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Sample records for resident wild birds

  1. Prevalence and multidrug resistance pattern of Salmonella isolated from resident wild birds of Bangladesh

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    Abdullah Al Faruq

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Salmonellosis is one of the most common zoonotic diseases, and the presence of antimicrobial resistant Salmonella in wild birds is global public health threat. Throughout the last decades, multidrug resistance of Salmonella spp. has increased, particularly in developing countries. Therefore, a cross-sectional study was conducted to investigate the prevalence of Salmonella spp. and antimicrobial resistance pattern against Salmonella spp. from two species of resident wild birds namely house crow (Corvus splendens and Asian pied starling (Gracupica contra. Materials and Methods: Samples were collected from cloacal swabs of house crows and Asian pied starling for isolating Salmonella spp. (bacteriological culture methods followed by antimicrobial susceptibility testing (disk diffusion method against Salmonella spp. isolates during March to December 2014. Results: The prevalence of Salmonella in Asian pied starling and house crows were 67% and 65%, respectively. Within the category of samples from different species, the variation in prevalence was not varied significantly (p>0.05. Isolated Salmonella spp. was tested for resistance to six different antimicrobial agents. Among six antimicrobial tested, 100% resistance were found to penicillin, oxacillin, and clindamycin followed by erythromycin (50-93%, kanamycin (7-20%, and cephalothin (30-67% from both species of birds. Kanamycin remained sensitive in (70-73%, cephalothin (26-70%, and erythromycin appeared to be (0-30% sensitive against Salmonella spp. isolates. Isolated Salmonella spp. was multidrug resistant up to three of the six antimicrobials tested. Conclusion: It can be said that the rational use of antimicrobials needs to be adopted in the treatment of disease for livestock, poultry, and human of Bangladesh to limit the emergence of drug resistance to Salmonella spp.

  2. Characterizing wild bird contact and seropositivity to highly pathogenic avian influenza A (H5N1) virus in Alaskan residents.

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    Reed, Carrie; Bruden, Dana; Byrd, Kathy K; Veguilla, Vic; Bruce, Michael; Hurlburt, Debby; Wang, David; Holiday, Crystal; Hancock, Kathy; Ortiz, Justin R; Klejka, Joe; Katz, Jacqueline M; Uyeki, Timothy M

    2014-09-01

    Highly pathogenic avian influenza A (HPAI) H5N1 viruses have infected poultry and wild birds on three continents with more than 600 reported human cases (59% mortality) since 2003. Wild aquatic birds are the natural reservoir for avian influenza A viruses, and migratory birds have been documented with HPAI H5N1 virus infection. Since 2005, clade 2.2 HPAI H5N1 viruses have spread from Asia to many countries. We conducted a cross-sectional seroepidemiological survey in Anchorage and western Alaska to identify possible behaviors associated with migratory bird exposure and measure seropositivity to HPAI H5N1. We enrolled rural subsistence bird hunters and their families, urban sport hunters, wildlife biologists, and a comparison group without bird contact. We interviewed participants regarding their exposures to wild birds and collected blood to perform serologic testing for antibodies against a clade 2.2 HPAI H5N1 virus strain. Hunters and wildlife biologists reported exposures to wild migratory birds that may confer risk of infection with avian influenza A viruses, although none of the 916 participants had evidence of seropositivity to HPAI H5N1. We characterized wild bird contact among Alaskans and behaviors that may influence risk of infection with avian influenza A viruses. Such knowledge can inform surveillance and risk communication surrounding HPAI H5N1 and other influenza viruses in a population with exposure to wild birds at a crossroads of intercontinental migratory flyways. © 2014 The Authors. Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Ionizing radiation and wild birds: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mellinger, P.J.; Schultz, V.

    1975-01-01

    Since the first atomic explosion, 16 July 1945 at the Trinity Site in south-central New Mexico, the impact of ionizing radiation on bird populations has been of concern to a few individuals. The proliferation of nuclear power plants has increased public concern as to possible deleterious effects of nuclear power plant operation on resident and migratory bird populations. Literature involving wild birds and ionizing radiation is not readily available, and only a few studies have been anywhere near comprehensive, with most effort directed towards monitoring radionuclide concentration in birds. The objective of the paper is to document the literature on wild birds and ionizing radiation including a brief description of pertinent papers

  4. Laboratory Animal Management: Wild Birds.

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    National Academy of Sciences - National Research Council, Washington, DC. Inst. of Lab. Animal Resources.

    This is a report on the care and use of wild birds in captivity as research animals. Chapters are presented on procurement and identification, housing, nutrition, health of birds and personnel, reproduction in confinement, and surgical procedures. Also included are addresses of federal, state, and provencial regulatory agencies concerned with wild…

  5. [Leukosis in captive wild birds].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loupal, G

    1984-10-01

    Among 2589 captive wild birds, examined between 1974 and 1983, we found leukosis in 26 birds belonging to 13 different species and five orders. We diagnosed lymphoid leukosis in 11 birds (two Melopsittacus undulatus, two Psittacus erithacus one Platycerus eximius, one Columba livia, one Streptopelia decaocto, one Polyplectron bicalcaratum, one Pavo cristatus, one Aptenodytes patachonia and one finch, species unknown), myeloid leukosis in 14 (nine Melopsittacus undulatus, two Agapomis personata fischeri, two Urgeainthus bengalus and one Neophemia pulchella) and stem cell leukosis in one bird (Serinus canaria). Among the cases with lymphoid leukosis we distinguished between lymphoblastic (four cases) and prolymphocytic forms (seven). Myeloid leukosis was subdivided into poorly differentiated (12 cases) and well differentiated myeloblastosis (two).

  6. Lead Poisoning in Wild Birds

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    Lahner, Lesanna L.; Franson, J. Christian

    2009-01-01

    Lead in its various forms has been used for thousands of years, originally in cooking utensils and glazes and more recently in many industrial and commercial applications. However, lead is a potent, potentially deadly toxin that damages many organs in the body and can affect all animals, including humans. By the mid 1990s, lead had been removed from many products in the United States, such as paint and fuel, but it is still commonly used in ammunition for hunting upland game birds, small mammals, and large game animals, as well as in fishing tackle. Wild birds, such as mourning doves, bald eagles, California condors, and loons, can die from the ingestion of one lead shot, bullet fragment, or sinker. According to a recent study on loon mortality, nearly half of adult loons found sick or dead during the breeding season in New England were diagnosed with confirmed or suspected lead poisoning from ingestion of lead fishing weights. Recent regulations in some states have restricted the use of lead ammunition on certain upland game hunting areas, as well as lead fishing tackle in areas frequented by common loons and trumpeter swans. A variety of alternatives to lead are available for use in hunting, shooting sports, and fishing activities.

  7. West Nile Virus in Resident Birds from Yucatan, Mexico.

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    Chaves, Andrea; Sotomayor-Bonilla, Jesus; Monge, Otto; Ramírez, Abigaíl; Galindo, Francisco; Sarmiento-Silva, Rosa Elena; Gutiérrez-Espeleta, Gustavo A; Suzán, Gerardo

    2016-01-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) in the Americas is thought to be transported at large spatial scales by migratory birds and locally spread and amplified by resident birds. Local processes, including interspecific interactions and dominance of passerine species recognized as competent reservoirs, may boost infection and maintain endemic cycles. Change in species composition has been recognized as an important driver for infection dynamics. Due to migration and changes in species diversity and composition in wintering grounds, changes in infection prevalence are expected. To these changes, we used PCR to estimate the prevalence of WNV in wild resident birds during the dry and rainy seasons of 2012 in Yucatan, Mexico. Serum samples were obtained from 104 wild birds, belonging to six orders and 35 species. We detected WNV in 14 resident birds, representing 11 species and three orders. Prevalences by order was Passeriformes (27%), Columbiformes (6%), and Piciformes (33%). Resident birds positive to WNV from Yucatan may be indicative of local virus circulation and evidence of past virus transmission activity.

  8. West Nile Virus and Usutu Virus Monitoring of Wild Birds in Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michel, Friederike; Fast, Christine; Reuschel, Maximilian; Müller, Kerstin; Urbaniak, Sylvia; Brandes, Florian; Schwehn, Rebekka; Groschup, Martin H.; Ziegler, Ute

    2018-01-01

    By systematically setting up a unique nation-wide wild bird surveillance network, we monitored migratory and resident birds for zoonotic arthropod-borne virus infections, such as the flaviviruses West Nile virus (WNV) and Usutu virus (USUV). More than 1900 wild bird blood samples, from 20 orders and 136 different bird species, were collected between 2014 and 2016. Samples were investigated by WNV and USUV-specific real-time polymerase chain reactions as well as by differentiating virus neutralization tests. Dead bird surveillance data, obtained from organ investigations in 2016, were also included. WNV-specific RNA was not detected, whereas four wild bird blood samples tested positive for USUV-specific RNA. Additionally, 73 USUV-positive birds were detected in the 2016 dead bird surveillance. WNV neutralizing antibodies were predominantly found in long-distance, partial and short-distance migrants, while USUV neutralizing antibodies were mainly detected in resident wild bird species, preferentially with low seroprevalences. To date, WNV-specific RNA has neither been detected in wild birds, nor in mosquitoes, thus, we conclude that WNV is not yet present in Germany. Continued wild bird and mosquito monitoring studies are essential to detect the incursion of zoonotic viruses and to allow risk assessments for zoonotic pathogens. PMID:29361762

  9. Wild Birds in Romania Are More Exposed to West Nile Virus Than to Newcastle Disease Virus.

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    Paştiu, Anamaria Ioana; Pap, Péter László; Vágási, Csongor István; Niculae, Mihaela; Páll, Emőke; Domşa, Cristian; Brudaşcă, Florinel Ghe; Spînu, Marina

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the seroprevalence of West Nile virus (WNV) and Newcastle disease virus (NDV) in wild and domestic birds from Romania. During 2011-2014, 159 plasma samples from wild birds assigned to 11 orders, 27 families, and 61 species and from 21 domestic birds (Gallus gallus domesticus, Anas platyrhynchos domesticus) were collected. The sera were assayed by two commercial competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (cELISA) kits for antibodies against WNV and NDV. We found a high prevalence of WNV antibodies in both domestic (19.1%) and wild (32.1%) birds captured after the human epidemic in 2010. Moreover, the presence of anti-NDV antibodies among wild birds from Romania (5.4%) was confirmed serologically for the first time, as far as we are aware. Our findings provide evidence that wild birds, especially resident ones are involved in local West Nile and Newcastle disease enzootic and epizootic cycles. These may allow virus maintenance and spread and also enhance the chance of new outbreaks.

  10. [Hemoparasites in wild birds in Madagascar].

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    Raharimanga, V; Soula, F; Raherilalao, M J; Goodman, S M; Sadonès, H; Tall, A; Randrianarivelojosia, M; Raharimalala, L; Duchemin, J B; Ariey, F; Robert, V

    2002-01-01

    This study aims to evaluate the prevalence and density of haemoparasites in native Malagasy birds. Among the 387 birds, belonging to 43 species sampled at six localities in different bio-climatic zones of the island, 139 (35.9%) showed at least 1 hemoparasite with, by order of frequency, Plasmodium and/or Haemoproteus (19.9%), microfilariae (13.7% of 387 birds), Leucocytozoon (11.1%) and Trypanosoma (1.0%). An analysis to further elucidate these observations took into account the interaction of different environmental variables (altitude, season, site of collection) or aspects of the birds (age, weight, sex). There is evidence that some parasites preferentially infect some bird species or families. The largest male birds harboured the highest prevalences and densities of haemoparasite, regardless of species. These findings extend knowledge of bird/blood parasite relationships of Malagasy birds and provide interesting insights, especially concerning the pathogenicity of this type of parasitism and the parasite transmission by insect vectors.

  11. Prevalence of Campylobacter species in wild birds of South Korea.

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    Kwon, Yong-Kuk; Oh, Jae-Young; Jeong, Ok-Mi; Moon, Oun-Kyoung; Kang, Min-Su; Jung, Byeong-Yeal; An, Byung-Ki; Youn, So-Youn; Kim, Hye-Ryoung; Jang, Il; Lee, Hee-Soo

    2017-10-01

    Campylobacter species cause human gastrointestinal infections worldwide. They commonly inhabit intestines of avian species including wild birds. They might play a role in the spread of infections to humans and other bird species. The prevalence of Campylobacter species in 2164 faecal samples of wild birds (representing 71 species and 28 families) captured across the Korean peninsula was evaluated in this study. The overall prevalence was 15.3% (332/2164). Bird species belonging to the family Charadriidae had the highest isolation rate (30.0%), followed by those belonging to the families Ardeidae (26.4%), Turdidae (21.9%), and Anatidae (15.3%). The prevalence of Campylobacter spp. differed significantly according to migratory habit. Stopover birds were the most commonly infected (19.0%), followed by winter migratory (16.7%) and summer migratory birds (12.3%). However, indigenous birds showed very low prevalence (2.7%). Antimicrobial susceptibility tests were performed for 213 isolates. Results showed that Campylobacter jejuni isolates (n = 169) exhibited resistance to nalidixic acid (5.3%), ciprofloxacin (3.0%), and tetracycline (1.8%), while Campylobacter lari (n = 1) displayed resistance to nalidixic acid and ciprofloxacin. However, all Campylobacter coli isolates (n = 20) were susceptible to all antimicrobials tested. This is the first report on the prevalence of Campylobacter species in wild birds that seasonally or indigenously inhabit the Korean peninsula. Our results indicate that the overall prevalence of Campylobacter in wild birds is moderate. Therefore, birds might serve as significant reservoirs for Campylobacter pathogens.

  12. Chewing lice from wild birds in northern Greece.

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    Diakou, Anastasia; Pedroso Couto Soares, José Bernardo; Alivizatos, Haralambos; Panagiotopoulou, Maria; Kazantzidis, Savas; Literák, Ivan; Sychra, Oldřich

    2017-10-01

    Greece represents an important area for wild birds due to its geographical position and habitat diversity. Although the bird species in Greece are well recorded, the information about the chewing lice that infest them is practically non-existent. Thus, the aim of the present study was to record the species of lice infesting wild birds in northern Greece and furthermore, to associate the infestation prevalence with factors such as the age, sex, migration and social behaviour of the host as well as the time of the year. In total 729 birds, (belonging to 9 orders, 32 families and 68 species) were examined in 7 localities of northern Greece, during 9 ringing sessions from June 2013 until October 2015. Eighty (11%) of the birds were found to be infested with lice. In 31 different bird species, 560 specimens of lice, belonging to 33 species were recorded. Mixed infestations were recorded in 11 cases where birds were infested with 2-3 different lice species. Four new host-parasite associations were recorded i.e. Menacanthus curuccae from Acrocephalus melanopogon, Menacanthus agilis from Cettia cetti, Myrsidea sp. from Acrocephalus schoenobaenus, and Philopretus citrinellae from Spinus spinus. Moreover, Menacanthus sinuatus was detected on Poecile lugubris, rendering this report the first record of louse infestation in this bird species. The statistical analysis of the data collected showed no association between parasitological parameters (prevalence, mean and median intensity and mean abundance) in two different periods of the year (breeding vs post-breeding season). However, there was a statistically significant difference in the prevalence of infestation between a) migrating and sedentary passerine birds (7.4% vs 13.2%), b) colonial and territorial birds (54.5% vs 9.6%), and c) female and male birds in breeding period (2.6% vs 15.6%). Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. Avian Influenza in wild birds from Chile, 2007-2009.

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    Mathieu, Christian; Moreno, Valentina; Pedersen, Janice; Jeria, Julissa; Agredo, Michel; Gutiérrez, Cristian; García, Alfonso; Vásquez, Marcela; Avalos, Patricia; Retamal, Patricio

    2015-03-02

    Aquatic and migratory birds, the main reservoir hosts of avian influenza viruses including those with high pathogenic potential, are the wildlife species with the highest risk for viral dissemination across countries and continents. In 2002, the Chilean poultry industry was affected with a highly pathogenic avian influenza strain, which created economic loss and triggered the establishment of a surveillance program in wild birds. This effort consisted of periodic samplings of sick or suspicious animals found along the coast and analyses with standardized techniques for detection of influenza A virus. The aim of this work is to report the detection of three avian influenza strains (H13N2, H5N9, H13N9) in gulls from Chile between 2007-2009, which nucleotide sequences showed highest similitudes to viruses detected in wild birds from North America. These results suggest a dissemination route for influenza viruses along the coasts of Americas. Migratory and synanthropic behaviors of birds included in this study support continued monitoring of avian influenza viruses isolated from wild birds in The Americas and the establishment of biosecurity practices in farms. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Wild Birds and the Urban Ecology of Ticks

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-12-21

    Dr. Sarah Hamer, Assistant Professor and Veterinary Ecologist with the College of Veterinary Medicine at Texas A&M University, discusses her investigation of ticks on wild birds in urban Chicago.  Created: 12/21/2012 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 12/27/2012.

  15. Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Virus among Wild Birds in Mongolia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Martin; Jambal, Losolmaa; Karesh, William B.; Fine, Amanda; Shiilegdamba, Enkhtuvshin; Dulam, Purevtseren; Sodnomdarjaa, Ruuragchaa; Ganzorig, Khuukhenbaatar; Batchuluun, Damdinjav; Tseveenmyadag, Natsagdorj; Bolortuya, Purevsuren; Cardona, Carol J.; Leung, Connie Y. H.; Peiris, J. S. Malik; Spackman, Erica; Swayne, David E.; Joly, Damien O.

    2012-01-01

    Mongolia combines a near absence of domestic poultry, with an abundance of migratory waterbirds, to create an ideal location to study the epidemiology of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) in a purely wild bird system. Here we present the findings of active and passive surveillance for HPAIV subtype H5N1 in Mongolia from 2005–2011, together with the results of five outbreak investigations. In total eight HPAIV outbreaks were confirmed in Mongolia during this period. Of these, one was detected during active surveillance employed by this project, three by active surveillance performed by Mongolian government agencies, and four through passive surveillance. A further three outbreaks were recorded in the neighbouring Tyva Republic of Russia on a lake that bisects the international border. No HPAIV was isolated (cultured) from 7,855 environmental fecal samples (primarily from ducks), or from 2,765 live, clinically healthy birds captured during active surveillance (primarily shelducks, geese and swans), while four HPAIVs were isolated from 141 clinically ill or dead birds located through active surveillance. Two low pathogenic avian influenza viruses (LPAIV) were cultured from ill or dead birds during active surveillance, while environmental feces and live healthy birds yielded 56 and 1 LPAIV respectively. All Mongolian outbreaks occurred in 2005 and 2006 (clade 2.2), or 2009 and 2010 (clade 2.3.2.1); all years in which spring HPAIV outbreaks were reported in Tibet and/or Qinghai provinces in China. The occurrence of outbreaks in areas deficient in domestic poultry is strong evidence that wild birds can carry HPAIV over at least moderate distances. However, failure to detect further outbreaks of clade 2.2 after June 2006, and clade 2.3.2.1 after June 2010 suggests that wild birds migrating to and from Mongolia may not be competent as indefinite reservoirs of HPAIV, or that HPAIV did not reach susceptible populations during our study. PMID:22984464

  16. 19 CFR 12.29 - Plumage and eggs of wild birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Plumage and eggs of wild birds. 12.29 Section 12... THE TREASURY SPECIAL CLASSES OF MERCHANDISE Wild Animals, Birds, and Insects § 12.29 Plumage and eggs of wild birds. (a) The provisions of Chapter 5, Additional U.S. Note 1, relating to the plumage of...

  17. Lead and cadmium in wild birds in southeastern Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia-Fernandez, A.J.; Sanchez-Garcia, J.A.; Luna, A. [Univ. of Murcia (Spain); Jimenez-Montalban, P. [Regional Environmental Agency, Murcia (Spain). Centro de Recuperacion de Fauna Silvestre El Valle

    1995-12-01

    The main purpose of this study was to monitor exposure to lead and cadmium in wild birds in Murcia, a southeastern region of Spain on the Mediterranean coast. This region lies on one of the African-European flyways. Samples of liver, kidney, brain, bone, and whole blood from several species of wild birds were obtained during 1993. The authors found a clear relationship between cadmium and lead concentrations in birds and their feedings habits. Vultures (Gyps fulvus) had the highest concentrations of lead (mean 40 {micro}g/dl in blood), and seagulls (Larus argentatus and Larus ridibundus) the highest concentrations of cadmium (mean 4.43 {micro}g/g in kidney). Insectivores had high concentrations of both metals, and diurnal and nocturnal raptors showed the lowest tissue concentrations. The findings that tissue and blood concentrations were generally not elevated suggests environmental (rather than acute) exposure. Birds from more industrialized areas of the region studied here had higher concentrations of both lead and cadmium.

  18. Surveillance for Avian Influenza Viruses in Wild Birds in Denmark and Greenland, 2007–10

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjulsager, Charlotte Kristiane; Breum, Solvej Østergaard; Trebbien, Ramona

    2012-01-01

    healthy live birds in waterfowl reservoirs and along migratory flyways, birds living in proximity to domestic poultry, and hunted game birds. Dead birds were sampled by oropharyngeal swabbing. Healthy live wild birds were captured with nets, traps, or by hand and were sampled by swabbing...... America via Greenland and vice versa. In Denmark, the screenings for AI showed LPAI viruses to be naturally occurring in the wild bird population, particularly in waterfowl. The occurrence of AI viruses in the wild bird population may pose a risk for AI infections in Danish poultry....

  19. Object categorization by wild ranging birds-Winter feeder experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nováková, Nela; Veselý, Petr; Fuchs, Roman

    2017-10-01

    The object categorization is only scarcely studied using untrained wild ranging animals and relevant stimuli. We tested the importance of the spatial position of features salient for categorization of a predator using wild ranging birds (titmice) visiting a winter feeder. As a relevant stimulus we used a dummy of a raptor, the European sparrowhawk (Accipiter nisus), placed at the feeding location. This dummy was designed to be dismantled into three parts and rearranged with the head in the correct position, in the middle or at the bottom of the dummy. When the birds had the option of visiting an alternative feeder with a dummy pigeon, they preferred this option to visiting the feeder with the dummy sparrowhawk with the head in any of the three positions. When the birds had the option of visiting an alternative feeder with an un-rearranged dummy sparrowhawk, they visited both feeders equally often, and very scarcely. This suggests that the titmice considered all of the sparrowhawk modifications as being dangerous, and equally dangerous as the un-rearranged sparrowhawk. The position of the head was not the most important cue for categorization. The presence of the key features was probably sufficient for categorization, and their mutual spatial position was of lower importance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. 50 CFR 16.12 - Importation of live wild birds or their eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Importation of live wild birds or their... Importation of live wild birds or their eggs. (a) The importation, transportation, or acquisition is... importation, transportation, and possession of such live birds under the terms and conditions set forth in...

  1. Insect ectoparasites from wild passerine birds in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sychra O.

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Wild passerine birds (Passeriformes from northeastern part of the Czech Republic were examined for ectoparasites. Three species of louse-flies of the genus Ornithomya (Diptera: Hippoboscidae, two species of fleas of the genera Ceratophyllus and Dasypsyllus (Siphonaptera: Ceratophyllidae, and 15 species of chewing lice belonging to the genera Myrsidea, Menacanthus (Phthiraptera: Menoponidae, Brueelia, Penenirmus, Philopterus (Phthiraptera: Philopteridae were found on 82 birds of 23 species. New chewing louse-host records are Hippolais icterina for Menacanthus currucae; Motacilla cinerea for Menacanthus pusillus; Turdus philomelos and Motacilla cinerea for Brueelia merulensis; and Sylvia atricapilla for Menacanthus eurysternus. Brueelia neoatricapillae is cited for the first time for the Czech Republic. Parasitological parameters such as prevalence, intensity and abundance are also discussed.

  2. Dispersal and Transmission of Avian Paramyxovirus Serotype 4 among Wild Birds and Domestic Poultry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renfu Yin

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Avian paramyxovirus serotype 4 (APMV-4 is found sporadically in wild birds worldwide, and it is an economically important poultry pathogen. Despite the existence of several published strains, very little is known about the distribution, host species, and transmission of APMV-4 strains. To better understand the relationships among these factors, we conducted an APMV-4 surveillance of wild birds and domestic poultry in six provinces of China suspected of being intercontinental flyways and sites of interspecies transmission. APMV-4 surveillance was conducted in 9,160 wild birds representing seven species, and 1,461 domestic poultry in live bird markets (LMBs from December 2013 to June 2016. The rate of APMV-4 isolation was 0.10% (11/10,621, and viruses were isolated from swan geese, bean geese, cormorants, mallards, and chickens. Sequencing and phylogenetic analyses of the 11 isolated viruses indicated that all the isolates belonging to genotype I were epidemiologically connected with wild bird-origin viruses from the Ukraine and Italy. Moreover, chicken-origin APMV-4 strains isolated from the LBMs were highly similar to wild bird-origin viruses from nearby lakes with free-living wild birds. In additional, a hemagglutination-negative APMV-4 virus was identified. These findings, together with recent APMV-4 studies, suggest potential virus interspecies transmission between wild birds and domestic poultry, and reveal possible epidemiological intercontinental connections between APMV-4 transmission by wild birds.

  3. [An overview of surveillance of avian influenza viruses in wild birds].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yun; Shi, Jing-Hong; Shu, Yue-Long

    2014-05-01

    Wild birds (mainly Anseriformes and Charadriiformes) are recognized as the natural reservoir of avian influenza viruses (AIVs). The long-term surveillance of AIVs in wild birds has been conducted in North America and Europe since 1970s. More and more surveillance data revealed that all the HA and NA subtypes of AIVs were identified in the wild ducks, shorebirds, and gulls, and the AIVs circulating in wild birds were implicated in the outbreaks of AIVs in poultry and humans. Therefore, the AIVs in wild birds pose huge threat to poultry industry and human health. To gain a better understanding of the ecology and epidemiology of AIVs in wild birds, we summarize the transmission of AIVs between wild birds, poultry, and humans, the main results of surveillance of AIVs in wild birds worldwide and methods for surveillance, and the types of samples and detection methods for AIVs in wild birds, which would be vital for the effective control of avian influenza and response to possible influenza pandemic.

  4. Surveillance of wild birds for avian influenza virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoye, Bethany J; Munster, Vincent J; Nishiura, Hiroshi; Klaassen, Marcel; Fouchier, Ron A M

    2010-12-01

    Recent demand for increased understanding of avian influenza virus in its natural hosts, together with the development of high-throughput diagnostics, has heralded a new era in wildlife disease surveillance. However, survey design, sampling, and interpretation in the context of host populations still present major challenges. We critically reviewed current surveillance to distill a series of considerations pertinent to avian influenza virus surveillance in wild birds, including consideration of what, when, where, and how many to sample in the context of survey objectives. Recognizing that wildlife disease surveillance is logistically and financially constrained, we discuss pragmatic alternatives for achieving probability-based sampling schemes that capture this host-pathogen system. We recommend hypothesis-driven surveillance through standardized, local surveys that are, in turn, strategically compiled over broad geographic areas. Rethinking the use of existing surveillance infrastructure can thereby greatly enhance our global understanding of avian influenza and other zoonotic diseases.

  5. Species diversity and richness of wild birds in Dagona-Waterfowl ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study of bird species diversity and richness in Dagona-Waterfowl Sanctuary was carried out during the midst of both early wet and late dry seasons, to provide comprehensive data on wild birds. Dagona Sanctuary is located within the Bade-Nguru Wetland sector. It is one of the important bird areas marked for the ...

  6. Wild birds learn to eavesdrop on heterospecific alarm calls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magrath, Robert D; Haff, Tonya M; McLachlan, Jessica R; Igic, Branislav

    2015-08-03

    Many vertebrates gain critical information about danger by eavesdropping on other species' alarm calls [1], providing an excellent context in which to study information flow among species in animal communities [2-4]. A fundamental but unresolved question is how individuals recognize other species' alarm calls. Although individuals respond to heterospecific calls that are acoustically similar to their own, alarms vary greatly among species, and eavesdropping probably also requires learning [1]. Surprisingly, however, we lack studies demonstrating such learning. Here, we show experimentally that individual wild superb fairy-wrens, Malurus cyaneus, can learn to recognize previously unfamiliar alarm calls. We trained individuals by broadcasting unfamiliar sounds while simultaneously presenting gliding predatory birds. Fairy-wrens in the experiment originally ignored these sounds, but most fled in response to the sounds after two days' training. The learned response was not due to increased responsiveness in general or to sensitization following repeated exposure and was independent of sound structure. Learning can therefore help explain the taxonomic diversity of eavesdropping and the refining of behavior to suit the local community. In combination with previous work on unfamiliar predator recognition (e.g., [5]), our results imply rapid spread of anti-predator behavior within wild populations and suggest methods for training captive-bred animals before release into the wild [6]. A remaining challenge is to assess the importance and consequences of direct association of unfamiliar sounds with predators, compared with social learning-such as associating unfamiliar sounds with conspecific alarms. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Epidemiology of avian influenza in wild aquatic birds in a biosecurity hotspot, North Queensland, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoque, Md Ahasanul; Burgess, Graham William; Cheam, Ai Lee; Skerratt, Lee Francis

    2015-01-01

    Migratory birds may introduce highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza from Southeast Asia into Australia via North Queensland, a key stopover along the East Asian-Australasian Flyway, with severe consequences for trade and human health. A 3-year repeated cross sectional study on the epidemiology of avian influenza in Australian nomadic wild aquatic birds was conducted in this potential biosecurity hotspot using molecular and serological techniques. Avian influenza virus subtypes H6 and H9 were commonly present in the studied population. It is likely that one of the H6 viruses was newly introduced through migratory birds confirming the perceived biosecurity risk. The matrix gene of another H6 virus was similar to the Australian H7 subtypes, which suggests the reassortment of a previously introduced H6 and local viruses. Similarly, a H9 subtype had a matrix gene similar to that found in Asian H9 viruses suggesting reassortment of viruses originated from Australia and Asia. Whilst H5N1 was not found, the serological study demonstrated a constant circulation of the H5 subtype in the sampled birds. The odds of being reactive for avian influenza viral antibodies were 13.1(95% CI: 5.9-28.9) for Pacific Black Ducks over Plumed Whistling Ducks, highlighting that some species of waterfowl pose a greater biosecurity risk. Antibody titres were slightly higher during warm wet compared with warm dry weather. Routine surveillance programmes should be established to monitor the introduction of avian influenza viruses from Asia and the interactions of the introduced viruses with resident viruses in order to better detect emerging pathogens in aquatic birds of North Queensland. Surveillance should be targeted towards highly susceptible species such as the Pacific Black Duck and carried out during favourable environmental conditions for viral transmission such as the wet season in northern Australia. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Epidemic Spread of Usutu Virus in Southwest Germany in 2011 to 2013 and Monitoring of Wild Birds for Usutu and West Nile Viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziegler, Ute; Jöst, Hanna; Müller, Kerstin; Fischer, Dominik; Rinder, Monika; Tietze, Dieter Thomas; Danner, Klaus-Jürgen; Becker, Norbert; Skuballa, Jasmin; Hamann, Hans-Peter; Bosch, Stefan; Fast, Christine; Eiden, Martin; Schmidt-Chanasit, Jonas; Groschup, Martin H

    2015-08-01

    Mosquito-borne viruses are becoming an increasing threat for Europe. One of these viruses is Usutu virus (USUV), a single-stranded RNA virus belonging to the Japanese encephalitis virus group within the family Flaviviridae. Since the occurrence of USUV among wild birds in June, 2011, infected Blackbirds (Turdus merula) have frequently been found dead in southwest Germany, cumulating in a massive die-off. Moreover, other bird species (Strigiformes) in this region have been affected. In a first study, 209 of over 600 dead birds (wild birds and birds kept in aviaries) collected from 2011 to 2013 carried USUV, more than 88% of them Blackbirds. USUV had already been detected in 2010, one year before the epizooty, in a mosquito-based surveillance program in Germany. The main epidemic area of the USUV outbreak in wild birds in southwest Germany has been similar for the last three years. In a second study during 2011 to 2013, 902 live migratory and resident birds (representing 87 bird species belonging to 14 bird orders) from four different sampling sites were bled and tested serologically and by qPCR for West Nile virus (WNV) and USUV infections. No USUV or WNV genomes were detected. Some migratory birds (mainly long-distance migrants and some partial migrants) carried neutralizing antibodies against WNV as discriminated by USUV and WNV cross-neutralization tests. Only few resident birds showed relevant USUV-specific neutralizing antibodies. The occurrence of USUV in the Upper Rhine valley area of southwest Germany is a proof of principle for the incursion and spread of other arthropod-borne (arbo)-viruses along these routes. Therefore, monitoring studies in birds and mosquitoes for the presence of arboviruses in these areas are indispensable.

  9. Rice production systems and avian influenza: Interactions between mixed-farming systems, poultry and wild birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muzaffar, S.B.; Takekawa, John Y.; Prosser, D.J.; Newman, S.H.; Xiao, X.

    2010-01-01

    Wild waterfowl are the reservoir for avian influenza viruses (AIVs), a family of RNA viruses that may cause mild sickness in waterbirds. Emergence of H5N1, a highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) strain, causing severe disease and mortality in wild birds, poultry and humans, had raised concerns about the role of wild birds in possible transmission of the disease. In this review, the link between rice production systems, poultry production systems, and wild bird ecology is examined to assess the extent to which these interactions could contribute towards the persistence and evolution of HPAI H5N1. The rice (Oryza sativa) and poultry production systems in Asia described, and then migration and movements of wild birds discussed. Mixed farming systems in Asia and wild bird movement and migration patterns create opportunities for the persistence of low pathogenic AIVs in these systems. Nonetheless, there is no evidence of long-term persistence of HPAI viruses (including the H5N1 subtype) in the wild. There are still significant gaps in the understanding of how AIVs circulate in rice systems. A better understanding of persistence of AIVs in rice farms, particularly of poultry origins, is essential in limiting exchange of AIVs between mixed-farming systems, poultry and wild birds.

  10. Surveillance for avian influenza viruses in wild birds in Denmark and Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjulsager, Charlotte Kristiane; Breum, Solvej Østergaard; Trebbien, Ramona

    Avian influenza (AI) is a disease of major threat to poultry production. Surveillance of AI in wild birds contributes to the control of AI. In Denmark (DK) and Greenland (GL), extensive surveillance of AI viruses in the wild bird population has been conducted. The surveillance aimed at detecting......7 subtypes were detected throughout the period together with several other LPAI subtypes. In GL, HPAI was not detected, but few samples were PCR positive for AI. The occurrence of AI subtypes in the wild bird population correlates with concurrent outbreaks of LPAI in Danish poultry, which may...

  11. Spillover of Newcastle disease viruses from poultry to wild birds in Guangdong province, southern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Bin; Han, Lujie; Gao, Pei; You, Renrong; Wang, Fumin; Xiao, Jiajie; Liao, Ming; Kang, Yinfeng; Ren, Tao

    2017-11-01

    Despite intensive vaccination programs in many countries, including China, Newcastle disease has been reported sporadically and is still a significant threat to the poultry industry in China. Newcastle disease virus (NDV) is infectious for at least 250 bird species, but the role of wild birds in virus epidemiology remains largely unknown. Fourteen NDV isolates were obtained from 2040 samples collected from wild birds or the environment in Guangdong province, southern China, from 2013 to 2015. The isolation rate was the highest in the period of wintering and lowest during the periods of spring migration, nesting, and postnesting. A maximum clade credibility phylogenetic analysis revealed that at least four genotypes circulate in southern China: three class II genotypes (II, VI, and IX) and one class I (1b). We also demonstrated that most isolates from wild birds were highly similar to isolates from poultry, and two isolates were linked to viruses from wild birds in northern China. These data suggested that wild birds could disseminate NDV and poultry-derived viruses may spillover to wild birds. Accordingly, vaccine development and poultry management strategies should be considered to prevent future NDV outbreaks, particularly given the strength of the poultry industry in developing countries, such as China. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Serological Evidence for Influenza A Virus Exposure in Wild Birds in Trinidad & Tobago

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arianne Brown Jordan

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Migratory waterfowl and shorebirds are known to be important reservoirs for influenza A viruses (IAV and they have been repeatedly implicated as causing avian influenza virus (AIV outbreaks in domestic poultry flocks worldwide. In recent years, wild birds have been implicated in spreading zoonotic H5 influenza viruses to many countries, which has generated high levels of public health concern. Trinidad and Tobago (T&T is positioned along the wintering route of migratory birds from the Americas; every year, many species of wild birds stopover on the islands of T&T, potentially carrying AIVs and exposing local populations of wild and domestic birds, including commercial poultry, to infection. The aim of this study was to trap, sample, and test as many wild bird species as possible to see whether they were actively infected or previously exposed to AIV. A total of 38 wild birds were trapped, sampled, and tested for IAV RNA, antibodies specific for influenza A nucleoprotein (NP and antibodies that were specific for H5 and H7 subtypes. Five of the samples tested antibody positive for IAV, while three of these samples had positive titres (≥16 for the H5 subtype, indicating that they were likely to have been previously infected with an H5 IAV subtype. One of the samples tested positive for IAV (M gene RNA. These results highlight the potential threat that is posed by wild birds to backyard and commercial poultry in T&T and emphasise the importance of maintaining high levels of biosecurity on poultry farms, ensuring that domestic and wild birds are not in direct or indirect contact. The results also underline the need to carry out routine surveillance for AIV in domestic and wild birds in T&T and the wider Caribbean region.

  13. Molecular prevalence and genotyping of Chlamydia spp. in wild birds from South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Jipseol; An, Injung; Oem, Jae-Ku; Wang, Seung-Jun; Kim, Yongkwan; Shin, Jeong-Hwa; Woo, Chanjin; Kim, Youngsik; Jo, Seong-Deok; Son, Kidong; Lee, Saemi; Jheong, Weonhwa

    2017-07-07

    Wild birds are reservoirs for Chlamydia spp. Of the total 225 samples from wild birds during January to September 2016 in Korea, 4 (1.8%) and 2 (0.9%) showed positive for Chlamydia psittaci and Chlamydia gallinacea, respectively. Phylogenetic analyses and comparisons of sequence identities for outer-membrane protein A (ompA) revealed that Korean C. psittaci fall into three previously known genotypes; genotype E, 1V and 6N, whereas the Korean C. gallinacea were classified as new variants of C. gallinacea. Our study demonstrates that wild birds in South Korea carry at least two Chlamydia species: C. psittaci and C. gallinacea, and provides new information on the epidemiology of avian chlamydiosis in wild birds.

  14. Molecular characterization of AI viruses from poultry and wild bird surveillance in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Lars Erik; Krog, Jesper Schak; Madsen, Jesper J.

    Infection with avian influenza virus (AIV) in poultry may cause devastating disease although the same virus may not cause disease in wild birds. Since AI viruses can be exchanged between poultry and wild birds, surveillance in wild birds provides important knowledge for control of disease...... in poultry. AIV’s from the Danish wild bird active surveillance were characterized, focusing on viruses from 2012, and from outbreaks of AI in poultry in Denmark. The matrix (M) gene from more than 50 viruses of different subtypes and the hemagglutinin (HA) gene from more than 30 subtype H5 low pathogenic...... viruses were sequenced and compared by alignment and phylogenetic analyses. The aim was to evaluate: the origin of viruses from outbreaks of AI in Danish poultry, the design of active surveillance in Denmark, and the suitability of the molecular diagnostic RT-PCR tests employed. All M-genes from Danish...

  15. Chemical regulation of body feather microbiota in a wild bird.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Staffan; Sallé, Louis; Zinger, Lucie; Chaine, Alexis S; Ducamp, Christine; Boutault, Léa; Russell, Andrew F; Heeb, Philipp

    2018-04-01

    The microbiota has a broad range of impacts on host physiology and behaviour, pointing out the need to improve our comprehension of the drivers of host-microbiota composition. Of particular interest is whether the microbiota is acquired passively, or whether and to what extent hosts themselves shape the acquisition and maintenance of their microbiota. In birds, the uropygial gland produces oily secretions used to coat feathers that have been suggested to act as an antimicrobial defence mechanism regulating body feather microbiota. However, our comprehension of this process is still limited. In this study, we for the first time coupled high-throughput sequencing of the microbiota of both body feathers and the direct environment (i.e., the nest) in great tits with chemical analyses of the composition of uropygial gland secretions to examine whether host chemicals have either specific effects on some bacteria or nonspecific broad-spectrum effects on the body feather microbiota. Using a network approach investigating the patterns of co-occurrence or co-exclusions between chemicals and bacteria within the body feather microbiota, we found no evidence for specific promicrobial or antimicrobial effects of uropygial gland chemicals. However, we found that one group of chemicals was negatively correlated to bacterial richness on body feathers, and a higher production of these chemicals was associated with a poorer body feather bacterial richness compared to the nest microbiota. Our study provides evidence that chemicals produced by the host might function as a nonspecific broad-spectrum antimicrobial defence mechanism limiting colonization and/or maintenance of bacteria on body feathers, providing new insight about the drivers of the host's microbiota composition in wild organisms. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Do shade-grown coffee plantations pose a disease risk for wild birds?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Sonia M; Peters, Valerie E; Weygandt, P Logan; Jimenez, Carlos; Villegas, Pedro; O'Connor, Barry; Yabsley, Michael J; Garcia, Maricarmen; Riblet, Sylva M; Carroll, C Ron

    2013-06-01

    Shade-grown coffee plantations are often promoted as a conservation strategy for wild birds. However, these agro-ecosystems are actively managed for food production, which may alter bird behaviors or interactions that could change bird health, compared to natural forest. To examine whether there is a difference between the health parameters of wild birds inhabiting shade-grown coffee plantations and natural forest, we evaluated birds in Costa Rica for (1) their general body condition, (2) antibodies to pathogens, (paramyxovirus and Mycoplasma spp.), and (3) the prevalence and diversity of endo-, ecto-, and hemoparasites. We measured exposure to Mycoplasma spp. and paramyxovirus because these are pathogens that could have been introduced with domestic poultry, one mechanism by which these landscapes could be detrimental to wild birds. We captured 1,561 birds representing 75 species. Although seasonal factors influenced body condition, we did not find bird general body condition to be different. A total of 556 birds of 31 species were tested for antibodies against paramyxovirus-1. Of these, five birds tested positive, four of which were from shade coffee. Out of 461 other tests for pathogens (for antibodies and nucleotide detection), none were positive. Pterolichus obtusus, the feather mite of chickens, was found on 15 birds representing two species and all were from shade-coffee plantations. Larvated eggs of Syngamus trachea, a nematode typically associated with chickens, were found in four birds captured in shade coffee and one captured in forest. For hemoparasites, a total of 1,121 blood smears from 68 bird species were examined, and only one species showed a higher prevalence of infection in shade coffee. Our results indicate that shade-coffee plantations do not pose a significant health risk to forest birds, but at least two groups of pathogens may deserve further attention: Haemoproteus spp. and the diversity and identity of endoparasites.

  17. Spatial, temporal, and species variation in prevalence of influenza A viruses in wild migratory birds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    V.J. Munster (Vincent); C. Baas (Chantal); P. Lexmond (Pascal); J. Waldenström (Jonas); A. Wallensten (Anders); T. Fransson (Thord); G.F. Rimmelzwaan (Guus); W.E.Ph. Beyer (Walter); M. Schutten (Martin); B. Olsen (Björn); A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert); R.A.M. Fouchier (Ron)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractAlthough extensive data exist on avian influenza in wild birds in North America, limited information is available from elsewhere, including Europe. Here, molecular diagnostic tools were employed for high-throughput surveillance of migratory birds, as an alternative to classical

  18. Avian influenza virus wild bird surveillance in the Azov and Black Sea regions of Ukraine

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Azov and Black Sea basins are transcontinental migration routes of wild birds from Northern Asia and Europe to the Mediterranean, Africa and Southwest Asia. These regions constitute an area of transit, stops during migration, and nesting of many migratory bird species with a very high level of ...

  19. Novel Eurasian highly pathogenic influenza A H5 viruses in wild birds, Washington, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ip, Hon S.; Kim Torchetti, Mia; Crespo, Rocio; Kohrs, Paul; DeBruyn, Paul; Mansfield, Kristin G.; Baszler, Timothy; Badcoe, Lyndon; Bodenstein, Barbara L.; Shearn-Bochsler, Valerie I.; Killian, Mary Lea; Pederson, Janice C.; Hines, Nichole; Gidlewski, Thomas; DeLiberto, Thomas; Sleeman, Jonathan M.

    2015-01-01

    Novel Eurasian lineage avian influenza A(H5N8) virus has spread rapidly and globally since January 2014. In December 2014, H5N8 and reassortant H5N2 viruses were detected in wild birds in Washington, USA, and subsequently in backyard birds. When they infect commercial poultry, these highly pathogenic viruses pose substantial trade issues.

  20. Infectivity, transmission and pathogenicity of avian influenza viruses for domestic and wild birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Individual avian influenza (AI) virus strains vary in their ability to infect, transmit and cause disease and death in different bird species. Low pathogenicity AI (LPAI) viruses are maintained in wild birds, and must be adapted to pass to domestic poultry, where they replicate in respiratory and in...

  1. Novel Eurasian highly pathogenic avian influenza A H5 viruses in wild birds, Washington, USA, 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ip, Hon S; Torchetti, Mia Kim; Crespo, Rocio; Kohrs, Paul; DeBruyn, Paul; Mansfield, Kristin G; Baszler, Timothy; Badcoe, Lyndon; Bodenstein, Barbara; Shearn-Bochsler, Valerie; Killian, Mary Lea; Pedersen, Janice C; Hines, Nichole; Gidlewski, Thomas; DeLiberto, Thomas; Sleeman, Jonathan M

    2015-05-01

    Novel Eurasian lineage avian influenza A(H5N8) virus has spread rapidly and globally since January 2014. In December 2014, H5N8 and reassortant H5N2 viruses were detected in wild birds in Washington, USA, and subsequently in backyard birds. When they infect commercial poultry, these highly pathogenic viruses pose substantial trade issues.

  2. Reverse spillover of avian viral vaccine strains from domesticated poultry to wild birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohaim, M A; El Naggar, R F; Helal, A M; Hussein, H A; Munir, Muhammad

    2017-06-16

    Transmission of viruses from the commercial poultry to wild birds is an emerging paradigm of livestock-wildlife interface. Here, we report the identification and isolation of vaccine strains of avian paramyxovirus serotype 1 (APMV1) and avian coronaviruses (ACoV) from different wild bird species across eight Egyptian governorates between January 2014 and December 2015. Surveillance of avian respiratory viruses in free-ranging wild birds (n=297) identified three species that harboured or excreted APMV1 and ACoVs. Genetic characterization and phylogenetic analysis of recovered viruses revealed a close association with the most widely utilized vaccine strains in the country. These results highlight the potential spillover of vaccine-viruses probably due to extensive use of live-attenuated vaccines in the commercial poultry, and close interaction between domesticated and wild bird populations. Further exploring the full spectrum of vaccine-derived viral vaccine strains in wild birds might help to assess the emergence of future wild-birds origin viruses. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Investigation of avian influenza infections in wild birds, poultry and humans in Eastern Dongting Lake, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Jinghong; Gao, Lidong; Zhu, Yun; Chen, Tao; Liu, Yunzhi; Dong, Libo; Liu, Fuqiang; Yang, Hao; Cai, Yahui; Yu, Mingdong; Yao, Yi; Xu, Cuilin; Xiao, Xiangming; Shu, Yuelong

    2014-01-01

    We investigated avian influenza infections in wild birds, poultry, and humans at Eastern Dongting Lake, China. We analyzed 6,621 environmental samples, including fresh fecal and water samples, from wild birds and domestic ducks that were collected from the Eastern Dongting Lake area from November 2011 to April 2012. We also conducted two cross-sectional serological studies in November 2011 and April 2012, with 1,050 serum samples collected from people exposed to wild birds and/or domestic ducks. Environmental samples were tested for the presence of avian influenza virus (AIV) using quantitative PCR assays and virus isolation techniques. Hemagglutination inhibition assays were used to detect antibodies against AIV H5N1, and microneutralization assays were used to confirm these results. Among the environmental samples from wild birds and domestic ducks, AIV prevalence was 5.19 and 5.32%, respectively. We isolated 39 and 5 AIVs from the fecal samples of wild birds and domestic ducks, respectively. Our analysis indicated 12 subtypes of AIV were present, suggesting that wild birds in the Eastern Dongting Lake area carried a diverse array of AIVs with low pathogenicity. We were unable to detect any antibodies against AIV H5N1 in humans, suggesting that human infection with H5N1 was rare in this region.

  4. Aquatic Bird Bornavirus 1 in Wild Geese, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Anders F.; Nielsen, Jesper B.; Hjulsager, Charlotte Kristiane

    2015-01-01

    To investigate aquatic bird bornavirus 1 in Europe, we examined 333 brains from hunter-killed geese in Denmark in 2014. Seven samples were positive by reverse transcription PCR and were 98.2%-99.8% identical; they were also 97.4%-98.1% identical to reference strains of aquatic bird bornavirus 1...

  5. Population growth in a wild bird is buffered against phenological mismatch

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reed, T.; Grotan, V.; Jenouvrier, S.; Saether, B.E.; Visser, M.E.

    2013-01-01

    road-scale environmental changes are altering patterns of natural selection in the wild, but few empirical studies have quantified the demographic cost of sustained directional selection in response to these changes. We tested whether population growth in a wild bird is negatively affected by

  6. Monitoring potential geographical distribution of four wild bird species in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, S.; Feng, D.; Xu, B.

    2015-12-01

    The outbreak of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) of the H5N1 subtype in wild birds and poultry have caught worldwide attention. To explore the association between wild bird migration and avian influenza virus transmission, we monitored potential geographical distribution of four wild bird species that might carry the avian influenza viruses in China. They are Bar-headed geese (Anser indicus), Ruddy Shelduck (Tadorna ferruginea), Whooper Swan (Cygnus cygnus) and Black-headed Gull (Larus ridibundus). They served as major reservoir of the avian influenza viruses. We used bird watching records with the precise latitude/longitude coordinates from January 2002 to August 2014, and environmental variables with a pixel resolution of 5 km × 5 km from 2002 to 2014. The study utilized maximum entropy (MaxEnt) model based on ecological niche model approaches, and got the following results: 1) MaxEnt model have good discriminatory ability with the area under the curve (AUC) of the receiver operating curve (ROC) of 0.86-0.97; 2) The four wild bird species were estimated to concentrate in the North China Plain, the middle and lower region of the Yangtze River, Qinghai Lake, Tianshan Mountain and Tarim Basin, part of Tibet Plateau, and Hengduan Mountains; 3) Radiation and the minimum temperature were found to provide the most significant information. Our findings will help to understand the spread of avian influenza viruses by wild bird migration in China, which benefits for effective monitoring strategies and prevention measures.

  7. Seropositivity and risk factors associated with Toxoplasma gondii infection in wild birds from Spain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Cabezón

    Full Text Available Toxoplasma gondii is a zoonotic intracellular protozoan parasite of worldwide distribution that infects many species of warm-blooded animals, including birds. To date, there is scant information about the seropositivity of T. gondii and the risk factors associated with T. gondii infection in wild bird populations. In the present study, T. gondii infection was evaluated on sera obtained from 1079 wild birds belonging to 56 species (including Falconiformes (n=610, Strigiformes (n=260, Ciconiiformes (n=156, Gruiformes (n=21, and other orders (n=32, from different areas of Spain. Antibodies to T. gondii (modified agglutination test, MAT titer ≥1:25 were found in 282 (26.1%, IC(95%:23.5-28.7 of the 1079 birds. This study constitute the first extensive survey in wild birds species in Spain and reports for the first time T. gondii antibodies in the griffon vulture (Gyps fulvus, short-toed snake-eagle (Circaetus gallicus, Bonelli's eagle (Aquila fasciata, golden eagle (Aquila chrysaetos, bearded vulture (Gypaetus barbatus, osprey (Pandion haliaetus, Montagu's harrier (Circus pygargus, Western marsh-harrier (Circus aeruginosus, peregrine falcon (Falco peregrinus, long-eared owl (Asio otus, common scops owl (Otus scops, Eurasian spoonbill (Platalea leucorodia, white stork (Ciconia ciconia, grey heron (Ardea cinerea, common moorhen (Gallinula chloropus; in the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN "vulnerable" Spanish imperial eagle (Aquila adalberti, lesser kestrel (Falco naumanni and great bustard (Otis tarda; and in the IUCN "near threatened" red kite (Milvus milvus. The highest seropositivity by species was observed in the Eurasian eagle owl (Bubo bubo (68.1%, 98 of 144. The main risk factors associated with T. gondii seropositivity in wild birds were age and diet, with the highest exposure in older animals and in carnivorous wild birds. The results showed that T. gondii infection is widespread and can be at a high level in many wild

  8. Role of wild birds as carriers of multi-drug resistant Escherichia coli and Escherichia vulneris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Y. Shobrak

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Emergence and distribution of multi-drug resistant (MDR bacteria in environments pose a risk to human and animal health. A total of 82 isolates of Escherichia spp. were recovered from cloacal swabs of migrating and non-migrating wild birds. All bacterial isolates were identified and characterized morphologically and biochemically. 72% and 50% of isolates recovered from non-migrating and migrating birds, respectively, showed positive congo red dye binding (a virulence factor. Also, hemolysin production (a virulence factor was showed in 8% of isolates recovered from non-migrating birds and 75% of isolates recovered from migrating birds. All isolates recovered from non-migrating birds were found resistant to Oxacillin while all isolates recovered from migrating birds demonstrated resistance to Oxacillin, Chloramphenicol, Oxytetracycline and Lincomycin. Some bacterial isolates recovered from non-migrating birds and migrating birds exhibited MDR phenotype. The MDR isolates were further characterized by API 20E and 16S rRNA as E. coli and E. vulneris. MDR Escherichia isolates contain ~1-5 plasmids of high-molecular weights. Accordingly, wild birds could create a potential threat to human and animal health by transmitting MDR bacteria to water streams and other environmental sources through their faecal residues, and to remote regions by migration.

  9. Role of wild birds as carriers of multi-drug resistant Escherichia coli and Escherichia vulneris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shobrak, Mohammed Y.; Abo-Amer, Aly E.

    2014-01-01

    Emergence and distribution of multi-drug resistant (MDR) bacteria in environments pose a risk to human and animal health. A total of 82 isolates of Escherichia spp. were recovered from cloacal swabs of migrating and non-migrating wild birds. All bacterial isolates were identified and characterized morphologically and biochemically. 72% and 50% of isolates recovered from non-migrating and migrating birds, respectively, showed positive congo red dye binding (a virulence factor). Also, hemolysin production (a virulence factor) was showed in 8% of isolates recovered from non-migrating birds and 75% of isolates recovered from migrating birds. All isolates recovered from non-migrating birds were found resistant to Oxacillin while all isolates recovered from migrating birds demonstrated resistance to Oxacillin, Chloramphenicol, Oxytetracycline and Lincomycin. Some bacterial isolates recovered from non-migrating birds and migrating birds exhibited MDR phenotype. The MDR isolates were further characterized by API 20E and 16S rRNA as E. coli and E. vulneris. MDR Escherichia isolates contain ~1–5 plasmids of high-molecular weights. Accordingly, wild birds could create a potential threat to human and animal health by transmitting MDR bacteria to water streams and other environmental sources through their faecal residues, and to remote regions by migration. PMID:25763023

  10. Prevalence of Chlamydia psittaci and Other Chlamydia Species in Wild Birds in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krawiec, Marta; Piasecki, Tomasz; Wieliczko, Alina

    2015-11-01

    Avian chlamydiosis is a zoonotic disease occurring in humans, poultry, and exotic birds. It has been suggested that some wild bird species play an important role as reservoirs for Chlamydia, especially Chlamydia psittaci. Whereas C. psittaci is the predominant chlamydial agent in birds, in the present study we have determined the prevalence of different species of Chlamydia among selected wild bird species in Poland using a rapid and sensitive real-time PCR method. In total, 369 free-living birds from 35 bird species and 15 orders were examined. Samples from 27 birds (7.3%) were positive for chlamydial DNA in the PCR; 22 positive samples (81.5%) belonged to C. psittaci, three to Chlamydia trachomatis (11.1%), and two (7.4%) classified only to the genus Chlamydia. Most of C. psittaci-positive samples belonged to five orders: Anseriformes, Columbiformes, Gruiformes, Phasianiformes, and Passeriformes. All C. trachomatis samples were obtained from Eurasian coots (Gruiformes). Two Chlamydia-positive samples not classified to any Chlamydia species were obtained from a common wood pigeon (Columbiformes) and a common buzzard (Accipitriformes). Detection of C. psittaci and C. trachomatis in free-living bird populations force to think on significance of birds as reservoir of varied Chlamydia species and their epidemiological importance.

  11. Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato spirochetes in wild birds in northwestern California: associations with ecological factors, bird behavior and tick infestation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Erica A; Eisen, Lars; Eisen, Rebecca J; Fedorova, Natalia; Hasty, Jeomhee M; Vaughn, Charles; Lane, Robert S

    2015-01-01

    Although Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (s.l.) are found in a great diversity of vertebrates, most studies in North America have focused on the role of mammals as spirochete reservoir hosts. We investigated the roles of birds as hosts for subadult Ixodes pacificus ticks and potential reservoirs of the Lyme disease spirochete B. burgdorferi sensu stricto (s.s.) in northwestern California. Overall, 623 birds representing 53 species yielded 284 I. pacificus larvae and nymphs. We used generalized linear models and zero-inflated negative binomial models to determine associations of bird behaviors, taxonomic relationships and infestation by I. pacificus with borrelial infection in the birds. Infection status in birds was best explained by taxonomic order, number of infesting nymphs, sampling year, and log-transformed average body weight. Presence and counts of larvae and nymphs could be predicted by ground- or bark-foraging behavior and contact with dense oak woodland. Molecular analysis yielded the first reported detection of Borrelia bissettii in birds. Moreover, our data suggest that the Golden-crowned Sparrow (Zonotrichia atricapilla), a non-resident species, could be an important reservoir for B. burgdorferi s.s. Of 12 individual birds (9 species) that carried B. burgdorferi s.l.-infected larvae, no birds carried the same genospecies of B. burgdorferi s.l. in their blood as were present in the infected larvae removed from them. Possible reasons for this discrepancy are discussed. Our study is the first to explicitly incorporate both taxonomic relationships and behaviors as predictor variables to identify putative avian reservoirs of B. burgdorferi s.l. Our findings underscore the importance of bird behavior to explain local tick infestation and Borrelia infection in these animals, and suggest the potential for bird-mediated geographic spread of vector ticks and spirochetes in the far-western United States.

  12. Avian Influenza H5N1 and the Wild Bird Trade in Hanoi, Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Brooks-Moizer

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Wildlife trade and emerging infectious diseases pose significant threats to human and animal health and global biodiversity. Legal and illegal trade in domestic and wild birds has played a significant role in the global spread of highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1, which has killed more than 240 people, many millions of poultry, and an unknown number of wild birds and mammals, including endangered species, since 2003. This 2007 study provides evidence for a significant decline in the scale of the wild bird trade in Hanoi since previous surveys in 2000 (39.7% decline and 2003 (74.1% decline. We attribute this to the enforcement of Vietnam's Law 169/2005/QD UBND, introduced in 2005, which prohibits the movement and sale of wild and ornamental birds in cities. Nevertheless, 91.3% (21/23 of bird vendors perceived no risk of H5N1 infection from their birds, and the trade continues, albeit at reduced levels, in open market shops. These findings highlight the importance of continued law enforcement to maintain this trade reduction and the associated benefits to human and animal health and biodiversity conservation.

  13. Ecology of Avian Influenza Virus in Wild Birds in Tropical Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaidet, Nicolas

    2016-05-01

    Several ecologic factors have been proposed to describe the mechanisms whereby host ecology and the environment influence the transmission of avian influenza viruses (AIVs) in wild birds, including bird's foraging behavior, migratory pattern, seasonal congregation, the rate of recruitment of juvenile birds, and abiotic factors. However, these ecologic factors are derived from studies that have been conducted in temperate or boreal regions of the Northern Hemisphere. These factors cannot be directly translated to tropical regions, where differences in host ecology and seasonality may produce different ecologic interactions between wild birds and AIV. An extensive dataset of AIV detection in wildfowl and shorebirds sampled across tropical Africa was used to analyze how the distinctive ecologic features of Afrotropical regions may influence the dynamics of AIV transmission in wild birds. The strong seasonality of rainfall and surface area of wetlands allows testing of how the seasonality of wildfowl ecology (reproduction phenology and congregation) is related to AIV seasonal dynamics. The diversity of the African wildfowl community provides the opportunity to investigate the respective influence of migratory behavior, foraging behavior, and phylogeny on species variation in infection rate. Large aggregation sites of shorebirds in Africa allow testing for the existence of AIV infection hot spots. We found that the processes whereby host ecology influence AIV transmission in wild birds in the Afrotropical context operate through ecologic factors (seasonal drying of wetlands and extended and nonsynchronized breeding periods) that are different than the one described in temperate regions, hence, resulting in different patterns of AIV infection dynamics.

  14. Investigation of avian influenza infection in wild birds in Ismailia and Damietta cities, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fadel, Hanaa Mohamed; Afifi, Rabab

    2017-01-01

    Aim: This study was carried out to monitor avian influenza (AI) infection in wild birds in Egypt. Materials and Methods: A total of 135 wild birds were examined for the presence of H5, H7, and H9 hemagglutination inhibition antibodies. Organs and swab samples of 75 birds were screened by multiplex real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RRT-PCR) to detect AI subtypes H5, H7, and H9 matrix genes. Results: The highest seropositive result was recorded in cattle egrets (90.9%) followed by crows (88.6%), semi-captive pigeons (44.8%), and moorhens (39.1%). In cattle egrets, semi-captive pigeons and moorhens, H5 antibodies predominated. In crows, H9 antibodies predominated. Multiple infections with two or three virus subtypes were highest in crows (6/39, 15.4%) followed by cattle egrets (3/30, 10%) and moorhens’ (1/9, 11.1%) positive samples. Multiplex RRT-PCR results revealed two positive samples in cattle egrets and moorhens. Conclusion: The results indicated high seropositive rates against AI virus subtypes H5 and H9 in the examined wild birds. Multiple infections with more than one AI virus (AIV) subtypes were detected in some birds. This requires a collaboration of efforts to monitor AIV infection in wild birds and implement suitable early intervention measures. PMID:28717324

  15. Prevalence of Trichomonas, Salmonella, and Listeria in Wild Birds from Southeast Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brobey, Britni; Kucknoor, Ashwini; Armacost, Jim

    2017-09-01

    Infectious diseases can be a major threat to wildlife populations, especially in human-modified habitats, but infection rates in populations of wild animals are often poorly studied. Trichomonas, Salmonella, and Listeria are all pathogens known to infect birds, but their infection rates in wild bird populations are not well documented. This study documents infection rates of the three pathogens in wild bird populations inhabiting a suburban to rural gradient in Southeast Texas. Various species of wild birds were sampled at five sites in Southeastern Texas representing rural (Birds were captured in mist nets and samples were taken from the oral cavity, crop, and vent to detect the presence of pathogens. Samples were screened for Trichomonas by examining wet mounts under a light microscope, whereas samples were screened for Salmonella and Listeria by examining colonies grown on agar plates. Pathogens detected during the initial screening were further confirmed by PCR and DNA sequencing. Infection rates for Trichomonas, Salmonella, and Listeria were 9%, 17%, and 5%, respectively. The distributions of infection rates across habitats (i.e., rural, exurban, rural) did not differ significantly from the expected null distributions for any of the three pathogens; however, the data suggested some interesting patterns that should be confirmed with a larger dataset. Infection rates for Trichomonas and Salmonella were highest at the suburban sites, whereas the infection rate for Listeria was highest at the rural site. Feeder birds were more likely to be infected by all three pathogens than non-feeder birds. Small sample sizes prevent definitive conclusions regarding variation in infection rates along the suburban to rural gradient, but the results suggest that pathogens followed the predicted patterns. For many of the bird species sampled, this study presents the first report of infection rates by these three pathogens in wild populations.

  16. Epizootic emergence of Usutu virus in wild and captive birds in Germany.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norbert Becker

    Full Text Available This study aimed to identify the causative agent of mass mortality in wild and captive birds in southwest Germany and to gather insights into the phylogenetic relationship and spatial distribution of the pathogen. Since June 2011, 223 dead birds were collected and tested for the presence of viral pathogens. Usutu virus (USUV RNA was detected by real-time RT-PCR in 86 birds representing 6 species. The virus was isolated in cell culture from the heart of 18 Blackbirds (Turdus merula. USUV-specific antigen was demonstrated by immunohistochemistry in brain, heart, liver, and lung of infected Blackbirds. The complete polyprotein coding sequence was obtained by deep sequencing of liver and spleen samples of a dead Blackbird from Mannheim (BH65/11-02-03. Phylogenetic analysis of the German USUV strain BH65/11-02-03 revealed a close relationship with strain Vienna that caused mass mortality among birds in Austria in 2001. Wild birds from lowland river valleys in southwest Germany were mainly affected by USUV, but also birds kept in aviaries. Our data suggest that after the initial detection of USUV in German mosquitoes in 2010, the virus spread in 2011 and caused epizootics among wild and captive birds in southwest Germany. The data also indicate an increased risk of USUV infections in humans in Germany.

  17. Campylobacter jejuni Colonization in Wild Birds: Results from an Infection Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldenström, Jonas; Axelsson-Olsson, Diana; Olsen, Björn; Hasselquist, Dennis; Griekspoor, Petra; Jansson, Lena; Teneberg, Susann; Svensson, Lovisa; Ellström, Patrik

    2010-01-01

    Campylobacter jejuni is a common cause of bacterial gastroenteritis in most parts of the world. The bacterium has a broad host range and has been isolated from many animals and environments. To investigate shedding patterns and putative effects on an avian host, we developed a colonization model in which a wild bird species, the European Robin Erithacus rubecula, was inoculated orally with C. jejuni from either a human patient or from another wild bird species, the Song Thrush Turdus philomelos. These two isolates were genetically distinct from each other and provoked very different host responses. The Song Thrush isolate colonized all challenged birds and colonization lasted 6.8 days on average. Birds infected with this isolate also showed a transient but significant decrease in body mass. The human isolate did not colonize the birds and could be detected only in the feces of the birds shortly after inoculation. European Robins infected with the wild bird isolate generated a specific antibody response to C. jejuni membrane proteins from the avian isolate, which also was cross-reactive to membrane proteins of the human isolate. In contrast, European Robins infected with the human isolate did not mount a significant response to bacterial membrane proteins from either of the two isolates. The difference in colonization ability could indicate host adaptations. PMID:20140204

  18. Supplementary feeding of wild birds indirectly affects ground beetle populations in suburban gardens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orros, Melanie E; Thomas, Rebecca L; Holloway, Graham J; Fellowes, Mark D E

    Supplementary feeding of wild birds by domestic garden-holders is a globally widespread and popular form of human-wildlife interaction, particularly in urban areas. Vast amounts of energy are thus being added to garden ecosystems. However, the potential indirect effects of this activity on non-avian species have been little studied to date, with the only two previous studies taking place under experimentally manipulated conditions. Here we present the first evidence of a localised depletive effect of wild bird feeding on ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae) in suburban gardens under the usual feeding patterns of the garden-holders. We trapped significantly fewer ground beetles directly under bird-feeding stations than in matched areas of habitat away from feeders. Video analysis also revealed significantly higher activity by ground-foraging birds under the feeding stations than in the control areas. Small mammal trapping revealed no evidence that these species differ in abundance between gardens with and without bird feeders. We therefore suggest that local increases in ground-foraging activity by bird species whose diets encompass arthropods as well as seed material are responsible for the reduction in ground beetle numbers. Our work therefore illustrates that providing food for wild birds can have indirect negative effects on palatable prey species under typical conditions.

  19. Global Avian Influenza Surveillance in Wild Birds: A Strategy to Capture Viral Diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machalaba, Catherine C.; Elwood, Sarah E.; Forcella, Simona; Smith, Kristine M.; Hamilton, Keith; Jebara, Karim B.; Swayne, David E.; Webby, Richard J.; Mumford, Elizabeth; Mazet, Jonna A.K.; Gaidet, Nicolas; Daszak, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Wild birds play a major role in the evolution, maintenance, and spread of avian influenza viruses. However, surveillance for these viruses in wild birds is sporadic, geographically biased, and often limited to the last outbreak virus. To identify opportunities to optimize wild bird surveillance for understanding viral diversity, we reviewed responses to a World Organisation for Animal Health–administered survey, government reports to this organization, articles on Web of Knowledge, and the Influenza Research Database. At least 119 countries conducted avian influenza virus surveillance in wild birds during 2008–2013, but coordination and standardization was lacking among surveillance efforts, and most focused on limited subsets of influenza viruses. Given high financial and public health burdens of recent avian influenza outbreaks, we call for sustained, cost-effective investments in locations with high avian influenza diversity in wild birds and efforts to promote standardized sampling, testing, and reporting methods, including full-genome sequencing and sharing of isolates with the scientific community. PMID:25811221

  20. Characterization of velogenic Newcastle disease viruses isolated from dead wild birds in Serbia during 2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidanović, Dejan; Sekler, Milanko; Asanin, Ruzica; Milić, Nenad; Nisavić, Jakov; Petrović, Tamas; Savić, Vladimir

    2011-04-01

    Avian paramyxoviruses type 1 or Newcastle disease viruses (NDV) are frequently recovered from wild birds and such isolates are most frequently of low virulence. Velogenic NDV are usually recovered from poultry and only occasionally from wild birds. Five NDV isolates were obtained from carcasses of four wild bird species during 2007 in Serbia: Mallard (Anas platyrhynchos), Eurasian Sparrowhawk (Accipiter nisus), feral Rock Pigeon (Columba livia), and Eurasian Collared Dove (Streptopelia decaocto). All the isolates have a typical fusion protein cleavage site motif of velogenic viruses ((112)R-R-Q-K-R-F(117)). The highest homology (99%) for the nucleotide sequences spanning the M and F gene of the studied isolates was with the genotype VII NDV isolate Muscovy duck/China(Fujian)/FP1/02. Phylogenetic analysis based on a partial F gene sequence showed that the isolates from wild birds cluster together with concurrent isolates from poultry in Serbia within the subgenotype VIId, which is the predominant pathogen involved currently in Newcastle disease outbreaks in poultry worldwide. It is unlikely that the wild birds played an important role in primary introduction or consequent spread of the velogenic NDV to domestic poultry in Serbia, and they probably contracted the virus from locally infected poultry.

  1. Characterization of H7 Influenza A Virus in Wild and Domestic Birds in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Hyun-Mi; Park, Ha-Young; Lee, Kyu-Jun; Choi, Jun-Gu; Lee, Eun-Kyoung; Song, Byung-Min; Lee, Hee-Soo; Lee, Youn-Jeong

    2014-01-01

    During surveillance programs in Korea between January 2006 and March 2011, 31 H7 avian influenza viruses were isolated from wild birds and domestic ducks and genetically characterized using large-scale sequence data. All Korean H7 viruses belonged to the Eurasian lineage, which showed substantial genetic diversity, in particular in the wild birds. The Korean H7 viruses from poultry were closely related to those of wild birds. Interestingly, two viruses originating in domestic ducks in our study had the same gene constellations in all segment genes as viruses originating in wild birds. The Korean H7 isolates contained avian-type receptors (Q226 and G228), no NA stalk deletion (positions 69–73), no C-terminal deletion (positions 218–230) in NS1, and no substitutions in PB2-627, PB1-368, and M2-31, compared with H7N9 viruses. In pathogenicity experiments, none of the Korean H7 isolates tested induced clinical signs in domestic ducks or mice. Furthermore, while they replicated poorly, with low titers (10 0.7–1.3EID50/50 µl) in domestic ducks, all five viruses replicated well (up to 7–10 dpi, 10 0.7–4.3EID50/50 µl) in the lungs of mice, without prior adaptation. Our results suggest that domestic Korean viruses were transferred directly from wild birds through at least two independent introductions. Our data did not indicate that wild birds carried poultry viruses between Korea and China, but rather, that wild-type H7 viruses were introduced several times into different poultry populations in eastern Asia. PMID:24776918

  2. Characterization of H7 influenza A virus in wild and domestic birds in Korea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyun-Mi Kang

    Full Text Available During surveillance programs in Korea between January 2006 and March 2011, 31 H7 avian influenza viruses were isolated from wild birds and domestic ducks and genetically characterized using large-scale sequence data. All Korean H7 viruses belonged to the Eurasian lineage, which showed substantial genetic diversity, in particular in the wild birds. The Korean H7 viruses from poultry were closely related to those of wild birds. Interestingly, two viruses originating in domestic ducks in our study had the same gene constellations in all segment genes as viruses originating in wild birds. The Korean H7 isolates contained avian-type receptors (Q226 and G228, no NA stalk deletion (positions 69-73, no C-terminal deletion (positions 218-230 in NS1, and no substitutions in PB2-627, PB1-368, and M2-31, compared with H7N9 viruses. In pathogenicity experiments, none of the Korean H7 isolates tested induced clinical signs in domestic ducks or mice. Furthermore, while they replicated poorly, with low titers (10⁰·⁷⁻¹·³ EID₅₀/50 µl in domestic ducks, all five viruses replicated well (up to 7-10 dpi, 10⁰·⁷⁻⁴·³EID₅₀/50 µl in the lungs of mice, without prior adaptation. Our results suggest that domestic Korean viruses were transferred directly from wild birds through at least two independent introductions. Our data did not indicate that wild birds carried poultry viruses between Korea and China, but rather, that wild-type H7 viruses were introduced several times into different poultry populations in eastern Asia.

  3. Characterization of low pathogenicity avian influenza viruses isolated from wild birds in Mongolia 2005 through 2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sodnomdarjaa Ruuragchaa

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since the emergence of H5N1 high pathogenicity (HP avian influenza virus (AIV in Asia, numerous efforts worldwide have focused on elucidating the relative roles of wild birds and domestic poultry movement in virus dissemination. In accordance with this a surveillance program for AIV in wild birds was conducted in Mongolia from 2005-2007. An important feature of Mongolia is that there is little domestic poultry production in the country, therefore AIV detection in wild birds would not likely be from spill-over from domestic poultry. Results During 2005-2007 2,139 specimens representing 4,077 individual birds of 45 species were tested for AIV by real time RT-PCR (rRT-PCR and/or virus isolation. Bird age and health status were recorded. Ninety rRT-PCR AIV positive samples representing 89 individual birds of 19 species including 9 low pathogenicity (LP AIVs were isolated from 6 species. A Bar-headed goose (Anser indicus, a Whooper swan (Cygnus cygnus and 2 Ruddy shelducks (Tadorna ferruginea were positive for H12N3 LP AIV. H16N3 and H13N6 viruses were isolated from Black-headed gulls (Larus ridibundus. A Red-crested pochard (Rhodonessa rufina and 2 Mongolian gulls (Larus vagae mongolicus were positive for H3N6 and H16N6 LP AIV, respectively. Full genomes of each virus isolate were sequenced and analyzed phylogenetically and were most closely related to recent European and Asian wild bird lineage AIVs and individual genes loosely grouped by year. Reassortment occurred within and among different years and subtypes. Conclusion Detection and/or isolation of AIV infection in numerous wild bird species, including 2 which have not been previously described as hosts, reinforces the wide host range of AIV within avian species. Reassortment complexity within the genomes indicate the introduction of new AIV strains into wild bird populations annually, however there is enough over-lap of infection for reassortment to occur. Further work is

  4. Lessons learned from research and surveillance directed at highly pathogenic influenza A viruses in wild birds inhabiting North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramey, Andy M.; DeLiberto, Thomas J.; Berhane, Yohannes; Swayne, David E.; Stallknecht, David E.

    2018-01-01

    Following detections of highly pathogenic (HP) influenza A viruses (IAVs) in wild birds inhabiting East Asia after the turn of the millennium, the intensity of sampling of wild birds for IAVs increased throughout much of North America. The objectives for many research and surveillance efforts were directed towards detecting Eurasian origin HP IAVs and understanding the potential of such viruses to be maintained and dispersed by wild birds. In this review, we highlight five important lessons learned from research and surveillance directed at HP IAVs in wild birds inhabiting North America: (1) Wild birds may disperse IAVs between North America and adjacent regions via migration, (2) HP IAVs can be introduced to wild birds in North America, (3) HP IAVs may cross the wild bird-poultry interface in North America, (4) The probability of encountering and detecting a specific virus may be low, and (5) Population immunity of wild birds may influence HP IAV outbreaks in North America. We review empirical support derived from research and surveillance efforts for each lesson learned and, furthermore, identify implications for future surveillance efforts, biosecurity, and population health. We conclude our review by identifying five additional areas in which we think future mechanistic research relative to IAVs in wild birds in North America are likely to lead to other important lessons learned in the years ahead.

  5. Lessons learned from research and surveillance directed at highly pathogenic influenza A viruses in wild birds inhabiting North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramey, Andrew M; DeLiberto, Thomas J; Berhane, Yohannes; Swayne, David E; Stallknecht, David E

    2018-05-01

    Following detections of highly pathogenic (HP) influenza A viruses (IAVs) in wild birds inhabiting East Asia after the turn of the millennium, the intensity of sampling of wild birds for IAVs increased throughout much of North America. The objectives for many research and surveillance efforts were directed towards detecting Eurasian origin HP IAVs and understanding the potential of such viruses to be maintained and dispersed by wild birds. In this review, we highlight five important lessons learned from research and surveillance directed at HP IAVs in wild birds inhabiting North America: (1) Wild birds may disperse IAVs between North America and adjacent regions via migration, (2) HP IAVs can be introduced to wild birds in North America, (3) HP IAVs may cross the wild bird-poultry interface in North America, (4) The probability of encountering and detecting a specific virus may be low, and (5) Population immunity of wild birds may influence HP IAV outbreaks in North America. We review empirical support derived from research and surveillance efforts for each lesson learned and, furthermore, identify implications for future surveillance efforts, biosecurity, and population health. We conclude our review by identifying five additional areas in which we think future mechanistic research relative to IAVs in wild birds in North America are likely to lead to other important lessons learned in the years ahead. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. Transmission of influenza reflects seasonality of wild birds across the annual cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Nichola J.; Ma, Eric J.; Meixell, Brandt W.; Lindberg, Mark S.; Boyce, Walter M.; Runstadler, Jonathan A.

    2016-01-01

    Influenza A Viruses (IAV) in nature must overcome shifting transmission barriers caused by the mobility of their primary host, migratory wild birds, that change throughout the annual cycle. Using a phylogenetic network of viral sequences from North American wild birds (2008–2011) we demonstrate a shift from intraspecific to interspecific transmission that along with reassortment, allows IAV to achieve viral flow across successive seasons from summer to winter. Our study supports amplification of IAV during summer breeding seeded by overwintering virus persisting locally and virus introduced from a wide range of latitudes. As birds migrate from breeding sites to lower latitudes, they become involved in transmission networks with greater connectivity to other bird species, with interspecies transmission of reassortant viruses peaking during the winter. We propose that switching transmission dynamics may be a critical strategy for pathogens that infect mobile hosts inhabiting regions with strong seasonality.

  7. Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli in wild birds on Danish livestock farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Birthe; Skov, Marianne Nielsine; Nielsen, Eva Møller

    2016-01-01

    . The farm environment provides attractive foraging and breeding habitats for some bird species reported to carry thermophilic Campylobacter spp. We investigated the Campylobacter spp. carriage rates in 52 wild bird species present on 12 Danish farms, sampled during a winter and a summer season, in order...... feeding on a diet of animal or mixed animal and vegetable origin, foraging on the ground and vegetation in close proximity to livestock stables were more likely to carry Campylobacter spp. in both summer (P birds foraging further away from the farm or in the air. Age...... food of animal or mixed animal and vegetable origin and foraging on the ground close to livestock were more likely to carry Campylobacter spp. than those foraging further away or hunting in the air. These findings suggest that wild birds may play a role in sustaining the epidemiology of Campylobacter...

  8. Wild bird surveillance for highly pathogenic avian influenza H5 in North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flint, Paul L.; Pearce, John M.; Franson, J. Christian; Derksen, Dirk V.

    2015-01-01

    It is unknown how the current Asian origin highly pathogenic avian influenza H5 viruses arrived, but these viruses are now poised to become endemic in North America. Wild birds harbor these viruses and have dispersed them at regional scales. What is unclear is how the viruses may be moving from the wild bird reservoir into poultry holdings. Active surveillance of live wild birds is likely the best way to determine the true distribution of these viruses. We also suggest that sampling be focused on regions with the greatest risk for poultry losses and attempt to define the mechanisms of transfer to enhance biosecurity. Responding to the recent outbreaks of highly pathogenic avian influenza in North America requires an efficient plan with clear objectives and potential management outcomes.

  9. Provision of supplementary food for wild birds may increase the risk of local nest predation

    OpenAIRE

    Hanmer, Hugh J.; Thomas, Rebecca L.; Fellowes, Mark D. E.

    2017-01-01

    In countries such as the UK, USA and Australia, approximately half of households provide supplementary food for wild birds, making this the public’s most common form of active engagement with nature. Year round supplementary feeding is currently encouraged by major conservation charities in the UK as it is thought to be of benefit to bird conservation. However, little is understood of how the provision of supplementary food affects the behaviour and ecology of target and non-target species. G...

  10. Frequency of zoonotic bacteria among illegally traded wild birds in Rio de Janeiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alexandre Rey Matias

    Full Text Available Abstract The illegal wildlife trade may increase the risk of infectious disease transmission, and it may not only cause disease outbreaks in humans but also threaten livestock, native wild populations, and ecosystems' health. Bird species may act as carriers in the transmission of enteric pathogens. However, epidemiological studies on zoonotic bacteria in wild birds are rare in Brazil. From March 2011 to March 2012, we investigated the frequency of Enterobacteriaceae in cloacal swab samples from 109 birds of the passerine and Psittacidae families. These birds were recovered from illegal trade in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, and sent to a rehabilitation center. Gram-negative bacteria were isolated from 86 wild birds (78.9%. A mean (±SD of 1.68 (±1.30 different bacterial species were isolated per bird, with a maximum of five bacterial species from three bird species. The most frequently isolated bacteria were Escherichia coli, followed by Enterobacter spp., Klebsiella pneumoniae and other enteric bacteria. Salmonella ser. Typhimurium was isolated from a Temminck's seedeater (Sporophila falcirostris, and two Salmonella ser. Panama were isolated from two specimens of chestnut-capped blackbird (Chrysomus ruficapillus. Of the 70 selected bacterial isolates, 60 exhibited antibiotic resistance. The resistance patterns varied from one to nine of the antibiotics tested. Resistance to ceftiofur was the most prevalent, followed by ampicillin and ceftriaxone. The dissemination potential of resistant strains in situations typically seen in the management of captive birds may become a problem for the conservation of natural bird populations and for public health.

  11. First isolation of Salmonella enterica serovar Napoli from wild birds in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Mancini

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Salmonella enterica serovar Napoli (S. Napoli is an emerging serovar in Italy. It accounts for 2-4% of all serovars isolated from human infections. The zoonotic origin of this serovar is still unknown and this makes difficult to apply any control intervention. We report here the isolation of S. Napoli from a river nightingale (Cettia cetti, Temminck 1820 which represents the first description of this serovar from wild birds. This finding adds knowledge to the ecology of S. Napoli and addresses further studies aimed to assess the epidemiologic link between S. Napoli isolated from wild birds, food, environmental sources and human infections.

  12. Pasteurella multocida from outbreaks of avian cholera in wild and captive birds in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Karl; Dietz, Hans-Henrik; Jørgensen, J.C.

    2003-01-01

    An outbreak of avian cholera was observed among wild birds in a few localities in Denmark in 2001. The highest mortalities were among breeding ciders (Somateria mollissima) and gulls (Larus spp.). Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) was conducted using ApaI and SmaI as restriction enzymes...... the outbreak strain. Among 68 isolates from wild birds, only one PFGE and one REA pattern were demonstrated, whereas among 23 isolates from domestic poultry, 14 different SmaI, 12 different ApaI, and 10 different HpaII patterns were found. The results suggest that a P. multocida strain has survived during...

  13. Differences in knowledge about birds and their conservation between rural and urban residents of Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edgar O. Vazquez-Plass; Joseph M. Wunderle

    2010-01-01

    People’s knowledge of birds and the opinions and perceptions about specific issues related to the conservation of birds were quantified in rural and urban communities in northeastern Puerto Rico. Data were collected using questionnaires in interviews with 131 citizens haphazardly selected within the study site. Our results indicate that urban residents had a...

  14. Long-term decline of a winter-resident bird community in Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. Faaborg; W. J. Arendt; J. D. Toms; K. M. Dugger; W. A. Cox; M. Canals Mora

    2013-01-01

    Despite concern expressed two decades ago, there has been little recent discussion about continuing declines of migrant bird populations. Monitoring efforts have been focused almost exclusively on the breeding grounds. We describe the long-term decline of a winter-resident bird population in Guanica Commonwealth Forest, Puerto Rico, one of the last remaining tracts of...

  15. Essential and toxic elements in meat of wild birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roselli, Carla; Desideri, Donatella; Meli, Maria Assunta; Fagiolino, Ivan; Feduzi, Laura

    2016-01-01

    Essential and toxic elements were determined by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES), mass spectrometry (MS), and atomic absorption (AS) in meat of 14 migratory birds originating from central and northern Europe to provide baseline data regarding game meat consumed in central Italy. In all samples analyzed, cobalt (Co) and chromium (Cr) (total) levels were meat. These findings indicate that elevated Pb concentrations in game ingested by humans may be a cause for concern.

  16. Foraging traces as an indicator to monitor wild boar impact on ground nesting birds.

    OpenAIRE

    Roda , Fabrice; Roda , Jean-Marc

    2016-01-01

    The successful management of large herbivores requires the monitoring of a set of indicators of ecological change describing animal performance, relative animal abundance, and ungulate impact on habitat. Wild boar populations increases have been spectacular in many countries including France. Wild boars can have a substantial environmental impact on many ecosystem components including birds, but indicators to monitor such impact are currently lacking. In this paper, we examined the usefulness...

  17. Low heritability of nest construction in a wild bird.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Järvinen, Pauliina; Kluen, Edward; Brommer, Jon E

    2017-10-01

    In birds and other taxa, nest construction varies considerably between and within populations. Such variation is hypothesized to have an adaptive (i.e. genetic) basis, but estimates of heritability in nest construction are largely lacking. Here, we demonstrate with data collected over 10 years from 1010 nests built by blue tits in nest-boxes that nest size (height of nest material) and nest composition (proportion of feathers in the nest) are repeatable but only weakly (12-13%) heritable female traits. These findings imply that nest construction may evolve but only if subjected to strong and consistent selection pressures. © 2017 The Author(s).

  18. Different environmental drivers of highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 outbreaks in poultry and wild birds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Si, Y.; Boer, de W.F.; Gong, P.

    2013-01-01

    A large number of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 outbreaks in poultry and wild birds have been reported in Europe since 2005. Distinct spatial patterns in poultry and wild birds suggest that different environmental drivers and potentially different spread mechanisms are operating.

  19. The pathogenicity of avian metapneumovirus subtype C wild bird isolates in domestic turkeys

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    Cha Ra Mi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Avian metapneumovirus subtype C (aMPV/C causes severe upper respiratory disease in turkeys. Previous report revealed the presence of aMPV/C in wild birds in the southeast regions of the U.S. Methods In this study, aMPV/C positive oral swabs from American coots (AC and Canada geese (CG were passaged three times in the respiratory tract of specific pathogen free (SPF turkeys and used as aMPV/C P3 virus isolates in subsequent studies. Results Wild bird P3 isolates showed similar growth characteristics when compared to virulent aMPV/C in chicken embryo fibroblast ( CEF cell cultures and their glycoprotein G gene sequence was closely related to the G gene of aMPV/C Colorado reference virus. Three-day-old commercial or SPF turkeys were inoculated oculonasally with wild bird aMPV/C P3 isolates. At 5 and 7 days post-inoculation (DPI, severe clinical signs were observed in both of the AC and CG virus-exposed groups. Viral RNA was detected in tracheal swabs by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR. In addition, immunohistochemistry showed virus replication in the nasal turbinate and trachea. All virus-exposed turkeys developed positive antibody response by 14 DPI. Conclusions Our data demonstrate that aMPV/C wild bird isolates induced typical aMPV/C disease in the domestic turkeys.

  20. Novel Eurasian Highly Pathogenic Influenza A H5 Viruses in Wild Birds, Washington, USA, 2014

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-03-24

    Sarah Gregory reads an abridged version of the article, Novel Eurasian Highly Pathogenic Influenza A H5 Viruses in Wild Birds, Washington, USA, 2014.  Created: 3/24/2015 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 4/13/2015.

  1. Genetic Analysis of Avian Influenza Virus from Wild Birds and Mallards Reared for Shooting in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Handberg, Kurt; Therkildsen, O. R.; Jørgensen, Poul Henrik

    2010-01-01

    related with genes from AIV circulating in northern Europe. For the Danish sequences only the PB2 and NS genes differ, so they cluster to more than one cluster in the phylogenetic trees. In spring 2006, highly pathogenic (HP) AIV H5N1 was detected in 44 cases of wild birds in Denmark. Sequence analysis...

  2. The pathogenicity of avian metapneumovirus subtype C wild bird isolates in domestic turkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Ra Mi; Yu, Qingzhong; Zsak, Laszlo

    2013-01-30

    Avian metapneumovirus subtype C (aMPV/C) causes severe upper respiratory disease in turkeys. Previous report revealed the presence of aMPV/C in wild birds in the southeast regions of the U.S. In this study, aMPV/C positive oral swabs from American coots (AC) and Canada geese (CG) were passaged three times in the respiratory tract of specific pathogen free (SPF) turkeys and used as aMPV/C P3 virus isolates in subsequent studies. Wild bird P3 isolates showed similar growth characteristics when compared to virulent aMPV/C in chicken embryo fibroblast ( CEF) cell cultures and their glycoprotein G gene sequence was closely related to the G gene of aMPV/C Colorado reference virus. Three-day-old commercial or SPF turkeys were inoculated oculonasally with wild bird aMPV/C P3 isolates. At 5 and 7 days post-inoculation (DPI), severe clinical signs were observed in both of the AC and CG virus-exposed groups. Viral RNA was detected in tracheal swabs by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). In addition, immunohistochemistry showed virus replication in the nasal turbinate and trachea. All virus-exposed turkeys developed positive antibody response by 14 DPI. Our data demonstrate that aMPV/C wild bird isolates induced typical aMPV/C disease in the domestic turkeys.

  3. The evolutionary genetics and emergence of avian influenza viruses in wild birds.

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    Vivien G Dugan

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available We surveyed the genetic diversity among avian influenza virus (AIV in wild birds, comprising 167 complete viral genomes from 14 bird species sampled in four locations across the United States. These isolates represented 29 type A influenza virus hemagglutinin (HA and neuraminidase (NA subtype combinations, with up to 26% of isolates showing evidence of mixed subtype infection. Through a phylogenetic analysis of the largest data set of AIV genomes compiled to date, we were able to document a remarkably high rate of genome reassortment, with no clear pattern of gene segment association and occasional inter-hemisphere gene segment migration and reassortment. From this, we propose that AIV in wild birds forms transient "genome constellations," continually reshuffled by reassortment, in contrast to the spread of a limited number of stable genome constellations that characterizes the evolution of mammalian-adapted influenza A viruses.

  4. Verocytotoxin-producing Escherichia coli in wild birds and rodents in close proximity to farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Eva Møller; Skov, Marianne; Madsen, Jesper J.

    2004-01-01

    Wild animals living close to cattle and pig farms (four each) were examined for verocytotoxin-producing Escherichia coli (VTEC; also known as Shiga toxin-producing E. coli). The prevalence of VTEC among the 260 samples from wild animals was generally low. However, VTEC isolates from a starling...... (Sturnus vulgaris) and a Norway rat (Rattus norvegicus) were identical to cattle isolates from the corresponding farms with respect to serotype, virulence profile, and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis type. This study shows that wild birds and rodents may become infected from farm animals or vice versa...

  5. Model-based evaluation of highly and low pathogenic avian influenza dynamics in wild birds.

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    Viviane Hénaux

    Full Text Available There is growing interest in avian influenza (AI epidemiology to predict disease risk in wild and domestic birds, and prevent transmission to humans. However, understanding the epidemic dynamics of highly pathogenic (HPAI viruses remains challenging because they have rarely been detected in wild birds. We used modeling to integrate available scientific information from laboratory and field studies, evaluate AI dynamics in individual hosts and waterfowl populations, and identify key areas for future research. We developed a Susceptible-Exposed-Infectious-Recovered (SEIR model and used published laboratory challenge studies to estimate epidemiological parameters (rate of infection, latency period, recovery and mortality rates, considering the importance of age classes, and virus pathogenicity. Infectious contact leads to infection and virus shedding within 1-2 days, followed by relatively slower period for recovery or mortality. We found a shorter infectious period for HPAI than low pathogenic (LP AI, which may explain that HPAI has been much harder to detect than LPAI during surveillance programs. Our model predicted a rapid LPAI epidemic curve, with a median duration of infection of 50-60 days and no fatalities. In contrast, HPAI dynamics had lower prevalence and higher mortality, especially in young birds. Based on field data from LPAI studies, our model suggests to increase surveillance for HPAI in post-breeding areas, because the presence of immunologically naïve young birds is predicted to cause higher HPAI prevalence and bird losses during this season. Our results indicate a better understanding of the transmission, infection, and immunity-related processes is required to refine predictions of AI risk and spread, improve surveillance for HPAI in wild birds, and develop disease control strategies to reduce potential transmission to domestic birds and/or humans.

  6. Model-based evaluation of highly and low pathogenic avian influenza dynamics in wild birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hénaux, Viviane; Samuel, Michael D.; Bunck, Christine M.

    2010-01-01

    There is growing interest in avian influenza (AI) epidemiology to predict disease risk in wild and domestic birds, and prevent transmission to humans. However, understanding the epidemic dynamics of highly pathogenic (HPAI) viruses remains challenging because they have rarely been detected in wild birds. We used modeling to integrate available scientific information from laboratory and field studies, evaluate AI dynamics in individual hosts and waterfowl populations, and identify key areas for future research. We developed a Susceptible-Exposed-Infectious-Recovered (SEIR) model and used published laboratory challenge studies to estimate epidemiological parameters (rate of infection, latency period, recovery and mortality rates), considering the importance of age classes, and virus pathogenicity. Infectious contact leads to infection and virus shedding within 1–2 days, followed by relatively slower period for recovery or mortality. We found a shorter infectious period for HPAI than low pathogenic (LP) AI, which may explain that HPAI has been much harder to detect than LPAI during surveillance programs. Our model predicted a rapid LPAI epidemic curve, with a median duration of infection of 50–60 days and no fatalities. In contrast, HPAI dynamics had lower prevalence and higher mortality, especially in young birds. Based on field data from LPAI studies, our model suggests to increase surveillance for HPAI in post-breeding areas, because the presence of immunologically naïve young birds is predicted to cause higher HPAI prevalence and bird losses during this season. Our results indicate a better understanding of the transmission, infection, and immunity-related processes is required to refine predictions of AI risk and spread, improve surveillance for HPAI in wild birds, and develop disease control strategies to reduce potential transmission to domestic birds and/or humans.

  7. Serologic evidence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in wild birds and mammals from southeast Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitaliano, Sérgio Netto; Soares, Herbert Sousa; Pena, Hilda Fáitima de Jesus; Dubey, Jitender Prakash; Gennari, Solange Maria

    2014-03-01

    In this study, serum samples of 53 wild animals from two different states from the southeast region of Brazil were analyzed for the presence of anti-Toxoplasma gondii antibodies by the modified agglutination test (MAT), with a cut-off of 1: 5 for birds and of 1: 25 for mammals. Out of the sampled animals, 27 were birds and 26 were mammals, and from this total, 83% (n = 44) were free-living animals. Antibodies were found in 13 mammals, from which 11 were free-living animals, and in five birds, all of which were free-living. In this study, T. gondii antibodies were detected in four bird species (crested seriema, Cariama cristata; buff-necked ibis, Theristicus caudatus; picazuro pigeon, Patagioenas picazuro; and burrowing owl, Athene cunicularia) and in a giant anteater (Myrmecophaga tridactyla) for the first time.

  8. Characterization and zoonotic impact of Shiga toxin producing Escherichia coli in some wild bird species

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    Hanaa Mohamed Fadel

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Wild birds are considered silent vectors of some zoonotic water and food borne pathogens of public health significance. Owing to the importance of Shiga toxin producing Escherichia coli (STEC as the most pathogenic among the emerging diarrheagenic E. coli groups that can infect man; the present study was designed to detect the occurrence of STEC among wild birds in Egypt. Materials and Methods: A total of 177 intestinal content swab samples originating from five wild bird species were investigated for the presence of E. coli and STEC by standard culture methods. Suspect STEC isolates were further characterized by serotyping, random amplified polymorphic DNA polymerase chain reaction (RAPD PCR, antimicrobial resistance pattern and PCR detection of stx1, stx2, and eae genes. Results: A total of 30 suspect STEC isolates from 30 positive birds' samples were detected and identified on STEC CHROMagar (semi-captive pigeons, 15; house crows, 8; cattle egrets, 3; moorhens, 2; and house teals, 2. 25 isolates were grouped into 13 serogroups (O:20, O:25, O:26, O:27, O:63, O:78, O:111, O:114, O:125, O:128, O:142, O:153, and O:158, while five were rough strains. The distribution of STEC virulence genes among wild birds was as follows: 16 birds carried stx1 gene only (nine pigeons [28.1%], six crows [7.1%], and one cattle egret [5.6%]. stx1 and stx2 genes together were detected in four birds (one cattle egret [5.6%], two moorhens [6.1%], and one house teal, [10%]. Only one pigeon (3.1% possessed the three alleles. Disk diffusion test results showed that cefixime was the most effective against STEC serotypes with (93.3% sensitivity, followed by gentamycin (56.7%, and amoxicillin (50%. On the other hand, all the recovered STEC isolates were resistant to cefotaxime, doxycycline, cephalothin, and sulfisoxazole. RAPD fingerprinting using primers OPA-2 and OPA-9 showed that STEC isolates were heterogeneous; they yielded 30 and 27 different clusters

  9. First time identification of Acanthamoeba genotypes in the cornea samples of wild birds; Is Acanthamoeba keratitis making the predatory birds a target?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karakavuk, Muhammet; Aykur, Mehmet; Şahar, Esra Atalay; Karakuş, Mehmet; Aldemir, Duygu; Döndüren, Ömer; Özdemir, Hüseyin Gökhan; Can, Hüseyin; Gürüz, Adnan Yüksel; Dağcı, Hande; Döşkaya, Mert

    2017-12-01

    Acanthamoeba is a free-living amoeba which can be isolated from environment and among others well known as an opportunist protozoan parasite causing infections in humans and animals. Eyes are extremely important for the wild birds and losing sight ability due to Acanthamoeba can be dangerous. The studies on Acanthamoeba infection in wild birds is very few in world and Turkey therefore we aimed to screen deceased wild birds found in İzmir and Manisa provinces located in western Turkey using PCR and non-nutrition agar (NNA) plate method. Cornea samples were obtained from 18 deceased wild birds. During the external examination, signs of keratitis were observed in two Eurasian sparrowhawks (Accipiter nisus). All of the corneal samples were analyzed by two PCR methods and NNA plate. According to results, the Acanthamoeba positivity in corneal samples was 16.6% and 5.5% by PCR and plate method, respectively. According to sequencing data, two of isolates belonged to genotype T5 and one was genotype T4. In conclusion, Acanthamoeba infection was detected in wild bird cornea samples with/without keratitis for the first time in the world. The result of this study also show that Acanthamoeba can be a cause of keratitis in wild birds of Turkey and thus these predator birds can be a target of other wild animals due to loss of sight ability. In terms of public health, these results show the importance of wild birds as a source of Acanthamoeba infection in nature. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Carotenoid coloration is related to fat digestion efficiency in a wild bird

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madonia, Christina; Hutton, Pierce; Giraudeau, Mathieu; Sepp, Tuul

    2017-12-01

    Some of the most spectacular visual signals found in the animal kingdom are based on dietarily derived carotenoid pigments (which cannot be produced de novo), with a general assumption that carotenoids are limited resources for wild organisms, causing trade-offs in allocation of carotenoids to different physiological functions and ornamentation. This resource trade-off view has been recently questioned, since the efficiency of carotenoid processing may relax the trade-off between allocation toward condition or ornamentation. This hypothesis has so far received little exploratory support, since studies of digestive efficiency of wild animals are limited due to methodological difficulties. Recently, a method for quantifying the percentage of fat in fecal samples to measure digestive efficiency has been developed in birds. Here, we use this method to test if the intensity of the carotenoid-based coloration predicts digestive efficiency in a wild bird, the house finch ( Haemorhous mexicanus). The redness of carotenoid feather coloration (hue) positively predicted digestion efficiency, with redder birds being more efficient at absorbing fats from seeds. We show for the first time in a wild species that digestive efficiency predicts ornamental coloration. Though not conclusive due to the correlative nature of our study, these results strongly suggest that fat extraction might be a crucial but overlooked process behind many ornamental traits.

  11. Experimental evidence for adaptive personalities in a wild passerine bird

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolaus, Marion; Tinbergen, Joost M.; Bouwman, Karen M.; Michler, Stephanie P. M.; Ubels, Richard; Both, Christiaan; Kempenaers, Bart; Dingemanse, Niels J.

    2012-01-01

    Individuals of the same species differ consistently in risky actions. Such ‘animal personality’ variation is intriguing because behavioural flexibility is often assumed to be the norm. Recent theory predicts that between-individual differences in propensity to take risks should evolve if individuals differ in future fitness expectations: individuals with high long-term fitness expectations (i.e. that have much to lose) should behave consistently more cautious than individuals with lower expectations. Consequently, any manipulation of future fitness expectations should result in within-individual changes in risky behaviour in the direction predicted by this adaptive theory. We tested this prediction and confirmed experimentally that individuals indeed adjust their ‘exploration behaviour’, a proxy for risk-taking behaviour, to their future fitness expectations. We show for wild great tits (Parus major) that individuals with experimentally decreased survival probability become faster explorers (i.e. increase risk-taking behaviour) compared to individuals with increased survival probability. We also show, using quantitative genetics approaches, that non-genetic effects (i.e. permanent environment effects) underpin adaptive personality variation in this species. This study thereby confirms a key prediction of adaptive personality theory based on life-history trade-offs, and implies that selection may indeed favour the evolution of personalities in situations where individuals differ in future fitness expectations. PMID:23097506

  12. Prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in wild birds in Durango, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarado-Esquivel, C; Rajendran, C; Ferreira, L R; Kwok, O C H; Choudhary, S; Alvarado-Esquivel, D; Rodríguez-Peña, S; Villena, I; Dubey, J P

    2011-10-01

    There is a lack of information concerning the prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in wild birds in Mexico. In the present study, serum samples and tissues from 653 birds from Durango State, Mexico, were evaluated for T. gondii infection. Antibodies to T. gondii (modified agglutination test, titer 1∶25 or higher) were found in 17 (2.6%) of the 653 birds, including 1 of 2 curve-billed thrashers (Toxostoma curvirostre), 2 (1 Anas platyrhynchos, 1 Anas diazi) of 4 ducks, 1 of 2 eagles (Aquila sp.), 5 (27.8%) of 18 great-tailed grackles (Quiscalus mexicanus), 7 (1.3%) of 521 rock pigeons (Columba livia), and 1 (14.3%) of 7 quail (Coturnix coturnix). The seroprevalence of T. gondii infection in birds captured in a park outside the city zoo (11.6%, 8/69) was significantly higher than that found in birds from other regions (1.5%, 9/584, OR  =  8.38; 95% CI: 2.82-24.77; P  =  0.0001). Brains and hearts of 23 birds (17 seropositive, 6 seronegative) were bioassayed in mice for the isolation of T. gondii . Viable T. gondii was isolated from 1 of 7 seropositive pigeons. The DNA obtained from the T. gondii isolate from the pigeon was genotyped using the PCR-RFLP typing using 11 markers (B1, SAG1, SAG2, SAG3, BTUB, GRA6, c22-8, c29-2, L358, PK1, and Apico) and revealed an atypical genotype. This is the first report of T. gondii infection in great-tailed grackles, the Mexican duck, and curved-billed thrashers and the first survey of wild birds in Mexico.

  13. Wild birds as hosts of Amblyomma cajennense (Fabricius, 1787 (Acari: Ixodidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosario Rojas

    1999-05-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated the prevalence, mean intensity and relative density of ticks in 467 wild birds of 67 species (12 families from forest and cerrado habitats at two protected areas of Minas Gerais, between March and September 1997. Ticks collected (n=177 were identified as larvae and nymphs of Amblyomma cajennense and four other species of Amblyomma. We report for the first time 28 bird species as hosts of the immature stages of A. cajennense, demonstrating the lack of host specificity of the larvae and nymphs. A. cajennense had 15% prevalence on birds, with a mean infestation intensity of 0.37 ticks per host sampled, and 2.5 ticks per infested bird. Prevalence varied in relation to host species, diet and between birds from forests at two successional stages. There were no differences in relation to host forest dependence, participation in mixed flocks of birds, and nest type constructed. A. cajennense is a species of medical and veterinary importance, occurring on domestic animals but is known little of its occurrence on wildlife.

  14. Levels and profiles of persistent organic pollutants in resident and migratory birds from an urbanized coastal region of South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Sang Hee; Shim, Won Joon; Han, Gi Myung; Ha, Sung Yong; Jang, Mi; Rani, Manviri; Hong, Sunwook; Yeo, Gwang Yeong

    2014-02-01

    Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) levels in resident and migratory birds collected from an urbanized coastal region of South Korea were investigated. As target species, resident birds that reside in different habitats-such as inland and coastal regions-were selected and their POP contamination status and accumulation features evaluated. Additionally, winter and summer migratory species were analysed for comparison with resident birds. Black-tailed gull and domestic pigeon were selected as the coastal and inland resident birds, respectively, and pacific loon and heron/egret were selected as the winter and summer migratory birds, respectively. The overall POP concentrations (unit: ng/g lipid) in resident birds were 14-131,000 (median: 13,400) for PCBs, 40-284,000 (11,200) for DDTs, urban resident bird such as pigeon, an intentional intake of dust or soils during feeding is likely to be an additional route of exposure to POPs. Resident birds generally accumulated higher POPs concentrations than migratory birds, the exceptions being relatively volatile compounds such as HCB, PeCB and HCHs. © 2013.

  15. Fear and exploration in European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris: a comparison of hand-reared and wild-caught birds.

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    Gesa Feenders

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The revision of EU legislation will ban the use of wild-caught animals in scientific procedures. This change is partially predicated on the assumption that captive-rearing produces animals with reduced fearfulness. Previously, we have shown that hand-reared starlings (Sturnus vulgaris indeed exhibit reduced fear of humans compared to wild-caught conspecifics. Here, we asked whether this reduction in fear in hand-reared birds is limited to fear of humans or extends more generally to fear of novel environments and novel objects. Comparing 6-8 month old birds hand-reared in the lab with age-matched birds caught from the wild as fledged juveniles a minimum of 1 month previously, we examined the birds' initial reactions in a novel environment (a small cage and found that wild-caught starlings were faster to initiate movement compared to the hand-reared birds. We interpret this difference as evidence for greater escape motivation in the wild-caught birds. In contrast, we found no differences between hand-reared and wild-caught birds when tested in novel object tests assumed to measure neophobia and exploratory behaviour. Moreover, we found no correlations between individual bird's responses in the different tests, supporting the idea that these measure different traits (e.g. fear and exploration. In summary, our data show that developmental origin affects one measure of response to novelty in young starlings, indicative of a difference in either fear or coping style in a stressful situation. Our data contribute to a growing literature demonstrating effects of early-life experience on later behaviour in a range of species. However, since we did not find consistent evidence for reduced fearfulness in hand-reared birds, we remain agnostic about the welfare benefits of hand-rearing as a method for sourcing wild birds for behavioural and physiological research.

  16. Seroprevalence survey of avian influenza A (H5) in wild migratory birds in Yunnan Province, Southwestern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Hua; Dai, Feiyan; Liu, Zili; Yuan, Feizhou; Zhao, Siyue; Xiang, Xun; Zou, Fengcai; Zeng, Bangquan; Fan, Yating; Duan, Gang

    2014-02-03

    Highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) is a highly contagious disease which is a zoonotic pathogen of significant economic and public health concern. The outbreaks caused by HPAIV H5N1 of Asian origin have caused animal and human disease and mortality in several countries of Southeast Asia, such as Bangladesh, Cambodia, China, India, Indonesia, Laos, Myanmar, Thailand and Viet Nam. For the first time since 1961, this HPAIV has also caused extensive mortality in wild birds and has sparked debate of the role wild birds have played in the spread of this virus. Other than confirmed mortality events, little is known of this virus in wild birds. There is no report on the seroprevalence of avian influenza H5 infection in wild migratory birds in Yunnan Province. In this study we examined live wild birds in Yunnan Province for H5 specific antibody to better understand the occurrence of this disease in free living birds. Sera from 440 wild birds were collected from in Kunming and Northern Ailaoshan of Yunnan Province, Southwestern China, and assayed for H5 antibodies using the hemagglutination inhibition (HI) assays. The investigation revealed that the seroprevalence of avian influenza H5 was as following: Ciconiiformes 2.6%, Strigiformes 13.04%, Passeriformes 20%, Cuculiformes 21.74%, Gruiformes 0%, Columbiformes 0%, Charadriiformes 0% and Coraciiformes 0%. Statistical analyses showed that there was a significant difference of prevalence between the orders (P avian influenza H5 antibodies were detected in 23 of 440 (5.23%) sera. Mean HI titer 23 positive sera against H5 were 5.4 log₂. The results of the present survey indicated that the proportion of wild birds had previously infected AIV H5 at other times of the year. To our knowledge, this is the first seroprevalence report of avian influenza H5 infection in wild migratory birds in China' s southwestern Yunnan Province. The results of the present survey have significant public health concerns.

  17. Alaskan birds at risk: Widespread beak deformities in resident species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Hemert, Caroline R.

    2007-01-01

    The team creeps silently across a well-tended lawn, eyes drawn to a small wooden box perched several meters up a lone birch tree. The first biologist is armed with a broom in one hand and a bug net in the other. Her partner wields a lunchbox-sized plastic case and a tree-climbing ladder that looks like an oversized radio antenna. A neighbor peers out her window from across the street to watch the unusual spectacle.A small black-and-white bird zips toward the box’s tiny, round opening and both women raise binoculars to their eyes in synchrony. A specific combination of metal and colored plastic bands on the bird’s legs identify this Black-capped Chickadee, which was banded two years earlier as a nestling. “It’s the female,” Colleen Handel whispers, and Lisa Pajot nods as they duck behind the cover of a large spruce tree. The bird - named “Red-white-red”, in reference to her color bands - appeared healthy in the nest as well as the following winter, when she was caught in a mist net set up nearby. The next summer, however, “Red-white-red” appeared at a residential nest box with a severely deformed beak. The overgrowth worsened, and, now, the upper mandible curves down and back toward her breast, while the lower extends up, crossing the upper at a nearly 90-degree angle. The effect is sobering. Even from a distance, this teacup-sized bird carries a conspicuous appendage that more closely resembles a pair of mangled scissors than any recognizable seed-cracking beak.

  18. Influenza a virus migration and persistence in North American wild birds.

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    Justin Bahl

    Full Text Available Wild birds have been implicated in the emergence of human and livestock influenza. The successful prediction of viral spread and disease emergence, as well as formulation of preparedness plans have been hampered by a critical lack of knowledge of viral movements between different host populations. The patterns of viral spread and subsequent risk posed by wild bird viruses therefore remain unpredictable. Here we analyze genomic data, including 287 newly sequenced avian influenza A virus (AIV samples isolated over a 34-year period of continuous systematic surveillance of North American migratory birds. We use a Bayesian statistical framework to test hypotheses of viral migration, population structure and patterns of genetic reassortment. Our results reveal that despite the high prevalence of Charadriiformes infected in Delaware Bay this host population does not appear to significantly contribute to the North American AIV diversity sampled in Anseriformes. In contrast, influenza viruses sampled from Anseriformes in Alberta are representative of the AIV diversity circulating in North American Anseriformes. While AIV may be restricted to specific migratory flyways over short time frames, our large-scale analysis showed that the long-term persistence of AIV was independent of bird flyways with migration between populations throughout North America. Analysis of long-term surveillance data provides vital insights to develop appropriately informed predictive models critical for pandemic preparedness and livestock protection.

  19. Occurrence of West Nile Virus Antibodies in Wild Birds, Horses, and Humans in Poland

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    Jowita Samanta Niczyporuk

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Serum samples of 474 wild birds, 378 horses, and 42 humans with meningitis and lymphocytic meningitis were collected between 2010 and 2014 from different areas of Poland. West Nile virus (WNV antibodies were detected using competition enzyme linked immunosorbent assays: ELISA-1 ID Screen West Nile Competition, IDvet, ELISA-2 ID Screen West Nile IgM Capture, and ELISA-3 Ingezim West Nile Compac. The antibodies were found in 63 (13.29% out of 474 wild bird serum samples and in one (0.26% out of 378 horse serum samples. Fourteen (33.33% out of 42 sera from patients were positive against WNV antigen and one serum was doubtful. Positive samples obtained in birds were next retested with virus microneutralisation test to confirm positive results and cross-reactions with other antigens of the Japanese encephalitis complex. We suspect that positive serological results in humans, birds, and horses indicate that WNV can be somehow closely related with the ecosystem in Poland.

  20. Accumulation features of persistent organochlorines in resident and migratory birds from Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunisue, Tatsuya; Watanabe, Mafumi; Subramanian, Annamalai; Sethuraman, Alagappan; Titenko, Alexei M.; Qui, Vo; Prudente, Maricar; Tanabe, Shinsuke

    2003-01-01

    Accumulation features of persistent organochlorines in migratory birds from Asia did not necessarily reflect only the pollution in the sampling area. - Concentrations of organochlorine contaminants including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane and its metabolites (DDTs), hexachlorocyclohexane isomers (HCHs), chlordane compounds (CHLs), hexachlorobenzene (HCB) were determined in the resident and migratory birds, which were collected from India, Japan, Philippines, Russia (Lake Baikal) and Vietnam. Accumulation patterns of organochlorine concentrations in resident birds suggested that the predominant contaminants of each country were as follows: Japan-PCBs Philippines-PCBs and CHLs, India-HCHs and DDTs, Vietnam-DDTs, and Lake Baikal-PCBs and DDTs. The migratory birds from Philippines and Vietnam retained mostly the highest concentrations of DDTs among the organochlorines analyzed, indicating the presence of stopover and breeding grounds of those birds in China and Russia. On the other hand, migratory birds from India and Lake Baikal showed different patterns of organochlorine residues, reflecting that each species has inherent migratory routes and thus has exposure to different contaminants. Species which have breeding grounds around the Red Sea and Persian Gulf showed high levels of PCBs, indicating the presence of areas heavily polluted by PCBs in the Middle East

  1. Patterns of forest use and endemism in resident bird communities of north-central Michoacan, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santiago Garcia; Deborah M. Finch; Gilberto Chavez. Leon

    1998-01-01

    We compared breeding avian communities among 11 habitat types in north-central Michoacan, Mexico, to determine patterns of forest use by endemic and nonendemic resident species. Point counts of birds and vegetation measurements were conducted at 124 sampling localities from May through July, in 1994 and 1995. Six native forest types sampled were pine, pine-oak, oak-...

  2. Deaths among wild birds during highly pathogenic avian influenza A(H5N8) virus outbreak, the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleyheeg, Erik; Slaterus, Roy; Bodewes, Rogier; Rijks, Jolianne M.; Spierenburg, Marcel A.H.; Beerens, Nancy; Kelder, Leon; Poen, Marjolein J.; Stegeman, Jan A.; Fouchier, Ron A.M.; Kuiken, Thijs; Jeugd, van der Henk P.

    2017-01-01

    During autumn–winter 2016–2017, highly pathogenic avian influenza A(H5N8) viruses caused mass die-offs among wild birds in the Netherlands. Among the ≈13,600 birds reported dead, most were tufted ducks (Aythya fuligula) and Eurasian wigeons (Anas penelope). Recurrence of avian influenza outbreaks

  3. Avian influenza virus wild bird surveillance in the Azov and Black Sea regions of Ukraine (2010-2011)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Azov and Black Sea basins are part of the transcontinental wild bird migration routes from Northern Asia and Europe to the Mediterranean, Africa and Southwest Asia. These regions constitute an area of transit, stops during migration, and nesting for many different bird species. From September ...

  4. Surveillance for highly pathogenic avian influenza virus in wild birds during outbreaks in domestic poultry, Minnesota, 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennelle, Christopher S.; Carstensen, Michelle; Hildebrand, Erik C.; Cornicelli, Louis; Wolf, Paul C.; Grear, Daniel A.; Ip, Hon S.; VanDalen, Kaci K.; Minicucci, Larissa A.

    2016-01-01

    In 2015, a major outbreak of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) infection devastated poultry facilities in Minnesota, USA. To clarify the role of wild birds, we tested 3,139 waterfowl fecal samples and 104 sick and dead birds during March 9–June 4, 2015. HPAIV was isolated from a Cooper’s hawk but not from waterfowl.

  5. Deaths among Wild Birds during Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza A(H5N8) Virus Outbreak, the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleyheeg, Erik; Slaterus, Roy; Bodewes, Rogier; Rijks, Jolianne M.; Spierenburg, Marcel A.H.; Beerens, Nancy; Kelder, Leon; Poen, Marjolein J.; Stegeman, Jan A.; Fouchier, Ron A. M.; Kuiken, Thijs; Jeugd, Henk P. van der

    2017-01-01

    During autumn–winter 2016–2017, highly pathogenic avian influenza A(H5N8) viruses caused mass die-offs among wild birds in the Netherlands. Among the ≈13,600 birds reported dead, most were tufted ducks (Aythya fuligula) and Eurasian wigeons (Anas penelope). Recurrence of avian influenza outbreaks

  6. Use of FTA sampling cards for molecular detection of avian influenza virus in wild birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeler, Shamus P; Ferro, Pamela J; Brown, Justin D; Fang, Xingwang; El-Attrache, John; Poulson, Rebecca; Jackwood, Mark W; Stallknecht, David E

    2012-03-01

    Current avian influenza (AI) virus surveillance programs involving wild birds rely on sample collection methods that require refrigeration or low temperature freezing to maintain sample integrity for virus isolation and/or reverse-transcriptase (RT) PCR. Maintaining the cold chain is critical for the success of these diagnostic assays but is not always possible under field conditions. The aim of this study was to test the utility of Finders Technology Associates (FTA) cards for reliable detection of AI virus from cloacal and oropharyngeal swabs of wild birds. The minimum detectable titer was determined, and the effect of room temperature storage was evaluated experimentally using multiple egg-propagated stock viruses (n = 6). Using real time RT-PCR, we compared results from paired cloacal swab and samples collected on FTA cards from both experimentally infected mallards (Anasplatyrhynchos) and hunter-harvested waterfowl sampled along the Texas Gulf Coast. Based on the laboratory trials, the average minimal detectable viral titer was determined to be 1 x 10(4.7) median embryo infectious dose (EID50)/ml (range: 1 x 10(4.3) to 1 x 10(5.4) EID50/ml), and viral RNA was consistently detectable on the FTA cards for a minimum of 20 days and up to 30 days for most subtypes at room temperature (23 C) storage. Real-time RT-PCR of samples collected using the FTA cards showed fair to good agreement in live birds when compared with both real-time RT-PCR and virus isolation of swabs. AI virus detection rates in samples from several wild bird species were higher when samples were collected using the FTA cards compared with cloacal swabs. These results suggest that FTA cards can be used as an alternative sample collection method when traditional surveillance methods are not possible, especially in avian populations that have historically received limited testing or situations in which field conditions limit the ability to properly store or ship swab samples.

  7. Economic assessment of wild bird mortality induced by the use of lead gunshot in European wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreotti, Alessandro; Guberti, Vittorio; Nardelli, Riccardo; Pirrello, Simone; Serra, Lorenzo; Volponi, Stefano; Green, Rhys E

    2018-01-01

    In European wetlands, at least 40 bird species are exposed to the risk of lead poisoning caused by ingestion of spent lead gunshot. Adopting a methodology developed in North America, we estimated that about 700,000 individuals of 16 waterbird species die annually in the European Union (EU) (6.1% of the wintering population) and one million in whole Europe (7.0%) due to acute effects of lead poisoning. Furthermore, threefold more birds suffer sub-lethal effects. We assessed the economic loss due to this lead-induced mortality of these 16 species by calculating the costs of replacing lethally poisoned wild birds by releasing captive-bred ones. We assessed the cost of buying captive-bred waterbirds for release from market surveys and calculated how many captive-bred birds would have to be released to compensate for the loss, taking into account the high mortality rate of captive birds (72.7%) in the months following release into the wild. Following this approach, the annual cost of waterbird mortality induced by lead shot ingestion is estimated at 105 million euros per year in the EU countries and 142 million euros in the whole of Europe. An alternative method, based upon lost opportunities for hunting caused by deaths due to lead poisoning, gave similar results of 129 million euros per year in the EU countries and 185 million euros per year in the whole of Europe. For several reasons these figures should be regarded as conservative. Inclusion of deaths of species for which there were insufficient data and delayed deaths caused indirectly by lead poisoning and effects on reproduction would probably increase the estimated losses substantially. Nevertheless, our results suggest that the benefits of a restriction on the use of lead gunshot over wetlands could exceed the cost of adapting to non-lead ammunition. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Widespread detection of highly pathogenic H5 influenza viruses in wild birds from the Pacific Flyway of the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bevins, S N; Dusek, R J; White, C L; Gidlewski, T; Bodenstein, B; Mansfield, K G; DeBruyn, P; Kraege, D; Rowan, E; Gillin, C; Thomas, B; Chandler, S; Baroch, J; Schmit, B; Grady, M J; Miller, R S; Drew, M L; Stopak, S; Zscheile, B; Bennett, J; Sengl, J; Brady, Caroline; Ip, H S; Spackman, E; Killian, M L; Torchetti, M K; Sleeman, J M; Deliberto, T J

    2016-07-06

    A novel highly pathogenic avian influenza virus belonging to the H5 clade 2.3.4.4 variant viruses was detected in North America in late 2014. Motivated by the identification of these viruses in domestic poultry in Canada, an intensive study was initiated to conduct highly pathogenic avian influenza surveillance in wild birds in the Pacific Flyway of the United States. A total of 4,729 hunter-harvested wild birds were sampled and highly pathogenic avian influenza virus was detected in 1.3% (n = 63). Three H5 clade 2.3.4.4 subtypes were isolated from wild birds, H5N2, H5N8, and H5N1, representing the wholly Eurasian lineage H5N8 and two novel reassortant viruses. Testing of 150 additional wild birds during avian morbidity and mortality investigations in Washington yielded 10 (6.7%) additional highly pathogenic avian influenza isolates (H5N8 = 3 and H5N2 = 7). The geographically widespread detection of these viruses in apparently healthy wild waterfowl suggest that the H5 clade 2.3.4.4 variant viruses may behave similarly in this taxonomic group whereby many waterfowl species are susceptible to infection but do not demonstrate obvious clinical disease. Despite these findings in wild waterfowl, mortality has been documented for some wild bird species and losses in US domestic poultry during the first half of 2015 were unprecedented.

  9. Phenological differences among selected residents and long-distance migrant bird species in central Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartošová, Lenka; Trnka, Miroslav; Bauer, Zdeněk; Možný, Martin; Štěpánek, Petr; Žalud, Zdeněk

    2014-07-01

    The phenological responses to climate of residents and migrants (short- and long-distance) differ. Although few previous studies have focussed on this topic, the agree that changes in phenology are more apparent for residents than for long-distance migrants. We analysed the breeding times of two selected residents ( Sitta europaea, Parus major) and one long-distance migrant ( Ficedula albicollis) from 1961 to 2007 in central Europe. The timing of the phenophases of all three bird species showed a significant advance to earlier times. Nevertheless, the most marked shift was observed for the long-distance migrant (1.9 days per decade on average in mean laying date with linearity at the 99.9 % confidence level). In contrast, the shifts shown by the residents were smaller (1.6 days for S. europaea and 1.5 days for P. major also on average in mean laying date for both, with linearity at the 95 % confidence level). Spearman rank correlation coefficients calculated for pairs of phenophases of given bird species in 20-year subsamples (e.g. 1961-1980, 1962-1981) showed higher phenological separation between the residents and the migrant. This separation is most apparent after the 1980s. Thus, our results indicate that the interconnections between the studied phenological stages of the three bird species are becoming weaker.

  10. Increased Pathogenicity of West Nile Virus (WNV by Glycosylation of Envelope Protein and Seroprevalence of WNV in Wild Birds in Far Eastern Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroaki Kariwa

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In this review, we discuss the possibility that the glycosylation of West Nile (WN virus E-protein may be associated with enhanced pathogenicity and higher replication of WN virus. The results indicate that E-protein glycosylation allows the virus to multiply in a heat-stable manner and therefore, has a critical role in enhanced viremic levels and virulence of WN virus in young-chick infection model. The effect of the glycosylation of the E protein on the pathogenicity of WN virus in young chicks was further investigated. The results indicate that glycosylation of the WN virus E protein is important for viral multiplication in peripheral organs and that it is associated with the strong pathogenicity of WN virus in birds. The micro-focus reduction neutralization test (FRNT in which a large number of serum samples can be handled at once with a small volume (15 μL of serum was useful for differential diagnosis between Japanese encephalitis and WN virus infections in infected chicks. Serological investigation was performed among wild birds in the Far Eastern region of Russia using the FRNT. Antibodies specific to WN virus were detected in 21 samples of resident and migratory birds out of 145 wild bird samples in the region.

  11. As the Egg Turns: Monitoring Egg Attendance Behavior in Wild Birds Using Novel Data Logging Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaffer, Scott A.; Clatterbuck, Corey A.; Kelsey, Emma C.; Naiman, Alex D.; Young, Lindsay C.; VanderWerf, Eric A.; Warzybok, Pete; Bradley, Russell; Jahncke, Jaime; Bower, Geoff C.

    2014-01-01

    Egg turning is unique to birds and critical for embryonic development in most avian species. Technology that can measure changes in egg orientation and temperature at fine temporal scales (1 Hz) was neither readily available nor small enough to fit into artificial eggs until recently. Here we show the utility of novel miniature data loggers equipped with 3-axis (i.e., triaxial) accelerometers, magnetometers, and a temperature thermistor to study egg turning behavior in free-ranging birds. Artificial eggs containing egg loggers were deployed in the nests of three seabird species for 1–7 days of continuous monitoring. These species (1) turned their eggs more frequently (up to 6.5 turns h−1) than previously reported for other species, but angular changes were often small (1–10° most common), (2) displayed similar mean turning rates (ca. 2 turns h−1) despite major differences in reproductive ecology, and (3) demonstrated distinct diurnal cycling in egg temperatures that varied between 1.4 and 2.4°C. These novel egg loggers revealed high-resolution, three-dimensional egg turning behavior heretofore never measured in wild birds. This new form of biotechnology has broad applicability for addressing fundamental questions in avian breeding ecology, life history, and development, and can be used as a tool to monitor birds that are sensitive to disturbance while breeding. PMID:24887441

  12. Presence of Vaccine-Derived Newcastle Disease Viruses in Wild Birds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea J Ayala

    Full Text Available Our study demonstrates the repeated isolation of vaccine-derived Newcastle disease viruses from different species of wild birds across four continents from 1997 through 2014. The data indicate that at least 17 species from ten avian orders occupying different habitats excrete vaccine-derived Newcastle disease viruses. The most frequently reported isolates were detected among individuals in the order Columbiformes (n = 23, followed in frequency by the order Anseriformes (n = 13. Samples were isolated from both free-ranging (n = 47 and wild birds kept in captivity (n = 7. The number of recovered vaccine-derived viruses corresponded with the most widely utilized vaccines, LaSota (n = 28 and Hitchner B1 (n = 19. Other detected vaccine-derived viruses resembled the PHY-LMV2 and V4 vaccines, with five and two cases, respectively. These results and the ubiquitous and synanthropic nature of wild pigeons highlight their potential role as indicator species for the presence of Newcastle disease virus of low virulence in the environment. The reverse spillover of live agents from domestic animals to wildlife as a result of the expansion of livestock industries employing massive amounts of live virus vaccines represent an underappreciated and poorly studied effect of human activity on wildlife.

  13. Presence of Vaccine-Derived Newcastle Disease Viruses in Wild Birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayala, Andrea J.; Dimitrov, Kiril M.; Becker, Cassidy R.; Goraichuk, Iryna V.; Arns, Clarice W.; Bolotin, Vitaly I.; Ferreira, Helena L.; Gerilovych, Anton P.; Goujgoulova, Gabriela V.; Martini, Matheus C.; Muzyka, Denys V.; Orsi, Maria A.; Scagion, Guilherme P.; Silva, Renata K.; Solodiankin, Olexii S.; Stegniy, Boris T.; Miller, Patti J.; Afonso, Claudio L.

    2016-01-01

    Our study demonstrates the repeated isolation of vaccine-derived Newcastle disease viruses from different species of wild birds across four continents from 1997 through 2014. The data indicate that at least 17 species from ten avian orders occupying different habitats excrete vaccine-derived Newcastle disease viruses. The most frequently reported isolates were detected among individuals in the order Columbiformes (n = 23), followed in frequency by the order Anseriformes (n = 13). Samples were isolated from both free-ranging (n = 47) and wild birds kept in captivity (n = 7). The number of recovered vaccine-derived viruses corresponded with the most widely utilized vaccines, LaSota (n = 28) and Hitchner B1 (n = 19). Other detected vaccine-derived viruses resembled the PHY-LMV2 and V4 vaccines, with five and two cases, respectively. These results and the ubiquitous and synanthropic nature of wild pigeons highlight their potential role as indicator species for the presence of Newcastle disease virus of low virulence in the environment. The reverse spillover of live agents from domestic animals to wildlife as a result of the expansion of livestock industries employing massive amounts of live virus vaccines represent an underappreciated and poorly studied effect of human activity on wildlife. PMID:27626272

  14. Infectious offspring: how birds acquire and transmit an avian polyomavirus in the wild.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Potti

    Full Text Available Detailed patterns of primary virus acquisition and subsequent dispersal in wild vertebrate populations are virtually absent. We show that nestlings of a songbird acquire polyomavirus infections from larval blowflies, common nest ectoparasites of cavity-nesting birds, while breeding adults acquire and renew the same viral infections via cloacal shedding from their offspring. Infections by these DNA viruses, known potential pathogens producing disease in some bird species, therefore follow an 'upwards vertical' route of an environmental nature mimicking horizontal transmission within families, as evidenced by patterns of viral infection in adults and young of experimental, cross-fostered offspring. This previously undescribed route of viral transmission from ectoparasites to offspring to parent hosts may be a common mechanism of virus dispersal in many taxa that display parental care.

  15. Indicators for wild animal offtake: methods and case study for African mammals and birds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel J. Ingram

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Unsustainable exploitation of wild animals is one of the greatest threats to biodiversity and to millions of people depending on wild meat for food and income. The international conservation and development community has committed to implementing plans for sustainable use of natural resources and has requested development of monitoring systems of bushmeat offtake and trade. Although offtake monitoring systems and indicators for marine species are more developed, information on harvesting terrestrial species is limited. Building on approaches developed to monitor exploitation of fisheries and population trends, we have proposed two novel indicators for harvested terrestrial species: the mean body mass indicator (MBMI assessing whether hunters are relying increasingly on smaller species over time, as a measure of defaunation, by tracking body mass composition of harvested species within samples across various sites and dates; and the offtake pressure indicator (OPI as a measure of harvesting pressure on groups of wild animals within a region by combining multiple time series of the number of harvested individuals across species. We applied these two indicators to recently compiled data for West and Central African mammals and birds. Our exploratory analyses show that the MBMI of harvested mammals decreased but that of birds rose between 1966/1975 and 2010. For both mammals and birds the OPI increased substantially during the observed time period. Given our results, time-series data and information collated from multiple sources are useful to investigate trends in body mass of hunted species and offtake volumes. In the absence of comprehensive monitoring systems, we suggest that the two indicators developed in our study are adequate proxies of wildlife offtake, which together with additional data can inform conservation policies and actions at regional and global scales.

  16. Mapping the risk of avian influenza in wild birds in the US

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nott Mark P

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Avian influenza virus (AIV is an important public health issue because pandemic influenza viruses in people have contained genes from viruses that infect birds. The H5 and H7 AIV subtypes have periodically mutated from low pathogenicity to high pathogenicity form. Analysis of the geographic distribution of AIV can identify areas where reassortment events might occur and how high pathogenicity influenza might travel if it enters wild bird populations in the US. Modelling the number of AIV cases is important because the rate of co-infection with multiple AIV subtypes increases with the number of cases and co-infection is the source of reassortment events that give rise to new strains of influenza, which occurred before the 1968 pandemic. Aquatic birds in the orders Anseriformes and Charadriiformes have been recognized as reservoirs of AIV since the 1970s. However, little is known about influenza prevalence in terrestrial birds in the order Passeriformes. Since passerines share the same habitat as poultry, they may be more effective transmitters of the disease to humans than aquatic birds. We analyze 152 passerine species including the American Robin (Turdus migratorius and Swainson's Thrush (Catharus ustulatus. Methods We formulate a regression model to predict AIV cases throughout the US at the county scale as a function of 12 environmental variables, sampling effort, and proximity to other counties with influenza outbreaks. Our analysis did not distinguish between types of influenza, including low or highly pathogenic forms. Results Analysis of 13,046 cloacal samples collected from 225 bird species in 41 US states between 2005 and 2008 indicates that the average prevalence of influenza in passerines is greater than the prevalence in eight other avian orders. Our regression model identifies the Great Plains and the Pacific Northwest as high-risk areas for AIV. Highly significant predictors of AIV include the amount of

  17. Isolation and characterization of avipoxviruses from wild birds in Western Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annuar, B O; Mackenzie, J S; Lalor, P A

    1983-01-01

    Avipoxviruses were isolated from wart-like lesions in an Australian magpie (Gymnorhina tibicen) and a silvereye (Zosterops lateralis), and the poxvirus aetiology of wart-like lesions in a magpie-lark (Grallina cyanoleuca) was confirmed. The three viruses produced typical pock lesions on the chorioallantoic membrane of embryonated eggs and were able to replicate in trypsin-dispersed chick embryo fibroblast cultures but not confluent monolayer cultures. Pock neutralization and immunodiffusion studies showed that the three wild bird isolates were distinct from fowlpox, although antigenically closer to fowlpox than pigeonpox. The magpie and silvereye isolates were more closely related to each other than to the magpie-lark isolate.

  18. The Genetic Diversity of Influenza A Viruses in Wild Birds in Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Martha I.; Pollett, Simon; Ghersi, Bruno; Silva, Maria; Simons, Mark P.; Icochea, Eliana; Gonzalez, Armando E.; Segovia, Karen; Kasper, Matthew R.; Montgomery, Joel M.; Bausch, Daniel G.

    2016-01-01

    Our understanding of the global ecology of avian influenza A viruses (AIVs) is impeded by historically low levels of viral surveillance in Latin America. Through sampling and whole-genome sequencing of 31 AIVs from wild birds in Peru, we identified 10 HA subtypes (H1-H4, H6-H7, H10-H13) and 8 NA subtypes (N1-N3, N5-N9). The majority of Peruvian AIVs were closely related to AIVs found in North America. However, unusual reassortants, including a H13 virus containing a PA segment related to extremely divergent Argentinian viruses, suggest that substantial AIV diversity circulates undetected throughout South America. PMID:26784331

  19. Presence of avian influenza viruses in waterfowl and wetlands during summer 2010 in California: Are resident birds a potential reservoir?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henaux, V.; Samuel, M.D.; Dusek, Robert J.; Fleskes, J.P.; Ip, Hon S.

    2012-01-01

    Although wild waterfowl are the main reservoir for low pathogenic avian influenza viruses (LPAIv), the environment plays a critical role for the circulation and persistence of AIv. LPAIv may persist for extended periods in cold environments, suggesting that waterfowl breeding areas in the northern hemisphere may be an important reservoir for AIv in contrast to the warmer southern wintering areas. We evaluated whether southern wetlands, with relatively small populations (thousands) of resident waterfowl, maintain AIv in the summer, prior to the arrival of millions of migratory birds. We collected water and fecal samples at ten wetlands in two regions (Yolo Bypass and Sacramento Valley) of the California Central Valley during three bi-weekly intervals beginning in late July, 2010. We detected AIv in 29/367 fecal samples (7.9%) and 12/597 water samples (2.0%) by matrix real time Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction (rRT-PCR). We isolated two H3N8, two H2N3, and one H4N8 among rRT-PCR positive fecal samples but no live virus from water samples. Detection of AIv RNA in fecal samples was higher from wetlands in the Sacramento Valley (11.9%) than in the Yolo Bypass (0.0%), but no difference was found for water samples (2.7 vs. 1.7%, respectively). Our study showed that low densities of hosts and unfavorable environmental conditions did not prevent LPAIv circulation during summer in California wetlands. Our findings justify further investigations to understand AIv dynamics in resident waterfowl populations, compare AIv subtypes between migratory and resident waterfowl, and assess the importance of local AIv as a source of infection for migratory birds.

  20. Sexually transmitted bacteria affect female cloacal assemblages in a wild bird

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Joël; Mirleau, Pascal; Danchin, Etienne; Mulard, Hervé; Hatch, Scott A.; Heeb, Phillipp; Wagner, Richard H.

    2010-01-01

    Sexual transmission is an important mode of disease propagation, yet its mechanisms remain largely unknown in wild populations. Birds comprise an important model for studying sexually transmitted microbes because their cloaca provides a potential for both gastrointestinal pathogens and endosymbionts to become incorporated into ejaculates. We experimentally demonstrate in a wild population of kittiwakes (Rissa tridactyla) that bacteria are transmitted during copulation and affect the composition and diversity of female bacterial communities. We used an anti-insemination device attached to males in combination with a molecular technique (automated ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis) that describes bacterial communities. After inseminations were experimentally blocked, the cloacal communities of mates became increasingly dissimilar. Moreover, female cloacal diversity decreased and the extinction of mate-shared bacteria increased, indicating that female cloacal assemblages revert to their pre-copulatory state and that the cloaca comprises a resilient microbial ecosystem.

  1. Impact of wild herbivorous mammals and birds on the altitudinal and northern treeline ecotones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Friedrich-Karl Holtmeier

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Wild herbivorous mammals may damage treeline vegetation an cause soil erosion at a local scale. In many high mountain areas of Europe and North America, large numbers of red deer have become a threat to the maintenance of high-elevation forests and attempts to restore the climatic treeline. In northern Fennoscandia, overgrazing by reindeer in combination with mass outbreaks of the autumnal moth are influencing treeline dynamics. Moose are also increasingly involved damaging treeline forest. In the Alps, the re-introduction of ibex is causing local damage to subalpine forests and tree establishment above the forest limit as well as aggravating soil erosion. High-elevation forests and treeline in Europe are susceptible to the deleterious impact of wild ungulate populations because of former extensive pastoral use. Rodents may damage tree seedlings and saplings by girdling, root cutting, bark stripping and burrowing. Hares damage young trees by gnawing. Large numbers of small rodents may occasionally impede tree regeneration by depleting the seed sources. Rodents do not contribute to forest expansion beyond the current treeline. Among birds, nutcrackers are highly effective in influencing tree distribution patterns and treeline dynamics. Without the nutcracker caching of stone pine seeds any upward advance of the trees in response to climatic warming would be impossible. Some bird species such as black grouse, willow grouse and ptarmigan can impair tree growth by feeding on buds, catkins and fresh terminal shoots.

  2. [The occurrence of campylobacter fetus subsp. jejuni and Salmonella bacteria in some wild birds (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosef, O

    1981-12-01

    An investigation was carried out into the occurrence of Campylobacter fetus subsp. jejuni and Salmonella species in some wild birds. A total of 129 birds was examined, consisting of 71 pigeons, 54 seagulls, three crows and one raven. Campylobacter bacteria were isolated from 32 birds (24.8%), of which three were pigeons, 27 seagulls and two were crows. Of the 27 Campylobacter strains isolated from seagulls, four had the biochemical characteristics of the NARTC biotype described by Skirrow and Benjamin, seven were grouped as Campylobacter coli biotype and 16 as the biotype of Campylobacter jejuni. All the strains isolated from crows and pigeons had the biochemical characteristics of Campylobacter jejuni biotypes. Salmonella bacteria were isolated from the intestinal contents of two of the 54 seagulls (3.7%), and were identified serologically as Salmonella indiana and Salmonella typhimurium. One seagull was found to be a carrier of both Campylobacter fetus subsp. jejuni and Salmonella typhimurium. A correlation could not be demonstrated between the occurrence of Salmonella bacteria and Campylobacter fetus subsp. jejuni.

  3. Isolation and genetic characterization of avian influenza viruses and a Newcastle disease virus from wild birds in Barbados: 2003-2004.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, Kirk O; Lavoie, Marc C; Kim, L Mia; Afonso, Claudio L; Suarez, David L

    2007-09-01

    Zoonotic transmission of an H5N1 avian influenza A virus to humans in 2003-present has generated increased public health and scientific interest in the prevalence and variability of influenza A viruses in wild birds and their potential threat to human health. Migratory waterfowl and shorebirds are regarded as the primordial reservoir of all influenza A viral subtypes and have been repeatedly implicated in avian influenza outbreaks in domestic poultry and swine. All of the 16 hemagglutinin and nine neuraminidase influenza subtypes have been isolated from wild birds, but waterfowl of the order Anseriformes are the most commonly infected. Using 9-to-11-day-old embryonating chicken egg culture, virus isolation attempts were conducted on 168 cloacal swabs from various resident, imported, and migratory bird species in Barbados during the months of July to October of 2003 and 2004. Hemagglutination assay and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction were used to screen all allantoic fluids for the presence of hemagglutinating agents and influenza A virus. Hemagglutination positive-influenza negative samples were also tested for Newcastle disease virus (NDV), which is also found in waterfowl. Two influenza A viruses and one NDV were isolated from Anseriformes (40/168), with isolation rates of 5.0% (2/40) and 2.5% (1/40), respectively, for influenza A and NDV. Sequence analysis of the influenza A virus isolates showed them to be H4N3 viruses that clustered with other North American avian influenza viruses. This is the first report of the presence of influenza A virus and NDV in wild birds in the English-speaking Caribbean.

  4. Fatal H5N6 Avian Influenza Virus Infection in a Domestic Cat and Wild Birds in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Zhijun; Gao, Xiaolong; Wang, Tiecheng; Li, Yanbing; Li, Yongcheng; Xu, Yu; Chu, Dong; Sun, Heting; Wu, Changjiang; Li, Shengnan; Wang, Haijun; Li, Yuanguo; Xia, Zhiping; Lin, Weishi; Qian, Jun; Chen, Hualan; Xia, Xianzhu; Gao, Yuwei

    2015-06-02

    H5N6 avian influenza viruses (AIVs) may pose a potential human risk as suggested by the first documented naturally-acquired human H5N6 virus infection in 2014. Here, we report the first cases of fatal H5N6 avian influenza virus (AIV) infection in a domestic cat and wild birds. These cases followed human H5N6 infections in China and preceded an H5N6 outbreak in chickens. The extensive migration routes of wild birds may contribute to the geographic spread of H5N6 AIVs and pose a risk to humans and susceptible domesticated animals, and the H5N6 AIVs may spread from southern China to northern China by wild birds. Additional surveillance is required to better understand the threat of zoonotic transmission of AIVs.

  5. Detection of and phylogenetic studies with avian metapneumovirus recovered from feral pigeons and wild birds in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felippe, Paulo Anselmo; Silva, Luciana Helena Antoniassi da; Santos, Márcia Bianchi Dos; Sakata, Sonia Tatsumi; Arns, Clarice Weis

    2011-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine whether avian metapneumovirus (aMPV)-related viruses were present in wild and synanthropic birds in Brazil. Therefore, we analysed samples from wild birds, feral pigeons and domestic chickens in order to perform a phylogenetic comparison. To detect the presence of aMPV, a nested reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction was performed with the aim of amplifying a fragment of 270 bases for subtype A and 330 bases for subtype B, comprising the gene coding the G glycoprotein. Positive samples for aMPV subtypes A and B were found in seven (13.2%) different asymptomatic wild birds and pigeons (50%) that had been received at the Bosque dos Jequitibás Zoo Triage Center, Brazil. Also analysed were positive samples from 15 (12.9%) domestic chickens with swollen head syndrome from several regions of Brazil. The positive samples from wild birds, pigeons and domestic chickens clustered in two major phylogenetic groups: some with aMPV subtype A and others with subtype B. The similarity of the G fragment nucleotide sequence of aMPV isolated from chickens and synanthropic and wild avian species ranged from 100 to 97.5% (from 100 to 92.5% for the amino acids). Some positive aMPV samples, which were obtained from wild birds classified in the Orders Psittaciformes, Anseriformes and Craciformes, clustered with subtype A, and others from the Anas and Dendrocygma genera (Anseriformes Order) with subtype B. The understanding of the epizootiology of aMPV is very important, especially if this involves the participation of non-domestic bird species, which would add complexity to their control on farms and to implementation of vaccination programmes for aMPV.

  6. Mapping risk of avian influenza transmission at the interface of domestic poultry and wild birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prosser, Diann J.; Hungerford, Laura L.; Erwin, R. Michael; Ottinger, Mary Ann; Takekawa, John Y.; Ellis, Erle C.

    2013-01-01

    Emergence of avian influenza viruses with high lethality to humans, such as the currently circulating highly pathogenic A(H5N1) (emerged in 1996) and A(H7N9) cause serious concern for the global economic and public health sectors. Understanding the spatial and temporal interface between wild and domestic populations, from which these viruses emerge, is fundamental to taking action. This information, however, is rarely considered in influenza risk models, partly due to a lack of data. We aim to identify areas of high transmission risk between domestic poultry and wild waterfowl in China, the epicenter of both viruses. Two levels of models were developed: one that predicts hotspots of novel virus emergence between domestic and wild birds, and one that incorporates H5N1 risk factors, for which input data exists. Models were produced at 1 and 30 km spatial resolution, and two temporal seasons. Patterns of risk varied between seasons with higher risk in the northeast, central-east, and western regions of China during spring and summer, and in the central and southeastern regions during winter. Monte-Carlo uncertainty analyses indicated varying levels of model confidence, with lowest errors in the densely populated regions of eastern and southern China. Applications and limitations of the models are discussed within.

  7. Ethno-ornithology and conservation of wild birds in the semi-arid Caatinga of northeastern Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    The utilization of birds as pets has been recognized as one of the principal threats to global avifauna. Most of the information about the use and sale of birds as pets has been limited to areas of high biodiversity and whose impacts of anthropic actions have been widely broadcast internationally, for example for the Amazon Forest and forest remnants of Southeast Asia. The Caatinga predominates in the semi-arid region of Brazil, and is one of the semi-arid biomes with the greatest biological diversity in the world, where 511 species of birds exist. Many of these birds are used as pets, a common practice in the region, which has important conservationist implications but has been little studied. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to detail aspects of the use of birds as pets in a locality in the semi-arid region of Northeast Brazil. Information on the use of avifauna was obtained through interviews and visits to the homes of 78 wild bird keepers. A total of 41 species of birds were recorded, mostly of the families Emberizidae (n = 9 species), Columbidae (n = 7 species), Icteridae (n = 6 species) and Psittacidae (n = 3 species). The birds that were most often recorded were Paroaria dominicana (n = 79 especimens), Sporophila albogularis (n = 67), Aratinga cactorum (n = 49), Sporophila lineola (n = 36), Sicalis flaveola (n = 29) and Sporophila nigricollis (n = 27). The use of wild birds in the area studied, as an example of what occurs in other places in the semi-arid Northeast, demonstrates that such activities persist in the region, in spite of being illegal, and have been happening in clandestine or semi-clandestine manner. No statistically significant correlation were found between socioeconomic factors and keeping birds as pets reflects the cultural importance of this practice of rearing wild birds for pets in the region, which is widespread among the local population, independent of socioeconomic factors. Obviously

  8. Feather and nest mites of two common resident birds in two ecologically different Egyptian governorates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morsy, T A; Mazyad, S A; Younis, M S

    1999-08-01

    The study of the role played by birds in the distribution of various bacterial, viral and parasitic infections is increasingly from year to year, taking into consideration the flying ability of birds and their migration for food and vital processes. Two of the common Egyptian resident birds, house sparrow (Passer d. niloticus) and laughing dove (Streptopelia s. aegyptiaca) were chosen to study their mite fauna. The overall mite index was 4.74 on the house sparrow and 7.22 on the laughing dove. As to mites, a total of 31 species belonging to 23 genera, 17 families and 3 suborders were collected. The common mites on both types of birds were 22 species. Three species only on house sparrow, and six species only on laughing dove. The house sparrow served host for 25 mite species and the laughing dove served host for 28 mite species. The infestation rates of mites on house sparrow ranged between 1.11% to 23.33% and 0.21% to 34.54% in Sharkia and Qalyobia governorates respectively. For laughing dove, the mite infestation rates ranged between 0.82% to 50% and 3.45% to 55.17% for both governorates respectively. Some of the collected mites have medical and/or veterinary importance. The whole results were discussed.

  9. No Association between Personality and Candidate Gene Polymorphisms in a Wild Bird Population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannah A Edwards

    Full Text Available Consistency of between-individual differences in behaviour or personality is a phenomenon in populations that can have ecological consequences and evolutionary potential. One way that behaviour can evolve is to have a genetic basis. Identifying the molecular genetic basis of personality could therefore provide insight into how and why such variation is maintained, particularly in natural populations. Previously identified candidate genes for personality in birds include the dopamine receptor D4 (DRD4, and serotonin transporter (SERT. Studies of wild bird populations have shown that exploratory and bold behaviours are associated with polymorphisms in both DRD4 and SERT. Here we tested for polymorphisms in DRD4 and SERT in the Seychelles warbler (Acrocephalus sechellensis population on Cousin Island, Seychelles, and then investigated correlations between personality and polymorphisms in these genes. We found no genetic variation in DRD4, but identified four polymorphisms in SERT that clustered into five haplotypes. There was no correlation between bold or exploratory behaviours and SERT polymorphisms/haplotypes. The null result was not due to lack of power, and indicates that there was no association between these behaviours and variation in the candidate genes tested in this population. These null findings provide important data to facilitate representative future meta-analyses on candidate personality genes.

  10. FUNGI ISOLATED FROM THE EXCRETA OF WILD BIRDS IN SCREENING CENTERS IN PELOTAS, RS, BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josiara Furtado Mendes

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The identification of the fungal species belonging to the healthy microflora in animals is a precondition for the recognition of pathological processes causing them. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of potentially pathogenic fungi in the feces of wild birds collected in Screening Centers. Samples were collected from the feces of 50 cages with different species of birds. The samples were processed according to the modified method STAIB and the plates incubated at 32 °C for up to ten days with daily observation for detection of fungal growth. The isolation of the following species was observed: Malassezia pachydermatis, Candida albicans, C. famata, C. guilliermondii, C. sphaerica, C. globosa, C. catenulata, C. ciferri, C. intermedia, Cryptococcus laurentii, Trichosporon asahii, Geotrichum klebahnii, Aspergillus spp., A. niger and Penicillium spp. Knowing the character of some opportunistic fungi is important in identifying them, facilitating the adoption of preventive measures, such as proper cleaning of cages, since the accumulation of excreta may indicate a risk for both health professionals and centers for screening public health.

  11. Isolation and genetic characterization of avian influenza viruses from wild birds in the Azov-Black Sea region of Ukraine (2006-2011)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wild bird surveillance for avian influenza virus (AIV) was conducted from 2006 to 2012 in a region of Ukraine known as being intercontinental (North-South and East-West) flyways. A total of 6,281 samples were collected from wild birds representing 27 families and 11 orders. From these samples, 69 ...

  12. Isolation and genetic characterization of avian influenza viruses isolated from wild birds in the Azov-Black Sea Region of Ukraine (2001–2012)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wild bird surveillance for avian influenza virus (AIV) was conducted from 2001 to 2012 in the Azov - Black Sea region of the Ukraine, considered part of the transcontinental wild bird migration routes from northern Asia and Europe to the Mediterranean, Africa, and southwest Asia. A total of 6281 sam...

  13. Organochlorine pollutants and stable isotopes in resident and migrant passerine birds from northwest Michoacán, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mora, Miguel A

    2008-10-01

    Although concentrations of organochlorine compounds (OCs) in birds from most of the United States and Canada have decreased over the last 30 years, there is still concern that migrant birds might be exposed to elevated concentrations of OCs during migration in Latin America. The Lerma-Chapala Basin in west-central Mexico is an important migration corridor and wintering area for many species. The objectives of this study were to assess if resident and migrant birds wintering in western Michoacán, Mexico accumulated elevated concentrations of OCs during fall and spring and to determine if the stable isotopes delta(15)N, delta(13)C, and deltaD could be used to predict burdens and origins of DDE accumulation. Resident and migrant passerine insectivorous birds were collected during fall and spring (2001-2002) in northwest Michoacán, near Chapala Lake, Mexico. The carcasses were analyzed for OCs and tail feathers were analyzed for stable isotopes delta(15)N, delta(13)C, and deltaD. The OCs detected in more than 50% of the samples were: oxychlordane (79%), p,p'-DDE (100%), p,p'-DDT (57%), and total PCBs (100%). p,p'-DDE was the OC detected at the highest concentrations, whereas residues of other OCs were near or below detection limits. Overall, there were no significant differences in concentrations of OCs between seasons or between resident and migrant birds. Concentrations of DDE and oxychlordane were somewhat higher in migrant and resident birds during spring than in fall; however, concentrations were significantly different only for oxychlordane. Two resident birds collected in fall and spring had DDE residues >10 microg/g wet weight in carcass. There were no significant differences in delta(13)C and delta(15)N values among species, between seasons, or between migrant and resident birds. However, deltaD values were clearly different between species and helped differentiate migrant from resident birds. deltaD values also were negatively and significantly correlated

  14. Molecular epidemiology of Newcastle disease in Mexico and the potential spillover of viruses from poultry into wild bird species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardenas Garcia, Stivalis; Navarro Lopez, Roberto; Morales, Romeo; Olvera, Miguel A; Marquez, Miguel A; Merino, Ruben; Miller, Patti J; Afonso, Claudio L

    2013-08-01

    Newcastle disease, one of the most important health problems that affects the poultry industry around the world, is caused by virulent strains of Newcastle disease virus. Newcastle disease virus is considered to be endemic in several countries in the Americas, including Mexico. In order to control Newcastle disease outbreaks and spread, intensive vaccination programs, which include vaccines formulated with strains isolated at least 60 years ago, have been established. These vaccines are dissimilar in genotype to the virulent Newcastle disease viruses that had been circulating in Mexico until 2008. Here, 28 isolates obtained between 2008 and 2011 from different regions of Mexico from free-living wild birds, captive wild birds, and poultry were phylogenetically and biologically characterized in order to study the recent epidemiology of Newcastle disease viruses in Mexico. Here we demonstrate that, until recently, virulent viruses from genotype V continued to circulate and evolve in the country. All of the Newcastle disease viruses of low virulence, mostly isolated from nonvaccinated free-living wild birds and captive wild birds, were highly similar to LaSota (genotype II) and PHY-LMV42 (genotype I) vaccine strains. These findings, together with the discovery of two virulent viruses at the Mexican zoo, suggest that Newcastle disease viruses may be escaping from poultry into the environment.

  15. Surveillance and identification of influenza A viruses in wild aquatic birds in the Crimea, Ukraine (2006-2008)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The ecology of avian influenza (AI) viruses in wild aquatic birds of Asia is poorly understood. From March 2006 through November 2008, 20 avian influenza viruses were isolated in the Crimea region of Ukraine, with an overall virus isolation frequency of 3.3%. All the viruses were isolated from thr...

  16. Wild Coastline Birds as Reservoirs of Broad-Spectrum-β-Lactamase-Producing Enterobacteriaceae in Miami Beach, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potron, Anaïs; De La Cuesta, Carolina; Cleary, Timothy; Nordmann, Patrice; Munoz-Price, L. Silvia

    2012-01-01

    A high rate of broad-spectrum-β-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli isolates was identified from seagull and pelican feces collected in the Miami Beach, Florida, area. The most commonly identified resistance determinants were CMY-2 and CTX-M-15. Those wild birds might be therefore considered vehicles for wide dissemination of multidrug-resistant Enterobacteriaceae in the United States. PMID:22314536

  17. The characterization of low pathogenic avian influenza viruses isolated from wild birds in northern Vietnam from 2006 to 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takakuwa, Hiroki; Yamashiro, Tetsu; Le, Mai Q; Phuong, Lien S; Ozaki, Hiroichi; Tsunekuni, Ryota; Usui, Tatsufumi; Ito, Hiroshi; Yamaguchi, Tsuyoshi; Ito, Toshihiro; Murase, Toshiyuki; Ono, Etsuro; Otsuki, Koichi

    2013-12-01

    Due to concerns that wild birds could possibly spread H5N1 viruses, surveillance was conducted to monitor the types of avian influenza viruses circulating among the wild birds migrating to or inhabiting in northern Vietnam from 2006 to 2009. An H5N2 virus isolated from a Eurasian woodcock had a close phylogenetic relationship to H5 viruses recently isolated in South Korea and Japan, suggesting that H5N2 has been shared between Vietnam, South Korea, and Japan. An H9N2 virus isolated from a Chinese Hwamei was closely related to two H9N2 viruses that were isolated from humans in Hong Kong in 2009, suggesting that an H9N2 strain relevant to the human isolates had been transmitted to and maintained among the wild bird population in Vietnam and South China. The results support the idea that wild bird species play a significant role in the spread and maintenance of avian influenza and that this also occurs in Vietnam. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Molecular surveillance of low pathogenic avian influenza viruses in wild birds across the United States: inferences from the hemagglutinin gene.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoinette J Piaggio

    Full Text Available A United States interagency avian influenza surveillance plan was initiated in 2006 for early detection of highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses (HPAIV in wild birds. The plan included a variety of wild bird sampling strategies including the testing of fecal samples from aquatic areas throughout the United States from April 2006 through December 2007. Although HPAIV was not detected through this surveillance effort we were able to obtain 759 fecal samples that were positive for low pathogenic avian influenza virus (LPAIV. We used 136 DNA sequences obtained from these samples along with samples from a public influenza sequence database for a phylogenetic assessment of hemagglutinin (HA diversity in the United States. We analyzed sequences from all HA subtypes except H5, H7, H14 and H15 to examine genetic variation, exchange between Eurasia and North America, and geographic distribution of LPAIV in wild birds in the United States. This study confirms intercontinental exchange of some HA subtypes (including a newly documented H9 exchange event, as well as identifies subtypes that do not regularly experience intercontinental gene flow but have been circulating and evolving in North America for at least the past 20 years. These HA subtypes have high levels of genetic diversity with many lineages co-circulating within the wild birds of North America. The surveillance effort that provided these samples demonstrates that such efforts, albeit labor-intensive, provide important information about the ecology of LPAIV circulating in North America.

  19. Six-year surveillance of Newcastle disease virus in wild birds in north-eastern Spain (Catalonia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napp, Sebastian; Alba, Anna; Rocha, Ana Isabel; Sánchez, Azucena; Rivas, Raquel; Majó, Natalia; Perarnau, Mireia; Massot, Cristina; Miguel, Elena San; Soler, Mercé; Busquets, Núria

    2017-02-01

    Given that Newcastle disease (ND) is one of the major threats for the poultry industry, testing of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) has been carried out since 2010 in cases of mortality in wild birds (passive surveillance) in Catalonia. The objective is to provide an early warning system to prevent the infection of poultry. Since 2010, 35 episodes of mortality in wild birds were attributed to NDV infection. Throughout this period there was a progressive expansion of NDV to new areas, with an increase in the episodes of mortality, although it is not clear whether they were the result of the spread of the virus, or of the improvement of the surveillance. Phylogenetic analyses indicate that two distinct sublineages of NDV, 4a and 4b, were circulating in Catalonia. Both sublineages seem to be endemic in the wild bird population, affecting mainly Eurasian-collared doves, with a clear pattern in relation to its spatial distribution (coincident with the distribution of this species), and its temporal distribution (with the majority of cases between September and February). So far, endemicity in wild birds has not resulted in ND outbreaks in poultry. However, there are still many uncertainties about, for example, whether NDV may expand to new areas of Catalonia (with higher poultry density), or about the threat that the apparently more novel sublineage 4a may represent. Hence, efforts should be made so that measures to prevent infection of poultry farms (particularly in high-risk areas and periods) are encouraged, and surveillance is maintained.

  20. Historical Prevalence and Distribution of Avian Influenza Virus A(H7N9) among Wild Birds

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-12-19

    Dr. Mike Miller reads an abridged version of the Emerging Infectious Diseases’ dispatch, Historical Prevalence and Distribution of Avian Influenza Virus A(H7N9) among Wild Birds.  Created: 12/19/2013 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 12/24/2013.

  1. Effectiveness of the Wild Birds and Habitats Directives in the Wadden Sea area : will the tiger loose its teath?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verschuuren, J.M.; Laursen, K.

    2006-01-01

    Almost the entire Wadden Sea area has been designated by Denmark, Germany and the Netherlands as a Special Protection Area under the Wild Birds Directive and as a Special Area of Conservation under the Habitats Directive. The new Water Framework Directive will, eventually, also have consequences for

  2. Epidemiology of the Emergent Disease Paridae pox in an Intensively Studied Wild Bird Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachish, Shelly; Lawson, Becki; Cunningham, Andrew A.; Sheldon, Ben C.

    2012-01-01

    Paridae pox, a novel avipoxvirus infection, has recently been identified as an emerging infectious disease affecting wild tit species in Great Britain. The incursion of Paridae pox to a long-term study site where populations of wild tits have been monitored in detail for several decades provided a unique opportunity to obtain information on the local-scale epidemiological characteristics of this novel infection during a disease outbreak. Using captures of >8000 individual birds, we show that, within two years of initial emergence, Paridae pox had become established within the population of great tits (Parus major) reaching relatively high peak prevalence (10%), but was far less prevalent (<1%) in sympatric populations of several other closely related, abundant Paridae species. Nonlinear smoothing models revealed that the temporal pattern of prevalence among great tits was characterised by within-year fluctuations indicative of seasonal forcing of infection rates, which was likely driven by multiple environmental and demographic factors. There was individual heterogeneity in the course of infection and, although recovery was possible, diseased individuals were far less likely to be recaptured than healthy individuals, suggesting a survival cost of infection. This study demonstrates the value of long-term monitoring for obtaining key epidemiological data necessary to understand disease dynamics, spread and persistence in natural populations. PMID:23185230

  3. Epidemiology of the emergent disease Paridae pox in an intensively studied wild bird population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shelly Lachish

    Full Text Available Paridae pox, a novel avipoxvirus infection, has recently been identified as an emerging infectious disease affecting wild tit species in Great Britain. The incursion of Paridae pox to a long-term study site where populations of wild tits have been monitored in detail for several decades provided a unique opportunity to obtain information on the local-scale epidemiological characteristics of this novel infection during a disease outbreak. Using captures of >8000 individual birds, we show that, within two years of initial emergence, Paridae pox had become established within the population of great tits (Parus major reaching relatively high peak prevalence (10%, but was far less prevalent (<1% in sympatric populations of several other closely related, abundant Paridae species. Nonlinear smoothing models revealed that the temporal pattern of prevalence among great tits was characterised by within-year fluctuations indicative of seasonal forcing of infection rates, which was likely driven by multiple environmental and demographic factors. There was individual heterogeneity in the course of infection and, although recovery was possible, diseased individuals were far less likely to be recaptured than healthy individuals, suggesting a survival cost of infection. This study demonstrates the value of long-term monitoring for obtaining key epidemiological data necessary to understand disease dynamics, spread and persistence in natural populations.

  4. Isolation of an H5N8 Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Virus Strain from Wild Birds in Seoul, a Highly Urbanized Area in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Jung-Hoon; Lee, Dong-Hun; Jeong, Jei-Hyun; Yuk, Seong-Su; Erdene-Ochir, Tseren-Ochir; Noh, Jin-Yong; Hong, Woo-Tack; Jeong, Sol; Gwon, Gyeong-Bin; Lee, Sang-Won; Choi, In-Soo; Song, Chang-Seon

    2017-07-01

    Asian-lineage H5 highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses (HPAIV) have caused recurrent outbreaks in poultry and wild birds. In January 2014, H5N8 HPAIV caused outbreaks in South Korea and subsequently spread to East Asia, Europe, and North America. We report the isolation of an H5N8 HPAIV strain from wild birds in Seoul, the most-developed city in South Korea. We analyzed the complete genome sequence of this isolate and estimated its origin using a phylogenetic analysis. The Seoul H5N8 isolate clustered phylogenetically with strains isolated from migratory wild birds but was distinct from Korean poultry isolates. This H5N8 virus was likely introduced into the urbanized city by migratory wild birds. Therefore, wild bird habitats in urbanized areas should be carefully monitored for HPAIV.

  5. Prevalence of avian influenza virus in wild birds before and after the HPAI H5N8 outbreak in 2014 in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Jeong-Hwa; Woo, Chanjin; Wang, Seung-Jun; Jeong, Jipseol; An, In-Jung; Hwang, Jong-Kyung; Jo, Seong-Deok; Yu, Seung Do; Choi, Kyunghee; Chung, Hyen-Mi; Suh, Jae-Hwa; Kim, Seol-Hee

    2015-07-01

    Since 2003, highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus outbreaks have occurred five times in Korea, with four HPAI H5N1 outbreaks and one HPAI H5N8 outbreak. Migratory birds have been suggested to be the first source of HPAI in Korea. Here, we surveyed migratory wild birds for the presence of AI and compared regional AI prevalence in wild birds from September 2012 to April 2014 for birds having migratory pathways in South Korea. Finally, we investigated the prevalence of AI in migratory birds before and after HPAI H5N8 outbreaks. Overall, we captured 1617 migratory wild birds, while 18,817 feces samples and 74 dead birds were collected from major wild bird habitats. A total of 21 HPAI viruses were isolated from dead birds, and 86 low pathogenic AI (LPAI) viruses were isolated from captured birds and from feces samples. Spatiotemporal distribution analysis revealed that AI viruses were spread southward until December, but tended to shift north after January, consistent with the movement of migratory birds in South Korea. Furthermore, we found that LPAI virus prevalences within wild birds were notably higher in 2013-2014 than the previous prevalence during the northward migration season. The data from our study demonstrate the importance of the surveillance of AI in wild birds. Future studies including in-depth genetic analysis in combination with evaluation of the movement and ecology of migratory birds might help us to bridge the gaps in our knowledge and better explain, predict, and ultimately prevent future HPAI outbreaks.

  6. Evidence of avian metapneumovirus subtype C infection of wild birds in Georgia, South Carolina, Arkansas and Ohio, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turpin, E A; Stallknecht, D E; Slemons, R D; Zsak, L; Swayne, D E

    2008-06-01

    Metapneumoviruses (MPVs) were first reported in avian species (aMPVs) in the late 1970s and in humans in 2001. Although aMPVs have been reported in Europe and Asia for over 20 years, the virus first appeared in the United States in 1996, leaving many to question the origin of the virus and why it proved to be a different subtype from those found elsewhere. To examine the potential role of migratory waterfowl and other wild birds in aMPV spread, our study focused on determining whether populations of wild birds have evidence of aMPV infection. Serum samples from multiple species were initially screened using a blocking enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Antibodies to aMPVs were identified in five of the 15 species tested: American coots, American crows, Canada geese, cattle egrets, and rock pigeons. The presence of aMPV-specific antibodies was confirmed with virus neutralization and western blot assays. Oral swabs were collected from wild bird species with the highest percentage of aMPV-seropositive serum samples: the American coots and Canada geese. From these swabs, 17 aMPV-positive samples were identified, 11 from coots and six from geese. Sequence analysis of the matrix, attachment gene and short hydrophobic genes revealed that these viruses belong to subtype C aMPV. The detection of aMPV antibodies and the presence of virus in wild birds in Georgia, South Carolina, Arkansas and Ohio demonstrates that wild birds can serve as a reservoir of subtype C aMPV, and may provide a potential mechanism to spread aMPVs to poultry in other regions of the United States and possibly to other countries in Central and South America.

  7. Victims and vectors: highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 and the ecology of wild birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takekawa, John Y.; Prosser, Diann J.; Newman, Scott H.; Muzaffar, Sabir Bin; Hill, Nichola J.; Yan, Baoping; Xiao, Xiangming; Lei, Fumin; Li, Tianxian; Schwarzbach, Steven E.; Howell, Judd A.

    2010-01-01

    The emergence of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses has raised concerns about the role of wild birds in the spread and persistence of the disease. In 2005, an outbreak of the highly pathogenic subtype H5N1 killed more than 6,000 wild waterbirds at Qinghai Lake, China. Outbreaks have continued to periodically occur in wild birds at Qinghai Lake and elsewhere in Central China and Mongolia. This region has few poultry but is a major migration and breeding area for waterbirds in the Central Asian Flyway, although relatively little is known about migratory movements of different species and connectivity of their wetland habitats. The scientific debate has focused on the role of waterbirds in the epidemiology, maintenance and spread of HPAI H5N1: to what extent are they victims affected by the disease, or vectors that have a role in disease transmission? In this review, we summarise the current knowledge of wild bird involvement in the ecology of HPAI H5N1. Specifically, we present details on: (1) origin of HPAI H5N1; (2) waterbirds as LPAI reservoirs and evolution into HPAI; (3) the role of waterbirds in virus spread and persistence; (4) key biogeographic regions of outbreak; and (5) applying an ecological research perspective to studying AIVs in wild waterbirds and their ecosystems.

  8. Serosurveillance for Japanese encephalitis and West Nile viruses in resident birds in Hawai'i.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemeth, Nicole M; Bosco-Lauth, Angela M; Sciulli, Rebecca H; Gose, Remedios B; Nagata, Mark T; Bowen, Richard A

    2010-04-01

    Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) and West Nile virus (WNV) are emerging zoonotic arboviruses that have recently undergone intercontinental expansion. Both JEV and WNV are naturally transmitted between mosquito vectors and vertebrate reservoir hosts, including birds. A potential route of JEV introduction from Asia to western North America is via the Hawaiian archipelago, while the spread of WNV from mainland North America to Hawai'i is also considered an impending threat. We surveyed resident, non-native bird sera for antibodies to JEV and WNV on two Hawaiian Islands from 2004-2005. Three of 1,835 birds (0.16%) had evidence of antiflavivirus antibodies, demonstrating neutralizing activity to JEV and St. Louis encephalitis virus (SLEV). These detections could represent a limited transmission focus of either, or both, JEV and SLEV, or cross-reactive antibodies due to primary infection with an alternate flavivirus. Frequent air traffic from both Asia and North America to Hawai'i, along with the presence of probable competent vectors and amplifying vertebrate hosts in Hawai'i, increases the likelihood of introduction and maintenance of novel flaviviruses. Therefore, it is important to monitor for the presence of these viruses.

  9. Herbivory by resident geese: The loss and recovery of wild rice along the tidal Patuxent River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haramis, G.M.; Kearns, G.D.

    2007-01-01

    Well known for a fall spectacle of maturing wild rice (Zizania aquatica) and migrant waterbirds, the tidal freshwater marshes of the Patuxent River, Maryland, USA, experienced a major decline in wild rice during the 1990s. We conducted experiments in 1999 and 2000 with fenced exclosures and discovered herbivory by resident Canada geese (Branta canadensis). Grazing by geese eliminated rice outside exclosures, whereas protected plants achieved greater size, density, and produced more panicles than rice occurring in natural stands. The observed loss of rice on the Patuxent River reflects both the sensitivity of this annual plant to herbivory and the destructive nature of an overabundance of resident geese on natural marsh vegetation. Recovery of rice followed 2 management actions: hunting removal of approximately 1,700 geese during a 4-year period and reestablishment of rice through a large-scale fencing and planting program.

  10. Pre-migratory differentiation of wild brown trout into migrant and resident individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, C.; Aarestrup, Kim; Norum, U.

    2003-01-01

    In February to March, wild brown trout Salmo trutta were captured by electrofishing in a natural watercourse (tributaries of the River Lille Aa, Denmark), individually tagged (Passive Integrated Transponders), and released. Representatives of the tagged brown trout were recaptured on the release......+,K+-ATPase analysis. Based on repetitive gill enzyme analysis in individual fish, a retrospective analysis of the rate of development in individual brown trout ultimately classified as migrants or residents was performed. Two months prior to migration, a bimodal morphological and physiological (gill Na...... a smolt-like appearance before the onset of migration and had higher rate of change of gill Na+,K+-ATPase activity than fish remaining residents. The rate of change of gill Na+,K+-ATPase activity was independent of the distance migrated to the trap (3-28 km). Thus in bimodal wild brown trout populations...

  11. Pre-migratory differentiation of wild brown trout Salmo trutta into migrant and resident individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Christian; Aarestrup, Kim; Nørum, Ulrik

    2003-01-01

    In February to March, wild brown trout Salmo trutta were captured by electrofishing in a natural watercourse (tributaries of the River Lille Aa, Denmark), individually tagged (Passive Integrated Transponders), and released. Representatives of the tagged brown trout were recaptured on the release......+,K+-ATPase analysis. Based on repetitive gill enzyme analysis in individual fish, a retrospective analysis of the rate of development in individual brown trout ultimately classified as migrants or residents was performed. Two months prior to migration, a bimodal morphological and physiological (gill Na...... a smolt-like appearance before the onset of migration and had higher rate of change of gill Na+,K+-ATPase activity than fish remaining residents. The rate of change of gill Na+,K+-ATPase activity was independent of the distance migrated to the trap (3-28 km). Thus in bimodal wild brown trout populations...

  12. Invasive herbivory: resident Canada geese and the decline of wild rice along the tidal Patuxent River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haramis, G.M.; Kearns, G.D.; Perry, Matthew C.

    2004-01-01

    While concern grows over the increasing numbers of exotic mute swans (Cygnus olor) on the Chesapeake Bay, less attention seems to be given to the highly familiar and native Canada goose (Branta canadensis) which has over time developed unprecedented nonmigratory, or resident, populations. Although nuisance flocks of Canada geese have been well advertised at city parks, athletic fields, and golf courses over the past three decades, recent expansion of populations to an estimated one million birds in the Atlantic Flyway, and to over 100,000 in Maryland, carries a threat of broader ecological consequences.

  13. Anatomy and histology of the Fibrocartilago humerocapsularis in some species of European wild birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canova, Marco; Bombardi, Cristiano; De Sordi, Nadia; Clavenzani, Paolo; Grandis, Annamaria

    2014-07-01

    The occurrence and structure of the fibrocartilago humerocapsularis (FHC) in the shoulders of 72 subjects of various species of wild birds were evaluated by gross dissection and histological examination with the purpose of increasing the body of knowledge regarding this structure and verifying the functional hypotheses submitted in the past in other species. The results showed that the FHC has a conical shape with a narrow cavity on the inside. The structure is heterogeneous in the various species and consists of different tissues, such as hyaline cartilage, fibrous cartilage, and bone. From the data obtained in this study, there does not appear to be any correlation between ossification and the weight of the prey lifted, wing shape, and aging. This study also provided interesting preliminary data regarding the ossification of the FHC. In fact, in the Hooded Crow (Corvus cornix), the ossification seemed to be correlated with the mechanical stimulation of flying. Additional studies are necessary to confirm this hypothesis. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Captive wild birds as reservoirs of enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC) and Shiga-toxin producing E. coli (STEC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanches, Lilian Aparecida; Gomes, Marcelo da Silva; Teixeira, Rodrigo Hidalgo Friciello; Cunha, Marcos Paulo Vieira; Oliveira, Maria Gabriela Xavier de; Vieira, Mônica Aparecida Midolli; Gomes, Tânia Aparecida Tardelli; Knobl, Terezinha

    Psittacine birds have been identified as reservoirs of diarrheagenic Escherichia coli, a subset of pathogens associated with mortality of children in tropical countries. The role of other orders of birds as source of infection is unclear. The aim of this study was to perform the molecular diagnosis of infection with diarrheagenic E. coli in 10 different orders of captive wild birds in the state of São Paulo, Brazil. Fecal samples were analyzed from 516 birds belonging to 10 orders: Accipitriformes, Anseriformes, Columbiformes, Falconiformes, Galliformes, Passeriformes, Pelecaniformes, Piciformes, Psittaciformes and Strigiformes. After isolation, 401 E. coli strains were subjected to multiplex PCR system with amplification of genes eae and bfp (EPEC), stx1 and stx2 for STEC. The results of these tests revealed 23/401 (5.74%) positive strains for eae gene, 16/401 positive strains for the bfp gene (3.99%) and 3/401 positive for stx2 gene (0.75%) distributed among the orders of Psittaciformes, Strigiformes and Columbiformes. None of strains were positive for stx1 gene. These data reveal the infection by STEC, typical and atypical EPEC in captive birds. The frequency of these pathotypes is low and restricted to few orders, but the data suggest the potential public health risk that these birds represent as reservoirs of diarrheagenic E. coli. Copyright © 2017 Sociedade Brasileira de Microbiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  15. Diagnostic radiology of pet and wild birds: a review I. Radiographic techniques and radiographs of healthy birds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beregi, A.; Molnar, V.; Felkai, F.; Biro, F.; Szentgali, Zs.

    1999-01-01

    The first part of the present review summaries the basic technical conditions of radiological examinations, analyses the radiographic features of healthy birds, and describes the procedure and radiological indications of contrast radiography. (This paper can be seen on the Internet at: http://www.akkrt.hu)

  16. Serological evidence of continuing high Usutu virus (Flaviviridae) activity and establishment of herd immunity in wild birds in Austria

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Meister, T.; Lussy, H.; Bakonyi, T.; Šikutová, Silvie; Rudolf, Ivo; Vogl, W.; Winkler, H.; Frey, H.; Hubálek, Zdeněk; Nowotny, N.; Weissenböck, H.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 127, 3-4 (2008), s. 237-248 ISSN 0378-1135 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA600930611 Grant - others:Federal Ministry for Health and Women's Issues(AT) ÖTKA D048647 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : Usutu virus * USUV * Serology * Wild birds * Herd immunity Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 2.370, year: 2008

  17. Non-invasive genetics outperforms morphological methods in faecal dietary analysis, revealing wild boar as a considerable conservation concern for ground-nesting birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oja, Ragne; Soe, Egle; Valdmann, Harri; Saarma, Urmas

    2017-01-01

    Capercaillie (Tetrao urogallus) and other grouse species represent conservation concerns across Europe due to their negative abundance trends. In addition to habitat deterioration, predation is considered a major factor contributing to population declines. While the role of generalist predators on grouse predation is relatively well known, the impact of the omnivorous wild boar has remained elusive. We hypothesize that wild boar is an important predator of ground-nesting birds, but has been neglected as a bird predator because traditional morphological methods underestimate the proportion of birds in wild boar diet. To distinguish between different mammalian predator species, as well as different grouse prey species, we developed a molecular method based on the analysis of mitochondrial DNA that allows accurate species identification. We collected 109 wild boar faeces at protected capercaillie leks and surrounding areas and analysed bird consumption using genetic methods and classical morphological examination. Genetic analysis revealed that the proportion of birds in wild boar faeces was significantly higher (17.3%; 4.5×) than indicated by morphological examination (3.8%). Moreover, the genetic method allowed considerably more precise taxonomic identification of consumed birds compared to morphological analysis. Our results demonstrate: (i) the value of using genetic approaches in faecal dietary analysis due to their higher sensitivity, and (ii) that wild boar is an important predator of ground-nesting birds, deserving serious consideration in conservation planning for capercaillie and other grouse.

  18. Assessment of contemporary genetic diversity and inter-taxa/inter-region exchange of avian paramyxovirus serotype 1 in wild birds sampled in North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramey, Andy M.; Goraichuk, Iryna V.; Hicks, Joseph T.; Dimitrov, Kiril M.; Poulson, Rebecca L.; Stallknecht, David E.; Bahl, Justin; Afonso, Claudio L.

    2017-01-01

    BackgroundAvian paramyxovirus serotype 1 (APMV-1) viruses are globally distributed, infect wild, peridomestic, and domestic birds, and sometimes lead to outbreaks of disease. Thus, the maintenance, evolution, and spread of APMV-1 viruses are relevant to avian health.MethodsIn this study we sequenced the fusion gene from 58 APMV-1 isolates recovered from thirteen species of wild birds sampled throughout the USA during 2007–2014. We analyzed sequence information with previously reported data in order to assess contemporary genetic diversity and inter-taxa/inter-region exchange of APMV-1 in wild birds sampled in North America.ResultsOur results suggest that wild birds maintain previously undescribed genetic diversity of APMV-1; however, such diversity is unlikely to be pathogenic to domestic poultry. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that APMV-1 diversity detected in wild birds of North America has been found in birds belonging to numerous taxonomic host orders and within hosts inhabiting multiple geographic regions suggesting some level of viral exchange. However, our results also provide statistical support for associations between phylogenetic tree topology and host taxonomic order/region of sample origin which supports restricted exchange among taxa and geographical regions of North America for some APMV-1 sub-genotypes.ConclusionsWe identify previously unrecognized genetic diversity of APMV-1 in wild birds in North America which is likely a function of continued viral evolution in reservoir hosts. We did not, however, find support for the emergence or maintenance of APMV-1 strains predicted to be pathogenic to poultry in wild birds of North America outside of the order Suliformes (i.e., cormorants). Furthermore, genetic evidence suggests that ecological drivers or other mechanisms may restrict viral exchange among taxa and regions of North America. Additional and more systematic sampling for APMV-1 in North America would likely provide further inference on viral

  19. Experimental infection of one-day-old chicks with Salmonella Serotypes Previously isolated from poultry facilities, wild birds, and swine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E de Sousa

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to maintain the high production and export rates achieved by the Brazilian poultry industry, it is necessary to prevent and control certain disease agents, such as Salmonella spp. Using bacterial cultures, the aim of the present study was to investigate the prevalence of Salmonella spp. in specimens collected from broiler facilities. Local wild birds were also sampled, as well as the feces of swine housed on the poultry farm. After sample collection, the isolated serotypes were subsequently inoculated into broiler chicks to determine their effects. Positive samples were collected from the following locations in the poultry facilities: poultry litter (S. serotype 4,5,12:R:-; S. Heidelberg; S. Infantis, broiler feces (S. Heidelberg; S. serotype 6,7:R:-; S. serotype 4,5,12:R:-; S. Tennessee, water (S. Glostrup; S. serotype 6,8:d:-;, and lesser mealworms (Alphitobius diaperinus found in the litter (S. Tennessee. Among the 36 wild birds captured, S. Heidelberg was isolated from one bird's organs and intestinal contents (Colaptes campestris, and S. Enteritidis was isolated from another bird's intestinal contents (Zenaida auriculata. Salmonella Panama and Salmonella Typhimurium were isolated from swine feces. One-day-old chicks (150 were divided into 10 groups of 15 animals each. Each group was orally inoculated with a previously isolated serotype of Salmonella. Soft stools were observed on the cage floor and around the birds' cloaca between 3 and 12 days post-infection (dpi. The different serotypes of Salmonella used to inoculate the chicks were re-isolated from the spleen, liver, and cecal content samples of the infected birds on 15 and 21 dpi.

  20. Thyroid hormones correlate with basal metabolic rate but not field metabolic rate in a wild bird species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorg Welcker

    Full Text Available Thyroid hormones (TH are known to stimulate in vitro oxygen consumption of tissues in mammals and birds. Hence, in many laboratory studies a positive relationship between TH concentrations and basal metabolic rate (BMR has been demonstrated whereas evidence from species in the wild is scarce. Even though basal and field metabolic rates (FMR are often thought to be intrinsically linked it is still unknown whether a relationship between TH and FMR exists. Here we determine the relationship between the primary thyroid hormone triiodothyronine (T3 with both BMR and FMR in a wild bird species, the black-legged kittiwake (Rissa tridactyla. As predicted we found a strong and positive relationship between plasma concentrations of T3 and both BMR and mass-independent BMR with coefficients of determination ranging from 0.36 to 0.60. In contrast there was no association of T3 levels with either whole-body or mass-independent FMR (R(2 =0.06 and 0.02, respectively. In accordance with in vitro studies our data suggests that TH play an important role in modulating BMR and may serve as a proxy for basal metabolism in wild birds. However, the lack of a relationship between TH and FMR indicates that levels of physical activity in kittiwakes are largely independent of TH concentrations and support recent studies that cast doubt on a direct linkage between BMR and FMR.

  1. Thyroid Hormones Correlate with Basal Metabolic Rate but Not Field Metabolic Rate in a Wild Bird Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welcker, Jorg; Chastel, Olivier; Gabrielsen, Geir W.; Guillaumin, Jerome; Kitaysky, Alexander S.; Speakman, John R.; Tremblay, Yann; Bech, Claus

    2013-01-01

    Thyroid hormones (TH) are known to stimulate in vitro oxygen consumption of tissues in mammals and birds. Hence, in many laboratory studies a positive relationship between TH concentrations and basal metabolic rate (BMR) has been demonstrated whereas evidence from species in the wild is scarce. Even though basal and field metabolic rates (FMR) are often thought to be intrinsically linked it is still unknown whether a relationship between TH and FMR exists. Here we determine the relationship between the primary thyroid hormone triiodothyronine (T3) with both BMR and FMR in a wild bird species, the black-legged kittiwake (Rissa tridactyla). As predicted we found a strong and positive relationship between plasma concentrations of T3 and both BMR and mass-independent BMR with coefficients of determination ranging from 0.36 to 0.60. In contrast there was no association of T3 levels with either whole-body or mass-independent FMR (R2 = 0.06 and 0.02, respectively). In accordance with in vitro studies our data suggests that TH play an important role in modulating BMR and may serve as a proxy for basal metabolism in wild birds. However, the lack of a relationship between TH and FMR indicates that levels of physical activity in kittiwakes are largely independent of TH concentrations and support recent studies that cast doubt on a direct linkage between BMR and FMR. PMID:23437096

  2. Discordant detection of avian influenza virus subtypes in time and space between poultry and wild birds; Towards improvement of surveillance programs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhagen, Josanne H.; Lexmond, Pascal; Vuong, Oanh; Schutten, Martin; Guldemeester, Judith; Osterhaus, Albert D.M.E.; Elbers, Armin R.W.; Slaterus, Roy; Hornman, Menno; Koch, Guus; Fouchier, Ron A.M.; Lierz, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Avian influenza viruses from wild birds can cause outbreaks in poultry, and occasionally infect humans upon exposure to infected poultry. Identification and characterization of viral reservoirs and transmission routes is important to develop strategies that prevent infection of poultry, and

  3. Low pathogenic avian influenza isolates from wild birds replicate and transmit via contact in ferrets without prior adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driskell, Elizabeth A; Pickens, Jennifer A; Humberd-Smith, Jennifer; Gordy, James T; Bradley, Konrad C; Steinhauer, David A; Berghaus, Roy D; Stallknecht, David E; Howerth, Elizabeth W; Tompkins, Stephen Mark

    2012-01-01

    Direct transmission of avian influenza viruses to mammals has become an increasingly investigated topic during the past decade; however, isolates that have been primarily investigated are typically ones originating from human or poultry outbreaks. Currently there is minimal comparative information on the behavior of the innumerable viruses that exist in the natural wild bird host. We have previously demonstrated the capacity of numerous North American avian influenza viruses isolated from wild birds to infect and induce lesions in the respiratory tract of mice. In this study, two isolates from shorebirds that were previously examined in mice (H1N9 and H6N1 subtypes) are further examined through experimental inoculations in the ferret with analysis of viral shedding, histopathology, and antigen localization via immunohistochemistry to elucidate pathogenicity and transmission of these viruses. Using sequence analysis and glycan binding analysis, we show that these avian viruses have the typical avian influenza binding pattern, with affinity for cell glycoproteins/glycolipids having terminal sialic acid (SA) residues with α 2,3 linkage [Neu5Ac(α2,3)Gal]. Despite the lack of α2,6 linked SA binding, these AIVs productively infected both the upper and lower respiratory tract of ferrets, resulting in nasal viral shedding and pulmonary lesions with minimal morbidity. Moreover, we show that one of the viruses is able to transmit to ferrets via direct contact, despite its binding affinity for α 2,3 linked SA residues. These results demonstrate that avian influenza viruses, which are endemic in aquatic birds, can potentially infect humans and other mammals without adaptation. Finally this work highlights the need for additional study of the wild bird subset of influenza viruses in regard to surveillance, transmission, and potential for reassortment, as they have zoonotic potential.

  4. Multidisciplinary re-description of Plasmodium (Novyella) paranucleophilum in Brazilian wild birds of the Atlantic Forest kept in captivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tostes, Raquel; Dias, Roberto Júnio Pedroso; Martinele, Isabel; Senra, Marcus Vinicius Xavier; D'Agosto, Marta; Massard, Carlos Luiz

    2017-07-01

    Haemosporidian blood parasites of the Plasmodium genus are the causative agents of avian malaria in many parts of the world. Despite the great diversity of Brazilian avifauna, few studies have been conducted to examine the haemosporidians of wild birds found in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest, especially those kept in captivity. This study aimed to re-examine and further characterize the South American avian parasite Plasmodium paranucleophilum using a multidisciplinary approach. Blood samples were collected from 68 captive birds representing 15 species found in the Atlantic Forest of southeastern Brazil. Morphometric and morphological characterization was performed, in addition to PCR and sequencing of the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene and subsequent phylogenetic analysis. The overall prevalence of P. paranucleophilum infection in the study was 13.23% (n = 9), with a mean parasitemia of 0.58%. We observed the highest parasitemia of 3.88% in Rupornis magnirostris. In our phylogenetic analysis, P. paranucleophilum and P lasmodium nucleophilum formed distinct, highly supported clades, with a mean genetic divergence of 2.48%. This study provides new morphological and molecular data, expanding our knowledge of the haemosporidians of wild birds in Brazil and highlighting the need for further investigation. The true depth of diversity in Brazilian avian haemosporidians remains largely unknown, and given the enormous variety of vectors and avian species, there may be many more species of these blood parasites yet to be described.

  5. Influenza A virus evolution and spatio-temporal dynamics in eurasian wild birds: A phylogenetic and phylogeographical study of whole-genome sequence data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N.S. Lewis (Nicola); J.H. Verhagen (Josanne); Z. Javakhishvili (Zurab); C.A. Russell (Colin); P. Lexmond (Pascal); K.B. Westgeest (Kim); T.M. Bestebroer (Theo); R.A. Halpin (Rebecca); X. Lin (Xudong); A. Ransier (Amy); N.B. Fedorova (Nadia B.); T.B. Stockwell (Timothy B.); N. Latorre-Margalef (Neus); B. Olsen (Björn); G.J.D. Smith (Gavin); J. Bahl (Justin); D.E. Wentworth (David E.); J. Waldenström (Jonas); R.A.M. Fouchier (Ron); M.T. de Graaf (Marieke)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractLow pathogenic avian influenza A viruses (IAVs) have a natural host reservoir in wild waterbirds and the potential to spread to other host species. Here, we investigated the evolutionary, spatial and temporal dynamics of avian IAVs in Eurasian wild birds. We used whole-genome sequences

  6. Current selection for lower migratory activity will drive the evolution of residency in a migratory bird population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulido, Francisco; Berthold, Peter

    2010-04-20

    Global warming is impacting biodiversity by altering the distribution, abundance, and phenology of a wide range of animal and plant species. One of the best documented responses to recent climate change is alterations in the migratory behavior of birds, but the mechanisms underlying these phenotypic adjustments are largely unknown. This knowledge is still crucial to predict whether populations of migratory birds will adapt to a rapid increase in temperature. We monitored migratory behavior in a population of blackcaps (Sylvia atricapilla) to test for evolutionary responses to recent climate change. Using a common garden experiment in time and captive breeding we demonstrated a genetic reduction in migratory activity and evolutionary change in phenotypic plasticity of migration onset. An artificial selection experiment further revealed that residency will rapidly evolve in completely migratory bird populations if selection for shorter migration distance persists. Our findings suggest that current alterations of the environment are favoring birds wintering closer to the breeding grounds and that populations of migratory birds have strongly responded to these changes in selection. The reduction of migratory activity is probably an important evolutionary process in the adaptation of migratory birds to climate change, because it reduces migration costs and facilitates the rapid adjustment to the shifts in the timing of food availability during reproduction.

  7. Experimental infection of macaques with a wild water bird-derived highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (H5N1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomoko Fujiyuki

    Full Text Available Highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV continues to threaten human health. Non-human primate infection models of human influenza are desired. To establish an animal infection model with more natural transmission and to determine the pathogenicity of HPAIV isolated from a wild water bird in primates, we administered a Japanese isolate of HPAIV (A/whooper swan/Hokkaido/1/2008, H5N1 clade 2.3.2.1 to rhesus and cynomolgus monkeys, in droplet form, via the intratracheal route. Infection of the lower and upper respiratory tracts and viral shedding were observed in both macaques. Inoculation of rhesus monkeys with higher doses of the isolate resulted in stronger clinical symptoms of influenza. Our results demonstrate that HPAIV isolated from a water bird in Japan is pathogenic in monkeys by experimental inoculation, and provide a new method for HPAIV infection of non-human primate hosts, a good animal model for investigation of HPAIV pathogenicity.

  8. Territorial defense of the red-whiskered bulbul, Pycnonotus jocosus (Pycnonotidae, in a semi-wild habitat of the bird farm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunthorn Sotthibandhu

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available The territorial behavior of the red-whiskered bulbul, Pycnonotus jocosus, was studied in the semiwild habitat of a bird farm compound in the District of Chana, Songkhla Province, the south of Thailand. The male and female birds were bred and reared in the farm till they reached maturity following which they were released to the wild. A mating pair was later formed and their territory established in the farm area. A decoy was used to simulate a natural intruder to the defended area. Ten test stations were sited in the four cardinal points of the compass and with reference to the farmhouse. The experiments were conducted during the pre-nesting and nesting periods. It was found that territorial boundary was marked by the resident male’s aggressive calls and threat displays to the decoy. The territory covered an area of approximately 0.3 hectare in which it was used for foraging and nesting. The size remained the same in both pre-nesting and nesting periods, but the territorial behavior during the nesting period was evidently more vigorous than that in the pre-nesting period. The intensities of territorial behavior had been hypothesized to be associated with diurnal foraging rhythms. But the finding was contradictory to this prediction. There was no significant difference in the intensity of territorial behavior (P > 0.05 at the three time regimes in the morning, at noon, and in the afternoon. It was suggested that the resident bird’s aggressive behavior might be associated with the degree of hunger pang.

  9. Aves silvestres infestadas por Phthiraptera (Insecta na Zona da Mata Norte de Pernambuco, Brasil Wild birds infested by Phthiraptera (Insecta in Pernambuco North Zona da Mata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sônia Aline Roda

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies were carried out on the relationship between Phthiraptera and wild birds captured by mist nets at the Engenho Independência, at Vicência's county. Three families of Phthiraptera were identified. The Menoponidae were the one with the highest number of hosts. They were specially found in the dorsal face of the remiges. The Trochiloecetidae were only seen infesting the neck of birds belonging to the hummingbirds. The Philopteridae were observed on birds from three orders showing the highest variety of distribution on the birds.

  10. A novel avian-like hepatitis E virus in wild aquatic bird, little egret (Egretta garzetta), in Hungary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reuter, Gábor; Boros, Ákos; Mátics, Róbert; Kapusinszky, Beatrix; Delwart, Eric; Pankovics, Péter

    2016-12-01

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV), family Hepeviridae, has public health concerns because of its zoonotic potential; however, the host species spectrum, animal to animal transmissions, the natural chain of hepevirus infections and the genetic diversity of HEV in wildlife especially in birds are less known. Using random amplification and next generation sequencing technology a genetically divergent avian HEV was serendipitously identified in wild bird in Hungary. HEV RNA was detected with high faecal viral load (1.33×10 8 genomiccopies/ml) measured by real-time PCR in faecal sample from a little egret (Egretta garzetta). The complete genome of HEV strain little egret/kocsag02/2014/HUN (KX589065) is 6660-nt long including a 18-nt 5' end and a 103-nt 3' end (excluding the poly(A)-tail). Sequence analyses indicated that the ORF1 (4554nt/1517aa), ORF2 (1728nt/593aa) and ORF3 (339nt/112aa) encoded proteins of little egret/kocsag02/2014/HUN shared the highest identity (62.8%, 71% and 61.5%) to the corresponding proteins of genotype 1 avian (chicken) HEV in species Orthohepevirus B, respectively. This study reports the identification and complete genome characterization of a novel orthohepevirus distantly related to avian (chicken) HEVs at the first time in wild bird. It is important to recognize all potential hosts, reservoirs and spreaders in nature and to reconstruct the phylogenetic history of hepeviruses. Birds could be an important reservoir of HEV generally and could be infected with genetically highly divergent strains of HEV. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Miniaturised sample preparation method for the multiresidual determination of regulated organohalogenated pollutants and related compounds in wild bird eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roscales, Jose L; Vicente, Alba; Ramos, Lourdes; Jiménez, Begoña

    2017-08-01

    A simplified, miniaturised matrix solid-phase dispersion (MSPD)-based method allowing the simultaneous extraction and purification of contaminants belonging to selected families of regulated persistent organic pollutants (POPs), i.e. polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and penta- to octa-polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), and related contaminants of emerging concern, such as deca-BDE and Dechlorane Plus (DP), has been proposed. Wild bird eggs were used as biotic fat-containing model matrices. Once optimised, the procedure allowed sample preparation to be accomplished within 30 min, in a single step, and with minimal sample and reagent consumption and waste generation. These features contributed to speeding up and greening the analytical process as compared to the large-scale multistep procedures for these types of analyses. The method was combined with gas chromatography-quadrupole mass spectrometry (GC-qMS) for PCB and OCP analysis and with GC-negative ion chemical ionisation-quadrupole mass spectrometry (NCI-qMS) for PBDE and DP determination. The complete analytical method provided satisfactory recoveries of the target compounds (above 83% for all analytes, except for PBDE 209, 63%), although as small an amount of sample as 0.300 g was used. The repeatability of the complete procedure was less than 16% (with the only exception for PCB 153, which looked to be affected by an interference). The limits of detection were in all cases lower than 34 pg g -1 dry weight (as calculated for real samples), demonstrating the feasibility of the proposed procedure for accurate determination of the target compounds in biological samples. The proposed procedure was applied to the analysis of the target POPs in unhatched eggs of wild bird species. Graphical abstract Scheme of the miniaturised methodology proposed for environmental monitoring of POPs and related compounds in wild bird eggs.

  12. Are camouflaged seeds less attacked by wild birds? Sementes camufladas são menos atacadas por aves silvestres?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre de Almeida

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Wheat, corn and rice crops in Brazil use seeds treated with systemic insecticide/nematicide carbofuran, mixed to rhodamine B red dye. Carbofuran is toxic and rhodamine B is attractive to wild birds that eat up these seeds, resulting in notable mortality during planting. A field experiment was performed in southeast Brazil to evaluate if camouflaged seeds would be less consumed by wild birds in comparison to commercial seeds with red-colored rhodamine B and aposematic blue seeds. Camouflaged seeds were less removed than seeds with rhodamine B and natural colors. The camouflaging was more effective in the presence of irregularities and litter. There was no removal of blue-colored seeds. As legislation requires treated seeds to receive a different color to avoid accidents with humans, camouflaging may be used as replacement of rhodamine B to reduce mortality rates of wild birds.Plantações de trigo milho e arroz no Brasil utilizam sementes tratadas com o inseticida e nematicida sistêmico carbofuran, associado ao corante vermelho rodamina B. O carbofuran é tóxico e a rodamina B é atrativa às aves silvestres, as quais consomem estas sementes, resultando em notável mortalidade durante o plantio. Um experimento realizado em campo agrícola no sudeste do Brasil mostrou que sementes camufladas foram menos removidas por aves silvestres do que sementes com rodamina B. A camuflagem foi potencializada em presença de irregularidades e serrapilheira no solo. Não houve remoção de sementes de cor azul, mas a formulação granular de cor azul tem causado mortalidade de aves nos USA e Canadá. Como sementes tratadas com agrotóxicos devem, de acordo com a legislação, receber coloração diferenciada para evitar acidentes com humanos, a camuflagem pode ser utilizada, substituindo a rodamina B.

  13. Dietary compositions and their seasonal shifts in Japanese resident birds, estimated from the analysis of volunteer monitoring data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetsuro Yoshikawa

    Full Text Available Determining the composition of a bird's diet and its seasonal shifts are fundamental for understanding the ecology and ecological functions of a species. Various methods have been used to estimate the dietary compositions of birds, which have their own advantages and disadvantages. In this study, we examined the possibility of using long-term volunteer monitoring data as the source of dietary information for 15 resident bird species in Kanagawa Prefecture, Japan. The data were collected from field observations reported by volunteers of regional naturalist groups. Based on these monitoring data, we calculated the monthly dietary composition of each bird species directly, and we also estimated unidentified items within the reported foraging episodes using Bayesian models that contained additional information regarding foraging locations. Next, to examine the validity of the estimated dietary compositions, we compared them with the dietary information for focal birds based on stomach analysis methods, collected from past literatures. The dietary trends estimated from the monitoring data were largely consistent with the general food habits determined from the previous studies of focal birds. Thus, the estimates based on the volunteer monitoring data successfully detected noticeable seasonal shifts in many of the birds from plant materials to animal diets during spring-summer. Comparisons with stomach analysis data supported the qualitative validity of the monitoring-based dietary information and the effectiveness of the Bayesian models for improving the estimates. This comparison suggests that one advantage of using monitoring data is its ability to detect dietary items such as fleshy fruits, flower nectar, and vertebrates. These results emphasize the potential importance of observation data collecting and mining by citizens, especially free descriptive observation data, for use in bird ecology studies.

  14. Rotavirus research in Amazon wild birds kept in captivity in the state of Pará, Brazi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monique Araújo Luz

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT. Luz M.A., Bezerra D.A., Silva R.R., Guerreiro A.N., Seixas L.S., Bastos R.K.G., Mascarenhas J. D’Arc P., Moraes C.C.G., Souza N.F. & Meneses A.M.C. [Rotavirus research in Amazon wild birds kept in captivity in the state of Pará, Brazil.] Pesquisa de rotavírus em aves silvestres da região amazônica mantidas em cativeiro no estado do Pará, Brasil. Revista Brasileira de Medicina Veterinária, 36(2:167-173, 2014. Instituto da Saúde e Produção animal na Amazônia, Universidade Federal Rural da Amazônia, Avenida Presidente Tancredo Neves, 2501, Montese, Belém, PA 66077-901, Brasil. E-mail: monique.luz@ufra.edu.br This study aimed to investigate rotavirus in wild birds kept in captivity at Pará State, to detect and characterize the electropherotypes groups of circulating rotaviruses and investigate A and D rotavirus groups presence in fecal specimens of these birds. Fecal samples were collected at Fazenda Paricuiã (Terra Alta / PA, Brazil, in Jardim Zoobotânico da Amazônia Bosque Rodrigues Alves, Parque Ecológico Mangal das Garças, Museu Paraense Emílio Goeldi (MPEG and Bioparque Amazônia Crocodilo Safari in Belém/Pará/Brazil, between March 2011 and February 2012. Were collected fecal samples from 83 birds belonging to the orders: Psittaciformes (Family Psittacidae, Ciconiformes (Ardeidae and Threskiornithidae families and Falconiformes (Family Accipitridae. Fecal suspensions were prepared from samples collected, with subsequent extraction of viral dsRNA, which was subjected to polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR was performed with specific primers for amplification of NSP4 gene of A rotavirus and VP6 gene of D rotavirus. All samples were negative by both EGPA and by RT-PCR, requiring, however, further studies aimed in wild birds kept in captivity to determine the role of these species in the rotavirus epidemiology.

  15. Species diversity and abundance of wild birds in Dagona-Waterfowl ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hope&shola

    The study of bird species diversity and richness in Dagona-Waterfowl sanctuary was carried out in early wet and late dry ... conservation of important species that rural inhabitants ... wetland of international importance on waterfowl habitat,.

  16. Findings from the surveillance of avian influenza in wild birds and poultry in Denmark

    OpenAIRE

    Hjulsager, Charlotte Kristiane

    2016-01-01

    Avian influenza (AI) is a highly contagious disease that can affect all bird species. The clinical signs include respiratory disease, lethargy, drop in egg production, neurological signs, hemorrhages in shanks, swollen wattles, combs and eyes, and mortality. The severity of disease depends on the virus strain and species of bird, and varies from a subclinical to a highly pathogenic form with up to 100 % mortality within 48 hours. AI is of high economic importance for the poultry production wo...

  17. Investigation of avian influenza virus in poultry and wild birds due to novel avian-origin influenza A(H10N8) in Nanchang City, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Xiansheng; He, Fenglan; Hu, Maohong; Zhou, Xianfeng; Wang, Bin; Feng, Changhua; Wu, Yumei; Li, Youxing; Tu, Junling; Li, Hui; Liu, Mingbin; Chen, Haiying; Chen, Shengen

    2015-01-01

    Multiple reassortment events within poultry and wild birds had resulted in the establishment of another novel avian influenza A(H10N8) virus, and finally resulted in human death in Nanchang, China. However, there was a paucity of information on the prevalence of avian influenza virus in poultry and wild birds in Nanchang area. We investigated avian influenza virus in poultry and wild birds from live poultry markets, poultry countyards, delivery vehicles, and wild-bird habitats in Nanchang. We analyzed 1036 samples from wild birds and domestic poultry collected from December 2013 to February 2014. Original biological samples were tested for the presence of avian influenza virus using specific primer and probe sets of H5, H7, H9, H10 and N8 subtypes by real-time RT-PCR. In our analysis, the majority (97.98%) of positive samples were from live poultry markets. Among the poultry samples from chickens and ducks, AIV prevalence was 26.05 and 30.81%, respectively. Mixed infection of different HA subtypes was very common. Additionally, H10 subtypes coexistence with N8 was the most prevalent agent during the emergence of H10N8. This event illustrated a long-term surveillance was so helpful for pandemic preparedness and response. Copyright © 2014 Institut Pasteur. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. Nest site preference depends on the relative density of conspecifics and heterospecifics in wild birds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Samplonius, Jelmer M.; Kromhout Van Der Meer, Iris M; Both, Christiaan

    2017-01-01

    Background: Social learning allows animals to eavesdrop on ecologically relevant knowledge of competitors in their environment. This is especially important when selecting a habitat if individuals have relatively little personal information on habitat quality. It is known that birds can use both

  19. Surveillance for West Nile Virus in Wild Birds from Northern Europe

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jourdain, E.; Olsen, B.; Lundkvist, A.; Hubálek, Zdeněk; Šikutová, Silvie; Waldenström, J.; Karlsson, M.; Wahlström, M.; Jozan, M.; Falk, K. I.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 11, č. 1 (2011), s. 77-79 ISSN 1530-3667 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : Antibodies * Migratory birds * Sweden * West Nile Subject RIV: FN - Epidemiology, Contagious Diseases ; Clinical Immunology Impact factor: 2.437, year: 2011

  20. Findings from the surveillance of avian influenza in wild birds and poultry in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjulsager, Charlotte Kristiane

    Avian influenza (AI) is a highly contagious disease that can affect all bird species. The clinical signs include respiratory disease, lethargy, drop in egg production, neurological signs, hemorrhages in shanks, swollen wattles, combs and eyes, and mortality. The severity of disease depends...

  1. Mapping the risk of avian influenza in wild birds in the US

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trevon L. Fuller; Sassan S. Saatchi; Emily E. Curd; Erin Toffelmier; Henri A. Thomassen; Wolfgang Buermann; David F. DeSante; Mark P. Nott; James F. Saracco; C. J. Ralph; John D. Alexander; John P. Pollinger; Thomas B. Smith.

    2010-01-01

    Avian influenza virus (AIV) is an important public health issue because pandemic influenza viruses in people have contained genes from viruses that infect birds. The H5 and H7 AIV subtypes have periodically mutated from low pathogenicity to high pathogenicity form. Analysis of the geographic distribution of AIV can identify areas where reassortment events might occur...

  2. Resource configuration and abundance affect space use of a cooperatively breeding resident bird

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard A. Stanton; Dylan C. Kesler; Frank R. Thompson III

    2014-01-01

    Movement and space use of birds is driven by activities associated with acquiring and maintaining access to critical resources. Thus, the spatial configuration of resources within home ranges should influence bird movements, and resource values should be relative to their locations. We radio-tracked 22 Brown-headed Nuthatches (Sitta pusilla) and...

  3. Interactions between Behaviour and Genetics in Wild and Domestic Bird Populations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodenburg, T.B.; Oers, van K.

    2010-01-01

    Personality traits can be favoured by both natural and artificial selection, if they result in increased fitness or productivity, and therefore play an important role in both wild and domestic populations. Here, we review how personality traits affect and are affected by natural and artificial

  4. Trans-generational effects on ageing in a wild bird population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouwhuis, S.; Charmantier, A.; Verhulst, S.; Sheldon, B. C.

    Ageing, long thought to be too infrequent to study effectively in natural populations, has recently been shown to be ubiquitous, even in the wild. A major challenge now is to explain variation in the rates of ageing within populations. Here, using 49 years of data from a population of great tits

  5. Rapid diagnosis of avian influenza virus in wild birds: Use of a portable rRT-PCR and freeze-dried reagents in the field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takekawa, John Y.; Hill, N.J.; Schultz, A.K.; Iverson, S.A.; Cardona, C.J.; Boyce, W.M.; Dudley, J.P.

    2011-01-01

    Wild birds have been implicated in the spread of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) of the H5N1 subtype, prompting surveillance along migratory flyways. Sampling of wild birds for avian influenza virus (AIV) is often conducted in remote regions, but results are often delayed because of the need to transport samples to a laboratory equipped for molecular testing. Real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR) is a molecular technique that offers one of the most accurate and sensitive methods for diagnosis of AIV. The previously strict lab protocols needed for rRT-PCR are now being adapted for the field. Development of freeze-dried (lyophilized) reagents that do not require cold chain, with sensitivity at the level of wet reagents has brought on-site remote testing to a practical goal. Here we present a method for the rapid diagnosis of AIV in wild birds using an rRT-PCR unit (Ruggedized Advanced Pathogen Identification Device or RAPID, Idaho Technologies, Salt Lake City, UT) that employs lyophilized reagents (Influenza A Target 1 Taqman; ASAY-ASY-0109, Idaho Technologies). The reagents contain all of the necessary components for testing at appropriate concentrations in a single tube: primers, probes, enzymes, buffers and internal positive controls, eliminating errors associated with improper storage or handling of wet reagents. The portable unit performs a screen for Influenza A by targeting the matrix gene and yields results in 2-3 hours. Genetic subtyping is also possible with H5 and H7 primer sets that target the hemagglutinin gene. The system is suitable for use on cloacal and oropharyngeal samples collected from wild birds, as demonstrated here on the migratory shorebird species, the western sandpiper (Calidrus mauri) captured in Northern California. Animal handling followed protocols approved by the Animal Care and Use Committee of the U.S. Geological Survey Western Ecological Research Center and permits of the U.S. Geological Survey

  6. Genetic characterization of low-pathogenic avian influenza viruses isolated on the Izumi plain in Japan: possible association of dynamic movements of wild birds with AIV evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagawa, Hiroko; Okuya, Kosuke; Kawabata, Toshiko; Matsuu, Aya; Takase, Kozo; Kuwahara, Masakazu; Toda, Shigehisa; Ozawa, Makoto

    2018-04-01

    The Izumi plain in Kagoshima Prefecture, Japan, is an overwintering site of endangered cranes (hooded cranes and white-naped cranes) and of many other migratory birds (including wild ducks) that are considered carriers of avian influenza viruses (AIVs). To assess the risks of a highly pathogenic avian influenza outbreak in the crane populations, we tested various environmental samples for AIVs in this area. In the 2014-2015 winter season, we isolated one AIV of the H6N2 subtype from the cranes' roost water and two AIVs of the H11N9 subtype from a crane fecal sample and a cloacal swab of a dead spot-billed duck. Genetic analysis of these AIV isolates indicated that our H6N2 isolate is genetically close to AIVs isolated from wild birds in Southeast Asian countries, except that the PB1 and NS genes belong to the North American virus lineage. All genes of the two H11N9 isolates are related to AIVs belonging to the Eurasian virus lineage. Notably, in our phylogenetic trees, H11 HA and N9 NA genes showing high sequence similarity to the corresponding genes of isolates from wild birds in South Africa and Spain, respectively, did not cluster in the major groups with recent wild-bird isolates from East Asia. These results suggest that AIVs with viral gene segments derived from various locations and bird species have been brought to the Izumi plain. These findings imply a possible association of dynamic movements of wild birds with AIV evolution.

  7. Seasonal variation of infestation by ectoparasitic chigger mite larvae (Acarina: Trombiculidae) on resident and migratory birds in coffee agroecosystems of Chiapas, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietsch, Thomas V

    2005-12-01

    Parasitism is not well documented for birds found in tropical habitats. Long-distance migratory birds may face additional risks to an already hazardous journey when infected. This study explores the ecology of an ectoparasite infestation in Chiapas, Mexico. During a mist-netting project in 2 different coffee management systems, chigger mites (Acarina: Trombiculidae), ectoparasitic during the larval stage, were found on both resident and migratory birds. Using a rapid assessment protocol, it was observed that 17 of 26 species of long-distance migrants and 33 of 71 resident species had at least 1 infested individual. Infestation prevalences were unexpectedly high on some long-distance migrants, as high as 0.73 for Swainson's thrush (Catharus ustulatus), a value on par with heavily infested resident species. Prevalence was highest during winter sampling: 0.18 overall, 0.16 of migrants, and 0.23 of residents. Prevalence was 0.14 for resident birds during the summer breeding season. Mean abundance and mean intensity of infestation are reported for 97 species captured and inspected during the course of this study. In this region, chigger mite larvae are relatively common on birds and their abundance varies seasonally. High prevalence for some migratory birds suggests that more research and monitoring of ectoparasites are needed, especially in light of emerging diseases.

  8. Overwintering strategies of migratory birds: a novel approach for estimating seasonal movement patterns of residents and transients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Gutierrez, Viviana; Kendall, William L.; Saracco, James F.; White, Gary C.

    2016-01-01

    Our understanding of movement patterns in wildlife populations has played an important role in current ecological knowledge and can inform landscape conservation decisions. Direct measures of movement can be obtained using marked individuals, but this requires tracking individuals across a landscape or multiple sites.We demonstrate how movements can be estimated indirectly using single-site, capture–mark–recapture (CMR) data with a multi-state open robust design with state uncertainty model (MSORD-SU). We treat residence and transience as two phenotypic states of overwintering migrants and use time- and state-dependent probabilities of site entry and persistence as indirect measures of movement. We applied the MSORD-SU to data on eight species of overwintering Neotropical birds collected in 14 countries between 2002 and 2011. In addition to entry and persistence probabilities, we estimated the proportions of residents at a study site and mean residence times.We identified overwintering movement patterns and residence times that contrasted with prior categorizations of territoriality. Most species showed an evidence of residents entering sites at multiple time intervals, with transients tending to enter between peak resident movement times. Persistence and the proportion of residents varied by latitude, but were not always positively correlated for a given species.Synthesis and applications. Our results suggest that migratory songbirds commonly move among habitats during the overwintering period. Substantial proportions of populations appear to be comprised of transient individuals, and residents tend to persist at specific sites for relatively short periods of time. This information on persistence and movement patterns should be explored for specific habitats to guide landscape management on the wintering grounds, such as determining which habitats are conserved or restored as part of certification programmes of tropical agroforestry crops. We suggest that

  9. A High Diversity of Eurasian Lineage Low Pathogenicity Avian Influenza A Viruses Circulate among Wild Birds Sampled in Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerloff, Nancy A.; Jones, Joyce; Simpson, Natosha; Balish, Amanda; ElBadry, Maha Adel; Baghat, Verina; Rusev, Ivan; de Mattos, Cecilia C.; de Mattos, Carlos A.; Zonkle, Luay Elsayed Ahmed; Kis, Zoltan; Davis, C. Todd; Yingst, Sam; Cornelius, Claire; Soliman, Atef; Mohareb, Emad; Klimov, Alexander; Donis, Ruben O.

    2013-01-01

    Surveillance for influenza A viruses in wild birds has increased substantially as part of efforts to control the global movement of highly pathogenic avian influenza A (H5N1) virus. Studies conducted in Egypt from 2003 to 2007 to monitor birds for H5N1 identified multiple subtypes of low pathogenicity avian influenza A viruses isolated primarily from migratory waterfowl collected in the Nile Delta. Phylogenetic analysis of 28 viral genomes was performed to estimate their nearest ancestors and identify possible reassortants. Migratory flyway patterns were included in the analysis to assess gene flow between overlapping flyways. Overall, the viruses were most closely related to Eurasian, African and/or Central Asian lineage low pathogenicity viruses and belonged to 15 different subtypes. A subset of the internal genes seemed to originate from specific flyways (Black Sea-Mediterranean, East African-West Asian). The remaining genes were derived from a mixture of viruses broadly distributed across as many as 4 different flyways suggesting the importance of the Nile Delta for virus dispersal. Molecular clock date estimates suggested that the time to the nearest common ancestor of all viruses analyzed ranged from 5 to 10 years, indicating frequent genetic exchange with viruses sampled elsewhere. The intersection of multiple migratory bird flyways and the resulting diversity of influenza virus gene lineages in the Nile Delta create conditions favoring reassortment, as evident from the gene constellations identified by this study. In conclusion, we present for the first time a comprehensive phylogenetic analysis of full genome sequences from low pathogenic avian influenza viruses circulating in Egypt, underscoring the significance of the region for viral reassortment and the potential emergence of novel avian influenza A viruses, as well as representing a highly diverse influenza A virus gene pool that merits continued monitoring. PMID:23874653

  10. Prevalence and Diversity of Low Pathogenicity Avian Influenza Viruses in Wild Birds in Guatemala, 2010-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Reiche, Ana S; Müller, Maria L; Ortiz, Lucía; Cordón-Rosales, Celia; Perez, Daniel R

    2016-05-01

    Waterfowl species are known to harbor the greatest diversity of low pathogenicity influenza A virus (LPAIV) subtypes and are recognized as their main natural reservoir. In Guatemala there is evidence of circulation of LPAIV in wild ducks; however, the bird species contributing to viral diversity during the winter migration in Central America are unknown. In this study, samples obtained from 1250 hunter-killed birds from 22 different species were collected on the Pacific coast of Guatemala during three winter migration seasons between 2010 and 2013. Prevalence of LPAIV detected by real-time reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction was 38.2%, 23.5%, and 24.7% in the 2010-11, 2011-12, and 2012-13 seasons, respectively. The highest virus prevalence was detected in the northern shoveler (Anas clypeata), followed by the blue-winged teal (Anas discors). The majority of positive samples and viral isolates were obtained from the blue-winged teal. Analysis of LPAIV prevalence over time in this species indicated a decreasing trend in monthly prevalence within a migration season. Sixty-eight viruses were isolated, and nine HA and seven NA subtypes were identified in 19 subtype combinations. In 2012-13 the most prevalent subtype was H14, a subtype identified for the first time in the Western Hemisphere in 2010. The results from this study represent the most detailed description available to date of LPAIV circulation in Central America.

  11. Intestinal spirochaetes (genus Brachyspira) colonise wild birds in the southern Atlantic region and Antarctica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansson, Désirée S; Mushtaq, Memoona; Johansson, Karl-Erik; Bonnedahl, Jonas; Waldenström, Jonas; Andersson, Dan I; Broman, Tina; Berg, Charlotte; Olsen, Björn

    2015-01-01

    The genus Brachyspira contains well-known enteric pathogens of veterinary significance, suggested agents of colonic disease in humans, and one potentially zoonotic agent. There are recent studies showing that Brachyspira are more widespread in the wildlife community than previously thought. There are no records of this genus in wildlife from the southern Atlantic region and Antarctica. Our aim was therefore, to determine whether intestinal spirochaetes of genus Brachyspira colonise marine and coastal birds in this region. Faecal samples were collected from marine and coastal birds in the southern Atlantic region, including sub-Antarctic islands and Antarctica, in 2002, 2009, and 2012, with the aim to isolate and characterise zoonotic agents. In total, 205 samples from 11 bird species were selectively cultured for intestinal spirochaetes of genus Brachyspira. To identify isolates to species level, they were subjected to phenotyping, species-specific polymerase chain reactions, sequencing of partial 16S rRNA, NADH oxidase (nox), and tlyA genes, and phylogenetic analysis. Antimicrobial susceptibility tests were performed. Fourteen unique strains were obtained from 10 birds of three species: four snowy sheathbills (Chionis albus), three kelp geese (Chloephaga hybrida subsp. malvinarum), and three brown skua (Stercorarius antarcticus subsp. lonnbergi) sampled on the Falkland Islands, Tierra del Fuego in Argentina, South Georgia, South Shetland Islands, and the Antarctic Peninsula. Five Brachyspira strains were closely related to potentially enteropathogenic Brachyspira sp. of chickens: B. intermedia (n=2, from snowy sheathbills), and B. alvinipulli (n=3, from a kelp goose and two snowy sheathbills). Three strains from kelp geese were most similar to the presumed non-pathogenic species 'B. pulli' and B. murdochii, whereas the remaining six strains could not be attributed to currently known species. No isolates related to human strains were found. None of the tested

  12. Intestinal spirochaetes (genus Brachyspira colonise wild birds in the southern Atlantic region and Antarctica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Désirée S. Jansson

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The genus Brachyspira contains well-known enteric pathogens of veterinary significance, suggested agents of colonic disease in humans, and one potentially zoonotic agent. There are recent studies showing that Brachyspira are more widespread in the wildlife community than previously thought. There are no records of this genus in wildlife from the southern Atlantic region and Antarctica. Our aim was therefore, to determine whether intestinal spirochaetes of genus Brachyspira colonise marine and coastal birds in this region. Method: Faecal samples were collected from marine and coastal birds in the southern Atlantic region, including sub-Antarctic islands and Antarctica, in 2002, 2009, and 2012, with the aim to isolate and characterise zoonotic agents. In total, 205 samples from 11 bird species were selectively cultured for intestinal spirochaetes of genus Brachyspira. To identify isolates to species level, they were subjected to phenotyping, species-specific polymerase chain reactions, sequencing of partial 16S rRNA, NADH oxidase (nox, and tlyA genes, and phylogenetic analysis. Antimicrobial susceptibility tests were performed. Results: Fourteen unique strains were obtained from 10 birds of three species: four snowy sheathbills (Chionis albus, three kelp geese (Chloephaga hybrida subsp. malvinarum, and three brown skua (Stercorarius antarcticus subsp. lonnbergi sampled on the Falkland Islands, Tierra del Fuego in Argentina, South Georgia, South Shetland Islands, and the Antarctic Peninsula. Five Brachyspira strains were closely related to potentially enteropathogenic Brachyspira sp. of chickens: B. intermedia (n=2, from snowy sheathbills, and B. alvinipulli (n=3, from a kelp goose and two snowy sheathbills. Three strains from kelp geese were most similar to the presumed non-pathogenic species ‘B. pulli’ and B. murdochii, whereas the remaining six strains could not be attributed to currently known species. No isolates related to

  13. Do Farmers Using Conventional and Non-Conventional Systems of Agriculture Have Different Perceptions of the Diversity of Wild Birds? Implications for Conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva-Andrade, Horasa Lima; de Andrade, Luciano Pires; Muniz, Lauana Souza; Telino-Júnior, Wallace Rodrigues; Albuquerque, Ulysses Paulino; Lyra-Neves, Rachel Maria

    2016-01-01

    Farmers' perceptions of birds' interactions with agricultural production systems are fundamental to species conservation efforts. In the present study, we evaluated the perceptions of birds held by farmers who engage in conventional and non-conventional agricultural production processes and the implications of potential differences in these perceptions on species conservation. To accomplish this, data were collected using questionnaires, semi-structured interviews, and other complementary sources of information gathered from 191 farmers in northeastern Brazil. Although some similarities were identified among the farmers in their perceptions and local ecological knowledge (LEK) of birds, differences existed between the conventional and non-conventional farmers in their attitudes toward, conflicts with, and usage of bird species. Compared to the conventional farmers, the non-conventional farmers could identify more bird species, possessed more favorable attitudes toward birds, and engaged in practices more beneficial to the conservation of avifauna. The perceptions that were identified were related to the type of agriculture practiced, and such perceptions may affect the conservation of bird species. Therefore, the adoption of certain agricultural practices has important implications for conservation. Our results indicate the need for investment in public policies, programs and actions that account for farmers' knowledge and perceptions. Such investments will contribute to the development and adoption of practices supporting wild bird conservation in agricultural areas.

  14. Do Farmers Using Conventional and Non-Conventional Systems of Agriculture Have Different Perceptions of the Diversity of Wild Birds? Implications for Conservation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horasa Lima Silva-Andrade

    Full Text Available Farmers' perceptions of birds' interactions with agricultural production systems are fundamental to species conservation efforts. In the present study, we evaluated the perceptions of birds held by farmers who engage in conventional and non-conventional agricultural production processes and the implications of potential differences in these perceptions on species conservation. To accomplish this, data were collected using questionnaires, semi-structured interviews, and other complementary sources of information gathered from 191 farmers in northeastern Brazil. Although some similarities were identified among the farmers in their perceptions and local ecological knowledge (LEK of birds, differences existed between the conventional and non-conventional farmers in their attitudes toward, conflicts with, and usage of bird species. Compared to the conventional farmers, the non-conventional farmers could identify more bird species, possessed more favorable attitudes toward birds, and engaged in practices more beneficial to the conservation of avifauna. The perceptions that were identified were related to the type of agriculture practiced, and such perceptions may affect the conservation of bird species. Therefore, the adoption of certain agricultural practices has important implications for conservation. Our results indicate the need for investment in public policies, programs and actions that account for farmers' knowledge and perceptions. Such investments will contribute to the development and adoption of practices supporting wild bird conservation in agricultural areas.

  15. Transport characteristics and morphology of the colon and coprodeum in two wild birds of different habitats, the rock ptarmigan (Lagopus mutus) and the common murre (Uria aalge)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Árnason, Sighvatur S; Elbrønd (Bibs), Vibeke Sødring; Laverty, Gary

    2015-01-01

    Dietary salt intake in domestic fowl affects epithelial transport and morphology of the lower intestine (colon and coprodeum). This study investigated lower intestinal morphology and transport activity in two wild bird species with natural diets containing either low or high salt. Tissues from rock...

  16. Reoccurrence of H5Nx clade 2.3.4.4 highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses in wild birds during 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Asian-origin H5N1 A/goose/Guangdong/1/1996 (Gs/GD) lineage of high pathogenicity avian influenza viruses (HPAIV) has become widespread across four continents, affecting poultry, wild birds and humans. H5N1 HPAIV has evolved into multiple hemagglutinin (HA) genetic clades and reassorting with dif...

  17. Wild birds and silage as reservoirs of Listeria in the agricultural environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenlon, D R

    1985-12-01

    A method for the isolation of listeria which enabled a more rapid detection of the organism was used to examine samples of silage and bird faeces. Faecal samples indicated that seagulls feeding at sewage works had a higher rate of carriage than those elsewhere. Faecal samples from rooks generally suggested a low incidence of listeria except on one occasion when eight of twenty samples contained Listeria monocytogenes: this coincided with the nesting season and the peak period for listeriosis in sheep. The incidence of L. monocytogenes in clamp silages ranged from 2.5-5.9%, but in samples of big bale silages the incidence was 22.2% and, when mouldy samples were selected, 44%.

  18. Role for migratory wild birds in the global spread of avian influenza H5N8

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,; Ip, Hon S.

    2016-01-01

    Avian influenza viruses affect both poultry production and public health. A subtype H5N8 (clade 2.3.4.4) virus, following an outbreak in poultry in South Korea in January 2014, rapidly spread worldwide in 2014–2015. Our analysis of H5N8 viral sequences, epidemiological investigations, waterfowl migration, and poultry trade showed that long-distance migratory birds can play a major role in the global spread of avian influenza viruses. Further, we found that the hemagglutinin of clade 2.3.4.4 virus was remarkably promiscuous, creating reassortants with multiple neuraminidase subtypes. Improving our understanding of the circumpolar circulation of avian influenza viruses in migratory waterfowl will help to provide early warning of threats from avian influenza to poultry, and potentially human, health.

  19. Eco-virological approach for assessing the role of wild birds in the spread of avian influenza H5N1 along the central Asian flyway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Scott H.; Hill, Nichola J.; Spragens, Kyle A.; Janies, Daniel; Voronkin, Igor O.; Prosser, Diann J.; Yan, Baoping; Lei, Fumin; Batbayar, Nyambayar; Natsagdorj, Tseveenmyadag; Bishop, Charles M.; Butler, Patrick J.; Wikelski, Martin; Balachandran, Sivananinthaperumal; Mundkur, Taej; Douglas, David C.; Takekawa, John Y.

    2012-01-01

    A unique pattern of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 outbreaks has emerged along the Central Asia Flyway, where infection of wild birds has been reported with steady frequency since 2005. We assessed the potential for two hosts of HPAI H5N1, the bar-headed goose (Anser indicus) and ruddy shelduck (Tadorna tadorna), to act as agents for virus dispersal along this ‘thoroughfare’. We used an eco-virological approach to compare the migration of 141 birds marked with GPS satellite transmitters during 2005–2010 with: 1) the spatio-temporal patterns of poultry and wild bird outbreaks of HPAI H5N1, and 2) the trajectory of the virus in the outbreak region based on phylogeographic mapping. We found that biweekly utilization distributions (UDs) for 19.2% of bar-headed geese and 46.2% of ruddy shelduck were significantly associated with outbreaks. Ruddy shelduck showed highest correlation with poultry outbreaks owing to their wintering distribution in South Asia, where there is considerable opportunity for HPAI H5N1 spillover from poultry. Both species showed correlation with wild bird outbreaks during the spring migration, suggesting they may be involved in the northward movement of the virus. However, phylogeographic mapping of HPAI H5N1 clades 2.2 and 2.3 did not support dissemination of the virus in a northern direction along the migration corridor. In particular, two subclades (2.2.1 and 2.3.2) moved in a strictly southern direction in contrast to our spatio-temporal analysis of bird migration. Our attempt to reconcile the disciplines of wild bird ecology and HPAI H5N1 virology highlights prospects offered by both approaches as well as their limitations.

  20. Eco-Virological Approach for Assessing the Role of Wild Birds in the Spread of Avian Influenza H5N1 along the Central Asian Flyway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Scott H.; Hill, Nichola J.; Spragens, Kyle A.; Janies, Daniel; Voronkin, Igor O.; Prosser, Diann J.; Yan, Baoping; Lei, Fumin; Batbayar, Nyambayar; Natsagdorj, Tseveenmyadag; Bishop, Charles M.; Butler, Patrick J.; Wikelski, Martin; Balachandran, Sivananinthaperumal; Mundkur, Taej; Douglas, David C.; Takekawa, John Y.

    2012-01-01

    A unique pattern of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 outbreaks has emerged along the Central Asia Flyway, where infection of wild birds has been reported with steady frequency since 2005. We assessed the potential for two hosts of HPAI H5N1, the bar-headed goose (Anser indicus) and ruddy shelduck (Tadorna tadorna), to act as agents for virus dispersal along this ‘thoroughfare’. We used an eco-virological approach to compare the migration of 141 birds marked with GPS satellite transmitters during 2005–2010 with: 1) the spatio-temporal patterns of poultry and wild bird outbreaks of HPAI H5N1, and 2) the trajectory of the virus in the outbreak region based on phylogeographic mapping. We found that biweekly utilization distributions (UDs) for 19.2% of bar-headed geese and 46.2% of ruddy shelduck were significantly associated with outbreaks. Ruddy shelduck showed highest correlation with poultry outbreaks owing to their wintering distribution in South Asia, where there is considerable opportunity for HPAI H5N1 spillover from poultry. Both species showed correlation with wild bird outbreaks during the spring migration, suggesting they may be involved in the northward movement of the virus. However, phylogeographic mapping of HPAI H5N1 clades 2.2 and 2.3 did not support dissemination of the virus in a northern direction along the migration corridor. In particular, two subclades (2.2.1 and 2.3.2) moved in a strictly southern direction in contrast to our spatio-temporal analysis of bird migration. Our attempt to reconcile the disciplines of wild bird ecology and HPAI H5N1 virology highlights prospects offered by both approaches as well as their limitations. PMID:22347393

  1. Epizootic of beak deformities among wild birds in Alaska: An emerging disease in North America?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handel, Colleen M.; Pajot, Lisa; Matsuoka, Steven M.; Van Hemert, Caroline R.; Terenzi, John; Talbot, Sandra L.; Mulcahy, Daniel M.; Meteyer, Carol U.; Trust, Kimberly A.

    2010-01-01

    The sudden appearance of a large cluster of animals with gross abnormalities may signal a significant change in an ecosystem. We describe an unusual concentration of beak deformities that appear to have arisen rapidly within Alaska and now extend southward along the Pacific Coast. In Alaska we have documented 2,160 Black-capped Chickadees (Poecile atricapillus) and 435 individuals of 29 other species of birds, primarily during the past decade, with grossly overgrown and often crossed beaks. The annual prevalence of beak abnormalities among adult Black-capped Chickadees in south-central Alaska varied from 3.6% to 9.7% and averaged 6.5 ± 0.5% between 1999 and 2008. Only 0.05 ± 0.05% of nestlings and 0.3 ± 0.2% of juveniles abnormal beaks, which suggests that this is either a latent developmental or an acquired condition. We documented 80 cases in which a Black-capped Chickadee captured with an apparently normal beak was subsequently recaptured with a beak abnormality and 8 cases in which a beak deformity was no longer detectable upon recapture. Necropsy and histopathology of a sample of affected individuals provided no conclusive evidence of the etiology of this condition. Deformities appear to affect primarily the keratin layer of the beak and may result from abnormally rapid growth of the rhamphotheca. Some affected birds also exhibited lesions in other keratinized tissues of the skin, legs, feet, claws, and feathers, which may represent a systemic disorder or secondary conditions. Additional studies are currently underway to determine diagnostic signs and the underlying cause of this avian keratin disorder.

  2. The environmental dependence of inbreeding depression in a wild bird population.

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    Marta Szulkin

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Inbreeding depression occurs when the offspring produced as a result of matings between relatives show reduced fitness, and is generally understood as a consequence of the elevated expression of deleterious recessive alleles. How inbreeding depression varies across environments is of importance for the evolution of inbreeding avoidance behaviour, and for understanding extinction risks in small populations. However, inbreeding-by-environment (IxE interactions have rarely been investigated in wild populations.We analysed 41 years of breeding events from a wild great tit (Parus major population and used 11 measures of the environment to categorise environments as relatively good or poor, testing whether these measures influenced inbreeding depression. Although inbreeding always, and environmental quality often, significantly affected reproductive success, there was little evidence for statistically significant I x E interactions at the level of individual analyses. However, point estimates of the effect of the environment on inbreeding depression were sometimes considerable, and we show that variation in the magnitude of the I x E interaction across environments is consistent with the expectation that this interaction is more marked across environmental axes with a closer link to overall fitness, with the environmental dependence of inbreeding depression being elevated under such conditions. Hence, our analyses provide evidence for an environmental dependence of the inbreeding x environment interaction: effectively an I x E x E.Overall, our analyses suggest that I x E interactions may be substantial in wild populations, when measured across relevant environmental contrasts, although their detection for single traits may require very large samples, or high rates of inbreeding.

  3. Urban residents' perceptions of birds in the neighborhood: Biodiversity, cultural ecosystem services, and disservices

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    J. Amy Belaire; Lynne M. Westphal; Christopher J. Whelan; Emily S. Minor

    2015-01-01

    As our world becomes increasingly urbanized, cities are often where we come into contact with the natural world—not just in parks and urban nature preserves, but in more familiar places like residential yards. We conducted bird surveys and social surveys in Chicago-area residential landscapes near forest preserves (primarily in middle- and high-income areas)...

  4. Pathogenicity of two recent Western Mediterranean West Nile virus isolates in a wild bird species indigenous to Southern Europe: the red-legged partridge

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    Sotelo Elena

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract West Nile virus (WNV is an emerging zoonotic pathogen whose geographic spread and incidence in humans, horses and birds has increased significantly in recent years. WNV has long been considered a mild pathogen causing self-limiting outbreaks. This notion has changed as WNV is causing large epidemics with a high impact on human and animal health. This has been particularly noteworthy since its introduction into North America in 1999. There, native bird species have been shown to be highly susceptible to WNV infection and disease with high mortalities. For this reason, the effect of WNV infection in North American bird species has been thoroughly studied by means of experimental inoculations in controlled trials. To a lesser extent, European wild birds have been shown to be affected clinically by WNV infection. Yet experimental studies on European wild bird species are lacking. The red-legged partridge (Alectoris rufa is a gallinaceous bird indigenous to the Iberian Peninsula, widely distributed in South Western Europe. It plays a key role in the Mediterranean ecosystem and constitutes an economically important game species. As such it is raised intensively in outdoor facilities. In this work, red-legged partridges were experimentally infected with two recent WNV isolates from the Western Mediterranean area: Morocco/2003 and Spain/2007. All inoculated birds became viremic and showed clinical disease, with mortality rates of 70% and 30%, respectively. These results show that Western Mediterranean WNV variants can be pathogenic for some European bird species, such as the red-legged partridge.

  5. Do Farmers Using Conventional and Non-Conventional Systems of Agriculture Have Different Perceptions of the Diversity of Wild Birds? Implications for Conservation

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    de Andrade, Luciano Pires; Muniz, Lauana Souza; Telino-Júnior, Wallace Rodrigues; Albuquerque, Ulysses Paulino; Lyra-Neves, Rachel Maria

    2016-01-01

    Farmers’ perceptions of birds’ interactions with agricultural production systems are fundamental to species conservation efforts. In the present study, we evaluated the perceptions of birds held by farmers who engage in conventional and non-conventional agricultural production processes and the implications of potential differences in these perceptions on species conservation. To accomplish this, data were collected using questionnaires, semi-structured interviews, and other complementary sources of information gathered from 191 farmers in northeastern Brazil. Although some similarities were identified among the farmers in their perceptions and local ecological knowledge (LEK) of birds, differences existed between the conventional and non-conventional farmers in their attitudes toward, conflicts with, and usage of bird species. Compared to the conventional farmers, the non-conventional farmers could identify more bird species, possessed more favorable attitudes toward birds, and engaged in practices more beneficial to the conservation of avifauna. The perceptions that were identified were related to the type of agriculture practiced, and such perceptions may affect the conservation of bird species. Therefore, the adoption of certain agricultural practices has important implications for conservation. Our results indicate the need for investment in public policies, programs and actions that account for farmers’ knowledge and perceptions. Such investments will contribute to the development and adoption of practices supporting wild bird conservation in agricultural areas. PMID:27243222

  6. Social and spatial effects on genetic variation between foraging flocks in a wild bird population.

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    Radersma, Reinder; Garroway, Colin J; Santure, Anna W; de Cauwer, Isabelle; Farine, Damien R; Slate, Jon; Sheldon, Ben C

    2017-10-01

    Social interactions are rarely random. In some instances, animals exhibit homophily or heterophily, the tendency to interact with similar or dissimilar conspecifics, respectively. Genetic homophily and heterophily influence the evolutionary dynamics of populations, because they potentially affect sexual and social selection. Here, we investigate the link between social interactions and allele frequencies in foraging flocks of great tits (Parus major) over three consecutive years. We constructed co-occurrence networks which explicitly described the splitting and merging of 85,602 flocks through time (fission-fusion dynamics), at 60 feeding sites. Of the 1,711 birds in those flocks, we genotyped 962 individuals at 4,701 autosomal single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). By combining genomewide genotyping with repeated field observations of the same individuals, we were able to investigate links between social structure and allele frequencies at a much finer scale than was previously possible. We explicitly accounted for potential spatial effects underlying genetic structure at the population level. We modelled social structure and spatial configuration of great tit fission-fusion dynamics with eigenvector maps. Variance partitioning revealed that allele frequencies were strongly affected by group fidelity (explaining 27%-45% of variance) as individuals tended to maintain associations with the same conspecifics. These conspecifics were genetically more dissimilar than expected, shown by genomewide heterophily for pure social (i.e., space-independent) grouping preferences. Genomewide homophily was linked to spatial configuration, indicating spatial segregation of genotypes. We did not find evidence for homophily or heterophily for putative socially relevant candidate genes or any other SNP markers. Together, these results demonstrate the importance of distinguishing social and spatial processes in determining population structure. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Nest site preference depends on the relative density of conspecifics and heterospecifics in wild birds.

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    Samplonius, Jelmer M; Kromhout Van Der Meer, Iris M; Both, Christiaan

    2017-01-01

    Social learning allows animals to eavesdrop on ecologically relevant knowledge of competitors in their environment. This is especially important when selecting a habitat if individuals have relatively little personal information on habitat quality. It is known that birds can use both conspecific and heterospecific information for social learning, but little is known about the relative importance of each information type. If provided with the choice between them, we expected that animals should copy the behaviour of conspecifics, as these confer the best information for that species. We tested this hypothesis in the field for Pied Flycatchers Ficedula hypoleuca arriving at their breeding grounds to select a nest box for breeding. We assigned arbitrary symbols to nest boxes of breeding pied flycatchers (conspecifics) and blue and great tits, Cyanistes caeruleus and Parus major (heterospecifics), in 2014 and 2016 in two areas with different densities of tits and flycatchers. After ca 50% of flycatchers had returned and a flycatcher symbol was assigned to their nest box, we gave the later arriving flycatchers the choice between empty nest boxes with either a conspecific (flycatcher) or a heterospecific (tit) symbol. As expected, Pied Flycatchers copied the perceived nest box choice of conspecifics, but only in areas that were dominated by flycatchers. Against our initial expectation, flycatchers copied the perceived choice of heterospecifics in the area heavily dominated by tits, even though conspecific minority information was present. Our results confirm that the relative density of conspecifics and heterospecifics modulates the propensity to copy or reject novel behavioural traits. By contrasting conspecific and heterospecific ecology in the same study design we were able to draw more general conclusions about the role of fluctuating densities on social information use.

  8. Interactive effects of environmental stress and inbreeding on reproductive traits in a wild bird population.

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    Marr, A B; Arcese, P; Hochachka, W M; Reid, J M; Keller, L F

    2006-11-01

    1. Conservation biologists are concerned about the interactive effects of environmental stress and inbreeding because such interactions could affect the dynamics and extinction risk of small and isolated populations, but few studies have tested for these interactions in nature. 2. We used data from the long-term population study of song sparrows Melospiza melodia on Mandarte Island to examine the joint effects of inbreeding and environmental stress on four fitness traits that are known to be affected by the inbreeding level of adult birds: hatching success, laying date, male mating success and fledgling survival. 3. We found that inbreeding depression interacted with environmental stress to reduce hatching success in the nests of inbred females during periods of rain. 4. For laying date, we found equivocal support for an interaction between parental inbreeding and environmental stress. In this case, however, inbred females experienced less inbreeding depression in more stressful, cooler years. 5. For two other traits, we found no evidence that the strength of inbreeding depression varied with environmental stress. First, mated males fathered fewer nests per season if inbred or if the ratio of males to females in the population was high, but inbreeding depression did not depend on sex ratio. Second, fledglings survived poorly during rainy periods and if their father was inbred, but the effects of paternal inbreeding and rain did not interact. 6. Thus, even for a single species, interactions between the inbreeding level and environmental stress may not occur in all traits affected by inbreeding depression, and interactions that do occur will not always act synergistically to further decrease fitness.

  9. SURVEILLANCE FOR NEWCASTLE DISEASE VIRUS, AVIAN INFLUENZA VIRUS AND MYCOPLASMA GALLISEPTICUM IN WILD BIRDS NEAR COMMERCIAL POULTRY FARMS SURROUNDED BY ATLANTIC RAINFOREST REMNANTS, SOUTHEASTERN BRAZIL

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    MB Guimarães

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The geographic overlap between areas of Atlantic rainforest and human activities allows interactions to occur between humans and wild and domestic animals. Despite the great importance of the domestic animal-wildlife-human interface that occurs at poultry farms in terms of public health, economic production and wildlife conservation, there are few studies in Brazil examining the distribution and health of wild birds that interact with poultry farms. From January to December 2010, mist nets were used to capture 166 free-ranging birds that were within close proximity to three poultry farms in Atlantic rainforest remnants in south-eastern Brazil. The species composition was examined, and molecular methods were used to test for avian influenza virus, Newcastle disease virus, and Mycoplasma gallisepticum. The avian communities near the poultry farms were dominated by three synanthropic species, which corresponded to 70% of all captured individuals: house sparrows Passer domesticus (33%, saffron finches (Sicalis flaveola (22%, and ruddy ground-doves (Columbina talpacoti (15%. These predominant bird species were in poor body condition (27%, were infested with feather mites (43%, or presented both conditions (23%. No evidence of infection by avian influenza virus, Newcastle disease virus or M. gallisepticum was identified in any of the studied birds. Although no evidence of the studied pathogens was, our findings demonstrate that differences in the environmental characteristics and biosecurity practices influence the wild bird community near poultry farms, which in turn may affect the health status of these synanthropic birds and strengthen their role in the transmission of pathogens.

  10. Agriculture modifies the seasonal decline of breeding success in a tropical wild bird population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartwright, Samantha J; Nicoll, Malcolm A C; Jones, Carl G; Tatayah, Vikash; Norris, Ken

    2014-01-01

    Habitat conversion for agriculture is a major driver of biodiversity loss, but our understanding of the demographic processes involved remains poor. We typically investigate the impacts of agriculture in isolation even though populations are likely to experience multiple, concurrent changes in the environment (e.g. land and climate change). Drivers of environmental change may interact to affect demography, but the mechanisms have yet to be explored fully in wild populations. Here, we investigate the mechanisms linking agricultural land use with breeding success using long-term data for the formerly Critically Endangered Mauritius kestrel Falco punctatus, a tropical forest specialist that also occupies agricultural habitats. We specifically focused on the relationship between breeding success, agriculture and the timing of breeding because the latter is sensitive to changes in climatic conditions (spring rainfall) and enables us to explore the interactive effects of different (land and climate) drivers of environmental change. Breeding success, measured as egg survival to fledging, declines seasonally in this population, but we found that the rate of this decline became increasingly rapid as the area of agriculture around a nest site increased. If the relationship between breeding success and agriculture was used in isolation to estimate the demographic impact of agriculture, it would significantly under-estimate breeding success in dry (early) springs and over-estimate breeding success in wet (late) springs. Analysis of prey delivered to nests suggests that the relationship between breeding success and agriculture might be due, in part, to spatial variation in the availability of native, arboreal geckos. Synthesis and applications. Agriculture modifies the seasonal decline in breeding success in this population. As springs are becoming wetter in our study area and since the kestrels breed later in wetter springs, the impact of agriculture on breeding success will

  11. Can changes in the distributions of resident birds in China over the past 50 years be attributed to climate change?

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    Wu, Jianguo; Zhang, Guobin

    2015-06-01

    The distributions of bird species have changed over the past 50 years in China. To evaluate whether the changes can be attributed to the changing climate, we analyzed the distributions of 20 subspecies of resident birds in relation to climate change. Long-term records of bird distributions, gray relational analysis, fuzzy-set classification techniques, and attribution methods were used. Among the 20 subspecies of resident birds, the northern limits of over half of the subspecies have shifted northward since the 1960s, and most changes have been related to the thermal index. Driven by climate change over the past 50 years, the suitable range and latitude or longitude of the distribution centers of certain birds have exhibited increased fluctuations. The northern boundaries of over half of the subspecies have shifted northward compared with those in the 1960s. The consistency between the observed and predicted changes in the range limits was quite high for some subspecies. The changes in the northern boundaries or the latitudes of the centers of distribution of nearly half of the subspecies can be attributed to climate change. The results suggest that climate change has affected the distributions of particular birds. The method used to attribute changes in bird distributions to climate change may also be effective for other animals.

  12. Can changes in the distributions of resident birds in China over the past 50 years be attributed to climate change?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jianguo; Zhang, Guobin

    2015-01-01

    The distributions of bird species have changed over the past 50 years in China. To evaluate whether the changes can be attributed to the changing climate, we analyzed the distributions of 20 subspecies of resident birds in relation to climate change. Long-term records of bird distributions, gray relational analysis, fuzzy-set classification techniques, and attribution methods were used. Among the 20 subspecies of resident birds, the northern limits of over half of the subspecies have shifted northward since the 1960s, and most changes have been related to the thermal index. Driven by climate change over the past 50 years, the suitable range and latitude or longitude of the distribution centers of certain birds have exhibited increased fluctuations. The northern boundaries of over half of the subspecies have shifted northward compared with those in the 1960s. The consistency between the observed and predicted changes in the range limits was quite high for some subspecies. The changes in the northern boundaries or the latitudes of the centers of distribution of nearly half of the subspecies can be attributed to climate change. The results suggest that climate change has affected the distributions of particular birds. The method used to attribute changes in bird distributions to climate change may also be effective for other animals. PMID:26078858

  13. Inferring epidemiologic dynamics from viral evolution: 2014–2015 Eurasian/North American highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses exceed transmission threshold, R0 = 1, in wild birds and poultry in North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grear, Daniel R.; Hall, Jeffrey S.; Dusek, Robert; Ip, Hon S.

    2018-01-01

    Highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) is a multihost pathogen with lineages that pose health risks for domestic birds, wild birds, and humans. One mechanism of intercontinental HPAIV spread is through wild bird reservoirs, and wild birds were the likely sources of a Eurasian (EA) lineage HPAIV into North America in 2014. The introduction resulted in several reassortment events with North American (NA) lineage low-pathogenic avian influenza viruses and the reassortant EA/NA H5N2 went on to cause one of the largest HPAIV poultry outbreaks in North America. We evaluated three hypotheses about novel HPAIV introduced into wild and domestic bird hosts: (i) transmission of novel HPAIVs in wild birds was restricted by mechanisms associated with highly pathogenic phenotypes; (ii) the HPAIV poultry outbreak was not self-sustaining and required viral input from wild birds; and (iii) reassortment of the EA H5N8 generated reassortant EA/NA AIVs with a fitness advantage over fully Eurasian lineages in North American wild birds. We used a time-rooted phylodynamic model that explicitly incorporated viral population dynamics with evolutionary dynamics to estimate the basic reproductive number (R0) and viral migration among host types in domestic and wild birds, as well as between the EA H5N8 and EA/NA H5N2 in wild birds. We did not find evidence to support hypothesis (i) or (ii) as our estimates of the transmission parameters suggested that the HPAIV outbreak met or exceeded the threshold for persistence in wild birds (R0 > 1) and poultry (R0 ≈ 1) with minimal estimated transmission among host types. There was also no evidence to support hypothesis (iii) because R0 values were similar among EA H5N8 and EA/NA H5N2 in wild birds. Our results suggest that this novel HPAIV and reassortments did not encounter any transmission barriers sufficient to prevent persistence when introduced to wild or domestic birds.

  14. Isolation and Genetic Characterization of Avian Influenza Viruses Isolated from Wild Birds in the Azov-Black Sea Region of Ukraine (2001-2012).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muzyka, Denys; Pantin-Jackwood, Mary; Spackman, Erica; Smith, Diane; Rula, Oleksandr; Muzyka, Nataliia; Stegniy, Borys

    2016-05-01

    Wild bird surveillance for avian influenza virus (AIV) was conducted from 2001 to 2012 in the Azov - Black Sea region of the Ukraine, considered part of the transcontinental wild bird migration routes from northern Asia and Europe to the Mediterranean, Africa, and southwest Asia. A total of 6281 samples were collected from wild birds representing 27 families and eight orders for virus isolation. From these samples, 69 AIVs belonging to 15 of the 16 known hemagglutinin (HA) subtypes and seven of nine known neuraminidase (NA) subtypes were isolated. No H14, N5, or N9 subtypes were identified. In total, nine H6, eight H1, nine H5, seven H7, six H11, six H4, five H3, five H10, four H8, three H2, three H9, one H12, one H13, one H15, and one H16 HA subtypes were isolated. As for the NA subtypes, twelve N2, nine N6, eight N8, seven N7, six N3, four N4, and one undetermined were isolated. There were 27 HA and NA antigen combinations. All isolates were low pathogenic AIV except for eight highly pathogenic (HP) AIVs that were isolated during the H5N1 HPAI outbreaks of 2006-08. Sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of the HA genes revealed epidemiological connections between the Azov-Black Sea regions and Europe, Russia, Mongolia, and Southeast Asia. H1, H2, H3, H7, H8, H6, H9, and H13 AIV subtypes were closely related to European, Russian, Mongolian, and Georgian AIV isolates. H10, H11, and H12 AIV subtypes were epidemiologically linked to viruses from Europe and Southeast Asia. Serology conducted on serum and egg yolk samples also demonstrated previous exposure of many wild bird species to different AIVs. Our results demonstrate the great genetic diversity of AIVs in wild birds in the Azov-Black Sea region as well as the importance of this region for monitoring and studying the ecology of influenza viruses. This information furthers our understanding of the ecology of avian influenza viruses in wild bird species.

  15. Age-dependent terminal declines in reproductive output in a wild bird.

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    Martijn Hammers

    Full Text Available In many iteroparous species individual fitness components, such as reproductive output, first increase with age and then decline during late-life. However, individuals differ greatly in reproductive lifespan, but reproductive declines may only occur in the period just before their death as a result of an age-independent decline in physiological condition. To fully understand reproductive senescence it is important to investigate to what extent declines in late-life reproduction can be explained by age, time until death, or both. However, the study of late-life fitness performance in natural populations is challenging as the exact birth and death dates of individuals are often not known, and most individuals succumb to extrinsic mortality before reaching old age. Here, we used an exceptional long-term longitudinal dataset of individuals from a natural, closed, and predator-free population of the Seychelles warbler (Acrocephalus sechellensis to investigate reproductive output, both in relation to age and to the time until the death of an individual (reverse-age approach. We observed an initial age-dependent increase in reproductive output that was followed by a decline in old age. However, we found no significant decline in reproductive output in the years directly preceding death. Although post-peak reproductive output declined with age, this pattern differed between terminal and non-terminal reproductive attempts, and the age-dependence of the terminal breeding attempt explained much of the variation in age-specific reproductive output. In fact, terminal declines in reproductive output were steeper in very old individuals. These results indicate that not only age-dependent, but also age-independent factors, such as physiological condition, need to be considered to understand reproductive senescence in wild-living animals.

  16. Using 3D printed eggs to examine the egg-rejection behaviour of wild birds

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    Branislav Igic

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The coevolutionary relationships between brood parasites and their hosts are often studied by examining the egg rejection behaviour of host species using artificial eggs. However, the traditional methods for producing artificial eggs out of plasticine, plastic, wood, or plaster-of-Paris are laborious, imprecise, and prone to human error. As an alternative, 3D printing may reduce human error, enable more precise manipulation of egg size and shape, and provide a more accurate and replicable protocol for generating artificial stimuli than traditional methods. However, the usefulness of 3D printing technology for egg rejection research remains to be tested. Here, we applied 3D printing technology to the extensively studied egg rejection behaviour of American robins, Turdus migratorius. Eggs of the robin’s brood parasites, brown-headed cowbirds, Molothrus ater, vary greatly in size and shape, but it is unknown whether host egg rejection decisions differ across this gradient of natural variation. We printed artificial eggs that encompass the natural range of shapes and sizes of cowbird eggs, painted them to resemble either robin or cowbird egg colour, and used them to artificially parasitize nests of breeding wild robins. In line with previous studies, we show that robins accept mimetically coloured and reject non-mimetically coloured artificial eggs. Although we found no evidence that subtle differences in parasitic egg size or shape affect robins’ rejection decisions, 3D printing will provide an opportunity for more extensive experimentation on the potential biological or evolutionary significance of size and shape variation of foreign eggs in rejection decisions. We provide a detailed protocol for generating 3D printed eggs using either personal 3D printers or commercial printing services, and highlight additional potential future applications for this technology in the study of egg rejection.

  17. Using 3D printed eggs to examine the egg-rejection behaviour of wild birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunez, Valerie; Voss, Henning U.; Croston, Rebecca; Aidala, Zachary; López, Analía V.; Van Tatenhove, Aimee; Holford, Mandë E.; Shawkey, Matthew D.; Hauber, Mark E.

    2015-01-01

    The coevolutionary relationships between brood parasites and their hosts are often studied by examining the egg rejection behaviour of host species using artificial eggs. However, the traditional methods for producing artificial eggs out of plasticine, plastic, wood, or plaster-of-Paris are laborious, imprecise, and prone to human error. As an alternative, 3D printing may reduce human error, enable more precise manipulation of egg size and shape, and provide a more accurate and replicable protocol for generating artificial stimuli than traditional methods. However, the usefulness of 3D printing technology for egg rejection research remains to be tested. Here, we applied 3D printing technology to the extensively studied egg rejection behaviour of American robins, Turdus migratorius. Eggs of the robin’s brood parasites, brown-headed cowbirds, Molothrus ater, vary greatly in size and shape, but it is unknown whether host egg rejection decisions differ across this gradient of natural variation. We printed artificial eggs that encompass the natural range of shapes and sizes of cowbird eggs, painted them to resemble either robin or cowbird egg colour, and used them to artificially parasitize nests of breeding wild robins. In line with previous studies, we show that robins accept mimetically coloured and reject non-mimetically coloured artificial eggs. Although we found no evidence that subtle differences in parasitic egg size or shape affect robins’ rejection decisions, 3D printing will provide an opportunity for more extensive experimentation on the potential biological or evolutionary significance of size and shape variation of foreign eggs in rejection decisions. We provide a detailed protocol for generating 3D printed eggs using either personal 3D printers or commercial printing services, and highlight additional potential future applications for this technology in the study of egg rejection. PMID:26038720

  18. Surveillance and identification of influenza A viruses in wild aquatic birds in the Crimea, Ukraine (2006-2008).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulak, M V; Ilinykh, F A; Zaykovskaya, A V; Epanchinzeva, A V; Evstaphiev, I L; Tovtunec, N N; Sharshov, K A; Durimanov, A G; Penkovskaya, N A; Shestopalov, A M; Lerman, A I; Drozdov, I G; Swayne, D E

    2010-09-01

    The ecology of avian influenza (AI) viruses in wild aquatic birds of Asia is poorly understood, especially for the H5N1 high pathogenicity AI (HPAI) viruses. From March 2006 through November 2008, 20 AI viruses were isolated in the Crimea region of Ukraine with an overall frequency of virus recovery of 3.3%. All the viruses were isolated from three species of dabbling ducks: mallard (Anas platyrhynchos), wigeon (Anas penelope), and garganey (Anas querquedula), making the frequency of virus recovery for dabbling ducks 6.3%. The viruses were predominantly isolated during the fall sampling period. All viruses were genetically and antigenically characterized. No H5N1 HPAI viruses were isolated, but other HA and NA subtypes were identified including H3N1 (2), H3N6 (3), H3N8 (4), H4N6 (6), H5N2 (3), H7N8 (1), and H10N6 (1) subtypes. All isolates were of low pathogenicity, as determined by the intravenous pathogenicity index of 0.00. For H5N2 and H7N8 isolates, the HA gene was sequenced and the phylogenetic analysis revealed possible ecologic connections of the Crimea region with AI viruses from Siberia and Europe. No influenza A isolates were recovered from other Anseriformes (diving ducks [two species of pochards] and graylag geese), Columbiformes (collared doves), Gruiformes (coot), and Galliformes (gray partridges).

  19. Use of wild bird surveillance, human case data and GIS spatial analysis for predicting spatial distributions of West Nile virus in Greece.

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    George Valiakos

    Full Text Available West Nile Virus (WNV is the causative agent of a vector-borne, zoonotic disease with a worldwide distribution. Recent expansion and introduction of WNV into new areas, including southern Europe, has been associated with severe disease in humans and equids, and has increased concerns regarding the need to prevent and control future WNV outbreaks. Since 2010, 524 confirmed human cases of the disease have been reported in Greece with greater than 10% mortality. Infected mosquitoes, wild birds, equids, and chickens have been detected and associated with human disease. The aim of our study was to establish a monitoring system with wild birds and reported human cases data using Geographical Information System (GIS. Potential distribution of WNV was modelled by combining wild bird serological surveillance data with environmental factors (e.g. elevation, slope, land use, vegetation density, temperature, precipitation indices, and population density. Local factors including areas of low altitude and proximity to water were important predictors of appearance of both human and wild bird cases (Odds Ratio = 1,001 95%CI = 0,723-1,386. Using GIS analysis, the identified risk factors were applied across Greece identifying the northern part of Greece (Macedonia, Thrace western Greece and a number of Greek islands as being at highest risk of future outbreaks. The results of the analysis were evaluated and confirmed using the 161 reported human cases of the 2012 outbreak predicting correctly (Odds = 130/31 = 4,194 95%CI = 2,841-6,189 and more areas were identified for potential dispersion in the following years. Our approach verified that WNV risk can be modelled in a fast cost-effective way indicating high risk areas where prevention measures should be implemented in order to reduce the disease incidence.

  20. Use of Wild Bird Surveillance, Human Case Data and GIS Spatial Analysis for Predicting Spatial Distributions of West Nile Virus in Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valiakos, George; Papaspyropoulos, Konstantinos; Giannakopoulos, Alexios; Birtsas, Periklis; Tsiodras, Sotirios; Hutchings, Michael R.; Spyrou, Vassiliki; Pervanidou, Danai; Athanasiou, Labrini V.; Papadopoulos, Nikolaos; Tsokana, Constantina; Baka, Agoritsa; Manolakou, Katerina; Chatzopoulos, Dimitrios; Artois, Marc; Yon, Lisa; Hannant, Duncan; Petrovska, Liljana; Hadjichristodoulou, Christos; Billinis, Charalambos

    2014-01-01

    West Nile Virus (WNV) is the causative agent of a vector-borne, zoonotic disease with a worldwide distribution. Recent expansion and introduction of WNV into new areas, including southern Europe, has been associated with severe disease in humans and equids, and has increased concerns regarding the need to prevent and control future WNV outbreaks. Since 2010, 524 confirmed human cases of the disease have been reported in Greece with greater than 10% mortality. Infected mosquitoes, wild birds, equids, and chickens have been detected and associated with human disease. The aim of our study was to establish a monitoring system with wild birds and reported human cases data using Geographical Information System (GIS). Potential distribution of WNV was modelled by combining wild bird serological surveillance data with environmental factors (e.g. elevation, slope, land use, vegetation density, temperature, precipitation indices, and population density). Local factors including areas of low altitude and proximity to water were important predictors of appearance of both human and wild bird cases (Odds Ratio = 1,001 95%CI = 0,723–1,386). Using GIS analysis, the identified risk factors were applied across Greece identifying the northern part of Greece (Macedonia, Thrace) western Greece and a number of Greek islands as being at highest risk of future outbreaks. The results of the analysis were evaluated and confirmed using the 161 reported human cases of the 2012 outbreak predicting correctly (Odds = 130/31 = 4,194 95%CI = 2,841–6,189) and more areas were identified for potential dispersion in the following years. Our approach verified that WNV risk can be modelled in a fast cost-effective way indicating high risk areas where prevention measures should be implemented in order to reduce the disease incidence. PMID:24806216

  1. Causes of mortality of wild birds submitted to the Charles Darwin Research Station, Santa Cruz, Galapagos, Ecuador from 2002-2004.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottdenker, Nicole L; Walsh, Timothy; Jiménez-Uzcátegui, Gustavo; Betancourt, Franklin; Cruz, Marilyn; Soos, Catherine; Miller, R Eric; Parker, Patricia G

    2008-10-01

    Necropsy findings were reviewed from wild birds submitted to the Charles Darwin Research Station, Santa Cruz Island, Galápagos Archipelago between 2004 and 2006. One hundred and ninety cases from 27 different species were submitted, and 178 of these cases were evaluated grossly or histologically. Trauma and trauma-related deaths (n=141) dominated necropsy submissions. Infectious causes of avian mortality included myiasis due to Philornis sp. (n=6), avian pox (n=1), and schistosomosis (n=1).

  2. Use of wild bird surveillance, human case data and GIS spatial analysis for predicting spatial distributions of West Nile virus in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valiakos, George; Papaspyropoulos, Konstantinos; Giannakopoulos, Alexios; Birtsas, Periklis; Tsiodras, Sotirios; Hutchings, Michael R; Spyrou, Vassiliki; Pervanidou, Danai; Athanasiou, Labrini V; Papadopoulos, Nikolaos; Tsokana, Constantina; Baka, Agoritsa; Manolakou, Katerina; Chatzopoulos, Dimitrios; Artois, Marc; Yon, Lisa; Hannant, Duncan; Petrovska, Liljana; Hadjichristodoulou, Christos; Billinis, Charalambos

    2014-01-01

    West Nile Virus (WNV) is the causative agent of a vector-borne, zoonotic disease with a worldwide distribution. Recent expansion and introduction of WNV into new areas, including southern Europe, has been associated with severe disease in humans and equids, and has increased concerns regarding the need to prevent and control future WNV outbreaks. Since 2010, 524 confirmed human cases of the disease have been reported in Greece with greater than 10% mortality. Infected mosquitoes, wild birds, equids, and chickens have been detected and associated with human disease. The aim of our study was to establish a monitoring system with wild birds and reported human cases data using Geographical Information System (GIS). Potential distribution of WNV was modelled by combining wild bird serological surveillance data with environmental factors (e.g. elevation, slope, land use, vegetation density, temperature, precipitation indices, and population density). Local factors including areas of low altitude and proximity to water were important predictors of appearance of both human and wild bird cases (Odds Ratio = 1,001 95%CI = 0,723-1,386). Using GIS analysis, the identified risk factors were applied across Greece identifying the northern part of Greece (Macedonia, Thrace) western Greece and a number of Greek islands as being at highest risk of future outbreaks. The results of the analysis were evaluated and confirmed using the 161 reported human cases of the 2012 outbreak predicting correctly (Odds = 130/31 = 4,194 95%CI = 2,841-6,189) and more areas were identified for potential dispersion in the following years. Our approach verified that WNV risk can be modelled in a fast cost-effective way indicating high risk areas where prevention measures should be implemented in order to reduce the disease incidence.

  3. Experimental demonstration of a parasite-induced immune response in wild birds: Darwin's finches and introduced nest flies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koop, Jennifer A H; Owen, Jeb P; Knutie, Sarah A; Aguilar, Maria A; Clayton, Dale H

    2013-08-01

    Ecological immunology aims to explain variation among hosts in the strength and efficacy of immunological defenses. However, a shortcoming has been the failure to link host immune responses to actual parasites under natural conditions. Here, we present one of the first experimental demonstrations of a parasite-induced immune response in a wild bird population. The recently introduced ectoparasitic nest fly Philornis downsi severely impacts the fitness of Darwin's finches and other land birds in the Galápagos Islands. An earlier study showed that female medium ground finches (Geospiza fortis) had P. downsi-binding antibodies correlating with presumed variation in fly exposure over time. In the current study, we experimentally manipulated fly abundance to test whether the fly does, in fact, cause changes in antibody levels. We manipulated P. downsi abundance in nests and quantified P. downsi-binding antibody levels of medium ground finch mothers, fathers, and nestlings. We also quantified host behaviors, such as preening, which can integrate with antibody-mediated defenses against ectoparasites. Philornis downsi-binding antibody levels were significantly higher among mothers at parasitized nests, compared to mothers at (fumigated) nonparasitized nests. Mothers with higher antibody levels tended to have fewer parasites in their nests, suggesting that antibodies play a role in defense against parasites. Mothers showed no behavioral changes that would enhance the effectiveness of the immune response. Neither adult males, nor nestlings, had P. downsi-induced immunological or behavioral responses that would enhance defense against flies. None of the parasitized nests fledged any offspring, despite the immune response by mothers. Thus, this study shows that, while the immune response of mothers appeared to be defensive, it was not sufficient to rescue current reproductive fitness. This study further shows the importance of testing the fitness consequences of immune

  4. A Comparison of ectoparasite infestation by chigger mite larvae (Acarina: Trombiculidae) on resident and migratory birds in Chiapas, Mexico illustrating a rapid visual assessment protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas V. Dietsch

    2005-01-01

    This study presents a protocol developed to rapidly assess ectoparasite prevalence and intensity. Using this protocol during a mist-netting project in two different coffee agroecosystems in Chiapas, Mexico, data were collected on ectoparasitic chigger mite larvae (Acarina: Trombiculidae) found on resident and migratory birds. Surprisingly high infestation rates were...

  5. Immune Responses of Chickens Infected with Wild Bird-Origin H5N6 Avian Influenza Virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shimin Gao

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Since April 2014, new infections of H5N6 avian influenza virus (AIV in humans and domestic poultry have caused considerable economic losses in the poultry industry and posed an enormous threat to human health worldwide. In previous research using gene sequence and phylogenetic analysis, we reported that H5N6 AIV isolated in February 2015 (ZH283 in Pallas’s sandgrouse was highly similar to that isolated in a human in December 2015 (A/Guangdong/ZQ874/2015, whereas a virus (i.e., SW8 isolated in oriental magpie-robin in 2014 was highly similar to that of A/chicken/Dongguan/2690/2013 (H5N6. However, the pathogenicity, transmissibility, and host immune-related response of chickens infected by those wild bird-origin H5N6 AIVs remain unknown. In response, we examined the viral distribution and mRNA expression profiles of immune-related genes in chickens infected with both viruses. Results showed that the H5N6 AIVs were highly pathogenic to chickens and caused not only systemic infection in multiple tissues, but also 100% mortality within 3–5 days post-infection. Additionally, ZH283 efficiently replicated in all tested tissues and transmitted among chickens more rapidly than SW8. Moreover, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis showed that following infection with H5N6, AIVs immune-related genes remained active in a tissue-dependent manner, as well as that ZH283 induced mRNA expression profiles such as TLR3, TLR7, IL-6, TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-10, IL-8, and MHC-II to a greater extent than SW8 in the tested tissues of infected chickens. Altogether, our findings help to illuminate the pathogenesis and immunologic mechanisms of H5N6 AIVs in chickens.

  6. Personality and innate immune defenses in a wild bird: Evidence for the pace-of-life hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacques-Hamilton, Rowan; Hall, Michelle L; Buttemer, William A; Matson, Kevin D; Gonҫalves da Silva, Anders; Mulder, Raoul A; Peters, Anne

    2017-02-01

    We tested the two main evolutionary hypotheses for an association between immunity and personality. The risk-of-parasitism hypothesis predicts that more proactive (bold, exploratory, risk-taking) individuals have more vigorous immune defenses because of increased risk of parasite exposure. In contrast, the pace-of-life hypothesis argues that proactive behavioral styles are associated with shorter lifespans and reduced investment in immune function. Mechanistically, associations between immunity and personality can arise because personality differences are often associated with differences in condition and stress responsiveness, both of which are intricately linked with immunity. Here we investigate the association between personality (measured as proactive exploration of a novel environment) and three indices of innate immune function (the non-specific first line of defense against parasites) in wild superb fairy-wrens Malurus cyaneus. We also quantified body condition, hemoparasites (none detected), chronic stress (heterophil:lymphocyte ratio) and circulating corticosterone levels at the end of the behavioral test (CORT, in a subset of birds). We found that fast explorers had lower titers of natural antibodies. This result is consistent with the pace-of-life hypothesis, and with the previously documented higher mortality of fast explorers in this species. There was no interactive effect of exploration score and duration in captivity on immune indices. This suggests that personality-related differences in stress responsiveness did not underlie differences in immunity, even though behavioral style did modulate the effect of captivity on CORT. Taken together these results suggest reduced constitutive investment in innate immune function in more proactive individuals. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Salmonella spp. and antibiotic-resistant strains in wild mammals and birds in north-western Italy from 2002 to 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Velca Botti

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Salmonella is an important zoonotic pathogen of economic importance. In Europe, salmonellosis is the second food-borne infection, in Italy, Salmonella is still the major cause of food-borne outbreaks. In Europe, there are many Salmonella surveillance plans on farmed animals, while Salmonella survey of wild animals is occasionally performed. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of Salmonella including the antibiotic-resistant strains in wild animals. Between 2002 and 2010, 2,713 wild animals (canids, mustelids, birds, rodents, ungulates, were collected in north-western Italy and tested for Salmonella by classical microbiological culture method followed by serological and biochemical typing. One hundred and seventeen wild animals (63 canids, 25 mustelids, 24 birds, 5 ungulates were found positive for Salmonella (4.3%. One hundred and thirty strains, belonging to several serotypes were isolated, and S. Typhimurium was the most common serotype found. Antibiotic susceptibility was tested by disk-diffusion test on 88 strains. Almost all the analyzed strains (97.7% showed resistance/intermediate resistance to at least one class of antibiotics and the highest resistance values were observed for the tetracycline class. In conclusion, zoonotic and antibiotic-resistant serotypes were found in many species of wildlife.

  8. Behavioural adaptation of a bird from transient wetland specialist to an urban resident.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Martin

    Full Text Available Dramatic population increases of the native white ibis in urban areas have resulted in their classification as a nuisance species. In response to community and industry complaints, land managers have attempted to deter the growing population by destroying ibis nests and eggs over the last twenty years. However, our understanding of ibis ecology is poor and a question of particular importance for management is whether ibis show sufficient site fidelity to justify site-level management of nuisance populations. Ibis in non-urban areas have been observed to be highly transient and capable of moving hundreds of kilometres. In urban areas the population has been observed to vary seasonally, but at some sites ibis are always observed and are thought to be behaving as residents. To measure the level of site fidelity, we colour banded 93 adult ibis at an urban park and conducted 3-day surveys each fortnight over one year, then each quarter over four years. From the quarterly data, the first year resighting rate was 89% for females (n = 59 and 76% for males (n = 34; this decreased to 41% of females and 21% of males in the fourth year. Ibis are known to be highly mobile, and 70% of females and 77% of males were observed at additional sites within the surrounding region (up to 50 km distant. Our results indicate that a large proportion of ibis have chosen residency over transience both within the study site and across the broader urban region. Consequently the establishment of refuge breeding habitat should be a priority localised management may be effective at particular sites, but it is likely to have an impact across the broader population.

  9. Molecular analyses reveal an abundant diversity of ticks and rickettsial agents associated with wild birds in two regions of primary Brazilian Atlantic Rainforest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luz, Hermes Ribeiro; Faccini, João Luiz Horacio; McIntosh, Douglas

    2017-06-01

    Brazilian wild birds are recognized as frequent and important hosts for immature stages of more than half of the 32 recognized species of Amblyomma ticks recorded in that country. Several species of Amblyomma harbor rickettsial agents, including members of the spotted fever group (SFG). Most studies on this topic relied primarily on morphological characterization and reported large portions of the collected ticks at the genus rather than species level. Clearly, this factor may have contributed to an underestimation of tick diversity and distribution and makes comparisons between studies difficult. The current investigation combined morphological and molecular analyses to assess the diversity of ticks and rickettsial agents associated with wild birds, captured in two regions of native Atlantic rainforest, in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. A total of 910 birds were captured, representing two orders, 34 families and 106 species, among which 93 specimens (10.2%), were parasitized by 138 immature ticks (60 larvae and 78 nymphs), representing 10 recognized species of the genus Amblyomma; together with two reasonably well classified haplotypes (Amblyomma sp. haplotype Nazaré and Amblyomma sp. strain USNTC 6792). Amplification by PCR and sequencing of rickettsial genes (htrA, gltA, ompA and ompB), demonstrated the presence of Rickettsia DNA in 48 (34%) of the ticks. Specifically, Rickettsia bellii was detected in a single larva and a single nymph of A. aureolatum; R. amblyomatis was found in 16 of 37 A. longirostre and was recorded for the first time in three nymphs of A. calcaratum; R. rhipicephali was detected in 9 (47%) of 19 Amblyomma sp. haplotype Nazaré ticks. The remaining ticks were infected with genetic variants of R. parkeri, namely strain ApPR in 12 A. parkeri and seven Amblyomma sp. haplotype Nazaré ticks, with the strain NOD found in two specimens of A. nodosum. Interestingly, a single larvae of A. ovale was shown to be infected with the emerging

  10. Effects of childhood experience with nature on tolerance of urban residents toward hornets and wild boars in Japan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetsuro Hosaka

    Full Text Available Urban biodiversity conservation often aims to promote the quality of life for urban residents by providing ecosystem services as well as habitats for diverse wildlife. However, biodiversity inevitably brings some disadvantages, including problems and nuisances caused by wildlife. Although some studies have reported that enhancement of nature interaction among urban children promotes their affective attitude toward of favorable animals, its effect on tolerance toward problem-causing wildlife is unknown. In this study, we assessed the tolerance of 1,030 urban residents in Japan toward hornets and wild boar, and analyzed the effects of childhood experience with nature on tolerance using a structural equation model. The model used sociodemographic factors and childhood nature experience as explanatory variables, affective attitude toward these animals as a mediator, and tolerance as a response variable. The public tolerance toward hornets and boars was low; over 60% of the respondents would request the removal of hornets and wild boar from nearby green spaces by government services, even when the animals had not caused any damage. Tolerance was lower in females and elderly respondents. Childhood experience with nature had a greater influence on tolerance than did sociodemographic factors in the scenario where animals have not caused any problems; however, its effect was only indirect via promoting positive affective attitude toward wildlife when the animals have caused problems. Our results suggest that increasing people's direct experience with nature is important to raise public tolerance, but its effect is limited to cases where wildlife does not cause any problems. To obtain wider support for conservation in urban areas, conservationists, working together with municipal officials, educators and the media, should provide relevant information on the ecological functions performed by problem-causing wildlife and strategies for avoiding the problems

  11. Effects of childhood experience with nature on tolerance of urban residents toward hornets and wild boars in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugimoto, Koun; Numata, Shinya

    2017-01-01

    Urban biodiversity conservation often aims to promote the quality of life for urban residents by providing ecosystem services as well as habitats for diverse wildlife. However, biodiversity inevitably brings some disadvantages, including problems and nuisances caused by wildlife. Although some studies have reported that enhancement of nature interaction among urban children promotes their affective attitude toward of favorable animals, its effect on tolerance toward problem-causing wildlife is unknown. In this study, we assessed the tolerance of 1,030 urban residents in Japan toward hornets and wild boar, and analyzed the effects of childhood experience with nature on tolerance using a structural equation model. The model used sociodemographic factors and childhood nature experience as explanatory variables, affective attitude toward these animals as a mediator, and tolerance as a response variable. The public tolerance toward hornets and boars was low; over 60% of the respondents would request the removal of hornets and wild boar from nearby green spaces by government services, even when the animals had not caused any damage. Tolerance was lower in females and elderly respondents. Childhood experience with nature had a greater influence on tolerance than did sociodemographic factors in the scenario where animals have not caused any problems; however, its effect was only indirect via promoting positive affective attitude toward wildlife when the animals have caused problems. Our results suggest that increasing people’s direct experience with nature is important to raise public tolerance, but its effect is limited to cases where wildlife does not cause any problems. To obtain wider support for conservation in urban areas, conservationists, working together with municipal officials, educators and the media, should provide relevant information on the ecological functions performed by problem-causing wildlife and strategies for avoiding the problems that wildlife can

  12. Food preferences of winter bird communities in different forest types.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swen C Renner

    Full Text Available Food availability for forest birds is a function of habitat type, forest management regime, and season. In winter, it is also impacted by variations in the weather. In the current study we assessed the food preferences of wild bird populations in two types of forest (spruce and beech during the months of November 2010 to April 2011 in the Schwäbische Alb Biodiversity Exploratory, south-western Germany. Our aim was to investigate whether local bird communities preferred fat-rich, carbohydrate-rich or wild fruits and to determine how forest structure, seasonality and local weather conditions affected food preferences. We found higher bird activity in beech forests for the eleven resident species. We observed a clear preference for fat-rich food for all birds in both forest types. Snow cover affected activity at food stations but did not affect food preferences. Periods of extreme low temperatures increased activity.

  13. Blood lead concentrations in wild birds from a polluted mining region at Villa de La Paz, San Luis Potosi, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapa-Vargas, Leonardo; Mejia-Saavedra, Jose J; Monzalvo-Santos, Karina; Puebla-Olivares, Fernando

    2010-01-01

    This investigation was undertaken to determine the concentrations of lead in bird blood samples from a mining region in central Mexico and to compare concentrations among several different feeding guilds. The study took place in the Mexican state of San Luis Potosi in a region known as "Villa de la Paz." This is one of the most intensely exploited mining regions in central Mexico and has been actively mined for over four centuries. Lead concentrations from bird blood samples taken from four polluted sites were significantly higher than those from a control, unpolluted site (F = 6.3, P birds from a highly polluted site were higher than those from a site that has intermediate pollution levels (P birds had significantly lower lead concentrations compared to granivores, frugivores-insectivores, and omnivores (F = 4.86, P = 0.004), and a large proportion of all individuals had blood lead concentrations indicative of low, sub-lethal toxic effects. Finally, in two polluted sites, remarkably small numbers of insectivore-frugivores, and granivores were trapped, and in one polluted site a large number of insectivores was trapped (X(2) = 29.9, P = 0.03), and no differences in proportions of migrants and non-migrants were found among sampling sites (X(2) = 0.6, P = 0.96). To date, it has not been determined to what extent constant exposure to these levels of pollution can influence health at the individual level, lifespan, and, therefore, population demography of birds from this region.

  14. Haemosporidian parasite infections in grouse and ptarmigan: Prevalence and genetic diversity of blood parasites in resident Alaskan birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Matthew M.; Van Hemert, Caroline R.; Merizon, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Projections related to future climate warming indicate the potential for an increase in the distribution and prevalence of blood parasites in northern regions. However, baseline data are lacking for resident avian host species in Alaska. Grouse and ptarmigan occupy a diverse range of habitat types throughout the northern hemisphere and are among the most well-known and important native game birds in North America. Information regarding the prevalence and diversity of haemosporidian parasites in tetraonid species is limited, with few recent studies and an almost complete lack of genetic data. To better understand the genetic diversity of haemosporidian parasites in Alaskan tetraonids and to determine current patterns of geographic range and host specificity, we used molecular methods to screen 459 tissue samples collected from grouse and ptarmigan species across multiple regions of Alaska for infection by Leucocytozoon, Haemoproteus, and Plasmodium blood parasites. Infections were detected in 342 individuals, with overall apparent prevalence of 53% for Leucocytozoon, 21% for Haemoproteus, and 9% for Plasmodium. Parasite prevalence varied by region, with different patterns observed between species groups (grouse versus ptarmigan). Leucocytozoon was more common in ptarmigan, whereas Haemoproteus was more common in grouse. We detected Plasmodium infections in grouse only. Analysis of haemosporidian mitochondrial DNA cytochrome b sequences revealed 23 unique parasite haplotypes, several of which were identical to lineages previously detected in other avian hosts. Phylogenetic analysis showed close relationships between haplotypes from our study and those identified in Alaskan waterfowl for Haemoproteus and Plasmodium parasites. In contrast, Leucocytozoon lineages were structured strongly by host family. Our results provide some of the first genetic data for haemosporidians in grouse and ptarmigan species, and provide an initial baseline on the prevalence and diversity

  15. First introduction of highly pathogenic H5NI avian influenza A viruses in wild and domestic birds in Denmark, Northern Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bragstad, K.; Jørgensen, Poul Henrik; Handberg, Kurt

    2007-01-01

    Background: Since 2005 highly pathogenic ( HP) avian influenza A H5N1 viruses have spread from Asia to Africa and Europe infecting poultry, humans and wild birds. HP H5N1 virus was isolated in Denmark for the first time in March 2006. A total of 44 wild birds were found positive for the HP H5N1...... infection. In addition, one case was reported in a backyard poultry flock. Results: Full-genome characterisation of nine isolates revealed that the Danish H5N1 viruses were highly similar to German H5N1 isolates in all genes from the same time period. The haemagglutinin gene grouped phylogenetically in H5...... clade 2 subclade 2 and closest relatives besides the German isolates were isolates from Croatia in 2005, Nigeria and Niger in 2006 and isolates from Astrakhan in Russia 2006. The German and Danish isolates shared unique substitutions in the NA, PB1 and NS2 proteins. Conclusion: The first case of HP H5N1...

  16. Diversity and evolution of avian influenza viruses in live poultry markets, free-range poultry and wild wetland birds in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Liang-Jun; Lin, Xian-Dan; Guo, Wen-Ping; Tian, Jun-Hua; Wang, Wen; Ying, Xu-Hua; Wang, Miao-Ruo; Yu, Bin; Yang, Zhan-Qiu; Shi, Mang; Holmes, Edward C; Zhang, Yong-Zhen

    2016-04-01

    The wide circulation of novel avian influenza viruses (AIVs) highlights the risk of pandemic influenza emergence in China. To investigate the prevalence and genetic diversity of AIVs in different ecological contexts, we surveyed AIVs in live poultry markets (LPMs), free-range poultry and the wetland habitats of wild birds in Zhejiang and Hubei provinces. Notably, LPMs contained the highest frequency of AIV infection, and the greatest number of subtypes (n = 9) and subtype co-infections (n = 14), as well as frequent reassortment, suggesting that they play an active role in fuelling AIV transmission. AIV-positive samples were also identified in wild birds in both provinces and free-range poultry in one sampling site close to a wetland region in Hubei. H9N2, H7N9 and H5N1 were the most commonly sampled subtypes in the LPMs from Zhejiang, whilst H5N6 and H9N2 were the dominant subtypes in the LPMs from Hubei. Phylogenetic analyses of the whole-genome sequences of 43 AIVs revealed that three reassortant H5 subtypes were circulating in LMPs in both geographical regions. Notably, the viruses sampled from the wetland regions and free-range poultry contained complex reassortants, for which the origins of some segments were unclear. Overall, our study highlights the extent of AIV genetic diversity in two highly populated parts of central and south-eastern China, particularly in LPMs, and emphasizes the need for continual surveillance.

  17. Fruit removal of a wild tomato, Solanum granulosoleprosum Dunal (Solanaceae, by birds, bats and non-flying mammals in an urban Brazilian environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cáceres Nilton Carlos

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available A study of removal of fruits of the wild tomato, Solanum granulosoleprosum Dunal (N = 5 plants, by vertebrates was carried out in an urban environment of southern Brazil from January to May 1997 and February 1998. To verify diurnal and nocturnal removals, fruits were counted in several fruit bunches, being classified by size and color. Diurnal observations were made on plants to verify bird removal. A mist net was placed among the plants from the evening to 23:00 h to verify bat consumption. Live traps baited with S. granulosoleprosum fruits were placed on the ground among plants to verify terrestrial removers. On average it was found two ripe fruits available per bunch/day, but unripe, small, fruits were dominant (70%. Nocturnal mammals and birds-diurnal mammals partitioned fruits similarly. Bats removing fruits were Artibeus lituratus (Olfers, 1818, Pygoderma bilabiatum (Wagner, 1843 and Sturnira lilium (E. Geoffroy, 1810. Birds were Saltator similis Lafresnaye & d'Orbigny, 1837 and Thraupis sayaca (Linnaeus, 1766. Terrestrial mammals were a marsupial and three rodent species. Except for rodents, these vertebrates must be promoting the seed dispersal of S. granulosoleprosum seeds in disturbed mixed forests of southern Brazil.

  18. Characterization of H5N6 highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses isolated from wild and captive birds in the winter season of 2016-2017 in Northern Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiono, Takahiro; Okamatsu, Masatoshi; Matsuno, Keita; Haga, Atsushi; Iwata, Ritsuko; Nguyen, Lam Thanh; Suzuki, Mizuho; Kikutani, Yuto; Kida, Hiroshi; Onuma, Manabu; Sakoda, Yoshihiro

    2017-09-01

    On 15 November 2016, a black swan that had died in a zoo in Akita prefecture, northern Japan, was strongly suspected to have highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI); an HPAI virus (HPAIV) belonging to the H5N6 subtype was isolated from specimens taken from the bird. After the initial report, 230 cases of HPAI caused by H5N6 viruses from wild birds, captive birds, and domestic poultry farms were reported throughout the country during the winter season. In the present study, 66 H5N6 HPAIVs isolated from northern Japan were further characterized. Phylogenetic analysis of the hemagglutinin gene showed that the H5N6 viruses isolated in northern Japan clustered into Group C of Clade 2.3.4.4 together with other isolates collected in Japan, Korea and Taiwan during the winter season of 2016-2017. The antigenicity of the Japanese H5N6 isolate differed slightly from that of HPAIVs isolated previously in Japan and China. The virus exhibited high pathogenicity and a high replication capacity in chickens, whereas virus growth was slightly lower in ducks compared with that of an H5N8 HPAIV isolate collected in Japan in 2014. Comprehensive analyses of Japanese isolates, including those from central, western, and southern Japan, as well as rapid publication of this information are essential for facilitating greater control of HPAIVs. © 2017 The Societies and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  19. Spatial transmission of H5N6 highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses among wild birds in Ibaraki Prefecture, Japan, 2016-2017.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsunekuni, Ryota; Yaguchi, Yuji; Kashima, Yuki; Yamashita, Kaoru; Takemae, Nobuhiro; Mine, Junki; Tanikawa, Taichiro; Uchida, Yuko; Saito, Takehiko

    2018-05-01

    From 29 November 2016 to 24 January 2017, sixty-three cases of H5N6 highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) infections were detected in wild birds in Ibaraki Prefecture, Japan. Here, we analyzed the genetic, temporal, and geographic correlations of these 63 HPAIVs to elucidate their dissemination throughout the prefecture. Full-genome sequence analysis of the Ibaraki isolates showed that 7 segments (PB2, PB1, PA, HA, NP, NA, NS) were derived from G1.1.9 strains while the M segment was from G1.1 strains; both groups of strains circulated in south China. Pathological studies revealed severe systemic infection in dead swans (the majority of dead birds and the only species necropsied), thus indicating high susceptibility to H5N6 HPAIVs. Coalescent phylogenetic analysis using the 7 G1.1.9-derived segments enabled detailed analysis of the short-term evolution of these highly homologous HPAIVs. This analysis revealed that the H5N6 HPAIVs isolated from wild birds in Ibaraki Prefecture were divided into 7 groups. Spatial analysis demonstrated that most of the cases concentrated around Senba Lake originated from a single source, and progeny viruses were transmitted to other locations after the infection expanded in mute swans. In contrast, within just a 5-km radius of the area in which cases were concentrated, three different intrusions of H5N6 HPAIVs were evident. Multi-segment analysis of short-term evolution showed that not only was the invading virus spread throughout Ibaraki Prefecture but also that, despite the small size of this region, multiple invasions had occurred during winter 2016-2017.

  20. First light for avian embryos: eggshell thickness and pigmentation mediate variation in development and UV exposure in wild bird eggs

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Maurer, G.; Portugal, S. J.; Hauber, M. E.; Mikšík, Ivan; Russell, D. G. D.; Cassey, P.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 29, č. 2 (2015), s. 209-218 ISSN 0269-8463 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA15-01948S Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : breeding birds * eggs hell colour * light transmission * nesting behaviour * pigments * ultraviolet light Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 5.210, year: 2015

  1. Spatial and temporal association of outbreaks of H5N1 influenza virus infection in wild birds with the 0 degrees C isotherm.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leslie A Reperant

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Wild bird movements and aggregations following spells of cold weather may have resulted in the spread of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV H5N1 in Europe during the winter of 2005-2006. Waterbirds are constrained in winter to areas where bodies of water remain unfrozen in order to feed. On the one hand, waterbirds may choose to winter as close as possible to their breeding grounds in order to conserve energy for subsequent reproduction, and may be displaced by cold fronts. On the other hand, waterbirds may choose to winter in regions where adverse weather conditions are rare, and may be slowed by cold fronts upon their journey back to the breeding grounds, which typically starts before the end of winter. Waterbirds will thus tend to aggregate along cold fronts close to the 0 degrees C isotherm during winter, creating conditions that favour HPAIV H5N1 transmission and spread. We determined that the occurrence of outbreaks of HPAIV H5N1 infection in waterbirds in Europe during the winter of 2005-2006 was associated with temperatures close to 0 degrees C. The analysis suggests a significant spatial and temporal association of outbreaks caused by HPAIV H5N1 in wild birds with maximum surface air temperatures of 0 degrees C-2 degrees C on the day of the outbreaks and the two preceding days. At locations where waterbird census data have been collected since 1990, maximum mallard counts occurred when average and maximum surface air temperatures were 0 degrees C and 3 degrees C, respectively. Overall, the abundance of mallards (Anas platyrhynchos and common pochards (Aythya ferina was highest when surface air temperatures were lower than the mean temperatures of the region investigated. The analysis implies that waterbird movements associated with cold weather, and congregation of waterbirds along the 0 degrees C isotherm likely contributed to the spread and geographical distribution of outbreaks of HPAIV H5N1 infection in wild birds in

  2. Current selection for lower migratory activity will drive the evolution of residency in a migratory bird population

    OpenAIRE

    Pulido, Francisco; Berthold, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Global warming is impacting biodiversity by altering the distribution, abundance, and phenology of a wide range of animal and plant species. One of the best documented responses to recent climate change is alterations in the migratory behavior of birds, but the mechanisms underlying these phenotypic adjustments are largely unknown. This knowledge is still crucial to predict whether populations of migratory birds will adapt to a rapid increase in temperature. We monitored migratory behavior in...

  3. Natural selection acts in opposite ways on correlated hormonal mediators of prenatal maternal effects in a wild bird population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tschirren, Barbara; Postma, Erik; Gustafsson, Lars; Groothuis, Ton G. G.; Doligez, Blandine

    2014-01-01

    Maternal hormones are important mediators of prenatal maternal effects. Although many experimental studies have demonstrated their potency in shaping offspring phenotypes, we know remarkably little about their adaptive value. Using long-term data on a wild collared flycatcher (Ficedula albicollis)

  4. Pasteurella multocida isolated from wild birds of North America: a serotype and DNA fingerprint study of isolates from 1978 to 1993

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, M.A.; Duncan, R.M.; Nordholm, G.E.; Berlowski, B.M.

    1995-01-01

    Serotype and DNA fingerprint methods were used to study Pasteurella multocida isolated from 320 wild birds of North America. Isolates were collected during 1978-93. The HhaI profiles of 314 isolates matched the HhaI profile of somatic reference type 1, strain X-73; somatic type 1 antigen was expressed by 310 isolates, and the serotype of four isolates was undetected. Differentiation of the 314 isolates was observed by digestion of DNA with HpaII. None of the HpaII profiles matched the HpaII profile of X-73 (designated HhaI 001/HpaII 001). Three HpaII profiles were recognized among the somatic type 1 isolates: HpaII 002 (n = 18), HpaII 003 (n = 122), and HpaII 004 (n = 174). Profile HpaII 002 was found among isolates collected during 1979-83. Profile HpaII 003 was identified from isolates collected during 1979-89, with the exception of two isolates in 1992. The HpaII 004 profile was identified from isolates collected during 1983-93. Of the six remaining isolates, four expressed somatic type 4 and had HhaI profiles identical to the somatic type 4 reference strain P-1662 profile (designated HhaI 004); these isolates were differentiated by digestion of DNA with HpaII. One isolate was identified as serotype F:11, and another was serotype A:3,4. In the present study, 314 of 316 (99.4%) isolates from wild birds in the Central, Mississippi, and Pacific flyways during 1978-93, were P. multocida somatic type 1.

  5. A point mutation in the polymerase protein PB2 allows a reassortant H9N2 influenza isolate of wild-bird origin to replicate in human cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussein, Islam T.M.; Ma, Eric J.; Meixell, Brandt; Hill, Nichola J.; Lindberg, Mark S.; Albrecht , Randy A.; Bahl, Justin; Runstadler, Jonathan A.

    2016-01-01

    H9N2 influenza A viruses are on the list of potentially pandemic subtypes. Therefore, it is important to understand how genomic reassortment and genetic polymorphisms affect phenotypes of H9N2 viruses circulating in the wild bird reservoir. A comparative genetic analysis of North American H9N2 isolates of wild bird origin identified a naturally occurring reassortant virus containing gene segments derived from both North American and Eurasian lineage ancestors. The PB2 segment of this virus encodes 10 amino acid changes that distinguish it from other H9 strains circulating in North America. G590S, one of the 10 amino acid substitutions observed, was present in ~ 12% of H9 viruses worldwide. This mutation combined with R591 has been reported as a marker of pathogenicity for human pandemic 2009 H1N1 viruses. Screening by polymerase reporter assay of all the natural polymorphisms at these two positions identified G590/K591 and S590/K591 as the most active, with the highest polymerase activity recorded for the SK polymorphism. Rescued viruses containing these two polymorphic combinations replicated more efficiently in MDCK cells and they were the only ones tested that were capable of establishing productive infection in NHBE cells. A global analysis of all PB2 sequences identified the K591 signature in six viral HA/NA subtypes isolated from several hosts in seven geographic locations. Interestingly, introducing the K591 mutation into the PB2 of a human-adapted H3N2 virus did not affect its polymerase activity. Our findings demonstrate that a single point mutation in the PB2 of a low pathogenic H9N2 isolate could have a significant effect on viral phenotype and increase its propensity to infect mammals. However, this effect is not universal, warranting caution in interpreting point mutations without considering protein sequence context.

  6. Evaluation and Comparison of QuickBird and ADS40-SH52 Multispectral Imagery for Mapping Iberian Wild Pear Trees (Pyrus bourgaeana, Decne in a Mediterranean Mixed Forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvador Arenas-Castro

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The availability of images with very high spatial and spectral resolution from airborne sensors or those aboard satellites is opening new possibilities for the analysis of fine-scale vegetation, such as the identification and classification of individual tree species. To evaluate the potential of these images, a study was carried out to compare the spatial, spectral and temporal resolution between QuickBird and ADS40-SH52 imagery, in order to discriminate and identify, within the mixed Mediterranean forest, individuals of the Iberian wild pear (Pyrus bourgaeana. This is a typical species of the Mediterranean forest, but its biology and ecology are still poorly known. The images were subjected to different correction processes and data were homogenized. Vegetation classes and individual trees were identified on the images, which were classified from two types of supervised classification (Maximum Likelihood and Support Vector Machines on a pixel-by-pixel basis. The classification values were satisfactory. The classifiers were compared, and Support Vector Machines was the algorithm that provided the best results in terms of overall accuracy. The QuickBird image showed higher overall accuracy (86.16% when the Support Vector Machines algorithm was applied. In addition, individuals of Iberian wild pear were discriminated with probability of over 55%, when the Maximum Likelihood algorithm was applied. From the perspective of improving the sampling effort, these results are a starting point for facilitating research on the abundance, distribution and spatial structure of P. bourgaeana at different scales, in order to quantify the conservation status of this species.

  7. Experimental evolution of an RNA virus in wild birds: evidence for host-dependent impacts on population structure and competitive fitness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathan D Grubaugh

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Within hosts, RNA viruses form populations that are genetically and phenotypically complex. Heterogeneity in RNA virus genomes arises due to error-prone replication and is reduced by stochastic and selective mechanisms that are incompletely understood. Defining how natural selection shapes RNA virus populations is critical because it can inform treatment paradigms and enhance control efforts. We allowed West Nile virus (WNV to replicate in wild-caught American crows, house sparrows and American robins to assess how natural selection shapes RNA virus populations in ecologically relevant hosts that differ in susceptibility to virus-induced mortality. After five sequential passages in each bird species, we examined the phenotype and population diversity of WNV through fitness competition assays and next generation sequencing. We demonstrate that fitness gains occur in a species-specific manner, with the greatest replicative fitness gains in robin-passaged WNV and the least in WNV passaged in crows. Sequencing data revealed that intrahost WNV populations were strongly influenced by purifying selection and the overall complexity of the viral populations was similar among passaged hosts. However, the selective pressures that control WNV populations seem to be bird species-dependent. Specifically, crow-passaged WNV populations contained the most unique mutations (~1.7× more than sparrows, ~3.4× more than robins and defective genomes (~1.4× greater than sparrows, ~2.7× greater than robins, but the lowest average mutation frequency (about equal to sparrows, ~2.6× lower than robins. Therefore, our data suggest that WNV replication in the most disease-susceptible bird species is positively associated with virus mutational tolerance, likely via complementation, and negatively associated with the strength of selection. These differences in genetic composition most likely have distinct phenotypic consequences for the virus populations. Taken together

  8. Quantification of low levels of organochlorine pesticides using small volumes (≤100 μl) of plasma of wild birds through gas chromatography negative chemical ionization mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rivera-Rodriguez, Laura B.; Rodriguez-Estrella, Ricardo; Ellington, James Jackson; Evans, John J.

    2007-01-01

    A solid phase extraction and gas chromatography with negative chemical ionization mass spectrometry in scan mode (GC-NCI-MS) method was developed to identify and quantify for the first time low levels of organochlorine pesticides (OCs) in plasma samples of less than 100 μl from wild birds. The method detection limits ranged from 0.012 to 0.102 pg/μl and the method reporting limit from 0.036 to 0.307 pg/μl for α, γ, β and δ-hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH), heptachlor, aldrin, heptachlor epoxide, endosulfan I, 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethylene (p,p'-DDE), dieldrin, endrin, endosulfan-II, endrin-aldehyde and endosulfan-sulfate. Pesticide levels in small serum samples from individual Falco sparverius, Sturnella neglecta, Mimus polyglottos and Columbina passerina were quantified. Concentrations ranged from not detected (n/d) to 204.9 pg/μl for some OC pesticides. All levels in the food web in and around cultivated areas showed the presence of pesticides notwithstanding the small areas for agriculture existing in the desert of Baja California peninsula. - This technique allows small birds to be used as indicators of chemical contamination in habitats because pesticides can be quantified in very small volumes of plasma

  9. Quantification of low levels of organochlorine pesticides using small volumes ({<=}100 {mu}l) of plasma of wild birds through gas chromatography negative chemical ionization mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivera-Rodriguez, Laura B. [Centro de Investigaciones Biologicas del Noroeste, S.C., Environmental Planning and Conservation Program, Mar Bermejo No. 195, Col. Playa Palo de Santa Rita, Ado. Postal 128, La Paz, BCS. 23090 (Mexico)]. E-mail: lrivera04@cibnor.mx; Rodriguez-Estrella, Ricardo [Centro de Investigaciones Biologicas del Noroeste, S.C., Environmental Planning and Conservation Program, Mar Bermejo No. 195, Col. Playa Palo de Santa Rita, Ado. Postal 128, La Paz, BCS. 23090 (Mexico); Ellington, James Jackson [National Exposure Research Laboratory, US Environmental Protection Agency, 960 College Station Road, Athens, GA 30605 (United States); Evans, John J. [National Exposure Research Laboratory, US Environmental Protection Agency, 960 College Station Road, Athens, GA 30605 (United States); Senior Service America Inc. (United States)

    2007-07-15

    A solid phase extraction and gas chromatography with negative chemical ionization mass spectrometry in scan mode (GC-NCI-MS) method was developed to identify and quantify for the first time low levels of organochlorine pesticides (OCs) in plasma samples of less than 100 {mu}l from wild birds. The method detection limits ranged from 0.012 to 0.102 pg/{mu}l and the method reporting limit from 0.036 to 0.307 pg/{mu}l for {alpha}, {gamma}, {beta} and {delta}-hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH), heptachlor, aldrin, heptachlor epoxide, endosulfan I, 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethylene (p,p'-DDE), dieldrin, endrin, endosulfan-II, endrin-aldehyde and endosulfan-sulfate. Pesticide levels in small serum samples from individual Falco sparverius, Sturnella neglecta, Mimus polyglottos and Columbina passerina were quantified. Concentrations ranged from not detected (n/d) to 204.9 pg/{mu}l for some OC pesticides. All levels in the food web in and around cultivated areas showed the presence of pesticides notwithstanding the small areas for agriculture existing in the desert of Baja California peninsula. - This technique allows small birds to be used as indicators of chemical contamination in habitats because pesticides can be quantified in very small volumes of plasma.

  10. Pyrethroid insecticides in wild bird eggs from a World Heritage Listed Park: A case study in Doñana National Park (Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corcellas, Cayo; Andreu, Ana; Máñez, Manuel; Sergio, Fabrizio; Hiraldo, Fernando; Eljarrat, Ethel; Barceló, Damià

    2017-09-01

    Recent studies demonstrated that the common pyrethroid insecticides are present in aquatic biota tissues. In this study, 123 samples of unhatched eggs of 16 wild bird species collected from 2010 to 2012 in Doñana National and Natural Park were analysed to determine 13 pyrethroids. This study represents the first time that pyrethroids are detected in tissues of terrestrial biota, 93% of these samples being positive to those pollutants. Levels of total pyrethroids ranged from not detected to 324 ng g -1 lw. The samples were characterized by stable isotope analysis. Species with diets based on anthropogenic food showed higher levels of pyrethroids and lower values of δ 15 N. Finally, we characterized the isomers of pyrethroids and discerned some isomeric- and enantiomeric-specific accumulations. In particular, tetramethrin and cyhalothrin showed an enantiomeric-selective accumulation of one enantiomer, highlighting the need to assess toxicological effects of each enantiomer separately to be able to make a correct risk assessment of pyrethroids in birds. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. PCR-based diagnosis, molecular characterization and detection of atypical strains of avian Chlamydia psittaci in companion and wild birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madani, S A; Peighambari, S M

    2013-02-01

    Chlamydiosis is one of the most important infectious diseases of birds. In this study, 253 clinical samples were taken from 27 bird species belonging to seven orders. Thirty-two (12.6%) samples were positive for Chlamydia psittaci major outer membrane gene (ompA) DNA by a nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Twelve nested PCR-positive specimens were typed by ompA gene-based PCR-restricted fragment length polymorphism, using CTU/CTL primers and AluI restriction enzyme. Four restriction patterns were identified, including genotype A (two specimens from an African grey parrot [Psittacus erithacus] and a lorikeet [Trichoglossus haematodus]), genotype B (two specimens from a rock dove [Columbia livia] and a canary [Serinus canaria]), a third new restriction pattern (six specimens from African grey parrots), and a fourth new restriction pattern (two specimens from a ring-necked parakeet [Psittacula krameri] and an Alexandrine parakeet [Psittacula eupatria]). The third and the fourth restriction patterns are suggested to be provisional genotypes I and J, respectively. Partial sequencing of the ompA gene of seven specimens completely correlated with the results of PCR-restricted fragment length polymorphism and confirmed the presence of genotypes A and B and the two new provisional genotypes I and J. The two new genotypes have the closest identity with C. psittaci genotype F and Chlamydia abortus, respectively. From an evolutionary perspective, both new genotypes, particularly genotype J, are intermediate between the two species, C. psittaci and C. abortus.

  12. BACKYARD TURKEYS AS DISEASES RESERVORY FOR WILD BIRDS AND POULTRY IN THREE ECOSYSTEMS OF THE MEXICAN COAST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Antonio Camacho-Escobar

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available To identify the kind of avian diseases could be transmits the backyard turkeys to the Oaxaca's Coast wild life and poultry, a clinical sanitary evaluation was performed in backyard turkeys who grassing on places that could be contact with wild life, in three different ecosystems: cloud forest, medium jungle deciduous and palm trees. The evaluation was performed on six male turkeys with a year and a half old, six female with six months of age, and six poults with less of eight months of age. The laboratory tests included: necropsy for clinical diagnosis of diseases and for a hystopathological examination of tissues; Hemagglutination Inhibition Tests to diagnose Newcastle Disease and Avian Influenza. Serum Plate Agglutination Test to identify antibodies against Mycoplasma gallisepticum, Mycoplasma synoviae and Salmonella pullorum, ELISA to identify Infectious Bronchitis and Infectious Bursal Disease. In addition, laboratory analyses were done to find internal and external parasites. The frequency of diseases was estimated with descriptive statistics and the correlation between Ecosystem X Turkeys Age was calculated with Pearson's correlation coefficient. Was identify Avian Pox, antibodies from Newcastle Disease, Avian Influenza, Infectious Bronchitis, Infectious Bursal Disease; Fowl Typhoid, Colibacillocis, Staphylococcosis, Infectious Sinusitis, Infectious Synovitis. The internal parasites identified were Ascaridia gallinae, Eimeria dispersa, Eimeria meleagridis, Heterakis gallinae and Tetramenes sp; and the external parasite Dermanyssus gallinae. All the diseases and parasitic diseases are dangerous for the poultry and the wild life. A relationship exist between ecosystem and diseases at different ages in backyard turkeys.

  13. Current selection for lower migratory activity will drive the evolution of residency in a migratory bird population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pulido, F.; Berthold, P.

    2010-01-01

    Global warming is impacting biodiversity by altering the distribution, abundance, and phenology of a wide range of animal and plant species. One of the best documented responses to recent climate change is alterations in the migratory behavior of birds, but the mechanisms underlying these phenotypic

  14. Characterization of Clade 2.3.2.1 H5N1 Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Viruses Isolated from Wild Birds (Mandarin Duck and Eurasian Eagle Owl in 2010 in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youn-Jeong Lee

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Starting in late November 2010, the H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI virus was isolated from many types of wild ducks and raptors and was subsequently isolated from poultry in Korea. We assessed the genetic and pathogenic properties of the HPAI viruses isolated from a fecal sample from a mandarin duck and a dead Eurasian eagle owl, the most affected wild bird species during the 2010/2011 HPAI outbreak in Korea. These viruses have similar genetic backgrounds and exhibited the highest genetic similarity with recent Eurasian clade 2.3.2.1 HPAI viruses. In animal inoculation experiments, regardless of their originating hosts, the two Korean isolates produced highly pathogenic characteristics in chickens, ducks and mice without pre-adaptation. These results raise concerns about veterinary and public health. Surveillance of wild birds could provide a good early warning signal for possible HPAI infection in poultry as well as in humans.

  15. Negative phenotypic and genetic correlation between natal dispersal propensity and nest-defence behaviour in a wild bird.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bize, Pierre; Daniel, Grégory; Viblanc, Vincent A; Martin, Julien G A; Doligez, Blandine

    2017-07-01

    Natural selection is expected to favour the integration of dispersal and phenotypic traits allowing individuals to reduce dispersal costs. Accordingly, associations have been found between dispersal and personality traits such as aggressiveness and exploration, which may facilitate settlement in a novel environment. However, the determinism of these associations has only rarely been explored. Here, we highlight the functional integration of individual personality in nest-defence behaviour and natal dispersal propensity in a long-lived colonial bird, the Alpine swift ( Apus melba ), providing insights into genetic constraints shaping the coevolution of these two traits. We report a negative association between natal dispersal and nest-defence (i.e. risk taking) behaviour at both the phenotypic and genetic level. This negative association may result from direct selection if risk-averseness benefits natal dispersers by reducing the costs of settlement in an unfamiliar environment, or from indirect selection if individuals with lower levels of nest defence also show lower levels of aggressiveness, reducing costs of settlement among unfamiliar neighbours in a colony. In both cases, these results highlight that risk taking is an important behavioural trait to consider in the study of dispersal evolution. © 2017 The Author(s).

  16. Molecular Ecological Insights into Neotropical Bird-Tick Interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Matthew J; Esser, Helen J; Loaiza, Jose R; Herre, Edward Allen; Aguilar, Celestino; Quintero, Diomedes; Alvarez, Eric; Bermingham, Eldredge

    2016-01-01

    In the tropics, ticks parasitize many classes of vertebrate hosts. However, because many tropical tick species are only identifiable in the adult stage, and these adults usually parasitize mammals, most attention on the ecology of tick-host interactions has focused on mammalian hosts. In contrast, immature Neotropical ticks are often found on wild birds, yet difficulties in identifying immatures hinder studies of birds' role in tropical tick ecology and tick-borne disease transmission. In Panama, we found immature ticks on 227 out of 3,498 individually-sampled birds representing 93 host species (24% of the bird species sampled, and 13% of the Panamanian land bird fauna). Tick parasitism rates did not vary with rainfall or temperature, but did vary significantly with several host ecological traits. Likewise, Neotropical-Nearctic migratory birds were significantly less likely to be infested than resident species. Using a molecular library developed from morphologically-identified adult ticks specifically for this study, we identified eleven tick species parasitizing birds, indicating that a substantial portion of the Panamanian avian species pool is parasitized by a diversity of tick species. Tick species that most commonly parasitized birds had the widest diversity of avian hosts, suggesting that immature tick species are opportunistic bird parasites. Although certain avian ecological traits are positively associated with parasitism, we found no evidence that individual tick species show specificity to particular avian host ecological traits. Finally, our data suggest that the four principal vectors of Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever in the Neotropics rarely, if ever, parasitize Panamanian birds. However, other tick species that harbor newly-discovered rickettsial parasites of unknown pathogenicity are frequently found on these birds. Given our discovery of broad interaction between Panamanian tick and avian biodiversity, future work on tick ecology and the dynamics of

  17. Molecular Ecological Insights into Neotropical Bird-Tick Interactions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew J Miller

    Full Text Available In the tropics, ticks parasitize many classes of vertebrate hosts. However, because many tropical tick species are only identifiable in the adult stage, and these adults usually parasitize mammals, most attention on the ecology of tick-host interactions has focused on mammalian hosts. In contrast, immature Neotropical ticks are often found on wild birds, yet difficulties in identifying immatures hinder studies of birds' role in tropical tick ecology and tick-borne disease transmission. In Panama, we found immature ticks on 227 out of 3,498 individually-sampled birds representing 93 host species (24% of the bird species sampled, and 13% of the Panamanian land bird fauna. Tick parasitism rates did not vary with rainfall or temperature, but did vary significantly with several host ecological traits. Likewise, Neotropical-Nearctic migratory birds were significantly less likely to be infested than resident species. Using a molecular library developed from morphologically-identified adult ticks specifically for this study, we identified eleven tick species parasitizing birds, indicating that a substantial portion of the Panamanian avian species pool is parasitized by a diversity of tick species. Tick species that most commonly parasitized birds had the widest diversity of avian hosts, suggesting that immature tick species are opportunistic bird parasites. Although certain avian ecological traits are positively associated with parasitism, we found no evidence that individual tick species show specificity to particular avian host ecological traits. Finally, our data suggest that the four principal vectors of Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever in the Neotropics rarely, if ever, parasitize Panamanian birds. However, other tick species that harbor newly-discovered rickettsial parasites of unknown pathogenicity are frequently found on these birds. Given our discovery of broad interaction between Panamanian tick and avian biodiversity, future work on tick ecology

  18. Incidence of Avian Influenza in Adamawa State, Nigeria: The Epidemiology, Economic Losses and the Possible Role of Wild Birds in the Transmission of the Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ja`Afar-Furo, M. R.; Balla, H. G.; Tahir, A. S.; Haskainu, C.

    Reducing the huge economic losses due to diseases in poultry as the second largest industry in Nigeria after oil means improving the protein intake of the majority. Similarly, this will also promotes a steady income for the teeming farmers. This study investigated the incidence of the lethal avian influenza in Adamawa State, Nigeria, with particular emphasis on the socio-economic and cultural activities of the poultry farmers, economic losses and the possible role of wild birds in the transmission of the disease. Data were collected from 316 and 458 direct and indirect respondents, respectively, from 6 affected villages and a town in 2 Local Government Areas (LGAs): Girei and Yola-North. Results revealed that a larger (25.71%) proportion of the respondents fell within the age range of 31-40 years, with majority (54.91%) as females. While the bulk (54.65%) of the respondents were illiterates, 95.47% of the direct respondents derived their incomes from crop production, whereas 59.17% of the indirect respondents from livestock rearing. About 26,049 birds worth N13, 454,800.00 was cumulative economic loss incurred by the poultry farmers, whereas that of the government was put at N1, 119,781.10. Of the mortalities experienced in the wildlife before the outbreak of the disease, Bubulcus ibis (64.29) and Tadarida nigeriae (86.36) were the highest. The study recommends a massive rural extension on Poultry Production with absolute biosecurity, involving all stakeholders (Veterinary Surgeons, Animal Scientists/health workers, wildlife specialists, Agricultural Economists, Information Officers etc.) in a collaborative form for high synergistic effects.

  19. Avian malaria in a boreal resident species: long-term temporal variability, and increased prevalence in birds with avian keratin disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Laura C.; Handel, Colleen M.; Van Hemert, Caroline R.; Loiseau, Claire; Sehgal, Ravinder N. M.

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of vector-borne parasitic diseases is widely influenced by biological and ecological factors. Environmental conditions such as temperature and precipitation can have a marked effect on haemosporidian parasites (Plasmodium spp.) that cause malaria and those that cause other malaria-like diseases in birds. However, there have been few long-term studies monitoring haemosporidian infections in birds in northern latitudes, where weather conditions can be highly variable and the effects of climate change are becoming more pronounced. We used molecular methods to screen more than 2,000 blood samples collected from black-capped chickadees (Poecile atricapillus), a resident passerine bird. Samples were collected over a 10 year period, mostly during the non-breeding season, at seven sites in Alaska, USA. We tested for associations between Plasmodium prevalence and local environmental conditions including temperature, precipitation, site, year and season. We also evaluated the relationship between parasite prevalence and individual host factors of age, sex and presence or absence of avian keratin disorder. This disease, which causes accelerated keratin growth in the beak, provided a natural study system in which to test the interaction between disease state and malaria prevalence. Prevalence of Plasmodium infection varied by year, site, age and individual disease status but there was no support for an effect of sex or seasonal period. Significantly, birds with avian keratin disorder were 2.6 times more likely to be infected by Plasmodium than birds without the disorder. Interannual variation in the prevalence of Plasmodium infection at different sites was positively correlated with summer temperatures at the local but not statewide scale. Sequence analysis of the parasite cytochrome b gene revealed a single Plasmodiumspp. lineage, P43. Our results demonstrate associations between prevalence of avian malaria and a variety of biological and

  20. Testing the Effect of Internal Genes Derived from a Wild-Bird-Origin H9N2 Influenza A Virus on the Pathogenicity of an A/H7N9 Virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen Su

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Since 2013, avian influenza A(H7N9 viruses have diversified into multiple lineages by dynamically reassorting with other viruses, especially H9N2, in Chinese poultry. Despite concerns about the pandemic threat posed by H7N9 viruses, little is known about the biological properties of H7N9 viruses that may recruit internal genes from genetically distinct H9N2 viruses circulating among wild birds. Here, we generated 63 H7N9 reassortants derived from an avian H7N9 and a wild-bird-origin H9N2 virus. Compared with the wild-type parent, 25/63 reassortants had increased pathogenicity in mice. A reassortant containing PB1 of the H9N2 virus was highly lethal to mice and chickens but was not transmissible to guinea pigs by airborne routes; however, three substitutions associated with adaptation to mammals conferred airborne transmission to the virus. The emergence of the H7N9-pandemic reassortant virus highlights that continuous monitoring of H7N9 viruses is needed, especially at the domestic poultry/wild bird interface.

  1. Spatial modeling of wild bird risk factors to investigate highly pathogenic A(H5N1) avian influenza virus transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prosser, Diann J.; Hungerford, Laura L.; Erwin, R. Michael; Ottinger, Mary Ann; Takekawa, John Y.; Newman, Scott H.; Xiao, Xianming; Ellis, Erie C.

    2016-01-01

    One of the longest-persisting avian influenza viruses in history, highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) A(H5N1), continues to evolve after 18 years, advancing the threat of a global pandemic. Wild waterfowl (family Anatidae), are reported as secondary transmitters of HPAIV, and primary reservoirs for low-pathogenic avian influenza viruses, yet spatial inputs for disease risk modeling for this group have been lacking. Using GIS and Monte Carlo simulations, we developed geospatial indices of waterfowl abundance at 1 and 30 km resolutions and for the breeding and wintering seasons for China, the epicenter of H5N1. Two spatial layers were developed: cumulative waterfowl abundance (WAB), a measure of predicted abundance across species, and cumulative abundance weighted by H5N1 prevalence (WPR), whereby abundance for each species was adjusted based on prevalence values then totaled across species. Spatial patterns of the model output differed between seasons, with higher WAB and WPR in the northern and western regions of China for the breeding season and in the southeast for the wintering season. Uncertainty measures indicated highest error in southeastern China for both WAB and WPR. We also explored the effect of resampling waterfowl layers from 1 km to 30 km resolution for multi-scale risk modeling. Results indicated low average difference (less than 0.16 and 0.01 standard deviations for WAB and WPR, respectively), with greatest differences in the north for the breeding season and southeast for the wintering season. This work provides the first geospatial models of waterfowl abundance available for China. The indices provide important inputs for modeling disease transmission risk at the interface of poultry and wild birds. These models are easily adaptable, have broad utility to both disease and conservation needs, and will be available to the scientific community for advanced modeling applications.

  2. Evidence for common ancestry among viruses isolated from wild birds in Beringia and highly pathogenic intercontinental reassortant H5N1 and H5N2 influenza A viruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramey, Andy M.; Reeves, Andrew; Teslaa, Joshua L.; Nashold, Sean W.; Donnelly, Tyrone F.; Bahl, Justin; Hall, Jeffrey S.

    2016-01-01

    Highly pathogenic clade 2.3.4.4 H5N8, H5N2, and H5N1 influenza A viruses were first detected in wild, captive, and domestic birds in North America in November–December 2014. In this study, we used wild waterbird samples collected in Alaska prior to the initial detection of clade 2.3.4.4 H5 influenza A viruses in North America to assess the evidence for: (1) dispersal of highly pathogenic influenza A viruses from East Asia to North America by migratory birds via Alaska and (2) ancestral origins of clade 2.3.4.4 H5 reassortant viruses in Beringia. Although we did not detect highly pathogenic influenza A viruses in our sample collection from western Alaska, we did identify viruses that contained gene segments sharing recent common ancestry with intercontinental reassortant H5N2 and H5N1 viruses. Results of phylogenetic analyses and estimates for times of most recent common ancestry support migratory birds sampled in Beringia as maintaining viral diversity closely related to novel highly pathogenic influenza A virus genotypes detected in North America. Although our results do not elucidate the route by which highly pathogenic influenza A viruses were introduced into North America, genetic evidence is consistent with the hypothesized trans-Beringian route of introduction via migratory birds.

  3. Increased pathogenicity and shedding in chickens of a wild bird-origin low pathogenicity avian influenza virus of the H7N3 subtype following multiple in vivo passages in quail and turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cilloni, Filippo; Toffan, Anna; Giannecchini, Simone; Clausi, Valeria; Azzi, Alberta; Capua, Ilaria; Terregino, Calogero

    2010-03-01

    In order to investigate viral adaptation mechanisms to poultry, we performed serial in vivo passages of a wild bird low pathogenicity avian influenza isolate of the H7N3 subtype (A/mallard/Italy/33/01) in three different domestic species (chicken, turkey, and Japanese quail). The virus under study was administered via natural routes at the dose of 10(6) egg infective dose50/ 0.1 ml to chickens, turkeys, and quails in order to investigate the clinical susceptibility and the shedding levels after infection. Multiple in vivo passages of the virus were performed by serially infecting groups of five naive birds of each species, with samples collected from a previously infected group. Quails and turkeys were susceptible to infection for 10 serial passages, whereas chickens were susceptible to two cycles of infection only. Infection of chicken with the quail- and turkey-adapted viruses showed an increased pathogenicity and/or shedding, causing more severe clinical signs and/or higher levels of viral excretion compared to the original strain. The data obtained herein suggest that infection of selected avian species may facilitate the adaptation of avian influenza viruses originating from the wild bird reservoir to chicken. This is the first time turkey has been shown to act as a species in which a virus from the wild reservoir can increase its replication activity in other domestic species.

  4. Mosquito blood-meal analysis for avian malaria study in wild bird communities: laboratory verification and application to Culex sasai (Diptera: Culicidae) collected in Tokyo, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyeong Soon; Tsuda, Yoshio; Sasaki, Toshinori; Kobayashi, Mutsuo; Hirota, Yoshikazu

    2009-10-01

    We conducted laboratory experiments to verify molecular techniques of avian malaria parasite detection distinguishing between an infected mosquito (oocysts on midgut wall) and infective mosquito (sporozoites in salivary glands) in parallel with blood-meal identification from individual blood-fed mosquitoes prior to application to field survey for avian malaria. Domestic fowl infected with Plasmodium gallinaceum was exposed to a vector and non-vector mosquito species, Aedes aegypti and Culex pipiens pallens, respectively, to compare the time course of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) detection for parasite between competent and refractory mosquitoes. DNA of the domestic fowl was detectable for at least 3 days after blood feeding. The PCR-based detection of P. gallinaceum from the abdomen and thorax of A. aegypti corresponded to the microscopic observation of oocysts and sporozoites. Therefore, this PCR-based method was considered useful as one of the criteria to assess developmental stages of Plasmodium spp. in mosquito species collected in the field. We applied the same PCR-based method to 21 blood-fed C. sasai mosquitoes collected in Rinshi-no-mori Park in urban Tokyo, Japan. Of 15 blood meals of C. sasai successfully identified, 86.7% were avian-derived, 13.3% were bovine-derived. Plasmodium DNA was amplified from the abdomen of three C. sasai specimens having an avian blood meal from the Great Tit (Parus major), Pale Thrush (Turdus pallidus), and Jungle Crow (Corvus macrorhynchos). This is the first field study on host-feeding habits of C. sasai in relation to the potential role as a vector for avian malaria parasites transmitted in the Japanese wild bird community.

  5. Long-term trends in first arrival and first egg laying dates of some migrant and resident bird species in northern Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubolini, Diego; Ambrosini, Roberto; Caffi, Mario; Brichetti, Pierandrea; Armiraglio, Stefano; Saino, Nicola

    2007-08-01

    Climate change is affecting the phenology of seasonal events in Europe and the Northern Hemisphere, as shown by several studies of birds’ timing of migration and reproduction. Here, we analyse the long-term (1982-2006) trends of first arrival dates of four long-distance migratory birds [swift ( Apus apus), nightingale ( Luscinia megarhynchos), barn swallow ( Hirundo rustica), and house martin ( Delichon urbicum)] and first egg laying dates of two migrant (swift, barn swallow) and two resident species [starling ( Sturnus vulgaris), Italian sparrow ( Passer italiae)] at a study site in northern Italy. We also addressed the effects of local weather (temperature and precipitation) and a climate index (the North Atlantic Oscillation, NAO) on the interannual variability of phenological events. We found that the swift and the barn swallow significantly advanced both arrival and laying dates, whereas all other species did not show any significant temporal trend in either arrival or laying date. The earlier arrival of swifts was explained by increasing local temperatures in April, whereas this was not the case for arrival dates of swallows and first egg laying dates of both species. In addition, arrival dates of house martins were earlier following high NAO winters, while nightingale arrival was earlier when local spring rainfall was greater. Finally, Italian sparrow onset of reproduction was anticipated by greater spring rainfall, but delayed by high spring NAO anomalies, and swift’s onset of reproduction was anticipated by abundant rainfall prior to reproduction. There were no significant temporal trends in the interval between onset of laying and arrival in either the swift or the barn swallow. Our findings therefore indicate that birds may show idiosyncratic responses to climate variability at different spatial scales, though some species may be adjusting their calendar to rapidly changing climatic conditions.

  6. Survey for antibodies to infectious bursal disease virus serotype 2 in wild turkeys and Sandhill Cranes of Florida, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candelora, Kristen L; Spalding, Marilyn G; Sellers, Holly S

    2010-07-01

    Captive-reared Whooping Cranes (Grus americana) released into Florida for the resident reintroduction project experienced unusually high mortality and morbidity during the 1997-98 and 2001-02 release seasons. Exposure to infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) serotype 2 as evidenced by seroconversion was suspected to be the factor that precipitated these mortality events. Very little is known about the incidence of IBD in wild bird populations. Before this study, natural exposure had not been documented in wild birds of North America having no contact with captive-reared cranes, and the prevalence and transmission mechanisms of the virus in wild birds were unknown. Sentinel chickens (Gallus gallus) monitored on two Whooping Crane release sites in central Florida, USA, during the 2003-04 and 2004-05 release seasons seroconverted, demonstrating natural exposure to IBDV serotype 2. Blood samples collected from Wild Turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo) and Sandhill Cranes (Grus canadensis) in eight of 21 counties in Florida, USA, and one of two counties in southern Georgia, USA, were antibody-positive for IBDV serotype 2, indicating that exposure from wild birds sharing habitat with Whooping Cranes is possible. The presence of this virus in wild birds in these areas is a concern for the resident flock of Whooping Cranes because they nest and raise their chicks in Florida, USA. However, passively transferred antibodies may protect them at this otherwise vulnerable period in their lives.

  7. Experimental transmission of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus by west African wild ground-feeding birds to Hyalomma marginatum rufipes ticks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeller, H G; Cornet, J P; Camicas, J L

    1994-06-01

    Hyalomma (H.) marginatum rufipes ticks commonly infest birds and are potential vectors of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) virus in west Africa. An experimental model for investigating the role of birds in the CCHF virus transmission cycle was developed. Following CCHF virus inoculation, antibodies were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in one red-beaked hornbill and one glossy starling, but not in two laughing doves and six domestic chickens. None of the birds showed a detectable viremia. Hyalomma marginatum rufipes larvae were placed on three red-beaked hornbills and one glossy starling. These birds were then inoculated with CCHF virus (10(1.5) 50% mouse intracerebral lethal doses). Virus transmission to larvae or nymphs was obtained and seroconversions in birds were recorded. Virus was also detected in 90% of the individually tested nymphs, as well as in adults. The virus was then successfully transmitted by adult ticks to rabbits and the engorged females were allowed to oviposit. Progeny larvae were placed on another group of birds and one of three birds showed seroconversion. The cycle of transmission of virus between ticks and aviremic ground-feeding birds represent a potential reservoir and amplification mechanism of CCHF virus in west Africa.

  8. Virological surveillance and phylogenetic analysis of the PB2 genes of influenza viruses isolated from wild water birds flying from their nesting lakes in Siberia to Hokkaido, Japan in autumn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samad, Rozanah Asmah Abdul; Sakoda, Yoshihiro; Tsuda, Yoshimi; Simulundu, Edgar; Manzoor, Rashid; Okamatsu, Masatoshi; Ito, Kimihito; Kida, Hiroshi

    2011-02-01

    Recent introduction of H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) in wild birds from poultry in Eurasia signaled the possibility that this virus may perpetuate in nature. Surveillance of avian influenza especially in migratory birds, therefore, has been conducted to provide information on the viruses brought by them to Hokkaido, Japan, from their nesting lakes in Siberia in autumn. During 2008-2009, 62 influenza viruses of 21 different combinations of hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) subtypes were isolated. Up to September 2010, no HPAIV has been found, indicating that H5N1 HPAIV has not perpetuated at least dominantly in the lakes where ducks nest in summer in Siberia. The PB2 genes of 54 influenza viruses out of 283 influenza viruses isolated in Hokkaido in 2000-2009 were phylogenetically analysed. None of the genes showed close relation to those of H5N1 HPAIVs that were detected in wild birds found dead in Eurasia on the way back to their northern territory in spring.

  9. Local temperatures predict breeding phenology but do not result in breeding synchrony among a community of resident cavity-nesting birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, Anna; Martin, Kathy

    2018-02-09

    Weather and ecological factors are known to influence breeding phenology and thus individual fitness. We predicted concordance between weather conditions and annual variation in phenology within a community of eight resident, cavity-nesting bird species over a 17-year period. We show that, although clutch initiation dates for six of our eight species are correlated with local daily maximum temperatures, this common driver does not produce a high degree of breeding synchrony due to species-specific responses to conditions during different periods of the preceding winter or spring. These "critical temperature periods" were positively associated with average lay date for each species, although the interval between critical periods and clutch initiation varied from 4-78 days. The ecological factors we examined (cavity availability and a food pulse) had an additional influence on timing in only one of our eight focal species. Our results have strong implications for understanding heterogeneous wildlife responses to climate change: divergent responses would be expected within communities where species respond to local conditions within different temporal windows, due to differing warming trends between winter and spring. Our system therefore indicates that climate change could alter relative breeding phenology among sympatric species in temperate ecosystems.

  10. Developmental exposure to a toxic spill compromises long-term reproductive performance in a wild, long-lived bird: the white stork (Ciconia ciconia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Baos

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: Exposure to environmental contaminants may result in reduced reproductive success and long-lasting population declines in vertebrates. Emerging data from laboratory studies on model species suggest that certain life-stages, such as development, should be of special concern. However, detailed investigations of long-term consequences of developmental exposure to environmental chemicals on breeding performance are currently lacking in wild populations of long-lived vertebrates. Here, we studied how the developmental exposure to a mine spill (Aznalcóllar, SW Spain, April 1998 may affect fitness under natural conditions in a long-lived bird, the White Stork (Ciconia ciconia. METHODOLOGY: The reproductive performance of individually-banded storks that were or not developmentally exposed to the spill (i.e. hatched before or after the spill was compared when these individuals were simultaneously breeding during the seven years after the spill occurred (1999-2005. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Female storks developmentally exposed to the spill experienced a premature breeding senescence compared with their non-developmentally exposed counterparts, doing so after departing from an unusually higher productivity in their early reproductive life (non-developmentally exposed females: 0.5 ± 0.33SE fledglings/year at 3-yr old vs. 1.38 ± 0.31SE at 6-7 yr old; developmentally exposed females: 1.5 ± 0.30SE fledglings/year at 3-yr old vs. 0.86 ± 0.25SE at 6-7 yr old. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Following life-history theory, we propose that costly sub-lethal effects reported in stork nestlings after low-level exposure to the spill-derived contaminants might play an important role in shaping this pattern of reproduction, with a clear potential impact on population dynamics. Overall, our study provides evidence that environmental disasters can have long-term, multigenerational consequences on wildlife, particularly when affecting developing individuals

  11. Host cytokine responses of pigeons infected with highly pathogenic Thai avian influenza viruses of subtype H5N1 isolated from wild birds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsuyoshi Hayashi

    Full Text Available Highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV of the H5N1 subtype has been reported to infect pigeons asymptomatically or induce mild symptoms. However, host immune responses of pigeons inoculated with HPAIVs have not been well documented. To assess host responses of pigeons against HPAIV infection, we compared lethality, viral distribution and mRNA expression of immune related genes of pigeons infected with two HPAIVs (A/Pigeon/Thailand/VSMU-7-NPT/2004; Pigeon04 and A/Tree sparrow/Ratchaburi/VSMU-16-RBR/2005; T.sparrow05 isolated from wild birds in Thailand. The survival experiment showed that 25% of pigeons died within 2 weeks after the inoculation of two HPAIVs or medium only, suggesting that these viruses did not cause lethal infection in pigeons. Pigeon04 replicated in the lungs more efficiently than T.sparrow05 and spread to multiple extrapulmonary organs such as the brain, spleen, liver, kidney and rectum on days 2, 5 and 9 post infection. No severe lesion was observed in the lungs infected with Pigeon04 as well as T.sparrow05 throughout the collection periods. Encephalitis was occasionally observed in Pigeon04- or T.sparrow05-infected brain, the severity, however was mostly mild. To analyze the expression of immune-related genes in the infected pigeons, we established a quantitative real-time PCR analysis for 14 genes of pigeons. On day 2 post infection, Pigeon04 induced mRNA expression of Mx1, PKR and OAS to a greater extent than T.sparrow05 in the lungs, however their expressions were not up-regulated concomitantly on day 5 post infection when the peak viral replication was observed. Expressions of TLR3, IFNα, IL6, IL8 and CCL5 in the lungs following infection with the two HPAIVs were low. In sum, Pigeon04 exhibited efficient replication in the lungs compared to T.sparrow05, but did not induce excessive host cytokine expressions. Our study has provided the first insight into host immune responses of pigeons against HPAIV infection.

  12. The Bird.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannon, Jean

    2001-01-01

    Students use a dead bird to learn about bird life, anatomy, and death. Students examine a bird body and discuss what happened to the bird. Uses outdoor education as a resource for learning about animals. (SAH)

  13. Virginia ESI: BIRDS (Bird Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for wading birds, shorebirds, waterfowl, raptors, diving birds, pelagic birds, passerine birds, and gulls...

  14. Evidence that life history characteristics of wild birds influence infection rates and exposure to influenza A viruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ely, Craig R.; Hall, Jeffrey S.; Schmutz, Joel A.; Pearce, John M.; Terenzi, John; Sedinger, James S.; Ip, Hon S.

    2013-01-01

    We report on life history characteristics, temporal, and age-related effects influencing the frequency of occurrence of avian influenza (AI) viruses in four species of migratory geese breeding on the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta, Alaska. Emperor geese (Chen canagica), cackling geese (Branta hutchinsii), greater white-fronted geese (Anser albifrons), and black brant (Branta bernicla), were all tested for active infection of AI viruses upon arrival in early May, during nesting in June, and while molting in July and August, 2006–2010 (n = 14,323). Additionally, prior exposure to AI viruses was assessed via prevalence of antibodies from sera samples collected during late summer in 2009 and 2010. Results suggest that geese are uncommonly infected by low pathogenic AI viruses while in Alaska. The percent of birds actively shedding AI viruses varied annually, and was highest in 2006 and 2010 (1–3%) and lowest in 2007, 2008, and 2009 (95% for emperor geese, a species that spends part of its life cycle in Asia and is endemic to Alaska and the Bering Sea region, compared to 40–60% for the other three species, whose entire life cycles are within the western hemisphere. Birds week old birds in 2009. Seroprevalence of known age black brant revealed that no birds <4 years old had seroconverted, compared to 49% of birds ≥4 years of age.

  15. Evidence that life history characteristics of wild birds influence infection rates and exposure to influenza A viruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ely, Craig R.; Hall, Jeffrey S.; Schmutz, Joel A.; Pearce, John M.; Terenzi, John; Sedinger, James S.; Ip, Hon S.

    2013-01-01

    We report on life history characteristics, temporal, and age-related effects influencing the frequency of occurrence of avian influenza (AI) viruses in four species of migratory geese breeding on the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta, Alaska. Emperor geese (Chen canagica), cackling geese (Branta hutchinsii), greater white-fronted geese (Anser albifrons), and black brant (Branta bernicla), were all tested for active infection of AI viruses upon arrival in early May, during nesting in June, and while molting in July and August, 2006–2010 (n = 14,323). Additionally, prior exposure to AI viruses was assessed via prevalence of antibodies from sera samples collected during late summer in 2009 and 2010. Results suggest that geese are uncommonly infected by low pathogenic AI viruses while in Alaska. The percent of birds actively shedding AI viruses varied annually, and was highest in 2006 and 2010 (1–3%) and lowest in 2007, 2008, and 2009 (95% for emperor geese, a species that spends part of its life cycle in Asia and is endemic to Alaska and the Bering Sea region, compared to 40–60% for the other three species, whose entire life cycles are within the western hemisphere. Birds little past exposure to AI viruses, although antibodies were detected in samples from 5-week old birds in 2009. Seroprevalence of known age black brant revealed that no birds <4 years old had seroconverted, compared to 49% of birds ≥4 years of age.

  16. Ecological relationships between feather mites (Acari and wild birds of Emberizidae (Aves in a fragment of Atlantic Forest in northeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyra-Neves Rachel M. de

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate feather mites on birds of the Family Emberizidae, to collect data on the ecological ectoparasite-host relationship and infestation level. A sum of 94 birds of 9 species was captured at the Refúgio Ecológico Charles Darwin, Igarassú, Pernambuco, Brazil, from August 1996 to July 1997. Five genera of mites from the superfamily Analgoidea were identified: Analges Nitzsch, 1818; Mesalgoides Gaud & Atyeo, 1967; Pterodectes Robin, 1877; Proctophyllodes Robin, 1877 and Trouessartia Canestrini, 1899. Among the 94 birds examined, 92 (97,87% were infested. Regarding the prevalence, it was observed that the genera with higher percentage were, respectively, Pterodectes (88,04%, Proctophyllodes (56,52% and Trouessartia (45,65%.

  17. Wound-healing ability is conserved during periods of chronic stress and costly life history events in a wild-caught bird.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DuRant, S E; de Bruijn, R; Tran, M N; Romero, L M

    2016-04-01

    Chronic stress, potentially through the actions of corticosterone, is thought to directly impair the function of immune cells. However, chronic stress may also have an indirect effect by influencing allocation of energy, ultimately shifting resources away from the immune system. If so, the effects of chronic stress on immune responses may be greater during energetically-costly life history events. To test whether the effects of chronic stress on immune responses differ during expensive life history events we measured wound healing rate in molting and non-molting European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) exposed to control or chronic stress conditions. To determine whether corticosterone correlated with wound healing rates before starting chronic stress, we measured baseline and stress-induced corticosterone and two estimates of corticosterone release and regulation, negative feedback (using dexamethasone injection), and maximal capacity of the adrenals to secrete corticosterone (using adrenocorticotropin hormone [ACTH] injection). After 8days of exposure to chronic stress, we wounded both control and chronically stressed birds and monitored healing daily. We monitored nighttime heart rate, which strongly correlates with energy expenditure, and body mass throughout the study. Measures of corticosterone did not differ with molt status. Contrary to work on lizards and small mammals, all birds, regardless of stress or molt status, fully-healed wounds at similar rates. Although chronic stress did not influence healing rates, individuals with low baseline corticosterone or strong negative feedback had faster healing rates than individuals with high baseline corticosterone or weak negative feedback. In addition, wound healing does appear to be linked to energy expenditure and body mass. Non-molting, chronically stressed birds decreased nighttime heart rate during healing, but this pattern did not exist in molting birds. Additionally, birds of heavier body mass at the start of

  18. Alabama ESI: BIRDS (Bird Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for wading birds, shorebirds, waterfowl, raptors, diving birds, seabirds, passerine birds, gulls, and terns...

  19. Maryland ESI: BIRDS (Bird Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for wading birds, shorebirds, waterfowl, raptors, diving birds, seabirds, passerine birds, and gulls and...

  20. Local amplification of highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N8 viruses in wild birds in the Netherlands, 2016 to 2017

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poen, Marjolein J.; Bestebroer, Theo M.; Vuong, Oanh; Scheuer, Rachel D.; Jeugd, van der Henk P.; Kleyheeg, Erik; Eggink, Dirk; Lexmond, Pascal; Brand, van den Judith M.A.; Begeman, Lineke; Vliet, van der Stefan; Müskens, Gerhard J.D.M.; Majoor, Frank A.; Koopmans, Marion P.G.; Kuiken, Thijs; Fouchier, Ron A.M.

    2018-01-01

    Introduction: Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses of subtype H5N8 were re-introduced into the Netherlands by late 2016, after detections in southeast Asia and Russia. This second H5N8 wave resulted in a large number of outbreaks in poultry farms and the deaths of large numbers of wild

  1. Local amplification of highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N8 viruses in wild birds in the Netherlands, 2016 to 2017

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poen, Marjolein J; Bestebroer, Theo M; Vuong, Oanh; Scheuer, Rachel D; van der Jeugd, Henk P; Kleyheeg, Erik; Eggink, Dirk; Lexmond, Pascal; van den Brand, Judith M A; Begeman, Lineke; van der Vliet, Stefan; Müskens, Gerhard J D M; Majoor, Frank A; Koopmans, Marion P G; Kuiken, Thijs; Fouchier, Ron A M

    IntroductionHighly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses of subtype H5N8 were re-introduced into the Netherlands by late 2016, after detections in south-east Asia and Russia. This second H5N8 wave resulted in a large number of outbreaks in poultry farms and the deaths of large numbers of wild

  2. IncA/C Plasmid Carrying bla(NDM-1), bla(CMY-16), and fosA3 in a Salmonella enterica Serovar Corvallis Strain Isolated from a Migratory Wild Bird in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villa, L; Guerra, B; Schmoger, S; Fischer, J; Helmuth, R; Zong, Z; García-Fernández, A; Carattoli, A

    2015-10-01

    A Salmonella enterica serovar Corvallis strain was isolated from a wild bird in Germany. This strain carried the IncA/C2 pRH-1238 plasmid. Complete sequencing of the plasmid was performed, identifying the blaNDM-1, blaCMY-16, fosA3, sul1, sul2, strA, strB, aac(6')-Ib, aadA5, aphA6, tetA(A), mphA, floR, dfrA7, and merA genes, which confer clinically relevant resistance to most of the antimicrobial classes, including β-lactams with carbapenems, fosfomycin, aminoglycosides, co-trimoxazole, tetracyclines, and macrolides. The strain likely originated from the Asiatic region and was transferred to Germany through the Milvus migrans migratory route. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  3. Coadministration of Recombinant Adenovirus Expressing GM-CSF with Inactivated H5N1 Avian Influenza Vaccine Increased the Immune Responses and Protective Efficacy Against a Wild Bird Source of H5N1 Challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiangwei; Wang, Xinglong; Jia, Yanqing; Wang, Chongyang; Tang, Qiuxia; Han, Qingsong; Xiao, Sa; Yang, Zengqi

    2017-10-01

    Wild birds play a key role in the spread of avian influenza virus (AIV). There is a continual urgent requirement for AIV vaccines to address the ongoing genetic changes of AIV. In the current study, we trialed a novel AIV vaccine against the wild bird source of H5N1 type AIV with recombinant adenovirus expressing granulocyte monocyte colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) as an adjuvant. A total of 150-day-old commercial chicks, with AIV-maternal-derived antibody, were divided into 6 groups. The primary vaccination was performed at day 14 followed by a subsequent boosting and intramuscular challenge on day 28 and 42, respectively. Recombinant GM-CSF (rGM-CSF) expressed by adenovirus, named as rAd-GM-CSF, raised the hemagglutination inhibition (HI) titers (log 2 ) against AIV from 7.0 (vaccinate with inactivated vaccine alone) to 8.4 after booster immunization. Moreover, the rGM-CSF addition markedly increased the expression of interferon-γ, interleukin-4, and major histocompatibility complex-II in the lungs, compared with those immunized with inactivated vaccine alone on day 29, that is, 18 h post booster immunization. Following challenge, chicks inoculated with the inactivated AIV vaccine and rAd-GM-CSF together exhibited mild clinical signs and 62% survivals compared to 33% in the group immunized with inactivated AIV vaccine alone. Higher level of HI titers, immune related molecule expressions, and protection ratio demonstrates a good potential of rGM-CSF in improving humoral and cell mediated immune responses of inactivated AIV vaccines.

  4. Does the stress response predict the ability of wild birds to adjust to short-term captivity? A study of the rock pigeon (Columbia livia)

    OpenAIRE

    Angelier, Fr?d?ric; Parenteau, Charline; Trouv?, Colette; Angelier, Nicole

    2016-01-01

    Although the transfer of wild animals to captivity is crucial for conservation purposes, this process is often challenging because some species or individuals do not adjust well to captive conditions. Chronic stress has been identified as a major concern for animals held on long-term captivity. Surprisingly, the first hours or days of captivity have been relatively overlooked. However, they are certainly very stressful, because individuals are being transferred to a totally novel and confined...

  5. Avian influenza prevalence among hunter-harvested birds in a remote Canadian First Nation community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liberda, Eric N; Meldrum, Richard; Charania, Nadia A; Davey, Robert; Tsuji, Leonard Js

    2017-01-01

    Avian influenza virus (AIV) prevalence has been associated with wild game and other bird species. The contamination of these birds may pose a greater risk to those who regularly hunt and consumed infected species. Due to resident concerns communicated by local Band Council, hunter-harvested birds from a remote First Nation community in subArctic Ontario, Canada were assessed for AIV. Hunters, and especially those who live a subsistence lifestyle, are at higher risk of AIV exposure due to their increased contact with wild birds, which represent an important part of their diet. Cloacal swabs from 304 harvested game birds representing several species of wild birds commonly hunted and consumed in this First Nation community were analyzed for AIV using real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Subtyping was performed using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Sequences were assembled using Lasergene, and the sequences were compared to Genbank. In total, 16 of the 304 cloacal swab samples were positive for AIV. Of the 16 positive samples, 12 were found in mallard ducks, 3 were found in snow geese (wavies), and 1 positive sample was found in partridge. The AIV samples were subtyped, when possible, and found to be positive for the low pathogenic avian influenza virus subtypes H3 and H4. No samples were positive for subtypes of human concern, namely H5 and H7. This work represents the first AIV monitoring program results of hunter-harvested birds in a remote subsistence First Nation community. Community-level surveillance of AIV in remote subsistence hunting communities may help to identify future risks, while educating those who may have the highest exposure about proper handling of hunted birds. Ultimately, only low pathogenic strains of AIV were found, but monitoring should be continued and expanded to safeguard those with the highest exposure risk to AIV.

  6. Long-term variation in the winter resident bird community of Guanica Forest, Puerto Rico: lessons for measuring and monitoring species richness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John Faaborg; Katie M. Dugger; Wayne J. Arendt

    2007-01-01

    Because the winter season is potentially limiting for migratory birds, understanding their nonbreeding distributional patterns is essential. At a given site, patterns of species occurrence and abundance may vary over time and, within a species, wintering strategies may vary with regard to the degree that individuals are site-faithful both within and between winters. We...

  7. Thiamine deficiency: a viable hypothesis for paralytic syndrome in Baltic birds. Commentary on Sonne et al., 2012. A review of the factors causing paralysis in wild birds: implications for the paralytic syndrome observed in the Baltic Sea. Science of the Total Environment 416:32-39

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillitt, Donald E.; Kraft, Clifford E.; Honeyfield, Dale C.; Fitzsimons, John D.

    2012-01-01

    In a recent assessment of hypotheses presented by Balk et al. (2009) regarding the etiology of a paralytic disease inflicting bird populations in Northern Europe, Sonne et al. (2012) “call for a major coordinated effort on research…” to “… integrate clinical, physiological, ecological and demographic investigations at all levels to better dissect the causes, the effects on ecosystems and potential impact on affected populations.” Further, they offer, “This should be undertaken before thiamine deficiency can be considered to constitute a serious problem to e.g. the Baltic ecosystems.” While we agree that holistic approaches to environmental research and management are essential, our experience suggests that waiting for definitive results from long-term research and monitoring programs prior to “consideration” of thiamine deficiency as a major factor in the paralytic disease observed in wild bird populations would hinder the ability of natural resource managers to understand and mitigate declining trends in avian population abundance.

  8. An Approach to Distinguish between Plasticity and Non-random Distributions of Behavioral Types Along Urban Gradients in a Wild Passerine Bird

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philipp Sprau

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The impact of urbanization has been widely studied in the context of species diversity and life history evolution. Behavioral adaptation, by contrast, remains poorly understood because empirical studies rarely investigate the relative importance of two key mechanisms: plastic responses vs. non-random distributions of behavioral types. We propose here an approach that enables the simultaneous estimation of the respective roles of these distinct mechanisms. We investigated why risky behaviors are often associated with urbanization, using an urban nest box population of great tits (Parus major as a study system. We simultaneously and repeatedly quantified individual behavior (aggression and flight initiation distance as well as environmental factors characterizing level of urbanization (numbers of pedestrians, cars and cyclists. This enabled us to statistically distinguish plastic responses from patterns of non-random distributions of behavioral types. Data analyses revealed that individuals did not plastically adjust their behavior to the level of urbanization. Behavioral types were instead non-randomly distributed: bold birds occurred more frequently in areas with more cars and fewer pedestrians while shy individuals were predominantly found in areas with fewer cars and more pedestrians. These novel findings imply a major role for behavioral types in the evolutionary ecology of urban environments and call for the full integration of among- and within-individual variation in urban ecological studies.

  9. Screamy Bird

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tarby, Sara; Cermak, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Sara Tarby, Daniel Cermak-Sassenrath. Screamy Bird. Digital game. Kulturnatten 2016, Danish Science Ministry, Copenhagen, DK, Oct 14, 2016.......Sara Tarby, Daniel Cermak-Sassenrath. Screamy Bird. Digital game. Kulturnatten 2016, Danish Science Ministry, Copenhagen, DK, Oct 14, 2016....

  10. Effects of prescribed burns on wintering cavity-nesting birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heather L. Bateman; Margaret A. O' Connell

    2006-01-01

    Primary cavity-nesting birds play a critical role in forest ecosystems by excavating cavities later used by other birds and mammals as nesting or roosting sites. Several species of cavity-nesting birds are non-migratory residents and consequently subject to winter conditions. We conducted winter bird counts from 1998 to 2000 to examine the abundance and habitat...

  11. Does the stress response predict the ability of wild birds to adjust to short-term captivity? A study of the rock pigeon (Columbia livia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelier, Frédéric; Parenteau, Charline; Trouvé, Colette; Angelier, Nicole

    2016-12-01

    Although the transfer of wild animals to captivity is crucial for conservation purposes, this process is often challenging because some species or individuals do not adjust well to captive conditions. Chronic stress has been identified as a major concern for animals held on long-term captivity. Surprisingly, the first hours or days of captivity have been relatively overlooked. However, they are certainly very stressful, because individuals are being transferred to a totally novel and confined environment. To ensure the success of conservation programmes, it appears crucial to better understand the proximate causes of interspecific and interindividual variability in the sensitivity to these first hours of captivity. In that respect, the study of stress hormones is relevant, because the hormonal stress response may help to assess whether specific individuals or species adjust, or not, to such captive conditions ('the stress response-adjustment to captivity hypothesis'). We tested this hypothesis in rock pigeons by measuring their corticosterone stress response and their ability to adjust to short-term captivity (body mass loss and circulating corticosterone levels after a day of captivity). We showed that an increased corticosterone stress response is associated with a lower ability to adjust to short-term captivity (i.e. higher body mass loss and circulating corticosterone levels). Our study suggests, therefore, that a low physiological sensitivity to stress may be beneficial for adjusting to captivity. Future studies should now explore whether the stress response can be useful to predict the ability of individuals from different populations or species to not only adjust to short-term but also long-term captivity.

  12. High rates of detection of Clade 2.3.4.4 Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza H5 viruses in wild birds in the Pacific Northwest during the winter of 2014-2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ip, Hon S.; Dusek, Robert J.; Bodenstein, Barbara L.; Kim Torchetti, Mia; DeBruyn, Paul; Mansfield, Kristin G.; DeLiberto, Thomas; Sleeman, Jonathan M.

    2016-01-01

    In 2014, Clade 2.3.4.4 H5N8 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses spread across the Republic of Korea and ultimately were reported in China, Japan, Russia and Europe. Mortality associated with a reassortant HPAI H5N2 virus was detected in poultry farms in Western Canada at the end of November. The same strain (with identical genetic structure) was then detected in free-living wild birds that had died prior to December 8 of unrelated causes in Whatcom County, Washington, USA in an area contiguous with the index Canadian location. A gyrfalcon (Falco rusticolus) that had hunted and fed on an American wigeon (Anas americana) on December 6 in the same area and died two days later, tested positive for the Eurasian origin HPAI H5N8. Subsequently, an Active Surveillance Program using hunter-harvest waterfowl in Washington and Oregon detected ten HPAI H5 viruses, of three different subtypes (four H5N2, three H5N8 and three H5N1) with 4 segments in common (HA, PB2, NP and MA). In addition, a mortality-based Passive Surveillance Program detected 18 HPAI (14 H5N2 and four H5N8) cases from Idaho, Kansas, Oregon, Minnesota, Montana, Washington and Wisconsin. Comparatively, mortality-based passive surveillance appears to be detecting these HPAI infections at a higher rate than active surveillance during the period following initial introduction into the US.

  13. International Trade of CITES Listed Bird Species in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Linlin; Jiang, Zhigang

    2014-01-01

    Commercial trade of wild birds may devastate wild bird populations. Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES) controls the trade of wild species listed in its appendices to avoid these species being threatened by international trade. China used to be one of the major trading countries with significant bird trade with foreign countries; on the other hand, China is a country with unique avian fauna, many Important Bird Areas and critically endangered bird species. What is the role of the country in world wild bird trade? What kind of insights can we extract from trade records for improving future management of wild bird trade in the country? We retrieved and analyzed international trade records of the CITES listed bird species of China from 1981 to 2010 from the CITES Trade Database maintained by United Nations Environment Program and World Conservation Monitoring Centre (UNEP-WCMC). We found that: (1) International trade of live birds in China peaked during the late 1990s, then decreased to the level before the surge of trade in a few years, the trade dynamics of wild birds may be affected by governmental policy and the outbreak of avian influenza during the period. (2) Most frequently traded CITES Appendix listed birds in China were parrots, most of which were exotic species to the country. (3) Birds were mainly traded for commercial purpose. Exotic birds in trade were mainly captive-bred while the most Chinese birds traded internationally were captured from the wild. Since many bird species in international trade are threatened to extinction, China should take stricter measures on importing of wild-captured birds and should collaborate with the countries of original in the international bird trade to avoid unsustainable harvesting of wild birds. It is urgent for China to carry out population surveys on those domestic bird species once in significant international trade and to make better conservation decisions based on

  14. International trade of CITES listed bird species in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Linlin; Jiang, Zhigang

    2014-01-01

    Commercial trade of wild birds may devastate wild bird populations. Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES) controls the trade of wild species listed in its appendices to avoid these species being threatened by international trade. China used to be one of the major trading countries with significant bird trade with foreign countries; on the other hand, China is a country with unique avian fauna, many Important Bird Areas and critically endangered bird species. What is the role of the country in world wild bird trade? What kind of insights can we extract from trade records for improving future management of wild bird trade in the country? We retrieved and analyzed international trade records of the CITES listed bird species of China from 1981 to 2010 from the CITES Trade Database maintained by United Nations Environment Program and World Conservation Monitoring Centre (UNEP-WCMC). We found that: (1) International trade of live birds in China peaked during the late 1990s, then decreased to the level before the surge of trade in a few years, the trade dynamics of wild birds may be affected by governmental policy and the outbreak of avian influenza during the period. (2) Most frequently traded CITES Appendix listed birds in China were parrots, most of which were exotic species to the country. (3) Birds were mainly traded for commercial purpose. Exotic birds in trade were mainly captive-bred while the most Chinese birds traded internationally were captured from the wild. Since many bird species in international trade are threatened to extinction, China should take stricter measures on importing of wild-captured birds and should collaborate with the countries of original in the international bird trade to avoid unsustainable harvesting of wild birds. It is urgent for China to carry out population surveys on those domestic bird species once in significant international trade and to make better conservation decisions based on

  15. Bird guard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairchild, Dana M [Armour, SD

    2010-03-02

    The bird guard provides a device to protect electrical insulators comprising a central shaft; a clamp attached to an end of the shaft to secure the device to a transmission tower; a top and bottom cover to shield transmission tower insulators; and bearings to allow the guard to rotate in order to frighten birds away from the insulators.

  16. Doenças de aves selvagens diagnosticadas na Universidade Federal do Paraná (2003-2007 Diseases of wild birds diagnosed at the Federal University of Paraná, Brazil (2003-2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gizah G.C. Santos

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Dentre os 253 atendimentos realizados em aves selvagens entre agosto de 2003 a agosto de 2006 no Ambulatório de Animais Selvagens do Hospital Veterinário da Universidade Federal do Paraná, 45 casos (17,8% referiram-se a consultas à espécie Serinus canarius (canário-belga. Dentre as aves atendidas e suas respectivas ordens obteve-se uma maior ocorrência da ordem Psittaciforme. As enfermidades mais freqüentemente visualizadas foram as afecções traumáticas com 56 casos (22,13%. Destas, 17 animais (30,91% possuíam algum tipo de fratura, sendo a fratura rádio-ulnar a mais comum, com 17,65% de ocorrência. As outras moléstias mais relatadas foram a presença de ectoparasitos (12,50% e endoparasitos (10,68%, doenças respiratórias (10,42%, procedimentos preventivos (7,55%, afecções dermatológicas (6,51%, neoplasias (4,95%, afecções oftálmicas (4,43%, afecções gastrintestinais (3,91%, caquexia (3,39%, afecções neurológicas (2,86%, automutilação (2,86%, obesidade (2,34%, agressão por outros animais (1,56 %, doenças nutricionais (1,30%, retenção de ovo (1,04%, bouba aviária (0,78% e gota úrica (0,52%. Tendo em vista a alta prevalência de traumatismos e presença de ecto e endo parasitas que poderiam ser evitados se estivesse ocorrendo um manejo adequado com a ave, sugere-se a necessidade que o Médico Veterinário assuma um papel mais efetivo na Medicina Veterinária Preventiva buscando informar e debater questões referentes ao modo correto de alimentação, criação e manejo das aves, assim como também o esclarecimento acerca das questões referentes às zoonoses quando da consulta veterinária.From 253 wild birds attended at the Wild Animal Ambulatory of the Veterinary Hospital, Paraná Federal University, between August 2003 and August 2006, 45 cases (17.8% were related to the species Serinus canarius (Belgian Canary. Within these attended birds and its respective orders, most morbid conditions occurred with the

  17. Fleas on wild birds in Costa Rica

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Acosta, R.; Literák, I.; Sychra, O.; Čapek, Miroslav

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 115, č. 1 (2013), s. 1-8 ISSN 0013-8797 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA601690901 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Ceratophyllus * Dasypsyllus * Plusaetis * Siphonaptera Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.479, year: 2013

  18. Hawaii ESI: BIRDS (Bird Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for endangered waterbirds and passerine birds, migratory shorebirds and waterfowl, gulls and terns,...

  19. Columbia River ESI: BIRDS (Bird Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for wading birds, shorebirds, waterfowl, diving birds, seabirds, passerine birds, gulls, and terns in...

  20. Effects of human activities on birds and their habitats as reported by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Species-rich tropical forests are becoming increasingly fragmented, degraded and are declining due ... of birds for subsistence use (10%) only affected certain bird species. The age ..... Rural-urban residence, modernism and fertility. A study of ...

  1. Neospora caninum in birds: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Barros, Luiz Daniel; Miura, Ana Carolina; Minutti, Ana Flávia; Vidotto, Odilon; Garcia, João Luis

    2018-08-01

    Neospora caninum is an obligate intracellular protozoan parasite that infects domestic and wild animals. Canids are considered to be definitive hosts since they may shed oocysts into the environment through their feces. The disease is recognized as one of the major causes of bovine abortion worldwide, leading to important economic losses in the dairy and beef cattle industries. Previous studies have reported N. caninum infection in different species of birds; infection in birds has been associated with increased seroprevalence and reproductive problems in dairy cattle. Although the role of birds in the epidemiological cycle of neosporosis is unknown, birds are exposed to infection because they feed on the ground and could thus contribute to parasite dissemination. This review is focused on the current state of knowledge of neosporosis in birds. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Wild harvest

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cruz-Garcia, G.S.; Struik, P.C.; Johnson, D.E.

    2016-01-01

    Rice fields provide not only a staple food but are also bio-diverse and multi-functional ecosystems. Wild food plants are important elements of biodiversity in rice fields and are critical components to the subsistence of poor farmers. The spatial and seasonal distribution of wild food plants

  3. 9 CFR 93.104 - Certificate for pet birds, commercial birds, zoological birds, and research birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Certificate for pet birds, commercial birds, zoological birds, and research birds. 93.104 Section 93.104 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL... (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS IMPORTATION OF CERTAIN ANIMALS, BIRDS, FISH, AND POULTRY, AND CERTAIN...

  4. Biosecurity and bird movement practices in upland game bird facilities in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slota, Katharine E; Hill, Ashley E; Keefe, Thomas J; Bowen, Richard A; Pabilonia, Kristy L

    2011-06-01

    Since 1996, the emergence of Asian-origin highly pathogenic avian influenza subtype H5N1 has spurred great concern for the global poultry industry. In the United States, there is concern over the potential of a foreign avian disease incursion into the country. Noncommercial poultry operations, such as upland game bird facilities in the United States, may serve as a potential source of avian disease introduction to other bird populations including the commercial poultry industry, backyard flocks, or wildlife. In order to evaluate how to prevent disease transmission from these facilities to other populations, we examined biosecurity practices and bird movement within the upland game bird industry in the United States. Persons that held a current permit to keep, breed, or release upland game birds were surveyed for information on biosecurity practices, flock and release environments, and bird movement parameters. Biosecurity practices vary greatly among permit holders. Many facilities allow for interaction between wild birds and pen-reared birds, and there is regular long-distance movement of live adult birds among facilities. Results suggest that upland game bird facilities should be targeted for biosecurity education and disease surveillance efforts.

  5. Cross-species transmission and emergence of novel viruses from birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Jasper Fuk-Woo; To, Kelvin Kai-Wang; Chen, Honglin; Yuen, Kwok-Yung

    2015-02-01

    Birds, the only living member of the Dinosauria clade, are flying warm-blooded vertebrates displaying high species biodiversity, roosting and migratory behavior, and a unique adaptive immune system. Birds provide the natural reservoir for numerous viral species and therefore gene source for evolution, emergence and dissemination of novel viruses. The intrusions of human into natural habitats of wild birds, the domestication of wild birds as pets or racing birds, and the increasing poultry consumption by human have facilitated avian viruses to cross species barriers to cause zoonosis. Recently, a novel adenovirus was exclusively found in birds causing an outbreak of Chlamydophila psittaci infection among birds and humans. Instead of being the primary cause of an outbreak by jumping directly from bird to human, a novel avian virus can be an augmenter of another zoonotic agent causing the outbreak. A comprehensive avian virome will improve our understanding of birds' evolutionary dynamics. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Chlamydia psittaci in birds of prey, Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Blomqvist

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Chlamydia psittaci is an intracellular bacterium primarily causing respiratory diseases in birds but may also be transmitted to other animals, including humans. The prevalence of the pathogen in wild birds in Sweden is largely unknown. Methods: DNA was extracted from cloacae swabs and screened for C. psittaci by using a 23S rRNA gene PCR assay. Partial 16S rRNA and ompA gene fragments were sequence determined and phylogenies were analysed by the neighbour-joining method. Results and conclusion: The C. psittaci prevalence was 1.3% in 319 Peregrine Falcons and White-tailed Sea Eagles, vulnerable top-predators in Sweden. 16S rRNA and ompA gene analysis showed that novel Chlamydia species, as well as novel C. psittaci strains, are to be found among wild birds.

  7. Behavior of emu bird (Dromaius novaehollandiae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. R. Patodkar

    Full Text Available Emu is the second largest living bird of world belonging to order Ratite. This order is of flightless birds with flat breast bone and it includes emu, ostrich, rhea, cassowary and kiwi. Emus are reared commercially in many parts of the world for their meat, oil, skin and feathers, which are of high economic value. The anatomical and physiological features of these birds appear to be suitable for temperate and tropical climatic conditions. Emu is newly introduced species in India. Although emu farming is considered to be economical, we have to study the behavior of emus to increase the profitability by providing housing, feeding and breeding facilities more or less same as that of in wild condition during their rearing in captivity and we will have to carry out comparative study of behavior in captivity as well as in wild condition. [Vet World 2009; 2(11.000: 439-440

  8. 7 CFR 70.14 - Squabs and domesticated game birds; eligibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Squabs and domesticated game birds; eligibility. 70.14... Products General § 70.14 Squabs and domesticated game birds; eligibility. Squabs and domesticated game birds (including, but not being limited to, quail, pheasants, and wild species of ducks and geese raised...

  9. Bird Use of Imperial Valley Crops [ds427

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — Agriculture crops in the Imperial Valley of California provide valuable habitat for many resident and migratory birds and are a very important component of the...

  10. The function of migratory bird calls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reichl, Thomas; Andersen, Bent Bach; Larsen, Ole Næsbye

    The function of migratory bird calls: do they influence orientation and navigation?   Thomas Reichl1, Bent Bach Andersen2, Ole Naesbye Larsen2, Henrik Mouritsen1   1Institute of Biology, University of Oldenburg, Oldenburg, D-26111 Oldenburg, Germany 2Institute of Biology, University of Southern...... migration and to stimulate migratory restlessness in conspecifics. We wished to test if conspecific flight calls influence the flight direction of a nocturnal migrant, the European Robin (Erithacus rubecula), i.e. if flight calls help migrants keeping course. Wild caught birds showing migratory restlessness...... the experimental bird could be activated successively to simulate a migrating Robin cruising E-W, W-E, S-N or N-S at a chosen height (mostly about 40 m), at 10 m/s and emitting Robin flight calls of 80 dB(A) at 1 m. The simulated flight of a "ding" sound served as a control. During an experiment the bird was first...

  11. Bird checklist, Guánica Biosphere Reserve, Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wayne J. Arendt; John Faaborg; Miguel Canals; Jerry Bauer

    2015-01-01

    This research note compiles 43 years of research and monitoring data to produce the first comprehensive checklist of the dry forest avian community found within the Guánica Biosphere Reserve. We provide an overview of the reserve along with sighting locales, a list of 185 birds with their resident status and abundance, and a list of the available bird habitats....

  12. Networks of global bird invasion altered by regional trade ban.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reino, Luís; Figueira, Rui; Beja, Pedro; Araújo, Miguel B; Capinha, César; Strubbe, Diederik

    2017-11-01

    Wildlife trade is a major pathway for introduction of invasive species worldwide. However, how exactly wildlife trade influences invasion risk, beyond the transportation of individuals to novel areas, remains unknown. We analyze the global trade network of wild-caught birds from 1995 to 2011 as reported by CITES (Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora). We found that before the European Union ban on imports of wild-caught birds, declared in 2005, invasion risk was closely associated with numbers of imported birds, diversity of import sources, and degree of network centrality of importer countries. After the ban, fluxes of global bird trade declined sharply. However, new trade routes emerged, primarily toward the Nearctic, Afrotropical, and Indo-Malay regions. Although regional bans can curtail invasion risk globally, to be fully effective and prevent rerouting of trade flows, bans should be global.

  13. Overseas seed dispersal by migratory birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viana, Duarte S; Gangoso, Laura; Bouten, Willem; Figuerola, Jordi

    2016-01-13

    Long-distance dispersal (LDD) promotes the colonization of isolated and remote habitats, and thus it has been proposed as a mechanism for explaining the distributions of many species. Birds are key LDD vectors for many sessile organisms such as plants, yet LDD beyond local and regional scales has never been directly observed nor quantified. By sampling birds caught while in migratory flight by GPS-tracked wild falcons, we show that migratory birds transport seeds over hundreds of kilometres and mediate dispersal from mainland to oceanic islands. Up to 1.2% of birds that reached a small island of the Canary Archipelago (Alegranza) during their migration from Europe to Sub-Saharan Africa carried seeds in their guts. The billions of birds making seasonal migrations each year may then transport millions of seeds. None of the plant species transported by the birds occurs in Alegranza and most do not occur on nearby Canary Islands, providing a direct example of the importance of environmental filters in hampering successful colonization by immigrant species. The constant propagule pressure generated by these LDD events might, nevertheless, explain the colonization of some islands. Hence, migratory birds can mediate rapid range expansion or shifts of many plant taxa and determine their distribution. © 2016 The Author(s).

  14. Wild Marshmallows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallas, John N.

    1984-01-01

    Provides information for teaching a unit on wild plants, including resources to use, plants to learn, safety considerations, list of plants (with scientific name, edible parts, and uses), list of plants that might cause allergic reactions when eaten. Also describes the chickweed, bull thistle, and common mallow. (BC)

  15. Using molt cycles to categorize the age of tropical birds: an integrative new system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jared D. Wolfe; Thomas B. Ryder; Peter Pyle

    2010-01-01

    Accurately differentiating age classes is essential for the long-term monitoring of resident New World tropical bird species. Molt and plumage criteria have long been used to accurately age temperate birds, but application of temperate age-classification models to the Neotropics has been hindered because annual life-cycle events of tropical birds do not always...

  16. Drug metabolism in birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Huo Ping; Fouts, James R.

    1979-01-01

    Papers published over 100 years since the beginning of the scientific study of drug metabolism in birds were reviewed. Birds were found to be able to accomplish more than 20 general biotransformation reactions in both functionalization and conjugation. Chickens were the primary subject of study but over 30 species of birds were used. Large species differences in drug metabolism exist between birds and mammals as well as between various birds, these differences were mostly quantitative. Qualitative differences were rare. On the whole, drug metabolism studies in birds have been neglected as compared with similar studies on insects and mammals. The uniqueness of birds and the advantages of using birds in drug metabolism studies are discussed. Possible future studies of drug metabolism in birds are recommended.

  17. Blood protozoa of free-living birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, C.M.; McDiarmid, Archibald

    1969-01-01

    Blood protozoa were first reported from wild birds in 1884. Since then numerous surveys throughout the world have demonstrated their presence in a wide variety of hosts and localities with continuing designations of new species. Taxonomic determinations include parasites in the genera Plasmodium, Haemoproteus, Leucocytozoon, Babesia, Lankesterella and Trypanosoma. Transmission of Plasmodium by mosquitoes was demonstrated with a bird parasite before these insects were proven as vectors of human malaria. All the genera under consideration require an insect vector to complete their life-cycles and susceptible vectors have been demonstrated. Most experimental work on the blood protozoa of birds has been carried on with captive birds. An extensive volume of research has been conducted on Plasmodium because of its close similarity to malaria in man. Field studies that would provide information on the epizootiology of occurrence of these parasites in wild populations have been very limited, mainly confined to single blood film surveys. Such data are inadequate to provide an understanding of true prevalence or incidence or of factual knowledge of their impact on the wild population. Mechanisms for procuring such information are available in some cases and can be developed to fit other situations. Isodiagnosis, inoculation of blood from wild birds into susceptible captive hosts, has revealed a prevalence of over 60 % for Plasmodium in situations where microscope examination of single peripheral blood preparations yielded less than 1 %. Culture of bone marrow collected by biopsy demonstrates high prevalence of trypanosomes even when none are evident from microscopic examination of blood. Often preparations of tissues collected at necropsy reveal Leucocytozoon and Lankesterella when examination of peripheral blood gave no indication of infection. Methods developed by bird ringers provide techniques for obtaining repeat examinations of free-living birds that can yield further

  18. Bird flight characteristics near wind turbines in Minnesota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborn, R.G.; Dieter, C.D.; Higgins, K.F.; Usgaard, R.E.

    1998-01-01

    During 1994-1995, we saw 70 species of birds on the Buffalo Ridge Wind Resource Area. In both years bird abundance peaked in spring. Red-winged blackbirds (Agelaius phoeniceus), mallards (Anas platyrhynchos), common grackles (Quiscalus quiscula), and barn swallows (Hirundo rustica) were the species most commonly seen. Most birds (82-84%) flew above or below the height range of wind turbine blades (22-55 m). The Buffalo Ridge Wind Resource Area poses little threat to resident or migrating birds at its current operating level.

  19. Birds and music

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L Amini

    2009-03-01

    Through research in old mythological narrations, and literary texts, one could assume an intrinsic relationship between music and such sweet-singing mythological birds as phoenix, sphinx, Song-song, holy birds like Kership-tah, and other birds including swan and ring dove.

  20. Birds Kept as Pets

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... your pet’s health Visit a veterinarian who has experience with pet birds for routine check-ups to keep your bird healthy and prevent infectious diseases. If your bird becomes sick or dies within a month after purchase or adoption: Contact your veterinarian. Inform the pet ...

  1. Audubon Bird Study Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Audubon Society, New York, NY.

    Included are a student reader, "The Story of Birds," a leaders' guide, a large colored Audubon bird chart, and a separate guide for the chart. The student reader is divided into eleven sections which relate to the various physical and behavioral features of birds such as feathers, feeding habits as related to the shape of bills and feet, nests,…

  2. Quantification of bird-to-bird and bird-to-human infections during 2013 novel H7N9 avian influenza outbreak in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Ying-Hen; Wu, Jianhong; Fang, Jian; Yang, Yong; Lou, Jie

    2014-01-01

    From February to May, 2013, 132 human avian influenza H7N9 cases were identified in China resulting in 37 deaths. We developed a novel, simple and effective compartmental modeling framework for transmissions among (wild and domestic) birds as well as from birds to human, to infer important epidemiological quantifiers, such as basic reproduction number for bird epidemic, bird-to-human infection rate and turning points of the epidemics, for the epidemic via human H7N9 case onset data and to acquire useful information regarding the bird-to-human transmission dynamics. Estimated basic reproduction number for infections among birds is 4.10 and the mean daily number of human infections per infected bird is 3.16*10-5 [3.08*10-5, 3.23*10-5]. The turning point of 2013 H7N9 epidemic is pinpointed at April 16 for bird infections and at April 9 for bird-to-human transmissions. Our result reveals very low level of bird-to-human infections, thus indicating minimal risk of widespread bird-to-human infections of H7N9 virus during the outbreak. Moreover, the turning point of the human epidemic, pinpointed at shortly after the implementation of full-scale control and intervention measures initiated in early April, further highlights the impact of timely actions on ending the outbreak. This is the first study where both the bird and human components of an avian influenza epidemic can be quantified using only the human case data.

  3. North Slope, Alaska ESI: BIRDS (Bird Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for diving birds, gulls and terns, seabirds, shorebirds, and waterfowl for the North Slope of Alaska....

  4. Birds of Sabaki Birds of Sabaki

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    CJ

    2005-02-25

    Feb 25, 2005 ... covers approximately 250ha.The area encompassed by this study extends from Mambrui to the north, the sea to the east, the opposite bank of the estuary to the south and the Sabaki bridge and Malindi-Garsen road to the west. The area is defined as an Important Bird Area(IBA) by BirdLife International in ...

  5. Functional and Anatomic Correlates of Neural Aging in Birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ottinger, Mary Ann

    2018-01-01

    Avian species show variation in longevity, habitat, physiologic characteristics, and lifetime endocrine patterns. Lifetime reproductive and metabolic function vary. Much is known about the neurobiology of the song system in many altricial birds. Little is known about aging in neural systems in birds. Captive birds often survive beyond the age they would in the wild, providing an opportunity to gain an understanding of the physiologic and neural changes. This paper reviews the available information with the goal of capturing areas of potential investigation into gaps in our understanding of neural aging as reflected in physiologic, endocrine, and cognitive aging. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Movements of Birds and Avian Influenza from Asia into Alaska

    OpenAIRE

    Winker, Kevin; McCracken, Kevin G.; Gibson, Daniel D.; Pruett, Christin L.; Meier, Rose; Huettmann, Falk; Wege, Michael; Kulikova, Irina V.; Zhuravlev, Yuri N.; Perdue, Michael L.; Spackman, Erica; Suarez, David L.; Swayne, David E.

    2007-01-01

    Asian-origin avian influenza (AI) viruses are spread in part by migratory birds. In Alaska, diverse avian hosts from Asia and the Americas overlap in a region of intercontinental avifaunal mixing. This region is hypothesized to be a zone of Asia-to-America virus transfer because birds there can mingle in waters contaminated by wild-bird?origin AI viruses. Our 7 years of AI virus surveillance among waterfowl and shorebirds in this region (1998?2004; 8,254 samples) showed remarkably low infecti...

  7. Endrin in birds: Lethal residues and secondary poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stickel, W.H.; Reichel, W.L.; Hughes, D.L.

    1979-01-01

    Endrin residues in brains that are diagnostic of death were determined for several species of birds. Residues of 0.8 ppm or more of endrin in brain meant death; 0.6 ppm or less meant survival; between was a zone of overlap. These criteria indicate that some wild birds of the U.S., particularly white pelicans in the Northwest and two bald eagles, have been killed by endrin. Signs of endrin poisoning in experimental birds are described. The important and highly toxic metabolite in rodents, 12-ketoendrin, was sought but not found.

  8. Household factors influencing participation in bird feeding activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davies, Zoe G.; Fuller, Richard A.; Dallimer, Martin

    2012-01-01

    whether and how the socioeconomic background of a household influences participation in food provision for wild birds, the most popular and widespread form of human-wildlife interaction. A majority of households feed birds (64% across rural and urban areas in England, and 53% within five British study...... cities). House type, household size and the age of the head of the household were all important predictors of bird feeding, whereas gross annual household income, the occupation of the head of the household, and whether the house is owned or rented were not. In both surveys, the prevalence of bird...... a week. The proportion of households regularly feeding birds was positively related to the age of the head of the household, but declined with gross annual income. As concerns grow about the lack of engagement between people and the natural environment, such findings are important if conservation...

  9. Colour cues facilitate learning flower refill schedules in wild hummingbirds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuels, Michael; Hurly, T Andrew; Healy, Susan D

    2014-11-01

    Free-living hummingbirds can learn the refill schedules of individual experimental flowers but little is known about what information they use to do this. Colour cues, in particular, may be important to hummingbirds when learning about rewarded flower properties. We investigated, therefore, whether colour cues facilitated the learning of flower refill schedules in wild, free-living rufous hummingbirds (Selasphorus rufus). In the Cued condition, we presented birds with an array of six flowers, three of one colour, each of which were refilled 10min after being emptied by the bird and three of a different colour, which were refilled 20min after being emptied. In the Uncued condition we presented birds with six flowers of the same colour, three of which were refilled after 10min and three of which were refilled after 20min as for the birds in the Cued condition. In the second part of the experiment, we moved the array 2m and changed the shape of the array. Across both phases, birds in the Cued condition learned to discriminate between 10 and 20-min flowers more quickly than did the birds in the Uncued condition. The Cued birds were also better at discriminating between the two distinct refill intervals. Colour cues can, therefore, facilitate learning the refill schedules of experimental flowers in these birds. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Cognition in the wild. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Selection of passerine birds as bio-sentinel of persistent organic pollutants in terrestrial environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, Ling; Zheng, Xiaobo; Sun, Yuxin; Yu, Lehuan; Luo, Xiaojun; Xu, Xiangrong; Qin, Xiaoquan; Gao, Yongli; Mai, Bixian

    2018-08-15

    A broad suite of persistent organic pollutants (POPs), including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and its metabolites, were analyzed in pectoral muscle of eight terrestrial passerine bird species from an extensive e-waste recycling site in South China. Concentrations of PCBs, PBDEs, and DDTs in bird samples ranged from 1260-279,000, 121-14,200, and 31-7910ng/g lipid weight, respectively. Insectivorous birds had significantly higher levels of PCBs, PBDEs, and DDTs than those in granivorous birds. Concentrations of POPs in resident insectivorous birds were significantly greater than those in migrant insectivorous birds. PCBs were the predominant pollutants in all bird species from the e-waste site, followed by PBDEs and DDTs, indicating that PCBs were mainly derived from e-wastes. The granivorous birds had higher proportions of hepta-CBs in total PCBs and higher proportions of octa- to deca-BDEs in total PBDEs compared with the insectivorous birds. The various dietary sources, migration behavior, and possible biotransformation were suspected as reasons of the distinct profiles of POPs in different bird species. The δ 15 N values were significantly and positively correlated with concentrations of POPs in resident insectivorous birds, but not in other passerine bird species, suggesting the influence of trophic levels on bioaccumulation of POPs in resident insectivorous birds. The resident insectivorous birds seem to be promising bio-sentinel of POPs in terrestrial environment around the e-waste sites. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Diseases Transmitted by Birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levison, Matthew E

    2015-08-01

    Although many people these days actually work very hard at leisure time activities, diseases are most commonly acquired from birds during the course of work in the usual sense of the term, not leisure. However, travel for pleasure to areas where the diseases are highly endemic puts people at risk of acquiring some of these bird-related diseases (for example, histoplasmosis and arbovirus infections), as does ownership of birds as pets (psittacosis).

  12. Public health concerns associated with care of free-living birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittington, Julia K

    2011-09-01

    Free-living birds are not only susceptible to certain infectious diseases; wild bird populations serve as reservoirs of several important diseases of public health concern. Bacterial and viral diseases endemic in populations of free-living birds such as tuberculosis, avian influenza, arboviral infections, and enteropathogens have been classified as emerging or reemerging. Providing care to wild avian patients increases the opportunity for direct contact with infected birds and the possibility of transmission of infectious disease to human handlers. Awareness of disease potential is critical to disease monitoring of wild populations and will allow for the implementation of precautionary measures when working with wild avian species. Biosecurity measures designed to minimize risk must be evaluated by individual facilities.

  13. Heterospecific sociality of birds on beaches from southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César Cestari

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Studies on the sociality of heterospecific assemblages of birds have promoted a greater understanding of the types of interactions and survivorship between coexisting species. This study verified the group compositions in bird assemblages and analyzed the sociality of migratory and resident species on sandy beaches of southeastern Brazil. A transect was established on the median portion of beaches and all the groups of bird species (monospecific, heterospecific and solitary individuals were registered four days per month from November 2006 to April 2007. The sociality of each species was calculated by its frequency in heterospecific groups, its proportional number of contacts with other species in heterospecific groups, and the number of species that it associated with. Semipalmated Sandpiper Calidris pusilla (Linnaeus, 1766 and Semipalmated Plover Charadrius semipalmatus Bonaparte, 1825 (both migratory had the highest degree of sociality and did not show a preference to associate with either residents or migratory species. Sanderling Calidris alba (Pallas, 1764 (migratory occupied the third position in the sociality rank and associated with migratory species frequently. Southern Caracara Carara plancus (Miller, 1777 and Black Vulture Coragyps atratus (Beschstein, 1793 (both resident were uniquely found among heterospecific groups with necrophagous and resident species. Kelp Gull Larus dominicanus Lichtenstein, 1823 (resident associated more frequently with resident species. The sociality in assemblages of birds may promote advantages such as an increased collective awareness in dangerous situations and indication of sites with abundant food sources.

  14. Coastal Resources Atlas: Long Island: BIRDS (Bird Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for wading birds, shorebirds, waterfowl, raptors, diving birds, seabirds, passerine birds, and gulls and...

  15. Guam and the Northern Mariana Islands ESI: BIRDS (Bird Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for pelagic birds, shorebirds, wading birds, waterfowl, gulls, terns, and passerine birds in Guam and the...

  16. Birds of Sierra de Vallejo, Nayarit, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Figueroa-Esquivel, E.M.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Sierra de Vallejo, is considered a priority region for conservation, and is strongly affected by anthropogenic pressures. The inventory of birds are refers to studies in near areas. This study is a concrete contribution of the birds of the mountain chain and north of it. We considered bibliographic records and databases available on the web with records of ocurrence and specimens of scientific collections. Also we perform point counts in different localities inside the reserve. We observed a richness of 261 birds species, the family Tyrannidae is the best represented. Of the species recorded, 177 are permanent residents (31 are endemic and 15 are quasi-endemics to Mexico and 73 are migratory; the remaining eleven records have other status. Also 43 species are in endangered categories. We include species that have not been recorded in the lists of the area and records of species expand their ranges at Nayarit. Due to the great diversity of birds observed, it is necesary to continue the research work about habitat use, abundance and monitoring, it will provides the basis for the conservation of birds of Sierra de Vallejo.

  17. Facultative parthenogenesis discovered in wild vertebrates

    OpenAIRE

    Booth, Warren; Smith, Charles F.; Eskridge, Pamela H.; Hoss, Shannon K.; Mendelson, Joseph R.; Schuett, Gordon W.

    2012-01-01

    Facultative parthenogenesis (FP)—asexual reproduction by bisexual species—has been documented in a variety of multi-cellular organisms but only recently in snakes, varanid lizards, birds and sharks. Unlike the approximately 80 taxa of unisexual reptiles, amphibians and fishes that exist in nature, FP has yet to be documented in the wild. Based on captive documentation, it appears that FP is widespread in squamate reptiles (snakes, lizards and amphisbaenians), and its occurrence in nature seem...

  18. Bird Flu (Avian Influenza)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird flu (avian influenza) Overview Bird flu is caused by a type of influenza virus that rarely infects humans. More than a ... for Disease Control and Prevention estimates that seasonal influenza is responsible for ... heat destroys avian viruses, cooked poultry isn't a health threat. ...

  19. Nanoscale magnetoreceptors in birds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solov'yov, Ilia; Greiner, Walter

    2012-01-01

    The Earth's magnetic field provides an important source of directional information for many living organisms, especially birds, but the sensory receptor responsible for magnetic field detection still has to be identified. Recently, magnetic iron oxide particles were detected in dendritic endings...... field, by a bird....

  20. Understanding how birds navigate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solov'yov, Ilia; Schulten, Klaus

    2009-01-01

    A proposed model for migrating birds' magnetic sense can withstand moderate orientational disorder of a key protein in the eye.......A proposed model for migrating birds' magnetic sense can withstand moderate orientational disorder of a key protein in the eye....

  1. Permanent resident

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John F. Fisher

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The training of physicians in the past century was based primarily on responsibility and the chain-of-command. Those with the bulk of that responsibility in the fields of pediatrics and internal medicine were residents. Residents trained the medical students and supervised them carefully in caring for patients. Most attending physicians supervised their teams at arm's length, primarily serving as teachers of the finer points of diagnosis and treatment during set periods of the day or week with a perfunctory signature on write-ups or progress notes. Residents endeavored to protect the attending physician from being heavily involved unless they were unsure about a clinical problem. Before contacting the attending physician, a more senior resident would be called. Responsibility was the ultimate teacher. The introduction of diagnosis-related groups by the federal government dramatically changed the health care delivery system, placing greater emphasis on attending physician visibility in the medical record, ultimately resulting in more attending physician involvement in day-to-day care of patients in academic institutions. Without specified content in attending notes, hospital revenues would decline. Although always in charge technically, attending physicians increasingly have assumed the role once dominated by the resident. Using biographical experiences of more than 40 years, the author acknowledges and praises the educational role of responsibility in his own training and laments its declining role in today's students and house staff.

  2. Short-chain chlorinated paraffins in terrestrial bird species inhabiting an e-waste recycling site in South China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo, Xiao-Jun; Sun, Yu-Xin; Wu, Jiang-Ping; Chen, She-Jun; Mai, Bi-Xian

    2015-01-01

    Short-chain chlorinated paraffins (SCCPs) are under review by the Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants. Currently, limited data are available about SCCPs in terrestrial organisms. In the present study, SCCP concentration in the muscles of seven terrestrial bird species (n = 38) inhabiting an e-waste recycling area in South China was determined. This concentration varied from 620 to 17,000 ng/g lipid. Resident birds accumulated significantly higher SCCP concentrations than migratory birds (p < 0.01). Trophic magnification was observed for migratory bird species but not for resident, which was attributed to high heterogeneity of SCCP in e-waste area. Two different homologue group patterns were observed in avian samples. The first pattern was found in five bird species dominated by C 10 and C 11 congeners, while the second was found in the remains, which show rather equal abundance of homologue groups. This may be caused by two sources of SCCPs (local and e-waste) in the study area. - Highlights: • SCCPs in terrestrial bird species from an e-waste area are first reported. • Elevated SCCP level was found as compared with other regions. • Resident birds accumulated significantly higher SCCP levels than migratory birds. • Trophic magnification was observed for migratory but not for resident bird species. • Two homologue patterns were found among seven bird species. - SCCP concentration in terrestrial bird species inhabiting an e-waste site was first reported in this study

  3. Molecular characterization of extended-spectrum-cephalosporin-resistant Enterobacteriaceae from wild kelp gulls in South America

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liakopoulos, Apostolos; Olsen, Björn; Geurts, Yvon; Artursson, Karin; Berg, Charlotte; Mevius, Dik J.; Bonnedahl, Jonas

    2016-01-01

    Extended-spectrum-cephalosporin-resistant Enterobacteriaceae are a public health concern due to limited treatment options. Here, we report on the occurrence and the molecular characteristics of extended-spectrum-cephalosporin-resistant Enterobacteriaceae recovered from wild birds (kelp gulls).

  4. Spatio-temporal dynamics of global H5N1 outbreaks match bird migration patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yali Si

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The global spread of highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 in poultry, wild birds and humans, poses a significant pandemic threat and a serious public health risk. An efficient surveillance and disease control system relies on the understanding of the dispersion patterns and spreading mechanisms of the virus. A space-time cluster analysis of H5N1 outbreaks was used to identify spatio-temporal patterns at a global scale and over an extended period of time. Potential mechanisms explaining the spread of the H5N1 virus, and the role of wild birds, were analyzed. Between December 2003 and December 2006, three global epidemic phases of H5N1 influenza were identified. These H5N1 outbreaks showed a clear seasonal pattern, with a high density of outbreaks in winter and early spring (i.e., October to March. In phase I and II only the East Asia Australian flyway was affected. During phase III, the H5N1 viruses started to appear in four other flyways: the Central Asian flyway, the Black Sea Mediterranean flyway, the East Atlantic flyway and the East Africa West Asian flyway. Six disease cluster patterns along these flyways were found to be associated with the seasonal migration of wild birds. The spread of the H5N1 virus, as demonstrated by the space-time clusters, was associated with the patterns of migration of wild birds. Wild birds may therefore play an important role in the spread of H5N1 over long distances. Disease clusters were also detected at sites where wild birds are known to overwinter and at times when migratory birds were present. This leads to the suggestion that wild birds may also be involved in spreading the H5N1 virus over short distances.

  5. Experimental evidence for adaptive personalities in a wild passerine bird

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nicolaus, Marion; Tinbergen, Joost M.; Bouwman, Karen M.; Michler, Stephanie P. M.; Ubels, Richard; Both, Christiaan; Kempenaers, Bart; Dingemanse, Niels J.

    2012-01-01

    Individuals of the same species differ consistently in risky actions. Such 'animal personality' variation is intriguing because behavioural flexibility is often assumed to be the norm. Recent theory predicts that between-individual differences in propensity to take risks should evolve if individuals

  6. Heritable circadian period length in a wild bird population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helm, B.; Visser, M.E.

    2010-01-01

    Timing is essential, but circadian clocks, which play a crucial role in timekeeping, are almost unaddressed in evolutionary ecology. A key property of circadian clocks is their free-running period length (τ), i.e. the time taken for a full cycle under constant conditions. Under laboratory

  7. Personality and innate immune defenses in a wild bird

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacques-Hamilton, Rowan; Hall, Michelle L.; Buttemer, William A.; Matson, Kevin D.; Gonçalves da Silva, Anders; Mulder, Raoul A.; Peters, Anne

    2017-01-01

    We tested the two main evolutionary hypotheses for an association between immunity and personality. The risk-of-parasitism hypothesis predicts that more proactive (bold, exploratory, risk-taking) individuals have more vigorous immune defenses because of increased risk of parasite exposure. In

  8. Birds gone wild: same-sex parenting in albatross.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuk, Marlene; Bailey, Nathan W

    2008-12-01

    Same-sex behavior in animals fascinates scientists as well as laypeople, partly because of implications about sexual orientation in humans. After all, if animals engage in homosexuality, can it be dismissed as 'unnatural'? A recent paper by Young and colleagues documents long-term female pairs in >30% of Laysan albatross on the Hawaiian island of Oahu. The unrelated females bred successfully, challenging ideas about cooperative breeding, alternative reproductive strategies and perhaps even the evolution of sexual orientation.

  9. Surveillance of wild birds for avian influenza virus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoye, B.J.; Munster, V.J.; Nishiura, H.; Klaassen, M.R.J.; Fouchier, R.A.M

    2010-01-01

    Recent demand for increased understanding of avian infl uenza virus in its natural hosts, together with the development of high-throughput diagnostics, has heralded a new era in wildlife disease surveillance. However, survey design, sampling, and interpretation in the context of host populations

  10. Calcium, snails, and birds: a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Mänd

    2000-10-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies have shown that wild birds breeding in acidified areas have difficulties with obtaining sufficient calcium for their eggshells, and that the cause of it is the shortage of land snails. Many birds have to search for Ca-rich snail shells on a daily basis during egg production. Molluscs depend on litter calcium, which has decreased due to acidification of the environment. Calcium limitation may be a widespread phenomenon also in non-acidified, naturally Ca-poor areas. The problem is that while in the latter areas the time for development of specific adaptations may have been sufficient, then in acidified areas, on the contrary, calcium shortage is a recent phenomenon. Therefore, since the extent of calcium limitation in non-acidified areas is hard to derive from observational data, experimental approach is needed. We provide experimental evidence that specific calcium deficit does affect reproductive traits also in the birds breeding in naturally base-poor habitats. Our study was conducted in a heterogeneous woodland area in Estonia containing deciduous forest patches as well as base-poor pine forest with low snail abundance. Ca supplementation, using snail shell and chicken eggshell fragments, was carried out for pied flycatchers and great tits. Extra calcium affected positively several reproductive traits like egg volume and eggshell thickness, start of breeding, and fledglings’ parameters. The negative relationship between calcium availability and lay-date suggests that birds adjust their breeding tactics to conditions of Ca deficiency, for example, by postponing laying.

  11. Hatching synchrony in birds

    OpenAIRE

    Tippeltová, Zuzana

    2011-01-01

    This bachelor thesis is about hatching synchrony in birds. Generally, among birds there are two types of hatching - asynchronous and synchronous- and the type of hatching is primarily determined by the time of the onset of incubation. In many bird species, including most precocial ones, incubation does not begin until the last egg has been laid, which results in hatching of all the eggs within a few hours. In synchronously-hatched broods, all the chicks are about the same age. Thus no single ...

  12. Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever virus infection in birds: field investigations in Senegal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeller, H G; Cornet, J P; Camicas, J L

    1994-01-01

    In Senegal, wild ground-feeding birds are frequently infested with immature ticks. In two areas where numerous Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever (CCHF) virus isolations were obtained from Hyalomma marginatum rufipes adult ticks collected on ungulates, 175 birds were captured and sera collected. CCHF antibodies were detected by ELISA in 6/22 red-beaked hornbills (Tockus erythrorhynchus), 2/11 glossy starlings (Lamprotornis sp.) and 1/3 guinea fowls. The virus was isolated from H. m. rufipes nymphs collected on a hornbill. The role of wild ground-feeding birds in CCHF virus ecology in West Africa is discussed.

  13. Guidelines for evaluation and treatment of lead poisoning of wild raptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallon, Jesse A.; Redig, Patrick; Miller, Tricia A.; Lanzone, Michael J.; Katzner, Todd

    2017-01-01

    Lead poisoning is a threat to birds, particularly scavenging birds of prey. With the availability of portable lead-testing kits, an increasing number of field researchers are testing wild-caught birds, in situ, for lead poisoning. We describe guidelines for evaluation of lead toxicity in wild raptors by outlining field testing of blood-lead concentrations, presenting criteria for removing a lead-poisoned bird from the wild for treatment, and suggesting strategies for effective treatment of lead intoxicated raptors. Field testing of birds is most commonly accomplished via portable electrochemical analysis of blood; visual observation of condition alone may provide insufficient evidence upon which to make a decision about lead poisoning. Our intended audience is not only the avian research community, but also rehabilitation facilities that may receive apparently uninjured birds. Best practices suggest that birds whose blood-lead levels are 60 μg/dL are potentially lethally poisoned and best served if removed from the wild for appropriate treatment at a licensed rehabilitation facility and later released. We present guidelines for decision-making when treating lead poisoning of wild raptors. Future work based on experimental studies will clarify the role of lead poisoning for specific species and be important to refine these guidelines to improve effectiveness.

  14. Can preening contribute to influenza A virus infection in wild waterbirds?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Delogu

    Full Text Available Wild aquatic birds in the Orders Anseriformes and Charadriiformes are the main reservoir hosts perpetuating the genetic pool of all influenza A viruses, including pandemic viruses. High viral loads in feces of infected birds permit a fecal-oral route of transmission. Numerous studies have reported the isolation of avian influenza viruses (AIVs from surface water at aquatic bird habitats. These isolations indicate aquatic environments have an important role in the transmission of AIV among wild aquatic birds. However, the progressive dilution of infectious feces in water could decrease the likelihood of virus/host interactions. To evaluate whether alternate mechanisms facilitate AIV transmission in aquatic bird populations, we investigated whether the preen oil gland secretions by which all aquatic birds make their feathers waterproof could support a natural mechanism that concentrates AIVs from water onto birds' bodies, thus, representing a possible source of infection by preening activity. We consistently detected both viral RNA and infectious AIVs on swabs of preened feathers of 345 wild mallards by using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR and virus-isolation (VI assays. Additionally, in two laboratory experiments using a quantitative real-time (qR RT-PCR assay, we demonstrated that feather samples (n = 5 and cotton swabs (n = 24 experimentally impregnated with preen oil, when soaked in AIV-contaminated waters, attracted and concentrated AIVs on their surfaces. The data presented herein provide information that expands our understanding of AIV ecology in the wild bird reservoir system.

  15. SEROLOGIC EVIDENCE OF WEST NILE VIRUS INFECTION IN BIRDS, TAMAULIPAS STATE, MEXICO

    OpenAIRE

    beaty, barry; FERNANDEZ, ILDEFONSO; contreras, juan francisco; blitvich, bradley; gonzalez, jose ignacio; cavazos, amanda a; loroño, maria alba; gluber, duante j.; Cropp, bruce; Calisher , Charles

    2003-01-01

    Following the introduction of West Nile virus (WNV) into North America in 1999, surveillance for WNV in migratory and resident birds was established in Tamaulipas State, northern Mexico in December 2001. Overall, 796 birds representing 70 species and 10 orders were captured and assayed for antibodies to WNV. Nine birds had flavivirus-specific antibodies by epitope-blocking enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay; four were confirmed to have antibody to WNV by plaque reduction neutralization test. T...

  16. Birds in Kurigram district of Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.I. Khan

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available A study of the birds in the area adjacent to the Dharala and Brahmaputra rivers in Kurigram District, Bangladesh, was conducted between November 2000 and February 2002. A total of 105 species of birds belonging to 12 orders, 35 families and 77 genera were recorded. Out of 105 species, 51 (48.6% were non-passerine and 54 (51.4% passerine, 33 (31.4% migratory and 72 (68.6% resident. Of the non-passerine birds, 15 (29.4% were migratory and 36 (70.6% were resident, while, among the passerines 18 (33.3% were migratory and 36 (66.7% were resident. Of the total (105 species 14 (13.3% were found to be very common, 30 (28.6% common, 25 (23.8% fairly common and 36 (34.3% were rare or few. Out of 105 species, 30 (28.6% were aquatic and semiaquatic birds and 75 (71.4% were terrestrial. Among 105 species, 52 (49.5% were widely distributed in Kurigram, 31 (29.5% restricted only to the northern side, five (4.8% to the central side, eight (7.6% to the southern side, and nine (8.6% species were common in two or three parts of the study area. Among the three canopy categories, 16 (15.2% species were observed in lower canopy, 32 (30.5% species were recorded from both lower and middle canopies, 19 (18.1% species from upper and middle canopies and only one (1% species was recorded from upper canopy. In the study area 37 (35.2% species of birds used all levels of the canopy. Out of 105 species, 48 (45.7% were insectivorous, 11 (10.4% were grainivorous, five (4.8% frugivorous, 10 (9.5% were piscivorous, five (4.8% were predatory, and 19 (18.1% species of birds were omnivorous. Only one (1% was vegetarian and the diet of 6 (5.7% species could not be determined.

  17. Barrier Infrared Detector (BIRD)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A recent breakthrough in MWIR detector design, has resulted in a high operating temperature (HOT) barrier infrared detector (BIRD) that is capable of spectral...

  18. Calcium metabolism in birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Matos, Ricardo

    2008-01-01

    Calcium is one of the most important plasma constituents in mammals and birds. It provides structural strength and support (bones and eggshell) and plays vital roles in many of the biochemical reactions in the body. The control of calcium metabolism in birds is highly efficient and closely regulated in a number of tissues, primarily parathyroid gland, intestine, kidney, and bone. The hormones with the greatest involvement in calcium regulation in birds are parathyroid hormone, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3) (calcitriol), and estrogen, with calcitonin playing a minor and uncertain role. The special characteristics of calcium metabolism in birds, mainly associated with egg production, are discussed, along with common clinical disorders secondary to derangements in calcium homeostasis.

  19. Birds as biodiversity surrogates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Frank Wugt; Bladt, Jesper Stentoft; Balmford, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    1. Most biodiversity is still unknown, and therefore, priority areas for conservation typically are identified based on the presence of surrogates, or indicator groups. Birds are commonly used as surrogates of biodiversity owing to the wide availability of relevant data and their broad popular...... and applications.?Good surrogates of biodiversity are necessary to help identify conservation areas that will be effective in preventing species extinctions. Birds perform fairly well as surrogates in cases where birds are relatively speciose, but overall effectiveness will be improved by adding additional data...... from other taxa, in particular from range-restricted species. Conservation solutions with focus on birds as biodiversity surrogate could therefore benefit from also incorporating species data from other taxa....

  20. Awesome Audubon Birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahler, Laura

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author describes a watercolor art lesson on Audubon birds. She also discusses how science, technology, writing skills, and the elements and principles of art can be incorporated into the lesson.

  1. Nuisance Birds Webinar Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    All over the nation, birds of all shapes and sizes attempt to make schools a their favorite hangout. Their arrival can lead to sanitation issues, added facility degradation, distracted students and health problems.

  2. Birds - Breeding [ds60

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — This data set provides access to information gathered on annual breeding bird surveys in California using a map layer developed by the Department. This data layer...

  3. Breeding bird survey data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The data are maintained by the USGS (https://www.pwrc.usgs.gov/bbs/RawData/) and provides information on the trends and status of North American bird populations...

  4. Modeling birds on wires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydoğdu, A; Frasca, P; D'Apice, C; Manzo, R; Thornton, J M; Gachomo, B; Wilson, T; Cheung, B; Tariq, U; Saidel, W; Piccoli, B

    2017-02-21

    In this paper we introduce a mathematical model to study the group dynamics of birds resting on wires. The model is agent-based and postulates attraction-repulsion forces between the interacting birds: the interactions are "topological", in the sense that they involve a given number of neighbors irrespective of their distance. The model is first mathematically analyzed and then simulated to study its main properties: we observe that the model predicts birds to be more widely spaced near the borders of each group. We compare the results from the model with experimental data, derived from the analysis of pictures of pigeons and starlings taken in New Jersey: two different image elaboration protocols allow us to establish a good agreement with the model and to quantify its main parameters. We also discuss the potential handedness of the birds, by analyzing the group organization features and the group dynamics at the arrival of new birds. Finally, we propose a more refined mathematical model that describes landing and departing birds by suitable stochastic processes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Quail and other short-lived birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ottinger, M A

    2001-04-01

    Japanese quail are small galliforms that are migratory and generally live 2 to 3years in the wild. Although there is evidence for other environmental cues, they primarily respond to long daylength for regulation of reproduction. In contrast to the Common Tern, a long-lived sea bird that shows little evidence of reproductive aging, Japanese quail follow a well-defined process of aging with evidence of declining function in reproductive, metabolic, and sensory systems. Our studies focus on neuroendocrine changes associated with reproductive aging in the Japanese quail, with emphasis on the male in order to study both endocrine and behavioral components of reproduction and the process of reproductive aging.

  6. LINKING THE COMMUNITY IN THE MIGRATORY RAPTOR BIRDS COUNTS (BIRDS: FALCONIFORM IN EASTERN CUBA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naylien Barreda-Leyva

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Through interviews, workshops, conferences and sociocultural meeting, is carried out the linking of three communities from the high area of Gran Piedra to the studies and counts of migratory raptors birds developed in the east of Cuba. These small communities are near to one of the two points of count of migratory raptors of the region. During the interviews we could verify that some residents possessed basic knowledge on the raptors birds, but didn't know about the migration of these birds. 100 % of the interviewees coincided in that the main local problematic is the loss of birds of pen due to the attack of raptors, specifically the endemic Cuban threatened Accipitter gundlachi. The workshops were able to create spaces of exchange and reflection about the importance of the raptor’s conservation in the region. This linkage of cooperation and increasing awareness, allow an approaching between the communitarians and the researchers and volunteers that work in the counts of raptor birds in Cuba and the feedback of the scientific knowledge with the popular knowledge.

  7. Pesticide residues in birds and mammals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stickel, L.F.; Edwards, C.A.

    1973-01-01

    SUMMARY: Residues of organochlorine pesticides and their breakdown products are present in the tissues of essentially all wild birds throughout the world. These chemicals accumulate in fat from a relatively small environmental exposure. DDE and dieldrin are most prevalent. Others, such as heptachlor epoxide, chlordane, endrin, and benzene hexachloride also occur, the quantities and kinds generally reflecting local or regional use. Accumulation may be sufficient to kill animals following applications for pest control. This has occurred in several large-scale programmes in the United States. Mortality has also resulted from unintentional leakage of chemical from commercial establishments. Residues may persist in the environment for many years, exposing successive generations of animals. In general, birds that eat other birds, or fish, have higher residues than those that eat seeds and vegetation. The kinetic processes of absorption, metabolism, storage, and output differ according to both kind of chemical and species of animal. When exposure is low and continuous, a balance between intake and excretion may be achieved. Residues reach a balance at an approximate animal body equilibrium or plateau; the storage is generally proportional to dose. Experiments with chickens show that dieldrin and heptachlor epoxide have the greatest propensity for storage, endrin next, then DDT, then lindane. The storage of DDT was complicated by its metabolism to DDE and DDD, but other studies show that DDE has a much greater propensity for storage than either DDD or DDT. Methoxychlor has little cumulative capacity in birds. Residues in eggs reflect and parallel those in the parent bird during accumulation, equilibrium, and decline when dosage is discontinued. Residues with the greatest propensity for storage are also lost most slowly. Rate of loss of residues can be modified by dietary components and is speeded by weight loss of the animal. Under sublethal conditions of continuous

  8. Assessing allowable take of migratory birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runge, M.C.; Sauer, J.R.; Avery, M.L.; Blackwell, B.F.; Koneff, M.D.

    2009-01-01

    Legal removal of migratory birds from the wild occurs for several reasons, including subsistence, sport harvest, damage control, and the pet trade. We argue that harvest theory provides the basis for assessing the impact of authorized take, advance a simplified rendering of harvest theory known as potential biological removal as a useful starting point for assessing take, and demonstrate this approach with a case study of depredation control of black vultures (Coragyps atratus) in Virginia, USA. Based on data from the North American Breeding Bird Survey and other sources, we estimated that the black vulture population in Virginia was 91,190 (95% credible interval = 44,520?212,100) in 2006. Using a simple population model and available estimates of life-history parameters, we estimated the intrinsic rate of growth (rmax) to be in the range 7?14%, with 10.6% a plausible point estimate. For a take program to seek an equilibrium population size on the conservative side of the yield curve, the rate of take needs to be less than that which achieves a maximum sustained yield (0.5 x rmax). Based on the point estimate for rmax and using the lower 60% credible interval for population size to account for uncertainty, these conditions would be met if the take of black vultures in Virginia in 2006 was < 3,533 birds. Based on regular monitoring data, allowable harvest should be adjusted annually to reflect changes in population size. To initiate discussion about how this assessment framework could be related to the laws and regulations that govern authorization of such take, we suggest that the Migratory Bird Treaty Act requires only that take of native migratory birds be sustainable in the long-term, that is, sustained harvest rate should be < rmax. Further, the ratio of desired harvest rate to 0.5 x rmax may be a useful metric for ascertaining the applicability of specific requirements of the National Environmental Protection Act.

  9. The birds of Araku, Visakhapatnam, Andhra Pradesh, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.S. Kumar

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Avifaunal survey carried out from December 2006 to September 2007 in Araku Valley, Visakhapatnam, Andhra Pradesh, revealed the presence of a total of 147 species of birds belonging to 43 families. One-hundred-twelve species of birds in Araku Valley were resident breeders, 23 species winter visitors, nine species local migrants, two species passage migrants and one species summer visitor. Many bird species were seen in more than one habitat for nesting, roosting and foraging. The dominant feeding guild of birds was insectivorous. Four globally threatened species, namely, the Purple Wood-Pigeon Columba punicea Blyth, 1842, the Greater Spotted Eagle Aquila clanga Pallas, 1811, the Lesser Kestrel Falco naumanni Fleischer, 1818 and the Pallid Harrier Circus macrourus (S.G. Gmelin, 1770, were recorded during the survey from the area

  10. Aerodynamics of bird flight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dvořák Rudolf

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Unlike airplanes birds must have either flapping or oscillating wings (the hummingbird. Only such wings can produce both lift and thrust – two sine qua non attributes of flying.The bird wings have several possibilities how to obtain the same functions as airplane wings. All are realized by the system of flight feathers. Birds have also the capabilities of adjusting the shape of the wing according to what the immediate flight situation demands, as well as of responding almost immediately to conditions the flow environment dictates, such as wind gusts, object avoidance, target tracking, etc. In bird aerodynamics also the tail plays an important role. To fly, wings impart downward momentum to the surrounding air and obtain lift by reaction. How this is achieved under various flight situations (cruise flight, hovering, landing, etc., and what the role is of the wing-generated vortices in producing lift and thrust is discussed.The issue of studying bird flight experimentally from in vivo or in vitro experiments is also briefly discussed.

  11. Sex Reversal in Birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Major, Andrew T; Smith, Craig A

    2016-01-01

    Sexual differentiation in birds is controlled genetically as in mammals, although the sex chromosomes are different. Males have a ZZ sex chromosome constitution, while females are ZW. Gene(s) on the sex chromosomes must initiate gonadal sex differentiation during embryonic life, inducing paired testes in ZZ individuals and unilateral ovaries in ZW individuals. The traditional view of avian sexual differentiation aligns with that expounded for other vertebrates; upon sexual differentiation, the gonads secrete sex steroid hormones that masculinise or feminise the rest of the body. However, recent studies on naturally occurring or experimentally induced avian sex reversal suggest a significant role for direct genetic factors, in addition to sex hormones, in regulating sexual differentiation of the soma in birds. This review will provide an overview of sex determination in birds and both naturally and experimentally induced sex reversal, with emphasis on the key role of oestrogen. We then consider how recent studies on sex reversal and gynandromorphic birds (half male:half female) are shaping our understanding of sexual differentiation in avians and in vertebrates more broadly. Current evidence shows that sexual differentiation in birds is a mix of direct genetic and hormonal mechanisms. Perturbation of either of these components may lead to sex reversal. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  12. Principles and methods of using wild animals in bioindication of global radioactive contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sokolov, V.E.; Krivolutskij, D.A.; Fedorov, E.A.; Pokarzhevskij, A.D.; Ryabtsev, I.A.; Usachev, V.L.

    1986-01-01

    Wild animals (mammals), birds, reptiles, amphibians, land and soil invertebrates) in natural ecosystems accumulate the easily detected radionuclide quantities. The technique for estimation of radionuclide content in the organism of animals are considered. It is suggested to use wild animals for studying biogenic migration of radionuclides by food chains in ecosystems in global monitoring of medium contamination, particularly on biosphers preserves

  13. Avian metapneumovirus subtype C in Wild Waterfowl in Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jardine, C M; Parmley, E J; Buchanan, T; Nituch, L; Ojkic, D

    2018-02-18

    Avian metapneumovirus (aMPV) is an emerging poultry pathogen that has a significant economic impact on poultry production worldwide. The geographic range of the virus continues to expand, and wild birds have been implicated as reservoirs of aMPV that have the potential to spread the virus over long distances. Our objective was to determine the apparent prevalence of aMPV subtype C in wild waterfowl in Ontario, Canada. Wild waterfowl were captured in August and September, 2016 as part of routine migratory waterfowl population monitoring by the Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources and Forestry. Oropharyngeal and cloacal swabs were collected from each bird and placed together for aMPV testing using real-time RT-PCR. A total of 374 live wild birds from 23 lakes were sampled and tested for aMPV. Among all ducks tested, 84 (22%) were positive for aMPV. The proportion of samples that tested positive ranged from 0% in ring-necked ducks (Aythya collaris) and green-winged teal (Anas carolinensis) to 44% (8 of 18) in American black ducks (A. rubripes). Waterfowl positive for aMPV were found at 14 of 23 lakes in the study area and the percent positive at these 14 lakes ranged between 5% and 84%. Although subtype C aMPV has been detected in a variety of wild birds in North America, this is the first report of aMPV in wild ducks in Ontario, Canada. The high apparent prevalence, particularly in mallards and American black ducks (37 and 44%, respectively), suggests that these species may be important reservoirs of aMPV. Given the potential impact of aMPV on domestic poultry and the potential role of wild birds as reservoirs of the virus, further investigation of the geographic distribution, risk factors associated with aMPV carriage in wild waterfowl and potential role of other birds in the epidemiology of aMPV in Canada is warranted. © 2018 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  14. Effects of satellite transmitters on captive and wild mallards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesler, Dylan C.; Raedeke, Andrew H.; Foggia, Jennifer R.; Beatty, William S.; Webb, Elisabeth B.; Humburg, Dale D.; Naylor, Luke W.

    2014-01-01

    Satellite telemetry has become a leading method for studying large-scale movements and survival in birds, yet few have addressed potential effects of the larger and heavier tracking equipment on study subjects. We simultaneously evaluated effects of satellite telemetry equipment on captive and wild mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) to assess impacts on behavior, body mass, and movement. We randomly assigned 55 captive ducks to one of 3 treatment groups, including a standard body harness group, a modified harness group, and a control group. Ducks in the control group were not fitted with equipment, whereas individuals in the other 2 groups were fitted with dummy transmitters attached with a Teflon ribbon harness or with a similar harness constructed of nylon cord. At the conclusion of the 14-week captive study, mean body mass of birds in the control group was 40–105 g (95% CI) greater than birds with standard harnesses, and 28–99 g (95% CI) greater than birds with modified harnesses. Further, results of focal behavior observations indicated ducks with transmitters were less likely to be in water than control birds. We also tested whether movements of wild birds marked with a similar Teflon harness satellite transmitter aligned with population movements reported by on-the-ground observers who indexed local abundances of mid-continent mallards throughout the non-breeding period. Results indicated birds marked with satellite transmitters moved concurrently with the larger unmarked population. Our results have broad implications for field research and suggest that investigators should consider potential for physiological and behavioral effects brought about by tracking equipment. Nonetheless, results from wild ducks indicate satellite telemetry has the potential to provide useful movement data.

  15. 50 CFR 21.52 - Public health control order for resident Canada geese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Public health control order for resident... and Otherwise Injurious Birds § 21.52 Public health control order for resident Canada geese. (a) Which... Canada geese, as defined in § 21.3. (b) What is the public health control order for resident Canada geese...

  16. Aging in Birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travin, D Y; Feniouk, B A

    2016-12-01

    Rodents are the most commonly used model organisms in studies of aging in vertebrates. However, there are species that may suit this role much better. Most birds (Aves), having higher rate of metabolism, live two-to-three times longer than mammals of the same size. This mini-review briefly covers several evolutionary, ecological, and physiological aspects that may contribute to the phenomenon of birds' longevity. The role of different molecular mechanisms known to take part in the process of aging according to various existing theories, e.g. telomere shortening, protection against reactive oxygen species, and formation of advanced glycation end-products is discussed. We also address some features of birds' aging that make this group unique and perspective model organisms in longevity studies.

  17. The use of birds as pets in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roldán-Clarà, Blanca; Toledo, Víctor M; Espejel, Ileana

    2017-06-13

    The use of birds as pets has been a historical tradition in Mexico since prehispanic times. It has survived through bird traders, called pajareros, which is a local name given to the trade (derived from pájaro, the Spanish word for bird). However, the trade of birds has not been sufficiently described; therefore, the goal of this paper is to analyze the bird trade in Mexico using the components of an ethnoecology scheme known as kosmos-corpus-praxis complex. Qualitative research techniques were used, including ethnographic immersion, participative research, and interviews of 79 pajareros in 22 localities in nine Mexican states. The activity of the pajareros occurs within their households, with each member having distinct roles. The roles involved in bird trading are capturing, acclimation, maintenance, and sale. Their assignment depends on gender, age, and residential location (rural or urban). Beyond their households, the pajareros are well organized in trade unions and are represented by a leader, who acts as an intermediate between them and the government officers who are involved in the authorization of federal permits. The pajareros use 96 species of birds, most of which are native to Mexico. Practicing the trade requires highly specific knowledge of the biology, ecology, habitat, nutrition, diseases, and behavior of the birds, as well as the abiotic components of their environment, such as climatology and geography. The cosmovision of pajarero households is embedded in their identity, making them proud of their trade. Our paper provides the first comprehensive description of the pajarero trade, showing evidence of local communitarian management in the places where the wild birds are captured.

  18. Cook Inlet and Kenai Peninsula, Alaska ESI: BIRDS (Bird Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains biological resource data for alcids, shorebirds, waterfowl, diving birds, pelagic birds, gulls and terns in Cook Inlet and Kenai Peninsula,...

  19. Melatonin delays clutch initiation in a wild songbird

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greives, Timothy J.; Kingma, Sjouke A.; Beltrami, Giulia; Hau, Michaela

    2012-01-01

    The hormone melatonin is known to play an important role in regulating many seasonal changes in physiology, morphology and behaviour. In birds, unlike in mammals, melatonin has thus far been thought to play little role in timing seasonal reproductive processes. This view is mainly derived from laboratory experiments on male birds. This study tests whether melatonin is capable of influencing the timing of clutch initiation in wild female songbirds. Free-living female great tits (Parus major) treated with melatonin-filled implants prior to the breeding season initiated their first clutch of the season significantly later than females carrying an empty implant. Melatonin treatment did not affect clutch size. Further, melatonin treatment did not delay the onset of daily activity in the wild nor adversely affect body mass in captivity compared with controls. These data suggest a previously unknown role for this hormone in regulating the timing of clutch initiation in the wild. PMID:22171024

  20. Birds of a feather? Food and agricultural risk governance of avian influenza in different EU Member States

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krom, de M.P.M.M.

    2009-01-01

    From 2005 onwards, highly pathogenic avian influenza (bird flu) spread towards and eventually within Europe via different border-crossing flows, including those of wild birds and agricultural trade. Fear existed that via such movements, the virus would disseminate into and across territorially-based

  1. Wind power and bird kills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raynolds, M.

    1998-01-01

    The accidental killing of birds by wind generators, and design improvements in the towers that support the turbines that might cut down on the bird killings were discussed. The first problem for the industry began in the late 1980s when the California Energy Commission reported as many as 160 birds (the majority being raptors, including the protected golden eagle) killed in one year in the vicinity of wind power plants. The key factor identified was the design of the towers as birds of prey are attracted to lattice towers as a place to hunt from. Tubular towers do not provide a place for the birds to perch, therefore they reduce the potential for bird strikes. Bird strikes also have been reported in Spain and the siting of the towers have been considered as the principal cause of the bird strikes. In view of these incidents, the wind power industry is developing standards for studying the potential of bird strikes and is continuing to study bird behaviour leading to collisions, the impact of topography, cumulative impacts and new techniques to reduce bird strikes. Despite the reported incidents, the risk of bird strikes by wind turbines, compared to other threats to birds such as pollution, oil spills, and other threats from fossil and nuclear fuels, is considered to be negligible. With continuing efforts to minimize incidents by proper design and siting, wind power can continue to grow as an environmentally sound and efficient source of energy

  2. Wind power and bird kills

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raynolds, M.

    1998-12-01

    The accidental killing of birds by wind generators, and design improvements in the towers that support the turbines that might cut down on the bird killings were discussed. The first problem for the industry began in the late 1980s when the California Energy Commission reported as many as 160 birds (the majority being raptors, including the protected golden eagle) killed in one year in the vicinity of wind power plants. The key factor identified was the design of the towers as birds of prey are attracted to lattice towers as a place to hunt from. Tubular towers do not provide a place for the birds to perch, therefore they reduce the potential for bird strikes. Bird strikes also have been reported in Spain and the siting of the towers have been considered as the principal cause of the bird strikes. In view of these incidents, the wind power industry is developing standards for studying the potential of bird strikes and is continuing to study bird behaviour leading to collisions, the impact of topography, cumulative impacts and new techniques to reduce bird strikes. Despite the reported incidents, the risk of bird strikes by wind turbines, compared to other threats to birds such as pollution, oil spills, and other threats from fossil and nuclear fuels, is considered to be negligible. With continuing efforts to minimize incidents by proper design and siting, wind power can continue to grow as an environmentally sound and efficient source of energy.

  3. Occurrence of enteropathogenic bacteria in birds of prey in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gargiulo, A; Fioretti, A; Russo, T P; Varriale, L; Rampa, L; Paone, S; De Luca Bossa, L M; Raia, P; Dipineto, L

    2018-03-01

    The importance of wild birds as potential vectors of disease has received recent renewed empirical interest, especially regarding human health although information regarding the enteropathogenic bacteria in birds of prey continue to be scant. This study was performed with the aim to evaluate the occurrence of enteropathogenic bacteria (i.e. Campylobacter spp. Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp.) in birds of prey carcasses in Southern Italy. The results of the present study showed a prevalence of 33·1% (49/148) for Campylobacter spp. where all positive isolates (49/49) were identified as Campylobacter jejuni, and among these positive 12/49 were also identified as Campylobacter coli. Thus, 12/49 birds of prey showed mixed infections for both Campylobacter species. Differences in Campylobacter spp. prevalence between diurnal and nocturnal birds were statistically significant (P = 0·016). Escherichia coli showed a prevalence of 6·8% (10/148) and were serogrouped as O26 (n = 3), O55 (n = 2), O145 (n = 5). Salmonella spp. showed a prevalence of 6·8% (10/148) and were serotyped as S. Napoli (n = 4), Salmonella salamae (n = 3) and S. Typhimurium (n = 3). Although wildlife disease outbreaks have often been underreported in the broader context of global epidemiology, results of the present study suggest that birds of prey may serve as a reservoir of pathogens for livestock and human health, acting at the animal-human-ecosystem interface. This study confirms the role of birds of prey as a reservoir of enteropathogenic bacteria (i.e. Campylobacter spp., Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp.). Wild birds can contaminate environment with their faeces and play a crucial role in the transmission of pathogens to poultry and livestock farms and aquifers supplying water to humans. Furthermore, wild birds could disseminate pathogens within rescue and rehabilitation centres where they are admitted. © 2017 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  4. Molecular detection of Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum in birds from South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukášová, Radka; Kobédová, Kateřina; Halajian, Ali; Bártová, Eva; Murat, Jean-Benjamin; Rampedi, Kgethedi Michael; Luus-Powell, Wilmien J

    2018-02-01

    There are not any records on the detection of Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum in tissues of wild birds in the African continent. The aim of the study was to investigate the occurrence of DNA from these protozoan parasites in brain tissue samples collected in years 2014-2015 from 110 wild and domestic birds of 15 orders. Birds came mainly from the province of Limpopo (n=103); the other seven birds came from other five provinces of South Africa. Parasite DNAs were detected by PCR in animal brains. While all samples were negative for N. caninum, T. gondii DNA was detected in three (2.7%) birds: a Red-eyed Dove (Streptopelia semitorquata), a Laughing Dove (S. senegalensis) and a Southern-Yellow-billed Hornbill (Tockus leucomelas), all from Limpopo province. Positive samples were selected for genotyping by a 15 microsatellite markers method in a single multiplex PCR assay. Only the sample from the Red-eyed Dove was successfully genotyped and characterized as type II. This is the first detection of T. gondii in tissue of native African wild birds and the first study focusing on N. caninum in birds from South Africa. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. Molecular analysis of faecal samples from birds to identify potential crop pests and useful biocontrol agents in natural areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, R A; Symondson, W O C; Thomas, R J

    2015-06-01

    Wild habitats adjoining farmland are potentially valuable sources of natural enemies, but also of pests. Here we tested the utility of birds as 'sampling devices', to identify the diversity of prey available to predators and particularly to screen for pests and natural enemies using natural ecosystems as refugia. Here we used PCR to amplify prey DNA from three sympatric songbirds foraging on small invertebrates in Phragmites reedbed ecosystems, namely the Reed Warbler (Acrocephalus scirpaceus), Sedge Warbler (Acrocephalus schoenobaenus) and Cetti's Warbler (Cettia cetti). A recently described general invertebrate primer pair was used for the first time to analyse diets. Amplicons were cloned and sequenced, then identified by reference to the Barcoding of Life Database and to our own sequences obtained from fresh invertebrates. Forty-five distinct prey DNA sequences were obtained from 11 faecal samples, of which 39 could be identified to species or genus. Targeting three warbler species ensured that species-specific differences in prey choice broadened the range of prey taken. Amongst the prey found in reedbeds were major pests (including the tomato moth Lacanobia oleracea) as well as many potentially valuable natural enemies including aphidophagous hoverflies and braconid wasps. Given the mobility of birds, this approach provides a practical way of sampling a whole habitat at once, providing growers with information on possible invasion by locally resident pests and the colonization potential of natural enemies from local natural habitats.

  6. Status of wetland birds of Chhilchhila Wildlife Sanctuary, Haryana, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Kumar

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The Chhilchhila Wildlife Sanctuary (76036-76046 E and 29052-30000 N, situated in Kurukshetra District of Haryana provides an important wintering ground for a diverse range of wetland birds. This study was carried out from April 2009 to March 2012 to document the diversity of wetland birds. Altogether 57 species of wetland birds belonging to 37 genera and 16 families were recorded from the study area. Family Anatidae dominated the wetland bird community with 13 species. Among recorded species, 33 were winter migrants, two summer migrants and 22 were resident species. The winter migratory birds did not arrive at this wetland in one lot and at one time. Instead, they displayed a definite pattern specific to species for arrival and departure. They appeared at the wetland during mid-October and stayed up to early April. The composition of birds in major feeding guilds in the study area showed that the insectivore guild was the most common with 35.09% species, followed by carnivore (29.82%, omnivore (19.30%, herbivore (10.53% and piscivore (5.26%. Among the birds recorded in this study area, Darter (Anhinga melanogaster and Painted Stork (Mycterialeucocephala were Near Threatened species. Comb Duck (Sarkidiornismelanotos, listed in Appendix II of CITES, was also spotted in the sanctuary. The spotting of these threatened bird species highlights the importance of Chhilchhila Wildlife Sanctuary as a significant wetland bird habitat in Haryana. However, anthropogenic activities like fire wood collection, livestock grazing, cutting of emergent and fringe vegetation and improper management of the wetland are major threats to the ecology of this landscape.

  7. Europe's last Mesozoic bird

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dyke, Gareth J.; Dortangs, Rudi W.; Jagt, John W.; Mulder, Eric W. A.; Schulp, Anne S.; Chiappe, Luis M.

    2002-01-01

    Birds known from more than isolated skeletal elements are rare in the fossil record, especially from the European Mesozoic. This paucity has hindered interpretations of avian evolution immediately prior to, and in the aftermath of, the Cretaceous-Tertiary (K-T) extinction event. We report on a

  8. The Umbrella Bird

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crandall, Lee S.

    1949-01-01

    When CHARLES CORDIER arrived from Costa Rica on October 9, 1942, bringing with him, among other great rarities, three Bare-necked Umbrella Birds (Cephalopterus ornatus glabricollis), it seemed to us that the mere possession of such fabulous creatures was satisfaction enough. True, they were not

  9. Timber and forest birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brian Roy Lockhart

    2009-01-01

    Many years ago, I had an epiphany that I would like to share. Several students and I were installing research plots in the forests on Pittman Island, Issaquena County, Mississippi, an island adjacent to the Mississippi River, near the borders of Arkansas, Mississippi, and Louisiana. While eating lunch, we watched a bird, more specifically a prothonotary warbler (

  10. Fish, birds and flies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbings, J. C.

    2013-04-01

    The article in your animal physics special issue on the use of magnetic field sensing in bird navigation (November 2012 pp38-42) reminded me of a comment made regarding a paper that I presented in the US many years ago.

  11. Cavity Nesting Birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virgil E. Scott; Keith E. Evans; David R. Patton; Charles P. Stone

    1977-01-01

    Many species of cavity-nesting birds have declined because of habitat reduction. In the eastern United States, where primeval forests are gone, purple martins depend almost entirely on man-made nesting structures (Allen and Nice 1952). The hole-nesting population of peregrine falcons disappeared with the felling of the giant trees upon which they depended (Hickey and...

  12. Eating Like a Bird.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brothers, Chris; Fortner, Rosanne W.

    This teacher guide and student workbook set contains two learning activities, designed for fifth through ninth grade students, that concentrate on the adaptations of shorebird beaks for a variety of habitats and food sources, and the effect of toxic chemicals in the food chain on the birds. In activity A, students discover how shorebirds are…

  13. Breeding Ecology of Birds -22 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    or drive the birds away. However, the droppings of the birds provide a rich source of fertilizer and this ... birds of India are under severe threat and require urgent protection. he~ries'(Box 1), can ... there will be no fish and then suddenly a school.

  14. 14 CFR 33.76 - Bird ingestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... single bird, the single largest medium bird which can enter the inlet, and the large flocking bird must...) (d) Large flocking bird. An engine test will be performed as follows: (1) Large flocking bird engine.... (4) Ingestion of a large flocking bird under the conditions prescribed in this paragraph must not...

  15. Mercury levels in feathers of eagle-owls Bubo bubo in a captive, a reintroduced and a native wild population in SW Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broo, B.; Odsjoe, T.

    1981-01-01

    Mercury levels in feathers are presented for both captive and wild eagle-owls from the period 1963-1976. Levels are compared between wild birds occupying old territories and released birds in newly occupied territories. The wild population in SW Sweden shows decreasing levels in the inland territories, and at present these levels are similar to the natural background level. The coastal owls have significantly higher levels which show no decrease. Low levels prevail in captive eagle-owls, fed on low-contaminted food. Birds in newly occupied territories (mainly released birds) have similar mercury levels as native birds. After being released captive birds therefore seem to accumulate mercury rather quickly. (author)

  16. Bioaccumulation of polonium 210Po in marine birds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skwarzec, B.; Fabisiak, J.

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this work was to determine the 210 Po content in marine birds which permanently or temporally live in the Polish part of the Baltic Sea. We chose 11 species of sea birds: three species permanently residing at southern Baltic Sea, four species of wintering birds and three species of migrating birds. The results show that the polonium is non-uniformly distributed in the marine birds. The highest activities of 210 Po were observed in feathers, muscles and liver and the lowest in skin and skeleton. Species of birds that eat crustaceans, molluscs, fish and plants (long-tailed duck Clangula hyemalis, white-winged scoter Melanitta fusca) accumulated more polonium than species that eat mainly fish (great cormorant Phalacrocorax carbo, common guillemot Uria aalge) or plants (tufted duck Aythya fuligula). Moreover, about 63% of the 210 Po that was located in feathers of razorbil (Alca torda) and long-tailed duck (C. hyemalis) was apparently adsorbed, suggesting an external source such as the air. It means that the adsorption of 210 Po on the feather surface may be an important transfer from air to water

  17. Quantity component of the effectiveness of seed dispersal by birds in the temperate rainforest of Chiloé, Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Salvande, Miguel; Figueroa, Javier A; Armesto, Juan J

    2011-01-01

    The quantity component of the disperser effectiveness of resident birds during the autumn-winter period has not yet been detailed in temperate rainforests of South America. In this study, the potentially frugivorous bird species in the temperate rainforests of southern Chile during the Austral autumn-winter were identified, and the quantity component of the disperser effectiveness of the birds (number of visits and number of seeds dispersed per hour) were evaluated for the tree species Luma a...

  18. H5N1 surveillance in migratory birds in Java, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoops, Arthur C; Barbara, Katie A; Indrawan, Mochamad; Ibrahim, Ima N; Petrus, Wicaksana B; Wijaya, Susan; Farzeli, Arik; Antonjaya, Ungke; Sin, Lim W; Hidayatullah, N; Kristanto, Ige; Tampubolon, A M; Purnama, S; Supriatna, Adam; Burgess, Timothy H; Williams, Maya; Putnam, Shannon D; Tobias, Steve; Blair, Patrick J

    2009-12-01

    We sought to elucidate the role of migratory birds in transmission of H5N1 in an enzoonotic area. Resident, captive, and migratory birds were sampled at five sites in Java, Indonesia. Mist nets were used to trap birds. Birds were identified to species. RNA was extracted from swabs and reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) conducted for the HA and M genes of H5N1. Antibodies were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and hemagglutination inhibition test. Between October 2006 and September 2007, a total of 4,067 captive, resident, and migratory birds comprising 98 species in 23 genera were sampled. The most commonly collected birds were the common sandpiper (6% of total), striated heron (3%), and the domestic chicken (14%). The overall prevalence of H5N1 antibodies was 5.3%. A significantly higher percentage of captive birds (16.1%) showed antibody evidence of H5N1 exposure when compared to migratory or resident birds. The greatest number of seropositive birds in each category were Muschovy duck (captive), striated heron (resident), and the Pacific golden plover (migratory). Seven apparently well captive birds yielded molecular evidence of H5N1 infection. Following amplification, the HA, NA, and M genes were analyzed. Phylogenetic analysis of the HA gene showed that the isolates were 97% similar to EU124153.1 A/chicken/West Java/Garut May 2006, an isolate obtained in a similar region of West Java. While no known markers of neuraminidase inhibitor resistance were found within the NA gene, M segment analysis revealed the V27A mutation known to confer resistance to adamantanes. Our results demonstrate moderate serologic evidence of H5N1 infection in captive birds, sampled in five sites in Java, Indonesia, but only occasional infection in resident and migratory birds. These data imply that in an enzoonotic region of Indonesia the role of migratory birds in transmission of H5N1 is limited.

  19. Risk of Agricultural Practices and Habitat Change to Farmland Birds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Anthony. Kirk

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Many common bird species have declined as a result of agricultural intensification and this could be mitigated by organic farming. We paired sites for habitat and geographical location on organic and nonorganic farms in Ontario, Canada to test a priori predictions of effects on birds overall, 9 guilds and 22 species in relation to candidate models for farming practices (13 variables, local habitat features (12 variables, or habitat features that influence susceptibility to predation. We found that: (1 Overall bird abundance, but not richness, was significantly (p < 0.05 higher on organic sites (mean 43.1 individuals per site than nonorganic sites (35.8 individuals per site. Significantly more species of birds were observed for five guilds, including primary grassland birds, on organic vs. nonorganic sites. No guild had higher richness or abundance on nonorganic farms; (2 Farming practice models were the best (Î"AIC < 4 for abundance of birds overall, primary grassland bird richness, sallier aerial insectivore richness and abundance, and abundance of ground nesters; (3 Habitat models were the best for overall richness, Neotropical migrant abundance, richness and abundance of Ontario-USA-Mexico (short-distance migrants and resident richness; (4 Predation models were the best for richness of secondary grassland birds and ground feeders; (5 A combination of variables from the model types were best for richness or abundance overall, 13 of 18 guilds (richness and abundance and 16 of 22 species analyzed. Five of 10 farming practice variables (including herbicide use, organic farm type and 9 of 13 habitat variables (including hedgerow length, proportion of hay were significant in best models. Risk modeling indicated that herbicide use could decrease primary grassland birds by one species (35% decline from 3.4 to 2.3 species per site. Organic farming could benefit species of conservation concern by 49% (an increase from 7.6 to 11.4 grassland birds. An

  20. 50 CFR 21.51 - Depredation order for resident Canada geese at agricultural facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., BARTER, EXPORTATION, AND IMPORTATION OF WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) MIGRATORY BIRD PERMITS Control of Depredating and Otherwise Injurious Birds § 21.51 Depredation order for resident Canada geese at agricultural..., Montana, Nebraska, New Hampshire, New Mexico, New Jersey, New York, North Carolina, North Dakota, Ohio...

  1. Alien invasive birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brochier, B; Vangeluwe, D; van den Berg, T

    2010-08-01

    A bird species is regarded as alien invasive if it has been introduced, intentionally or accidentally, to a location where it did not previously occur naturally, becomes capable of establishing a breeding population without further intervention by humans, spreads and becomes a pest affecting the environment, the local biodiversity, the economy and/or society, including human health. European Starling (Sturnus vulgaris), Common Myna (Acridotheres tristis) and Red-vented Bulbul (Pycnonotus cafer) have been included on the list of '100 of the World's Worst Invasive Alien Species', a subset of the Global Invasive Species Database. The 'Delivering Alien Invasive Species Inventories for Europe' project has selected Canada Goose (Branta canadensis), Ruddy Duck (Oxyura jamaicensis), Rose-ringed Parakeet (Psittacula krameri) and Sacred Ibis (Threskiornis aethiopicus) as among 100 of the worst invasive species in Europe. For each of these alien bird species, the geographic range (native and introduced range), the introduction pathway, the general impacts and the management methods are presented.

  2. Windmills and birds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moeller, N W; Poulsen, E

    1984-07-01

    The objective of this study is an investigation of potential conflicts between windmills and birds. Emphasis is on frightening, collision risk and biotopic changes due to windmill systems. The study is based on the environment of Koldby and Nibe windmills (South Jutland). Biotopic changes were not observed around the existing windmills. Drainage of mill grounds at Nibe had probably no effect on water level in the area around; a longer observation is necessary to draw any decisive conclusions.(EG).

  3. Detection of Anaplasma sp. phylogenetically related to A. phagocytophilum in a free-living bird in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Claudia Baumel Mongruel

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Wild animals play an important role in carrying vectors that may potentially transmit pathogens. Several reports highlighted the participation of wild animals on the Anaplasma phagocytophilum cycle, including as hosts of the agent. The aim of this study was to report the molecular detection of an agent phylogenetically related to A. phagocytophilum isolated from a wild bird in the Midwest of the state of Paraná, Brazil. Fifteen blood samples were collected from eleven different bird species in the Guarapuava region. One sample collected from a Penelope obscura bird was positive in nested PCR targeting the 16S rRNA gene of Anaplasma spp. The phylogenetic tree based on the Maximum Likelihood analysis showed that the sequence obtained was placed in the same clade with A. phagocytophilum isolated from domestic cats in Brazil. The present study reports the first molecular detection of a phylogenetically related A. phagocytophilum bacterium in a bird from Paraná State.

  4. Wild reindeer of Yakutia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.M. Safronov

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Three major herds of wild reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus L., totaling over 200,000 animals, occur in the tundra and taiga of northern Yakutia. These herds have been expanding since the late 1950s and now occupy most of their historic range. In addition, several thousand wild reindeer occupy the New Siberian Islands and adjacent coastal mainland tundra, and there are about 60,000 largely sedentary forest reindeer in mountainous areas of the southern two-thirds of the province. Wild reindeer are commercially hunted throughout the mainland, and the production of wild meat is an important part of the economy of the province and of individual reindeer enterprises which produce both wild and domestic meat.

  5. Dermal insecticide residues from birds inhabiting an orchard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyas, N.B.; Spann, J.W.; Hulse, C.S.; Gentry, S.; Borges, S.L.

    2007-01-01

    The US Environmental Protection Agency conducts risk assessments of insecticide applications to wild birds using a model that is limited to the dietary route of exposure. However, free-flying birds are also exposed to insecticides via the inhalation and dermal routes. We measured azinphos-methyl residues on the skin plus feathers and the feet of brown-headed cowbirds (Molothrus ater) in order to quantify dermal exposure to songbirds that entered and inhabited an apple (Malus x domestica) orchard following an insecticide application. Exposure to azinphos-methyl was measured by sampling birds from an aviary that was built around an apple tree. Birds sampled at 36 h and 7-day post-application were placed in the aviary within 1 h after the application whereas birds exposed for 3 days were released into the aviary 4-day post-application. Residues on vegetation and soil were also measured. Azinphos-methyl residues were detected from the skin plus feathers and the feet from all exposure periods. Our results underscore the importance of incorporating dermal exposure into avian pesticide risk assessments.

  6. The North Sea Bird Club

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doyle, P.A.T.; Gorman, M.L.; Patterson, I.J.; Howe, S.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that the creation of a club for the purpose of encouraging oil and gas workers to watch birds may not at first seem a viable proposition. To the layperson, birds offshore conjures up an image of hundreds of seagulls following fishing boats, and very little else. Also, the act of birdwatching is not seen as a typical offshore worker's activity. Anyone who has worked on an installation offshore and who has any interest in wildlife will be aware of the occasional presence of land-birds. Two decades ago, prompted by some keen offshore workers, a single oil company set up a monitoring program, which quickly became popular with a number of its employees. Birds seem offshore were recorded on data forms and collected together. At this stage the club was purely another recreation facility; however, when the data were collated it was soon realized that installations offshore were being used as staging posts by birds on migration, and that the information being collected would be of great interest in the study of bird movements. All over Britain, at strategic points on the coastline, there are bird observatories which record the arrival and departure of migrating birds. The presence of several hundred solid structures up and down the North Sea, which are used by birds en route, represents a huge, unique bird observatory, capable of uncovering facts about bird migration which have long eluded land-based scientists. Eleven years ago, the North Sea Bird Club began, composed of eight member companies, a recorder from Aberdeen University and a representative from the Nature Conservancy Council. The club received data from 41 installations, and the recorder collated these on Aberdeen University's computer and produced an annual report of sightings

  7. Residency Allocation Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — The Residency Allocation Database is used to determine allocation of funds for residency programs offered by Veterans Affairs Medical Centers (VAMCs). Information...

  8. Rhode Island, Connecticut, New York, and New Jersey ESI: BIRDS (Bird Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for wading birds, shorebirds, waterfowl, raptors, diving birds, pelagic birds, passerine birds, gulls and...

  9. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: Upper Coast of Texas: BIRDS (Bird Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for diving birds, gulls, terns, passerine birds, pelagic birds, raptors, shorebirds, wading birds,...

  10. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: South Florida: BIRDS (Bird Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for diving birds, gulls, terns, passerine birds, pelagic birds, raptors, shorebirds, wading birds, and...

  11. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: Central California: BIRDS (Bird Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for alcids, diving birds, gulls, terns, passerine birds, pelagic birds, raptors, shorebirds, wading birds,...

  12. Genetic relatedness among wild, domestic and Brazilian fighting roosters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FP Rodrigues

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Except for the meat- and egg-type strains used in commercial poultry farms in Brazil, there are no scientific reports about the origin of birds from the genus Gallus that have been introduced in this country with domestication or fighting purposes. Therefore, the aim of this study was to identify the position of the Brazilian Game Bird in the phylogenetic tree of the genus Gallus by nucleotide sequence analysis of the mitochondrial DNA D-loop region. The results indicate that fighting roosters comprise two different clusters within the species Gallus gallus domesticus. One of the clusters is related to the wild ancestors, while the other one is more related to the birds raised by the poultry industry. In conclusion, Brazilian fighting roosters have originated from the red jungle fowl (Gallus gallus and belong to the subspecies Gallus gallus domesticus.

  13. The grain-eating birds of Sub-Saharan Africa: Identification, biology and management

    OpenAIRE

    Allan, R.

    1996-01-01

    Birds are not normally viewed as pests but, in the case of cereals and soft fruit, both resident and migrant species can cause significant losses. In sub-Saharan Africa, the expansion of the area under cereal crops, especially in displacing the normal food plants of the grain-eating birds, has exacerbated the problem and rendered ineffective many traditional me.t_hods of crop protection. Environmental considerations mean that management strategies must now be tackled at the government and com...

  14. Wild and Scenic Rivers

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This map layer portrays the linear federally-owned land features (i.e., national parkways, wild and scenic rivers, etc.) of the United States, Puerto Rico, and the...

  15. Wild rufous hummingbirds use local landmarks to return to rewarded locations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pritchard, David J; Scott, Renee D; Healy, Susan D; Hurly, Andrew T

    2016-01-01

    Animals may remember an important location with reference to one or more visual landmarks. In the laboratory, birds and mammals often preferentially use landmarks near a goal ("local landmarks") to return to that location at a later date. Although we know very little about how animals in the wild use landmarks to remember locations, mammals in the wild appear to prefer to use distant landmarks to return to rewarded locations. To examine what cues wild birds use when returning to a goal, we trained free-living hummingbirds to search for a reward at a location that was specified by three nearby visual landmarks. Following training we expanded the landmark array to test the extent that the birds relied on the local landmarks to return to the reward. During the test the hummingbirds' search was best explained by the birds having used the experimental landmarks to remember the reward location. How the birds used the landmarks was not clear and seemed to change over the course of each test. These wild hummingbirds, then, can learn locations in reference to nearby visual landmarks. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Thermal characteristics of wild and captive Micronesian Kingfisher nesting habitats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesler, Dylan C.; Haig, Susan M.

    2004-01-01

    To provide information for managing the captive population of endangered Guam Micronesian kingfishers (Halcyon cinnamomina cinnamomina), four biologically relevant thermal metrics were compared among captive facilities on the United States mainland and habitats used by wild Micronesian kingfishers on the island of Pohnpei (H. c. reichenbachii), Federated States of Micronesia. Additionally, aviaries where kingfishers laid eggs were compared to those in which birds did not attempt to breed. Compared to aviaries, habitats used by wild Pohnpei kingfishers had 3.2A?C higher daily maximum and minimum temperatures and the proportion of time when temperatures were in the birds' thermoneutral zone was 45% greater. No differences were found in the magnitude of temperature fluctuation in captive and wild environments. In captive environments in which birds bred, daily maximum temperatures were 2.1A?C higher and temperatures were within the thermoneutral zone 25% more often than in the aviaries where the kingfishers did not breed. No differences were found in the magnitude of temperature fluctuation or the daily minimum temperature. Results suggest that the thermal environment has the potential to influence reproduction, and that consideration should be given to increasing temperatures in captive breeding facilities to improve propagation of the endangered Micronesian kingfisher.

  17. Wild mallards have more "goose-like" bills than their ancestors: a case of anthropogenic influence?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pär Söderquist

    Full Text Available Wild populations of the world's most common dabbling duck, the mallard (Anas platyrhynchos, run the risk of genetic introgression by farmed conspecifics released for hunting purposes. We tested whether bill morphology of free-living birds has changed since large-scale releases of farmed mallards started. Three groups of mallards from Sweden, Norway and Finland were compared: historical wild (before large-scale releases started, present-day wild, and present-day farmed. Higher density of bill lamellae was observed in historical wild mallards (only males. Farmed mallards had wider bills than present-day and historical wild ones. Present-day wild and farmed mallards also had higher and shorter bills than historical wild mallards. Present-day mallards thus tend to have more "goose-like" bills (wider, higher, and shorter than their ancestors. Our study suggests that surviving released mallards affect morphological traits in wild population by introgression. We discuss how such anthropogenic impact may lead to a maladapted and genetically compromised wild mallard population. Our study system has bearing on other taxa where large-scale releases of conspecifics with 'alien genes' may cause a cryptic invasive process that nevertheless has fitness consequences for individual birds.

  18. Facultative parthenogenesis discovered in wild vertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, Warren; Smith, Charles F; Eskridge, Pamela H; Hoss, Shannon K; Mendelson, Joseph R; Schuett, Gordon W

    2012-12-23

    Facultative parthenogenesis (FP)-asexual reproduction by bisexual species-has been documented in a variety of multi-cellular organisms but only recently in snakes, varanid lizards, birds and sharks. Unlike the approximately 80 taxa of unisexual reptiles, amphibians and fishes that exist in nature, FP has yet to be documented in the wild. Based on captive documentation, it appears that FP is widespread in squamate reptiles (snakes, lizards and amphisbaenians), and its occurrence in nature seems inevitable, yet the task of detecting FP in wild individuals has been deemed formidable. Here we show, using microsatellite DNA genotyping and litter characteristics, the first cases of FP in wild-collected pregnant females and their offspring of two closely related species of North American pitviper snakes-the copperhead (Agkistrodon contortrix) and cottonmouth (Agkistrodon piscivorus). Our findings support the view that non-hybrid origins of parthenogenesis, such as FP, are more common in squamates than previously thought. With this confirmation, FP can no longer be viewed as a rare curiosity outside the mainstream of vertebrate evolution. Future research on FP in squamate reptiles related to proximate control of induction, reproductive competence of parthenogens and population genetics modelling is warranted.

  19. Birds of Puerto Interior Turístico Jocotepec in Lake Chapala, Jalisco, México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Carlo Cuevas

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Lake Chapala is the largest lake in Mexico. It is an area of interest for biological conservation, designated as a Ramsar site and recognized as an Important Bird Conservation Area for Mexico (aica 58. The wetlands of Jalisco are of high importance for bird conservation; however, there are few studies about the birds of Lake Chapala. We studied bird community in the Puerto Interior Turistico Jocotepec, an urban park of Lake Chapala. We conducted our study from April 2015 to March 2016. We registered 100 bird species of 14 orders and 34 families. Sixty-nine percent of birds are residents, 30% are winter visitors, and 1% are transient. Also, we compared species richness and composition between our results and other studies from the state of Jalisco. We highlight the presence of Rallus longirostris, a resident and endemic species to central-western Mexico, which has the highest vulnerability value. We highlight the biological importance of the urban park and we suggest increasing the number of bird research in Lake Chapala.

  20. Resumes of the Bird mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenz, E.; Borwald, W.; Briess, K.; Kayal, H.; Schneller, M.; Wuensten, Herbert

    2004-11-01

    The DLR micro satellite BIRD (Bi-spectral Infra Red Detection) was piggy- back launched with the Indian Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle PSLV-C3 into a 570 km circular sun-synchronous orbit on 22 October 2001. The BIRD mission, fully funded by the DLR, answers topical technological and scientific questions related to the operation of a compact infra- red push-broom sensor system on board of a micro satellite and demonstrates new spacecraft bus technologies. BIRD mission control is conducted by DLR / GSOC in Oberpfaffenhofen. Commanding, data reception and data processing is performed via ground stations in Weilheim and Neustrelitz (Germany). The BIRD mission is a demonstrator for small satellite projects dedicated to the hazard detection and monitoring. In the year 2003 BIRD has been used in the ESA project FUEGOSAT to demonstrate the utilisation of innovative space technologies for fire risk management.

  1. Identification of Gene Resistance to Avian InfluenzaVirus (Mx Gene among Wild Waterbirds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dewi Elfidasari

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The Mx gene is an antiviral gene used to determine the resistance or the susceptibility to different types of viruses, including the Avian Influenza (AI virus subtype H5N1. The AI virus subtype H5N1 infection in chickens causes Mx gene polymorphism. The Mx+ gene shows resistant to the AIvirus subtype H5N1, whereas the Mx-gene shows signs of susceptible. The objective of thisresearch was to detect the Mxgene in wild aquatic birds using the Polymerase Chain Reaction Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (PCR-RFLP method with the primer pairs F2 and NE-R2/R and the RsaI restriction enzyme. DNA samples were obtained from eight species of wild waterbirds with positive and negative exposure to the AI virus subtype H5N1. DNA amplification results showed that the Mxgene in wild aquatic birds is found in a 100 bp fragment, which is the same as the Mx gene found in chickens. However, unlike chickens, the Mxgene in wild aquatic birds did not show any polymorphism. This study proves that Mx- based resistance to AI virus subtype H5N1 in different in wild birds than in chickens.

  2. 50 CFR 21.50 - Depredation order for resident Canada geese nests and eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... geese nests and eggs. 21.50 Section 21.50 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE... and Otherwise Injurious Birds § 21.50 Depredation order for resident Canada geese nests and eggs. (a... nests and eggs, and what is its purpose? The nest and egg depredation order for resident Canada geese...

  3. Unzipping bird feathers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovalev, Alexander; Filippov, Alexander E; Gorb, Stanislav N

    2014-03-06

    The bird feather vane can be separated into two parts by pulling the barbs apart. The original state can be re-established easily by lightly stroking through the feather. Hooklets responsible for holding vane barbs together are not damaged by multiple zipping and unzipping cycles. Because numerous microhooks keep the integrity of the feather, their properties are of great interest for understanding mechanics of the entire feather structure. This study was undertaken to estimate the separation force of single hooklets and their arrays using force measurement of an unzipping feather vane. The hooklets usually separate in some number synchronously (20 on average) with the highest observed separation force of 1.74 mN (average force 0.27 mN), whereas the single hooklet separation force was 14 μN. A simple numerical model was suggested for a better understanding of zipping and unzipping behaviour in feathers. The model demonstrates features similar to those observed in experiments.

  4. Tracking migrating birds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willemoes, Mikkel

    habitats with those in rural habitats. Some species have decreased the frequency of migrants and migration distance in urban environments, and others have not. The other manuscript describes the small scale movements of three different Palaearctic migrants during winter in Africa in a farmland habitat....... In another species, environmental conditions are not a good predictor of movements, and possibly effects of timing constraints or food type play a role. Two manuscripts focus on the effects of human-induced habitat alterations on migratory behaviour. One compares the movements of partial migrants in urban...... and a forest reserve. In the degraded habitat all species used more space, although the consequence on bird density is less clear. Two manuscripts relate the migratory movements of a long-distance migrant with models of navigation. One compares model predictions obtained by simulation with actual movements...

  5. Antimicrobial Susceptibility and Genotypic Characteristic of Campylobacter spp. Isolates from Free-Living Birds in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krawiec, Marta; Woźniak-Biel, Anna; Bednarski, Michał; Wieliczko, Alina

    2017-11-01

    Campylobacter spp. is the most commonly reported, bacterial cause of human foodborne infection worldwide. Commercial poultry and free-living birds are natural reservoirs of three particular species: Campylobacter jejuni, Campylobacter coli, and Campylobacter lari. The aim of this study was to determine the genotypic characteristics and antibiotic susceptibility of 43 Campylobacter strains, obtained from free-living birds, in Poland. In total, 700 birds were examined. The strains were isolated from 43 birds (6.14%) from the feces of 7 wild bird species: Mallard ducks Anas platyrhynchos (29 positive/121 tested), great cormorants Phalacrocorax carbo (5/77), velvet scoters Melanitta fusca (4/30), tawny owls Strix aluco (2/5), common buzzard Buteo buteo (1/3), rook Corvus frugilegus (1/6), and Eurasian tree sparrow Passer montanus (1/30). Thirty-eight (88.37%) of obtained strains belonged to C. jejuni and five (11.63%) to C. coli. Other 428 examined birds from different bird species were Campylobacter negative. The antimicrobial susceptibility to nine antimicrobials was also studied in investigated isolates of Campylobacter spp. Sixteen of the examined strains (37.21% of all positive samples) showed susceptibility to all of the nine antimicrobials. Moreover, the prevalence of selected virulence genes, such as flaA, cadF, ceuE, virB11, cdtA, cdtB, and cdtC were all analyzed. The virulence gene that was found most frequently in total number of Campylobacter strains was ceuE (72.10%) and other genes, such as flaA, cadF, cdtA, cdtB, and cdtC, were found in over 60% of all examined strains. Variable antimicrobial susceptibility and the presence of different virulence genes of examined strains, isolated from free-living birds, suggest that special attention should be given to wild birds and any potential approaches to the control of antibiotic-resistant Campylobacter should be discussed.

  6. The Strategy to Survive Primary Malaria Infection: An Experimental Study on Behavioural Changes in Parasitized Birds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrey Mukhin

    Full Text Available Avian malaria parasites (Haemosporida, Plasmodium are of cosmopolitan distribution, and they have a significant impact on vertebrate host fitness. Experimental studies show that high parasitemia often develops during primary malaria infections. However, field studies only occasionally reveal high parasitemia in free-living birds sampled using the traditional methods of mist-netting or trapping, and light chronic infections predominate. The reason for this discrepancy between field observation and experimental data remains insufficiently understood. Since mist-netting is a passive capture method, two main parameters determine its success in sampling infected birds in wildlife, i. e. the presence of parasitized birds at a study site and their mobility. In other words, the trapping probability depends on the survival rate of birds and their locomotor activity during infection. Here we test (1 the mortality rate of wild birds infected with Plasmodium relictum (the lineage pSGS1, (2 the changes in their behaviour during presence of an aerial predator, and (3 the changes in their locomotor activity at the stage of high primary parasitemia.We show that some behavioural features which might affect a bird's survival during a predator attack (time of reaction, speed of flush flight and take off angle did not change significantly during primary infection. However, the locomotor activity of infected birds was almost halved compared to control (non-infected birds during the peak of parasitemia. We report (1 the markedly reduced mobility and (2 the 20% mortality rate caused by P. relictum and conclude that these factors are responsible for the underrepresentation of birds in mist nets and traps during the stage of high primary parasitemia in wildlife. This study indicates that the widespread parasite, P. relictum (pSGS1 influences the behaviour of birds during primary parasitemia. Experimental studies combined with field observations are needed to better

  7. The Strategy to Survive Primary Malaria Infection: An Experimental Study on Behavioural Changes in Parasitized Birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhin, Andrey; Palinauskas, Vaidas; Platonova, Elena; Kobylkov, Dmitry; Vakoliuk, Irina; Valkiūnas, Gediminas

    2016-01-01

    Avian malaria parasites (Haemosporida, Plasmodium) are of cosmopolitan distribution, and they have a significant impact on vertebrate host fitness. Experimental studies show that high parasitemia often develops during primary malaria infections. However, field studies only occasionally reveal high parasitemia in free-living birds sampled using the traditional methods of mist-netting or trapping, and light chronic infections predominate. The reason for this discrepancy between field observation and experimental data remains insufficiently understood. Since mist-netting is a passive capture method, two main parameters determine its success in sampling infected birds in wildlife, i. e. the presence of parasitized birds at a study site and their mobility. In other words, the trapping probability depends on the survival rate of birds and their locomotor activity during infection. Here we test (1) the mortality rate of wild birds infected with Plasmodium relictum (the lineage pSGS1), (2) the changes in their behaviour during presence of an aerial predator, and (3) the changes in their locomotor activity at the stage of high primary parasitemia.We show that some behavioural features which might affect a bird's survival during a predator attack (time of reaction, speed of flush flight and take off angle) did not change significantly during primary infection. However, the locomotor activity of infected birds was almost halved compared to control (non-infected) birds during the peak of parasitemia. We report (1) the markedly reduced mobility and (2) the 20% mortality rate caused by P. relictum and conclude that these factors are responsible for the underrepresentation of birds in mist nets and traps during the stage of high primary parasitemia in wildlife. This study indicates that the widespread parasite, P. relictum (pSGS1) influences the behaviour of birds during primary parasitemia. Experimental studies combined with field observations are needed to better understand the

  8. Characterization of Clostridium perfringens isolated from mammals and birds from Guwahati city, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mafruza S Rahman

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Of the 102 samples collected from mammals and birds, both domestic and captive wild, 48 were found to be positive for Clostridium perfringens. Most of the mammal isolates (84.38% appeared to have been collected from clinically affected animals, while 33.33% of the bird samples were from clinically affected and 21.43% from apparently healthy birds infected with C. perfringens. Isolates revealed high sensitivity to ciprofloxacin, enrofloxacin and norfloxacin. Among the isolated C. perfringens, 30 (62.50% showed DNase production. Hemolytic activity was recorded in 14 (24.16% of the isolates and 28 (58.33% showed phospholipase C production. All the phospholipase C positive isolates revealed the presence of cpa gene encoding alpha (α toxin. Of the 102 samples collected from mammals and birds, both domestic and captive wild, 48 were found to be positive for Clostridium perfringens. Most of the mammal isolates (84.38% appeared to have been collected from clinically affected animals, while 33.33% of the bird samples were from clinically affected and 21.43% from apparently healthy birds infected with C. perfringens. Isolates revealed high sensitivity to ciprofloxacin, enrofloxacin and norfloxacin. Among the isolated C. perfringens, 30 (62.50% showed DNase production. Hemolytic activity was recorded in 14 (24.16% of the isolates and 28 (58.33% showed phospholipase C production. All the phospholipase C positive isolates revealed the presence of cpa gene encoding α toxin.

  9. Bird on a (live) wire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farr, M.

    2003-09-30

    Bird mortality as a result of contact with power lines is discussed. U. S. statistics are cited, according to which 174 million birds annually die as a result of contact with power lines, specifically when birds touch two phases of current at the same time. Raptors are particularly vulnerable to power-line electrocution due to their habit of perching on the highest vantage point available as they survey the ground for prey. Hydro lines located in agricultural areas, with bodies of water on one side and fields on the other, also obstruct flight of waterfowl as dusk and dawn when visibility is low. Various solutions designed to minimize the danger to birds are discussed. Among these are: changing the configuration of wires and cross arms to make them more visible to birds in flight and less tempting as perches, and adding simple wire markers such as flags, balloons, and coloured luminescent clips that flap and twirl in the wind. There is no evidence of any coordinated effort to deal with this problem in Ontario. However, a report is being prepared for submission to Environment Canada outlining risks to birds associated with the growing number of wind turbine power generators (negligible compared with power lines and communications towers), and offering suggestions on remedial measures. The Fatal Light Awareness Program (FLAP) also plans to lobby the Canadian Wildlife Service to discuss the possibility of coordinating efforts to monitor, educate about and ultimately reduce this form of bird mortality.

  10. Bristol Bay, Alaska Subarea ESI: BIRDS (Bird Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for shorebirds, waterfowl, raptors, diving birds, and seabirds in the Bristol Bay Subarea. The Subarea...

  11. Predictive framework for estimating exposure of birds to pharmaceuticals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bean, Thomas G; Arnold, Kathryn E; Lane, Julie M; Bergström, Ed; Thomas-Oates, Jane; Rattner, Barnett A; Boxall, Alistair B A

    2017-09-01

    We present and evaluate a framework for estimating concentrations of pharmaceuticals over time in wildlife feeding at wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). The framework is composed of a series of predictive steps involving the estimation of pharmaceutical concentration in wastewater, accumulation into wildlife food items, and uptake by wildlife with subsequent distribution into, and elimination from, tissues. Because many pharmacokinetic parameters for wildlife are unavailable for the majority of drugs in use, a read-across approach was employed using either rodent or human data on absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion. Comparison of the different steps in the framework against experimental data for the scenario where birds are feeding on a WWTP contaminated with fluoxetine showed that estimated concentrations in wastewater treatment works were lower than measured concentrations; concentrations in food could be reasonably estimated if experimental bioaccumulation data are available; and read-across from rodent data worked better than human to bird read-across. The framework provides adequate predictions of plasma concentrations and of elimination behavior in birds but yields poor predictions of distribution in tissues. The approach holds promise, but it is important that we improve our understanding of the physiological similarities and differences between wild birds and domesticated laboratory mammals used in pharmaceutical efficacy/safety trials, so that the wealth of data available can be applied more effectively in ecological risk assessments. Environ Toxicol Chem 2017;36:2335-2344. © 2017 SETAC. © 2017 SETAC.

  12. Predictive framework for estimating exposure of birds to pharmaceuticals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bean, Thomas G.; Arnold, Kathryn E.; Lane, Julie M.; Bergström, Ed; Thomas-Oates, Jane; Rattner, Barnett A.; Boxall, Allistair B.A.

    2017-01-01

    We present and evaluate a framework for estimating concentrations of pharmaceuticals over time in wildlife feeding at wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). The framework is composed of a series of predictive steps involving the estimation of pharmaceutical concentration in wastewater, accumulation into wildlife food items, and uptake by wildlife with subsequent distribution into, and elimination from, tissues. Because many pharmacokinetic parameters for wildlife are unavailable for the majority of drugs in use, a read-across approach was employed using either rodent or human data on absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion. Comparison of the different steps in the framework against experimental data for the scenario where birds are feeding on a WWTP contaminated with fluoxetine showed that estimated concentrations in wastewater treatment works were lower than measured concentrations; concentrations in food could be reasonably estimated if experimental bioaccumulation data are available; and read-across from rodent data worked better than human to bird read-across. The framework provides adequate predictions of plasma concentrations and of elimination behavior in birds but yields poor predictions of distribution in tissues. The approach holds promise, but it is important that we improve our understanding of the physiological similarities and differences between wild birds and domesticated laboratory mammals used in pharmaceutical efficacy/safety trials, so that the wealth of data available can be applied more effectively in ecological risk assessments.

  13. Birds of the Mongol Empire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugene N. Anderson

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The Mongol Empire, the largest contiguous empire the world has ever known, had, among other things, a goodly number of falconers, poultry raisers, birdcatchers, cooks, and other experts on various aspects of birding. We have records of this, largely in the Yinshan Zhengyao, the court nutrition manual of the Mongol empire in China (the Yuan Dynasty. It discusses in some detail 22 bird taxa, from swans to chickens. The Huihui Yaofang, a medical encyclopedia, lists ten taxa used medicinally. Marco Polo also made notes on Mongol bird use. There are a few other records. This allows us to draw conclusions about Mongol ornithology, which apparently was sophisticated and detailed.

  14. Adaptive temperature regulation in the little bird in winter: predictions from a stochastic dynamic programming model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodin, Anders; Nilsson, Jan-Åke; Nord, Andreas

    2017-09-01

    Several species of small birds are resident in boreal forests where environmental temperatures can be -20 to -30 °C, or even lower, in winter. As winter days are short, and food is scarce, winter survival is a challenge for small endothermic animals. A bird of this size will have to gain almost 10% of its lean body mass in fat every day to sustain overnight metabolism. Birds such as parids (titmice and chickadees) can use facultative hypothermia, a process in which body temperature is actively down-regulated to a specific level, to reduce heat loss and thus save energy. During cold winter nights, these birds may decrease body temperature from the normal from 42 ° down to 35 °C, or even lower in some species. However, birds are unable to move in this deep hypothermic state, making it a risky strategy if predators are around. Why, then, do small northern birds enter a potentially dangerous physiological state for a relatively small reduction in energy expenditure? We used stochastic dynamic programming to investigate this. Our model suggests that the use of nocturnal hypothermia at night is paramount in these biomes, as it would increase winter survival for a small northern bird by 58% over a winter of 100 days. Our model also explains the phenomenon known as winter fattening, and its relationship to thermoregulation, in northern birds.

  15. Magnitude and correlates of bird collisions at glass bus shelters in an urban landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, Christine M; Riding, Corey S; Loss, Scott R

    2017-01-01

    Wildlife residing in urban landscapes face many human-related threats to their survival. For birds, collision with glass on manmade structures has been identified as a major hazard, causing hundreds of millions of avian fatalities in North America every year. Although research has investigated factors associated with bird-glass collision mortality at buildings, no prior studies have focused on bird fatalities at glass-walled bus shelters. Our objectives in this study were to describe the magnitude of bird-bus shelter collisions in the city of Stillwater, Oklahoma and assess potential predictors of collision risk, including characteristics of shelters (glass area) and surrounding land cover (e.g., vegetative features). We surveyed for bird carcasses and indirect collision evidence at 18 bus shelters over a five-month period. Linear regression and model selection results revealed that the amount of glass on shelters and the area of lawn within 50 m of shelters were both positively related to fatal bird collisions; glass area was also positively associated with observations of collision evidence on glass surfaces. After accounting for scavenger removal of carcasses, we estimate that a minimum of 34 birds are killed each year between May and September by collision with the 36 bus shelters in the city of Stillwater. While our study provides an initial look at bird fatalities at bus shelters, additional research is needed to generate a large-scale estimate of collision mortality and to assess species composition of fatalities at a national scale. Designing new bus shelters to include less glass and retrofitting existing shelters to increase visibility of glass to birds will likely reduce fatal bird collisions at bus shelters and thus reduce the cumulative magnitude of anthropogenic impacts to birds in cities.

  16. Genetic Structure and Antimicrobial Resistance of Escherichia coli and Cryptic Clades in Birds with Diverse Human Associations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blyton, Michaela D J; Pi, Hongfei; Vangchhia, Belinda; Abraham, Sam; Trott, Darren J; Johnson, James R; Gordon, David M

    2015-08-01

    The manner and extent to which birds associate with humans may influence the genetic attributes and antimicrobial resistance of their commensal Escherichia communities through strain transmission and altered selection pressures. In this study, we determined whether the distribution of the different Escherichia coli phylogenetic groups and cryptic clades, the occurrence of 49 virulence associated genes, and/or the prevalence of resistance to 12 antimicrobials differed between four groups of birds from Australia with contrasting types of human association. We found that birds sampled in suburban and wilderness areas had similar Escherichia communities. The Escherichia communities of backyard domestic poultry were phylogenetically distinct from the Escherichia communities sourced from all other birds, with a large proportion (46%) of poultry strains belonging to phylogenetic group A and a significant minority (17%) belonging to the cryptic clades. Wild birds sampled from veterinary and wildlife rehabilitation centers (in-care birds) carried Escherichia isolates that possessed particular virulence-associated genes more often than Escherichia isolates from birds sampled in suburban and wilderness areas. The Escherichia isolates from both the backyard poultry and in-care birds were more likely to be multidrug resistant than the Escherichia isolates from wild birds. We also detected a multidrug-resistant E. coli strain circulating in a wildlife rehabilitation center, reinforcing the importance of adequate hygiene practices when handling and caring for wildlife. We suggest that the relatively high frequency of antimicrobial resistance in the in-care birds and backyard poultry is due primarily to the use of antimicrobials in these animals, and we recommend that the treatment protocols used for these birds be reviewed. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  17. Resident Characteristics Report

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — The Resident Characteristics Report summarizes general information about households who reside in Public Housing, or who receive Section 8 assistance. The report...

  18. 21 CFR 1240.65 - Psittacine birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Psittacine birds. 1240.65 Section 1240.65 Food and... DISEASES Specific Administrative Decisions Regarding Interstate Shipments § 1240.65 Psittacine birds. (a) The term psittacine birds shall include all birds commonly known as parrots, Amazons, Mexican double...

  19. Robird : a robotic bird of prey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Folkertsma, Gerrit Adriaan; Straatman, Wessel; Nijenhuis, Nico; Venner, Cornelis H.; Stramigioli, Stefano

    2017-01-01

    Ever since the start of aviation, birds and airplanes have posed a mutual risk: Birds are killed when struck by aircraft, but, in return, bird strikes cause billions in damage to the aviation industry. Airports employ bird-control methods such as audiovisual deterrents (like scarecrows, lasers, and

  20. 'WORLD OF BIRDS' WILDLIFE SANCTUARY

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The development and activities of the 'World of Birds' Wildlife. Sanctuary, near Cape Town, are .... For the time being the benefit for school outings will be mainly visual ... feed, sing, display, build nests, incubate, feed chicks - and even fight.

  1. William Wilde: Historian.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geary, L

    2016-05-01

    This essay attempts to assess William Wilde as a social historian. It examines some of his contributions to the discipline of history and looks particularly at 'The food of the Irish', which was published in the Dublin University Magazine in February 1854.

  2. Wild ideas in food

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Münke, Christopher; Halloran, Afton Marina Szasz; Vantomme, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Foraging for all manner of wild plants, animals and fungi and their products makes up part of the traditional diets of approximately 300 million worldwide (Bharucha and Pretty, 2010). Furthermore, their relevance in the global food supply is often underestimated, as policies and statistics...

  3. Diseases of wild rice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diseases are much more pronounced in cultivated wild rice than in natural stands, most likely due to the narrower genetic base of the populations, plant stress due to high planting density and floodwater removal prior to harvest, and high relative humidity in the plant canopy. Yield losses occur as ...

  4. Into the urban wild

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mollee, Eefke Maria; Pouliot, Mariéve; McDonald, Morag A.

    2017-01-01

    In sub-Saharan Africa, many people depend on natural resources for their livelihoods. While urbanisation causes landscape changes, little is known of how this process affects the use of wild plant resources by urban populations. This study contributes to addressing this knowledge gap by exploring...

  5. Wild grapevine management

    Science.gov (United States)

    H. Clay Smith

    1989-01-01

    Wild grapevines are a problem for forest managers in many areas of the central hardwood forests. The vines grow on a wide range of soil and site conditions but usually are more concentrated on good sites (northern red oak site index 70 and above), on the faster growing more valuable timber. Presently there is more interest and concern in controlling grapevine for the...

  6. Birds of the Mongol Empire

    OpenAIRE

    Eugene N. Anderson

    2016-01-01

    The Mongol Empire, the largest contiguous empire the world has ever known, had, among other things, a goodly number of falconers, poultry raisers, birdcatchers, cooks, and other experts on various aspects of birding. We have records of this, largely in the Yinshan Zhengyao, the court nutrition manual of the Mongol empire in China (the Yuan Dynasty). It discusses in some detail 22 bird taxa, from swans to chickens. The Huihui Yaofang, a medical encyclopedia, lists ten taxa used medicinally. Ma...

  7. 78 FR 53217 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations on Certain Federal Indian Reservations...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-28

    ..., and by what means such birds or any part, nest, or egg thereof may be taken, hunted, captured, killed... Service 50 CFR Part 20 Migratory Bird Hunting; Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations on Certain Federal...-FXMB1231099BPP0] RIN 1018-AY87 Migratory Bird Hunting; Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations on Certain Federal...

  8. 76 FR 19875 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Proposed 2011-12 Migratory Game Bird Hunting Regulations (Preliminary...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-08

    ..., carriage, or export of any * * * bird, or any part, nest, or egg'' of migratory game birds can take place... 50 CFR Part 20 Migratory Bird Hunting; Proposed 2011-12 Migratory Game Bird Hunting Regulations (Preliminary) With Requests for Indian Tribal Proposals and Requests for 2013 Spring and Summer Migratory Bird...

  9. Radiocesium in migratory aquatic game birds using contaminated U.S. Department of Energy reactor-cooling reservoirs: A long-term perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennamer, Robert A; Oldenkamp, Ricki E; Leaphart, James C; King, Joshua D; Bryan, A Lawrence; Beasley, James C

    2017-05-01

    Low-level releases of radiocesium into former nuclear reactor cooling-reservoirs on the U.S. Department of Energy's Savannah River Site (SRS) in South Carolina, USA, dating primarily to the late 1950s and early 1960s, have allowed examination of long-term contaminant attenuation in biota occupying these habitats. Periodic collections of migratory game birds since the 1970s have documented 137 Cs (radiocesium) activity concentrations in birds of SRS reservoirs, including mainly Par Pond and Pond B. In this study, during 2014 and 2015 we released wild-caught American coots (Fulica americana) and ring-necked ducks (Aythya collaris) onto Pond B. We made lethal collections of these same birds with residence times ranging from 32 to 173 days to examine radiocesium uptake and estimate the rate of natural attenuation. The two species achieved asymptotic whole-body activity concentrations of radiocesium at different times, with ring-necked ducks requiring almost three times longer than the 30-35 days needed by coots. We estimated ecological half-life (T e ) for Pond B coots over a 28-yr period as 16.8 yr (95% CI = 12.9-24.2 yr). Pond B coot T e was nearly four times longer than T e for coots at nearby Par Pond where radiocesium bioavailability had been constrained for decades by pumping of potassium-enriched river water into that reservoir. T e could not be estimated from long-term data for radiocesium in Pond B diving ducks, including ring-necked ducks, likely because of high variability in residence times of ducks on Pond B. Our results highlight the importance: (1) for risk managers to understand site-specific bio-geochemistry of radiocesium for successful implementation of countermeasures at contaminated sites and (2) of residence time as a critical determinant of observed radiocesium activity concentrations in highly mobile wildlife inhabiting contaminated habitats. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Private lands habitat programs benefit California's native birds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan T. DiGaudio

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available To address the loss of wetlands and riparian forests in California, private lands habitat programs are available through U.S. federal and state government agencies to help growers, ranchers and other private landowners create and enhance wildlife habitat. The programs provide financial and technical assistance for implementing conservation practices. To evaluate the benefits of these programs for wildlife, we examined bird use of private wetlands, postharvest flooded croplands and riparian forests enrolled in habitat programs in the Central Valley and North Coast regions of California. We found that private Central Valley wetlands supported 181 bird species during the breeding season. During fall migration, postharvest flooded croplands supported wetland-dependent species and a higher density of shorebirds than did semipermanent wetlands. At the riparian sites, bird species richness increased after restoration. These results demonstrated that the programs provided habitat for the species they were designed to protect; a variety of resident and migratory bird species used the habitats, and many special status species were recorded at the sites.

  11. 76 FR 79203 - Prospective Grant of Exclusive License: Avian Influenza Vaccines for Domesticated Poultry/Wild...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-21

    ... Exclusive License: Avian Influenza Vaccines for Domesticated Poultry/Wild Birds To Be Provided to the... serotypes H5N1, H1N1, H3N2, and H3N8 for poultry, swine and equine. Particularly one vaccine, a trivalent... influenza vaccines are specifically designed for poultry, swine and equine recipients, with the following...

  12. 19 CFR 12.26 - Importations of wild animals, fish, amphibians, reptiles, mollusks, and crustaceans; prohibited...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., reptiles, mollusks, and crustaceans; prohibited and endangered and threatened species; designated ports of..., Birds, and Insects § 12.26 Importations of wild animals, fish, amphibians, reptiles, mollusks, and... crustacea), amphibians, reptiles, or the offspring or eggs of any of the foregoing which the Secretary of...

  13. Low Pathogenic Avian Influenza (H7N1) Transmission Between Wild Ducks and Domestic Ducks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Therkildsen, O. R.; Jensen, Trine Hammer; Handberg, Kurt

    2011-01-01

    This article describes a virological investigation in a mixed flock of ducks and geese following detection of avian influenza virus antibodies in domestic geese. Low pathogenic H7N1 was found in both domestic and wild birds, indicating that transmission of virus was likely to have taken place...

  14. Gender Patterns in Bird-related Recreation in the USA and UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caren B. Cooper

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies show inter-related trends in both adult and youth populations in developed nations: a shift away from nature-based recreation, an overall decline in physical activity, and increasing obesity. For this study we examined gender patterns in a nature-based activity, observing wild birds, popular in two developed nations, the USA and UK. We collated data from several organizations and categorized data sources as representing activities that involve varying degrees of competitiveness and acting authoritatively. Patterns were consistent with the hypotheses that gender differences in preferred types of bird-related recreation reflected well documented gender-specific differences in preferences for competition and propensity to act authoritatively. Observing birds encompassed both a recreational hobby, "bird watching," that was female biased in the USA, and a competitive sport, "birding," that was heavily male biased among adults, but not youth, in both the USA and UK. Because of differences in gender participation in bird-related activities, fostering both competitive and noncompetitive bird-related activities is necessary to increase the likelihood of bringing larger segments of the population into nature-based recreation.

  15. Nesting tree characteristics of heronry birds of urban ecosystems in peninsular India: implications for habitat management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roshnath, Ramesh; Sinu, Palatty Allesh

    2017-12-01

    Wetland ecosystems, particularly the mangrove forest, are the primary wild habitat of heronry birds. However, urban ecosystems have become a favorite breeding habitat of these birds. To provide inputs into the habitat management for conservation of these birds, we investigated the quantitative and qualitative characteristics of nesting trees of heronry birds in the urban environment of the North Kerala region of peninsular India. Census on nesting trees was done in 3 major microhabitats of the urban ecosystem: avenues of national highways and towns, nonresidential plots, and residential areas apart from the mangrove islets in the peri-urban locality. The study found that 174 trees of 22 species hosted 1,928 heronry bird nests in the urban habitats; mangrove forests, although plentiful in the study area, hosted only about 20% of the total nests encountered in the study. Rain trees Samanea saman (43.7%) were the most available nesting tree. The greatest number of nests and nesting trees were encountered on the roads of urban areas, followed by nonresidential areas and residential areas. The differences in the observed frequencies of nesting trees in 3 microhabitats and in 3 types of roads (national highways > state highways > small pocket road) were significant. Canopy spread, girth size, and quality of the trees predicted the tree selection of the heronry birds in urban environments. Therefore, we recommend proper management and notification of the identified nesting trees as protected sites for the conservation of herorny birds.

  16. Experimental Mycoplasma gallisepticum infections in captive-reared wild turkeys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocke, Tonie E.; Yuill, Thomas M.; Amundson, Terry E.

    1988-01-01

    The effects of Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG) infections on egg production, fertility, and hatchability were studied in captive-reared wild turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo). Three groups of adult birds, each consisting of four hens and two toms, were exposed to MG by the respiratory route at the beginning of their breeding season. Fourteen control birds received sterile growth medium. Although no mortality of infected or control birds occurred, egg production during the first breeding season after infection was reduced. The mean number of eggs/hen/day produced by infected groups the first breeding season postexposure (PE) was significantly lower than the control value. The mean number of eggs produced daily by the same hens 1 yr later was unaffected by MG infection. The pecentage of fertile eggs produced by infected groups was slightly reduced in both the first and second breeding seasons PE. Hatchability of fertile eggs from infected hens was significantly lower than eggs from control hens. Productivity may be impaired if MG infections occur in free-ranging wild turkey populations.

  17. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: Northwest Arctic, Alaska: BIRDS (Bird Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for wading birds, shorebirds, waterfowl, raptors, diving birds, pelagic birds, and gulls/terns in Northwest...

  18. Annotated Bibliography of Bird Hazards to Aircraft: Bird Strike Committee Citations 1967-1997

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Short, Jeffrey

    1998-01-01

    .... This annotated bibliography of bird hazards to aircraft, termed ABBHA, is a compilation of citations with abstracts on a wide range of related topics such as bird strike tolerance engineering, bird...

  19. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: Northern California: BIRDS (Bird Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for alcids, diving birds, gulls, terns, passerines, pelagic birds, raptors, shorebirds, wading birds, and...

  20. Birds as predators in tropical agroforestry systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Bael, Sunshine A; Philpott, Stacy M; Greenberg, Russell; Bichier, Peter; Barber, Nicholas A; Mooney, Kailen A; Gruner, Daniel S

    2008-04-01

    Insectivorous birds reduce arthropod abundances and their damage to plants in some, but not all, studies where predation by birds has been assessed. The variation in bird effects may be due to characteristics such as plant productivity or quality, habitat complexity, and/or species diversity of predator and prey assemblages. Since agroforestry systems vary in such characteristics, these systems provide a good starting point for understanding when and where we can expect predation by birds to be important. We analyze data from bird exclosure studies in forests and agroforestry systems to ask whether birds consistently reduce their arthropod prey base and whether bird predation differs between forests and agroforestry systems. Further, we focus on agroforestry systems to ask whether the magnitude of bird predation (1) differs between canopy trees and understory plants, (2) differs when migratory birds are present or absent, and (3) correlates with bird abundance and diversity. We found that, across all studies, birds reduce all arthropods, herbivores, carnivores, and plant damage. We observed no difference in the magnitude of bird effects between agroforestry systems and forests despite simplified habitat structure and plant diversity in agroforests. Within agroforestry systems, bird reduction of arthropods was greater in the canopy than the crop layer. Top-down effects of bird predation were especially strong during censuses when migratory birds were present in agroforestry systems. Importantly, the diversity of the predator assemblage correlated with the magnitude of predator effects; where the diversity of birds, especially migratory birds, was greater, birds reduced arthropod densities to a greater extent. We outline potential mechanisms for relationships between bird predator, insect prey, and habitat characteristics, and we suggest future studies using tropical agroforests as a model system to further test these areas of ecological theory.

  1. Short- and long-term consequences of early developmental conditions: a case study on wild and domesticated zebra finches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tschirren, B; Rutstein, A N; Postma, E; Mariette, M; Griffith, S C

    2009-02-01

    Divergent selection pressures among populations can result not only in significant differentiation in morphology, physiology and behaviour, but also in how these traits are related to each other, thereby driving the processes of local adaptation and speciation. In the Australian zebra finch, we investigated whether domesticated stock, bred in captivity over tens of generations, differ in their response to a life-history manipulation, compared to birds taken directly from the wild. In a 'common aviary' experiment, we thereto experimentally manipulated the environmental conditions experienced by nestlings early in life by means of a brood size manipulation, and subsequently assessed its short- and long-term consequences on growth, ornamentation, immune function and reproduction. As expected, we found that early environmental conditions had a marked effect on both short- and long-term morphological and life-history traits in all birds. However, although there were pronounced differences between wild and domesticated birds with respect to the absolute expression of many of these traits, which are indicative of the different selection pressures wild and domesticated birds were exposed to in the recent past, manipulated rearing conditions affected morphology and ornamentation of wild and domesticated finches in a very similar way. This suggests that despite significant differentiation between wild and domesticated birds, selection has not altered the relationships among traits. Thus, life-history strategies and investment trade-offs may be relatively stable and not easily altered by selection. This is a reassuring finding in the light of the widespread use of domesticated birds in studies of life-history evolution and sexual selection, and suggests that adaptive explanations may be legitimate when referring to captive bird studies.

  2. Evaluating the role of wild songbirds or rodents in spreading avian influenza virus across an agricultural landscape

    OpenAIRE

    Houston, Derek D.; Azeem, Shahan; Lundy, Coady W.; Sato, Yuko; Guo, Baoqing; Blanchong, Julie A.; Gauger, Phillip C.; Marks, David R.; Yoon, Kyoung-Jin; Adelman, James S.

    2017-01-01

    Background Avian influenza virus (AIV) infections occur naturally in wild bird populations and can cross the wildlife-domestic animal interface, often with devastating impacts on commercial poultry. Migratory waterfowl and shorebirds are natural AIV reservoirs and can carry the virus along migratory pathways, often without exhibiting clinical signs. However, these species rarely inhabit poultry farms, so transmission into domestic birds likely occurs through other means. In many cases, human ...

  3. Cecal bacterial communities in wild Japanese rock ptarmigans and captive Svalbard rock ptarmigans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ushida, Kazunari; Segawa, Takahiro; Tsuchida, Sayaka; Murata, Koichi

    2016-02-01

    Preservation of indigenous gastrointestinal microbiota is deemed to be critical for successful captive breeding of endangered wild animals, yet its biology is poorly understood. Here, we investigated cecal bacterial communities in wild Japanese rock ptarmigans (Lagopus muta japonica) and compared them with those in Svalbard rock ptarmigans (L. m. hyperborea) in captivity. Ultra-deep sequencing of 16S rRNA gene indicated that the community structure of cecal microbiota in wild rock ptarmigans was remarkably different from that in captive Svalbard rock ptarmigans. Fundamental differences between bacterial communities in the two groups of birds were detected at the phylum level. Firmicutes, Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes and Synergistetes were the major phyla detected in wild Japanese rock ptarmigans, whereas Firmicutes alone occupied more than 80% of abundance in captive Svalbard rock ptarmigans. Furthermore, unclassified genera of Coriobacteriaceae, Synergistaceae, Bacteroidaceae, Actinomycetaceae, Veillonellaceae and Clostridiales were the major taxa detected in wild individuals, whereas in zoo-reared birds, major genera were Ruminococcus, Blautia, Faecalibacterium and Akkermansia. Zoo-reared birds seemed to lack almost all rock ptarmigan-specific bacteria in their intestine, which may explain the relatively high rate of pathogenic infections affecting them. We show evidence that preservation and reconstitution of indigenous cecal microflora are critical for successful ex situ conservation and future re-introduction plan for the Japanese rock ptarmigan.

  4. Wild Prunus Fruit Species as a Rich Source of Bioactive Compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikulic-Petkovsek, Maja; Stampar, Franci; Veberic, Robert; Sircelj, Helena

    2016-08-01

    Sugars, organic acids, carotenoids, tocopherols, chlorophylls, and phenolic compounds were quantified in fruit of 4 wild growing Prunus species (wild cherry, bird cherry, blackthorn, and mahaleb cherry) using HPLC-DAD-MSn. In wild Prunus, the major sugars were glucose and fructose, whereas malic and citric acids dominated among organic acids. The most abundant classes of phenolic compounds in the analyzed fruit species were anthocyanins, flavonols, derivatives of cinnamic acids, and flavanols. Two major groups of anthocyanins measured in Prunus fruits were cyanidin-3-rutinoside and cyanidin-3-glucoside. Flavonols were represented by 19 derivatives of quercetin, 10 derivatives of kaempferol, and 2 derivatives of isorhamnetin. The highest total flavonol content was measured in mahaleb cherry and bird cherry, followed by blackthorn and wild cherry fruit. Total phenolic content varied from 2373 (wild cherry) to 11053 mg GAE per kg (bird cherry) and ferric reducing antioxidant power antioxidant activity from 7.26 to 31.54 mM trolox equivalents per kg fruits. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®

  5. Survey for West Nile virus antibodies in wild ducks, 2004-06, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmeister, Erik K.; Jankowski, Mark D.; Goldberg, Diana R.; Franson, J. Christian

    2016-01-01

    Detection of West Nile virus (WNV) in ducks has been reported in North America in isolated cases of mortality in wild waterbirds and following outbreaks in farmed ducks. Although the virus has been noted as an apparent incidental finding in several species of ducks, little is known about the prevalence of exposure or the outcome of infection with WNV in wild ducks in North America. From 2004–06, we collected sera from 1,406 wild-caught American Wigeon (Anas americana), Mallard (Anas platyrhynchos), and Northern Pintail (Anas acuta) ducks at national wildlife refuges (NWRs) in North Dakota and Wood Ducks (Aix sponsa) at NWRs in South Carolina and Tennessee. We measured the prevalence of previous exposure to WNV in these ducks by measuring WNV antibodies and evaluated variation in exposure among species, age, and year. Additionally, we evaluated the performance of a commercial antibody to wild bird immunoglobulin in duck species that varied in their phylogenetic relatedness to the bird species the antibody was directed against. As determined by a screening immunoassay and a confirmatory plaque reduction neutralization assay, the prevalence of WNV antibody was 10%. In light of experimental studies that show ducks to be relatively resistant to mortality caused by WNV, the antibody prevalence we detected suggests that wild ducks may be less-frequently exposed to WNV than expected for birds inhabiting wetlands where they may acquire infection from mosquitoes.

  6. Birds and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albers, P.H.

    2006-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) are present throughout the global environment and are produced naturally and by activities of humans. Effects of PAH on birds have been determined by studies employing egg injection, egg immersion, egg shell application, single and multiple oral doses, subcutaneous injection, and chemical analysis of field-collected eggs and tissue. The four-to six-ring aromatic compounds are the most toxic to embryos, young birds, and adult birds. For embryos, effects include death, developmental abnormalities, and a variety of cellular and biochemical responses. For adult and young birds, effects include reduced egg production and hatching, increased clutch or brood abandonment, reduced growth, increased organweights, and a variety of biochemical responses. Trophic level accumulation is unlikely. Environmental exposure to PAH in areas of high human population or habitats affected by recent petroleum spills might be sufficient to adversely affect reproduction. Evidence of long-term effects of elevated concentrations of environmental PAH on bird populations is very limited and the mechanisms of effect are unclear.

  7. WT Bird. Bird collision recording for offshore wind farms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiggelinkhuizen, E.J.; Rademakers, L.W.M.M.; Barhorst, S.A.M. [ECN Wind Energy, Petten (Netherlands); Den Boon, H. [E-Connection Project, Bunnik (Netherlands); Dirksen, S. [Bureau Waardenburg, Culemborg (Netherlands); Schekkerman, H. [Alterra, Wageningen (Netherlands)

    2004-11-01

    A new method for monitoring of bird collisions has been developed using video and audio registrations that are triggered by sound and vibration measurements. Remote access to the recorded images and sounds makes it possible to count the number of collisions as well as to identify the species. After the successful proof of principle and evaluation on small land-based turbines the system is now being designed for offshore wind farms. Currently the triggering system and video and audio registration are being tested on large land-based wind turbines using bird dummies. Tests of three complete prototype systems are planned for 2005.

  8. WT-Bird. Bird collision recording for offshore wind farms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiggelinkhuizen, E.J.; Rademakers, L.W.M.M.; Barhorst, S.A.M. [ECN Wind Energy, Petten (Netherlands); Den Boon, H.J. [E-Connection Project, Bunnik (Netherlands); Dirksen, S. [Bureau Waardenburg, Culemborg (Netherlands); Schekkerman, H. [Alterra, Wageningen (Netherlands)

    2006-03-15

    A new method for registration of bird collisions has been developed using video cameras and microphones combined with event triggering by acoustic vibration measurement. Remote access to the recorded images and sounds makes it possible to count the number of collisions as well as to identify the species. Currently a prototype system is being tested on an offshore-scale land-based wind turbine using bird dummies. After these tests we planned to perform endurance tests on other land-based turbines under offshore-like conditions.

  9. Prevalence of West Nile virus in migratory birds during spring and fall migration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dusek, Robert J.; McLean, R.G.; Kramer, L.D.; Ubico, S.R.; Dupuis, A.P.; Ebel, G.D.; Guptill, S.C.

    2009-01-01

    To investigate the role of migratory birds in the dissemination of West Nile virus (WNV), we measured the prevalence of infectious WNV and specific WNV neutralizing antibodies in birds, principally Passeriformes, during spring and fall migrations in the Atlantic and Mississippi flyways from 2001-2003. Blood samples were obtained from 13,403 birds, representing 133 species. Specific WNV neutralizing antibody was detected in 254 resident and migratory birds, representing 39 species, and was most commonly detected in northern cardinals (Cardinalis cardinalis) (9.8%, N = 762) and gray catbirds (Dumetella carolinensis) (3.2%,N = 3188). West Nile virus viremias were detected in 19 birds, including 8 gray catbirds, and only during the fall migratory period. These results provide additional evidence that migratory birds may have been a principal agent for the spread of WNV in North America and provide data on the occurrence of WNV in a variety of bird species. Copyright ?? 2009 by The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  10. [Burnout in nursing residents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, Gianfábio Pimentel; de Barros, Alba Lúcia Bottura Leite; Nogueira-Martins, Luiz Antônio; Zeitoun, Sandra Salloum

    2011-03-01

    Nursing residents may experience physical and emotional exhaustion from the daily life of attending the Program. The aim of this study was to determine the Burnout incidence among Nursing Residents. An investigative, descriptive, analytical, longitudinal-prospective study was conducted with 16 Residents over two years. The Maslach Burnout Inventory was used, translated and validated for Brazil, as well as a sociodemographic/occupational data tool. Of all residents, 17.2% showed high rates in Emotional Exhaustion and Depersonalization; 18.8% showed impaired commitment in Personal Accomplishment, 75% of which belonged to specialty areas, such as Emergency Nursing, Adult and Pediatric Intensive Care. Age and specialty area were positively correlated with Personal Accomplishment. One of the Residents was identified with changes in three subscales of the Maslach Burnout Inventory, thus characterized as a Burnout Syndrome patient. Nursing Residents have profiles of disease. Knowing these factors can minimize health risks of these workers.

  11. Monitoring Forsmark - Bird monitoring in Forsmark 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, Martin [Dept of Biology, Lund Univ., Lund (Sweden)

    2013-03-15

    This report summarizes the monitoring of selected listed (Swedish Red List and/or the EU Birds directive) breeding birds in Forsmark 2002 - 2012. Monitoring of eleven listed species was conducted in the regional model area, including the candidate area in 2012 in the same way as in earlier years. The results from 2012 generally follow patterns recorded in earlier years. 2012 was in general a better bird year compared to 2010 and 2011 and most species (82%) showed increasing or stable numbers from 2011 to 2012. Only two species (18%) decreased in numbers between the last two years. All in all, six species (55 %, black-throated diver, honey buzzard, black grouse, ural owl, wryneck and red-backed shrike) show no significant trends since the start of the bird monitoring (2002/2003/2004 depending on species). During this period three species (27 %, white-tailed eagle, osprey and lesser spotted woodpecker) have increased in numbers while just two (18 %, capercaillie and hazelhen) have decreased. A new pair of black-throated divers was discovered in 2012 and seven resident pairs were registered. Breeding success was very good, the second best during the study period. Population development follows the national pattern, but breeding success seems to be better in Forsmark than in the country as a whole. Honey buzzards and ospreys occurred in good numbers, and breeding success for ospreys was good. No signs of successful breedings of honey buzzards were recorded, but this may mean little as no detailed monitoring of breeding success is made for this species. The white-tailed eagles had their best breeding year since the start of the SKB bird monitoring, meaning that during the last two years local breeding success has been back at the level recorded before the site investigations started. The three grouse species (black grouse, capercaillie and hazelhen) again showed somewhat varying patterns between the last two years as well as in the long run. The black grouse increased

  12. Migratory decisions in birds: Extent of genetic versus environmental control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogonowski, M.S.; Conway, C.J.

    2009-01-01

    Migration is one of the most spectacular of animal behaviors and is prevalent across a broad array of taxa. In birds, we know much about the physiological basis of how birds migrate, but less about the relative contribution of genetic versus environmental factors in controlling migratory tendency. To evaluate the extent to which migratory decisions are genetically determined, we examined whether individual western burrowing owls (Athene cunicularia hypugaea) change their migratory tendency from one year to the next at two sites in southern Arizona. We also evaluated the heritability of migratory decisions by using logistic regression to examine the association between the migratory tendency of burrowing owl parents and their offspring. The probability of migrating decreased with age in both sexes and adult males were less migratory than females. Individual owls sometimes changed their migratory tendency from one year to the next, but changes were one-directional: adults that were residents during winter 2004-2005 remained residents the following winter, but 47% of adults that were migrants in winter 2004-2005 became residents the following winter. We found no evidence for an association between the migratory tendency of hatch-year owls and their male or female parents. Migratory tendency of hatch-year owls did not differ between years, study sites or sexes or vary by hatching date. Experimental provision of supplemental food did not affect these relationships. All of our results suggest that heritability of migratory tendency in burrowing owls is low, and that intraspecific variation in migratory tendency is likely due to: (1) environmental factors, or (2) a combination of environmental factors and non-additive genetic variation. The fact that an individual's migratory tendency can change across years implies that widespread anthropogenic changes (i.e., climate change or changes in land use) could potentially cause widespread changes in the migratory tendency of

  13. Endocrine and neuroendocrine regulation of fathering behavior in birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynn, Sharon E

    2016-01-01

    This article is part of a Special Issue "Parental Care". Although paternal care is generally rare among vertebrates, care of eggs and young by male birds is extremely common and may take on a variety of forms across species. Thus, birds provide ample opportunities for investigating both the evolution of and the proximate mechanisms underpinning diverse aspects of fathering behavior. However, significant gaps remain in our understanding of the endocrine and neuroendocrine influences on paternal care in this vertebrate group. In this review, I focus on proximate mechanisms of paternal care in birds. I place an emphasis on specific hormones that vary predictably and/or unpredictably during the parental phase in both captive and wild birds: prolactin and progesterone are generally assumed to enhance paternal care, whereas testosterone and corticosterone are commonly-though not always correctly-assumed to inhibit paternal care. In addition, because endocrine secretions are not the sole mechanistic influence on paternal behavior, I also explore potential roles for certain neuropeptide systems (specifically the oxytocin-vasopressin nonapeptides and gonadotropin inhibitory hormone) and social and experiential factors in influencing paternal behavior in birds. Ultimately, mechanistic control of fathering behavior in birds is complex, and I suggest specific avenues for future research with the goal of narrowing gaps in our understanding of this complexity. Such avenues include (1) experimental studies that carefully consider not only endocrine and neuroendocrine mechanisms of paternal behavior, but also the ecology, phylogenetic history, and social context of focal species; (2) investigations that focus on individual variation in both hormonal and behavioral responses during the parental phase; (3) studies that investigate mechanisms of maternal and paternal care independently, rather than assuming that the mechanistic foundations of care are similar between the sexes; (4

  14. PRESENCE OF TRICHINELLA BRITOVI IN WILD BOAR IN THE MARCHE REGION REGULARLY SLAUGHTERED

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Di Giacomo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Trichinellosis is a zoonotic disease caused by a nematode belonging to the genus Trichinella. Numerous mammal species as well as birds and crocodiles can harbour the parasite worldwide, but the wild cycle is mainly maintained by wild carnivores. Human represents only a possible host and the parasite is exclusively transmitted through consumption of undercooked or raw meat. In Italy, pork, wild boar meat and horse meat are the main sources for human infection. This article describe a presence of Trichinella britovi in wild boar in the Marche region regularly slaughtered. These case confirms the occurrence of Trichinella britovi in wild boar and the important role of slaughterhouse in epidemiological surveillance of zoonotic diseases.

  15. Invasive alien birds in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fox, Anthony David; Heldbjerg, Henning; Nyegaard, Timme

    2015-01-01

    Avian Introduced Alien Species (IAS) constitute a threat to the integrity of native biodiversity, the economy and human health, so here we briefly review some of the problems posed by such species around the world in relation to such bird species in Denmark. A new European Union Regulation...... on Invasive Alien Species implemented in January 2015 establishes a framework for actions to combat alien species, which requires Member States to prevent the spread of alien species, provide early warning and rapid responses to their presence and management of established alien species where they occur. We...... show the importance of mechanisms such as DOF’s (Dansk Ornitologisk Forening, BirdLife Denmark) Atlas project, Common Bird Census (breeding and wintering species) and DOFbasen to contribute data on the current geographical and numerical distribution of the few serious alien avian species already...

  16. Invasive alien birds in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyegaard, Timme; Heldbjerg, Henning; Fox, Anthony David

    Avian Introduced Alien Species (IAS) constitute a threat to the integrity of native biodiversity, the economy and human health, so here we briefly review some of the problems posed by such species around the world in relation to bird species in Denmark. A new European Union Regulation on Invasive...... Alien Species implemented in January 2015 requires a framework for actions to combat alien species, which requires Member States to prevent the spread of alien species, provide early warning and rapid responses to their presence and management of established alien species where they occur. We show...... the importance of mechanisms such as DOFs (Danish Ornithological Society, BirdLife Denmark) Atlas project, Common Bird Monitoring (breeding and wintering species) and DOFbasen to contribute data on the current geographical and numerical distribution of the few serious alien avian species already present...

  17. Chemical compass for bird navigation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solov'yov, Ilia; Hore, Peter J.; Ritz, Thorsten

    2014-01-01

    Migratory birds travel spectacular distances each year, navigating and orienting by a variety of means, most of which are poorly understood. Among them is a remarkable ability to perceive the intensity and direction of the Earth's magnetic field. Biologically credible mechanisms for the detection...... increased interest following the proposal in 2000 that free radical chemistry could occur in the bird's retina initiated by photoexcitation of cryptochrome, a specialized photoreceptor protein. In the present paper we review the important physical and chemical constraints on a possible radical...

  18. Fuglene. Audubon: Birds of America

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schlichtkrull, Torsten

    2010-01-01

    The Royal Library owns one of the most exceptional works in book history, an original edition of John James Audubon Birds of America. This edition, in a format called “double elephant folio” was published from 1827 to 1838. On basis of existing literature, this article briefly describes the work...... the Royal Library and the University Library, joined the library cooperation of the 1800’s on an equal standing with the other two libraries. The Classen’s Library and the library’s founder, industrialist JF Classen are described briefly in this article. Due to two library mergers the Birds of America...

  19. Epidemiologic characterization of Colorado backyard bird flocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Emily I; Reif, John S; Hill, Ashley E; Slota, Katharine E; Miller, Ryan S; Bjork, Kathe E; Pabilonia, Kristy L

    2012-06-01

    Backyard gallinaceous bird flocks may play an important role in the spread of infectious diseases within poultry populations as well as the transmission of zoonotic diseases to humans. An epidemiologic characterization was conducted of Colorado backyard flocks to gather information on general flock characteristics, human movement of birds, human-bird interaction, biosecurity practices, and flock health. Our results suggest that backyard poultry flocks in Colorado are small-sized flocks (68.6% of flocks had meat or egg) production for the family (86.44%) or as pet or hobby birds (42.27%). The backyard flock environment may promote bird-to-bird transmission as well as bird-to-human transmission of infectious disease. Birds are primarily housed with free access to the outside (96.85%), and many are moved from the home premises (46.06% within 1 yr). Human contact with backyard flocks is high, biosecurity practices are minimal, and bird health is negatively impacted by increased movement events. Increased knowledge of backyard bird characteristics and associated management practices can provide guidelines for the development of measures to decrease disease transmission between bird populations, decrease disease transmission from birds to humans, and increase the overall health of backyard birds.

  20. No evidence of transmission of H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza to humans after unprotected contact with infected wild swans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallensten, A; Salter, M; Bennett, S; Brown, I; Hoschler, K; Oliver, I

    2010-02-01

    Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) subtype H5N1 remains a public health threat as long as it circulates in wild and domestic birds. Information on the transmissibility of H5N1 HPAI from wild birds is needed for evidence-based public health advice. We investigated if transmission of H5N1 HPAI had taken place in people that had unprotected contact with infected wild mute swans during an incident at the Abbotsbury Swannery in Dorset, England. Thirteen people who had been exposed to infected swans were contacted and actively followed up for symptoms. Serology was taken after 30 days. We did not find evidence of transmission of H5N1 HPAI to humans during the incident. The incident provided a rare opportunity to study the transmissibility of the virus from wild birds to humans.

  1. East Africa's diminishing bird habitats and bird species

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    foreign exchange earnings for each national exchequer. However, recent national census records have .... Dar-es-. Salaam: Wildlife Conservation Society of Tanzania. Bennun, L & Njoroge, P. 1999. Important Bird Areas in Kenya, Nairobi: East Africa Natural. History Society. Byaruhanga, A, Kasoma, P. & Pomeroy, D. 2001.

  2. [Bird biodiversity in natural and modified habitats in a landscape of the Central Depression of Chiapas, Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez-Albores, Jorge E

    2010-03-01

    In many parts of the neotropics, the original habitats are rapidly changing because of excessive logging, agriculture and livestock activity, with an often negative impact on bird communities. I present an analysis of the diversity and richness of birds in a fragmented landscape of the Central Chiapas Depression. Fieldwork was conducted from February 2003 to January 2004. Using point counts, a total of 35 families and 225 bird species were registered (164 residents and 61 migratory); 3% are abundant and 30% rare. Diversity, species richness and number of individuals were significantly higher in tropical deciduous forest (H'=3.41, 178 species ANOVA pbirds species in the study area.

  3. A 'feather-trap' for collecting DNA samples from birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurer, Golo; Beck, Nadeena; Double, Michael C

    2010-01-01

    Genetic analyses of birds are usually based on DNA extracted from a blood sample. For some species, however, obtaining blood samples is difficult because they are sensitive to handling, pose a conservation or animal welfare concern, or evade capture. In such cases, feathers obtained from live birds in the wild can provide an alternative source of DNA. Here, we provide the first description and evaluation of a 'feather-trap', consisting of small strips of double-sided adhesive tape placed close to a nest with chicks, as a simple, inexpensive and minimally invasive method to collect feathers. The feather-trap was tested in tropical conditions on the Australian pheasant coucal (Centropus phasianinus). None of the 12 pairs of coucals on which the feather-trap was used abandoned the nest, and feeding rates did not differ from those of birds not exposed to a feather-trap. On average, 4.2 feathers were collected per trap over 2-5 days and, despite exposure to monsoonal rain, DNA was extracted from 71.4% of samples, albeit at low concentrations. The amount of genomic DNA extracted from each feather was sufficient to reliably genotype individuals at up to five microsatellite loci for parentage analysis. We show that a feather-trap can provide a reliable alternative for obtaining DNA in species where taking blood is difficult. It may also prove useful for collecting feather samples for other purposes, e.g. stable-isotope analysis. © 2009 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  4. Approaching birds with drones: first experiments and ethical guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vas, Elisabeth; Lescroël, Amélie; Duriez, Olivier; Boguszewski, Guillaume; Grémillet, David

    2015-02-01

    Unmanned aerial vehicles, commonly called drones, are being increasingly used in ecological research, in particular to approach sensitive wildlife in inaccessible areas. Impact studies leading to recommendations for best practices are urgently needed. We tested the impact of drone colour, speed and flight angle on the behavioural responses of mallards Anas platyrhynchos in a semi-captive situation, and of wild flamingos (Phoenicopterus roseus) and common greenshanks (Tringa nebularia) in a wetland area. We performed 204 approach flights with a quadricopter drone, and during 80% of those we could approach unaffected birds to within 4 m. Approach speed, drone colour and repeated flights had no measurable impact on bird behaviour, yet they reacted more to drones approaching vertically. We recommend launching drones farther than 100 m from the birds and adjusting approach distance according to species. Our study is a first step towards a sound use of drones for wildlife research. Further studies should assess the impacts of different drones on other taxa, and monitor physiological indicators of stress in animals exposed to drones according to group sizes and reproductive status. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  5. The occurrence of blood protozoa in North American birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, C.M.

    1957-01-01

    This report is based on review of literature and examination of a great number of blood smears from native birds in North America, particularly Passeriformes and Anseriformes. Haemoproteus and Leucocytozoon occur most frequently, although various species of Plasmodium and, occasionally, other less known forms are recognized. Prevalence of these parasites in wild birds is related to season of year and age of host. Highest incidence occurs in spring and summer. Relapse of Haemoproteus and Leucocytozoon is common in the spring. Blood smears of adult wood ducks, on the Atlantic flyway, in April and May show a high prevalence of Haemoproteus, while smears at other times are usually negative. Although the author (Herman, 1938) demonstrated that young redwings in Massachusetts primarily acquired Plasmodium infections after leaving the nest, in many cases infection is acquired by the nestling. Nestling magpies in northeastern California acquire a high incidence of infection with several parasites. The hypothesis, expressed by Manwell and Herman (1935), that a higher prevalence of infection can be expected in more southerly ranging species, is subject to question. Smears taken during the winter demonstrate higher parasite prevalence in birds at the southern limits of their range, such as juncos and white-throated sparrows, than do smears of other species with more southern range. Little is known of significance of these parasites to survival of the host, although O'Roke ( 1934) reported a high loss for ducklings from Leucocytozoon and there have been occasional reports of fatality in other species.

  6. Vegetation composition and structure influences bird species ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Vegetation composition and structure influences bird species community ... variables on bird species diversity and richness of respective foraging guilds, and ... of the species assessed: (1) increasing closed cover due to woody plant density, ...

  7. IDENTIFICATION AND OCCURRENCE OF FUSARIUM SPECIES ON SEEDS OF COMMON WETCH, WHITE LUPINE AND SOME WILD LEGUMES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tihomir Miličević

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The presence and occurrence of Fusarium species was examined on the seeds of cultivated legumes – common vetch (Vicia sativa, white lupine (Lupinus albus, and wild legumes: bird’s-foot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus, wild alfalfa (Medicago sativa, black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia, honey locust (Gleditsia triacanthos, sweet clover (Melilotus officinalis, bird vetch (Vicia cracca and meadow vetchling (Lathyrus pratensis. Thirteen Fusarium species were identified - F. verticillioides, F. acuminatum, F. avenaceum, F. tricinctum F. oxysporum, F. scirpi, F. semitectum, F. culmorum, F. proliferatum, F. pseudograminearum, F. sporotrichioides, F. sambucinum and F. heterosporum. Species F. verticillioides and F. proliferatum were determined on seeds of the cultivated legumes (common vetch and white lupine. Other 11 Fusarium species were determined on seeds of wild legumes (bird’s-foot trefoil, wild alfalfa, sweet clover and bird vetch among which the most prevalent were species F. avenaceum and F. acuminatum.

  8. Urbanization affects neophilia and risk-taking at bird-feeders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tryjanowski, Piotr; Møller, Anders Pape; Morelli, Federico; Biaduń, Waldemar; Brauze, Tomasz; Ciach, Michał; Czechowski, Paweł; Czyż, Stanisław; Dulisz, Beata; Goławski, Artur; Hetmański, Tomasz; Indykiewicz, Piotr; Mitrus, Cezary; Myczko, Łukasz; Nowakowski, Jacek J.; Polakowski, Michał; Takacs, Viktoria; Wysocki, Dariusz; Zduniak, Piotr

    2016-06-01

    Urban environments cover vast areas with a high density of humans and their dogs and cats causing problems for exploitation of new resources by wild animals. Such resources facilitate colonization by individuals with a high level of neophilia predicting that urban animals should show more neophilia than rural conspecifics. We provided bird-feeders across urban environments in 14 Polish cities and matched nearby rural habitats, testing whether the presence of a novel item (a brightly coloured green object made out of gum with a tuft of hair) differentially delayed arrival at feeders in rural compared to urban habitats. The presence of a novel object reduced the number of great tits Parus major, but also the total number of all species of birds although differentially so in urban compared to rural areas. That was the case independent of the potentially confounding effects of temperature, population density of birds, and the abundance of cats, dogs and pedestrians. The number of great tits and the total number of birds attending feeders increased in urban compared to rural areas independent of local population density of birds. This implies that urban birds have high levels of neophilia allowing them to readily exploit unpredictable resources in urban environments.

  9. Bird interactions with offshore oil and gas platforms: review of impacts and monitoring techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronconi, Robert A; Allard, Karel A; Taylor, Philip D

    2015-01-01

    Thousands of oil and gas platforms are currently operating in offshore waters globally, and this industry is expected to expand in coming decades. Although the potential environmental impacts of offshore oil and gas activities are widely recognized, there is limited understanding of their impacts on migratory and resident birds. A literature review identified 24 studies and reports of bird-platform interactions, most being qualitative and half having been peer-reviewed. The most frequently observed effect, for seabirds and landbirds, is attraction and sometimes collisions associated with lights and flares; episodic events have caused the deaths of hundreds or even thousands of birds. Though typically unpredictable, anecdotally, it is known that poor weather, such as fog, precipitation and low cloud cover, can exacerbate the effect of nocturnal attraction to lights, especially when coincidental with bird migrations. Other effects include provision of foraging and roosting opportunities, increased exposure to oil and hazardous environments, increased exposure to predators, or repulsion from feeding sites. Current approaches to monitoring birds at offshore platforms have focused on observer-based methods which can offer species-level bird identification, quantify seasonal patterns of relative abundance and distribution, and document avian mortality events and underlying factors. Observer-based monitoring is time-intensive, limited in spatial and temporal coverage, and suffers without clear protocols and when not conducted by trained, independent observers. These difficulties are exacerbated because deleterious bird-platform interaction is episodic and likely requires the coincidence of multiple factors (e.g., darkness, cloud, fog, rain conditions, occurrence of birds in vicinity). Collectively, these considerations suggest a need to implement supplemental systems for monitoring bird activities around offshore platforms. Instrument-based approaches, such as radar

  10. Conservation of forest birds: evidence of a shifting baseline in community structure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chadwick D Rittenhouse

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Quantifying changes in forest bird diversity is an essential task for developing effective conservation actions. When subtle changes in diversity accumulate over time, annual comparisons may offer an incomplete perspective of changes in diversity. In this case, progressive change, the comparison of changes in diversity from a baseline condition, may offer greater insight because changes in diversity are assessed over longer periods of times. Our objectives were to determine how forest bird diversity has changed over time and whether those changes were associated with forest disturbance.We used North American Breeding Bird Survey data, a time series of Landsat images classified with respect to land cover change, and mixed-effects models to associate changes in forest bird community structure with forest disturbance, latitude, and longitude in the conterminous United States for the years 1985 to 2006. We document a significant divergence from the baseline structure for all birds of similar migratory habit and nest location, and all forest birds as a group from 1985 to 2006. Unexpectedly, decreases in progressive similarity resulted from small changes in richness (<1 species per route for the 22-year study period and modest losses in abundance (-28.7 - -10.2 individuals per route that varied by migratory habit and nest location. Forest disturbance increased progressive similarity for Neotropical migrants, permanent residents, ground nesting, and cavity nesting species. We also documented highest progressive similarity in the eastern United States.Contemporary forest bird community structure is changing rapidly over a relatively short period of time (e.g., approximately 22 years. Forest disturbance and forest regeneration are primary factors associated with contemporary forest bird community structure, longitude and latitude are secondary factors, and forest loss is a tertiary factor. Importantly, these findings suggest some regions of the United

  11. Conservation of forest birds: evidence of a shifting baseline in community structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rittenhouse, Chadwick D; Pidgeon, Anna M; Albright, Thomas P; Culbert, Patrick D; Clayton, Murray K; Flather, Curtis H; Huang, Chengquan; Masek, Jeffrey G; Stewart, Susan I; Radeloff, Volker C

    2010-08-02

    Quantifying changes in forest bird diversity is an essential task for developing effective conservation actions. When subtle changes in diversity accumulate over time, annual comparisons may offer an incomplete perspective of changes in diversity. In this case, progressive change, the comparison of changes in diversity from a baseline condition, may offer greater insight because changes in diversity are assessed over longer periods of times. Our objectives were to determine how forest bird diversity has changed over time and whether those changes were associated with forest disturbance. We used North American Breeding Bird Survey data, a time series of Landsat images classified with respect to land cover change, and mixed-effects models to associate changes in forest bird community structure with forest disturbance, latitude, and longitude in the conterminous United States for the years 1985 to 2006. We document a significant divergence from the baseline structure for all birds of similar migratory habit and nest location, and all forest birds as a group from 1985 to 2006. Unexpectedly, decreases in progressive similarity resulted from small changes in richness (<1 species per route for the 22-year study period) and modest losses in abundance (-28.7 - -10.2 individuals per route) that varied by migratory habit and nest location. Forest disturbance increased progressive similarity for Neotropical migrants, permanent residents, ground nesting, and cavity nesting species. We also documented highest progressive similarity in the eastern United States. Contemporary forest bird community structure is changing rapidly over a relatively short period of time (e.g., approximately 22 years). Forest disturbance and forest regeneration are primary factors associated with contemporary forest bird community structure, longitude and latitude are secondary factors, and forest loss is a tertiary factor. Importantly, these findings suggest some regions of the United States may

  12. Palaearctic-African Bird Migration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iwajomo, Soladoye Babatola

    Bird migration has attracted a lot of interests over past centuries and the methods used for studying this phenomenon has greatly improved in terms of availability, dimension, scale and precision. In spite of the advancements, relatively more is known about the spring migration of trans-Saharan m......Bird migration has attracted a lot of interests over past centuries and the methods used for studying this phenomenon has greatly improved in terms of availability, dimension, scale and precision. In spite of the advancements, relatively more is known about the spring migration of trans...... of birds from Europe to Africa and opens up the possibility of studying intra-African migration. I have used long-term, standardized autumn ringing data from southeast Sweden to investigate patterns in biometrics, phenology and population trends as inferred from annual trapping totals. In addition, I...... in the population of the species. The papers show that adult and juvenile birds can use different migration strategies depending on time of season and prevailing conditions. Also, the fuel loads of some individuals were theoretically sufficient for a direct flight to important goal area, but whether they do so...

  13. Physiological adaptation in desert birds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Williams, JB; Tieleman, BI; Williams, Joseph B.

    We call into question the idea that birds have not evolved unique physiological adaptations to desert environments. The rate at which desert larks metabolize energy is lower than in mesic species within the same family, and this lower rate of living translates into a lower overall energy requirement

  14. Millipedes (Diplopoda) in birds' nests

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tajovský, Karel; Mock, A.; Krumpál, M.

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 37, - (2001), s. 321-323 ISSN 1164-5563 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6066911 Keywords : bird s nest s * microsites * millipedes Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 0.317, year: 2001

  15. Notes on some Sumatran birds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Junge, G.C.A.

    1948-01-01

    During the war I was able to identify some collections of birds from Sumatra, present in the Leiden Museum. These collections were brought together by E. Jacobson and W. C. van Heurn in the Padang Highlands in 1013; by W. Groeneveldt in the same area in 1914 and 1915; bij L. P. Cosquino de Bussy and

  16. Microbiology as if Bird Watching

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 1; Issue 10. Microbiology as if Bird Watching. Milind G Watve. Classroom Volume 1 Issue 10 October 1996 pp 78-81. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: https://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/001/10/0078-0081. Author Affiliations.

  17. Bird Flight and Satish Dhawan

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    and birds has inspired poetry, art, l~terature, science and tech- nology. In Monsoon, Wilbur ... Henk Tennekes, an aerospace engineering professor at Pennsyl- vania State University, USA, has a different story to tell in his popular book The ...

  18. Plasmodium spp. and Haemoproteus spp. infection in birds of the Brazilian Atlantic Forest detected by microscopy and polymerase chain reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Tostes

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years haemosporidian infection by protozoa of the genus Plasmodium and Haemoproteus, has been considered one of the most important factors related to the extinction and/or population decline of several species of birds worldwide. In Brazil, despite the large avian biodiversity, few studies have been designed to detect this infection, especially among wild birds in captivity. Thus, the objective of this study was to analyze the prevalence of Plasmodium spp. and Haemoproteus spp. infection in wild birds in captivity in the Atlantic Forest of southeastern Brazil using microscopy and the polymerase chain reaction. Blood samples of 119 different species of birds kept in captivity at IBAMA during the period of July 2011 to July 2012 were collected. The parasite density was determined based only on readings of blood smears by light microscopy. The mean prevalence of Plasmodium spp. and Haemoproteus spp. infection obtained through the microscopic examination of blood smears and PCR were similar (83.19% and 81.3%, respectively, with Caracara plancus and Saltator similis being the most parasitized. The mean parasitemia determined by the microscopic counting of evolutionary forms of Plasmodium spp. and Haemoproteus spp. was 1.51%. The results obtained from this study reinforce the importance of the handling of captive birds, especially when they will be reintroduced into the wild.

  19. Birds and Bird Habitat: What Are the Risks from Industrial Wind Turbine Exposure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprague, Terry; Harrington, M. Elizabeth; Krogh, Carmen M. E.

    2011-01-01

    Bird kill rate and disruption of habitat has been reported when industrial wind turbines are introduced into migratory bird paths or other environments. While the literature could be more complete regarding the documentation of negative effects on birds and bird habitats during the planning, construction, and operation of wind power projects,…

  20. 76 FR 32224 - Migratory Birds; Take of Migratory Birds by the Armed Forces

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-03

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Fish and Wildlife Service Migratory Birds; Take of Migratory Birds by... Forces to incidentally take migratory birds during approved military readiness activities without violating the Migratory Bird Treaty Act (MBTA). The Authorization Act provided this interim authority to...