method for estimation of infiltration rates. Further, the performance of Kostiakov model has been found to be better than the Horton and Philip's model in most of the cases based on both the approaches of parameter estimation.

  4. Urban stormwater infiltration and soil drainage

    OpenAIRE

    RAIMBAULT, G; BERTHIER, E; MOSINI, ML; JOANNIS, C

    2002-01-01

    Si l'infiltration des eaux pluviales urbaines est de plus en plus recherchée pour réduire les débits de ruissellements et les rejets polluants associés, le dimensionnement des ouvrages de rétention/infiltration doit prendre en compte la variabilité des capacités d'infiltration offertes par les sols. Dans une première partie, la variabilité temporelle de l'infiltration dans les sols urbains est mise en évidence à travers les résultats du suivi hydrologique de bassins versants urbains. Dans la ...

  5. Residential energy usage comparison: Findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, B.A.; Uhlaner, R.T.; Cason, T.N.; Courteau, S. (Quantum Consulting, Inc., Berkeley, CA (United States))

    1991-08-01

    This report presents the research methods and results from the Residential Energy Usage Comparison (REUC) project, a joint effort by Southern California Edison Company (SCE) and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI). The REUC project design activities began in early 1986. The REUC project is an innovative demand-site project designed to measure and compare typical energy consumption patterns of energy efficient residential electric and gas appliances. 95 figs., 33 tabs.

  6. Role of slope on infiltration: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morbidelli, Renato; Saltalippi, Carla; Flammini, Alessia; Govindaraju, Rao S.

    2018-02-01

    Partitioning of rainfall at the soil-atmosphere interface is important for both surface and subsurface hydrology, and influences many events of major hydrologic interest such as runoff generation, aquifer recharge, and transport of pollutants in surface waters as well as the vadose zone. This partitioning is achieved through the process of infiltration that has been widely investigated at the local scale, and more recently also at the field scale, by models that were designed for horizontal surfaces. However, infiltration, overland flows, and deep flows in most real situations are generated by rainfall over sloping surfaces that bring in additional effects. Therefore, existing models for local infiltration into homogeneous and layered soils and those as for field-scale infiltration, have to be adapted to account for the effects of surface slope. Various studies have investigated the role of surface slope on infiltration based on a theoretical formulations for the dynamics of infiltration, extensions of the Green-Ampt approach, and from laboratory and field experiments. However, conflicting results have been reported in the scientific literature on the role of surface slope on infiltration. We summarize the salient points from previous studies and provide plausible reasons for discrepancies in conclusions of previous authors, thus leading to a critical assessment of the current state of our understanding on this subject. We offer suggestions for future efforts to advance our knowledge of infiltration over sloping surfaces.

  7. The impact of residential combustion emissions on atmospheric aerosol, human health and climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butt, E. W.; Rap, A.; Schmidt, A.; Reddington, C.; Scott, C.; Pringle, K.; Woodhouse, M.; Spracklen, D. V.

    2015-12-01

    Combustion of fuels in the residential sector for cooking and heating, results in the emission of aerosol and aerosol precursors that effect air quality, human health and climate. Residential emissions are dominated by the combustion of solid fuels which are the primary energy source for nearly half the world's population. Despite this importance, residential emissions are poorly quantified, as are their impacts on air quality and climate. We used a global aerosol microphysics model to simulate the impact of residential emissions on atmospheric aerosol in the year 2000, and evaluated simulated concentrations against surface observations of aerosol mass and number. Residential emissions make the largest contributions to surface particulate matter (PM2.5) concentrations in East Asia, South Asia and Eastern Europe, matching regions of greatest emissions. We used concentration response functions to estimate a global annual excess adult (> 30 years of age) premature mortality due to residential emissions of between 113, 300 and 827, 000 when uncertainties in both residential emissions and health effects of PM2.5 were accounted for. Premature mortality was greatest in Asia, with China and India accounting for 50% of simulated global excess mortality. Using an offline radiative transfer model, we show that residential emissions exerted a global annual mean direct radiative effect of between -66 mW m-2 and +21 mW m-2, accounting for uncertainties in emissions flux and assumed ratio of carbonaceous and sulphur emissions. Residential emissions exerted a negative global annual mean first aerosol indirect effect of between -52 mW m-2 and -16 mW m-2, which was found to be sensitive to the assumed size distribution of carbonaceous emissions. Our results demonstrate that reducing residential combustion emissions would have substantial benefits for human health through reductions in ambient PM2.5 concentrations.

  8. Two-phase simulation of a variable rate infiltration experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luvisotto, V.; Manoli, G.; Cainelli, O.; Bellin, A.; Marani, M.; Putti, M.

    2012-04-01

    Flow and transport processes in unsaturated soils are typically modeled through Richards' equation with retention and hydraulic conductivity curves obtained under static and stationary conditions, respectively. This model is commonly applied to quantify infiltration at the hillslope scale under strongly varying rainfall intensity, which leads to varying infiltration rates. To our knowledge detailed laboratory experiments reproducing this situation in large columns of length comparable with the soil thickness in Alpine hillslopes are lacking. In the present work we analyze and model variable rate infiltration experiments performed in a sand column accurately instrumented with tensiometers and TDR probes. Previous analyses revealed that data collected during transient experiments are not falling within the main wetting and drying curves obtained with careful analysis under static conditions. On the other hand, as expected, the same retention curves were able to reproduce with high accuracy experiments conducted under quasi-static conditions. As a consequence, the Richards' model was unable to reproduce the pressure distribution along the column during transient experiments conducted with variable rainfall rates. These findings have important consequences, e.g. for the prediction of runoff production and hill-slope stability. We propose that this discrepancy may be due to the influence of air flow on water pressure which is expected to be much higher under variable rainfall conditions when rapid saturation of the top soil may limit air to escape from above. In the present work, we numerically investigated this hypothesis using a two-phase air-water flow model. The numerical solver is based on a linear FEM-based pressure-pressure formulation where accurate mass balance is preserved by careful choice of spatial and temporal discretization of the nonlinear terms. The pressure-pressure formulation is chosen to ensure proper implementation of the pressure-based boundary

  9. Residential traffic exposure and pregnancy-related outcomes: A prospective birth cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hooven, E.H. van den; Jaddoe, V.W.; Kluizenaar, Y. de; Hofman, A.; MacKenbach, J.P.; Steegers, E.A.; Miedema, H.M.; Pierik, F.H.

    2009-01-01

    Background. The effects of ambient air pollution on pregnancy outcomes are under debate. Previous studies have used different air pollution exposure assessment methods. The considerable traffic-related intra-urban spatial variation needs to be considered in exposure assessment. Residential proximity

  10. Maximizing Information from Residential Measurements of Volatile Organic Compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maddalena, Randy [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Li, Na [Berkeley Analytical Associates, Richmond, CA (United States); Hodgson, Alfred [Berkeley Analytical Associates, Richmond, CA (United States); Offermann, Francis [Indoor Environmental Engineering, San Francisco, CA (United States); Singer, Brett [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2013-02-01

    Continually changing materials used in home construction and finishing can introduce new chemicals or changes in the VOC profile in residential air and the trend towards tighter homes can lead to higher exposure concentrations for many indoor sources. However, the complex mixture of VOCs in residential air makes it difficult to discover emerging contaminants and/or trends in pollutant profiles. The purpose of this study is to prepare a comprehensive library of chemicals found in homes, along with a semi-quantitative approach to maximize the information gained from VOC measurements. We carefully reviewed data from 108 new California homes and identified 238 individual compounds. The majority of the identified VOCs originated indoors. Only 31% were found to have relevant health based exposure guidelines and less than 10% had a chronic reference exposure level (CREL). The finding highlights the importance of extending IAQ studies to include a wider range of VOCs

  11. Rainier Mesa CAU Infiltration Model using INFILv3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levitt, Daniel G. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Kwicklis, Edward M. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-07-13

    The outline of this presentation are: (1) Model Inputs - DEM, Precipitation, Air temp, Soil props, Surface geology, Vegetation; (2) Model Pre-processing - Runoff Routing and sinks, Slope and Azimuth, Soil Ksat reduction with slope (to mitigate bathtub ring), Soil-Bedrock Interface permeabilities; (3) Model Calibration - ET using PEST, Chloride mass balance data, Streamflow using PEST; (4) Model Validation - Streamflow data not used for calibration; (5) Uncertainty Analysis; and (6) Results. Conclusions are: (1) Average annual infiltration rates =11 to 18 mm/year for RM domain; (2) Average annual infiltration rates = 7 to 11 mm/year for SM domain; (3) ET = 70% of precipitation for both domains; (4) Runoff = 8-9% for RM; and 22-24% for SM - Apparently high average runoff is caused by the truncation of the lowerelevation portions of watersheds where much of the infiltration of runoff waters would otherwise occur; (5) Model results are calibrated to measured ET, CMB data, and streamflow observations; (6) Model results are validated using streamflow observations discovered after model calibration was complete; (7) Use of soil Ksat reduction with slope to mitigate bathtub ring was successful (based on calibration results); and (8) Soil-bedrock K{_}interface is innovative approach.

  12. Landslide triggering by rain infiltration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iverson, Richard M.

    2000-01-01

    Landsliding in response to rainfall involves physical processes that operate on disparate timescales. Relationships between these timescales guide development of a mathematical model that uses reduced forms of Richards equation to evaluate effects of rainfall infiltration on landslide occurrence, timing, depth, and acceleration in diverse situations. The longest pertinent timescale is A/D0, where D0 is the maximum hydraulic diffusivity of the soil and A is the catchment area that potentially affects groundwater pressures at a prospective landslide slip surface location with areal coordinates x, y and depth H. Times greater than A/D0 are necessary for establishment of steady background water pressures that develop at (x, y, H) in response to rainfall averaged over periods that commonly range from days to many decades. These steady groundwater pressures influence the propensity for landsliding at (x, y, H), but they do not trigger slope failure. Failure results from rainfall over a typically shorter timescale H2/D0 associated with transient pore pressure transmission during and following storms. Commonly, this timescale ranges from minutes to months. The shortest timescale affecting landslide responses to rainfall is √(H/g), where g is the magnitude of gravitational acceleration. Postfailure landslide motion occurs on this timescale, which indicates that the thinnest landslides accelerate most quickly if all other factors are constant. Effects of hydrologic processes on landslide processes across these diverse timescales are encapsulated by a response function, R(t*) = √(t*/π) exp (-1/t*) - erfc (1/√t*), which depends only on normalized time, t*. Use of R(t*) in conjunction with topographic data, rainfall intensity and duration information, an infinite-slope failure criterion, and Newton's second law predicts the timing, depth, and acceleration of rainfall-triggered landslides. Data from contrasting landslides that exhibit rapid, shallow motion and slow, deep

  13. Research on the Implementation of Technological Measures for Controlling Indoor Environmental Quality in Green Residential Buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ruozhu; Liu, Pengda; Qian, Yongmei

    2018-02-01

    This paper analyzes the design technology of controlling indoor quality in engineering practice, it is proposed that, in framework system of green residential building design, how to realize the design idea of controlling the indoor environment quality, and the design technology with feasibility, including the sunshine and lighting, indoor air quality and thermal environment, sound insulation and noise reduction measures, etc.. The results of all will provide a good theoretical supportting for the design of green residential building.

  14. Practical Diagnostics for Evaluating Residential Commissioning Metrics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wray, Craig; Walker, Iain; Siegel, Jeff; Sherman, Max

    2002-06-11

    In this report, we identify and describe 24 practical diagnostics that are ready now to evaluate residential commissioning metrics, and that we expect to include in the commissioning guide. Our discussion in the main body of this report is limited to existing diagnostics in areas of particular concern with significant interactions: envelope and HVAC systems. These areas include insulation quality, windows, airtightness, envelope moisture, fan and duct system airflows, duct leakage, cooling equipment charge, and combustion appliance backdrafting with spillage. Appendix C describes the 83 other diagnostics that we have examined in the course of this project, but that are not ready or are inappropriate for residential commissioning. Combined with Appendix B, Table 1 in the main body of the report summarizes the advantages and disadvantages of all 107 diagnostics. We first describe what residential commissioning is, its characteristic elements, and how one might structure its process. Our intent in this discussion is to formulate and clarify these issues, but is largely preliminary because such a practice does not yet exist. Subsequent sections of the report describe metrics one can use in residential commissioning, along with the consolidated set of 24 practical diagnostics that the building industry can use now to evaluate them. Where possible, we also discuss the accuracy and usability of diagnostics, based on recent laboratory work and field studies by LBNL staff and others in more than 100 houses. These studies concentrate on evaluating diagnostics in the following four areas: the DeltaQ duct leakage test, air-handler airflow tests, supply and return grille airflow tests, and refrigerant charge tests. Appendix A describes those efforts in detail. In addition, where possible, we identify the costs to purchase diagnostic equipment and the amount of time required to conduct the diagnostics. Table 1 summarizes these data. Individual equipment costs for the 24

  15. Training Munitions Health Risk Assessment No. 39-EJ-1485-00 Residential Exposure from Inhalation of Air Emission from the M882 9-MM Ball Cartridge. Department of Defense Identification Code: A363

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mobley, Joleen

    2001-01-01

    .... This document presents the evaluation of the potential for adverse human health effects to the offsite resident breathing air emissions following the use of military firing ranges during training exercises...

  16. Training Munitions Health Risk Assessment NO. 39-EJ-1485-00 Residential Exposure from Inhalation of Air Emissions from the M1911.45 Caliber Ball Cartridge Department of Defense Identification Code: A475

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Coakley, Stafford

    2001-01-01

    ... .45 Caliber Ball Cartridge. This document presents the evaluation of the potential for adverse human health effects to the offsite residents breathing air emissions following the use of military firing ranges during training exercises...

  17. Training Munitions Health Risk Assessment No. 39-EJ-1485-00 Residential Exposure from Inhalation of Air Emissions from the M200 5.56-MM Blank Cartridge. Department of Defense Identification Code: A080

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mobley, Joleen

    2001-01-01

    ... of the 5.56mm Blank Cartridge. This document presents the evaluation of the potential for adverse human health effects to the offsite residents breathing air emissions following the use of military firing ranges during training exercises...

  18. Training Munitions Health Risk Assessment NO. 39-EJ-1485-00 Residential Exposure from Inhalation of Air Emissions from the M862 5.56-MM Practice Cartridge Department of Defense Indentification Code: A065

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chang, Hsieng-Ye

    2001-01-01

    ... of the 5.56mm Practice Cartridge. This document present the evaluation of the potential for adverse human health effects to the offsite residents breathing air emissions following the use of military firing ranges during training exercises...

  19. Training Munitions Health Risk Assessment NO. 39-EJ-1485-00 Residential Exposure from Inhalation of Air Emissions from the 155-MM Propelling Charge (M3 Series) Department of Defense Identification Code: D540

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chang, Hsieng-Ye

    2001-01-01

    ... of the potential for adverse human health effects to the off site residents breathing air emissions following the use of military firing ranges during training exercises - Study results showed no potential...

  20. Training Munitions Health Risk Assessment No. 39-EJ-1485-00 Residential Exposure from Inhalation of Air Emissions from the M1A1.50 Caliber Blank Cartridge Department of Defense Identification Code: A559

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2001-01-01

    ... .50 Caliber Blank Cartridge. This document presents the evaluation of the potential for adverse human health effects to the offsite residents breathing air emissions following the use of military firing ranges during training exercises...

  1. Training Munitions Health Risk Assessment No. 39-EJ-1485-00 Residential Exposure from Inhalation of Air Emissions from the M855 5.56-MM Tungsten Ball Cartridge

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mobley, Joleen

    2001-01-01

    ... of the 5.56mm Tungsten Ball Cartridge. This document present the evaluation of the potential for adverse human health effects to the offsite residents breathing air emissions following the use of military firing ranges during training exercises...

  2. Computer program for sizing residential energy recovery ventilator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koontz, M.D.; Lee, S.M.; Spears, J.W.; Kesselring, J.P.

    1991-01-01

    Energy recovery ventilators offer the prospect of tighter control over residential ventilation rates than manual methods, such as opening windows, with a lesser energy penalty. However, the appropriate size of such a ventilator is not readily apparent in most situations. Sizing of energy recovery ventilation software was developed to calculate the size of ventilator necessary to satisfy ASHRAE Standard 62-1989, Ventilation for Acceptable Air Quality, or a user-specified air exchange rate. Inputs to the software include house location, structural characteristics, house operations and energy costs, ventilation characteristics, and HVAC system COP/efficiency. Based on these inputs, the program estimates the existing air exchange rate for the house, the ventilation rate required to meet the ASHRAE standard or user-specified air exchange rate, the size of the ventilator needed to meet the requirement, and the expected changes in indoor air quality and energy consumption. In this paper an illustrative application of the software is provided

  3. Prediction of snowmelt infiltration into frozen soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tao, Y.X.; Gray, D.M.

    1994-01-01

    A numerical model is presented, based on the local volume averaging formulation of transport phenomena in porous media, for simulating meltwater infiltration into unsaturated, frozen soil. With the defined flow and freezing boundary conditions at the snow-soil interface, using the concept of a surface local averaging volume, the time variation in profiles of temperature, liquid/ice content, infiltration/percolation rates, and rate of phase change in upper soil layers are predicted. In addition to a parametric analysis, model estimates of infiltration are compared with quantities calculated from field measurements of soil moisture changes and temperature during snow cover ablation, showing a reasonable agreement

  4. Infiltrating/sealing proximal caries lesions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martignon, S; Ekstrand, K R; Gomez, J

    2012-01-01

    This randomized split-mouth controlled clinical trial aimed at assessing the therapeutic effects of infiltration vs. sealing for controlling caries progression on proximal surfaces. Out of 90 adult students/patients assessed at university clinics and agreeing to participate, 39, each with 3...... differences in lesion progression between infiltration and placebo (P = 0.0012) and between sealing and placebo (P = 0.0269). The study showed that infiltration and sealing are significantly better than placebo treatment for controlling caries progression on proximal lesions. No significant difference...

  5. Prediction of residential building energy consumption: A neural network approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biswas, M.A. Rafe; Robinson, Melvin D.; Fumo, Nelson

    2016-01-01

    Some of the challenges to predict energy utilization has gained recognition in the residential sector due to the significant energy consumption in recent decades. However, the modeling of residential building energy consumption is still underdeveloped for optimal and robust solutions while this research area has become of greater relevance with significant advances in computation and simulation. Such advances include the advent of artificial intelligence research in statistical model development. Artificial neural network has emerged as a key method to address the issue of nonlinearity of building energy data and the robust calculation of large and dynamic data. The development and validation of such models on one of the TxAIRE Research houses has been demonstrated in this paper. The TxAIRE houses have been designed to serve as realistic test facilities for demonstrating new technologies. The input variables used from the house data include number of days, outdoor temperature and solar radiation while the output variables are house and heat pump energy consumption. The models based on Levenberg-Marquardt and OWO-Newton algorithms had promising results of coefficients of determination within 0.87–0.91, which is comparable to prior literature. Further work will be explored to develop a robust model for residential building application. - Highlights: • A TxAIRE research house energy consumption data was collected in model development. • Neural network models developed using Levenberg–Marquardt or OWO-Newton algorithms. • Model results match well with data and statistically consistent with literature.

  6. Microclimate Patterns of Residential Landscapes Across the US

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learned, J.; Hall, S. J.

    2014-12-01

    Urban development has altered the physical and biological properties of native ecosystems worldwide. Research on the environmental outcomes of development continues to increase in scope. Climate phenomena, such as the Urban Heat Island (UHI) and Park Cool Island (PCI), are frequently used to illustrate how cities and managed landscapes differ from rural lands. The UHI describes the disparity between urban and rural temperatures, and results from heat retention within the built environment. These effects may be locally mitigated by vegetation (PCI). While the UHI is a useful tool for examining cities on a large scale, the methods are often too coarse to describe what individuals experience. We wondered: What large-scale climate trends are detectable at microclimate levels? Are microclimate patterns within residential landscapes typical, or are they geographically variable? To investigate, we installed sensors to monitor the air temperature within yards (residential landscapes) and native landscapes of 6 US cities from unique climate zones; Los Angeles, Phoenix, Minneapolis, Baltimore, Miami, and Boston. We hypothesized that microclimate trends would be similar among cities, and that microclimate patterns would predominate over large-scale climate trends within residential landscapes, especially when atmospheric mixing is low. Air temperature data collected between Aug. 2012 and July 2014 reveal that residential landscapes experience significantly different temperatures than native landscapes (pre-sunrise). The differences drive cities toward similarity, despite the variability of climate zones. The 6 cities also experience similar patterns of diurnal temperature fluctuations. Daily temperature ranges in yards are significantly greater than in their corresponding native landscapes during cooler months (p microclimates in residential landscapes can create local heat sinks within the built environment that may alleviate UHI effects in some cities. Additionally

  7. Landslide triggering by rain infiltration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iverson, Richard M.

    2000-01-01

    Landsliding in response to rainfall involves physical processes that operate on disparate timescales. Relationships between these timescales guide development of a mathematical model that uses reduced forms of Richards equation to evaluate effects of rainfall infiltration on landslide occurrence, timing, depth, and acceleration in diverse situations. The longest pertinent timescale is A/D0, where D0 is the maximum hydraulic diffusivity of the soil and A is the catchment area that potentially affects groundwater pressures at a prospective landslide slip surface location with areal coordinates x, y and depth H. Times greater than A/D0 are necessary for establishment of steady background water pressures that develop at (x, y, H) in response to rainfall averaged over periods that commonly range from days to many decades. These steady groundwater pressures influence the propensity for landsliding at (x, y, H), but they do not trigger slope failure. Failure results from rainfall over a typically shorter timescale H2/D0 associated with transient pore pressure transmission during and following storms. Commonly, this timescale ranges from minutes to months. The shortest timescale affecting landslide responses to rainfall is √(H/g), where g is the magnitude of gravitational acceleration. Postfailure landslide motion occurs on this timescale, which indicates that the thinnest landslides accelerate most quickly if all other factors are constant. Effects of hydrologic processes on landslide processes across these diverse timescales are encapsulated by a response function, R(t*) = √(t*/π) exp (-1/t*) - erfc (1/√t*), which depends only on normalized time, t*. Use of R(t*) in conjunction with topographic data, rainfall intensity and duration information, an infinite-slope failure criterion, and Newton's second law predicts the timing, depth, and acceleration of rainfall-triggered landslides. Data from contrasting landslides that exhibit rapid, shallow

  8. Hemiparesy, disartry, adenopathy and pulmonary infiltrated

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giraldo Estrada, Horacio; Triana Harker, Ricardo; Castaneda del Gordo, Elizabeth

    2000-01-01

    Hemiparesy, disartry, adenopathy and pulmonary infiltrated, in-patient of 72 years, masculine sex who consults for pain in the right inferior member of 6 months of evolution, decrease of the force in the right and moderate disartry

  9. Tunable Beam Diffraction in Infiltrated Microstructured Fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosberg, Christian Romer; Bennet, Francis H.; Neshev, Dragomir N.

    We experimentally study beam propagation in two dimensional photonic lattices in microstructured optical fibers infiltrated with high index liquids. We demonstrate strongly tunable beam diffraction by dynamically varying the coupling between individual lattice sites.......We experimentally study beam propagation in two dimensional photonic lattices in microstructured optical fibers infiltrated with high index liquids. We demonstrate strongly tunable beam diffraction by dynamically varying the coupling between individual lattice sites....

  10. Ceramic composites by chemical vapor infiltration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stinton, D.P.

    1987-01-01

    Composites consisting of silicon carbide matrices reinforced with continuous ceramic fibers are being developed for high-temperature structural applications. Chemical vapor deposition (CVD) techniques are very effective in fabricating composites with high strengths and exceptional fracture toughness. Mechanical properties of infiltrated composites are controlled by the strength of the interfacial bond between the fibers and matrix. This paper describes two CVD techniques and reviews the models being developed to better understand and control the infiltration process

  11. Residential radon in Finland: sources, variation, modelling and dose comparisons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arvela, H.

    1995-09-01

    The study deals with sources of indoor radon in Finland, seasonal variations in radon concentration, the effect of house construction and ventilation and also with the radiation dose from indoor radon and terrestrial gamma radiation. The results are based on radon measurements in approximately 4000 dwellings and on air exchange measurements in 250 dwellings as well as on model calculations. The results confirm that convective soil air flow is by far the most important source of indoor radon in Finnish low-rise residential housing. (97 refs., 61 figs., 30 tabs.)

  12. Residential radon in Finland: sources, variation, modelling and dose comparisons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arvela, H.

    1995-09-01

    The study deals with sources of indoor radon in Finland, seasonal variations in radon concentration, the effect of house construction and ventilation and also with the radiation dose from indoor radon and terrestrial gamma radiation. The results are based on radon measurements in approximately 4000 dwellings and on air exchange measurements in 250 dwellings as well as on model calculations. The results confirm that convective soil air flow is by far the most important source of indoor radon in Finnish low-rise residential housing. (97 refs., 61 figs., 30 tabs.).

  13. Radiant Floor Cooling Combined with Mixing Ventilation in a Residential Room

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krajcik, Michal; Simone, Angela; Tomasi, Roberta

    in progress. An experimental laboratory study in a simulated residential room with a seated occupant simulated by a thermal manikin was performed in order to evaluate thermal comfort and ventilation effectiveness. Thermal comfort was evaluated by means of vertical air temperature and air velocity profiles...... for comfortable thermal environment recommended by the standards. The cooler supply air mixed well and the effect of the position of air terminal devices was small. When warm unconditioned outside air was supplied by mixing ventilation in combination with the radiant floor cooling, low floor temperature......Mixing air ventilation system is one of the main ventilation concepts applied in residential buildings. The effect of combining the mixing ventilation system with the radiant floor heating has been well established, whereas the validation of using the floor for cooling in summer is still...

  14. Basement radon entry and stack driven moisture infiltration reduced by active soil depressurization

    Science.gov (United States)

    C.R. Boardman; Samuel V. Glass

    2015-01-01

    This case study presents measurements of radon and moisture infiltration from soil gases into the basement of an unoccupied research house in Madison, Wisconsin, over two full years. The basement floor and exterior walls were constructed with preservative-treated lumber and plywood. In addition to continuous radon monitoring, measurements included building air...

  15. Tumoral infiltration in intervertebral disk at MR; Aspect IRM d`une infiltration tumorale discale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wargnier, O.; Roger, R.; Bibi, R.; Muret, A. de; Alison, D. [Hopital Trousseau, 37 - Tours (France)

    1997-11-01

    We report a case of tumor infiltration into an intervertebral disk imaged at MR. The MRI appearance of a tumor infiltration into an intervertebral disk is the same as a spondylodiscitis: loss of the internuclear cleft, increased signal intensity of the disk on T2 weighted imaging. Other metastatic infiltration in vertebrae and a primitive tumor suggest the diagnosis. It is confirmed by percutaneous biopsy. (author)

  16. The impact of residential combustion emissions on atmospheric aerosol, human health, and climate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. W. Butt

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Combustion of fuels in the residential sector for cooking and heating results in the emission of aerosol and aerosol precursors impacting air quality, human health, and climate. Residential emissions are dominated by the combustion of solid fuels. We use a global aerosol microphysics model to simulate the impact of residential fuel combustion on atmospheric aerosol for the year 2000. The model underestimates black carbon (BC and organic carbon (OC mass concentrations observed over Asia, Eastern Europe, and Africa, with better prediction when carbonaceous emissions from the residential sector are doubled. Observed seasonal variability of BC and OC concentrations are better simulated when residential emissions include a seasonal cycle. The largest contributions of residential emissions to annual surface mean particulate matter (PM2.5 concentrations are simulated for East Asia, South Asia, and Eastern Europe. We use a concentration response function to estimate the human health impact due to long-term exposure to ambient PM2.5 from residential emissions. We estimate global annual excess adult (>  30 years of age premature mortality (due to both cardiopulmonary disease and lung cancer to be 308 000 (113 300–497 000, 5th to 95th percentile uncertainty range for monthly varying residential emissions and 517 000 (192 000–827 000 when residential carbonaceous emissions are doubled. Mortality due to residential emissions is greatest in Asia, with China and India accounting for 50 % of simulated global excess mortality. Using an offline radiative transfer model we estimate that residential emissions exert a global annual mean direct radiative effect between −66 and +21 mW m−2, with sensitivity to the residential emission flux and the assumed ratio of BC, OC, and SO2 emissions. Residential emissions exert a global annual mean first aerosol indirect effect of between −52 and −16 mW m−2, which is sensitive to the

  17. Heat pumps: Residential and commercial applications. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-01-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the design and development of heat pumps for use in residential houses, apartments, and commercial installations. Energy exchange systems examined include air-to-air, ground-coupled, air-to-water, and water-to-water types. The citations cover costs and reliability of the heat pump systems, and studies of operations in differing climates and seasons. (Contains a minimum of 70 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  18. Heat pumps: Residential and commercial applications. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the design and development of heat pumps for use in residential houses, apartments, and commercial installations. Energy exchange systems examined include air-to-air, ground-coupled, air-to-water, and water-to-water types. The citations cover costs and reliability of the heat pump systems, and studies of operations in differing climates and seasons. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  19. Main challenges of residential areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oana Luca

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The present article is a position paper aiming to initiate a professional debate related to the aspects related to the urban dysfunctions leading to the wear of the residential areas. The paper proposes a definition of the wear process, identify the main causes leading to its occurrence and propose a number of solutions to neutralise the dysfunctions. The three wearing phases of residential areas components are emphasized, exploring their lifecycle. In order to perform the study of urban wear, the status of the residential areas components can be established and monitored, and also the variables of the function that can mathematically model the specific wear process may be considered. The paper is considered a first step for the model adjustment, to be tested and validated in the following steps. Based on the mathematical method and model, there can be created, in a potential future research, the possibility of determining the precarity degree for residential areas/neighbourhoods and cities, by minimising the subjective component of the analyses preceding the decision for renovation or regeneration.

  20. Trends of Sustainable Residential Architecture

    OpenAIRE

    Narvydas, A

    2014-01-01

    The article is based on Master’s research conducted during Scottish Housing Expo 2010. The aim of the research was to determine the prevailing trends in sustainable residential architecture. Each trend can be described by features detected during visual and technical observation of project data. Based on that architects may predict possible problems related to a specific trend.

  1. Technical Problems of Residential Construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowogońska, Beata; Cibis, Jerzy

    2017-10-01

    Beauty, utility, durability - these are the features of good architecture and should also be the distinguishing qualities of every residential building. But do beauty and utility remain along with the passing of time? Performance characteristics are an indicator of both, the technical as well as aesthetic state of buildings. Aesthetic needs are in disagreement with the merciless aging process. The beauty of a city is formed not only by the original forms of new residential buildings, but also by existing tenement housing; thus preserving their aesthetics becomes a necessity. Time is continuously passing and along with it, aging intensifies. The aging process is a natural phenomenon for every material. The life expectancy of building materials is also limited. Along with the passing of time, the technical state of residential buildings continuously deteriorates. With the passing of time, the aesthetic values and preferences of users of flats change and the usability of the building decreases. The permanence of buildings, including residential buildings, is shaped not only by the forces of nature but also by activities of humans. A long lifespan is ensured by carrying out ongoing, systematic renovation-repair works. It is thanks to them that buildings derived from past centuries are still being used, and their market attractiveness is not decreasing.

  2. Congestion and residential moving behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Morten Marott; Pilegaard, Ninette; Van Ommeren, Jos

    2008-01-01

    we study how congestion and residential moving behaviour are interrelated, using a two-region job search model. Workers choose between interregional commuting and residential moving, in order to live closer to their place of work. This choice affects the external costs of commuting, due to conges......we study how congestion and residential moving behaviour are interrelated, using a two-region job search model. Workers choose between interregional commuting and residential moving, in order to live closer to their place of work. This choice affects the external costs of commuting, due...... to congestion. We focus on the equilibrium in which some workers currently living in one region accept jobs in the other, with a fraction of them choosing to commute from their current residence to the new job in the other region and the remainder choosing to move to the region in which the new job is located....... The welfare-maximising road tax is derived, which is essentially the Pigouvian tax, given the absence of a tax on moving. Given the presence of moving taxes, which are substantial in Europe, the optimal road tax for commuters is the Pigouvian tax plus the amortised value of the moving tax, evaluated...

  3. Convergence of Residential Gateway Technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartog, F.T.H. den; Balm, M.; Jong, C.M. de; Kwaaitaal, J.J.B.

    2004-01-01

    A new OSI-based model is described that can be used for the classification of residential gateways. It is applied to analyze current gateway solutions and draw evolutionary paths for the medium to long term. From this it is concluded that particularly set-top boxes and broadband modems, as opposed

  4. Estimation of air quality by air pollution indices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liblik, Valdo; Kundel, Helmut

    1999-01-01

    A novel system for estimating the quality of atmospheric air in the over-ground air layer with the help of air pollution indices was developed. The method is based on a comparison of measured or calculated maximum short-term concentrations and average annual concentrations of pollutants with maximum permissible concentrations (with regard to human beings and vegetation). Special air quality estimation scales for residential areas and natural systems are presented. On the basis of the concentration of the substance under study zones of very high, high, rather high, moderate, low and very low air pollution were distinguished in the over-ground layer of the atmosphere. These are projected to land surface for landscape zonation. The application of the system of indices is demonstrated in the analysis of air quality for the towns of Kohtla-Jarve, Johvi and Kivioli (in 1997-1998). A comparative analysis of the air pollution zones distinguished on the basis of emissions and data from bio monitoring yielded satisfactory results. The system of air pollution indices developed enables to process the results of air monitoring in case of pollution fields of complicated composition so that the result for estimating the quality of ambient air in a residential area is easily understood by inhabitants and interpretable with the help of a special scale; analyse temporal changes in the quality of the air in towns, villages and other residential areas and use the results as basis for developing measures for reducing the pollution of ambient air; carry out zonation of large territories on the basis of air pollution levels (spatial air pollution zones are projected on the ground surface) and estimate air quality in places where air monitoring is lacking to forecast the possible effect of air pollution on natural systems (author)

  5. Energy efficiency program through exchange of air conditioners in residential sector of Manaus city: a concrete experience; Programa de eficiencia energetica atraves da troca de condicionadores de ar no setor residencial de Manaus: uma experiencia concreta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Fabricio Rodrigues; Goncalves, Ana Catarina Lima Chaves; Cartaxo, Elizabeth Ferreira; Gomes, Hugo Miguel Oliveira; Nascimento, Nilton Correa; Inui, Raul Eiji; Guedes, Ricardo Augusto de Morais; Benchaya, Roberto Tavares [Universidade Federal do Amazonas (UFAM), Manaus, AM (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    The present review attempts to evaluate the importance of efficient equipment diffusion in reducing energy consumption, based upon the Study-case of an air conditioned exchange program in Manaus city of Amazonas. In spite of the existence, in the actual market, of efficient technology, it has been, yet, badly diffused, mostly due to economical and informative laps. Therefore, once tried to demonstrate the potential benefits, in technical gains, of energy efficiency offered by efficient Air conditioned equipment, through a plan that favors the consumer's participation as an active contributor in the dissemination process of efficient technology, and a following program for efficiency evaluation, beside a tributary evaluation proposal, so that technology becomes accessible to the general population, attempting its benefices. In addition, the environmental benefits of that specific proposal are analyzed, trough the developed recycling program. (author)

  6. Isothermal and non-isothermal infiltration and deuterium transport: a case study in a soil column from a headwater catchment

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sobotková, M.; Sněhota, M.; Budínová, E.; Tesař, Miroslav

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 65, č. 3 (2017), s. 234-243 ISSN 0042-790X Grant - others:GA ČR(CZ) GA14-03691S Institutional support: RVO:67985874 Keywords : isothermal infiltration * non-isothermal infiltration * column leaching * breakthrough curve * deuterium * viscosity * capillary trapping * entrapped air * permeability Subject RIV: DA - Hydrology ; Limnology OBOR OECD: Environmental sciences (social aspects to be 5.7) Impact factor: 1.654, year: 2016

  7. Meningeal infiltration in recurrent nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chong, V.F.H.; Fan, Y.-F.

    2000-01-01

    Permeative infiltration of the meninges appears to be a distinct form of recurrent nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). The present report of eight patients with recurrent NPC illustrates meningeal infiltration following basal foramina extension. Seven of the eight patients (88%) showed jugular foramen involvement. Three patients had concomitant infiltration of the foramen magnum. There was one patient showing spread through the foramen lacerum. Only four (50%) of these patients had clinically detectable tumour in the nasopharynx, while the other half showed deep submucosal recurrence with endoscopically unremarkable findings. Permeative meningeal infiltration appears to be a distinct form of NPC recurrence. It is important to recognize this phenomenon so as to optimize the treatment options. The imaging studies were reviewed and the following features were recorded: local nasopharyngeal recurrence, the manner of intracranial spread and site of meningeal infiltration. Four patients had only MRI, two had only CT and two patients had both CT and MRI. The presence or absence of intracranial tumour before treatment was also recorded. Two observers reviewed the images and results were arrived at by consensus. Copyright (1999) Blackwell Science Pty Ltd

  8. Human Thermal Comfort In Residential House Buildings Of Jimma Town Southwest Ethiopia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chali Yadeta

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Indoor human thermal comfort is an important factor in indoor air quality assessment. Thermal comfort affects human health work efficiency and overall wellbeing. Thermal discomfort in indoors lowers the emotional and physical health of the occupants. This paper targets to explore human thermal comfort in residential house buildings of Jimma town and state some possible mechanisms to improve the existing thermal discomfort in large number the houses. For the study 303 structured questionnaires were distributed to the residential houses in thirteen places of the town based on predetermined criteria. The study reveals that human thermal discomfort in residential houses Jimma town are mainly from poor architectural design and improper use of heat generating appliances in indoors. The uses architectural design that suites the present climatic conditions and use of materials that facilitates ventilations will enhance the realization of the required human thermal comfort in residential houses of the study area.

  9. Infiltration and redistribution of water in soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stroosnijder, L.

    1976-01-01

    The flow of the liquid phase through a soil can be predicted from pressure gradients. Different ways of predicting infiltration for irrigation of a basin were compared: numerical approximation; semi-analytical and analytical. A partly empirical equation was developed for description of rate of infiltration, after examination of existing equations. Under certain conditions, infiltration was influenced by under or over pressure of the trapped gas phase and by swelling of clays. Complex models for redistribution were of little value in practice, since they could not be generalized and required too many physical data about the soil. A scheme was developed that grouped techniques for estimating physical properties of soil, according to cost and expertise required. A new experimental technique based on gamma transmission is described for estimating the physical properties of the soil. (Auth.)

  10. Copper infiltrated high speed steels based composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madej, M.; Lezanski, J.

    2003-01-01

    High hardness, mechanical strength, heat resistance and wear resistance of M3/2 high speed steel (HSS) make it an attractive material. Since technological and economical considerations are equally important, infiltration of high-speed steel skeleton with liquid cooper has proved to be a suitable technique whereby fully dense material is produced at low cost. Attempts have been made to describe the influence of the production process parameters and alloying additives, such as tungsten carbide on the microstructure and mechanical properties of copper infiltrated HSS based composites. The compositions of powder mixtures are 100% M3/2, M3/2+10% Wc, M3/2=30% WC. The powders were uniaxially cold compacted in a cylindrical die at 800 MPa. The green compacts were sintered in vacuum at 1150 o C for 60 minutes. Thereby obtained porous skeletons were subsequently infiltrated with cooper, by gravity method, in vacuum furnace at 1150 o C for 15 minutes. (author)

  11. Acute acalculous cholecystitis with eosinophilic infiltration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muta, Yuki; Odaka, Akio; Inoue, Seiichiro; Komagome, Masahiko; Beck, Yoshifumi; Tamura, Masanori; Arai, Eiichi

    2015-08-01

    We report a case of acute acalculous cholecystitis with eosinophilic infiltration. A previously healthy 6-year-old boy was referred with right abdominal pain. Imaging demonstrated marked thickening of the gallbladder wall and peri-cholecystic effusion. Acute acalculous cholecystitis was diagnosed. Symptoms persisted despite conservative treatment, therefore cholecystectomy was performed. Pathology indicated infiltration of eosinophils into all layers of the gallbladder wall. The postoperative course was uneventful and the patient has had no further symptoms. Eosinophilic cholecystitis is acute acalculous cholecystitis with infiltration of eosinophils. The causes include parasites, gallstones, allergies, and medications. In addition, it may be seen in conjunction with eosinophilic gastroenteritis, eosinophilic pancreatitis, or both. An allergic reaction to abnormal bile is thought to be the underlying cause. The present case did not fulfill the diagnostic criteria of eosinophilic cholecystitis, but this may have been in the process of developing. © 2015 Japan Pediatric Society.

  12. Periovulatory leukocyte infiltration in the rat ovary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oakley, Oliver R; Kim, HeyYoung; El-Amouri, Ismail; Lin, Po-Ching Patrick; Cho, Jongki; Bani-Ahmad, Mohammad; Ko, Chemyong

    2010-09-01

    Ovulation is preceded by intraovarian inflammatory reactions that occur in response to the preovulatory gonadotropin surge. As a main inflammatory event, leukocytes infiltrate the ovary and release proteolytic enzymes that degrade the extracellular matrix weakening the follicular wall, a required step for follicle rupture. This study aimed to quantitatively measure the infiltrating leukocytes, determine their cell types, and localize infiltration sites in the periovulatory rat ovary. Cycling adult and gonadotropin-stimulated immature rats were used as animal models. Ovaries were collected at five different stages of estrous cycle in the adult rats (diestrus, 1700 h; proestrus, 1500 h; proestrus, 2400 h; estrus, 0600 h; and metestrus, 1700 h) and at five different time points after superovulation induction in the immature rats (pregnant mare's serum gonadotrophin, 0 h; pregnant mare's serum gonadotrophin, 48 h; human chorionic gonadotropin, 6 h; human chorionic gonadotropin, 12 h; and human chorionic gonadotropin, 24 h). The ovaries were either dissociated into a single cell suspension for flow cytometric analysis or fixed for immunohistochemical localization of the leukocytes. Similar numbers of leukocytes were seen throughout the estrous cycle (approximately 500,000/ovary), except proestrus 2400 when 2-fold higher numbers of leukocytes were found (approximately 1.1 million/ovary). A similar trend of periovulatory rise of leukocyte numbers was seen in the superovulation-induced immature rat model, recapitulating a dramatic increase in leukocyte numbers upon gonadotropin stimulation. Both macrophage/granulocytes and lymphocytes were among the infiltrating leukocytes and were localized in the theca and interstitial tissues, where platelet-endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1 and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 may play roles in the transmigration of leukocytes, because their expressions correlates spatiotemporally with the infiltrating leukocytes. In addition, a

  13. Laboratory evidence for enhanced infiltration of ion load during snowmelt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Lilbæk

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Meltwater ion concentration and infiltration rate into frozen soil both decline rapidly as snowmelt progresses. Their temporal association is highly non-linear and a covariance term must be added in order to use time-averaged values of snowmelt ion concentration and infiltration rate to calculate chemical infiltration. The covariance is labelled enhanced ion infiltration and represents the additional ion load that infiltrates due to the timing of high meltwater concentration and infiltration rate. Previous assessment of the impact of enhanced ion infiltration has been theoretical; thus, experiments were carried out to examine whether enhanced infiltration can be recognized in controlled laboratory settings and to what extent its magnitude varies with soil moisture. Three experiments were carried out: dry soil conditions, unsaturated soil conditions, and saturated soil conditions. Chloride solutions were added to the surface of frozen soil columns; the concentration decreased exponentially over time to simulate snow meltwater. Infiltration excess water was collected and its chloride concentration and volume determined. Ion load infiltrating the frozen soil was specified by mass conservation. Results showed that infiltrating ion load increased with decreasing soil moisture as expected; however, the impact of enhanced ion infiltration increased considerably with increasing soil moisture. Enhanced infiltration caused 2.5 times more ion load to infiltrate during saturated conditions than that estimated using time-averaged ion concentrations and infiltration rates alone. For unsaturated conditions, enhanced ion infiltration was reduced to 1.45 and for dry soils to 1.3. Reduction in infiltration excess ion load due to enhanced infiltration increased slightly (2–5% over time, being greatest for the dry soil (45% and least for the saturated soil (6%. The importance of timing between high ion concentrations and high infiltration rates was best

  14. Statistical methods towards more efficient infiltration measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franz, T; Krebs, P

    2006-01-01

    A comprehensive knowledge about the infiltration situation in a catchment is required for operation and maintenance. Due to the high expenditures, an optimisation of necessary measurement campaigns is essential. Methods based on multivariate statistics were developed to improve the information yield of measurements by identifying appropriate gauge locations. The methods have a high degree of freedom against data needs. They were successfully tested on real and artificial data. For suitable catchments, it is estimated that the optimisation potential amounts up to 30% accuracy improvement compared to nonoptimised gauge distributions. Beside this, a correlation between independent reach parameters and dependent infiltration rates could be identified, which is not dominated by the groundwater head.

  15. Residential traffic exposure and pregnancy-related outcomes: a prospective birth cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hofman Albert

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The effects of ambient air pollution on pregnancy outcomes are under debate. Previous studies have used different air pollution exposure assessment methods. The considerable traffic-related intra-urban spatial variation needs to be considered in exposure assessment. Residential proximity to traffic is a proxy for traffic-related exposures that takes into account within-city contrasts. Methods We investigated the association between residential proximity to traffic and various birth and pregnancy outcomes in 7,339 pregnant women and their children participating in a population-based cohort study. Residential proximity to traffic was defined as 1 distance-weighted traffic density in a 150 meter radius, and 2 proximity to a major road. We estimated associations of these exposures with birth weight, and with the risks of preterm birth and small size for gestational age at birth. Additionally, we examined associations with pregnancy-induced hypertension, (preeclampsia, and gestational diabetes. Results There was considerable variation in distance-weighted traffic density. Almost fifteen percent of the participants lived within 50 m of a major road. Residential proximity to traffic was not associated with birth and pregnancy outcomes in the main analysis and in various sensitivity analyses. Conclusions Mothers exposed to residential traffic had no higher risk of adverse birth outcomes or pregnancy complications in this study. Future studies may be refined by taking both temporal and spatial variation in air pollution exposure into account.

  16. Residential mobility and childhood leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amoon, A T; Oksuzyan, S; Crespi, C M; Arah, O A; Cockburn, M; Vergara, X; Kheifets, L

    2018-07-01

    Studies of environmental exposures and childhood leukemia studies do not usually account for residential mobility. Yet, in addition to being a potential risk factor, mobility can induce selection bias, confounding, or measurement error in such studies. Using data collected for California Powerline Study (CAPS), we attempt to disentangle the effect of mobility. We analyzed data from a population-based case-control study of childhood leukemia using cases who were born in California and diagnosed between 1988 and 2008 and birth certificate controls. We used stratified logistic regression, case-only analysis, and propensity-score adjustments to assess predictors of residential mobility between birth and diagnosis, and account for potential confounding due to residential mobility. Children who moved tended to be older, lived in housing other than single-family homes, had younger mothers and fewer siblings, and were of lower socioeconomic status. Odds ratios for leukemia among non-movers living mobility, including dwelling type, increased odds ratios for leukemia to 2.61 (95% CI: 1.76-3.86) for living mobility of childhood leukemia cases varied by several sociodemographic characteristics, but not by the distance to the nearest power line or calculated magnetic fields. Mobility appears to be an unlikely explanation for the associations observed between power lines exposure and childhood leukemia. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. RESIDENTIAL MORTGAGE IN MODERN RUSSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dementiev N. P.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The article presents a comparative analysis of residential mortgages in Russia and the United States. The primary ways of mortgage refinancing are outlined. Predominance of the elements of two-level refinancing system of residential mortgage in Russia and the United States is shown. The activity of the Agency for Housing Mortgage Lending (AHML, the basic tool of the Russian government’s mortgage policy, is described in detail. In its objectives and functions the AHML is similar to the American mortgage agencies Ginnie Mae, Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac. Similarities were identified in the Russian and US residential mortgages in the pre-crisis period (high rates of mortgage growth, favourable economic conjuncture, low interest rates, large increase in house prices, speculative housing demand. During the mortgage crisis, the policies of the Russian and US governments and monetary authorities had also much in common (monetary policy easing, cheap central banks loans, extended facilities of mortgage refinancing on the part of state agencies, mortgage rescue scheme, social mortgage programs. But the scope of mortgage in Russia is enormously narrow as compared to the US mortgage. The most important reason for that - low incomes of the Russian population.

  18. Assessment on inflow and infiltration in sewerage systems of Kuantan, Pahang.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yap, Hiew Thong; Ngien, Su Kong

    2017-12-01

    Inflow and infiltration are important aspects of sewerage systems that need to be considered during the design stage and constantly monitored once the sewerage system is in operation. The aim of this research is to analyse the relationship of rainfall as well as inflow infiltration with sewage flow patterns through data collected from fieldwork. Three sewer pipelines were selected at the residential areas of Taman Lepar Hilir Saujana, Bandar Putra and Kota Sas for data collection. Sewage flow data were collected in terms of flowrate, velocity and depth of flow using flowmeters with ultrasonic sensors that utilize the continuous Doppler effect in the sewer pipelines, while rainfall intensity data were collected using rain gauges installed at the study locations. Based on the result, the average infiltration rates of Q peak and Q ave for the locations were 17% and 21%, which exceeded the respective values of 5% and 10% stated in Hammer and Hammer. The flowrate of wastewater in the sewer pipelines was found to be directly proportional to rainfall. These findings indicate that the sewer pipelines in the study areas may have been affected by capacity reduction, whereas the sewerage treatment plants receiving the wastewater influent may have been overloaded.

  19. Postoperative Analgesia using Bupivacaine Wound Infiltration with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Context: Effective management of postcesarean section (CS) pain is important for the well‑being of mother and child; even in limited‑resource areas, there are drug options which can be explored to achieve this. Aim: This study aimed to compare the analgesic effects of a combination of bupivacaine wound infiltration with ...

  20. water infiltration, conductivity and runoff under fallow

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Measurements of runoff was done during the long rains of. 2003 and short rains of 2004. Infiltration was invariably higher under agroforestry systems (P<0.001) than sole cropping, particularly under Alnus and Calliandra systems. A similar pattern was observed for saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ksat), which was greater in ...

  1. Cardiac Arrest After Submucosal Infiltration With Lignocaine

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Marinda

    excitation like perioral twitching or tinnitus, seizures in our case. The occurrence of cardiac arrest was within a ten minute period after submucosal infiltration of 6 ml lignocaine 2% (120 mg) and. 1:200,000 epinephrine (30 μg). Further, the rapid onset and offset of symptoms would likely correlate with epinephrine and not ...

  2. Postoperative Analgesia using Bupivacaine Wound Infiltration with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2018-01-30

    Jan 30, 2018 ... for the well‑being of mother and child; even in limited‑resource areas, there are drug options which can be ... patients received 20 ml of 0.1% plain bupivacaine for wound infiltration and IV dexamethasone 8 mg (Group BD) ..... impaired wound healing, and increased susceptibility to infection.[13,23] None of ...

  3. Investigation plan for infiltration experiment in Olkiluoto

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehtinen, A.; Lindgren, S.; Ikonen, A.

    2008-11-01

    A three-year field experiment to investigate potential changes in pH and redox conditions, and in buffering capacity as well as the hydrogeochemical processes related to groundwater infiltration is designed for implementation in the vicinity of ONKALO. The idea is to monitor the major infiltration flow path from the ground surface into the upper part of ONKALO at about 50 to 100 m depth depending on the observations made during the experiment. The geochemical evolution of the groundwater is strongly affected by infiltration from the surface. In natural conditions in Olkiluoto most of the geochemical reactions occur along the first few tens of metres of the flow path, in an interface between anaerobic and aerobic conditions. The dissolved aggressive agents, CO 2 and O 2 , of the infiltrating water are consumed and the hydrogeochemistry stabilises on neutral and anaerobic conditions due to weathering processes. As a consequence of this evolution, reaction fronts are formed in the flow channels between acid-neutral and aerobic-anaerobic interfaces. The construction of ONKALO may, however, increase the hydraulic gradient and flow into bedrock, which can move these fronts to deeper depths and decrease the buffering capacity of the rock fractures against surficial water infiltration. Detailed integration of hydrogeochemical (including microbiology), geological and hydrogeological studies is essential for a successful experiment. Accurate hydrogeochemical and hydrogeological data that will be collected during this experiment are used in coupled modelling exercises (P/O studies in site reports), which will be carried out to evaluate the movements of the reaction fronts and the buffering capacity of Olkiluoto bedrock against surficial water infiltration. Good quality information is also necessary for calibrating predictive calculations for the safety case estimating future evolution of the site. In addition to the geochemical targets, the experiment can be used in

  4. Infiltration liquid crystal in microstructured polymer optical fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yuan, Scott Wu; Wei, Lei; Bang, Ole

    2009-01-01

    Here, we firstly demonstrate the photonic bandgap effect with PMMA mPOF by filling the air holes with liquid crystal, and subsequently change the light guidance mechanism from index guiding to bandgap guiding. The triangular structure PMMA mPOF used in the experiment is fabricated. A 60 cm length m......POF is butt-coupled to a conventional single mode fiber (SMF) with the broadband light from a supercontinuum source. It is clear to see the colour of the guided modes is red, since some wavelengths are attenuated by the material loss of PMMA in visible region. A positive dielectric anisotropy liquid crystal E......7 is then infiltrated into about 6 cm of the length of mPOF by using capillary forces with the duration of 45 minutes. The transmission spectrum is measured by an optical spectrum analyzer with 1 nm resolution, and normalized to that of the unfilled fiber as shown by the solid line. The difference...

  5. Disinfection of secondary effluents by infiltration percolation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makni, H

    2001-01-01

    Among the most attractive applications of reclaimed wastewater are: irrigation of public parks, sports fields, golf courses and market gardening. These uses require advanced wastewater treatment including disinfection. According to WHO guidelines (1989) and current rules and regulations in Tunisia, faecal coliform levels have to be reduced to < 10(3) or 10(2) CFU/100 mL. In Tunisia, most wastewater plants are only secondary treatment and, in order to meet health related regulations, the effluents need to be disinfected. However, it is usual for secondary effluents to need filtration prior to disinfection. Effectiveness of conventional disinfection processes, such as chlorination and UV radiation, are dependent upon the oxidation level and the levels of suspended solids of the treated water. Ozonation is relatively expensive and energy consuming. The consideration of the advantages and disadvantages of conventional techniques, their reliability, investment needs and operational costs will lead to the use of less sophisticated alternative techniques for certain facilities. Among alternative techniques, soil aquifer treatment and infiltration percolation through sand beds have been studied in Arizona, Israel, France, Spain and Morocco. Infiltration percolation plants have been intermittently fed with secondary or high quality primary effluents which percolated through 1.5-2 m unsaturated coarse sand and were recovered by under-drains. In such infiltration percolation facilities, microorganisms were eliminated through numerous physical, physicochemical and biological inter-related processes (mechanical filtration, adsorption and microbial degradation respectively). Efficiency of faecal coliform removal was dependent upon the water detention times in the filtering medium and on the oxidation of the filtered water. Effluents of Sfax town aerated ponds were infiltrated through 1.5 m deep sand columns in order to determine the performance of infiltration percolation in the

  6. Residential care : Dutch and Italian residents of residential care facilities compared

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Heer-Wunderink, Charlotte; Caro-Nienhuis, Annemarie D.; Sytema, Sjoerd; Wiersma, Durk

    2008-01-01

    Aims - Characteristics of patients living in residential care facilities and the availability of mental hospital- and residential beds in Italy and The Netherlands were compared to assess whether differences in the process of deinstitutionalisation have influenced the composition of their

  7. Assessing the potential of residential HVAC systems for demand-side management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Klauw, Thijs; Hoogsteen, Gerwin; Gerards, Marco Egbertus Theodorus; Hurink, Johann L.; Feng, Xianyong; Hebner, Robert E.

    This paper investigates the potential of residential heating, ventilation and air conditioning systems to contribute to dynamic demand-side management. Thermal models for seven houses in Austin, Texas are developed with the goal of using them in a planning based demand-side management methodology.

  8. A Case Study in Market Transformation for Residential Energy Efficiency Programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Building Technologies Office

    2017-09-01

    This case study describes how the Midwest Energy Efficiency Alliance (MEEA) partnered with gas and electric utilities in Iowa to establish the Iowa residential heating, ventilation, and air conditioning System Adjustment and Verified Efficiency (HVAC SAVE) program, taking it to scale improving the performance and energy efficiency of HVAC systems, growing businesses, and gaining consumer trust.

  9. Living near highways : The impact of existing and planned highway infrastructure on residential satisfaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hamersma, Marije

    2017-01-01

    Living near highways often comes with nuisances (noise, air pollution, barrier effects), but may also bring accessibility gains. This doctoral research provides insight in the impact of existing and planned highway infrastructure on residential satisfaction. The insights are based on a questionnaire

  10. Investigate and Comparsion Self-Esteem and Happiness Among Residential and Non-Residential Old People

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zakieh Nasiri

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The main aim of this study was to investigate and to compare elderly happiness and self-esteem among residential and non-residential. Methods & Materials: This research was designed as descriptive. Two groups were selected in convenience method. Member of residential elderly (416 elderly were chosen based on Morgan Table. Hundred-twenty elderly, 60 residential (30 men and 30 women and 60 non-residential (30 men and 30 women were chosen for study. Data used the three questionnaires, like Demographic questionnaires, Oxford Happiness Inventory and Self-esteem Scale’s Rozenberg. Data were gathered and analyzed with Pearson test, t-student test. Results: The results were indicated that a significant relationship between happiness and self-esteem, among residential and non- residential old people. The findings showed significant difference in happiness, self-esteem among residential and home participants in both groups (P<0.01. Conclusion: The results were showed that a significant relationship between social support and self-esteem, among residential and non-residential old people. Also, the results were indicated that significant difference between social support. In general, residential participants had lower social support and self-esteem than non-residential participants.

  11. Modeling Environmental Tobacco Smoke (ETS) Infiltration in Low-Income Multifamily Housing before and after Building Energy Retrofits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabian, Maria Patricia; Lee, Sharon Kitman; Underhill, Lindsay Jean; Vermeer, Kimberly; Adamkiewicz, Gary; Levy, Jonathan Ian

    2016-03-16

    Secondhand exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) in multifamily housing remains a health concern despite strong recommendations to implement non-smoking policies. Multiple studies have documented exposure to ETS in non-smoking units located in buildings with smoking units. However, characterizing the magnitude of ETS infiltration or measuring the impact of building interventions or resident behavior on ETS is challenging due to the complexities of multifamily buildings, which include variable resident behaviors and complex airflows between numerous shared compartments (e.g., adjacent apartments, common hallways, elevators, heating, ventilating and air conditioning (HVAC) systems, stack effect). In this study, building simulation models were used to characterize changes in ETS infiltration in a low income, multifamily apartment building in Boston which underwent extensive building renovations targeting energy savings. Results suggest that exterior wall air sealing can lead to increases in ETS infiltration across apartments, while compartmentalization can reduce infiltration. The magnitude and direction of ETS infiltration depends on apartment characteristics, including construction (i.e., level and number of exterior walls), resident behavior (e.g., window opening, operation of localized exhaust fans), and seasonality. Although overall ETS concentrations and infiltration were reduced post energy-related building retrofits, these trends were not generalizable to all building units. Whole building smoke-free policies are the best approach to eliminate exposure to ETS in multifamily housing.

  12. Modeling Environmental Tobacco Smoke (ETS Infiltration in Low-Income Multifamily Housing before and after Building Energy Retrofits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Patricia Fabian

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Secondhand exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS in multifamily housing remains a health concern despite strong recommendations to implement non-smoking policies. Multiple studies have documented exposure to ETS in non-smoking units located in buildings with smoking units. However, characterizing the magnitude of ETS infiltration or measuring the impact of building interventions or resident behavior on ETS is challenging due to the complexities of multifamily buildings, which include variable resident behaviors and complex airflows between numerous shared compartments (e.g., adjacent apartments, common hallways, elevators, heating, ventilating and air conditioning (HVAC systems, stack effect. In this study, building simulation models were used to characterize changes in ETS infiltration in a low income, multifamily apartment building in Boston which underwent extensive building renovations targeting energy savings. Results suggest that exterior wall air sealing can lead to increases in ETS infiltration across apartments, while compartmentalization can reduce infiltration. The magnitude and direction of ETS infiltration depends on apartment characteristics, including construction (i.e., level and number of exterior walls, resident behavior (e.g., window opening, operation of localized exhaust fans, and seasonality. Although overall ETS concentrations and infiltration were reduced post energy-related building retrofits, these trends were not generalizable to all building units. Whole building smoke-free policies are the best approach to eliminate exposure to ETS in multifamily housing.

  13. Manufactured residential utility wall system (ResCore), overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wendt, R. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Lundell, C.; Lau, T.M. [Auburn Univ., AL (United States)

    1997-05-01

    This paper provides an overview of the design and development of a manufactured residential utility wall system referred to as ResCore. ResCore is a self-contained, manufactured, residential utility wall that provides complete rough-in of utilities (power, gas, water, and phone) and other functions (exhaust, combustion make-up air, refrigerant lines, etc.) to serve the residential kitchen, bath, utility, and laundry rooms. Auburn University, Department of Industrial Design faculty and students, supported by a team of graduate student researchers and the project`s advisory team, developed the ResCore. The project was accomplished through a research subcontract from the US Department of Energy administered by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The ResCore wall system features a ``layered`` manufacturing technique that allows each major component group--structural, cold water, hot water, drain, gas, electric, etc.--to be built as a separate subassembly and easily brought together for final assembly. The two structural layers are reinforced with bridging that adds strength and also permits firm attachment of plumbing pipes and other systems to the wall frame.

  14. Residential proximity to gasoline service stations and preterm birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huppé, Vicky; Kestens, Yan; Auger, Nathalie; Daniel, Mark; Smargiassi, Audrey

    2013-10-01

    Preterm birth (PTB) is a growing public health problem potentially associated with ambient air pollution. Gasoline service stations can emit atmospheric pollutants, including volatile organic compounds potentially implicated in PTB. The objective of this study was to evaluate the relationship between residential proximity to gasoline service stations and PTB. Singleton live births on the Island of Montreal from 1994 to 2006 were obtained (n=267,478). Gasoline service station locations, presence of heavy-traffic roads, and neighborhood socioeconomic status (SES) were determined using a geographic information system. Multivariable logistic regression was used to analyze the association between PTB and residential proximity to gasoline service stations (50, 100, 150, 200, 250, and 500 m), accounting for maternal covariates, neighborhood SES, and heavy-traffic roads. For all distance categories beyond 50 m, presence of service stations was associated with a greater odds of PTB. Associations were robust to adjustment for maternal covariates for distance categories of 150 and 200 m but were nullified when adjusting for neighborhood SES. In analyses accounting for the number of service stations, the likelihood of PTB within 250 m was statistically significant in unadjusted models. Associations were, however, nullified in models accounting for maternal covariates or neighborhood SES. Our results suggest that there is no clear association between residential proximity to gasoline service stations in Montreal and PTB. Given the correlation between proximity of gasoline service stations and SES, it is difficult to delineate the role of these factors in PTB.

  15. Assessment of reflective insulations for residential and commercial applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yarbrough, D.W.

    1983-10-01

    A survey of available products, uses, and thermal resistance data for thermal insulations that use combinations of air gaps and reflective surfaces to form thermal barriers is presented. Reflective products like pipe insulation or high thermal resistance evacuated panels that are used exclusively in industrial applications are not included. A one-dimensional steady-state calculation has been developed to provide a way of discussing the R-values of refelctive assemblies and their sensitivity to properties like surface emissivity or positioning of foil surfaces in a cavity. The products considered are used in residential or commercial applications.

  16. Chapter 17: Residential Behavior Protocol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stewart, James [Cadmus Group, Waltham, MA (United States); Todd, Annika [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Residential behavior-based (BB) programs use strategies grounded in the behavioral social sciences to influence household energy use. Strategies may include providing households with real-time or delayed feedback about their energy use; supplying energy-efficiency education and tips; rewarding households for reducing their energy use; comparing households to their peers; and establishing games, tournaments, and competitions. BB programs often target multiple energy end uses and encourage energy savings, demand savings, or both. Savings from BB programs are usually a small percentage of energy use, typically less than 5%.

  17. Analysis of the systems of ventilation of residential houses of Ukraine and Estonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savchenko, Olena; Zhelykh, Vasyl; Voll, Hendrik

    2017-12-01

    The most common ventilation system in residential buildings in Ukraine is natural ventilation. In recent years, due to increased tightness of structures, an increase in the content of synthetic finishing materials in them, the quality of microclimate parameters deteriorated. One of the measures to improve the parameters of indoor air in residential buildings is the use of mechanical inflow and exhaust ventilation system. In this article the regulatory documents concerning the design of ventilation systems in Ukraine and Estonia and the requirements for air exchange in residential buildings are considered. It is established that the existing normative documents in Ukraine are analogous to European norms, which allow design the system of ventilation of residential buildings according to European standards. However, the basis for the design of ventilation systems in Ukraine is the national standards, in which mechanical ventilation, unfortunately, is provided only for the design of high-rise buildings. To maintain acceptable microclimate parameters in residential buildings, it is advisable for designers to apply the requirements for designing ventilation systems in accordance with European standards.

  18. Analysis of the systems of ventilation of residential houses of Ukraine and Estonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savchenko Olena

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The most common ventilation system in residential buildings in Ukraine is natural ventilation. In recent years, due to increased tightness of structures, an increase in the content of synthetic finishing materials in them, the quality of microclimate parameters deteriorated. One of the measures to improve the parameters of indoor air in residential buildings is the use of mechanical inflow and exhaust ventilation system. In this article the regulatory documents concerning the design of ventilation systems in Ukraine and Estonia and the requirements for air exchange in residential buildings are considered. It is established that the existing normative documents in Ukraine are analogous to European norms, which allow design the system of ventilation of residential buildings according to European standards. However, the basis for the design of ventilation systems in Ukraine is the national standards, in which mechanical ventilation, unfortunately, is provided only for the design of high-rise buildings. To maintain acceptable microclimate parameters in residential buildings, it is advisable for designers to apply the requirements for designing ventilation systems in accordance with European standards.

  19. PEM - fuel cell system for residential applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Britz, P. [Viessmann Werke GmbH and Co KG, 35107 Allendorf (Germany); Zartenar, N.

    2004-12-01

    Viessmann is developing a PEM fuel cell system for residential applications. The uncharged PEM fuel cell system has a 2 kW electrical and 3 kW thermal power output. The Viessmann Fuel Processor is characterized by a steam-reformer/burner combination in which the burner supplies the required heat to the steam reformer unit and the burner exhaust gas is used to heat water. Natural gas is used as fuel, which is fed into the reforming reactor after passing an integrated desulphurisation unit. The low temperature (600 C) fuel processor is designed on the basis of steam reforming technology. For carbon monoxide removal, a single shift reactor and selective methanisation is used with noble metal catalysts on monoliths. In the shift reactor, carbon monoxide is converted into hydrogen by the water gas shift reaction. The low level of carbon monoxide at the outlet of the shift reactor is further reduced, to approximately 20 ppm, downstream in the methanisation reactor, to meet PEM fuel cell requirements. Since both catalysts work at the same temperature (240 C), there is no requirement for an additional heat exchanger in the fuel processor. Start up time is less than 30 min. In addition, Viessmann has developed a 2 kW class PEFC stack, without humidification. Reformate and dry air are fed straight to the stack. Due to the dry operation, water produced by the cell reaction rapidly diffuses through the electrolyte membrane. This was achieved by optimising the MEA, the gas flow pattern and the operating conditions. The cathode is operated by an air blower. (Abstract Copyright [2004], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  20. Biased liquid crystal infiltrated photonic bandgap fiber

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weirich, Johannes; Lægsgaard, Jesper; Scolari, Lara

    2009-01-01

    A simulation scheme for the transmission spectrum of a photonic crystal fiber infiltrated with a nematic liquid crystal and subject to an external bias is presented. The alignment of the biased liquid crystal is simulated using the finite element method to solve the relevant system of coupled...... element based finite element method. We demonstrate results for a splay aligned liquid crystal infiltrated into the capillaries of a four-ring photonic crystal fiber and compare them to corresponding experiments....... partial differential equations. From the liquid crystal alignment the full tensorial dielectric permittivity in the capillaries is derived. The transmission spectrum for the photonic crystal fiber is obtained by solving the generalized eigenvalue problem deriving from Maxwell’s equations using a vector...

  1. Horizontal infiltration and trace element measurements for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Laboratory investigations of horizontal infiltration were carried out on three Zaria soils (Samaru, Tudun Wada and the Kubanni river basin Fadama wet-land soils) in Nigeria, which are principally alfisols. Diffusivity was found to be -77.5 x 10 -2 cm 2 s-1, -8.4 x 10 -2 cm 2 s-1 and -117.0 x 10 -2 cm 2 s-1 respectively for the ...

  2. Diffuse infiltrating retinoblastoma invading subarachnoid space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kase S

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Satoru Kase1, Kazuhiko Yoshida1, Shigenobu Suzuki2, Koh-ichi Ohshima3, Shigeaki Ohno4, Susumu Ishida11Department of Ophthalmology, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, Sapporo; 2Department of Ophthalmic Oncology, National Cancer Center Hospital, Tokyo; 3Section of Ophthalmology, Okayama Medical Center, Okayama; 4Department of Ocular Inflammation and Immunology, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, Sapporo, JapanAbstract: We report herein an unusual case of diffuse infiltrating retinoblastoma involving the brain, which caused a patient’s death 27 months after enucleation. An eight-year-old boy complained of blurred vision in his right eye (OD in October 2006. Funduscopic examination showed optic disc swelling, dense whitish vitreous opacity, and an orange-colored subretinal elevated lesion adjacent to the optic disc. Fluorescein angiography revealed hyperfluorescence in the peripapillary region at an early-phase OD. Because the size of the subretinal lesion and vitreous opacity gradually increased, he was referred to us. His visual acuity was 20/1000 OD on June 20, 2007. Slit-lamp biomicroscopy showed a dense anterior vitreous opacity. Ophthalmoscopically, the subretinal orange-colored area spread out until reaching the mid peripheral region. A B-mode sonogram and computed tomography showed a thick homogeneous lesion without calcification. Gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging showed a markedly enhanced appearance of the underlying posterior retina. Enucleation of the right eye was performed nine months after the initial presentation. Histopathology demonstrated retinal detachment and a huge choroidal mass invading the optic nerve head. The tumor was consistent with diffuse infiltrating retinoblastoma. The patient died due to brain involvement 27 months after enucleation. Ophthalmologists should be aware that diffuse infiltrating retinoblastoma may show an unfavorable course if its diagnosis is delayed

  3. Infiltration behaviour of elemental mercury DNAPL in fully and partially water saturated porous media

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Aniello, Andrea; Hartog, Niels; Sweijen, Thomas; Pianese, Domenico

    2018-02-01

    both air and water, depending on the initial water distribution within the pores. This indicates that the conventional wettability hierarchy, in which the NAPL has an intermediate wetting state between the air and the water phases, is not valid for liquid elemental mercury. Therefore, for future modelling of elemental mercury DNAPL infiltration behaviour in variably water saturated porous media, a different formulation of the governing constitutive relations will be required.

  4. Corneal ring infiltration in contact lens wearers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Ali Tabatabaei

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available To report a case of atypical sterile ring infiltrates during wearing soft silicone hydrogel contact lens due to poor lens care. A 29-year-old woman presented with complaints of pain, redness, and morning discharge. She was wearing soft silicone hydrogel contact lens previously; her current symptoms began 1 week before presentation. On examination, best-corrected visual acuity was 20/40 in that eye. Slit-lamp examination revealed dense, ring-shaped infiltrate involving both the superficial and deep stromal layers with lucid interval to the limbus, edema of the epithelium, epithelial defect, and vascularization of the superior limbus. Cornea-specific in vivo laser confocal microscopy (Heidelberg Retina Tomograph 2 Rostock Cornea Module, HRT 2-RCM, Heidelberg Engineering GmbH, Dossenheim, Germany revealed Langerhans cells and no sign of Acanthamoeba or fungal features, using lid scraping and anti-inflammatory drops; her vision completely recovered. We reported an atypical case of a sterile corneal ring infiltrate associated with soft contact lens wearing; smear, culture, and confocal microscopy confirmed a sterile inflammatory reaction.

  5. Residential ventilation standards scoping study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKone, Thomas E.; Sherman, Max H.

    2003-10-01

    The goals of this scoping study are to identify research needed to develop improved ventilation standards for California's Title 24 Building Energy Efficiency Standards. The 2008 Title 24 Standards are the primary target for the outcome of this research, but this scoping study is not limited to that timeframe. We prepared this scoping study to provide the California Energy Commission with broad and flexible options for developing a research plan to advance the standards. This document presents the findings of a scoping study commissioned by the Public Interest Energy Research (PIER) program of the California Energy Commission to determine what research is necessary to develop new residential ventilation requirements for California. This study is one of three companion efforts needed to complete the job of determining the ventilation needs of California residences, determining the bases for setting residential ventilation requirements, and determining appropriate ventilation technologies to meet these needs and requirements in an energy efficient manner. Rather than providing research results, this scoping study identifies important research questions along with the level of effort necessary to address these questions and the costs, risks, and benefits of pursuing alternative research questions. In approaching these questions and corresponding levels of effort, feasibility and timing were important considerations. The Commission has specified Summer 2005 as the latest date for completing this research in time to update the 2008 version of California's Energy Code (Title 24).

  6. Residential Electricity Consumption in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edyta Ropuszyńska-Surma

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Key factors influencing electricity consumption in the residential sector in Poland have been identified. A fixed-effects model was used, which includes time effects, and a set of covariates, based on the model developed by Houthakker et al. This model estimates electricity demand by using lagged values of the dependent variable along with current and lagged values of electricity prices, and other variables that affect electricity demand such as: population, economic growth, income per capita, price of related goods, etc. The model has been identified according to the research results of the authors and those obtained by Bentzen and Engsted. The set of covariates was extended to the lagged electricity price given by a tariff (taken from two years previous to the time of interest and heating degree days index, a very important factor in European Union countries, where the climate is temperate. The authors propose four models of residential electricity demand, for which a confidence interval of 95% has been assumed. Estimation was based on Polish quarterly data for the years 2003-2013. (original abstract

  7. Thermal and microestructural characterization of epoxy-infiltrated hydroxyapatite composite

    OpenAIRE

    Roese,Pedro Barrionuevo; Amico,Sandro Campos; Kindlein Júnior,Wilson

    2009-01-01

    In this work, hydroxyapatite (HAp) obtained from the deorganification of bovine bones using hot NaOH solution was used to synthesize a HAp/epoxy infiltrated composite. Infiltration was carried out by vacuum assisted immersion in hot epoxy resin. The resulting composite was characterized regarding polymer content, morphological aspects and flexural strength. The infiltration method used resulted in thorough infiltration of the HAp but some residual porosity remained. Although the epoxy resin s...

  8. Residential instability: a perspective on system imbalance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appleby, Lawrence; Desai, Prakash

    1987-10-01

    In an exploration of residential instability and recidivism in chronic mental patients, 215 psychiatric admissions were followed for a year after the initial episode. In addition to an unusually high incidence of residential mobility, a relationship between mobility and number of hospitalizations was evident, as were isolation, disruptive family situations, and homelessness. The needed response of the mental health system is discussed.

  9. Credit Scores, Race, and Residential Sorting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Ashlyn Aiko

    2010-01-01

    Credit scores have a profound impact on home purchasing power and mortgage pricing, yet little is known about how credit scores influence households' residential location decisions. This study estimates the effects of credit scores on residential sorting behavior using a novel mortgage industry data set combining household demographic, credit, and…

  10. Does immigrant residential crowding reflect hidden homelessness?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Haan

    2011-12-01

    the extent to which heightened levels of residential crowding might reflect “hidden homelessness.” I find mixed evidence to support this link, and, if anything, find some evidence to suggest that the link between residential crowding and hidden homelessness, if one exists, is strongest for the Canadian-born.

  11. Performance Evaluation of Infiltration Models in a Hydromorphic Soil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Four infiltration models were investigated for their capacity to describe water infiltration into hydromorphic (gleysol) soil. The Models were Kostiakov\\'s (1932), Philip\\'s (1957) Kostiakov- Lewis\\'(1982) and Modified Kostiakov (1978). Field measurement of infiltration was made using double ring infiltrometers on an ...

  12. Analysis of Rainfall Infiltration Law in Unsaturated Soil Slope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Gui-rong; Qian, Ya-jun; Wang, Zhang-chun; Zhao, Bo

    2014-01-01

    In the study of unsaturated soil slope stability under rainfall infiltration, it is worth continuing to explore how much rainfall infiltrates into the slope in a rain process, and the amount of rainfall infiltrating into slope is the important factor influencing the stability. Therefore, rainfall infiltration capacity is an important issue of unsaturated seepage analysis for slope. On the basis of previous studies, rainfall infiltration law of unsaturated soil slope is analyzed. Considering the characteristics of slope and rainfall, the key factors affecting rainfall infiltration of slope, including hydraulic properties, water storage capacity (θ s - θ r), soil types, rainfall intensities, and antecedent and subsequent infiltration rates on unsaturated soil slope, are discussed by using theory analysis and numerical simulation technology. Based on critical factors changing, this paper presents three calculation models of rainfall infiltrability for unsaturated slope, including (1) infiltration model considering rainfall intensity; (2) effective rainfall model considering antecedent rainfall; (3) infiltration model considering comprehensive factors. Based on the technology of system response, the relationship of rainfall and infiltration is described, and the prototype of regression model of rainfall infiltration is given, in order to determine the amount of rain penetration during a rain process. PMID:24672332

  13. Infiltration and runoff losses under fallowing and conservation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-02-16

    Feb 16, 2011 ... erosion was not checked immediately by a dynamic policy based on reliable technical information, then ..... infiltration dynamics or changes in infiltration as affected by soil properties like aggregation, .... pores, surface sealing, reduced infiltration rates and increased runoff and soil erosion (Sumner, 1992).

  14. Key Residential Building Equipment Technologies for Control and Grid Support PART I (Residential)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Starke, Michael R [ORNL; Onar, Omer C [ORNL; DeVault, Robert C [ORNL

    2011-09-01

    Electrical energy consumption of the residential sector is a crucial area of research that has in the past primarily focused on increasing the efficiency of household devices such as water heaters, dishwashers, air conditioners, and clothes washer and dryer units. However, the focus of this research is shifting as objectives such as developing the smart grid and ensuring that the power system remains reliable come to the fore, along with the increasing need to reduce energy use and costs. Load research has started to focus on mechanisms to support the power system through demand reduction and/or reliability services. The power system relies on matching generation and load, and day-ahead and real-time energy markets capture most of this need. However, a separate set of grid services exist to address the discrepancies in load and generation arising from contingencies and operational mismatches, and to ensure that the transmission system is available for delivery of power from generation to load. Currently, these grid services are mostly provided by generation resources. The addition of renewable resources with their inherent variability can complicate the issue of power system reliability and lead to the increased need for grid services. Using load as a resource, through demand response programs, can fill the additional need for flexible resources and even reduce costly energy peaks. Loads have been shown to have response that is equal to or better than generation in some cases. Furthermore, price-incentivized demand response programs have been shown to reduce the peak energy requirements, thereby affecting the wholesale market efficiency and overall energy prices. The residential sector is not only the largest consumer of electrical energy in the United States, but also has the highest potential to provide demand reduction and power system support, as technological advancements in load control, sensor technologies, and communication are made. The prevailing loads

  15. Solar-powered hot-air system

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    Solar-powered air heater supplies part or all of space heating requirements of residential or commercial buildings and is interfaced with air to water heat exchanger to heat domestic hot water. System has potential application in drying agricultural products such as cotton, lumber, corn, grains, and peanuts.

  16. Impact of wood combustion on particle levels in a residential area in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glasius, Marianne; Ketzel, Matthias; Wåhlin, Peter

    2006-01-01

    The influence of residential wood-combustion on local air quality was studied during two periods in 2002 and 2003/04 in a small rural town with widespread use of wood combustion for heating. During one 6-week winter period, particle levels (PM2.5) in the residential area were about 4 μg m-3 higher...... and at a background site. Receptor modelling and source apportionment of the results confirmed that the most important sources to particles were long-range transport (both organic and inorganic compounds) and local heating (particularly organic compounds) in addition to regional traffic emissions. Local wood...

  17. Residential radon and lung cancer incidence in a Danish cohort

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bräuner, Elvira V.; Andersen, Claus E.; Sørensen, Mette; Jovanovic Andersen, Zorana; Gravesen, Peter; Ulbak, Kaare; Hertel, Ole; Pedersen, Camilla; Overvad, Kim; Tjønneland, Anne; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole

    2012-01-01

    High-level occupational radon exposure is an established risk factor for lung cancer. We assessed the long-term association between residential radon and lung cancer risk using a prospective Danish cohort using 57,053 persons recruited during 1993–1997. We followed each cohort member for cancer occurrence until 27 June 2006, identifying 589 lung cancer cases. We traced residential addresses from 1 January 1971 until 27 June 2006 and calculated radon at each of these addresses using information from central databases regarding geology and house construction. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate incidence rate ratios (IRR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for lung cancer risk associated with residential radon exposure with and without adjustment for sex, smoking variables, education, socio-economic status, occupation, body mass index, air pollution and consumption of fruit and alcohol. Potential effect modification by sex, traffic-related air pollution and environmental tobacco smoke was assessed. Median estimated radon was 35.8 Bq/m 3 . The adjusted IRR for lung cancer was 1.04 (95% CI: 0.69–1.56) in association with a 100 Bq/m 3 higher radon concentration and 1.67 (95% CI: 0.69–4.04) among non-smokers. We found no evidence of effect modification. We find a positive association between radon and lung cancer risk consistent with previous studies but the role of chance cannot be excluded as these associations were not statistically significant. Our results provide valuable information at the low-level radon dose range.

  18. Public participation GIS for improving wood burning emissions from residential heating and urban environmental management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Aparicio, Susana; Vogt, Matthias; Schneider, Philipp; Kahila-Tani, Maarit; Broberg, Anna

    2017-04-15

    A crowdsourcing study supported by a public participation GIS tool was designed and carried out in two Norwegian regions. The aim was to improve the knowledge about emissions from wood burning for residential heating in urban areas based on the collection of citizens' localized insights. We focus on three main issues: 1) type of dwelling and residential heating source; 2) wood consumption and type of wood appliances; and 3) citizens' perception of the urban environment. Our study shows the importance of wood burning for residential heating, and of the resulted particle emissions, in Norwegian urban areas. Citizens' localized insights on environmental perception highlight the areas in the city that require particular attention as part of clean air strategies. Information about environmental perception is combined with existing environmental data showing certain correlation. The results support the urban environmental management based on co-benefit approaches, achieving several outcomes from a single policy measure. Measures to reduce urban air pollution will have a positive impact on the citizens' environmental perception, and therefore on their quality of life, in addition to reducing the negative consequences of air pollution on human health. The characterization of residential heating by fuelwood is still a challenging activity. Our study shows the potential of a crowdsourcing method as means for bottom-up approaches designed to increase our knowledge on human activities at urban scale that result on emissions. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  19. CONCRETE BLOCKS' ADVERSE EFFECTS ON INDOOR AIR AND RECOMMENDED SOLUTIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Air infiltration through highly permeable concrete blocks can allow entry of various serious indoor air pollutants. An easy approach to avoiding these pollutants is to select a less–air-permeable concrete block. Tests show that air permeability of concrete blocks can vary by a fa...

  20. Porous ceramic - metal composites obtained by infiltration methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Boczkowska

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available A pressure-vacuum infiltration (T = 720 ºC, p = 15 MPa, t = 15 min and gas-pressure infiltration (GPI in an autoclave (T = 700ºC, p=4 MPa, t=5 min were applied for infiltration of porous Al2O3 ceramics by cast aluminum alloy. Effect of the method of the infiltration on the microstructure and mechanical properties of ceramic-metal composites, was studied. Ceramic preforms were formed by method of copying the cellular structure of the polymer matrix. The results of the X-ray tomography proved very good infiltration of the pores by the metal for each method.

  1. Residential radon survey in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arvela, H.; Maekelaeinen, I.; Castren, O.

    1993-02-01

    The study measured the indoor radon concentration in the dwellings of 3074 persons, selected randomly from the central population register of Finland. Alpha track detectors and two consecutive half year measuring periods were used. The national mean of indoor radon concentration for persons living in low-rise residential buildings as well as blocks of flats was 145 and 82 Bq/m 3 , respectively. The mean for the total population was 123 Bq/m 3 . Based on the decision of the Ministry of Social Affairs and Health in 1992, the indoor radon concentration should not exceed 400 Bq/m 3 in already existing houses, the target for new construction being less than 200 Bq/m 3 . According to the study, the percentage of the Finnish population living in houses with an indoor radon concentration exceeding 200, 400 and 800 Bq/m 3 was 12.3 %, 3.6 % and 1.0 %

  2. 77 FR 28519 - Test Procedure Guidance for Room Air Conditioners, Residential Dishwashers, and Residential...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-15

    ..., along with simple instructions on how to access all documents, including public comments, in the docket... information regarding the current practices of manufacturer-run and private testing facilities. The Department seeks to understand how interested parties have interpreted test procedures provisions that they believe...

  3. IMPACT OF HEATING AND AIR CONDITIONING SYSTEM OPERATION AND LEAKAGE ON VENTILATION AND INTERCOMPARTMENT TRANSPORT: STUDIES IN UNOCCUPIED AND OCCUPIED TENNESSEE VALLEY HOMES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forced-air heating and air conditioning (HAC) systems caused an average and maximum increase in air infiltration rates of 1.8- and 4.3-fold, respectively, during brief whole-house studies of tracer gas decay In 39 occupied houses. An average Increase in air infiltration rate of 0...

  4. [Tonsillar mast cell infiltration and allergic tonsillitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García Callejo, F J; Orts Alborch, M H; Roselló, P; Marco Algarra, J

    2003-04-01

    We report the case of a seven year-old boy bearing of exudative acute tonsillitis after strawberry ingestion with no previous infectious history. After having diagnosed it as hypersensitivity type I, this patient began to suffer repetitive episodes of exudative and purulent tonsillitis, related to cool drinks and direct manipulation of tonsils. These were hyperplastic and Staphylococcus sp. and Streptococcus sp. were isolated in them. The episodes were shortened by the use of corticosteroids. Tonsillectomy was the definitive therapy. Biopsy informed of mast cells infiltration in germinal centers of both palatine tonsils.

  5. Indoor Residential Chemical Exposures as Risk Factors for Asthmaand Allergy in Infants and Children: a Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendell, M.J.

    2006-03-01

    Most research into effects of residential indoor air exposures on asthma and allergies has focused on exposures to biologic allergens, moisture and mold, endotoxin, or combustion byproducts. This paper briefly reviews reported findings on associations of asthma or allergy in infants or children with risk factors related to indoor chemical emissions from residential materials or surface coatings. Associations, some strong (e.g., odds ratios up to 13), were reported. The most frequently identified risk factors were formaldehyde, aromatic organic compounds such as toluene and benzene, plastic materials and plasticizers, and recent painting. Exposures and consequent effects from indoor sources may be exacerbated by decreased ventilation. Identified risk factors may be proxies for correlated exposures. Findings suggest the frequent occurrence of important but preventable effects on asthma and allergy in infants and children worldwide from modern residential building materials and coatings.

  6. Impact of Uncoordinated Plug-in Electric Vehicle Charging on Residential Power Demand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muratori, Matteo [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2018-01-22

    Electrification of transport offers opportunities to increase energy security, reduce carbon emissions, and improve local air quality. Plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) are creating new connections between the transportation and electric sectors, and PEV charging will create opportunities and challenges in a system of growing complexity. Here, I use highly resolved models of residential power demand and PEV use to assess the impact of uncoordinated in-home PEV charging on residential power demand. While the increase in aggregate demand might be minimal even for high levels of PEV adoption, uncoordinated PEV charging could significantly change the shape of the aggregate residential demand, with impacts for electricity infrastructure, even at low adoption levels. Clustering effects in vehicle adoption at the local level might lead to high PEV concentrations even if overall adoption remains low, significantly increasing peak demand and requiring upgrades to the electricity distribution infrastructure. This effect is exacerbated when adopting higher in-home power charging.

  7. Impact of uncoordinated plug-in electric vehicle charging on residential power demand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muratori, Matteo

    2018-01-01

    Electrification of transport offers opportunities to increase energy security, reduce carbon emissions, and improve local air quality. Plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) are creating new connections between the transportation and electric sectors, and PEV charging will create opportunities and challenges in a system of growing complexity. Here, I use highly resolved models of residential power demand and PEV use to assess the impact of uncoordinated in-home PEV charging on residential power demand. While the increase in aggregate demand might be minimal even for high levels of PEV adoption, uncoordinated PEV charging could significantly change the shape of the aggregate residential demand, with impacts for electricity infrastructure, even at low adoption levels. Clustering effects in vehicle adoption at the local level might lead to high PEV concentrations even if overall adoption remains low, significantly increasing peak demand and requiring upgrades to the electricity distribution infrastructure. This effect is exacerbated when adopting higher in-home power charging.

  8. Culture systems: air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Theodore

    2012-01-01

    Poor laboratory air quality is a known hazard to the culture of human gametes and embryos. Embryologists and chemists have employed analytical methods for identifying and measuring bulk and select air pollutants to assess the risk they pose to the embryo culture system. However, contaminant concentrations that result in gamete or embryotoxicity are poorly defined. Combating the ill effects of poor air quality requires an understanding of how toxicants can infiltrate the laboratory, the incubator, and ultimately the culture media. A further understanding of site-specific air quality can then lead to the consideration of laboratory design and management strategies that can minimize the deleterious effects that air contamination may have on early embryonic development in vitro.

  9. Recommendations for energy conservation standards for new residential buildings: Volume 2: Automated residential energy standard---user's guide--version 1. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lortz, V.B.; Taylor, Z.T.

    1989-05-01

    This report documents the development and testing of a set of recommendations from the American Society of Heating, Refrigeration and Air Conditioning Engineers, Inc. (ASHRAE) Special Projects Committee No. 53, designed to provide the technical foundation for the Congressionally-mandated energy standard for new residential buildings. The recommendations were developed over a 25-month period by a multidisciplinary project team under the management of the DOE and its prime contractor, Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL).

  10. Evaluation of Multi Residential House Renovation Efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daiva Rapcevičienė

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Analyzed multi residential house renovation investment projects efficiency evaluation methods: economic-social, and environmental, as well as key financial valuation methods: simple pay-back period, the energy cost savings, the net present value, internal rate of return. Building walls condition regenerative rate which is used to evaluate investments in energy-saving measures is also discussed. According to reconstruction investments of multi residential house, three government financing programs of multi residential house are evaluated and selected the most effective program by comparing financial valuation methods taking and without taking into account building walls condition regenerative rate. Article in Lithuanian

  11. Modeling infiltration process of regulating reservoir built for flood-control based on site-characterization using GPR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuroda, S.; Tatsuya, S.; Sudani, G.; Ikeda, S.; Satoshi, T.; Kenichi, W.; Tagashira, H.; Masukawa, S.

    2013-12-01

    The regulating reservoir built for flood-control in the Shougawa alluvial fan of Toyama prefecture, Japan, was designed to have a high permeable bottom to maintain smooth infiltration of flood water pouring from a river. The infiltration process in the permeable ground was surveyed by sensors, such as piezometers set inside the observation boreholes installed in the reservoir. The observation showed that not only the temperature of the water but also the existence of pore air and heterogeneity in the ground essentially effects on the infiltration behavior beneath the reservoir. To clarify this infiltration process, we conducted 3D-Ground penetrating radar (GPR) survey and time-lapsed cross-borehole radar profiling. 3D-GPR was applicable to detecte less permeable zone with rich clay in sand gravel basement, which control infiltration of reservoir. Time-lapsed cross-borehole radar profiling could estimate infiltration rate in vadose zone. Based on these results we built unsaturated-saturated water flow model considering subsurface heterogeneity and its effect. This model will contribute the management to maintain its permeability and help understanding the effect of reservoir on surrounding water environment. This work was supported by JSPS KAKENHI Grant Numbers 25294117 and 30343768.

  12. 12 CFR 541.16 - Improved residential real estate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Improved residential real estate. 541.16... REGULATIONS AFFECTING FEDERAL SAVINGS ASSOCIATIONS § 541.16 Improved residential real estate. The term improved residential real estate means residential real estate containing offsite or other improvements...

  13. 12 CFR 541.23 - Residential real estate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Residential real estate. 541.23 Section 541.23... AFFECTING FEDERAL SAVINGS ASSOCIATIONS § 541.23 Residential real estate. The terms residential real estate... home used in part for business); (c) Other real estate used for primarily residential purposes other...

  14. Demonstration of an infiltration evaluation methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smyth, J.D.; Gee, G.W.; Kincaid, C.T.; Nichols, W.M.; Bresler, E.

    1990-07-01

    An Infiltration Evaluation Methodology (IEM) was developed for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to provide a consistent, well formulated approach for evaluating drainage through engineered covers at low-level radioactive waste (LLW) sites. The methodology is designed to help evaluate the ability of proposed waste site covers to minimize drainage for LLW site license applications and for sites associated with the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) program. The objective of this methodology is to estimate the drainage through an engineered burial site cover system. The drainage estimate can be used as an input to a broader performance assessment methodology currently under development by the NRC. The methodology is designed to simulate, at the field scale, significant factors and hydrologic conditions which determine or influence estimates of infiltration, long-term moisture content profiles, and drainage from engineered covers and barriers. The IEM developed under this study acknowledges the uncertainty inherent in soil properties and quantifies the influence of such uncertainty on the estimates of drainage in engineered cover systems at waste disposal sites. 6 refs., 1 fig

  15. Discover the benefits of residential wood heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    This publication described how residential wood-heating systems are being used to reduce energy costs and increase home comfort. Biomass energy refers to all forms are renewable energy that is derived from plant materials. The source of fuel may include sawmills, woodworking shops, forest operations and farms. The combustion of biomass is also considered to be carbon dioxide neutral, and is not considered to be a major producer of greenhouse gases (GHG) linked to global climate change. Wood burning does, however, release air pollutants, particularly if they are incompletely burned. Incomplete combustion of wood results in dense smoke consisting of toxic gases. Natural Resources Canada helped create new safety standards and the development of the Wood Energy Technical Training Program to ensure that all types of wood-burning appliances are installed correctly and safely to reduce the risk of fire and for effective wood heating. In Canada, more than 3 million families heat with wood as a primary or secondary heating source in homes and cottages. Wood heating offers security from energy price fluctuations and electrical power failures. This paper described the benefits of fireplace inserts that can transform old fireplaces into modern heating systems. It also demonstrated how an add-on wood furnace can be installed next to oil furnaces to convert an oil-only heating system to a wood-oil combination system, thereby saving thousands of dollars in heating costs. Wood pellet stoves are another wood burning option. The fuel for the stoves is produced from dried, finely ground wood waste that is compressed into hard pellets that are loaded into a hopper. The stove can run automatically for up to 24 hours. New high-efficiency advanced fireplaces also offer an alternative heating system that can reduce heating costs while preserving Canada's limited supply of fossil fuels such as oil and gas. 13 figs

  16. A Simplified Infiltration Model for Predicting Cumulative Infiltration during Vertical Line Source Irrigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanwei Fan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Vertical line source irrigation is a water-saving irrigation method for enhancing direct water and nutrient delivery to the root zone, reducing soil evaporation and improving water and nutrient use efficiency. To identify its influencing factors, we performed computer simulations using the HYDRUS-2D software. The results indicate that for a given soil, the line source seepage area, but not the initial soil water content and buried depth, has a significant effect on the cumulative infiltration. We thus proposed a simplified method, taking into account the seepage area for predicting the cumulative infiltration based on the Philip model. Finally, we evaluated the accuracy of the simplified method using experimental data and found the cumulative infiltrations predicted by the simplified method were in very good agreement with the observed values, showing a low mean average error of 0.028–0.480 L, a root mean square error of 0.043–0.908 L, a percentage bias of 0.321–0.900 and a large Nash-Sutcliffe coefficient close to 1.0 (NSE ≥ 0.995. The results indicate that this simplified infiltration model, for which the only emitter parameter required is the seepage area, could provide a valuable and practical tool for irrigation design.

  17. 5 CFR 1655.20 - Residential loans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...'s primary residence is his or her principal residence. A primary residence may include a house, a... residence. A residential loan will not be made for a lease-to-buy option, unless the option to buy is being...

  18. RACIAL RESIDENTIAL SEGREGATION AND ADVERSE BIRTH OUTCOMES

    Science.gov (United States)

    INTRODUCTION. The disparity between black and white women's adverse birth outcomes has been subject to much investigation, yet the factors underlying its persistence remain elusive, which has encouraged research on neighborhood-level influences, including racial residential segr...

  19. Forecasting residential electricity demand in provincial China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Hua; Liu, Yanan; Gao, Yixuan; Hao, Yu; Ma, Xiao-Wei; Wang, Kan

    2017-03-01

    In China, more than 80% electricity comes from coal which dominates the CO2 emissions. Residential electricity demand forecasting plays a significant role in electricity infrastructure planning and energy policy designing, but it is challenging to make an accurate forecast for developing countries. This paper forecasts the provincial residential electricity consumption of China in the 13th Five-Year-Plan (2016-2020) period using panel data. To overcome the limitations of widely used predication models with unreliably prior knowledge on function forms, a robust piecewise linear model in reduced form is utilized to capture the non-deterministic relationship between income and residential electricity consumption. The forecast results suggest that the growth rates of developed provinces will slow down, while the less developed will be still in fast growing. The national residential electricity demand will increase at 6.6% annually during 2016-2020, and populous provinces such as Guangdong will be the main contributors to the increments.

  20. Modeling radon transport in multistory residential buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Persily, A.K.

    1993-01-01

    Radon concentrations have been studied extensively in single-family residential buildings, but relatively little work has been done in large buildings, including multistory residential buildings. The phenomena of radon transport in multistory residential buildings is made more complicated by the multizone nature of the airflow system and the numerous interzone airflow paths that must be characterized in such a system. This paper presents the results of a computer simulation of airflow and radon transport in a twelve-story residential building. Interzone airflow rates and radon concentrations were predicted using the multizone airflow and contaminant dispersal program (CON-TAM88). Limited simulations were conducted to study the influence of two different radon source terms, indoor-outdoor temperature difference and exterior wall leakage values on radon transport and radon concentration distributions

  1. Effect of Ru/CGO versus Ni/CGO Co- Infiltration on the Performance and Stability of STN-Based SOFCs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramos, Tania; Veltzé, Sune; Sudireddy, Bhaskar Reddy

    2014-01-01

    /CGO infiltrated cell reached ∼0.7 W cm–2 at 850 °C, 4% H2O/H2, whereas the Ni/CGO infiltrated cell reached ∼0.3 W cm–2, with the current morphologies and loadings. Operation at 0.125 A cm–2, 850 °C, feeding 50% H2O/H2 to the anode and air to the cathode, for a period >300 h, showed superior stability for the Ru...

  2. Reactive infiltration in fabricating silicon carbide composites for electronic packaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Liming

    The silicon carbide (SiC) composite is a promising material to improve thermal dissipation and thermal expansion matching for electronic packaging, but its wide application has been greatly hindered by the high fabrication cost. To address this cost issue, two new reactive infiltration methods have been proposed and developed to fabricate SiC composite in a net-shape manner. They are Method 1--locally magnesium-enhanced infiltration and Method 2--globally carbon-enhanced infiltration. In Method 1, a magnesium wetting agent was strategically inserted at the interface between SiC powder and Al-Si alloy. The molten Al-Si alloy was assisted by chemical reaction to infiltrate into the porous SiC powder in an inert atmosphere sealed in a quartz tube or a steel cup. The infiltration kinetics was characterized by measuring the infiltration weight gain with respect to time. It was found that the infiltration kinetics could be divided into three stages: infiltration initiation, rapid infiltration, and slow infiltration, and most of the weight gain occurred in the rapid infiltration stage. The rapid infiltration was due to the magnesium-silicon oxide reaction and the magnesium accumulation at the infiltration front. Modeling of the infiltration kinetics showed the magnesium dilution increased the dynamic contact angle, which in turn decreased the infiltration rate. The SiC oxidation, Mg content and temperature were shown to be important factors affecting the infiltration. In Method 2, a carbon wetting agent is coated globally on every SiC particle. To accomplish this coating, a slip casting, drying, curing and carbonization process was developed. A crucibleless infiltration method was designed to fabricate SiC composites in an open atmosphere protected by nitrogen. The temperature change of SiC preform during infiltration was monitored to determine the infiltration kinetics. The silicon-carbon reaction was found to create a spontaneous infiltration of molten Si or molten Al

  3. Gentrification and Residential Mobility in Philadelphia

    OpenAIRE

    Ding, Lei; Hwang, Jackelyn; Divringi, Eileen

    2016-01-01

    Gentrification has provoked considerable controversy surrounding its effects on residential displacement. Using a unique individual-level, longitudinal data set, this study examines mobility rates and residential destinations of residents in gentrifying neighborhoods during the recent housing boom and bust in Philadelphia for various strata of residents and different types of gentrification. We find that vulnerable residents, those with low credit scores and without mortgages, are generally n...

  4. Architectural design of passive solar residential building

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma Jing

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies thermal environment of closed balconies that commonly exist in residential buildings, and designs a passive solar residential building. The design optimizes the architectural details of the house and passive utilization of solar energy to provide auxiliary heating for house in winter and cooling in summer. This design might provide a more sufficient and reasonable modification for microclimate in the house.

  5. Experimental and modelling studies of infiltration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giudici, M.

    2004-01-01

    This presentation describes a study of infiltration in the unsaturated soil with the objective of estimating the recharge to a phreatic aquifer. The study area is at the border of the city of Milan (Northern Italy), which draws water for both domestic and industrial purposes from ground water resources located beneath the urban area. The rate of water pumping from the aquifer system has been varying during the XX century, depending upon the number of inhabitants and the development of industrial activities. This caused variations with time of the depth of the water table below the ground surface and in turn some emergencies: the two most prominent episodes correspond to the middle '70s, when the water table in the city centre was about 30 m below the undisturbed natural conditions, and to the last decade, when the water table has raised at a rate of approximately 1 m/year and caused infiltrations in deep constructions (garages and building foundations, the underground railways, etc.). We have developed four ground water flow models at different scales, which share some characteristics: they are based on quasi-3D approximation (horizontal flow in the aquifers and vertical flow in the aquitards), conservative finite-differences schemes for regular grid with square cells in the horizontal plane and are implemented with proprietary computer codes. Among the problems that were studied for the development of these models, I recall some numerical problems, related to the behaviour of the phreatic aquifer under conditions of strong exploitation. Model calibration and validation for ModMil has been performed with a two-stage process, i.e., using some of the available data for model calibration and the remaining data for model validation. The application of geophysical exploration techniques, in particular seismic and geo-electrical prospecting, has been very useful to complete the data and information on the hydro-geological structure obtained from stratigraphic logs

  6. Particulate and gaseous emissions from residential biomass combustion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boman, Christoffer

    2005-04-01

    Biomass is considered to be a sustainable energy source with significant potentials for replacing electricity and fossil fuels, not at least in the residential sector. However, present wood combustion is a major source of ambient concentrations of hydrocarbons (e.g. VOC and PAH) and particulate matter (PM) and exposure to these pollutants have been associated with adverse health effects. Increased focus on combustion related particulate emissions has been seen concerning the formation, characteristics and implications to human health. Upgraded biomass fuels (e.g. pellets) provide possibilities of more controlled and optimized combustion with less emission of products of incomplete combustion (PICs). For air quality and health impact assessments, regulatory standards and evaluations concerning residential biomass combustion, there is still a need for detailed emission characterization and quantification when using different fuels and combustion techniques. This thesis summarizes the results from seven different papers. The overall objective was to carefully and systematically study the emissions from residential biomass combustion with respect to: i) experimental characterization and quantification, ii) influences of fuel, appliance and operational variables and iii) aspects of ash and trace element transformations and aerosol formation. Special concern in the work was on sampling, quantification and characterization of particulate emissions using different appliances, fuels and operating procedures. An initial review of health effects showed epidemiological evidence of potential adverse effect from wood smoke exposure. A robust whole flow dilution sampling set-up for residential biomass appliances was then designed, constructed and evaluated, and subsequently used in the following emission studies. Extensive quantifications and characterizations of particulate and gases emissions were performed for residential wood and pellet appliances. Emission factor ranges for

  7. Residential proximity to major roadways and traffic in relation to outcomes of in vitro fertilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaskins, Audrey J; Hart, Jaime E; Mínguez-Alarcón, Lidia; Chavarro, Jorge E; Laden, Francine; Coull, Brent A; Ford, Jennifer B; Souter, Irene; Hauser, Russ

    2018-03-29

    Emerging data from animal and human studies suggest that traffic-related air pollution adversely affects early pregnancy outcomes; however evidence is limited. We examined whether residential proximity to major roadways and traffic, as proxies for traffic-related air pollution, are associated with in vitro fertilization (IVF) outcomes. This analysis included 423 women enrolled in the Environment and Reproductive Health (EARTH) Study, a prospective cohort study, who underwent 726 IVF cycles (2004-2017). Using geocoded residential addresses collected at study entry, we calculated the distance to nearest major roadway and the traffic density within a 100 m radius. IVF outcomes were abstracted from electronic medical records. We used multivariable generalized linear mixed models to evaluate the associations between residential proximity to major roadways and traffic density and IVF outcomes adjusting for maternal age, body mass index, race, education level, smoking status, and census tract median income. Closer residential proximity to major roadways was statistically significantly associated with lower probability of implantation and live birth following IVF. The adjusted percentage of IVF cycles resulting in live birth for women living ≥400 m from a major roadway was 46% (95% CI 36, 56%) compared to 33% (95% CI 26, 40%) for women living proximity to major roadways was related to reduced likelihood of live birth following IVF. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Analysis Thermal Comfort Condition in Complex Residential Building, Case Study: Chiangmai, Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juangjandee, Warangkana

    2017-10-01

    Due to the increasing need for complex residential buildings, it appears that people migrate into the high-density urban areas because the infrastructural facilities can be easily found in the modern metropolitan areas. Such rapid growth of urbanization creates congested residential buildings obstructing solar radiation and wind flow, whereas most urban residents spend 80-90% of their time indoor. Furthermore, the buildings were mostly built with average materials and construction detail. This causes high humidity condition for tenants that could promote mould growth. This study aims to analyse thermal comfort condition in complex residential building, Thailand for finding the passive solution to improve indoor air quality and respond to local conditions. The research methodology will be in two folds: 1) surveying on case study 2) analysis for finding the passive solution of reducing humidity indoor air The result of the survey indicated that the building need to find passive solution for solving humidity problem, that can be divided into two ways which raising ventilation and indoor temperature including increasing wind-flow ventilation and adjusting thermal temperature, for example; improving building design and stack driven ventilation. For raising indoor temperature or increasing mean radiant temperature, daylight can be passive solution for complex residential design for reducing humidity and enhance illumination indoor space simultaneous.

  9. Integrated residential photovoltaic array development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royal, G. C., III

    1981-04-01

    Sixteen conceptual designs of residential photovoltaic arrays are described. Each design concept was evaluated by an industry advisory panel using a comprehensive set of technical, economic and institutional criteria. Key electrical and mechanical concerns that effect further array subsystem development are also discussed. Three integrated array design concepts were selected by the advisory panel for further optimization and development. From these concepts a single one will be selected for detailed analysis and prototype fabrication. The three concepts selected are: (1) An array of frameless panels/modules sealed in a T shaped zipper locking neoprene gasket grid pressure fitted into an extruded aluminum channel grid fastened across the rafters. (2) An array of frameless modules pressure fitted in a series of zipper locking EPDM rubber extrusions adhesively bonded to the roof. Series string voltage is developed using a set of integral tongue connectors and positioning blocks. (3) An array of frameless modules sealed by a silicone adhesive in a prefabricated grid of rigid tape and sheet metal attached to the roof.

  10. Research of Rainwater Infiltration in Eastern Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hudáková Gabriela

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Today precipitation water in the majority of built up and other sealed surface areas no longer reach the water circulation system via natural routes. This can lead to long-term changes to the soil and water resources, reduce the natural local regeneration of the groundwater and have effects on the chemical and biological conditions above and below the ground surface. Reasonable rainwater management leads to maintain or recover a sound and sustainable water cycle. The purpose of this paper is to present objectives and monitoring of a drainage project in Eastern Slovakia, in Kosice city. The paper focuses on percolation facilities in the research area of campus of Technical University and measurements connected with rainwater infiltration.

  11. The evaluation of retrofit measures in a tall residential building

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abraham, M.M.; McLain, H.A.

    1995-07-01

    As part of a joint demonstration effort involving the US Department of Energy (DOE), the US Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD), Boston Edison Company (BECo), and the Chelsea Housing Authority, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) participated in the evaluation of energy and demand saving retrofits for a tall residential building located in Boston. The thirteen story all-electric building underwent window, lighting, and control renovations in December, 1992. annual energy consumption was reduced by 15% and peak demand fell by 17%. Hourly should building consumption data were available for the comparison of pre- and post- conditions and for calibration of a DOE-2.1D simulation model. The analysis found the window retrofit accounted for 90% of total energy savings and 95% of average demand savings, due to reductions in both conduction and infiltration. Benefits from lighting retrofits were low in cooling months and negligible in winter months due to the increase in the demand for electric resistance heating which was proportional to the reduction in lighting capacity. Finally, the simulation model verified that heating system controls had not been used as intended, and that the utility rate structure would not allow cost savings from the original control strategy. These results and other interesting lessons learned are presented.

  12. Stormwater infiltration and the 'urban karst' - A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonneau, Jeremie; Fletcher, Tim D.; Costelloe, Justin F.; Burns, Matthew J.

    2017-09-01

    The covering of native soils with impervious surfaces (e.g. roofs, roads, and pavement) prevents infiltration of rainfall into the ground, resulting in increased surface runoff and decreased groundwater recharge. When this excess water is managed using stormwater drainage systems, flow and water quality regimes of urban streams are severely altered, leading to the degradation of their ecosystems. Urban streams restoration requires alternative approaches towards stormwater management, which aim to restore the flow regime towards pre-development conditions. The practice of stormwater infiltration-achieved using a range of stormwater source-control measures (SCMs)-is central to restoring baseflow. Despite this, little is known about what happens to the infiltrated water. Current knowledge about the impact of stormwater infiltration on flow regimes was reviewed. Infiltration systems were found to be efficient at attenuating high-flow hydrology (reducing peak magnitudes and frequencies) at a range of scales (parcel, streetscape, catchment). Several modelling studies predict a positive impact of stormwater infiltration on baseflow, and empirical evidence is emerging, but the fate of infiltrated stormwater remains unclear. It is not known how infiltrated water travels along the subsurface pathways that characterise the urban environment, in particular the 'urban karst', which results from networks of human-made subsurface pathways, e.g. stormwater and sanitary sewer pipes and associated high permeability trenches. Seepage of groundwater into and around such pipes is possible, meaning some infiltrated stormwater could travel along artificial pathways. The catchment-scale ability of infiltration systems to restore groundwater recharge and baseflow is thus ambiguous. Further understanding of the fate of infiltrated stormwater is required to ensure infiltration systems deliver optimal outcomes for waterway flow regimes.

  13. Congenital infiltrating lipoma with intrabony invasion into maxilla

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huh, Kyung Hoe; Lee, Hyang Ok; Lee, Seo Young; Choi, Hyung Kil; Ha, Byung Gak; Moon, Je Woon; Lee, Sam Sun [Seoul National Univ. School of Dentistry, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-06-15

    Infiltrating lipoma is a rare mesenchymal neoplasm that, in spite of benign nature, characteristically infiltrates adjacent tissues and tends to recur after surgery. It has a predilection for the extremities and the trunk and is extremely rare in the head and neck region. We present a case of congenital infiltrating lipoma of the face, describing the intrabony invasion and osseous dystrophy as well as the soft tissue changes seen on plain radiographs and magnetic resonance imaging.

  14. Immune Infiltration in Invasive Lobular Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desmedt, Christine; Salgado, Roberto; Fornili, Marco; Pruneri, Giancarlo; Van den Eynden, Gert; Zoppoli, Gabriele; Rothé, Françoise; Buisseret, Laurence; Garaud, Soizic; Willard-Gallo, Karen; Brown, David; Bareche, Yacine; Rouas, Ghizlane; Galant, Christine; Bertucci, François; Loi, Sherene; Viale, Giuseppe; Di Leo, Angelo; Green, Andrew R; Ellis, Ian O; Rakha, Emad A; Larsimont, Denis; Biganzoli, Elia; Sotiriou, Christos

    2018-02-20

    Invasive lobular breast cancer (ILC) is the second most common histological subtype of breast cancer after invasive ductal cancer (IDC). Here, we aimed at evaluating the prevalence, levels, and composition of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) and their association with clinico-pathological and outcome variables in ILC, and to compare them with IDC. We considered two patient series with TIL data: a multicentric retrospective series (n = 614) and the BIG 02-98 study (n = 149 ILC and 807 IDC). We compared immune subsets identified by immuno-histochemistry in the ILC (n = 159) and IDC (n = 468) patients from the Nottingham series, as well as the CIBERSORT immune profiling of the ILC (n = 98) and IDC (n = 388) METABRIC and The Cancer Genome Atlas patients. All ILC/IDC comparisons were done in estrogen receptor (ER)-positive/human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-negative tumors. All statistical tests were two-sided. TIL levels were statistically significantly lower in ILC compared with IDC (fold-change = 0.79, 95% confidence interval = 0.70 to 0.88, P lobular series, although they did not reach statistical significance in the latter. The Nottingham series revealed that the levels of intratumoral but not total CD8+ were statistically significantly lower in ILC compared with IDC. Comparison of the CIBERSORT profiles highlighted statistically significant differences in terms of immune composition. This study shows differences between the immune infiltrates of ER-positive/HER2-negative ILC and IDC in terms of prevalence, levels, localization, composition, and clinical associations.

  15. Water infiltration into exposed fractured rock surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rasmussen, T.C.; Evans, D.D.

    1993-01-01

    Fractured rock media are present at many existing and potential waste disposal sites, yet characterization data and physical relationships are not well developed for such media. This study focused on water infiltration characteristics of an exposed fractured rock as an approach for defining the upper boundary condition for unsaturated-zone water percolation and contaminant transport modeling. Two adjacent watersheds of 0.24 and 1.73 ha with slopes up to 45% were instrumented for measuring rainfall and runoff. Fracture density was measured from readily observable fracture traces on the surface. Three methods were employed to evaluate the rainfall-runoff relationship. The first method used the annual totals and indicated that only 22.5% of rainfall occurred as runoff for the 1990-1991 water year, which demonstrates a high water intake rate by the exposed fracture system. The second method employed total rainfall and runoff for individual storms in conjunction with the commonly used USDA Soil Conservation Service curve number method developed for wide ranges of soils and vegetation. Curve numbers between 75 and 85 were observed for summer and winter storms with dry antecedent runoff conditions, while values exceeded 90 for wet conditions. The third method used a mass-balance approach for four major storms, which indicated that water intake rates ranged from 2.0 to 7.3 mm h -1 , yielding fracture intake velocities ranging from 122 to 293 m h -1 . The three analyses show the complexity of the infiltration process for fractured rock. However, they contribute to a better understanding of the upper boundary condition for predicting contaminant transport through an unsaturated fractured rock medium. 17 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  16. Estimating the Limits of Infiltration in the Urban Appalachian Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavin, S. M.; Bain, D.; Hopkins, K. G.; Pfeil-McCullough, E. K.; Copeland, E.

    2014-12-01

    Green infrastructure in urbanized areas commonly uses infiltration systems, such as rain gardens, swales and trenches, to convey surface runoff from impervious surfaces into surrounding soils. However, precipitation inputs can exceed soil infiltration rates, creating a limit to infiltration-based storm water management, particularly in urban areas covered by impervious surfaces. Given the limited availability and varied quality of soil infiltration rate data, we synthesized information from national databases, available field test data, and applicable literature to characterize soil infiltration rate distributions, focusing on Allegheny County, Pennsylvania as a case study. A range of impervious cover conditions was defined by sampling available GIS data (e.g., LiDAR and street edge lines) with analysis windows placed randomly across urbanization gradients. Changes in effective precipitation caused by impervious cover were calculated across these gradients and compared to infiltration rate distributions to identify thresholds in impervious coverage where these limits are exceeded. Many studies have demonstrated the effects of urbanization on infiltration, but the identification of these thresholds will clarify interactions between impervious cover and soil infiltration. These methods can help identify sections of urban areas that require augmentation of infiltration-based systems with additional infrastructural strategies, especially as green infrastructure moves beyond low impact development towards more frequent application during infilling of existing urban systems.

  17. Resin infiltration of proximal caries lesions differing in ICDAS codes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paris, Sebastian; Bitter, Kerstin; Naumann, Michael; Dörfer, Christof E; Meyer-Lueckel, Hendrik

    2011-04-01

    Resin infiltration of non-cavitated proximal caries lesions has been shown to inhibit further demineralization. However, the effect of resin infiltration in cavitated lesions is unknown. Therefore, the aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate infiltration patterns of proximal caries lesions differing in International Caries Detection and Assessment System (ICDAS) codes. Extracted human molars and premolars showing proximal caries lesions with and without cavitations (ICDAS codes 2-5) were etched with 15% hydrochloric acid gel and resin infiltrated according to the manufacturer's instructions. Three sections from each lesion were prepared and analyzed using a dual-fluorescence staining technique and confocal microscopy. The dimensions of the demineralized and cavitated lesions areas, as well as the resin-infiltrated parts within these lesions, were measured. The demineralized parts were infiltrated from 73% to 100% (median values) but the cavities were filled only negligibly (0-5%). Teeth that had an ICDAS code of 5 showed a significantly lower percentage infiltration/filling of lesions compared to teeth with ICDAS codes of 2 and 3. It was concluded that under in vitro conditions the tested infiltrant penetrates most parts of the demineralized enamel but is not capable of filling up cavities and therefore the efficacy of caries infiltration, particularly in lesions with larger cavitations, might be impaired. © 2011 Eur J Oral Sci.

  18. Residential care: Dutch and Italian residents of residential care facilities compared.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Heer-Wunderink, Charlotte; Caro-Nienhuis, Annemarie D; Sytema, Sjoerd; Wiersma, Durk

    2008-01-01

    Characteristics of patients living in residential care facilities and the availability of mental hospital- and residential beds in Italy and The Netherlands were compared to assess whether differences in the process of deinstitutionalisation have influenced the composition of their residential patient populations. Data from the Dutch UTOPIA-study (UTilization & Outcome of Patients In the Association of Dutch residential care providers) and the Italian PROGRES-study were used. Dutch residents were more likely to suffer from substance or alcohol abuse than Italian residents. The latter were more likely to suffer from schizophrenia or a related disorder, less likely to have experienced mental hospital admissions and showed an overall shorter duration of stay in residential care facilities. Contrary to our expectations Dutch residents, who still have good access to long stay beds in mental hospitals, are not less disabled than Italian residents. Finally, the number of beds in residential care facilities per 10,000 inhabitants in the Netherlands is twice (6) as high as in Italy (3). The Italian and Dutch deinstitutionalisation processes have resulted in a different availability in the number of residential beds. However, it did not influence the overall level of functioning of both residential populations.

  19. Differences between Residential and Non-Residential Fathers on Sexual Socialisation of African American Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sneed, Carl D.; Willis, Leigh A.

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated differences between residential and non-residential fathers on topics discussed during father-child sex communication and factors associated with child sexual socialisation. Young people (N = 159, 53% female) provided self-reports using computer surveys on the role of their fathers on father-child sex communication, general…

  20. Manufactured Residential Utility Wall System (ResCore),

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wendt, Robert [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Lundell, Clark; Lau, Tin Man [Auburn Univ., AL (United States)

    1997-12-31

    This paper describes the design and development of a manufactured residential utility wall system referred to as ResCore. ResCore is a self contained, manufactured, residential utility wall that provides complete rough-in of utilities (power, gas, water, and phone) and other functions (exhaust, combustion make-up air, refrigerant lines, etc.) to serve the kitchen, bath, utility, and laundry rooms. Auburn University, Department of Industrial Design faculty, students, supported by a team of graduate student researchers and the project`s advisory team, developed the ResCore. The project was accomplished through a research subcontract from the U.S. Department of Energy administered by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The ResCore wall system features a layered manufacturing technique that allows each major component group: structural, cold water, hot water, drain, gas, electric, etc. to be built as a separate subassembly and easily brought together for final assembly. The two structural layers are reinforced with bridging that adds strength and also permits firm attachment of plumbing pipes and other systems to the wall frame.

  1. In-home performance of residential cordwood stoves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houck, J.E.; Barnett, S.G.; Roholt, R.B.

    1991-01-01

    The air quality impacts of residential cordwood stoves have been of concern to regulators, energy planners, and members of the woodstove industry. In addition, the reliability of laboratory certification emission values in predicting 'real world' emissions has been questioned. In response to these concerns, particulate emissions from residential cordwood stoves under actual in-home use have been measured for 5 heating seasons as part of 12 separate studies in Oregon, New York, Vermont, and the Yukon Territory. Monitoring was conducted using an automated emission sampler (AES) system. The system has been deployed in nearly 100 individual homes. Typically, emissions from several 1-week-long integrated sampling periods over the course of the heating season were measured with the AES system at each home. Particulate emission rates in grams of particles per hour of stove operation, grams of particles per kilogram of dry wood burned, and grams of particles per million Joules were calculated. Ancillary data provided by the studies included wood burn rates, homeowner wood loading patterns, wood moisture content and species, hours of operation of auxiliary heating appliances in the study homes, room ambient, flue gas, catalyst, and pre-catalyst temperatures, and hours of catalyst operation. Conventional stoves, high-technology non-catalytic stoves, catalytic stoves, and stoves equipped with retrofit catalytic devices have been studied. In addition to the 12 cordwood stove studies, the AES system has been used in 2 pellet stove studies and 1 fireplace study

  2. An overview of particulate emissions from residential biomass combustion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicente, E. D.; Alves, C. A.

    2018-01-01

    Residential biomass burning has been pointed out as one of the largest sources of fine particles in the global troposphere with serious impacts on air quality, climate and human health. Quantitative estimations of the contribution of this source to the atmospheric particulate matter levels are hard to obtain, because emission factors vary greatly with wood type, combustion equipment and operating conditions. Updated information should improve not only regional and global biomass burning emission inventories, but also the input for atmospheric models. In this work, an extensive tabulation of particulate matter emission factors obtained worldwide is presented and critically evaluated. Existing quantifications and the suitability of specific organic markers to assign the input of residential biomass combustion to the ambient carbonaceous aerosol are also discussed. Based on these organic markers or other tracers, estimates of the contribution of this sector to observed particulate levels by receptor models for different regions around the world are compiled. Key areas requiring future research are highlighted and briefly discussed.

  3. Perception Analysis Of Living Environment At Taman Melati Residential Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ABDUL AZEEZ Kadar Hamsa

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Rapid physical development in a residential area will deteriorate living environment of the residents especially if it takes place haphazardly without applying adequate planning guidelines. It will, eventually, exert more pressure on physical infrastructure of the area. As a result, residents of the area will be subjected to dissatisfaction on the present supporting infrastructure as the demand exceeds the supply. Evidently, it may lead to poor living conditions of the area, which ultimately slow the progressiveness of the society to achieve the quality of living standards. This paper investigates residents' perceptions on present living environmental setting at Taman Melati residential area in Kuala Lumpur. Questionnaire survey was administered to determine the perceptions of the residents on physical environmental parameters such as air, noise, streetlight illuminance, and traffic volume. The level of satisfaction of the residents on the living environment had showed nearly 64% of the respondents expressed 'satisfied strongly' or 'satisfied'. The level of willingness of the residents to stay further continuously at Taman Melati indicates about 56% of the respondents expressed 'strongly willing' or 'willing'. It is also seen that the overall satisfaction level of the residents on the living environment was high albeit satisfaction level on individual physical environmental parameters was low.

  4. Post-Retrofit Residential Assessments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lancaster, Ross; lutzenhiser, Loren; Moezzi, Mithra; Widder, Sarah H.; Chandra, Subrato; Baechler, Michael C.

    2012-04-30

    This study examined a range of factors influencing energy consumption in households that had participated in residential energy-efficiency upgrades. The study was funded by a grant from the U.S. Department of Energy’s Pacific Northwest National Laboratory and was conducted by faculty and staff of Portland State University Center for Urban Studies and Department of Economics. This work was made possible through the assistance and support of the Energy Trust of Oregon (ETO), whose residential energy-efficiency programs provided the population from which the sample cases were drawn. All households in the study had participated in the ETO Home Performance with Energy Star (HPwES) program. A number of these had concurrently pursued measures through other ETO programs. Post-retrofit energy outcomes are rarely investigated on a house-by-house basis. Rather, aggregate changes are ordinarily the focus of program impact evaluations, with deviation from aggregate expectations chalked up to measurement error, the vagaries of weather and idiosyncrasies of occupants. However, understanding how homes perform post-retrofit on an individual basis can give important insights to increase energy savings at the participant and the programmatic level. Taking a more disaggregated approach, this study analyzed energy consumption data from before and after the retrofit activity and made comparisons with engineering estimates for the upgrades, to identify households that performed differently from what may have been expected based on the estimates. A statistical analysis using hierarchal linear models, which accounted for weather variations, was performed looking separately at gas and electrical use during the periods before and after upgrades took place. A more straightforward comparison of billing data for 12-month periods before and after the intervention was also performed, yielding the majority of the cases examined. The later approach allowed total energy use and costs to be

  5. Hygrothermal Analysis of Indoor Environment of Residential Prefabricated Buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraus, Michal

    2017-10-01

    Recent studies show that the relative humidity and the indoor air temperature constitute an important determinant of the quality of indoor air. Hygrothermal microclimate has a significant impact on occupant’s health and their comfort. The study presents the results of experimental measurement of indoor air temperature and relative humidity in selected apartment in prefabricated panel house situated in Ostrava, Czechia. The contribution describes and analysis the relation between indoor air temperature [°C] and relative humidity [%] in this apartment. The experimental object is selected with respect to the housing stock in the Czech Republic. A third of the housing stock in the Czech Republic is composed of prefabricated panel houses. Regeneration and revitalization of these buildings were in the focus of interest during recent years. Building modifications, such as thermal insulation of building envelope or window replacement, lead to a significantly higher level of airtightness of these objects. Humidity and indoor air temperature are measured in 10-minute cycles for two periods. The values of temperature and humidity are measured for the non-heating and the heating season. The length of each experimental period is 30 days. The mean value of indoor air temperature is 22.21 °C and average relative humidity is 45.87% in the non-heating period. The values of 22.62 °C and 35.20% represent average values for the heating period. A slight increase of the average temperature of the indoor environment (+1.85%) is observed. The decrease of the relative humidity is evident at first glance. The relative humidity of the internal environment is approximately 10% lower in the heating period. Long-term decline of relative humidity below 30% brings many problems. It is necessary to take measures to increase of relative humidity in residential prefabricated building. The aquarium appears to be ineffective. The solution may be forced artificial ventilation or humidifiers.

  6. Evaluating the Infiltration Performance of Eight Dutch Permeable Pavements Using a New Full-Scale Infiltration Testing Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Floris Boogaard

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Permeable pavements are a type of sustainable urban drainage system (SUDS technique that are used around the world to infiltrate and treat urban stormwater runoff and to minimize runoff volumes. Urban stormwater runoff contains significant concentrations of suspended sediments that can cause clogging and reduce the infiltration capacity and effectiveness of permeable pavements. It is important for stormwater managers to be able to determine when the level of clogging has reached an unacceptable level, so that they can schedule maintenance or replacement activities as required. Newly-installed permeable pavements in the Netherlands must demonstrate a minimum infiltration capacity of 194 mm/h (540 l/s/ha. Other commonly used permeable pavement guidelines in the Netherlands recommend that maintenance is undertaken on permeable pavements when the infiltration falls below 0.50 m/d (20.8 mm/h. This study used a newly-developed, full-scale infiltration test procedure to evaluate the infiltration performance of eight permeable pavements in five municipalities that had been in service for over seven years in the Netherlands. The determined infiltration capacities vary between 29 and 342 mm/h. Two of the eight pavements show an infiltration capacity higher than 194 mm/h, and all infiltration capacities are higher than 20.8 mm/h. According to the guidelines, this suggests that none of the pavements tested in this study would require immediate maintenance.

  7. Residentialization of Public Spaces: Bratislava Example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacová, Andrea; Puškár, Branislav; Vráblová, Edita

    2017-10-01

    The housing estates in Bratislava saturated the housing needs of a large number of inhabitants who come after World War II to the city. Design of public spaces often did not have priority in the process of designing. The solutions for mentioned exterior spaces had been planned after blocks of flat realization, but many of them are not realized to this day. The article analyzes the example of the unrealized public spaces in existing housing estates Devinska Nova Ves and Petržalka (city districts of Bratislava) and offer practical solutions in relation to residencialization method. Residencialization of missing public places is an effective method of adding identities to settlements. It improves the quality of residential environment and public spaces. The main aim is to create better conditions for social activities in public areas, which are missing on the present. The research will be focused on the examination of the urban, cultural and construction potential of the existing residential enviroment in Bratislava. The main aim of residentialization is not only to enhance the quality of spatial and building structures in the selected residential area and maintain long-term sustainability in the pertinent programme area, but mainly to improve the quality of living for the residents. The outputs of the project are proposals and practical procedures developed with regard to planning documents for local municipal authorities and regional organizations. The solutions will have a positive impact on the enhancement of the quality of public spaces, attractive social activities and of a conceptual link - residentialization.

  8. Integrated Management of Residential Energy Resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antunes C. H.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The increasing deployment of distributed generation systems based on renewables in the residential sector, the development of information and communication technologies and the expected evolution of traditional power systems towards smart grids are inducing changes in the passive role of end-users, namely with stimuli to change residential demand patterns. The residential user should be able to make decisions and efficiently manage his energy resources by taking advantages from his flexibility in load usage with the aim to minimize the electricity bill without depreciating the quality of energy services provided. The aim of this paper is characterizing electricity consumption in the residential sector and categorizing the different loads according to their typical usage, working cycles, technical constraints and possible degree of control. This categorization of end-use loads contributes to ascertain the availability of controllable loads to be managed as well as the different direct management actions that can be implemented. The ability to implement different management actions over diverse end-use load will increase the responsiveness of demand and potentially raises the willingness of end-users to accept such activities. The impacts on the aggregated national demand of large-scale dissemination of management systems that would help the end-user to make decisions regarding electricity consumption are predicted using a simulator that generates the aggregated residential sector electricity consumption under variable prices.

  9. A fugacity-based indoor residential pesticide fate model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennett, Deborah H.; Furtaw, Edward J.; McKone, Thomas E.

    2002-06-01

    Dermal and non-dietary pathways are potentially significant exposure pathways to pesticides used in residences. Exposure pathways include dermal contact with residues on surfaces, ingestion from hand- and object-to-mouth activities, and absorption of pesticides into food. A limited amount of data has been collected on pesticide concentrations in various residential compartments following an application. But models are needed to interpret this data and make predictions about other pesticides based on chemical properties. In this paper, we propose a mass-balance compartment model based on fugacity principles. We include air (both gas phase and aerosols), carpet, smooth flooring, and walls as model compartments. Pesticide concentrations on furniture and toys, and in food, are being added to the model as data becomes available. We determine the compartmental fugacity capacity and mass transfer-rate coefficient for wallboard as an example. We also present the framework and equations needed for a dynamic mass-balance model.

  10. Infiltration characteristics of some minespoils at Wabamun Lake, Alberta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doram, D.R.; Din, N.U.; Maule, C.

    1983-01-01

    Infiltration measurements were undertaken on in situ soils, capped and uncapped sodic minespoils at the Highvale mine. The data suggested that capped sodic minespoils have lower final infiltration rates than in situ non-Solonetzic soils, but higher than in situ Solonetzic soils (Natriborolls). The benefits of topsoiling minespoils was also discussed. 14 references, 5 figures, 4 tables.

  11. Unidirectional infiltration method to produce crown for dental prosthesis application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pontes, F.H.D.; Taguchi, S.P. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (EEL/DEMAR/USP), Lorena, SP (Brazil). Escola de Engenharia; Borges Junior, L.A. [Centro Universitario de Volta Redonda, RJ (Brazil); Machado, J.P.B. [Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil); Santos, C. [ProtMat Materiais Avancados, Guaratingueta, SP (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    Alumina ceramics have been used in dental prosthesis because it is inert, presents higher corrosion and shear resistance when compared to metals, excellent aesthetic, and mechanical resistance. In this work it was produced an infrastructure material for applications in dental crowns, obtained by glass infiltration in alumina preform. Various oxides, among that, rare-earth oxide produced by Xenotime, were melted at 1450 deg C and heat treatment at 700 deg C to obtain the glass (REglass). The alumina was pre-sintered at 1100 deg C cut and machined to predetermine format (unidirectional indirect infiltration) and finally conducted to infiltration test. The alumina was characterized by porosity (Hg-porosity and density) and microstructure (SEM). The glass wettability in alumina was determined as function of temperature, and the contact angle presented a low value (θ<90 deg), showing that glass can be infiltrated spontaneously in alumina. The infiltration test was conducted at glass melting temperature, during 30, 60, 180, 360 minutes. After infiltration, the samples were cut in longitudinal section, ground and polished, and analyzed by XRD (crystalline phases), SEM (microstructure) and EDS (composition).The REglass presents higher infiltration height when compared to current processes (direct infiltration), and homogeneous microstructure, showing that it is a promising method used by prosthetics and dentists. (author)

  12. Relationship between Microcalcification and infiltration in breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Tai Que; Jeon, Mal Soon; Kim, Yang Sook

    1990-01-01

    Microcalcification is one of the most common findings in breast cancer and most of cases with microcalcification only reveal non infiltrating type of cancer and better prognosis. We analysed 70 cases of breast cancer pathologically proved among 2,115 patients that underwent xermammography from 1983. 10.1 to 1989. 7. 30 and studied relationship between xerographic findings and nature of infiltration in breast cancer. The results were as follows: 1. Among 2,115 patients which were performed xeromammography, 70 cases were pathologically proved breast cancer and incident was 3.3%. 2. Incidence of breast cancer in terms of age was 0.2% in third decade. 1.2% in fourth decade, 4.4% in fifth decade, 14.3% in sixth decade, 15 % over seventh decade. Of total 70 patients, 51 cases were included over fifth decade. 3. Xeromammgraphy findings were classified microcalcification only, mass only, microcalcification with mass. Incidence of xerography findings such as microcalcification only (22%) was less than that of mass density (78%). 4. In 16 cases of microcalcification only. Incidence below 50 years (75%) were more than that over 50 (25%). 5. Infiltrating breast cancers (67%) were more than non-infiltrating breast cancer (33%) and number of non-infiltrating breast cancer with xerographic findings of microcalcification only (56%) was no more than that of infiltrating breast cancer (44%) but number of infiltrating breast cancer with mass (75%) was much more than non-infiltrating breast cancer (25%)

  13. Unidirectional infiltration method to produce crown for dental prosthesis application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pontes, F.H.D.; Taguchi, S.P.; Machado, J.P.B.; Santos, C.

    2009-01-01

    Alumina ceramics have been used in dental prosthesis because it is inert, presents higher corrosion and shear resistance when compared to metals, excellent aesthetic, and mechanical resistance. In this work it was produced an infrastructure material for applications in dental crowns, obtained by glass infiltration in alumina preform. Various oxides, among that, rare-earth oxide produced by Xenotime, were melted at 1450 deg C and heat treatment at 700 deg C to obtain the glass (REglass). The alumina was pre-sintered at 1100 deg C cut and machined to predetermine format (unidirectional indirect infiltration) and finally conducted to infiltration test. The alumina was characterized by porosity (Hg-porosity and density) and microstructure (SEM). The glass wettability in alumina was determined as function of temperature, and the contact angle presented a low value (θ<90 deg), showing that glass can be infiltrated spontaneously in alumina. The infiltration test was conducted at glass melting temperature, during 30, 60, 180, 360 minutes. After infiltration, the samples were cut in longitudinal section, ground and polished, and analyzed by XRD (crystalline phases), SEM (microstructure) and EDS (composition).The REglass presents higher infiltration height when compared to current processes (direct infiltration), and homogeneous microstructure, showing that it is a promising method used by prosthetics and dentists. (author)

  14. Comparative analysis of infiltration measurements of two irrigated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Infiltration test on two irrigated soils was carried out to determine the infiltration rates of the soils for proper irrigation scheduling and planning at the Federal University of Technology Akure (FUTA). The soil samples were taken from Agricultural Engineering Demonstration and the University Research farms. Soil classification ...

  15. Relationship between Microcalcification and infiltration in breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Tai Que; Jeon, Mal Soon; Kim, Yang Sook [Marynoll Hospital, Pusan (Korea, Republic of)

    1990-10-15

    Microcalcification is one of the most common findings in breast cancer and most of cases with microcalcification only reveal non infiltrating type of cancer and better prognosis. We analysed 70 cases of breast cancer pathologically proved among 2,115 patients that underwent xermammography from 1983. 10.1 to 1989. 7. 30 and studied relationship between xerographic findings and nature of infiltration in breast cancer. The results were as follows: 1. Among 2,115 patients which were performed xeromammography, 70 cases were pathologically proved breast cancer and incident was 3.3%. 2. Incidence of breast cancer in terms of age was 0.2% in third decade. 1.2% in fourth decade, 4.4% in fifth decade, 14.3% in sixth decade, 15 % over seventh decade. Of total 70 patients, 51 cases were included over fifth decade. 3. Xeromammgraphy findings were classified microcalcification only, mass only, microcalcification with mass. Incidence of xerography findings such as microcalcification only (22%) was less than that of mass density (78%). 4. In 16 cases of microcalcification only. Incidence below 50 years (75%) were more than that over 50 (25%). 5. Infiltrating breast cancers (67%) were more than non-infiltrating breast cancer (33%) and number of non-infiltrating breast cancer with xerographic findings of microcalcification only (56%) was no more than that of infiltrating breast cancer (44%) but number of infiltrating breast cancer with mass (75%) was much more than non-infiltrating breast cancer (25%)

  16. Alveolar occupation infiltrations, eosinophilia in peripheral blood and bronchoalveolar lavage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hincapie Diaz, Gustavo Adolfo; Yama Mosquera, Erica; Guevara, Jairo

    2006-01-01

    A case of a patient of 25 years old is shown with the antecedent of no potable water consumption who entered for having pulmonary symptoms. Fever, presence of alveolar occupation infiltrations and eosinophilia in peripheral blood a treatment with antiparasitary started with a significant improvement of the symptoms, infiltrations and eosinophilia. it is considered eosinophilic pneumonia diagnostic by parasitary infection (Loeffler's syndrome)

  17. Modeling a ponded infiltration experiment at Yucca Mountain, NV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hudson, D.B.; Guertal, W.R.; Flint, A.L.

    1994-01-01

    Yucca Mountain, Nevada is being evaluated as a potential site for a geologic repository for high level radioactive waste. As part of the site characterization activities at Yucca Mountain, a field-scale ponded infiltration experiment was done to help characterize the hydraulic and infiltration properties of a layered dessert alluvium deposit. Calcium carbonate accumulation and cementation, heterogeneous layered profiles, high evapotranspiration, low precipitation, and rocky soil make the surface difficult to characterize.The effects of the strong morphological horizonation on the infiltration processes, the suitability of measured hydraulic properties, and the usefulness of ponded infiltration experiments in site characterization work were of interest. One-dimensional and two-dimensional radial flow numerical models were used to help interpret the results of the ponding experiment. The objective of this study was to evaluate the results of a ponded infiltration experiment done around borehole UE25 UZN number-sign 85 (N85) at Yucca Mountain, NV. The effects of morphological horizons on the infiltration processes, lateral flow, and measured soil hydaulic properties were studied. The evaluation was done by numerically modeling the results of a field ponded infiltration experiment. A comparison the experimental results and the modeled results was used to qualitatively indicate the degree to which infiltration processes and the hydaulic properties are understood. Results of the field characterization, soil characterization, borehole geophysics, and the ponding experiment are presented in a companion paper

  18. Light propagation in Liquid-infiltrated Microstructured Optical Fibres”

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Per Dalgaard

    2008-01-01

    The work presented in this thesis is focussed on studying the possibilities of tuning and optimizing the performance of infiltrated waveguides in systems where nonlinear optical effects are exploited. Infiltrated systems where either nonlinear temporal or spatial effects come into play have been...

  19. Effects of soil physical properties on erodibility and infiltration ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study looked at the physical properties of soil of selected areas of Gidan Kwano campus of Federal University of Technology Minna, Nigeria and their effects on erodibility and infiltration parameters. Infiltration rate of the selected areas were conducted using a double ring infiltrometer and soil samples collected at ...

  20. Clinical applicability of resin infiltration for proximal caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altarabulsi, Mohammad Basel; Alkilzy, Mohammad; Splieth, Christian H

    2013-02-01

    Resin infiltration is a new microinvasive treatment to arrest the progress of proximal initial caries lesions. This study evaluated the clinical applicability of proximal caries infiltration. In the study population of 50 children, adolescents, and young adults (mean age, 17.3 ± 6.4 years), 10 dentists at the University of Greifswald, Greifswald, Germany, applied the infiltration material Icon on noncavitated proximal lesions in permanent and primary teeth as described by the manufacturer. The applicability was evaluated using two questionnaires filled out by clinicians and patients assessing the comfort, complexity, time, and difficulties of the application in comparison to a filling. The results showed good patient satisfaction with the procedure. The mean time for infiltration (24.3 ± 7.4 minutes), which included rubber dam application (7.7 ± 4 minutes) and the effort were perceived to be comparable to or even easier than a composite filling by clinicians. In three patients (6%), it was not possible to gain sufficient proximal space for the application of an infiltration. The location of the infiltrated tooth, separation problems, and the routine of clinicians with the infiltration technique had an effect on the duration of the infiltration. A clear learning curve with a reduction of treatment time for subsequent treatments was observed (P proximal lesion showed good clinical applicability for clinicians and very high acceptance by patients.

  1. Rainfall pattern effects on crusting, infiltration and erodibility in some ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rainfall characteristics affect crust formation, infiltration rate and erosion depending on intrinsic soil properties such as texture and mineralogy. The current study investigated the effects of rainfall pattern on crust strength, steady state infiltration rate (SSIR) and erosion in soils with various texture and minerals. Soil samples ...

  2. Caesarean section wound infiltration with local anaesthetic for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    For outcome in terms of the visual analogue pain score (0 - 10) over 24 hours, no advantage was demonstrated in the single study of 50 participants who had wound infiltration with a mixture of local analgesia and narcotics versus local analgesia. Conclusions. Local anaesthetic infiltration and abdominal nerve blocks as ...

  3. Interpretation of ponded infiltration data using numerical experiments

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dohnal, M.; Vogel, T.; Dušek, J.; Votrubová, J.; Tesař, Miroslav

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 64, č. 3 (2016), s. 289-299 ISSN 0042-790X Institutional support: RVO:67985874 Keywords : ponded infiltration experiment * two-parameter infiltration equation * three-dimensional axisymmetric dualcontinuum model * preferential flow Subject RIV: DA - Hydrology ; Limnology Impact factor: 1.654, year: 2016

  4. Pollutant removal in subsurface wastewater infiltration systems with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pollutant removal in subsurface wastewater infiltration systems with/without intermittent aeration under different organic pollutant loadings. Hexin Fei1#, Deli ... Organic pollutant and nitrogen removal performance of subsurface wastewater infiltration systems (SWISs) with and .... aeration was turned off, at a depth of 50 cm.

  5. Alveolar occupation infiltrations, eosinophilia in peripheral blood and bronchoalveolar lavage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hincapie Diaz, Gustavo Adolfo; Yama Mosquera, Erica; Guevara, Jairo

    2006-01-01

    A case of a patient of 25 years old is shown with the antecedent of no potable water consumption who entered for having pulmonary symptoms, fever, presence of alveolar occupation infiltrations and eosinophilia in peripheral blood treatment with antiparasitary started with a significant improvement of the symptoms, infiltrations and eosinophilia. It is considered eosinophilic pneumonia diagnostic by parasitary infection (Loefffers Syndrome)

  6. Seasonal variation of infiltration capacities of soils in western Oregon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael G. Johnson; Robert L. Beschta

    1981-01-01

    Infiltration capacities were 50 percent greater during fall than during summer for forest soils of western Oregon. These results contrast with those measured in other studies. In forested areas, investigators should be aware of potentially large seasonal changes in infiltration capacities. Such seasonal changes may exceed effects due to applied treatments (logging,...

  7. Particulate Infiltration into a Simulated Space Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-12-31

    and environmental missions; effects of solar activity , magnetic storms and nuclear explosions on the Earth’s atmosphere, ionosphere and magnetosphere ...AVAILABILITY STATEMENT Approved for public release; distribution unlimited. 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT To understand the dynamics of...air flow turbulence intensity adjacent to the chamber. During the purge outage, the steady-state airborne particle concentration inside the space

  8. Radiology and pathology correlation in common infiltrative cardiomyopathies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varzeshi, Neda; Hansen, Mark; Rezaee, Amir; Slaughter, Richard; Dixon, Natalie; Duhig, Edwina

    2012-01-01

    Infiltrative cardiomyopathies generally pose a diagnostic dilemma as current diagnostic tools are imprecise. Invasive endomyocardial biopsy is considered as the gold standard however it has some limitations. Recently cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) is emerging as an excellent technique in diagnosing infiltrative cardiomyopathies and is increasingly being used. Characteristic pathologic and radiologic findings in most common infiltrative cardiomyopathies (amyloid, sarcoid and Fabry's) are discussed and correlated with relative CMR and histologic examples. There is fairly good correlation between the non-invasive radiologic and the invasive histologic findings in common infiltrative cardiomyopathies. Non-invasive CMR with its high sensitivity and specificity has an excellent role in establishing the diagnosis and improving the prognosis of common infiltrative cardiomyopathies.

  9. Squamous cell carcinoma following radiation therapy for the infiltrative thymoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozawa, Shinji; Kitao, Takeshi (Kitagata National Sanatorium, Fukui (Japan))

    1992-02-01

    This report represents one case of infiltrative thymoma followed by squamous cell carcinoma of the lungs. A 69-year-old man suffered from infiltrative thymoma which reduced by the radiation therapy. Seven years later its replase and the onset of squamous cell carcinoma were found simultaneously. Infiltrative thymoma metastasized not only to the mediastinum but also to the liver and bronchus. Squamous cell carcinoma developed in the right upper lobe. In spite of chemotherapy against them, the patient died. There are many cases in which infiltrative thymoma is accompanied by squamous cell carcinoma of the lung simultaneously; however, secondary onset of squamous cell carcinoma after the radiation therapy of infiltrative thymoma is rare. Secondary carcinogenesis of this case was considered to be closely related with immunological abnormalities caused by thymoma, effects of radiation, smoking and so on. (author).

  10. Squamous cell carcinoma following radiation therapy for the infiltrative thymoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozawa, Shinji; Kitao, Takeshi

    1992-01-01

    This report represents one case of infiltrative thymoma followed by squamous cell carcinoma of the lungs. A 69-year-old man suffered from infiltrative thymoma which reduced by the radiation therapy. Seven years later its replase and the onset of squamous cell carcinoma were found simultaneously. Infiltrative thymoma metastasized not only to the mediastinum but also to the liver and bronchus. Squamous cell carcinoma developed in the right upper lobe. In spite of chemotherapy against them, the patient died. There are many cases in which infiltrative thymoma is accompanied by squamous cell carcinoma of the lung simultaneously; however, secondary onset of squamous cell carcinoma after the radiation therapy of infiltrative thymoma is rare. Secondary carcinogenesis of this case was considered to be closely related with immunological abnormalities caused by thymoma, effects of radiation, smoking and so on. (author)

  11. Novel Infiltration Diagnostics based on Laser-line Scanning and Infrared Temperature Field Imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Xinwei [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2017-12-08

    This project targets the building energy efficiency problems induced by building infiltration/leaks. The current infiltration inspection techniques often require extensive visual inspection and/or whole building pressure test. These current techniques cannot meet more than three of the below five criteria of ideal infiltration diagnostics: 1. location and extent diagnostics, 2. building-level application, 3. least surface preparation, 4. weather-proof, and 5. non-disruption to building occupants. These techniques are either too expensive or time consuming, and often lack accuracy and repeatability. They are hardly applicable to facades/facades section. The goal of the project was to develop a novel infiltration diagnostics technology based on laser line-scanning and simultaneous infrared temperature imaging. A laboratory scale experimental setup was designed to mimic a model house of well-defined pressure difference below or above the outside pressure. Algorithms and Matlab-based programs had been developed for recognition of the hole location in infrared images. Our experiment based on laser wavelengths of 450 and 1550 nm and laser beam diameters of 4-25 mm showed that the location of the holes could be identified using laser heating; the diagnostic approach however could not readily distinguish between infiltration and non-infiltration points. To significantly improve the scanning throughput and recognition accuracy, a second approach was explored, developed, and extensively tested. It incorporates a liquid spray on the surface to induce extra phase change cooling effect. In this spray method, we termed it as PECIT (Phase-change Enhanced Cooling Infrared Thermography), phase-change enhanced cooling was used, which significantly amplifies the effect of air flow (infiltration and exfiltration). This heat transfer method worked extremely well to identify infiltration and exfiltration locations with high accuracy and increased throughput. The PECIT technique was

  12. Quasilinear infiltration from an elliptical cavity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhlman, Kristopher L.; Warrick, Arthur W.

    2008-08-01

    We develop analytic solutions to the linearized steady-state Richards equation for head and total flowrate due to an elliptic cylinder cavity with a specified pressure head boundary condition. They are generalizations of the circular cylinder cavity solutions of Philip [Philip JR. Steady infiltration from circular cylindrical cavities. Soil Sci Soc Am J 1984;48:270-8]. The circular and strip sources are limiting cases of the elliptical cylinder solution, derived for both horizontally- and vertically-aligned ellipses. We give approximate rational polynomial expressions for total flowrate from an elliptical cylinder over a range of sizes and shapes. The exact elliptical solution is in terms of Mathieu functions, which themselves are generalizations of and computed from trigonometric and Bessel functions. The required Mathieu functions are computed from a matrix eigenvector problem, a modern approach that is straightforward to implement using available linear algebra libraries. Although less efficient and potentially less accurate than the iterative continued fraction approach, the matrix approach is simpler to understand and implement and is valid over a wider parameter range.

  13. Infiltrated TiC/Cu composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frage, N.; Froumin, N.; Rubinovich, L.; Dariel, M.P.

    2001-01-01

    One approach for the fabrication of ceramic-metal composites is based on the pressureless impregnation of a porous ceramic preform by a molten metal. Molten Cu does not react with TiC and the wetting angle is close to 90 o . Nonetheless, molten Cu readily impregnates partially sintered TiC preforms. A model that describes the dependence of the critical contact angle for spontaneous impregnation by molten metals in partially sintered preforms on the level of densification and on the morphology of the particles was developed. For high aspect ratios of the particles forming the preform, wetting angles close to 90 o still allow impregnation by the molten metal. The results of the model were confirmed by infiltration of partially sintered TiC preforms with molten Cu and by fabrication of the TiC/Cu composites with various ceramic-to metal ratios. Decreasing of the metal content in the composite from 50 vol.% to 10 vol.% leads to a hardness increase from 250 to 1800 HV, and to the decrease of the bending strength from 960 to 280 MPa. The resistivity of these TiC/Cu composites decreases from 142 ohm cm to 25 ohm cm. (author)

  14. Meeting Residential Ventilation Standards Through Dynamic Control of Ventilation Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sherman, Max H.; Walker, Iain S.

    2011-04-01

    Existing ventilation standards, including American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air-conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) Standard 62.2, specify continuous operation of a defined mechanical ventilation system to provide minimum ventilation, with time-based intermittent operation as an option. This requirement ignores several factors and concerns including: other equipment such as household exhaust fans that might incidentally provide ventilation, negative impacts of ventilation when outdoor pollutant levels are high, the importance of minimizing energy use particularly during times of peak electricity demand, and how the energy used to condition air as part of ventilation system operation changes with outdoor conditions. Dynamic control of ventilation systems can provide ventilation equivalent to or better than what is required by standards while minimizing energy costs and can also add value by shifting load during peak times and reducing intake of outdoor air contaminants. This article describes the logic that enables dynamic control of whole-house ventilation systems to meet the intent of ventilation standards and demonstrates the dynamic ventilation system control concept through simulations and field tests of the Residential Integrated Ventilation-Energy Controller (RIVEC).

  15. Estimation of energy efficiency of residential buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glushkov Sergey

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Increasing energy performance of the residential buildings by means of reducing heat consumption on the heating and ventilation is the last segment in the system of energy resources saving. The first segments in the energy saving process are heat producing and transportation over the main lines and outside distribution networks. In the period from 2006 to 2013. by means of the heat-supply schemes optimization and modernization of the heating systems. using expensive (200–300 $US per 1 m though hugely effective preliminary coated pipes. the economy reached 2.7 mln tons of fuel equivalent. Considering the multi-stage and multifactorial nature (electricity. heat and water supply of the residential sector energy saving. the reasonable estimate of the efficiency of the saving of residential buildings energy should be performed in tons of fuel equivalent per unit of time.

  16. Gentrification and Residential Mobility in Philadelphia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Lei; Hwang, Jackelyn; Divringi, Eileen

    2016-11-01

    Gentrification has provoked considerable controversy surrounding its effects on residential displacement. Using a unique individual-level, longitudinal data set, this study examines mobility rates and residential destinations of residents in gentrifying neighborhoods during the recent housing boom and bust in Philadelphia for various strata of residents and different types of gentrification. We find that vulnerable residents, those with low credit scores and without mortgages, are generally no more likely to move from gentrifying neighborhoods compared with their counterparts in nongentrifying neighborhoods. When they do move, however, they are more likely to move to lower-income neighborhoods. Residents in gentrifying neighborhoods at the aggregate level have slightly higher mobility rates, but these rates are largely driven by more advantaged residents. These findings shed new light on the heterogeneity in mobility patterns across residents in gentrifying neighborhoods and suggest that researchers should focus more attention on the quality of residential moves and nonmoves for less advantaged residents, rather than mobility rates alone.

  17. Therapeutic Residential Care for Children and Youth:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Whittaker, James K.; Holmes, Lisa; del Valle, Jorge F.

    2016-01-01

    for Child and Family Research, Loughborough University in the U.K. for a Summit meeting on therapeutic residential care for children and youth funded by the Sir Halley Stewart Trust (UK). The focus centered on what is known about therapeutic residential care and what key questions should inform a priority......In many developed countries around the world, ‘group care’ interventions for children and adolescents have come under increasing scrutiny from central government, private philanthropic and child advocacy agencies desirous of (1) achieving better outcomes for vulnerable children and youth; (2) doing...... alternatives to serve high-resource needing youth has had unintended and negative consequences. It is within this context that a working group international experts representing research, policy, service delivery and families (International Work Group for Therapeutic Residential Care) convened at the Centre...

  18. Solar Photovoltaic Financing: Residential Sector Deployment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coughlin, J.; Cory, K.

    2009-03-01

    This report presents the information that homeowners and policy makers need to facilitate PV financing at the residential level. The full range of cash payments, bill savings, and tax incentives is covered, as well as potentially available solar attribute payments. Traditional financing is also compared to innovative solutions, many of which are borrowed from the commercial sector. Together, these mechanisms are critical for making the economic case for a residential PV installation, given its high upfront costs. Unfortunately, these programs are presently limited to select locations around the country. By calling attention to these innovative initiatives, this report aims to help policy makers consider greater adoption of these models to benefit homeowners interested installing a residential PV system.

  19. Energy savings in Danish residential building stock

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tommerup, Henrik M.; Svendsen, Svend

    2006-01-01

    a short account of the technical energy-saving possibilities that are present in existing dwellings and presents a financial methodology used for assessing energy-saving measures. In order to estimate the total savings potential detailed calculations have been performed in a case with two typical...... buildings representing the residential building stock and based on these calculations an assessment of the energy-saving potential is performed. A profitable savings potential of energy used for space heating of about 80% is identified over 45 years (until 2050) within the residential building stock......A large potential for energy savings exists in the Danish residential building stock due to the fact that 75% of the buildings were constructed before 1979 when the first important demands for energy performance of building were introduced. It is also a fact that many buildings in Denmark face...

  20. Characterizing Heterogeneity in Infiltration Rates During Managed Aquifer Recharge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mawer, Chloe; Parsekian, Andrew; Pidlisecky, Adam; Knight, Rosemary

    2016-11-01

    Infiltration rate is the key parameter that describes how water moves from the surface into a groundwater aquifer during managed aquifer recharge (MAR). Characterization of infiltration rate heterogeneity in space and time is valuable information for MAR system operation. In this study, we utilized fiber optic distributed temperature sensing (FO-DTS) observations and the phase shift of the diurnal temperature signal between two vertically co-located fiber optic cables to characterize infiltration rate spatially and temporally in a MAR basin. The FO-DTS measurements revealed spatial heterogeneity of infiltration rate: approximately 78% of the recharge water infiltrated through 50% of the pond bottom on average. We also introduced a metric for quantifying how the infiltration rate in a recharge pond changes over time, which enables FO-DTS to be used as a method for monitoring MAR and informing maintenance decisions. By monitoring this metric, we found high-spatial variability in how rapidly infiltration rate changed during the test period. We attributed this variability to biological pore clogging and found a relationship between high initial infiltration rate and the most rapid pore clogging. We found a strong relationship (R 2  = 0.8) between observed maximum infiltration rates and electrical resistivity measurements from electrical resistivity tomography data taken in the same basin when dry. This result shows that the combined acquisition of DTS and ERT data can improve the design and operation of a MAR pond significantly by providing the critical information needed about spatial variability in parameters controlling infiltration rates. © 2016, National Ground Water Association.

  1. Spatial and temporal infiltration dynamics during managed aquifer recharge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Racz, Andrew J; Fisher, Andrew T; Schmidt, Calla M; Lockwood, Brian S; Los Huertos, Marc

    2012-01-01

    Natural groundwater recharge is inherently difficult to quantify and predict, largely because it comprises a series of processes that are spatially distributed and temporally variable. Infiltration ponds used for managed aquifer recharge (MAR) provide an opportunity to quantify recharge processes across multiple scales under semi-controlled conditions. We instrumented a 3-ha MAR infiltration pond to measure and compare infiltration patterns determined using whole-pond and point-specific methods. Whole-pond infiltration was determined by closing a transient water budget (accounting for inputs, outputs, and changes in storage), whereas point-specific infiltration rates were determined using heat as a tracer and time series analysis at eight locations in the base of the pond. Whole-pond infiltration, normalized for wetted area, rose rapidly to more than 1.0 m/d at the start of MAR operations (increasing as pond stage rose), was sustained at high rates for the next 40 d, and then decreased to less than 0.1 m/d by the end of the recharge season. Point-specific infiltration rates indicated high spatial and temporal variability, with the mean of measured values generally being lower than rates indicated by whole-pond calculations. Colocated measurements of head gradients within saturated soils below the pond were combined with infiltration rates to calculate soil hydraulic conductivity. Observations indicate a brief period of increasing saturated hydraulic conductivity, followed by a decrease of one to two orders of magnitude during the next 50 to 75 d. Locations indicating the most rapid infiltration shifted laterally during MAR operation, and we suggest that infiltration may function as a "variable source area" processes, conceptually similar to catchment runoff. © 2011, The Author(s). Ground Water © 2011, National Ground Water Association.

  2. Effect of Injection Pressure of Infiltration Anesthesia to the Jawbone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Kenji; Tanaka, Eri; Kawaai, Hiroyoshi; Yamazaki, Shinya

    To obtain effective infiltration anesthesia in the jawbone, high concentrations of local anesthetic are needed. However, to reduce pain experienced by patients during local anesthetic administration, low-pressure injection is recommended for subperiosteal infiltration anesthesia. Currently, there are no studies regarding the effect of injection pressure on infiltration anesthesia, and a standard injection pressure has not been clearly determined. Hence, the effect of injection pressure of subperiosteal infiltration anesthesia on local anesthetic infiltration to the jawbone was considered by directly measuring lidocaine concentration in the jawbone. Japanese white male rabbits were used as test animals. After inducing general anesthesia with oxygen and sevoflurane, cannulation to the femoral artery was performed and arterial pressure was continuously recorded. Subperiosteal infiltration anesthesia was performed by injecting 0.5 mL of 2% lidocaine containing 1/80,000 adrenaline, and injection pressure was monitored by a pressure transducer for 40 seconds. After specified time intervals (10, 20, 30, 40, 50, and 60 minutes), jawbone and blood samples were collected, and the concentration of lidocaine at each time interval was measured. The mean injection pressure was divided into 4 groups (100 ± 50 mm Hg, 200 ± 50 mm Hg, 300 ± 50 mm Hg, and 400 ± 50 mm Hg), and comparison statistical analysis between these 4 groups was performed. No significant change in blood pressure during infiltration anesthesia was observed in any of the 4 groups. Lidocaine concentration in the blood and jawbone were highest 10 minutes after the infiltration anesthesia in all 4 groups and decreased thereafter. Lidocaine concentration in the jawbone increased as injection pressure increased, while serum lidocaine concentration was significantly lower. This suggests that when injection pressure of subperiosteal infiltration anesthesia is low, infiltration of local anesthetic to the jawbone may

  3. Modelling and forecasting Turkish residential electricity demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dilaver, Zafer; Hunt, Lester C

    2011-01-01

    This research investigates the relationship between Turkish residential electricity consumption, household total final consumption expenditure and residential electricity prices by applying the structural time series model to annual data over the period from 1960 to 2008. Household total final consumption expenditure, real energy prices and an underlying energy demand trend are found to be important drivers of Turkish residential electricity demand with the estimated short run and the long run total final consumption expenditure elasticities being 0.38 and 1.57, respectively, and the estimated short run and long run price elasticities being -0.09 and -0.38, respectively. Moreover, the estimated underlying energy demand trend, (which, as far as is known, has not been investigated before for the Turkish residential sector) should be of some benefit to Turkish decision makers in terms of energy planning. It provides information about the impact of past policies, the influence of technical progress, the impacts of changes in consumer behaviour and the effects of changes in economic structure. Furthermore, based on the estimated equation, and different forecast assumptions, it is predicted that Turkish residential electricity demand will be somewhere between 48 and 80 TWh by 2020 compared to 40 TWh in 2008. - Research highlights: → Estimated short run and long run expenditure elasticities of 0.38 and 1.57, respectively. → Estimated short run and long run price elasticities of -0.09 and -0.38, respectively. → Estimated UEDT has increasing (i.e. energy using) and decreasing (i.e. energy saving) periods. → Predicted Turkish residential electricity demand between 48 and 80 TWh in 2020.

  4. The diversity and distribution of fungi on residential surfaces.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel I Adams

    Full Text Available The predominant hypothesis regarding the composition of microbial assemblages in indoor environments is that fungal assemblages are structured by outdoor air with a moderate contribution by surface growth, whereas indoor bacterial assemblages represent a mixture of bacteria entered from outdoor air, shed by building inhabitants, and grown on surfaces. To test the fungal aspect of this hypothesis, we sampled fungi from three surface types likely to support growth and therefore possible contributors of fungi to indoor air: drains in kitchens and bathrooms, sills beneath condensation-prone windows, and skin of human inhabitants. Sampling was done in replicated units of a university-housing complex without reported mold problems, and sequences were analyzed using both QIIME and the new UPARSE approach to OTU-binning, to the same result. Surfaces demonstrated a mycological profile similar to that of outdoor air from the same locality, and assemblages clustered by surface type. "Weedy" genera typical of indoor air, such as Cladosporium and Cryptococcus, were abundant on sills, as were a diverse set of fungi of likely outdoor origin. Drains supported more depauperate assemblages than the other surfaces and contained thermotolerant genera such as Exophiala, Candida, and Fusarium. Most surprising was the composition detected on residents' foreheads. In addition to harboring Malassezia, a known human commensal, skin also possessed a surprising richness of non-resident fungi, including plant pathogens such as ergot (Claviceps purperea. Overall, fungal richness across indoor surfaces was high, but based on known autecologies, most of these fungi were unlikely to be growing on surfaces. We conclude that while some endogenous fungal growth on typical household surfaces does occur, particularly on drains and skin, all residential surfaces appear - to varying degrees - to be passive collectors of airborne fungi of putative outdoor origin, a view of the origins

  5. Strategy Guideline: High Performance Residential Lighting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holton, J.

    2012-02-01

    The Strategy Guideline: High Performance Residential Lighting has been developed to provide a tool for the understanding and application of high performance lighting in the home. The high performance lighting strategies featured in this guide are drawn from recent advances in commercial lighting for application to typical spaces found in residential buildings. This guide offers strategies to greatly reduce lighting energy use through the application of high quality fluorescent and light emitting diode (LED) technologies. It is important to note that these strategies not only save energy in the home but also serve to satisfy the homeowner's expectations for high quality lighting.

  6. Steering Angle Function Algorithm of Morphing of Residential Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    XIE Tian

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available A residential area feature morphing method based on steering angle function is presented. To residential area with the same representation under two different scales,transforming the representation of the residential area polygon from vector coordinates to steering angle function,then using the steering angle function to match,and finding out the similarity and the differences between the residential areas under different scale to get the steering angle function of the the residential areas under any middle scale,the final,transforming the middle scale steering angle function to vector coordinates form,and get the middle shape interpolation of the the residential area polygon.Experimental results show:the residential area morphing method by using steering angle function presented can realize the continuous multi-scale representation under the premise of keeping in shape for the residential area with the rectangular boundary features.

  7. Use of Electronic Health Records in Residential Care Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the National Technical Information Service NCHS Use of Electronic Health Records in Residential Care Communities Recommend on ... Facilities Most residential care communities did not use electronic health records in 2010, and use varied by ...

  8. PRN 2011-1: Residential Exposure Joint Venture

    Science.gov (United States)

    This PR Notice is to advise registrants of an industry-wide joint venture, titled the Residential Exposure Joint Venture (REJV), which has developed a national survey regarding residential consumer use/usage data for pesticides.

  9. 78 FR 7487 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Area Sources: Industrial, Commercial...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-01

    ... technologies HAP hazardous air pollutants Hg mercury HQ Headquarters ISO International Standards Organization... services and drinking places. 62 Health care and social assistance. 22111 Electric power generation. \\a...: Residential boiler means a boiler used to provide heat and/or hot water and/or as part of a residential...

  10. Modeling Residential Electricity Consumption Function in Malaysia: Time Series Approach

    OpenAIRE

    L. L. Ivy-Yap; H. A. Bekhet

    2014-01-01

    As the Malaysian residential electricity consumption continued to increase rapidly, effective energy policies, which address factors affecting residential electricity consumption, is urgently needed. This study attempts to investigate the relationship between residential electricity consumption (EC), real disposable income (Y), price of electricity (Pe) and population (Po) in Malaysia for 1978-2011 period. Unlike previous studies on Malaysia, the current study focuses on the residential secto...

  11. An application of energy and exergy analysis in residential sector of Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saidur, R.; Masjuki, H.H.; Jamaluddin, M.Y.

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, the useful concept of energy and exergy utilization is defined, analyzed and applied to the residential sector of Malaysia by taking into account the energy and exergy flows for a period of 8 years from the year 1997 to 2004. The energy and exergy efficiencies are determined for the devices used in this sector and found to be 70% and 28%, respectively. Energy and exergy flow diagrams for the overall efficiencies of Malaysian residential sector are also illustrated in this paper. It is found that the current methodology applied in Saudi Arabia is suitable to analyze energy and exergy use in Malaysian residential sector. It has been found that the exergy efficiency of the Malaysian residential sector appears to be much lower than its corresponding energy efficiency. It has been observed that about 21% of total exergy losses are caused by refrigerator-freezer and 12% of total loss is caused by air conditioner. Washing machine, fan and rice cooker contribute about 11%, 10% and 8% of total exergy losses, respectively

  12. Impact of wood combustion on particle levels in a residential area in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glasius, M.; Ketzel, M.; Wåhlin, P.

    2006-01-01

    The influence of residential wood-combustion on local air quality was studied during two periods in 2002 and 2003/04 in a small rural town with widespread use of wood combustion for heating. During one 6-week winter period, particle levels (PM2.5) in the residential area were about 4 μg m-3 higher...... than at a nearby background site. This was comparable to the local traffic contribution observed at a busy street (about 70,000 vehicles per day) in the city of Copenhagen. The diurnal variation in the residential area showed increased particle levels (PM2.5) in the evening and night as expected from...... local heating sources. Particle size distributions showed highest volume concentrations of particles with diameters of 400-500 nm, and the diurnal variation of particle volume was similar to PM2.5. The particle measurements were supported by measurements of combustion gases in both the residential area...

  13. Significance of tree roots for preferential infiltration in stagnic soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, B.; Lüescher, P.; Germann, P. F.

    2009-10-01

    It is generally recognized that roots have an effect on infiltration. In this study we analysed the relation between root length distributions from Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst), silver fir (Abies alba Miller), European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) and preferential infiltration in stagnic soils in the northern Pre-Alps in Switzerland. We conducted irrigation experiments (1 m2) and recorded water content variations with time domain reflectometry (TDR). A rivulet approach was applied to characterise preferential infiltration. Roots were sampled down to a depth of 0.5 to 1 m at the same position where the TDR-probes had been inserted and digitally measured. The basic properties of preferential infiltration, film thickness of mobile water and the contact length between soil and mobile water in the horizontal plane are closely related to root densities. An increase in root density resulted in an increase in contact length, but a decrease in film thickness. We modelled water content waves based on root densities and identified a range of root densities that lead to a maximum volume flux density and infiltration capacity. These findings provide convincing evidence that tree roots in stagnic soils represent the pore system that carries preferential infiltration. Thus, the presence of roots should improve infiltration.

  14. Significance of tree roots for preferential infiltration in stagnic soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Lange

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available It is generally recognized that roots have an effect on infiltration. In this study we analysed the relation between root length distributions from Norway spruce (Picea abies (L. Karst, silver fir (Abies alba Miller, European beech (Fagus sylvatica L. and preferential infiltration in stagnic soils in the northern Pre-Alps in Switzerland. We conducted irrigation experiments (1 m2 and recorded water content variations with time domain reflectometry (TDR. A rivulet approach was applied to characterise preferential infiltration. Roots were sampled down to a depth of 0.5 to 1 m at the same position where the TDR-probes had been inserted and digitally measured. The basic properties of preferential infiltration, film thickness of mobile water and the contact length between soil and mobile water in the horizontal plane are closely related to root densities. An increase in root density resulted in an increase in contact length, but a decrease in film thickness. We modelled water content waves based on root densities and identified a range of root densities that lead to a maximum volume flux density and infiltration capacity. These findings provide convincing evidence that tree roots in stagnic soils represent the pore system that carries preferential infiltration. Thus, the presence of roots should improve infiltration.

  15. Residential Group Care Quarterly. Volume 5, Number 3, Winter 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael, Jennifer, Ed.

    2005-01-01

    This issue of "Residential Group Care Quarterly" contains the following articles: (1) "Promising Practices for Adequately Funding and Reimbursing Residential Services" (Lloyd Bullard); (2) "Closing the Gender Gap" (Erin Andersen); (3) "Residential Child Care: Guidelines for Physical Techniques, Crisis Prevention, and Management" (Kurk Lalemand);…

  16. Family events and the residential mobility of couples

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Michielin, F.; Mulder, C.H.

    2008-01-01

    Using data from retrospective surveys carried out in the Netherlands during the early 1990s, we describe how the residential mobility of couples—that is, short-distance moves—is affected by family events and how fertility is affected by residential mobility. The results show that residential moves

  17. Anomalous behaviors during infiltration into heterogeneous porous media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aarão Reis, F. D. A.; Bolster, D.; Voller, V. R.

    2018-03-01

    Flow and transport in heterogeneous porous media often exhibit anomalous behavior. A physical analog example is the uni-directional infiltration of a viscous liquid into a horizontal oriented Hele-Shaw cell containing through thickness flow obstacles; a system designed to mimic a gravel/sand medium with impervious inclusions. When there are no obstacles present or the obstacles form a multi-repeating pattern, the change of the length of infiltration F with time t tends to follow a Fickian like scaling, F ∼t1/2 . In the presence of obstacle fields laid out as Sierpinski carpet fractals, infiltration is anomalous, i.e., F ∼ tn, n ≠ 1/2. Here, we study infiltration into such Hele-Shaw cells. First we investigate infiltration into a square cell containing one fractal carpet and make the observation that it is possible to generate both sub (n 1/2) diffusive behaviors within identical heterogeneity configurations. We show that this can be explained in terms of a scaling analysis developed from results of random-walk simulations in fractal obstacles; a result indicating that the nature of the domain boundary controls the exponent n of the resulting anomalous transport. Further, we investigate infiltration into a rectangular cell containing several repeats of a given Sierpinski carpet. At very early times, before the liquid encounters any obstacles, the infiltration is Fickian. When the liquid encounters the first (smallest scale) obstacle the infiltration sharply transitions to sub-diffusive. Subsequently, around the time where the liquid has sampled all of the heterogeneity length scales in the system, there is a rapid transition back to Fickian behavior. An explanation for this second transition is obtained by developing a simplified infiltration model based on the definition of a representative averaged hydraulic conductivity.

  18. Nutrient infiltrate concentrations from three permeable pavement types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Robert A; Borst, Michael

    2015-12-01

    While permeable pavement is increasingly being used to control stormwater runoff, field-based, side-by-side investigations on the effects different pavement types have on nutrient concentrations present in stormwater runoff are limited. In 2009, the U.S. EPA constructed a 0.4-ha parking lot in Edison, New Jersey, that incorporated permeable interlocking concrete pavement (PICP), pervious concrete (PC), and porous asphalt (PA). Each permeable pavement type has four, 54.9-m(2), lined sections that direct all infiltrate into 5.7-m(3) tanks enabling complete volume collection and sampling. This paper highlights the results from a 12-month period when samples were collected from 13 rainfall/runoff events and analyzed for nitrogen species, orthophosphate, and organic carbon. Differences in infiltrate concentrations among the three permeable pavement types were assessed and compared with concentrations in rainwater samples and impervious asphalt runoff samples, which were collected as controls. Contrary to expectations based on the literature, the PA infiltrate had significantly larger total nitrogen (TN) concentrations than runoff and infiltrate from the other two permeable pavement types, indicating that nitrogen leached from materials in the PA strata. There was no significant difference in TN concentration between runoff and infiltrate from either PICP or PC, but TN in runoff was significantly larger than in the rainwater, suggesting meaningful inter-event dry deposition. Similar to other permeable pavement studies, nitrate was the dominant nitrogen species in the infiltrate. The PA infiltrate had significantly larger nitrite and ammonia concentrations than PICP and PC, and this was presumably linked to unexpectedly high pH in the PA infiltrate that greatly exceeded the optimal pH range for nitrifying bacteria. Contrary to the nitrogen results, the PA infiltrate had significantly smaller orthophosphate concentrations than in rainwater, runoff, and infiltrate from PICP

  19. Air Conditioning and Refrigeration Book III.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckes, William; Fulkerson, Dan

    Designed to present theory as a functional aspect, this air conditioning and refrigeration curriculum guide is comprised of nine units of instruction. Unit titles include (1) Job Orientation, (2) Applying for a Job, (3) Customer Relations, (4) Business Management, (5) Psychometrics, (6) Residential Heat Loss and Heat Gain, (7) Duct Design and…

  20. Solar-powered air-conditioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, D. C.; Rousseau, J.

    1977-01-01

    Report focuses on recent study on development of solar-powered residential air conditioners and is based on selected literature through 1975. Its purposes are to characterize thermal and mechanical systems that might be useful in development of Rankine-cycle approach to solar cooling and assessment of a Lithium Bromide/Water absorption cycle system.

  1. Electricity: Residential Wiring. Secondary Schools. Curriculum Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands Dept. of Education, Saipan.

    This curriculum guide on residential wiring for secondary students is one of six developed for inservice teachers at Marianas High School in Saipan. The guide provides the rationale, description, goals, and objectives of the program; the program of studies and performance objectives by levels; samples of lesson plans for effective delivery of…

  2. Guidelines for Transferring Residential Courses into Web

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tüzün, Hakan; Çinar, Murat

    2016-01-01

    This study shared unique design experiences by examining the process of transferring residential courses to the Web, and proposed a design model for individuals who want to transfer their courses into this environment. The formative research method was used in the study, and two project teams' processes of putting courses, which were being taught…

  3. DETERMINANTS OF RESIDENTIAL PER CAPITA WATER ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This report presents the findings of the study on the determinants of residential per capita water demand of Makurdi metropolis in Benue State, Nigeria. Data for the study was obtained by the use of questionnaires, oral interviews and observations. The data was analyzed using SPSS. Twenty variables were considered in ...

  4. Condition assessment and strengthening of residential units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatheer Zahra

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available About 40, ground plus one (G+1 residential units were designed using a hybrid structural framing system (RC frame and load bearing walls. A few months after the completion of the ground floor of the residential units, cracks appeared at several locations in the structure. Field and Laboratory testing was conducted to ascertain the in situ strength of concrete and steel reinforcement. The results of the experimental work were used in the analytical ETABS model for the structural stability calculations. The results indicated that residential units were marginally safe in the existing condition (completed ground floor, but the anticipated construction of the floor above the ground floor (G+1 could not be carried out as the strength of the structural system was inadequate. To increase the safety of existing ground floor and to provide the option of the construction of one floor above, rehabilitation and strengthening design was performed. The proposed strengthening design made use of welded wire fabric (WWF and carbon fibre reinforced polymer (CFRP laminates/sheets for the strengthening of walls, columns and slabs. The residential units will be strengthened in the near future.

  5. Chapter 6: Residential Lighting Evaluation Protocol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dimetrosky, Scott [Apex Analytics LLC, Boulder, CO (United States); Parkinson, Katie [Apex Analytics LLC, Boulder, CO (United States); Lieb, Noah [Apex Analytics LLC, Boulder, CO (United States)

    2015-02-01

    In recent years, residential lighting has represented a significant share of ratepayer-funded energy-efficiency electricity savings. Utilities have achieved the majority of these savings by promoting the purchase and installation of compact fluorescent lamps (CFLs), both standard 'twister' bulbs and specialty CFLs such as reflectors, A-Lamps, globes, and dimmable lights.

  6. housing tenure, residential moves and children's educational

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    ABSTRACT. Research has shown that non-conventional factors like housing and residential experiences dur- ing childhood have impacts on children's success. Given the critical importance of human capi- tal accumulation in Ghana, it is significant from policy standpoint to recognise factors and mechanisms that are ...

  7. Housing tenure, residential moves and children's educational ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Research has shown that non-conventional factors like housing and residential experiences during childhood have impacts on children's success. Given the critical importance of human capital accumulation in Ghana, it is significant from policy standpoint to recognise factors and mechanisms that are relevant to the next ...

  8. Focused Flow During Infiltration Into Ethanol-Contaminated Unsaturated Porous Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jazwiec, A.; Smith, J. E.

    2017-12-01

    The increasing commercial and industrial use of ethanol, e.g. in biofuels, has generated increased incidents of vadose zone contamination by way of ethanol spills and releases. This has increased the interest in better understanding behaviors of ethanol in unsaturated porous media and it's multiphase interactions in the vadose zone. This study uses highly controlled laboratory experiments in a 2-D (0.6mx0.6mx0.01m) flow cell to investigate water infiltration behaviors into ethanol-contaminated porous media. Ethanol and water were applied by either constant head or constant flux methods onto the surface of sands homogenously packed into the flow cell. The constant flux experiments at both low and high application rates were conducted using a rainulator with a row of hypodermic needles connected to a peristaltic pump. The constant head experiments were conducted using an 8cm diameter tension disk infiltrometer set to both low and high tensions. The presence of ethanol contamination generated solute-dependent capillarity induced focused flow (SCIFF) of water infiltration, which was primarily due to decreases in interfacial tensions at the air-liquid interfaces in the unsaturated sands as a function of ethanol concentration. SCIFF was clearly expressed as an unsaturated water flow phenomenon comprised of narrowly focused vertical flow fingers of water within the initially ethanol contaminated porous media. Using analyses of photos and video, comparisons were made between constant flux and constant head application methods. Further comparisons were made between low and high infiltration rates and the two sand textures used. A high degree of sensitivity to minor heterogeneity in relatively homogeneous sands was also observed. The results of this research have implications for rainfall infiltration into ethanol contaminated vadose zones expressing SCIFF, including implications for associated mass fluxes and the nature of flushing of ethanol from the unsaturated zone to

  9. Sequestration of Sr-90 Subsurface Contamination in the Hanford 100-N Area by Surface Infiltration of a Ca-Citrate-Phosphate Solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szecsody, James E.; Rockhold, Mark L.; Oostrom, Martinus; Moore, R. C.; Burns, Carolyn A.; Williams, Mark D.; Zhong, Lirong; Fruchter, Jonathan S.; McKinley, James P.; Vermeul, Vincent R.; Covert, Matthew A.; Wietsma, Thomas W.; Breshears, Andrew T.; Garcia, Ben J.

    2009-03-01

    The objective of this project is to develop a method to emplace apatite precipitate in the 100N vadose zone, which results in sorption and ultimately incorporation of Sr-90 into the apatite structure. The Ca-citrate-PO4 solution can be infiltrated into unsaturated sediments to result in apatite precipitate to provide effective treatment of Sr-90 contamination. Microbial redistribution during solution infiltration and a high rate of citrate biodegradation for river water microbes (water used for solution infiltration) results in a relatively even spatial distribution of the citrate biodegradation rate and ultimately apatite precipitate in the sediment. Manipulation of the Ca-citrate-PO4 solution infiltration strategy can be used to result in apatite precipitate in the lower half of the vadose zone (where most of the Sr-90 is located) and within low-K layers (which are hypothesized to have higher Sr-90 concentrations). The most effective infiltration strategy to precipitate apatite at depth (and with sufficient lateral spread) was to infiltrate a high concentration solution (6 mM Ca, 15 mM citrate, 60 mM PO4) at a rapid rate (near ponded conditions), followed by rapid, then slow water infiltration. Repeated infiltration events, with sufficient time between events to allow water drainage in the sediment profile can be used to buildup the mass of apatite precipitate at greater depth. Low-K heterogeneities were effectively treated, as the higher residual water content maintained in these zones resulted in higher apatite precipitate concentration. High-K zones did not receive sufficient treatment by infiltration, although an alternative strategy of air/surfactant (foam) was demonstrated effective for targeting high-K zones. The flow rate manipulation used in this study to treat specific depths and heterogeneities are not as easy to implement at field scale due to the lack of characterization of heterogeneities and difficulty tracking the wetting front over a large

  10. Application of solar energy to air-conditioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harstad, A. J.; Nash, J. M.

    1978-01-01

    Results of survey of application of solar energy to air-conditioning systems are summarized in report. Survey reviewed air-conditioning techniques that are most likely to find residential applications and that are compatible with solar-energy systems being developed.

  11. Air Conditioning and Refrigeration Program Articulation, 1981-1982.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dallas County Community Coll. District, TX.

    Based on a survey of high school programs and courses in the Dallas County Community College District (DCCCD), this articulated program is designed to prepare students for entry-level employment in the air conditioning and refrigeration industry, including residential and commercial air conditioning and commercial refrigeration. The skills and…

  12. On-site infiltration of road runoff using pervious pavements with subjacent infiltration trenches as source control strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fach, S; Dierkes, C

    2011-01-01

    The focus in this work was on subsoil infiltration of stormwater from parking lots. With regard to operation, reduced infiltration performance due to clogging and pollutants in seepage, which may contribute to contaminate groundwater, are of interest. The experimental investigation covered a pervious pavement with a subjacent infiltration trench draining an impervious area of 2 ha. In order to consider seasonal effects on the infiltration performance, the hydraulic conductivity was measured tri-monthly during monitoring with a mobile sprinkling unit. To assess natural deposits jointing, road bed, gravel of infiltration trenches and subsoil were analysed prior to commencement of monitoring for heavy metals, polycyclic aromatic and mineral oil type hydrocarbons. Furthermore, from 22 storm events, water samples of rainfall, surface runoff, seepage and ground water were analysed with regard to the above mentioned pollutants. The study showed that the material used for the joints had a major impact on the initial as well as the final infiltration rates. Due to its poor hydraulic conductivity, limestone gravel should not be used as jointing. Furthermore, it is recommended that materials for the infiltration facilities are ensured free of any contaminants prior to construction. Polycyclic aromatic and mineral oil type hydrocarbons were, with the exception of surface runoff, below detection limits. Heavy metal concentrations of groundwater were with the exception of lead (because of high background concentrations), below the permissible limits.

  13. Information Processing and Creative Thinking Abilities of Residential and Non-Residential School Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atasi Mohanty

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This study attempts to assess and compare the residential and non-residential schoolchildren in information-processing skills and creative thinking abilities. A sample of 80 children from Classes 5 and 7 were selected from two types of schools, residential/ashram (02 and non-residential/formal schools (02 in Bolpur subdivision of West Bengal in India where the medium of instruction is Bengali language/mother-tongue. All the children were individually administered the PASS (Planning, Attention, Simultaneous, Successive, Stroop, Matching Familiar Figure Test (MFFT-20, and creative thinking tasks. The residential school children were found to perform better both in information processing and creative thinking tasks. The developmental trend could not be clearly observed due to small sample size, but with increasing age, children were using better processing strategies. Due to ashram environment, creative pedagogy, and various co-curricular activities, the residential school children were found to be more creative than their formal school counterparts. Moreover, some significant positive correlations were found among information processing skills and creative thinking dimensions.

  14. Development of a residential wood smoke reduction plan in a wood burning community: A case study in Libby, Montana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fox, R.J.; Manderino, L.; Lyons, C.E.; Morris, A.L.; Anderson, R.L.

    1992-01-01

    Libby, Montana depends on wood as a heating fuel. Libby exceeded the 24-hour federal PM10 ambient air quality standard every year since monitoring began in 1987. Residential wood smoke significantly contributes to its air pollution. To decrease residential wood smoke's contribution to air pollution, residents have to modify their heating habits. County officials sponsored the development of a comprehensive community-oriented plan to reduce wood smoke. This paper describes how the plan was developed and the components of the air pollution reduction strategies. The plan was developed using community input and tailored to local conditions. Four specific strategies were developed to reduce residential wood smoke pollution. Development of strategies required analysis of home heating habits and potential alternatives. Economic conditions were also considered. Expensive control strategies would be worthless unless alternative funding methods were provided. Thus, the plan included an array of funding sources to facilitate implementation. The development and implementation techniques are applicable to other communities with similar air pollution challenges

  15. Flood vulnerability assessment of residential buildings by explicit damage process modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Custer, Rocco; Nishijima, Kazuyoshi

    2015-01-01

    The present paper introduces a vulnerability modelling approach for residential buildings in flood. The modelling approach explicitly considers relevant damage processes, i.e. water infiltration into the building, mechanical failure of components in the building envelope and damage from water...... masonry building. Results are presented in terms of a parameter study for several building parameters and hazard characteristics, as well as, in terms of a comparison with damage data and literature vulnerability models. The parameter study indicates that hazard characteristics and building...... characteristics impact damage ratios as expected. Furthermore, the results are comparable to vulnerability models in literature. Strengths and shortcomings of the model are discussed. The modelling approach is considered as a step towards the establishment of vulnerability models that can serve as a basis...

  16. Air Inflated Greenhouse as Urban Farming Facilities: Architectural Overview

    OpenAIRE

    Abidin, Syed Zainol; Nasihien, Ronny D; Budiyanto, Hery

    2017-01-01

    Urban Farming utilizing land intensification, in order to meet the needs of fresh vegetables and fruits everyday for the community residential / housing in urban areas. Air Inflated Greenhouse as urban farming facilities, can be built and transferred to a residential location / specific housing is easy, safe, fast and lightweight (0,55mm PVC tarpaulin) so that urban farming products closer to consumers in urban settlements, the price impact getting cheaper, but quality. Long-term goal is to d...

  17. Thermal and microestructural characterization of epoxy-infiltrated hydroxyapatite composite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Barrionuevo Roese

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available In this work, hydroxyapatite (HAp obtained from the deorganification of bovine bones using hot NaOH solution was used to synthesize a HAp/epoxy infiltrated composite. Infiltration was carried out by vacuum assisted immersion in hot epoxy resin. The resulting composite was characterized regarding polymer content, morphological aspects and flexural strength. The infiltration method used resulted in thorough infiltration of the HAp but some residual porosity remained. Although the epoxy resin showed good interaction with the HAp, high polymer content was achieved and the flexural strength of the composite was higher than that of the original resin or the HAp, composite strength was lower than that of the human cortical bone.

  18. The effect of polyacrylamide (PAM) applications on infiltration, runoff ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    . Anionic polyacrylamide (PAM) application to soils is an effective soil conservation practice for reducing runoff and soil losses caused by erosion. It also increases the infiltration rate of soils. The objective of this study was conducted to ...

  19. Oral traumatic granuloma. Characterization of the cellular infiltrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regezi, J A; Zarbo, R J; Daniels, T E; Greenspan, J S

    1993-06-01

    Oral traumatic granulomas are reactive mucosal lesions that are characterized by an intense mononuclear infiltrate (usually with eosinophils) that may mimic neoplasia. These pseudoneoplastic infiltrates were evaluated with the use of lineage-associated antibodies (CD3, OPD4, L26, KP1, XIIIa, S-100, HPCA-1, HHF-35). We determined that the large distinguishing mononuclear cells were either CD68-positive macrophages or factor XIIIa-positive dendrocytes (the oral counterparts to dermal dendrocytes). S-100-positive connective tissue cells occasionally contributed to this infiltrate. Also abundant in the infiltrate were smaller CD3-positive T-lymphocytes. Double-staining confirmed that there were separate populations of CD68-positive macrophages and XIIIa-positive dendrocytes. Because some XIIIa dendrocytes coexpressed CD68, phagocytosis may be one of the functions of dendrocytes.

  20. Pollutant removal in subsurface wastewater infiltration systems with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pollutant removal in subsurface wastewater infiltration systems with/without intermittent aeration under different organic pollutant loadings. Hexin Fei, Deli Tong, Jing Pan, Yang Zhang, Linli Huang, Fan Cheng, Fanping Zheng ...

  1. Proliferation kinetics of the dermal infiltrate in cutaneous malignant lymphomas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sterry, W.; Pullmann, H.; Steigleder, G.K.

    1981-01-01

    To obtain information about the role of local proliferation in the pathogenesis of dermal infiltrate in malignant cutaneous lymphomas, we determined the percentage of /sup 3/H-thymidine-labeled infiltrating cells (/sup 3/H-index). A linear correlation was found between proliferative activity and clinical stage in mycosis fungoides, i.e., the /sup 3/H-index is moderately elevated in stage I and high in stage III. The /sup 3/H-index is within normal range in dermal infiltrate of Sezary syndrome, diffuse lymphocytic lymphoma, as well as in lymphocytoma benigna cutis. In parapsoriasis en plaques two groups can be distinguished: in the small plaque variant (chronic superficial dermatitis) the /sup 3/H-index is low, whereas the large-plaque variant (prereticulotic poikiloderma) shows strong proliferative activity. Thus, determination of proliferative activity seems to give new insights into the pathogenesis of dermal infiltrate in cutaneous lymphomas.

  2. Temporal nonlinear beam dynamics in infiltrated photonic crystal fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennet, Francis; Rosberg, Christian Romer; Neshev, Dragomir N.

    and technological potential of liquid-infiltrated PCFs it is important to understand the temporal dynamics of nonlinear beam propagation in such structures. In this work we consider thermally induced spatial nonlinear effects in infiltrated photonic crystal fibers. We experimentally study the temporal dynamics......Liquid-infiltrated photonic crystal fibers (PCFs) offer a new way of studying light propagation in periodic and discrete systems. A wide range of available fiber structures combined with the ease of infiltration opens up a range of novel experimental opportunities for optical detection and bio...... the evolution of the fiber output beam in the few micro or milliseconds after the beam is turned on. The characterization of the temporal behavior of the thermal nonlinear response provides important information about the nonlocality associated with heat diffusion inside the fiber, thus enabling studies of long...

  3. Temporal nonlinear beam dynamics in infiltrated photonic crystal fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennet, Francis; Rosberg, Christian Romer; Neshev, Dragomir N.

    -sensing as well as active devices for all-optical switching at low (mW) laser powers. Commercially available PCFs infiltrated with liquids also provide a versatile and compact tool for exploration of the fundamentals of nonlinear beam propagation in periodic photonic structures. To explore the full scientific...... of nonlinear beam reshaping occurring on a short time scale before the establishment of a steady state regime. In experiment, a 532nm laser beam can be injected into a single hole of an infiltrated PCF cladding structure, and the temporal dynamics of the nonlinear response is measured by monitoring...... and technological potential of liquid-infiltrated PCFs it is important to understand the temporal dynamics of nonlinear beam propagation in such structures. In this work we consider thermally induced spatial nonlinear effects in infiltrated photonic crystal fibers. We experimentally study the temporal dynamics...

  4. Proliferation kinetics of the dermal infiltrate in cutaneous malignant lymphomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sterry, W.; Pullmann, H.; Steigleder, G.K.

    1981-01-01

    To obtain information about the role of local proliferation in the pathogenesis of dermal infiltrate in malignant cutaneous lymphomas, we determined the percentage of 3 H-thymidine-labeled infiltrating cells ( 3 H-index). A linear correlation was found between proliferative activity and clinical stage in mycosis fungoides, i.e., the 3 H-index is moderately elevated in stage I and high in stage III. The 3 H-index is within normal range in dermal infiltrate of Sezary syndrome, diffuse lymphocytic lymphoma, as well as in lymphocytoma benigna cutis. In parapsoriasis en plaques two groups can be distinguished: in the small plaque variant (chronic superficial dermatitis) the 3 H-index is low, whereas the large-plaque variant (prereticulotic poikiloderma) shows strong proliferative activity. Thus, determination of proliferative activity seems to give new insights into the pathogenesis of dermal infiltrate in cutaneous lymphomas. (orig.) [de

  5. Analysis and integrated modelling of groundwater infiltration to sewer networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorndahl, Søren Liedtke; Balling, Jonas Dueholm; Larsen, Uffe Bay Bøgh

    2016-01-01

    Infiltration of groundwater to sewer systems is a problem for the capacity of the system as well as for treatment processes at waste water treatment plants. This paper quantifies the infiltration of groundwater to a sewer system in Frederikshavn Municipality, Denmark, by measurements of sewer flow...... and novel model set-up, which simulates the interaction between groundwater and sewer flow. The study area has a separate waste water sewer system, but the discharged volumes from the system are approximately twice the volumes from a tight system without infiltration. The model set-up makes use of two...... commercial models: MIKE SHE for simulation of groundwater transport and MIKE URBAN (MOUSE) [DHI, Hørsholm, Denmark] for simulation of sewer flow. By simulating the groundwater level and calibrating infiltration coefficients against sewer flow measurements, it has been possible to estimate the average...

  6. MEAN INFILTRATION SPEED IN A VERTISOL UNDER DIFFERENT TILLAGE SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan José Martínez Villanueva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Soil compaction is regarded as the most serious environmental problem caused by conventional agriculture. Few studies are concerned with the assessment of soil compaction using infiltration speed, specifically in the Vertisol soil characteristic of the main maize producing area of the Toluca-Atlacomulco Valley in central Mexico. The aim of this research was to examine the effect on infiltration speed and penetration resistance of a Vertisol soil when compacted by wheeled agricultural traffic in three different types of tillage systems: zero, minimal and conventional. Penetration resistance was measured on the wheel track with a portable digital penetrometer, and the mean infiltration speed was determined according to the double cylinder infiltrometer method. The pressure exerted by the number of wheeled traffic passes increased Vertisol soil compaction at 30 cm depth. Even though the benefits of zero tillage were similar to those showed by minimum tillage during the experimental period, minimum tillage reported the highest infiltration speed.

  7. Performance Improvement of an Inhomogeneous Cathode by Infiltration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seyed-Vakili, S. V.; Graves, Christopher R.; Babaei, A.

    2017-01-01

    The performance of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) is considerably influenced by the microstructure and chemical composition of cathode materials. Porous La0.85Sr0.15FeO3– Ce0.9Gd0.1O2 composite electrodes were infiltrated by La0.6Sr0.4CoO3 and La0.6Sr0.4FeO3. The effects of infiltration loading......, calcination temperature of infiltrated material and co-infiltration of LSC and LSF were investigated using electrochemical impedance measurement, microstructural analysis, and high-temperature X-ray diffraction (HT-XRD). A symmetrical cell two-electrode configuration was used to examine the electrochemical...

  8. Air Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA's air research provides the critical science to develop and implement outdoor air regulations under the Clean Air Act and puts new tools and information in the hands of air quality managers and regulators to protect the air we breathe.

  9. Local anesthetic wound infiltration for pain management after periacetabular osteotomy

    OpenAIRE

    Bech, Rune D; Ovesen, Ole; Lindholm, Peter; Overgaard, Søren

    2014-01-01

    Background and purpose To our knowledge, there is no evidence to support the use of local infiltration analgesia (LIA) for postoperative pain relief after periacetabular osteotomy (PAO). We investigated the effect of wound infiltration with a long-acting local anesthetic (ropivacaine) for postoperative analgesia after PAO. Patients and methods We performed a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial (ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00815503) in 53 patients undergoing PAO to evaluate the effec...

  10. Classical Hodgkin’s lymphoma infiltrated both lungs

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Hua; Lu, Pu-xuan

    2012-01-01

    Usually Hodgkin’s lymphoma occurs in the mediastinum and head and neck regions. On rare occasions, the first manifestation of Hodgkin’s lymphoma may be a disorder of an extranodal site, such as the gastrointestinal tract, nasopharyngeal region, central nervous system, kidney, or other sites. Few cases of classical Hodgkin’s lymphoma with pulmonary infiltration have been reported in the literature. Herein, we report a case of classical Hodgkin’s lymphoma with infiltration of both lungs. Ultras...

  11. Nonlocal gap soliton in liquid infiltrated photonic crystal fibres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennet, F.H.; Rosberg, C.R.; Rasmussen, Per Dalgaard

    We report on the observation of nonlocal gap solitons in infiltrated photonic crystal fibres. We employ the thermal defocusing nonlinearity of the liquid to study soliton existence and effect of boundaries of the periodic structure.......We report on the observation of nonlocal gap solitons in infiltrated photonic crystal fibres. We employ the thermal defocusing nonlinearity of the liquid to study soliton existence and effect of boundaries of the periodic structure....

  12. Topical anesthetic versus lidocaine infiltration in arteriovenous fistula cannulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anisha George

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: End stage renal disease (ESRD patients on maintenance hemodialysis undergo arterio-venous fistula (AVF cannulation prior to each hemodialysis session for blood access. Prior to cannulation lidocaine infiltration is done, which is often perceived as painful. Eutectic mixture of local anesthetic (EMLA has been found to significantly reduce pain associated with radial artery cannulation compared with lidocaine infiltration. Aims: To evaluate the efficacy of EMLA compared to infiltration of lidocaine in hemodialysis patients for AVF cannulation. Materials and Methods: A single-centre, crossover study of patients with an AVF on regular maintenance hemodialysis was performed in the dialysis unit of a tertiary care teaching hospital. The site of AVF, number of attempts for AVF cannulation and cannula insertion time were recorded. The patients were asked about the acceptability of application of the anesthetic, delay between anesthetic and cannulation and to score the pain on cannulation. Results: Fifty patients were included in the study. With the visual analog scale, pain score on infiltration was 4.8. Pain score on cannulation after topical application was 2.9 and after infiltration, 2.0. The number of attempts for cannulation and the cannula insertion time were similar. Anesthesia was more stressful in the injectable group rather than the topical group (P < 0.001. Delay between anesthetic and cannulation was unacceptable in the topical group (P < 0.001. Patient compliance was better during infiltration compared to topical (P < 0.005. Mean pain score during infiltration of anesthetic was significantly higher than cannulation pain after either anesthetic, although pain on cannulation was higher in the topical group (P < 0.001. Conclusions: EMLA offers a suitable alternative to lidocaine infiltration for patients using AVF for blood access.

  13. Pulmonary infiltrates during community acquired Gram-negative bacteremia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fjeldsøe-Nielsen, Hans; Gjeraa, Kirsten; Berthelsen, Birgitte G

    2013-01-01

    The primary aim of this study was to describe the frequency of pulmonary infiltrates on chest X-ray (CXR) during community acquired Gram-negative bacteremia at a single centre in Denmark.......The primary aim of this study was to describe the frequency of pulmonary infiltrates on chest X-ray (CXR) during community acquired Gram-negative bacteremia at a single centre in Denmark....

  14. RESULTS OF RESEARCH OF AIR POLLUTION BY AUTOMOBILE TRANSPORT IN THE STREETS OF KHARKIV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lezhneva, E.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Results of the research of the atmospheric air of residential area roadside territory at functioning of motor transport are presented. Architectural and planning activities to improve the environmental performance of the local area of Kharkiv are offered.

  15. Advanced Controls for Residential Whole-House Ventilation Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turner, William [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Walker, Iain [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Sherman, Max [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2014-08-01

    Whole-house ventilation systems are becoming commonplace in new construction, remodeling/renovation, and weatherization projects, driven by combinations of specific requirements for indoor air quality (IAQ), health and compliance with standards, such as ASHRAE 62.2. Ventilation systems incur an energy penalty on the home via fan power used to drive the airflow, and the additional space-conditioning load associated with heating or cooling the ventilation air. Finding a balance between IAQ and energy use is important if homes are to be adequately ventilated while not increasing the energy burden. This study used computer simulations to examine RIVEC the Residential Integrated Ventilation Controller - a prototype ventilation controller that aims to deliver whole-house ventilation rates that comply with ventilation standards, for the minimum use of energy. Four different whole-house ventilation systems were simulated, both with and without RIVEC, so that the energy and IAQ results could be compared. Simulations were conducted for 13 US climate zones, three house designs, and three envelope leakage values. The results showed that the RIVEC controller could typically return ventilation energy savings greater than 40percent without compromising long-term chronic or short-term acute exposures to relevant indoor contaminants. Critical and average peak power loads were also reduced as a consequence of using RIVEC.

  16. Linking denitrification and infiltration rates during managed groundwater recharge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Calla M; Fisher, Andrew T; Racz, Andrew J; Lockwood, Brian S; Huertos, Marc Los

    2011-11-15

    We quantify relations between rates of in situ denitrification and saturated infiltration through shallow, sandy soils during managed groundwater recharge. We used thermal methods to determine time series of point-specific flow rates, and chemical and isotopic methods to assess denitrification progress. Zero order denitrification rates between 3 and 300 μmol L(-1) d(-1) were measured during infiltration. Denitrification was not detected at times and locations where the infiltration rate exceeded a threshold of 0.7 ± 0.2 m d(-1). Pore water profiles of oxygen and nitrate concentration indicated a deepening of the redoxocline at high flow rates, which reduced the thickness of the zone favorable for denitrification. Denitrification rates were positively correlated with infiltration rates below the infiltration threshold, suggesting that for a given set of sediment characteristics, there is an optimal infiltration rate for achieving maximum nitrate load reduction and improvements to water supply during managed groundwater recharge. The extent to which results from this study may be extended to other managed and natural hydrologic settings remains to be determined, but the approach taken in this study should be broadly applicable, and provides a quantitative link between shallow hydrologic and biogeochemical processes.

  17. Residential Satisfaction in the Informal Neighborhoods of Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Caldieron

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Residential satisfaction is a very important factor in determining the quality of life, housing improvement proposals, and adequate housing policies. This paper reports on the findings of a study in four informal neighborhoods or “ger districts” of Ulaanbaatar, the Mongolian capital. Mongolia has been facing an onslaught of rural migration to the urban areas because of two reasons. First, rural nomads have lost their livestock due to recent harsh climate conditions, and second because of the transition from communism to a democratic market economy, based on the exploitation of Mongolia’s rich mineral resources. In the cities, migrants have invaded land and erected rural nomadic “ger” (felt tents or yurts. The traditional ger (as they are called in the Mongolian language are sustainable structures well adapted for a nomadic society. However, when they are located in high-density, unplanned shantytowns, they create many issues. The country’s capital, Ulaanbaatar, is the coldest capital in the world; ger’ household use coal for heating which causes dense air pollution, especially in the winter. These informal urban areas lack sanitation, adequate vehicular access and other services. Eventually residents build small permanent houses, but they still lack for basic services. This paper presents the findings of more than one hundred household surveys related to housing conditions in three informal ger districts of Ulaanbaatar. The surveys were held in the summer of 2011. This paper discusses some of the characteristics of the settlements as well as the residential satisfaction of its inhabitants.

  18. Thermal Performance of Typical Residential Building in Karachi with Different Materials for Construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nafeesa Shaheen

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This research work deals with a study of a residential building located in climatic context of Karachi with the objective of being the study of thermal performance based upon passive design techniques. The study helps in reducing the electricity consumption by improving indoor temperatures. The existing residential buildings in Karachi were studied with reference to their planning and design, analyzed and evaluated. Different construction?s compositions of buildings were identified, surveyed and analyzed in making of the effective building envelops. Autodesk® Ecotect, 2011 was used to determine indoor comfort conditions and HVAC (Heating, Ventilation, Air-Conditioning and Cooling loads. The result of the research depicted significant energy savings of 38.5% in HVAC loads with proposed building envelop of locally available materials and glazing.

  19. Dynamic management of integrated residential energy systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muratori, Matteo

    This study combines principles of energy systems engineering and statistics to develop integrated models of residential energy use in the United States, to include residential recharging of electric vehicles. These models can be used by government, policymakers, and the utility industry to provide answers and guidance regarding the future of the U.S. energy system. Currently, electric power generation must match the total demand at each instant, following seasonal patterns and instantaneous fluctuations. Thus, one of the biggest drivers of costs and capacity requirement is the electricity demand that occurs during peak periods. These peak periods require utility companies to maintain operational capacity that often is underutilized, outdated, expensive, and inefficient. In light of this, flattening the demand curve has long been recognized as an effective way of cutting the cost of producing electricity and increasing overall efficiency. The problem is exacerbated by expected widespread adoption of non-dispatchable renewable power generation. The intermittent nature of renewable resources and their non-dispatchability substantially limit the ability of electric power generation of adapting to the fluctuating demand. Smart grid technologies and demand response programs are proposed as a technical solution to make the electric power demand more flexible and able to adapt to power generation. Residential demand response programs offer different incentives and benefits to consumers in response to their flexibility in the timing of their electricity consumption. Understanding interactions between new and existing energy technologies, and policy impacts therein, is key to driving sustainable energy use and economic growth. Comprehensive and accurate models of the next-generation power system allow for understanding the effects of new energy technologies on the power system infrastructure, and can be used to guide policy, technology, and economic decisions. This

  20. Nutrient removal using biosorption activated media: Preliminary biogeochemical assessment of an innovative stormwater infiltration basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Reilly, Andrew M.; Wanielista, Martin P.; Chang, Ni-Bin; Xuan, Zhemin; Harris, Willie G.

    2012-01-01

    Soil beneath a stormwater infiltration basin receiving runoff from a 23 ha predominantly residential watershed in north-central Florida, USA, was amended using biosorption activated media (BAM) to study the effectiveness of this technology in reducing inputs of nitrogen and phosphorus to groundwater. The functionalized soil amendment BAM consists of a 1.0:1.9:4.1 mixture (by volume) of tire crumb (to increase sorption capacity), silt and clay (to increase soil moisture retention), and sand (to promote sufficient infiltration), which was applied to develop an innovative stormwater infiltration basin utilizing nutrient reduction and flood control sub-basins. Comparison of nitrate/chloride (NO 3 − /Cl − ) ratios for the shallow groundwater indicates that prior to using BAM, NO 3 − concentrations were substantially influenced by nitrification or variations in NO 3 − input. In contrast, for the new basin utilizing BAM, NO 3 − /Cl − ratios indicate minor nitrification and NO 3 − losses with the exception of one summer sample that indicated a 45% loss. Biogeochemical indicators (denitrifier activity derived from real-time polymerase chain reaction and variations in major ions, nutrients, dissolved and soil gases, and stable isotopes) suggest that NO 3 − losses are primarily attributable to denitrification, whereas dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium is a minor process. Denitrification was likely occurring intermittently in anoxic microsites in the unsaturated zone, which was enhanced by the increased soil moisture within the BAM layer and resultant reductions in surface/subsurface oxygen exchange that produced conditions conducive to increased denitrifier activity. Concentrations of total dissolved phosphorus and orthophosphate (PO 4 3− ) were reduced by more than 70% in unsaturated zone soil water, with the largest decreases in the BAM layer where sorption was the most likely mechanism for removal. Post-BAM PO 4 3− /Cl − ratios for shallow

  1. Does Immigrant Residential Crowding Reflect Hidden Homelessness?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Haan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Compared to the Canadian-born, immigrants are under-represented among Canada’s homeless population, when their decline in economic wellbeing is considered alongside their relative absence in homeless shelters. One way to explain this oddity, proposed in both academic and popular literature, is that immigrant communities employ unique avoidance strategies, such as within-group co-residence, to help keep co-ethnics off the streets and out of homeless shelters. In this paper I use the 2001 census of Canada to investigate the extent to which heightened levels of residential crowding might reflect “hidden homelessness”. I find mixed evidence to support this link, and, if anything, find some evidence to suggest that the link between residential crowding and hidden homelessness, if one exists, is strongest for the Canadian-born.

  2. FACTOR ANALYSIS OF MULTISTOREY RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS ZONE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Петр Матвеевич Мазуркин

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available According to the UN classification of 11 classes of soil cover, the first three are grass, trees and shrubs and forests. In the city they correspond to the three elements of vegetation: lawns, tree plantings (trees and shrubs. We have adopted zoning for city-building to identify statistical regularities. Map dimensions in GIS "Map 2011" Yoshkar-Ola was allocated to "residential zone" and "Area of construction of multi-storey residential buildings (cadastral 58 quart crystals". The parameters of the elements of the vegetation cover have been considered: the number of elements of different levels, area and perimeter, the absolute and relative form, and activity of vegetation. As the result, we have obtained equations of binomial rank distributions, conducted the ratings and selected the best of cadastral quarter on environmental conditions.

  3. Electricity demand for South Korean residential sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sa'ad, Suleiman

    2009-01-01

    This study estimates the electricity demand function for the residential sector of South Korea with the aim of examining the effects of improved energy efficiency, structural factors and household lifestyles on electricity consumption. In the study, time series data for the period from 1973 to 2007 is used in a structural time series model to estimate the long-term price and income elasticities and annual growth of underlying energy demand trend (UEDT) at the end of the estimation period. The result shows a long-term income elasticity of 1.33 and a long-term price elasticity of -0.27% with -0.93% as the percentage growth of UEDT at the end of the estimation period. This result suggests that, in order to encourage energy efficiency in the residential sector, the government should complement the market based pricing policies with non-market policies such as minimum energy efficiency standards and public enlightenment.

  4. Residential Group Composition Among the Alyawarra

    OpenAIRE

    Denham, woodrowW W

    2014-01-01

    This is the third of three papers I have written recently that challenge and seek to supplant the presumption of closure, rigidity and simplicity in anthropological analyses of Australian Aboriginal social organization. The first dealt with generational closure in canonical Kariera and Aranda kinship models; the second dealt with societal closure, endogamy and the small-world problem; this one examines closure, rigidity and simplicity in residential group compositions. I argue that these thre...

  5. INVESTIGATION OF ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELDS IN RESIDENTIAL AREAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dušan MEDVEĎ

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This article is devoted to investigation of impact of electromagnetic fields around the electrical equipment used in a residential area and their impact on the human body. This paper was based on sets of measurements of magnetic induction B with magnetometer and on computational simulations in ANSYS for particular appliances often used in household. The results from measurements and simulations led to setting out the recommendations for practical action in the form of elimination of harmful electromagnetic radiation.

  6. DESIGN ASPECTS OF A RESIDENTIAL WIND GENERATOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. BRAD

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present some aspects about the design of a small permanent magnet wind generator with axial magnetic flux often used in residential wind turbine. There are summarised the main steps of the magnetic and electric calculations with applications to a particular case: 0.6 kVA wind generator. The axial flux wind generator design starts with the characteristics of the rare earths permanent magnet existing on the market.

  7. Transition issues in an unbundled residential market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brett, J.D.

    1996-01-01

    Aspects of an unbundled residential gas market were discussed, among them (1) the role of a local distribution company (LDC), (2) the context and the issues, (3) the customers'needs and desires, (4) long term planning responsibility, (5) consumer protection and dealing with abuses, (6) the obligation to serve, (7) the bad credit risk customer, (8) billing, credit and collection, and (9) metering and CIS

  8. Comprehensive areal model of residential heating demands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tessmer, R.G. Jr.

    1978-01-01

    Data sources and methodology for modeling annual residential heating demands are described. A small areal basis is chosen, census tract or minor civil division, to permit estimation of demand densities and economic evaluation of community district heating systems. The demand model is specified for the entire nation in order to provide general applicability and to permit validation with other published fuel consumption estimates for 1970.

  9. Development Of Economic Techniques For Residential Thermography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Lee R.; Allen, Sharon

    1983-03-01

    Infrared thermography has proven to be a valuable tool in the detection of heat loss in both commercial and residential buildings. The field of residential thermography has needed a simple method with which to report the deficiencies found during an infrared scan. Two major obstacles hindering the cost effectiveness of residential thermography have been 1) the ability to quickly transport some high resolution imaging system equipment from job site to job site without having to totally dismount the instruments at each area, and 2) the lack of a standard form with which to report the findings of the survey to the customer. Since the industry has yet to provide us with either, we believed it necessary to develop our own. Through trial and error, we have come up with a system that makes interior residential thermography a profitable venture at a price the homeowner can afford. Insulation voids, or defects can be instantly spotted with the use of a thermal imaging system under the proper conditions. A special hand-held device was developed that enables the thermographer to carry the equipment from house to house without the need to dismantle and set up at each stop. All the necessary components are attached for a total weight of about 40 pounds. The findings are then conveyed to a form we have developed. The form is simple enough that the client without special training in thermography can understand. The client is then able to locate the problems and take corrective measures or give it to a con-tractor to do the work.

  10. Metal contamination in environmental media in residential ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hard-rock mining for metals, such as gold, silver, copper, zinc, iron and others, is recognized to have a significant impact on the environmental media, soil and water, in particular. Toxic contaminants released from mine waste to surface water and groundwater is the primary concern, but human exposure to soil contaminants either directly, via inhalation of airborne dust particles, or indirectly, via food chain (ingestion of animal products and/or vegetables grown in contaminated areas), is also, significant. In this research, we analyzed data collected in 2007, as part of a larger environmental study performed in the Rosia Montana area in Transylvania, to provide the Romanian governmental authorities with data on the levels of metal contamination in environmental media from this historical mining area. The data were also considered in policy decision to address mining-related environmental concerns in the area. We examined soil and water data collected from residential areas near the mining sites to determine relationships among metals analyzed in these different environmental media, using the correlation procedure in SAS statistical software. Results for residential soil and water analysis indicate that the average values for arsenic (As) (85 mg/kg), cadmium (Cd) (3.2 mg/kg), mercury (Hg) (2.3 mg/kg) and lead (Pb) (92 mg/kg) exceeded the Romanian regulatory exposure levels [the intervention thresholds for residential soil in case of As (25 mg/kg) and Hg

  11. Residential outage cost estimation: Hong Kong

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woo, C.K.; Ho, T.; Shiu, A.; Cheng, Y.S.; Horowitz, I.; Wang, J.

    2014-01-01

    Hong Kong has almost perfect electricity reliability, the result of substantial investments ultimately financed by electricity consumers who may be willing to accept lower reliability in exchange for lower bills. But consumers with high outage costs are likely to reject the reliability reduction. Our ordered-logit regression analysis of the responses by 1876 households to a telephone survey conducted in June 2013 indicates that Hong Kong residents exhibit a statistically-significant preference for their existing service reliability and rate. Moreover, the average residential cost estimate for a 1-h outage is US$45 (HK$350), topping the estimates reported in 10 of the 11 studies published in the last 10 years. The policy implication is that absent additional compelling evidence, Hong Kong should not reduce its service reliability. - Highlights: • Use a contingent valuation survey to obtain residential preferences for reliability. • Use an ordered logit analysis to estimate Hong Kong's residential outage costs. • Find high outage cost estimates that imply high reliability requirements. • Conclude that sans new evidence, Hong Kong should not reduce its reliability

  12. Reducing indoor residential exposures to outdoor pollutants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sherman, Max H.; Matson, Nance E.

    2003-07-01

    The basic strategy for providing indoor air quality in residences is to dilute indoor sources with outdoor air. This strategy assumes that the outdoor air does not have pollutants at harmful levels or that the outdoor air is, at least, less polluted than the indoor air. When this is not the case, different strategies need to be employed to ensure adequate air quality in the indoor environment. These strategies include ventilation systems, filtration and other measures. These strategies can be used for several types of outdoor pollution, including smog, particulates and toxic air pollutants. This report reviews the impacts that typical outdoor air pollutants can have on the indoor environment and provides design and operational guidance for mitigating them. Poor quality air cannot be used for diluting indoor contaminants, but more generally it can become an indoor contaminant itself. This paper discusses strategies that use the building as protection against potentially hazardous outdoor pollutants, including widespread pollutants, accidental events, and potential attacks.

  13. Physical and chemical characterization of residential oil boiler emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hays, Michael D; Beck, Lee; Barfield, Pamela; Lavrich, Richard J; Dong, Yuanji; Vander Wal, Randy L

    2008-04-01

    The toxicity of emissions from the combustion of home heating oil coupled with the regional proximity and seasonal use of residential oil boilers (ROB) is an important public health concern. Yet scant physical and chemical information about the emissions from this source is available for climate and air quality modeling and for improving our understanding of aerosol-related human health effects. The gas- and particle-phase emissions from an active ROB firing distillate fuel oil (commonly known as diesel fuel) were evaluated to address this deficiency. Ion chromatography of impactor samples showed that the ultrafine ROB aerosol emissions were approximately 45% (w/w) sulfate. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry detected various n-alkanes at trace levels, sometimes in accumulation mode particles, and out of phase with the size distributions of aerosol mass and sulfate. The carbonaceous matter in the ROB aerosol was primarily light-adsorbing elemental carbon. Gas chromatography-atomic emission spectroscopy measured a previously unrecognized organosulfur compound group in the ROB aerosol emissions. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy of ROB soot indicated the presence of a highly ordered primary particle nanostructure embedded in larger aggregates. Organic gas emissions were measured using EPA Methods TO-15 and TO-11A. The ROB emitted volatile oxygenates (8 mg/(kg of oil burned)) and olefins (5 mg/(kg of oil burned)) mostly unrelated to the base fuel composition. In the final analysis, the ROB tested was a source of numerous hazardous air pollutants as defined in the Clean Air Act Amendments. Approximations conducted using emissions data from the ROB tests show relatively low contributions to a regional-level anthropogenic emissions inventory for volitile organic compounds, PM2.5, and SO2 mass.

  14. TiO{sub 2} based photo-catalysts prepared by chemical vapor infiltration (CVI) on micro-fibrous substrates; Photocatalyseurs a base de TiO{sub 2} prepares par infiltration chimique en phase vapeur (CVI) sur supports microfibreux

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarantopoulos, Ch

    2007-10-15

    This thesis deals with micro-fibrous glass substrates functionalized with TiO{sub 2}. The oxide is deposited as a thin film onto the micro fibres by chemical vapour infiltration (CVI), yielding a photo-catalytic material usable for cleaning polluted air. We studied the relation between the structure of the material and its photo-catalytic efficiency. TiO{sub 2} thin films were prepared at low pressure, in a hot-wall CVD reactor, using Ti(O-iPr){sub 4} as a precursor. They were characterized by XRD, SEM, EDX, XPS and BET, and by recording the kinetics of decomposition of varied pollutants in solution (orange G, malic acid, imazapyr) and in air (toluene). The conditions favoring the growth of porous films through a columnar growth mode were established by MOCVD-depositing TiO{sub 2} thin films on flat substrates. The subsequent works with micro fibrous thick substrates showed the uniformity of infiltration to be the main factor governing the photo-catalytic efficiency. Operating parameters that optimize infiltration do not yield columnar growth mode. A compromise is necessary. Our photo-catalysts are showing high efficiency comparable, if not higher, to those actually commercialized. These promising results are opening real perspectives for the proposed process. (author)

  15. Modeling future demand for energy resources: A study of residential electricity usage in Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilagupta, Prapassara

    1999-12-01

    Thailand has a critical need for effective long-term energy planning because of the country's rapidly increasing energy consumption. In this study, the demand for electricity by the residential sector is modeled using a framework that provides detailed estimates of the timing and spatial distribution of changes in energy demand. A population model was developed based on the Cohort-Component method to provide estimates of population by age, sex and urban/non-urban residency in each province. A residential electricity end user model was developed to estimate future electricity usage in urban and non-urban households of the seventy-six provinces in Thailand during the period 1999--2019. Key variables in this model include population, the number of households, family household size, and characteristics of eleven types of electric household appliance such as usage intensity, input power, and saturation rate. The methodology employed in this study is a trending method which utilizes expert opinion to estimate future variables based on a percentage change from the most current value. This study shows that from 1994 to 2019 Thailand will experience an increase in population from 55.4 to 83.6 million. Large percentage population increases will take place in Bangkok, Nonthaburi, Samut Prakarn, Nakhon Pathom and Chonburi. At a national level, the residential electricity consumption will increase from approximately 19,000 to 8 1,000 GWh annually. Consumption in non-urban households will be larger than in urban households, with respective annual increases of 8.0% and 6.2% in 2019. The percent increase of the average annual electricity consumption will be four times the average annual percent population increase. Increased electricity demand is largely a function of increased population and increased demand for high-energy appliances such as air conditioners. In 1994, air conditioning was responsible for xx% of total residential electricity demand. This study estimates that in

  16. Characterization of infiltration rates from landfills: supporting groundwater modeling efforts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moo-Young, Horace; Johnson, Barnes; Johnson, Ann; Carson, David; Lew, Christine; Liu, Salley; Hancocks, Katherine

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to review the literature to characterize infiltration rates from landfill liners to support groundwater modeling efforts. The focus of this investigation was on collecting studies that describe the performance of liners 'as installed' or 'as operated'. This document reviews the state of the science and practice on the infiltration rate through compacted clay liner (CCL) for 149 sites and geosynthetic clay liner (GCL) for 1 site. In addition, it reviews the leakage rate through geomembrane (GM) liners and composite liners for 259 sites. For compacted clay liners (CCL), there was limited information on infiltration rates (i.e., only 9 sites reported infiltration rates.), thus, it was difficult to develop a national distribution. The field hydraulic conductivities for natural clay liners range from 1 x 10(-9) cm s(-1) to 1 x 10(-4) cm s(-1), with an average of 6.5 x 10(-8) cm s(-1). There was limited information on geosynthetic clay liner. For composite lined and geomembrane systems, the leak detection system flow rates were utilized. The average monthly flow rate for composite liners ranged from 0-32 lphd for geomembrane and GCL systems to 0 to 1410 lphd for geomembrane and CCL systems. The increased infiltration for the geomembrane and CCL system may be attributed to consolidation water from the clay.

  17. Laboratory testing on infiltration in single synthetic fractures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherubini, Claudia; Pastore, Nicola; Li, Jiawei; Giasi, Concetta I.; Li, Ling

    2017-04-01

    An understanding of infiltration phenomena in unsaturated rock fractures is extremely important in many branches of engineering for numerous reasons. Sectors such as the oil, gas and water industries are regularly interacting with water seepage through rock fractures, yet the understanding of the mechanics and behaviour associated with this sort of flow is still incomplete. An apparatus has been set up to test infiltration in single synthetic fractures in both dry and wet conditions. To simulate the two fracture planes, concrete fractures have been moulded from 3D printed fractures with varying geometrical configurations, in order to analyse the influence of aperture and roughness on infiltration. Water flows through the single fractures by means of a hydraulic system composed by an upstream and a downstream reservoir, the latter being subdivided into five equal sections in order to measure the flow rate in each part to detect zones of preferential flow. The fractures have been set at various angles of inclination to investigate the effect of this parameter on infiltration dynamics. The results obtained identified that altering certain fracture parameters and conditions produces relevant effects on the infiltration process through the fractures. The main variables influencing the formation of preferential flow are: the inclination angle of the fracture, the saturation level of the fracture and the mismatch wavelength of the fracture.

  18. The effectiveness of articaine in mandibular facial infiltrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flanagan DF

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Dennis F Flanagan Windham Dental Group, Willimantic, CT, USA Abstract: Four percent articaine local anesthetic has been successfully used to attain local anesthesia for dental procedures. Mandibular block anesthesia may consume longer time to attain and have a higher failure of local anesthesia compared to infiltration. Mandibular facial infiltration has been reported to successfully attain effective local anesthesia for dental procedures. This study involved only several tooth sites and found that 1.8 cc of 4% articaine facial infiltration in the mandible may be effective when the facial mandibular cortex is <2.0–3.0 mm. A waiting time of 5–10 minutes may be required for effective anesthesia. An additional 1.8 cc of dose may be required to attain anesthesia if an initial 1.8 cc of dose fails. The need for additional anesthetic may be predicted by a measurement of the facial cortex using cone beam computerized tomography. A study of mandibular sites is needed to delineate the anatomical dimensions, density of cortical bone, and apical neural location for ensuring successful local anesthetic infiltration. Keywords: articaine, local anesthesia, infiltration, dental implant, dental restoration

  19. SEGMENTAL PATTERN OF INFILTRATES OVER RETINAL VESSELS IN FUNGAL ENDOPHTHALMITIS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appa, Suri N

    2015-01-01

    To describe the case of a patient with Candida tropicalis endophthalmitis who presented with a pattern of segmentally distributed preretinal infiltrates overlying the retinal blood vessels. A retrospective chart review was performed. A 72-year-old East Indian male presented with redness, pain, photosensitivity, and loss of vision in the right eye for 1 month. He had been recently hospitalized for necrotizing pancreatitis and had been receiving intravenous medications as well as parenteral nutrition through a peripherally inserted central catheter. Fundus examination revealed moderate vitreous cells and infiltrates, including a segmental pattern of preretinal bead-like opacities along several blood vessels. The patient underwent emergent vitrectomy with injection of antibiotics and antifungal medications. Vitreous cultures grew C. tropicalis. The patient was treated with oral antifungal medication for 6 weeks. By 7 weeks after surgery, all infiltrates and inflammatory cells had completely resolved. The imaging and intraoperative observations suggest that the opacities behaved like infiltrates and were associated with vitreous rather than vascular inflammation. A segmental pattern of preretinal infiltrates over retinal vessels can be a presenting feature in endogenous fungal endophthalmitis. The observations in this case may contribute to understanding the pathophysiology of the findings.

  20. Inside Story: A Guide to Indoor Air Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... infiltration, natural ventilation, or mechanical ventilation, the air exchange rate is low and pollutant levels can increase. What If You ... given to potential pollution sources and the air exchange ... furnishings that are low-emitting and about providing an adequate amount of ...