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Sample records for resident female panda

  1. Vocal discrimination of potential mates by female giant pandas (Ailuropoda melanoleuca).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlton, Benjamin D; Huang, Yan; Swaisgood, Ronald R

    2009-10-23

    In the current study, we used male giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) bleats in a habituation-discrimination paradigm to determine whether females discriminate between the vocalizations of different males. We found that females habituated to the bleats of a specific male showed a significant dishabituation when they were presented with bleats from a novel male. Further playbacks, in which we standardized the mean fundamental frequency (pitch) and amplitude modulation of male bleats, indicated that amplitude modulation is the key feature that females attend to when discriminating between male callers. Our results show that female giant pandas can discriminate between the vocalizations of potential mates and provide a platform for further studies investigating the functional role of caller identity in giant panda sexual communication.

  2. Panda code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altomare, S.; Minton, G.

    1975-02-01

    PANDA is a new two-group one-dimensional (slab/cylinder) neutron diffusion code designed to replace and extend the FAB series. PANDA allows for the nonlinear effects of xenon, enthalpy and Doppler. Fuel depletion is allowed. PANDA has a completely general search facility which will seek criticality, maximize reactivity, or minimize peaking. Any single parameter may be varied in a search. PANDA is written in FORTRAN IV, and as such is nearly machine independent. However, PANDA has been written with the present limitations of the Westinghouse CDC-6600 system in mind. Most computation loops are very short, and the code is less than half the useful 6600 memory size so that two jobs can reside in the core at once. (auth)

  3. Changes in urinary androgen concentration indicate that male giant pandas (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) respond to impending female oestrus during and outside the typical spring breeding season.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gocinski, Barbara L; Knott, Katrina K; Roberts, Beth M; Brown, Janine L; Vance, Carrie K; Kouba, Andrew J

    2018-01-01

    Giant pandas have been described as mono-oestrus spring breeders, yet males exposed to aseasonal oestrous females in the autumn or winter exhibit breeding behaviours and interest in mating. In the present study, urinary androgens and sperm parameters were quantified for males exposed to females expressing oestrus during spring, autumn or winter to examine plasticity of reproductive seasonality in giant pandas. Monthly average androgen concentrations for two males exposed to females in either seasonal or aseasonal oestrus were greater (Pgiant pandas as demonstrated by a rapid physiological readiness to mate in response to female oestrous cues within or outside the normal breeding season and may suggest a facultative seasonal reproduction with a 'female-induced rut'.

  4. S Panda

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Pramana – Journal of Physics. S Panda. Articles written in Pramana – Journal of Physics. Volume 56 Issue 6 June 2001 pp 809-822 Research Articles. Analytic methods for field induced tunneling in quantum wells with arbitrary potential profiles · S Panda B K Panda · More Details Abstract Fulltext PDF.

  5. Manashi Panda

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Chemical Sciences. Manashi Panda. Articles written in Journal of Chemical Sciences. Volume 119 Issue 1 January 2007 pp 3-9. Synthesis, structure, redox and spectra of green iridium complexes of tridentate azo-aromatic ligands · Manashi Panda Chayan Das Chen-Hsiung Hung Sreebrata ...

  6. Aurobinda Panda

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Sadhana. Aurobinda Panda. Articles written in Sadhana. Volume 41 Issue 1 January 2016 pp 15-30. A single phase photovoltaic inverter control for grid connected system · Aurobinda Panda M K Pathak S P Srivastava · More Details Abstract Fulltext PDF. This paper presents a control scheme for single ...

  7. Trends in the training of female urology residents in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Katherine; Tennankore, Karthik; Cox, Ashley

    2017-12-22

    There is limited research on why females do or do not choose a career in urology. Considering the increasing proportion of female medical students, we assessed for trends in female applicants to urology programs in Canada and their post-residency career choices. Data from the Canadian Residency Matching Service (CaRMS) was used (1998-2015). Trends in the proportions of females applying and matching to surgical subspecialties, and applying and matching to urology were computed. Surveys were sent to urology program directors to assess female residents' chosen career paths over the last decade. A significant increasing trend in the proportion of females applying to urology as their first choice program was found (0.19 in 1998-99 to 0.27 in 2012-15; p=0.04). An increasing trend in the proportion of females successfully matching to urology was found, although it was not statistically significant (0.13 in 1998-99 to 0.24 in 2012-15; p=0.07). This was in keeping with the trends found for surgical programs overall. Female graduates choose a variety of career paths with urogynecology being the most common fellowship (26%). The last two decades has seen an increase in the proportion of female students applying to urology in Canada. Female urology graduates pursue a variety of career paths. It remains imperative that both female and male medical students have early exposure and education about our subspecialty to ensure we continue to recruit the most talented candidates.

  8. Evaluation of female residents for urinary tract infections, Onicha ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cases of urinary tract infections (UTIs) have been on the increase in our society, posing a threat to health causing economic and social burden on the populace especially among women and girls. This study was therefore carried out to assess the prevalence of UTIs among female residents of Igboeze-Onicha Community in ...

  9. Jagannath Panda

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Chemical Sciences. Jagannath Panda. Articles written in Journal of Chemical Sciences. Volume 112 Issue 6 December 2000 pp 615-622 Physical and Theoretical. Kinetic investigation of the oxidation of N-alkyl anilines by peroxomonophosphoric acid in anionic surfactant sodium lauryl sulphate.

  10. Giant pandas can discriminate the emotions of human facial pictures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Youxu; Dai, Qiang; Hou, Rong; Zhang, Zhihe; Chen, Peng; Xue, Rui; Feng, Feifei; Chen, Chao; Liu, Jiabin; Gu, Xiaodong; Zhang, Zejun; Qi, Dunwu

    2017-08-16

    Previous studies have shown that giant pandas (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) can discriminate face-like shapes, but little is known about their cognitive ability with respect to the emotional expressions of humans. We tested whether adult giant pandas can discriminate expressions from pictures of half of a face and found that pandas can learn to discriminate between angry and happy expressions based on global information from the whole face. Young adult pandas (5-7 years old) learned to discriminate expressions more quickly than older individuals (8-16 years old), but no significant differences were found between females and males. These results suggest that young adult giant pandas are better at discriminating emotional expressions of humans. We showed for the first time that the giant panda, can discriminate the facial expressions of humans. Our results can also be valuable for the daily care and management of captive giant pandas.

  11. Panda crosses the Atlantic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1999-01-01

    The development of the Panda software by Electricite de France (EdF) for monitoring hydroelectric power plants is traced from the early stages using TAM-TAM software for the Macintosh for data acquisition, checking, transfer to external sites, and archiving, to the development of Panda software in order to make the software compatible with remote measurement systems. The installation of Panda at two Argentinian hydroelectric power stations by EdF to make the monitoring of systems more reliable is reported, and the different chain of operations carried out by Panda are described. Panda's technical data, and simple data collection systems are outlined. (UK)

  12. Molecular analysis of dispersal in giant pandas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, X J; Zhang, Z J; Wu, H; Goossens, B; Li, M; Jiang, S W; Bruford, M W; Wei, F W

    2007-09-01

    Although dispersal in the giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) is a demographic mechanism which can potentially counteract the negative effect of habitat fragmentation, little is known about dispersal in this species because of difficulties in observing individuals. Using data from faecal microsatellite genotyping, we compared the spatial distribution of giant pandas in two populations and the proximity of relatives in one key population to infer their dispersal pattern. We conclude that giant pandas exhibit female-biased dispersal because: (i) vAIc (variance of assignment index) for females was significantly larger than for males, suggesting that females comprise both 'local' and 'foreign' genotypes; (ii) the average spatial distance of related female dyads was significantly larger than that of males; (iii) larger r (relatedness), F(ST) (genetic variance among populations) and mAIc (mean of assignment index) values were found in males using the software FSTAT, although the differences were not significant; (iv) males set up territories neighbouring to their birth place; (v) significant population structure using microsatellites with a concomitant lack of mitochondrial structure was found in a previous study, possibly indicating more extensive female dispersal; and (vi) female-biased dispersal was strongly supported by evidence from concomitant ecological studies. Considering previous ecological data and life-history characteristics of the giant panda, female-biased dispersal is most likely to be due to competition for birth dens among females, inbreeding avoidance and enhancing inclusive fitness among related males.

  13. Bikash Kumar Panda

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Chemical Sciences. Bikash Kumar Panda. Articles written in Journal of Chemical Sciences. Volume 116 Issue 5 August 2004 pp 245-250. Synthesis, characterization and emission properties of quinolin-8-olato chelated ruthenium organometallics · Bikash Kumar Panda · More Details Abstract ...

  14. S P Panda

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Sadhana. S P Panda. Articles written in Sadhana. Volume 40 Issue 1 February 2015 pp 89-106 Electrical and Computer Sciences. Experimental validation of waveform relaxation technique for power system controller testing · S P Panda K A Salunkhe A M Kulkarni · More Details Abstract Fulltext PDF.

  15. Important population viability analysis parameters for giant pandas (Aliuropoda melanoleuca).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Minghao; Song, Yanling; Yang, Zhisong; Lin, Chen

    2012-06-01

    Population viability analysis (PVA) is a tool to evaluate the risk of extinction for endangered species and aid conservation decision-making. The quality of PVA output is dependent on parameters related to population dynamics and life-history; however, it has been difficult to collect this information for the giant panda (Aliuropoda melanoleuca), a rare and endangered mammal native to China, confined to some 30 fragmented habitat patches. Since giant pandas are long-lived, mature late, have lower reproductive rates, and show little sexual dimorphism, obtaining data to perform adequate PVA has been difficult. Here, we develop a parameter sensitivity index by modeling the dynamics of six giant panda populations in the Minshan Mountains, in order to determine the parameters most influential to giant panda populations. Our data shows that the giant panda populations are most sensitive to changes in four female parameters: initial breeding age, reproductive rate, mortality rate between age 0 and 1, and mortality rate of adults. The parameter sensitivity index strongly correlated with initial population size, as smaller populations were more sensitive to changes in these four variables. This model suggests that demographic parameters of females have more influence on the results of PVA, indicating that females may play a more important role in giant panda population dynamics than males. Consequently, reintroduction of female individuals to a small giant panda population should be a high priority for conservation efforts. Our findings form a technical basis for the coming program of giant panda reintroduction, and inform which parameters are crucial to successfully and feasibly monitoring wild giant panda populations.

  16. Female residents experiencing medical errors in general internal medicine: a qualitative study

    OpenAIRE

    Mankaka, Cindy Ottiger; Waeber, Gérard; Gachoud, David

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Doctors, especially doctors-in-training such as residents, make errors. They have to face the consequences even though today's approach to errors emphasizes systemic factors. Doctors' individual characteristics play a role in how medical errors are experienced and dealt with. The role of gender has previously been examined in a few quantitative studies that have yielded conflicting results. In the present study, we sought to qualitatively explore the experience of female residents...

  17. Interrelationships between romance, life quality, and medical training of female residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yu-Jung; Hsu, Kan-Lin; Chang, Chin-Sung; Wu, Chih-Hsing

    2012-08-01

    For the past 30 years, there has been a steady increase in the number of female physicians, but the relationship between their romantic lives and their pattern of training has been inadequately reported. This study was designed to investigate the interrelationships between medical training, quality of life, and the attitudes that female residents have toward romance. Of the 106 female medical residents at our medical center in 2009, a total of 78 residents (73.6%) were enrolled for the study. Structured questionnaires (Cronbach α = 0.878), which included questions about female resident quality of life, attitude toward spousal choice, and the impact of programmed professional medical training, were self-administered through an anonymous process. Female residents, especially ward-care specialists, were determined to have excessively long working hours (84.6% > 88 work hours/week), insufficient and irregular sleep (44.9%), and inadequate personal time (73.1% romances, 87.5% (n = 40) of romantic partners were physicians and 58.3% (n = 28) initiated their relationships when they were medical students, but exhibited no preferential dating of senior medical students or physicians. Factors affecting the choice of spouses included time limitations, a limited circle of friends, differences in values, and work-related stress. Those presumptive factors influencing romance between the assumed partner being a doctor or a "nondoctor" were significantly different with regard to lack of time (p = 0.002), values (p Romance and quality of life were significantly influenced by the pattern of medical training in female residents. Setting duty-hour limits and initiating a new hobby were determined to be potentially beneficial to their quality of life and attitudes toward romance. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. Microbial diversity and evidence of novel homoacetogens in the gut of both geriatric and adult giant pandas (Ailuropoda melanoleuca.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hein Min Tun

    Full Text Available Recent studies have described the bacterial community residing in the guts of giant pandas, together with the presence of lignocellulolytic enzymes. However, a more comprehensive understanding of the intestinal microbial composition and its functional capacity in giant pandas remains a major goal. Here, we conducted a comparison of bacterial, fungal and homoacetogenic microbial communities from fecal samples taken from two geriatric and two adult captive giant pandas. 16S rDNA amplicon pyrosequencing revealed that Firmicutes and Proteobacteria are the most abundant microbiota in both geriatric and adult giant pandas. However, members of phylum Actinobacteria found in adult giant pandas were absent in their geriatric counterparts. Similarly, ITS1 amplicon pyrosequencing identified developmental changes in the most abundant fungal classes from Sordariomycetes in adult pandas to Saccharomycetes in geriatric pandas. Geriatric pandas exhibited significantly higher abundance of a potential probiotic fungus (Candida tropicalis as compared to adult pandas, indicating their importance in the normal digestive physiology of aged pandas. Our study also reported the presence of a lignocellulolytic white-rot fungus, Perenniporia medulla-panis, and the evidence of novel homoacetogens residing in the guts of giant pandas.

  19. Microbial diversity and evidence of novel homoacetogens in the gut of both geriatric and adult giant pandas (Ailuropoda melanoleuca).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tun, Hein Min; Mauroo, Nathalie France; Yuen, Chan San; Ho, John Chi Wang; Wong, Mabel Ting; Leung, Frederick Chi-Ching

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies have described the bacterial community residing in the guts of giant pandas, together with the presence of lignocellulolytic enzymes. However, a more comprehensive understanding of the intestinal microbial composition and its functional capacity in giant pandas remains a major goal. Here, we conducted a comparison of bacterial, fungal and homoacetogenic microbial communities from fecal samples taken from two geriatric and two adult captive giant pandas. 16S rDNA amplicon pyrosequencing revealed that Firmicutes and Proteobacteria are the most abundant microbiota in both geriatric and adult giant pandas. However, members of phylum Actinobacteria found in adult giant pandas were absent in their geriatric counterparts. Similarly, ITS1 amplicon pyrosequencing identified developmental changes in the most abundant fungal classes from Sordariomycetes in adult pandas to Saccharomycetes in geriatric pandas. Geriatric pandas exhibited significantly higher abundance of a potential probiotic fungus (Candida tropicalis) as compared to adult pandas, indicating their importance in the normal digestive physiology of aged pandas. Our study also reported the presence of a lignocellulolytic white-rot fungus, Perenniporia medulla-panis, and the evidence of novel homoacetogens residing in the guts of giant pandas.

  20. The first PANDA tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dreier, J.; Huggenberger, M.; Aubert, C.; Bandurski, T.; Fischer, O.; Healzer, J.; Lomperski, S.; Strassberger, H.J.; Varadi, G.; Yadigaroglu, G.

    1996-01-01

    The PANDA test facility at PSI in Switzerland is used to study the long-term Simplified Boiling Water Reactor (SBWRT) Passive Containment Cooling System (PCCS) performance. The PANDA tests demonstrate performance on a larger scale than previous tests and examine the effects of any non-uniform spatial distributions of steam and noncondensables in the system. The PANDA facility is in 1:1 vertical scale, and 1:25 'system' scale (volume, power, etc.). Steady-state PCCS condenser performance tests and extensive facility characterization tests have already been conducted. A series of transient system behavior tests have been completed by end of 1995. Results from the first three transient tests (M3 series) are reviewed. The first PANDA tests exhibited reproducibility, and indicated that the SBWR containment is likely to be favorably responsive and highly robust to changes in the thermal transport patterns. (author) 6 figs., 11 refs

  1. The first PANDA tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dreier, J.; Huggenberger, M.; Aubert, C.

    1996-01-01

    The PANDA test facility at PSI in Switzerland is used to study the long-term Simplified Boiling Water Reactor (SBWR) Passive Containment Cooling System (PCCS) performance. The PANDA tests demonstrate performance on a larger scale than previous tests and examine the effects of any non-uniform spatial distributions of steam and non-condensables in the system. The PANDA facility has a 1:1 vertical scale, and 1:25 ''system'' scale (volume, power, etc.). Steady-state PCCS condenser performance tests and extensive facility characterization tests have been completed. Transient system behavior tests were conducted late in 1995; results from the first three transient tests (M3 series) are reviewed. The first PANDA tests showed that the overall global behavior of the SBWR containment was globally repeatable and very favorable; the system exhibited great ''robustness.''

  2. PANDA electromagnetic calorimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Semenov, P.A.; Kharlov, Yu.V.; Uzunian, A.V.; Chernichenko, S.K.; Derevschikov, A.A.; Davidenko, A.M.; Goncharenko, Y.M.; Kachanov, V.A.; Konstantinov, A.S.; Kormilitsin, V.A.; Matulenko, Yu.A.; Meschanin, A.P.; Melnick, Y.M.; Minaev, N.G.; Mochalov, V.V.; Morozov, D.A.; Novotny, R.W.; Ryazantsev, A.A.; Soldatov, A.P.; Soloviev, L.F.

    2009-01-01

    PANDA is a challenging experimental setup to be implemented at the high-energy storage ring (HESR) at the international facility FAIR, GSI (Germany). PANDA physics program relies heavily on the capability to measure photons with excellent energy, position and timing resolution. For this purpose PANDA proposed to employ electromagnetic calorimeters using two different technologies: compact crystal calorimeter cooled to -25 deg. C around target and lead-scintillator sandwich calorimeter with optical fibers light collection (so-called shashlyk calorimeter) in the forward region. Institute for High Energy Physics (IHEP) PANDA group reports on two types of measurements performed at IHEP, Protvino: radiation hardness of the PWO crystals at -25 deg. C and testbeam studies of the energy and position resolution of the shashlyk calorimeter prototype in the energy range up to 19 GeV.

  3. A K Panda

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Bulletin of Materials Science. A K Panda. Articles written in Bulletin of Materials Science. Volume 25 Issue 6 November 2002 pp 573-575. Influence of quench rates on the properties of rapidly solidified FeNbCuSiB alloy · A K Panda I Chattoraj S Basu A Mitra · More Details Abstract Fulltext PDF. FeNbCuSiB ...

  4. Female residents experiencing medical errors in general internal medicine: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mankaka, Cindy Ottiger; Waeber, Gérard; Gachoud, David

    2014-07-10

    Doctors, especially doctors-in-training such as residents, make errors. They have to face the consequences even though today's approach to errors emphasizes systemic factors. Doctors' individual characteristics play a role in how medical errors are experienced and dealt with. The role of gender has previously been examined in a few quantitative studies that have yielded conflicting results. In the present study, we sought to qualitatively explore the experience of female residents with respect to medical errors. In particular, we explored the coping mechanisms displayed after an error. This study took place in the internal medicine department of a Swiss university hospital. Within a phenomenological framework, semi-structured interviews were conducted with eight female residents in general internal medicine. All interviews were audiotaped, fully transcribed, and thereafter analyzed. Seven main themes emerged from the interviews: (1) A perception that there is an insufficient culture of safety and error; (2) The perceived main causes of errors, which included fatigue, work overload, inadequate level of competences in relation to assigned tasks, and dysfunctional communication; (3) Negative feelings in response to errors, which included different forms of psychological distress; (4) Variable attitudes of the hierarchy toward residents involved in an error; (5) Talking about the error, as the core coping mechanism; (6) Defensive and constructive attitudes toward one's own errors; and (7) Gender-specific experiences in relation to errors. Such experiences consisted in (a) perceptions that male residents were more confident and therefore less affected by errors than their female counterparts and (b) perceptions that sexist attitudes among male supervisors can occur and worsen an already painful experience. This study offers an in-depth account of how female residents specifically experience and cope with medical errors. Our interviews with female residents convey the

  5. The prevalence of sexual harassment among female family practice residents in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vukovich, M C

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of sexual harassment as defined by the AMA among female family practice residents in the United States. Of all 1,802 U.S.FP female resident physicians surveyed, a total of 916, or 51%, completed a survey of which 32% reported unwanted sexual advances, 48% reported use of sexist teaching material, 66% reported favoritism based on gender, 36% reported poor evaluation based on gender, 37% reported malicious gossip, 5.3% reported punitive measures based on gender, and 2.2% reported sexual assault during residency. Thirty two percent of respondents reporting sexual harassment experienced negative effects including poor self-esteem, depression, psychological sequelae requiring therapy, and in some cases, transferring training programs. Sexual harassment is a common occurrence among family practice residents during residency training. Further studies are needed to examine the effect of sexual harassment policies instituted by the American Graduate Council on Medical Education on the prevalence of sexual harassment in medical training since the time of this study.

  6. from the Giant Panda

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-06-03

    Jun 3, 2009 ... RPS28 is a component of the 40S small ribosomal subunit encoded by RPS28 gene, which is specific to eukaryotes. The cDNA and the genomic sequence of RPS28 were cloned successfully from the Giant. Panda using RT-PCR technology and Touchdown-PCR, respectively. Both sequences were ...

  7. Panda, Prof. Sudhakar

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Fellow Profile. Elected: 2017 Section: Physics. Panda, Prof. Sudhakar Ph.D. (IoP, Bhubaneswar), FNA, FNASc. Date of birth: 23 February 1959. Specialization: High Energy Physics, String Theory, Cosmology, Quantum Field Theory Address: Director, Institute of Physics, Sachivalaya Marg, Bhubaneswar 751 005, Orissa

  8. amiya kumar panda

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Chemical Sciences. AMIYA KUMAR PANDA. Articles written in Journal of Chemical Sciences. Volume 130 Issue 4 April 2018 pp 42. Role of PEG 2000 in the surface modification and physicochemical characteristics of pyrazinamide loaded nanostructured lipid carriers · GOURAB KARMAKAR ...

  9. Panda, Dr Subrat Kumar

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Panda, Dr Subrat Kumar M.B.B.S. (Utkal), M.D. (Path.) (AIIMS), FNA. Date of birth: 18 November 1954. Specialization: Liver Pathology, Viral Hepatitis and Molecular Biology/Virology Address: Professor, Department of Pathology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Ansari Nagar, New Delhi 110 029, U.T.. Contact:

  10. The PANDA Barrel DIRC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwiening, J.; Ali, A.; Belias, A.; Dzhygadlo, R.; Gerhardt, A.; Götzen, K.; Kalicy, G.; Krebs, M.; Lehmann, D.; Nerling, F.; Patsyuk, M.; Peters, K.; Schepers, G.; Schmitt, L.; Schwarz, C.; Traxler, M.; Böhm, M.; Eyrich, W.; Lehmann, A.; Pfaffinger, M.; Uhlig, F.; Düren, M.; Etzelmüller, E.; Föhl, K.; Hayrapetyan, A.; Kreutzfeld, K.; Merle, O.; Rieke, J.; Schmidt, M.; Wasem, T.; Achenbach, P.; Cardinali, M.; Hoek, M.; Lauth, W.; Schlimme, S.; Sfienti, C.; Thiel, M.

    2018-03-01

    The PANDA experiment at the international accelerator Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research in Europe (FAIR) near GSI, Darmstadt, Germany will address fundamental questions of hadron physics. Excellent Particle Identification (PID) over a large range of solid angles and particle momenta will be essential to meet the objectives of the rich physics program. Charged PID for the barrel region of the PANDA target spectrometer will be provided by a DIRC (Detection of Internally Reflected Cherenkov light) detector. The Barrel DIRC will cover the polar angle range of 22o-140o and cleanly separate charged pions from kaons for momenta between 0.5 GeV/c and 3.5 GeV/c with a separation power of at least 3 standard deviations. The design is based on the successful BABAR DIRC and the SuperB FDIRC R&D with several important improvements to optimize the performance for PANDA, such as a focusing lens system, fast timing, a compact fused silica prism as expansion region, and lifetime-enhanced Microchannel-Plate PMTs for photon detection. This article describes the technical design of the PANDA Barrel DIRC and the result of the design validation using a "vertical slice" prototype in hadronic particle beams at the CERN PS.

  11. S K Panda

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Sadhana. S K Panda. Articles written in Sadhana. Volume 37 Issue 2 April 2012 pp 223-240. Multi-objective parametric optimization of powder mixed electro-discharge machining using response surface methodology and non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm · Soumyakant Padhee Niharranjan Nayak ...

  12. Tarun K Panda

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Tarun K Panda. Articles written in Journal of Chemical Sciences. Volume 126 Issue 5 September 2014 pp 1463-1475 Special issue on Chemical Crystallography. Synthesis of monomeric and polymeric alkali and alkaline earth metal complexes using a phosphinoselenoic amide ligand in metal coordination sphere.

  13. B N Panda

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Pramana – Journal of Physics. B N Panda. Articles written in Pramana – Journal of Physics. Volume 77 Issue 4 October 2011 pp 715-726 Research Articles. Effect of hybridization and dispersion of quasiparticles on the coexistent state of superconductivity and antiferromagnetism in Ni2B2C · B K Sahoo ...

  14. Dental abnormalities in eight captive giant pandas (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Y; Lin, W; Huang, S; Zhang, C; Pu, T; Ma, W; Lin, D

    2012-05-01

    Dental data from eight adult giant pandas (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) (four females and four males) were collected at the Beijing Zoo from February 2009 to July 2010. Examination findings were recorded in dental charts. All the pandas had different degrees of tooth wear. Incisors, canines and second premolars had the most abnormalities. Five animals had caries; molars were the most affected. Chip fractures were found in seven teeth (incisor, canine and premolar) of five pandas; two had complicated fractures of their canines. Premolars and other teeth were missing in three pandas. Different degrees of dental plaque and calculus were found in all animals. Two pandas had mild gingivitis; the depth of periodontal pockets in all pandas was normal (0-2 mm). Five pandas had abnormal tooth mobility. Samples of dental plaque were collected for microbial culture. Two hundred and fifty-three bacterial strains belonging to 48 species of 23 genera were isolated. Streptococcus, Moraxella, Peptostreptococcus and Porphyromonas were the dominant genera. Further research with larger sample sizes of free-ranging and captive giant pandas will be required in order to demonstrate the absence of the premolar tooth, tooth fractures and the relatively low prevalence of periodontal disease in captive giant pandas. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Habitat correlates of the red panda in the temperate forests of Bhutan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorji, Sangay; Vernes, Karl; Rajaratnam, Rajanathan

    2011-01-01

    Anthropogenic activities and associated global climate change are threatening the biodiversity in the Himalayas against a backdrop of poor knowledge of the region's threatened species. The red panda (Ailurus fulgens) is a threatened mammal confined to the eastern Himalayas, and because of Bhutan's central location in the distributional range of red pandas, its forests are integral to the long-term viability of wild populations. Detailed habitat requirements of the red panda are largely speculative, and there is virtually no ecological information available on this species in Bhutan. Between 2007 and 2009, we established 615 presence/absence plots in a systematic sampling of resident habitat types within Jigme Dorji and Thrumshingla National Parks, Bhutan, to investigate broad and fine-scale red panda habitat associations. Additional locality records of red pandas were obtained from interviewing 664 park residents. Red pandas were generally confined to cool broadleaf and conifer forests from 2,110-4,389 m above sea level (asl), with the majority of records between 2,400-3,700 m asl on south and east-facing slopes. At a finer scale, multivariate analysis revealed that red pandas were strongly associated with old growth Bhutan Fir (Abies densa) forest dominated by a dense cover of Yushania and Arundanaria bamboo with a high density of fallen logs and tree stumps at ground level; a high density of trees, dead snags, and rhododendron shrubs in the mid-storey; and locations that were close to water. Because Bhutan's temperate forests that encompass prime red panda habitat are also integral to human subsistence and socio-economic development, there exists an inadvertent conflict between the needs of people and red pandas. As such, careful sustainable management of Bhutan's temperate forests is necessary if a balance is to be met between the socioeconomic needs of people and the conservation goals for red pandas.

  16. Habitat correlates of the red panda in the temperate forests of Bhutan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangay Dorji

    Full Text Available Anthropogenic activities and associated global climate change are threatening the biodiversity in the Himalayas against a backdrop of poor knowledge of the region's threatened species. The red panda (Ailurus fulgens is a threatened mammal confined to the eastern Himalayas, and because of Bhutan's central location in the distributional range of red pandas, its forests are integral to the long-term viability of wild populations. Detailed habitat requirements of the red panda are largely speculative, and there is virtually no ecological information available on this species in Bhutan. Between 2007 and 2009, we established 615 presence/absence plots in a systematic sampling of resident habitat types within Jigme Dorji and Thrumshingla National Parks, Bhutan, to investigate broad and fine-scale red panda habitat associations. Additional locality records of red pandas were obtained from interviewing 664 park residents. Red pandas were generally confined to cool broadleaf and conifer forests from 2,110-4,389 m above sea level (asl, with the majority of records between 2,400-3,700 m asl on south and east-facing slopes. At a finer scale, multivariate analysis revealed that red pandas were strongly associated with old growth Bhutan Fir (Abies densa forest dominated by a dense cover of Yushania and Arundanaria bamboo with a high density of fallen logs and tree stumps at ground level; a high density of trees, dead snags, and rhododendron shrubs in the mid-storey; and locations that were close to water. Because Bhutan's temperate forests that encompass prime red panda habitat are also integral to human subsistence and socio-economic development, there exists an inadvertent conflict between the needs of people and red pandas. As such, careful sustainable management of Bhutan's temperate forests is necessary if a balance is to be met between the socioeconomic needs of people and the conservation goals for red pandas.

  17. Telemetry research on elusive wildlife: A synthesis of studies on giant pandas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connor, Thomas; Hull, Vanessa; Liu, Jianguo

    2016-07-01

    Telemetry studies that track animals through space and time can lead to advances in scientific understanding that are vital in conservation efforts. For example, telemetry studies of the giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) have shed light on many aspects of panda biology, but small sample sizes in each separate study make it difficult to draw broad conclusions. To overcome this problem we conducted the first synthesis of all 5 panda telemetry studies conducted to date. Using these data we investigated patterns in 6 main topics: home range, space-use interactions, core areas, movement patterns, seasonal migration and natal dispersal. We found that panda home range sizes do not vary between 2 main mountain ranges (Qionglai and Qinling), as was previously believed. Our results also suggest that female pandas increase their movement in the mating season: a behavior typically attributed only to males. We found and summarized telemetry and genetic evidence for female natal dispersal in the giant panda. Our synthesis highlights the need for additional research relating panda behavior to human disturbance factors, and can aid future studies on giant pandas as well as other species. © 2016 International Society of Zoological Sciences, Institute of Zoology/Chinese Academy of Sciences and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  18. Seasonal changes of progesterone and testosterone contents in hair of giant pandas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Dazhi; Liu Xianyi; Chen Faju

    1994-01-01

    Seasonal changes of progesterone content (PSC) in hair of three female giant pandas and testosterone content (TSC) in hair of two male giant pandas were tested by radioimmunoassay. During March to early June, PSC in two non-pregnant giant pandas (x-bar+-SD = 13.40 +- 10.06 and 10.60 +- 8.88 ng/g hair respectively) were higher than those in non-breeding season (3.07 +-1.07 and 3.20 +- 1.15 ng/g, P<0.01). PSC in a 18-year-old female giant panda remained at low levels (2.72 +- 1.49 ng/g) during March to December. In a twin-bear giant panda, PSC (6.77 +- 3.66 ng/g) appeared higher than that in non-pregnant giant pandas in non-breeding season. Around February to the end of May, TSC in two male giant pandas (1.89 +- 1.71 and 1.82 +- 1.04 ng/g respectively) were also higher than that in non-breeding season (0.98 +- 0.57 and 0.75 +- 0.39 ng/g, P<0.01). the findings from the study implied that giant panda's hair is possible to be used as a specimen to carry out steroids research in the endangered species

  19. Color vision in the giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelling, Angela S; Snyder, Rebecca J; Marr, M Jackson; Bloomsmith, Mollie A; Gardner, Wendy; Maple, Terry L

    2006-05-01

    Hue discrimination abilities of giant pandas were tested, controlling for brightness. Subjects were 2 adult giant pandas (1 male and 1 female). A simultaneous discrimination procedure without correction was used. In five tasks, white, black, and five saturations each of green, blue, and red served as positive stimuli that were paired with one or two comparison stimuli consisting of 16 saturations of gray. To demonstrate discrimination, the subjects were required to choose the positive stimulus in 16 of 20 trials (80% correct) for three consecutivesessions. Both subjects reached criterion forgreen and red. The female subject also reached criterion for blue. The male was not tested for blue. This study is a systematic replication of Bacon and Burghardt's (1976) color discrimination experiment on black bears. The results suggest that color vision in the giant panda is comparable to that of black bears and other carnivores that are not strictly nocturnal.

  20. Giant pandas use odor cues to discriminate kin from nonkin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilad, Oranit; Swaisgood, Ronald R; Owen, Megan A; Zhou, Xiaoping

    2016-08-01

    Sociality is an important factor in both the mechanism and function of kin recognition, yet it is little explored in solitary species. While there may be future opportunities for nepotistic functions of kin discrimination among solitary species, the ability to discriminate kin from nonkin may still have important roles in social regulation. The solitary giant panda Ailuropoda melanoleuca offers a good model system to explore kin discrimination in a solitary mammal. As kin discrimination in many other mammals is olfactorily mediated, we investigated whether giant pandas are able to discriminate odor cues from daughters even after months and years of separation. Our results indicate that giant pandas are capable of discriminating between kin and nonkin using odor cues available in urine and body odor. Daughters preferentially investigated the odors of unrelated adult female pandas over the odors of their mothers, and mothers spent more time investigating the odors of unrelated age-matched female pandas over those from their daughters. Because these studies were conducted months or years after the mother-daughter period of dependency ended, it is still unclear what mechanism is used for recognition. Long-term olfactory memories and phenotype matching should both be considered, and further studies are required for such determination.

  1. DENTAL ABNORMALITIES OF EIGHT WILD QINLING GIANT PANDAS (AILUROPODA MELANOLEUCA QINLINGENSIS), SHAANXI PROVINCE, CHINA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Yipeng; Chen, Si; Chao, Yanqiao; Pu, Tianchun; Xu, Hongqian; Liu, Xiaobin; Zhao, Kaihui; Nie, Yonggang; Wei, Wei; Lin, Degui

    2015-10-01

    Eight adult (six male and two female) wild Qinling giant pandas (Ailuropoda melanoleuca qinlingensis) from China National Foping Nature Reserve were tracked, and their dental data collected and recorded from October 2010 to April 2014. Each panda had dental abnormalities of varying severity. Dental wear and fracture were the most common conditions. Absent teeth were common, with premolars missing most often. Mild caries were present in five molar teeth between two animals. Different degrees of dental plaque and calculus occurred in all animals but without severe periodontal disease. Two animals with severe dental abnormalities died due to intestinal problems. Large segments of bamboo were found in their intestinal tracts, and intestinal perforation and ulcers were evident, indicating dental abnormalities can be an important factor in the health of wild giant pandas and may lead to death. Further research with larger sample sizes of wild and captive giant pandas will be required to substantiate the relationship between dental abnormalities and mortality in giant pandas.

  2. Ecological scale and seasonal heterogeneity in the spatial behaviors of giant pandas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zejun; Sheppard, James K; Swaisgood, Ronald R; Wang, Guan; Nie, Yonggang; Wei, Wei; Zhao, Naxun; Wei, Fuwen

    2014-01-01

    We report on the first study to track the spatial behaviors of wild giant pandas (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) using high-resolution global positioning system (GPS) telemetry. Between 2008 and 2009, 4 pandas (2 male and 2 female) were tracked in Foping Reserve, China for an average of 305 days (± 54.8 SE). Panda home ranges were larger than those of previous very high frequency tracking studies, with a bimodal distribution of space-use and distinct winter and summer centers of activity. Home range sizes were larger in winter than in summer, although there was considerable individual variability. All tracked pandas exhibited individualistic, unoriented and multiphasic movement paths, with a high level of tortuosity within seasonal core habitats and directed, linear, large-scale movements between habitats. Pandas moved from low elevation winter habitats to high elevation (>2000 m) summer habitats in May, when temperatures averaged 17.5 °C (± 0.3 SE), and these large-scale movements took panda mean elevation occurred in Jul, after which they began slow, large-scale movements back to winter habitats that were completed in Nov. An adult female panda made 2 longdistance movements during the mating season. Pandas remain close to rivers and streams during winter, possibly reflecting the elevated water requirements to digest their high-fiber food. Panda movement path tortuosity and first-passage-time as a function of spatial scale indicated a mean peak in habitat search effort and patch use of approximately 700 m. Despite a high degree of spatial overlap between panda home ranges, particularly in winter, we detected neither avoidance nor attraction behavior between conspecifics. © 2012 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd, ISZS and IOZ/CAS.

  3. Dealing with female sexuality: training, attitude, and practice of obstetrics and gynecology residents from a developing country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Teresa Cristina Souza Barroso; de Souza, Eduardo; da Silva, Ivaldo; Torloni, Maria Regina; Ribeiro, Meireluci Costa; Nakamura, Mary Uchiyama

    2015-05-01

    There is little research on how obstetrics and gynecology (Ob/Gyn) residents deal with female sexuality, especially during pregnancy. The aim of this study was to assess the training, attitude, and practice of Ob/Gyn residents about sexuality. A cross-sectional survey of Brazilian Ob/Gyn residents enrolling in an online sexology course was conducted. A questionnaire assessed their training in sexuality during medical school and residency and their attitude and practice on sexual issues during pregnancy. Training, attitude, and practice of Ob/Gyn residents regarding sexuality were the main outcome measures. A total of 197 residents, from 21 different programs, answered the online questionnaire. Mean age was 27.9 ± 2.2, most were female (87%), single (79%), and had graduated in the last 5 years (91%). Almost two-thirds (63%) stated that they did not receive any training at all and 28% reported having only up to 6 hours of training about sexuality in medical school. Approximately half of the respondents (49%) stated that they had received no formal training about sexuality during their residency up to that moment and 29% had received ≤6 hours of training. Over half (56%) never or rarely took a sexual history, 51% stated that they did not feel competent or confident to answer their pregnant patients' questions about sexuality, and 84% attributed their difficulties in dealing with sexual complaints to their lack of specific knowledge on the topic. The vast majority of Brazilian Ob/Gyn residents enrolling in a sexuality course had little previous formal training on this topic in medical school and during their residency programs. Most residents do not take sexual histories of pregnant patients, do not feel confident in answering questions about sexuality in pregnancy, and attribute these difficulties to lack of knowledge. These findings point to a clear need for additional training in sexuality among Brazilian Ob/Gyn residents. © 2015 International Society for

  4. Metabolic rate of the red panda, Ailurus fulgens, a dietary bamboo specialist.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuxiang Fei

    Full Text Available The red panda (Ailurus fulgens has a similar diet, primarily bamboo, and shares the same habitat as the giant panda, Ailuropoda melanoleuca. There are considerable efforts underway to understand the ecology of the red panda and to increase its populations in natural reserves. Yet it is difficult to design an effective strategy for red panda reintroduction if we do not understand its basic biology. Here we report the resting metabolic rate of the red panda and find that it is higher than previously measured on animals from a zoo. The resting metabolic rate was 0.290 ml/g/h (range 0.204-0.342 in summer and 0.361 ml/g/h in winter (range 0.331-0.406, with a statistically significant difference due to season and test temperature. Temperatures in summer were probably within the thermal neutral zone for metabolism but winter temperatures were below the thermal neutral zone. There was no difference in metabolic rate between male and female red pandas and no difference due to mass. Our values for metabolic rate were much higher than those measured by McNab for 2 red pandas from a zoo. The larger sample size (17, more natural conditions at the Panda Base and improved accuracy of the metabolic instruments provided more accurate metabolism measurements. Contrary to our expectations based on their low quality bamboo diet, the metabolic rates of red pandas were similar to mammals of the same size. Based on their metabolic rates red pandas would not be limited by their food supply in natural reserves.

  5. Metabolic rate of the red panda, Ailurus fulgens, a dietary bamboo specialist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fei, Yuxiang; Hou, Rong; Paladino, Frank V.; Qi, Dunwu; Zhang, Zhihe

    2017-01-01

    The red panda (Ailurus fulgens) has a similar diet, primarily bamboo, and shares the same habitat as the giant panda, Ailuropoda melanoleuca. There are considerable efforts underway to understand the ecology of the red panda and to increase its populations in natural reserves. Yet it is difficult to design an effective strategy for red panda reintroduction if we do not understand its basic biology. Here we report the resting metabolic rate of the red panda and find that it is higher than previously measured on animals from a zoo. The resting metabolic rate was 0.290 ml/g/h (range 0.204–0.342) in summer and 0.361 ml/g/h in winter (range 0.331–0.406), with a statistically significant difference due to season and test temperature. Temperatures in summer were probably within the thermal neutral zone for metabolism but winter temperatures were below the thermal neutral zone. There was no difference in metabolic rate between male and female red pandas and no difference due to mass. Our values for metabolic rate were much higher than those measured by McNab for 2 red pandas from a zoo. The larger sample size (17), more natural conditions at the Panda Base and improved accuracy of the metabolic instruments provided more accurate metabolism measurements. Contrary to our expectations based on their low quality bamboo diet, the metabolic rates of red pandas were similar to mammals of the same size. Based on their metabolic rates red pandas would not be limited by their food supply in natural reserves. PMID:28306740

  6. Metabolic rate of the red panda, Ailurus fulgens, a dietary bamboo specialist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fei, Yuxiang; Hou, Rong; Spotila, James R; Paladino, Frank V; Qi, Dunwu; Zhang, Zhihe

    2017-01-01

    The red panda (Ailurus fulgens) has a similar diet, primarily bamboo, and shares the same habitat as the giant panda, Ailuropoda melanoleuca. There are considerable efforts underway to understand the ecology of the red panda and to increase its populations in natural reserves. Yet it is difficult to design an effective strategy for red panda reintroduction if we do not understand its basic biology. Here we report the resting metabolic rate of the red panda and find that it is higher than previously measured on animals from a zoo. The resting metabolic rate was 0.290 ml/g/h (range 0.204-0.342) in summer and 0.361 ml/g/h in winter (range 0.331-0.406), with a statistically significant difference due to season and test temperature. Temperatures in summer were probably within the thermal neutral zone for metabolism but winter temperatures were below the thermal neutral zone. There was no difference in metabolic rate between male and female red pandas and no difference due to mass. Our values for metabolic rate were much higher than those measured by McNab for 2 red pandas from a zoo. The larger sample size (17), more natural conditions at the Panda Base and improved accuracy of the metabolic instruments provided more accurate metabolism measurements. Contrary to our expectations based on their low quality bamboo diet, the metabolic rates of red pandas were similar to mammals of the same size. Based on their metabolic rates red pandas would not be limited by their food supply in natural reserves.

  7. The Influence of Activity Space on the Behavior of Giant Pandas (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) in Captivity

    OpenAIRE

    PENG, Jianjun; JIANG, Zhigang; HUANG, Qunce; QIN, Guangyong; LI, Yuxiao; JIAO, Zhen; ZHANG, Fengqiu

    2014-01-01

    We studied the impact of activity space on the estrous behaviors of 11 healthy adult female and 3 adult male giant pandas with natural mating ability from the Beijing, Lanzhou, and Chengdu Zoos, and the Chengdu Giant Panda Breeding Center during their non-mating and mating seasons from November of 1999 to May of 2003. We compared the frequencies of estrous behavior and activities of giant pandas that were kept in activity spaces of various sizes during their estrous period. We found that the ...

  8. Repeatable Reverse Engineering with PANDA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-08

    Pearson’s Chi-Squared test), but their outputs are not random. We recently used this test to locate the DRM decryption function within Spotify and...security through control data integrity. In International Symposium on Microarchitecture, 2004. [13] Brendan Dolan-Gavitt. Breaking Spotify DRM with...PANDA. http: //moyix.blogspot.com/2014/07/breaking- spotify -drm-with-panda.html, July 2014. [14] Brendan Dolan-Gavitt, Tim Leek, Josh Hodosh, and Wenke

  9. Inbreeding and inbreeding avoidance in wild giant pandas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yibo; Nie, Yonggang; Wei, Wei; Ma, Tianxiao; Van Horn, Russell; Zheng, Xiaoguang; Swaisgood, Ronald R; Zhou, Zhixin; Zhou, Wenliang; Yan, Li; Zhang, Zejun; Wei, Fuwen

    2017-10-01

    Inbreeding can have negative consequences on population and individual fitness, which could be counteracted by inbreeding avoidance mechanisms. However, the inbreeding risk and inbreeding avoidance mechanisms in endangered species are less studied. The giant panda, a solitary and threatened species, lives in many small populations and suffers from habitat fragmentation, which may aggravate the risk of inbreeding. Here, we performed long-term observations of reproductive behaviour, sampling of mother-cub pairs and large-scale genetic analyses on wild giant pandas. Moderate levels of inbreeding were found in 21.1% of mating pairs, 9.1% of parent pairs and 7.7% of panda cubs, but no high-level inbreeding occurred. More significant levels of inbreeding may be avoided passively by female-biased natal dispersal rather than by breeding dispersal or active relatedness-based mate choice mechanisms. The level of inbreeding in giant pandas is greater than expected for a solitary mammal and thus warrants concern for potential inbreeding depression, particularly in small populations isolated by continuing habitat fragmentation, which will reduce female dispersal and increase the risk of inbreeding. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. From Paresis to PANDAS and PANS

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Former NIMH Director Thomas Insel: From Paresis to PANDAS and PANS By Thomas Insel on March 26, ... of Pediatric Autoimmune Neuropsychiatric Disorder Associated with Streptococcus ( PANDAS ). Fortunately, the field is moving toward consensus on ...

  11. Delayed implantation in giant pandas: the first comprehensive empirical evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hemin; Li, Desheng; Wang, Chendong; Hull, Vanessa

    2009-12-01

    Successful conservation of an endangered species relies on a good understanding of its reproductive biology, but there are large knowledge gaps. For example, many questions remain unanswered with regard to gestation and fetal development in the giant panda. We take advantage of a sample size that is unprecedented for this species (n=13) to explore patterns in reproductive development across individuals at the China Conservation and Research Center for the Giant Panda. We use ultrasound techniques on multiple giant pandas for the first time to empirically confirm what has long been suspected that pandas exhibit delayed implantation of the embryo. We also show that the duration of postfetal detection period is remarkably similar across individuals (16.85+/-1.34 days). Detection of fetus by ultrasound was strongly correlated to the peak in urinary progesterone (r=0.96, t=8.48, d.f.=8, P=0.0001) and swelling in the mammary glands (r=0.79, t=3.61, d.f.=8, P=0.007) and vulva (r=0.91, t=6.40, d.f.=8, P=0.0002) of adult females. When controlling for both the duration of the total gestation period and the postfetal detection period, infant birth weight was only significantly predicted by the latter (beta=11.25, s.e.m.=4.98, t=2.26, P=0.05), suggesting that delayed implantation increases flexibility in the timing of birth but is not important in dictating infant growth. This study informs reproductive biology by exploring the little-studied phenomenon of delayed implantation in relationship to physiological changes in pregnant giant panda females.

  12. Effect of Group Logotherapy on Life Expectancy and Mental and Social Wellbeing of The Female Elderly Residents of Nursing Homes in Dubai

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Saffarinia

    2018-01-01

    Conclusion It was concluded that mental health professionals can use group logotherapy to improve life expectancy and mental and social wellbeing of female elderly residents of nursing homes. Also, it is suggested that future research should investigate the effectiveness of group logotherapy in improving other positive psychological constructs in female and male elderly residents of nursing homes.

  13. Evaluating landscape options for corridor restoration between giant panda reserves.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Wang

    Full Text Available The establishment of corridors can offset the negative effects of habitat fragmentation by connecting isolated habitat patches. However, the practical value of corridor planning is minimal if corridor identification is not based on reliable quantitative information about species-environment relationships. An example of this need for quantitative information is planning for giant panda conservation. Although the species has been the focus of intense conservation efforts for decades, most corridor projects remain hypothetical due to the lack of reliable quantitative researches at an appropriate spatial scale. In this paper, we evaluated a framework for giant panda forest corridor planning. We linked our field survey data with satellite imagery, and conducted species occupancy modelling to examine the habitat use of giant panda within the potential corridor area. We then conducted least-cost and circuit models to identify potential paths of dispersal across the landscape, and compared the predicted cost under current conditions and alternative conservation management options considered during corridor planning. We found that due to giant panda's association with areas of low elevation and flat terrain, human infrastructures in the same area have resulted in corridor fragmentation. We then identified areas with high potential to function as movement corridors, and our analysis of alternative conservation scenarios showed that both forest/bamboo restoration and automobile tunnel construction would significantly improve the effectiveness of corridor, while residence relocation would not significantly improve corridor effectiveness in comparison with the current condition. The framework has general value in any conservation activities that anticipate improving habitat connectivity in human modified landscapes. Specifically, our study suggested that, in this landscape, automobile tunnels are the best means to remove current barriers to giant panda

  14. The Detector Control of the PANDA Experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feldbauer, F

    2014-01-01

    The PANDA experiment will be built at the antiproton storage ring HESR, a part of the new accelerator facility FAIR in Darmstadt, Germany. PANDA aims amongst other topics for high precision measurements in hadron spectroscopy and search for exotic matter. To guarantee the high resolution of the different components a detector control system (DCS) monitoring temperatures, humidity, pressure, and controlling chillers and power supplies is needed. The DCS of PANDA is built using the open-source software package EPICS (Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System) with a PANDA specific version of Control-System Studio. In this document the general concepts of the PANDA DCS will be discussed

  15. The PANDA Barrel DIRC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzhygadlo, R.; Schwarz, C.; Belias, A.; Gerhardt, A.; Götzen, K.; Kalicy, G.; Krebs, M.; Lehmann, D.; Nerling, F.; Patsyuk, M.; Peters, K.; Schepers, G.; Schmitt, L.; Schwiening, J.; Traxler, M.; Zühlsdorf, M.; Britting, A.; Eyrich, W.; Lehmann, A.; Pfaffinger, M.; Uhlig, F.; Düren, M.; Etzelmüller, E.; Föhl, K.; Hayrapetyan, A.; Kröck, B.; Merle, O.; Rieke, J.; Schmidt, M.; Cowie, E.; Keri, T.; Achenbach, P.; Cardinali, M.; Hoek, M.; Lauth, W.; Schlimme, S.; Sfienti, C.; Thiel, M.

    2016-05-01

    The PANDA detector at the international accelerator Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research in Europe (FAIR) addresses fundamental questions of hadron physics. Experiments concerning charmonium spectroscopy, the search for hybrids and glueballs and the interaction of hidden and open charm particles with nucleons and nuclei will be performed with antiproton beams impinging on hydrogen or nuclear targets. Cooled beams allow the precision scan of resonances in formation experiments. The momentum range of the antiproton beam between 1.5 GeV/c and 15 GeV/c tests predictions by perturbation theory and will reveal deviations originating from strong QCD . An excellent hadronic particle identification will be accomplished by DIRC (Detection of Internally Reflected Cherenkov light) counters. The design for the barrel region is based on the successful BaBar DIRC with several key improvements, such as fast photon timing and a compact imaging region. DIRC designs based on different radiator geometries with several focusing options were studied in simulation. The performance of each design was characterized in terms of photon yield and single photon Cherenkov angle resolution. Selected design options were implemented in prototypes and tested with hadronic particle beams at GSI and CERN.

  16. The PANDA backward calorimeter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmadi, Heybat; Deiseroth, Malte; Khaneft, Dmitry; Noll, Oliver; Valente, Roserio; Zambrana, Manuel [Johannes Gutenberg-Universitaet Mainz (Germany); Helmholtz-Institut Mainz (Germany); Ahmed, Samer [Helmholtz-Institut Mainz (Germany); Capozza, Luigi; Dbeyssi, Alaa; Froehlich, Bertold; Lin, Dexu; Maas, Frank; Mora Espi, Maria Carmen; Morales Morales, Cristina; Rodriguez Pineiro, David; Zimmermann, Iris [Helmholtz-Institut Mainz (Germany); GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung GmbH (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    The PANDA experiment at FAIR is being devised for a broad physics programme in hadron structure and spectroscopy. Full and accurate reconstruction of scattering events, reliable particle identification and an almost complete solid angle coverage are required. An important tool for meeting this requirements will be the electromagnetic calorimeter (EMC). It is required to measure particle energies ranging from some MeVs to several GeVs with a relative resolution of 1% + 2%/√(E/GeV), assuring a compact geometry and radiation hardness at the same time. For these reasons PbWO{sub 4} was chosen as scintillation material. The whole calorimeter has been designed in three sections: a forward end-cap, a central barrel and a backward end-cap (BWEC). The BWEC, under development at Mainz, will cover scattering polar angles between 140 and 170 and will be made of 524 PbWO{sub 4} crystals. The scintillation light will be detected by large area avalanche photodiodes which will be read out by customised front-end ASIC chips. A status report on the development of the BWEC will be given in this contribution.

  17. Three cases giant panda attack on human at Beijing Zoo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Peixun; Wang, Tianbing; Xiong, Jian; Xue, Feng; Xu, Hailin; Chen, Jianhai; Zhang, Dianying; Fu, Zhongguo; Jiang, Baoguo

    2014-01-01

    Panda is regarded as Chinese national treasure. Most people always thought they were cute and just ate bamboo and had never imagined a panda could be vicious. Giant panda attacks on human are rare. There, we present three cases of giant panda attacks on humans at the Panda House at Beijing Zoo from September 2006 to June 2009 to warn people of the giant panda's potentially dangerous behavior.

  18. Fatal canine distemper virus infection of giant pandas in China

    OpenAIRE

    Feng, Na; Yu, Yicong; Wang, Tiecheng; Wilker, Peter; Wang, Jianzhong; Li, Yuanguo; Sun, Zhe; Gao, Yuwei; Xia, Xianzhu

    2016-01-01

    We report an outbreak of canine distemper virus (CDV) infection among endangered giant pandas (Ailuropoda melanoleuca). Five of six CDV infected giant pandas died. The surviving giant panda was previously vaccinated against CDV. Genomic sequencing of CDV isolated from one of the infected pandas (giant panda/SX/2014) suggests it belongs to the Asia-1 cluster. The hemagglutinin protein of the isolated virus and virus sequenced from lung samples originating from deceased giant pandas all possess...

  19. Panda, Prof. Dulal

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    . Specialization: Biochemistry, Cell Biology, and Biophysics Address: School of Biosciences & Bioengineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Powai, Mumbai 400 076, Maharashtra Contact: Office: (022) 2576 7838. Residence: (022) 2572 ...

  20. The use of the gonadotropin-releasing hormone analog deslorelin for short-term contraception in red pandas (Ailurus fulgens).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koeppel, Katja N; Barrows, Michelle; Visser, Katherine

    2014-01-15

    Red pandas (Ailurus fulgens) are threatened with extinction owing to habitat loss, exacerbated by their unique ecology and low fecundity. Regional breeding programs manage captive red panda populations. Recommendations not to breed may be made for various reasons, including genetic overrepresentation of certain individuals. No recommendations have been published on the use of contraception for red pandas. This article discusses the use of the GnRH analog deslorelin as a reversible method of contraception in both male and female pandas. The mean time from last contraception to conception was 3 years with a 4.6-mg deslorelin implant. The average dose of GnRH implant received was 1.09 mg/kg (range, 0.88-1.32). Males returned to breeding sooner than females. No reproductive side effects were noted with up to three consecutive annual GnRH implants. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Profile of microRNA in Giant Panda Blood: A Resource for Immune-Related and Novel microRNAs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Mingyu; Du, Lianming; Li, Wujiao; Shen, Fujun; Fan, Zhenxin; Jian, Zuoyi; Hou, Rong; Shen, Yongmei; Yue, Bisong; Zhang, Xiuyue

    2015-01-01

    The giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) is one of the world's most beloved endangered mammals. Although the draft genome of this species had been assembled, little was known about the composition of its microRNAs (miRNAs) or their functional profiles. Recent studies demonstrated that changes in the expression of miRNAs are associated with immunity. In this study, miRNAs were extracted from the blood of four healthy giant pandas and sequenced by Illumina next generation sequencing technology. As determined by miRNA screening, a total of 276 conserved miRNAs and 51 novel putative miRNAs candidates were detected. After differential expression analysis, we noticed that the expressions of 7 miRNAs were significantly up-regulated in young giant pandas compared with that of adults. Moreover, 2 miRNAs were up-regulated in female giant pandas and 1 in the male individuals. Target gene prediction suggested that the miRNAs of giant panda might be relevant to the expressions of 4,602 downstream genes. Subseuqently, the predicted target genes were conducted to KEGG (Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes) pathway analysis and we found that these genes were mainly involved in host immunity, including the Ras signaling pathway, the PI3K-Akt signaling pathway, and the MAPK signaling pathway. In conclusion, our results provide the first miRNA profiles of giant panda blood, and the predicted functional analyses may open an avenue for further study of giant panda immunity.

  2. 76 FR 54468 - Petra Pet, Inc. (a/k/a Petrapport) v. Panda Logistics Limited; Panda Logistics Co., Ltd. (f/k/a...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    ... FEDERAL MARITIME COMMISSION [Docket No. 11-14] Petra Pet, Inc. (a/k/a Petrapport) v. Panda Logistics Limited; Panda Logistics Co., Ltd. (f/k/a panda Int'l Transportation Co., Ltd.); and RDM Solutions... ``Complainant,'' against Respondents Panda Logistics Limited, Panda Logistics Co., Ltd. (f/k/a Panda Int'l...

  3. Panda, Dr Subrat Kumar

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Date of birth: 18 November 1954. Specialization: Liver Pathology, Viral Hepatitis and Molecular Biology/Virology Address: Professor, Department of Pathology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Ansari Nagar, New Delhi 110 029, U.T.. Contact: Office: (011) 2659 4924. Residence: (011) 2659 8915. Mobile: 98104 77583

  4. Panda, Prof. Sudhakar

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Date of birth: 23 February 1959. Specialization: High Energy Physics, String Theory, Cosmology, Quantum Field Theory Address: Director, Institute of Physics, Sachivalaya Marg, Bhubaneswar 751 005, Orissa Contact: Office: (0674) 230 1825, 230 6404. Residence: (0674) 230 1367, 230 6601. Mobile: 94375 59215

  5. Psychological characteristics of the male beater of their female partner, residing in city of Bucaramanga, Colombia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armando Aguilera Torrado

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the personalities of the male beater of their female partner. Method: We evaluate, by means of BFQ / IMAFE tests, 50 convicted aggressors, registered by the Attorney General Office. We also interviewedthem. Results: Aggressors had very low marks in general culture, information, cooperativism, cordiality, altruism, friendship, generosity and empathy. They showed a low marks in reflexion, order, and in being meticulous, diligent, perseverant, as wells as, in being energetic and dynamic. High marks in submission, and in being anxious, vulnerable, emotive, impulsive, impatient and irritable. The vast majority identifies the above symptoms as culturally associate with feminism. It is clear through the interview that the economical stability, alcohol abuse or their female partner plays an important role to explain their behavior. They do not consider themselves as being violent with their female partner, rather they blame upon their cultural, social and economical status, as being the direct responsible for beating women. Conclusions: The female aggressor, usually, is a man with traditional ideas, paternal values and resistant to changes. This will be reflected upon his personality characteristics and the meaning he has for his violent behavior. Probably this may, also, reflects a homophobic and misogynist feelings, which, usually, is a product of gender identity and in the process of building his masculinity, no responding, also, to the request from the “macho” pattern asked by his paternal culture.

  6. The PANDA experiment at FAIR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bussa, M.P.

    2005-01-01

    The approved FAIR upgrade of the GSI facility in Darmstadt, Germany, includes the construction of a High Energy Storage Ring (HESR) for high intensity, phase space cooled antiprotons with momenta up to 15 GeV/c. A wide physics program is planned at this facility to investigate fundamental questions of hadron and nuclear physics in interactions of antiprotons with nucleons and nuclei. To serve the many experiments planned at this new facility, an universal, modular, hermetic spectrometer called PANDA (Proton ANtiproton Detector Array) is planned. This talk presents an overview of the physics program pursued by this project and of the PANDA detector system. The feasibility of measurements in the sector of spin degrees of freedom of quarks will be also discussed. (author)

  7. The PANDA Endcap Disc DIRC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Föhl, K.; Ali, A.; Belias, A.; Dzhygadlo, R.; Gerhardt, A.; Götzen, K.; Kalicy, G.; Krebs, M.; Lehmann, D.; Nerling, F.; Patsyuk, M.; Peters, K.; Schepers, G.; Schmitt, L.; Schwarz, C.; Schwiening, J.; Traxler, M.; Böhm, M.; Eyrich, W.; Lehmann, A.; Pfaffinger, M.; Uhlig, F.; Düren, M.; Etzelmüller, E.; Hayrapetyan, A.; Kreutzfeld, K.; Merle, O.; Rieke, J.; Schmidt, M.; Wasem, T.; Achenbach, P.; Cardinali, M.; Hoek, M.; Lauth, W.; Schlimme, S.; Sfienti, C.; Thiel, M.

    2018-02-01

    Positively identifying charged kaons in the PANDA forward endcap solid angle range can be achieved with the Endcap Disc DIRC, allowing kaon-pion separation from 1 up to 4 GeV/c with a separation power of at least 3 standard deviations. Design, performance, and components of this DIRC are given, including the recently introduced TOFPET-ASIC based read-out. Results of a prototype operated in a test beam at DESY in 2016 are shown.

  8. The ̅PANDA Detector at FAIR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikegami Andersson, W

    2016-01-01

    The future ̅PANDA detector at FAIR is a state-of-the-art internal target detector designed for strong interaction studies. By utilizing an antiproton beam, a rich and unique physics programme is planned. The ̅PANDA experiment, as well as feasibility studies for hyperon and charmonium physics, are discussed. (paper)

  9. The ̅PANDA Detector at FAIR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikegami Andersson, W.; ̅PANDA Collaboration

    2016-11-01

    The future ̅PANDA detector at FAIR is a state-of-the-art internal target detector designed for strong interaction studies. By utilizing an antiproton beam, a rich and unique physics programme is planned. The ̅PANDA experiment, as well as feasibility studies for hyperon and charmonium physics, are discussed.

  10. Three cases giant panda attack on human at Beijing Zoo

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Peixun; Wang, Tianbing; Xiong, Jian; Xue, Feng; Xu, Hailin; Chen, Jianhai; Zhang, Dianying; Fu, Zhongguo; Jiang, Baoguo

    2014-01-01

    Panda is regarded as Chinese national treasure. Most people always thought they were cute and just ate bamboo and had never imagined a panda could be vicious. Giant panda attacks on human are rare. There, we present three cases of giant panda attacks on humans at the Panda House at Beijing Zoo from September 2006 to June 2009 to warn people of the giant panda’s potentially dangerous behavior.

  11. Urinary profiles of luteinizing hormone, estrogen and progestagen during the estrous and gestational periods in giant pandas (Ailuropda melanoleuca).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Kailai; Yie, Shangmian; Zhang, Zhihe; Wang, Juan; Cai, Zhigang; Luo, Li; Liu, Yuliang; Wang, Hairui; Huang, He; Wang, Chengdong; Huang, Xiangming; Lan, Jingchao; Hou, Rong

    2017-01-16

    Luteinizing hormone (LH) is one of the main pituitary hormones that regulate ovulation, however its role has not been studied in giant panda. In this study, we developed an ELISA method for the detection of panda urinary LH. We analyzed urinary hormones of 24 female pandas during 36 breeding periods, we found females could easily be impregnated if the first mating occurred within 10 hours after LH peak. We also found the patterns of the ratios of urinary LH and progestagen in pandas that bred and successfully gave birth were significantly different from those that bred but failed to give birth. These data was the first to provide the urinary LH profiles during the estrous and gestational periods in pandas, and demonstrated that the appearance of the urinary LH peak indicated the timing of ovulation. The LH detection together with estrogen analysis makes the window for successful mating narrower than previously reported. Moreover, detection of urinary LH and progestagen can be used to discriminate between pregnancies and pseudopregnancies/miscarriages in the species. Thus, our findings suggest that LH not only plays a critical role in regulating ovulation but also plays an important role in maintaining pregnancy in the giant panda.

  12. TEPSS related PANDA tests (ESBWR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huggenberger, M.; Aubert, C.; Bandurski, T.; Dreier, J.; Fischer, O.; Strassberger, H.J.; Yadigaroglu, G.

    2000-01-01

    A number of test series to investigate passive safety systems for the next generation of Light Water Reactors have been performed in the PANDA facility at the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI). The large scale thermalhydraulic test facility allows to investigate Passive Containment Cooling Systems (PCCS) and the long-term containment behaviour after a Loss of Coolant Accident (LOCA). After successful completion of the ALPHA phase-I test series, where the PCCS performance of the Simplified Boiling Water Reactor (SBWR) was examined, phase-II was initiated in 1996 with new projects, all with international participation (EC Fourth Framework Programme on Nuclear Fission Safety). One of these projects is entitled 'Technology Enhancement for Passive Safety Systems' (TEPSS). TEPSS is focused on the European Simplified Boiling Water Reactor (ESBWR). Several new containment features and PCCS long-term response under different LOCA scenarios were investigated in PANDA. The PCCS start-up was demonstrated under challenging conditions. The effect of nitrogen hidden somewhere in the drywell and released later in the transient was simulated by injecting air for a certain period into the drywell. The effect of light gases on the PCCS performance was investigated by helium injection to the drywell. Finally, the influence of low PCC pool levels on PCCS and containment performance was examined. The main findings were that the PCCS works as intended and shows generally a favourable and robust long-term post LOCA behaviour. The system starts working even under extreme conditions and trapped air released from the drywell later in the transient does only temporarily reduce the PCCS performance. The new PANDA test series provided an extensive data base which will contribute to further improve containment design of passive plants and allow for system code assessment in a wide parameter range. (author)

  13. Comparison of microhabitats and foraging strategies between the captive-born Zhangxiang and wild giant pandas: implications for future reintroduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Miaowen; Yuan, Shibin; Yang, Zisong; Hong, Mingsheng; Yang, Xuyu; Gu, Xiaodong; Huang, Feng; Zhang, Zejun

    2015-10-01

    The female giant panda Zhangxiang (pedigree number 826) was born on August 20, 2011 in Wolong Nature Reserve, China. On November 6, 2013, Zhangxiang was transported into the acclimatization enclosure in the Liziping Nature Reserve. Before Zhangxiang left the enclosure into the wild, we conducted the first study to compare microhabitats and foraging strategies between Zhangxiang in the enclosure and giant pandas in the wild. Compared with the latter, microhabitats of Zhangxiang in the enclosure are characteristic of gentler slope, more trees, higher canopy, smaller tree DBH, and lower density of living bamboos. Diet composition and foraging behaviors significantly differed between Zhangxiang and wild giant pandas, perhaps reflecting the combined consequence of environmental conditions (e.g., bamboo species) and individual status (e.g., age, mastication ability, etc.). The difference in microhabitats and foraging strategies between Zhangxiang and wild giant pandas implied that after being released into the natural habitat in the reserve, Zhangxiang will have to adapt to the environmental conditions once again. For future reintroduction, the enclosure can be extended to the Bashania spanostachya forest in the reserve, and captive giant pandas for release can thus normally transit into the wild without human intervention during acclimatization period. For other acclimatization enclosures to be constructed in the future, ecological environment inside, including topography, forests, and bamboos as well, should as possible as can match the habitat that the giant panda to-be-reinforced populations inhabit.

  14. The PANDA detector at FAIR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bersani, Andrea

    2012-01-01

    The PANDA detector will be installed at FAIR to enterprise a long-term, wide-spectrum physics program in the strong interaction framework. The detector will be installed at the HESR accumulation ring, which will provide an anti-proton beam of unprecedented luminosity and momentum definition. The beam will interact with an internal target. The detector has been designed to allow a 4π coverage around the interaction region. Due to the relatively high energy of the beam, up to 15 GeV, PANDA will feature two magnetic spectrometers: the target spectrometer (TS), with a superconducting solenoid and covering the interaction region, and a forward spectrometer (FS), with a normal-conducting dipole and covering the small angles region. Since the physics program is wide and the requirements on the various subsystems are different, the detector has been designed to be as flexible as possible. The complete detector will be described in detail, both from the viewpoint of the proposed techniques and from the viewpoint of the expected performances. An overview of the status of various components of the detector will be presented, too.

  15. The PANDA detector at FAIR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bersani, Andrea

    2012-10-01

    The PANDA detector will be installed at FAIR to enterprise a long-term, wide-spectrum physics program in the strong interaction framework. The detector will be installed at the HESR accumulation ring, which will provide an anti-proton beam of unprecedented luminosity and momentum definition. The beam will interact with an internal target. The detector has been designed to allow a 4π coverage around the interaction region. Due to the relatively high energy of the beam, up to 15 GeV, PANDA will feature two magnetic spectrometers: the target spectrometer (TS), with a superconducting solenoid and covering the interaction region, and a forward spectrometer (FS), with a normal-conducting dipole and covering the small angles region. Since the physics program is wide and the requirements on the various subsystems are different, the detector has been designed to be as flexible as possible. The complete detector will be described in detail, both from the viewpoint of the proposed techniques and from the viewpoint of the expected performances. An overview of the status of various components of the detector will be presented, too.

  16. The Panda Strip Asic: Pasta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, A.

    2018-01-01

    PASTA is the 64 channel front-end chip, designed in a 110 nm CMOS technology to read out the strip sensors of the Micro Vertex Detector (MVD) of the PANDA experiment. This chip provides high resolution timestamp and deposited charge information by means of the time-over-threshold technique. Its working principle is based on a predecessor, the TOFPET ASIC, that was designed for medical applications. A general restructuring of the architecture was needed, in order to meet the specific requirements imposed by the physics programme of PANDA, especially in terms of radiation tolerance, spatial constraints, and readout in absence of a first level hardware trigger. The first revision of PASTA is currently under evaluation at the Forschungszentrum Jülich, where a data acquisition system dedicated to the MVD prototypes has been developed. This paper describes the main aspect of the chip design, gives an overview of the data acquisition system used for the verification, and shows the first results regarding the performance of PASTA.

  17. Prospective Diagnosis and Treatment of Pandas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Twelve school-aged children with new-onset pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorder with group A streptococcal infection (PANDAS were identified over a 3-year period (1998-2000 at the University of Rochester, NY.

  18. Blood Lead Levels in Captive Giant Pandas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wintle, Nathan J P; Martin-Wintle, Meghan S; Zhou, Xiaoping; Zhang, Hemin

    2018-01-01

    Fifteen giant pandas (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) from the Chinese Conservation and Research Center for the Giant Panda (CCRCGP) in Bifengxia, Sichuan, China were analyzed for blood lead concentrations (Pb-B) during the 2017 breeding season. Thirteen of the 15 bears showed Pb-B below the method detection limit (MDL) of 3.3 µg/dL. The two remaining bears, although above the MDL, contained very low concentrations of lead of 3.9 and 4.5 µg/dL. All 15 giant pandas in this analysis had Pb-B concentrations that were within normal background concentrations for mammals in uncontaminated environments. For a threatened species, whose native country is plagued by reports of extremely high air pollution, our findings suggest that giant pandas at the CCRCGP are not absorbing lead at concentrations that would adversely affect their health.

  19. Innate predator recognition in giant pandas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Yiping; Huang, Yan; Zhang, Hemin; Li, Desheng; Yang, Bo; Wei, Ming; Zhou, Yingmin; Liu, Yang

    2012-02-01

    Innate predator recognition confers a survival advantage to prey animals. We investigate whether giant pandas exhibit innate predator recognition. We analyzed behavioral responses of 56 naive adult captive giant pandas (Ailuropoda melanoleuca), to urine from predators and non-predators and water control. Giant pandas performed more chemosensory investigation and displayed flehmen behaviors more frequently in response to predator urine compared to both non-predator urine and water control. Subjects also displayed certain defensive behaviors, as indicated by vigilance, and in certain cases, fleeing behaviors. Our results suggest that there is an innate component to predator recognition in captive giant pandas, although such recognition was only slight to moderate. These results have implications that may be applicable to the conservation and reintroduction of this endangered species.

  20. Overview on PANDA test facility and ISP-42 PANDA tests data base

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aksan, N.

    2005-01-01

    As an example of test facilities in which passive decay heat removal systems are tested, the PANDA test facility and the ISP-42-PANDA tests will provide an overview on experimental validation and database. A short overview on the test programs performed in this facility is also given. (author)

  1. Giant panda׳s tooth enamel: Structure, mechanical behavior and toughening mechanisms under indentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Z Y; Liu, Z Q; Ritchie, R O; Jiao, D; Li, D S; Wu, H L; Deng, L H; Zhang, Z F

    2016-12-01

    The giant panda׳s teeth possess remarkable load-bearing capacity and damage resistance for masticating bamboos. In this study, the hierarchical structure and mechanical behavior of the giant panda׳s tooth enamel were investigated under indentation. The effects of loading orientation and location on mechanical properties of the enamel were clarified and the evolution of damage in the enamel under increasing load evaluated. The nature of the damage, both at and beneath the indentation surfaces, and the underlying toughening mechanisms were explored. Indentation cracks invariably were seen to propagate along the internal interfaces, specifically the sheaths between enamel rods, and multiple extrinsic toughening mechanisms, e.g., crack deflection/twisting and uncracked-ligament bridging, were active to shield the tips of cracks from the applied stress. The giant panda׳s tooth enamel is analogous to human enamel in its mechanical properties, yet it has superior hardness and Young׳s modulus but inferior toughness as compared to the bamboo that pandas primarily feed on, highlighting the critical roles of the integration of underlying tissues in the entire tooth and the highly hydrated state of bamboo foods. Our objective is that this study can aid the understanding of the structure-mechanical property relations in the tooth enamel of mammals and further provide some insight on the food habits of the giant pandas. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Prinsip Belajar Mengajar dalam Analekta yang Terkandung pada Film Kungfu Panda dan Kungfu Panda 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agustinus Sufianto

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The Analects is one of the famous books from China which records Confucius’ teachings. Kungfu Panda and Kungfu Panda 2 are two famous animation films from America. After seeing these movies, there are some similar values that can be found between the movies and The Analects, especially in education field. The writer limited the scope into teaching and learning principles. The writer defined 2 main issues. First is to explain the correlation between Kungfu Panda and Kungfu Panda’s teaching and learning principles with The Analects. Second is to understand those principles and its application in our daily lives.  This research method is library research. The results stated that there are some correlation between Kungfu Panda, Kungfu Panda 2, and The Analects. Analyzing the correlation will help us to understand more about Confucius’ teaching, especially in education field.  

  3. Prototyping the PANDA Barrel DIRC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwarz, C., E-mail: C.Schwarz@gsi.de [GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung GmbH, Darmstadt (Germany); Kalicy, G.; Dzhygadlo, R.; Gerhardt, A.; Götzen, K.; Hohler, R.; Kumawat, H.; Lehmann, D.; Lewandowski, B.; Patsyuk, M.; Peters, K.; Schepers, G.; Schmitt, L.; Schwiening, J.; Traxler, M.; Zühlsdorf, M. [GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung GmbH, Darmstadt (Germany); Dodokhov, V.Kh. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation); Britting, A.; Eyrich, W.; Lehmann, A. [Friedrich Alexander-University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, Erlangen (Germany); and others

    2014-12-01

    The design of the Barrel DIRC detector for the future PANDA experiment at FAIR contains several important improvements compared to the successful BABAR DIRC, such as focusing and fast timing. To test those improvements as well as other design options a prototype was build and successfully tested in 2012 with particle beams at CERN. The prototype comprises a radiator bar, focusing lens, mirror, and a prism shaped expansion volume made of synthetic fused silica. An array of micro-channel plate photomultiplier tubes measures the location and arrival time of the Cherenkov photons with sub-nanosecond resolution. The development of a fast reconstruction algorithm allowed to tune construction details of the detector setup with test beam data and Monte-Carlo simulations.

  4. Giant pandas can discriminate the emotions of human facial pictures

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Youxu; Dai, Qiang; Hou, Rong; Zhang, Zhihe; Chen, Peng; Xue, Rui; Feng, Feifei; Chen, Chao; Liu, Jiabin; Gu, Xiaodong; Zhang, Zejun; Qi, Dunwu

    2017-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that giant pandas (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) can discriminate face-like shapes, but little is known about their cognitive ability with respect to the emotional expressions of humans. We tested whether adult giant pandas can discriminate expressions from pictures of half of a face and found that pandas can learn to discriminate between angry and happy expressions based on global information from the whole face. Young adult pandas (5?7 years old) learned to discriminat...

  5. Genetic composition of captive panda population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jiandong; Shen, Fujun; Hou, Rong; Da, Yang

    2016-10-03

    A major function of the captive panda population is to preserve the genetic diversity of wild panda populations in their natural habitats. Understanding the genetic composition of the captive panda population in terms of genetic contributions from the wild panda populations provides necessary knowledge for breeding plans to preserve the genetic diversity of the wild panda populations. The genetic contributions from different wild populations to the captive panda population were highly unbalanced, with Qionglai accounting for 52.2 % of the captive panda gene pool, followed by Minshan with 21.5 %, Qinling with 10.6 %, Liangshan with 8.2 %, and Xiaoxiangling with 3.6 %, whereas Daxiangling, which had similar population size as Xiaoxiangling, had no genetic representation in the captive population. The current breeding recommendations may increase the contribution of some small wild populations at the expense of decreasing the contributions of other small wild populations, i.e., increasing the Xiaoxiangling contribution while decreasing the contribution of Liangshan, or sharply increasing the Qinling contribution while decreasing the contributions of Xiaoxiangling and Liangshan, which were two of the three smallest wild populations and were already severely under-represented in the captive population. We developed three habitat-controlled breeding plans that could increase the genetic contributions from the smallest wild populations to 6.7-11.2 % for Xiaoxiangling, 11.5-12.3 % for Liangshan and 12.9-20.0 % for Qinling among the offspring of one breeding season while reducing the risk of hidden inbreeding due to related founders from the same habitat undetectable by pedigree data. The three smallest wild panda populations of Daxiangling, Xiaoxiangling and Liangshan either had no representation or were severely unrepresented in the current captive panda population. By incorporating the breeding goal of increasing the genetic contributions from the smallest wild

  6. Microglial Dysregulation in OCD, Tourette Syndrome, and PANDAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Frick

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available There is accumulating evidence that immune dysregulation contributes to the pathophysiology of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD, Tourette syndrome, and Pediatric Autoimmune Neuropsychiatric Disorders Associated with Streptococcal Infections (PANDAS. The mechanistic details of this pathophysiology, however, remain unclear. Here we focus on one particular component of the immune system: microglia, the brain’s resident immune cells. The role of microglia in neurodegenerative diseases has been understood in terms of classic, inflammatory activation, which may be both a consequence and a cause of neuronal damage. In OCD and Tourette syndrome, which are not characterized by frank neural degeneration, the potential role of microglial dysregulation is much less clear. Here we review the evidence for a neuroinflammatory etiology and microglial dysregulation in OCD, Tourette syndrome, and PANDAS. We also explore new hypotheses as to the potential contributions of microglial abnormalities to pathophysiology, beyond neuroinflammation, including failures in neuroprotection, lack of support for neuronal survival, and abnormalities in synaptic pruning. Recent advances in neuroimaging and animal model work are creating new opportunities to elucidate these issues.

  7. Immobilization of wild giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) with dexmedetomidine-tiletamine-zolazepam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Yipeng; Qiao, Yanchao; Liu, Xiaobin; Pu, Tianchun; Xu, Hongqian; Lin, Degui

    2016-05-01

    To assess the effects and utility of dexmedetomidine combined with tiletamine and zolazepam (dexMTZ) to immobilize the wild giant panda. Prospective clinical study. Seven giant pandas (Ailuropoda melanoleuca), five males and two females, aged 7-20 years and weighing 69.2-132.9 kg. Once an animal was located, prior data on the individual was reviewed and the panda's previously estimated body weight was used to calculate the volumes of drugs to administer: dexmedetomidine (dexM; 8 μg kg(-1) ; 0.5 mg mL(-1) ) and tiletamine-zolazepam (TZ; 2 mg kg(-1) ; 50 mg mL(-1) ). The mixture was injected intramuscularly (IM) using the Dan-Inject pistol system. When the panda was immobilized, it was weighed, a physical examination was performed and a blood sample collected. Every 5 minutes, the heart rate (HR), respiratory rate (fR ), rectal temperature (T), noninvasive systolic arterial pressure (SAP), capillary refill time (CRT), mucous membrane color and pulse quality were recorded. After all procedures had been completed, atipamezole (40 μg kg(-1) ) was injected IM. A single injection of dexMTZ resulted in the immobilization of all seven giant pandas. The median (range) of anesthetic agents administered was dexM 8.4 μg kg(-1) (7.3-10.5 μg kg(-1) ) and TZ 2.0 mg kg(-1) (1.8-2.5 mg kg(-1) ). The palpebral reflex was lost 8 (7-12) minutes after the injection. Most of the physiological variables remained in the acceptable range. All procedures were completed in approximately 1 hour. Six out of the seven (85.7%) giant pandas recovered smoothly; one panda had a rough recovery. DexMTZ produced a satisfactory immobilization and a smooth recovery for wild giant pandas while allowing approximately 55 minutes for planned noninvasive procedures. © 2015 Association of Veterinary Anaesthetists and the American College of Veterinary Anesthesia and Analgesia.

  8. Observing giant panda habitat and forage abundance from space

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, T.

    2009-01-01

    Giant pandas are obligate bamboo grazers. The bamboos favoured by giant pandas are typical forest understorey plants. Therefore, the availability and abundance of understorey bamboo is a key factor in determining the quantity and quality of giant panda food resources. However, there is little or

  9. Giant Panda habitat selection in the Foping Nature Reserve, China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, X.; Toxopeus, A.G.; Skidmore, A.K.; Shao, X.; Dang, D.; Wang, T.; Prins, H.H.T.

    2005-01-01

    Little is known about habitat selection of the giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca), especially about the relationship between giant panda presence and bamboo and tree structures. We presented data on giant panda habitat use and selection in Foping Nature Reserve (NR), China. We used 1,066

  10. Observing giant panda habitat and forage abundance from space

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, T.

    2009-01-01

    Giant pandas are obligate bamboo grazers. The bamboos favoured by giant
    pandas are typical forest understorey plants. Therefore, the availability and
    abundance of understorey bamboo is a key factor in determining the quantity
    and quality of giant panda food resources. However,

  11. Distribution of Economic Benefits from Ecotourism: A Case Study of Wolong Nature Reserve for Giant Pandas in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Guangming; Chen, Xiaodong; Liu, Wei; Bearer, Scott; Zhou, Shiqiang; Cheng, Lily Yeqing; Zhang, Hemin; Ouyang, Zhiyun; Liu, Jianguo

    2008-12-01

    Ecotourism is widely promoted as a conservation tool and actively practiced in protected areas worldwide. Theoretically, support for conservation from the various types of stakeholder inside and outside protected areas is maximized if stakeholders benefit proportionally to the opportunity costs they bear. The disproportional benefit distribution among stakeholders can erode their support for or lead to the failure of ecotourism and conservation. Using Wolong Nature Reserve for Giant Pandas (China) as an example, we demonstrate two types of uneven distribution of economic benefits among four major groups of stakeholders. First, a significant inequality exists between the local rural residents and the other types of stakeholder. The rural residents are the primary bearers of the cost of conservation, but the majority of economic benefits (investment, employment, and goods) in three key ecotourism sectors (infrastructural construction, hotels/restaurants, and souvenir sales) go to other stakeholders. Second, results show that the distribution of economic benefits is unequal among the rural residents inside the reserve. Most rural households that benefit from ecotourism are located near the main road and potentially have less impact on panda habitat than households far from the road and closer to panda habitats. This distribution gap is likely to discourage conservation support from the latter households, whose activities are the main forces degrading panda habitats. We suggest that the unequal distribution of the benefits from ecotourism can be lessened by enhancing local participation, increasing the use of local goods, and encouraging relocation of rural households closer to ecotourism facilities.

  12. Effects of Human-Nature Interactions on Wildlife Habitat Dynamics: The Case of Wolong Nature Reserve for Giant Pandas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vina, A.; Tuanmu, M.; Yang, W.; Liu, J.

    2012-12-01

    Human activities continue to induce the degradation of natural ecosystems, thus threatening not only the long-term survival of many wildlife species around the world, but also the resilience of natural ecosystems to global environmental changes. In response, many conservation efforts are emerging as adaptive strategies for coping with the degradation of natural ecosystems. Among them, the establishment of nature reserves is considered to be the most effective. However the effectiveness of nature reserves depends on the type and intensity of human activities occurring within their boundaries. But many of these activities constitute important livelihood systems for local human populations. Therefore, to enhance the effectiveness of conservation actions without significantly affecting local livelihood systems, it is essential to understand the complexity of human-nature interactions and their effects on the spatio-temporal dynamics of natural ecosystems. In this study, we evaluated the relation between giant panda habitat dynamics, conservation efforts and human activities in Wolong Nature Reserve for Giant Pandas, Sichuan Province, China. This reserve supports ca. 10% of the entire wild giant panda population but is also home to ca. 4,900 local residents. The spatio-temporal dynamics of giant panda habitat over the last four decades were analyzed using a time series of remotely sensed imagery acquired by different satellite sensor systems, including the Landsat Multi-Spectral Scanner, the Landsat Thematic Mapper and the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). Our assessment suggests that when local residents were actively involved in conservation efforts (through a payment for ecosystem services scheme established since around 2000) panda habitat started to recover, thus enhancing the resilience capacity of natural ecosystems in the Reserve. This reversed a long-term (> 30 years) trend of panda habitat degradation. The study not only has direct

  13. Genomic Inbreeding and Relatedness in Wild Panda Populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John R Garbe

    Full Text Available Inbreeding and relatedness in wild panda populations are important parameters for panda conservation. Habitat loss and fragmentation are expected to increase inbreeding but the actual inbreeding levels in natural panda habitats were unknown. Using 150,025 SNPs and 14,926 SNPs selected from published whole-genome sequences, we estimated genomic inbreeding coefficients and relatedness of 49 pandas including 34 wild pandas sampled from six habitats. Qinling and Liangshan pandas had the highest levels of inbreeding and relatedness measured by genomic inbreeding and coancestry coefficients, whereas the inbreeding levels in Qionglai and Minshan were 28-45% of those in Qinling and Liangshan. Genomic coancestry coefficients between pandas from different habitats showed that panda populations from the four largest habitats, Minshan, Qionglai, Qinling and Liangshan, were genetically unrelated. Pandas between these four habitats on average shared 66.0-69.1% common alleles and 45.6-48.6% common genotypes, whereas pandas within each habitat shared 71.8-77.0% common alleles and 51.7-60.4% common genotypes. Pandas in the smaller populations of Qinling and Liangshan were more similarly to each other than pandas in the larger populations of Qionglai and Minshan according to three genomic similarity measures. Panda genetic differentiation between these habitats was positively related to their geographical distances. Most pandas separated by 200 kilometers or more shared no common ancestral alleles. The results provided a genomic quantification of the actual levels of inbreeding and relatedness among pandas in their natural habitats, provided genomic confirmation of the relationship between genetic diversity and geographical distances, and provided genomic evidence to the urgency of habitat protection.

  14. Genomic Inbreeding and Relatedness in Wild Panda Populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garbe, John R; Prakapenka, Dzianis; Tan, Cheng; Da, Yang

    2016-01-01

    Inbreeding and relatedness in wild panda populations are important parameters for panda conservation. Habitat loss and fragmentation are expected to increase inbreeding but the actual inbreeding levels in natural panda habitats were unknown. Using 150,025 SNPs and 14,926 SNPs selected from published whole-genome sequences, we estimated genomic inbreeding coefficients and relatedness of 49 pandas including 34 wild pandas sampled from six habitats. Qinling and Liangshan pandas had the highest levels of inbreeding and relatedness measured by genomic inbreeding and coancestry coefficients, whereas the inbreeding levels in Qionglai and Minshan were 28-45% of those in Qinling and Liangshan. Genomic coancestry coefficients between pandas from different habitats showed that panda populations from the four largest habitats, Minshan, Qionglai, Qinling and Liangshan, were genetically unrelated. Pandas between these four habitats on average shared 66.0-69.1% common alleles and 45.6-48.6% common genotypes, whereas pandas within each habitat shared 71.8-77.0% common alleles and 51.7-60.4% common genotypes. Pandas in the smaller populations of Qinling and Liangshan were more similarly to each other than pandas in the larger populations of Qionglai and Minshan according to three genomic similarity measures. Panda genetic differentiation between these habitats was positively related to their geographical distances. Most pandas separated by 200 kilometers or more shared no common ancestral alleles. The results provided a genomic quantification of the actual levels of inbreeding and relatedness among pandas in their natural habitats, provided genomic confirmation of the relationship between genetic diversity and geographical distances, and provided genomic evidence to the urgency of habitat protection.

  15. Profile of microRNA in Giant Panda Blood: A Resource for Immune-Related and Novel microRNAs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingyu Yang

    Full Text Available The giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca is one of the world's most beloved endangered mammals. Although the draft genome of this species had been assembled, little was known about the composition of its microRNAs (miRNAs or their functional profiles. Recent studies demonstrated that changes in the expression of miRNAs are associated with immunity. In this study, miRNAs were extracted from the blood of four healthy giant pandas and sequenced by Illumina next generation sequencing technology. As determined by miRNA screening, a total of 276 conserved miRNAs and 51 novel putative miRNAs candidates were detected. After differential expression analysis, we noticed that the expressions of 7 miRNAs were significantly up-regulated in young giant pandas compared with that of adults. Moreover, 2 miRNAs were up-regulated in female giant pandas and 1 in the male individuals. Target gene prediction suggested that the miRNAs of giant panda might be relevant to the expressions of 4,602 downstream genes. Subseuqently, the predicted target genes were conducted to KEGG (Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathway analysis and we found that these genes were mainly involved in host immunity, including the Ras signaling pathway, the PI3K-Akt signaling pathway, and the MAPK signaling pathway. In conclusion, our results provide the first miRNA profiles of giant panda blood, and the predicted functional analyses may open an avenue for further study of giant panda immunity.

  16. Tracing the origin of the panda's thumb

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abella, Juan; Pérez-Ramos, Alejandro; Valenciano, Alberto; Alba, David M.; Ercoli, Marcos D.; Hontecillas, Daniel; Montoya, Plinio; Morales, Jorge

    2015-06-01

    We investigate the relative development of the carnivoran radial sesamoids to untangle the evolution of this iconic structure. In the pandas (both giant and red), this `false thumb' is known to perform a grasping role during bamboo feeding in both the red and giant pandas. An original locomotor role has been inferred for ailurids, but this remains to be ascertained for ursids. A large sample of radial sesamoids of Indarctos arctoides from the Miocene of Batallones-3 (Spain) indicates that this early ailuropodine bear displayed a relatively hypertrophied radial sesamoid, with a configuration more similar to that of the red panda and other carnivorans than to that of giant pandas. This false thumb is the first evidence of this feature in the Ursidae, which can be linked to a more herbivorous diet. Moreover, in the two extant pandas, the false thumb should not be interpreted as an anatomical convergence, but as an exaptive convergence regarding its use during the bamboo feeding, which changes the evolutionary view of this singular structure.

  17. Modeling Impacts of Climate Change on Giant Panda Habitat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa Songer

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Giant pandas (Ailuropoda melanoleuca are one of the most widely recognized endangered species globally. Habitat loss and fragmentation are the main threats, and climate change could significantly impact giant panda survival. We integrated giant panda habitat information with general climate models (GCMs to predict future geographic distribution and fragmentation of giant panda habitat. Results support a major general prediction of climate change—a shift of habitats towards higher elevation and higher latitudes. Our models predict climate change could reduce giant panda habitat by nearly 60% over 70 years. New areas may become suitable outside the current geographic range but much of these areas is far from the current giant panda range and only 15% fall within the current protected area system. Long-term survival of giant pandas will require the creation of new protected areas that are likely to support suitable habitat even if the climate changes.

  18. Isolation and identification of culturable fungi from the genitals and semen of healthy giant pandas (Ailuropoda melanoleuca).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xiaoping; Li, Changcheng; Hou, Jiafa; Gu, Yu

    2017-11-21

    In order to better understand the possible role of fungi in giant panda reproduction and overall health, it is important to provide a baseline for the normal fungal composition in the reproductive system. Using morphology and internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequence analysis, we systematically isolated and identified fungal species from the vagina, foreskin, and semen of 21 (11 males and 10 females) healthy giant pandas to understand the normal fungal flora of the genital tracts. A total of 76 fungal strains were obtained, representing 42 genera and 60 species. Among them 47 fungal strains were obtained from vaginal samples, 24 from foreskins, and 5 from semen samples. Several fungal strains were isolated from more than one sample. More fungal species were isolated from females from males. The predominant genera were Aspergillus, Trichosporon, and Penicillium, followed by Candida, Cladosporium, Sordariomycetes, and Diaporthe. The average number of strains in the female vagina was significantly higher than in the foreskin and semen of male. A total of 60 fungal species (belonging to 42 genera) were identified in the giant panda's genital tract. Some of the species were commonly shared in both males and females. These findings provide novel information on the fungal community in the reproductive tracts of giant pandas.

  19. The "double panda" sign in Leigh disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonam, Kothari; Bindu, P S; Gayathri, Narayanappa; Khan, Nahid Akhtar; Govindaraju, C; Arvinda, Hanumanthapura R; Nagappa, Madhu; Sinha, Sanjib; Thangaraj, K; Taly, Arun B

    2014-07-01

    Although the "face of the giant panda" sign on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is traditionally considered to be characteristic of Wilson disease, it has also been reported in other metabolic disorders. This study describes the characteristic "giant panda" sign on MRI in a child with Leigh disease. The diagnosis was based on the history of neurological regression; examination findings of oculomotor abnormalities, hypotonia, and dystonia; raised serum lactate levels; and characteristic brain stem and basal ganglia signal changes on MRI. The midbrain and pontine tegmental signal changes were consistent with the "face of the giant panda and her cub" sign. In addition to Wilson disease, metabolic disorders such as Leigh disease should also be considered in the differential diagnosis of this rare imaging finding. © The Author(s) 2013.

  20. Mesons, PANDA and the scalar glueball

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parganlija, Denis

    2014-04-01

    The non-perturbative nature of Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD) at low energies has prompted the expectation that the gauge-bosons of QCD - gluons - might give rise to compound objects denoted as glueballs. Experimental signals for glueballs have represented a matter of research for various collaborations in the last decades; future research in this direction is a main endeavour planned by the PANDA Collaboration at FAIR. Hence in this article I review some of the outstanding issues in the glueball search, particularly with regard to the ground state - the scalar glueball, and discuss the relevance for PANDA at FAIR.

  1. Strong Interaction Studies with PANDA at FAIR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schönning, Karin

    2016-01-01

    The Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research (FAIR) in Darmstadt, Germany, provides unique possibilities for a new generation of nuclear-, hadron- and atomic physics experiments. The future PANDA experiment at FAIR will offer a broad physics programme with emphasis on different aspects of hadron physics. Understanding the strong interaction in the perturbative regime remains one of the greatest challenges in contemporary physics and hadrons provide several important keys. In these proceedings, PANDA will be presented along with some high-lights of the planned physics programme

  2. Mesons, PANDA and the scalar glueball

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parganlija, Denis

    2014-01-01

    The non-perturbative nature of Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD) at low energies has prompted the expectation that the gauge-bosons of QCD – gluons – might give rise to compound objects denoted as glueballs. Experimental signals for glueballs have represented a matter of research for various collaborations in the last decades; future research in this direction is a main endeavour planned by the PANDA Collaboration at FAIR. Hence in this article I review some of the outstanding issues in the glueball search, particularly with regard to the ground state – the scalar glueball, and discuss the relevance for PANDA at FAIR.

  3. Strong Interaction Studies with PANDA at FAIR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schönning, Karin

    2016-10-01

    The Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research (FAIR) in Darmstadt, Germany, provides unique possibilities for a new generation of nuclear-, hadron- and atomic physics experiments. The future PANDA experiment at FAIR will offer a broad physics programme with emphasis on different aspects of hadron physics. Understanding the strong interaction in the perturbative regime remains one of the greatest challenges in contemporary physics and hadrons provide several important keys. In these proceedings, PANDA will be presented along with some high-lights of the planned physics programme.

  4. Modeling the choice to switch from fuelwood to electricity. Implications for giant panda habitat conservation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    An, Li; Liu, Jianguo; Linderman, Marc A. [Department of Fisheries and Wildlife, Michigan State University, 13 Natural Resources Building, 48824 East Lansing, MI (United States); Lupi, Frank [Departments of Agricultural Economics and Fisheries and Wildlife, Michigan State University, 213F Agriculture Hall, 48824 East Lansing, MI (United States); Huang, Jinyan [Wolong Nature Reserve Administration, Wenchuan County, 623002 Sichuan Province (China)

    2002-09-01

    Despite its status as a nature reserve, Wolong Nature Reserve (China) has experienced continued loss of giant panda habitat due to human activities such as fuelwood collection. Electricity, though available throughout Wolong, has not replaced fuelwood as an energy source. We used stated preference data obtained from in-person interviews to estimate a random utility model of the choice of adopting electricity for cooking and heating. Willingness to switch to electricity was explained by demographic and electricity factors (price, voltage, and outage frequency). In addition to price, non-price factors such as voltage and outage frequency significantly affect the demand. Thus, lowering electricity prices and increasing electricity quality would encourage local residents to switch from fuelwood to electricity and should be considered in the mix of policies to promote conservation of panda habitat.

  5. Modeling the choice to switch from fuelwood to electricity. Implications for giant panda habitat conservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An, Li; Liu, Jianguo; Linderman, Marc A.; Lupi, Frank; Huang, Jinyan

    2002-01-01

    Despite its status as a nature reserve, Wolong Nature Reserve (China) has experienced continued loss of giant panda habitat due to human activities such as fuelwood collection. Electricity, though available throughout Wolong, has not replaced fuelwood as an energy source. We used stated preference data obtained from in-person interviews to estimate a random utility model of the choice of adopting electricity for cooking and heating. Willingness to switch to electricity was explained by demographic and electricity factors (price, voltage, and outage frequency). In addition to price, non-price factors such as voltage and outage frequency significantly affect the demand. Thus, lowering electricity prices and increasing electricity quality would encourage local residents to switch from fuelwood to electricity and should be considered in the mix of policies to promote conservation of panda habitat

  6. Fecal near infrared spectroscopy to discriminate physiological status in giant pandas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin E Wiedower

    Full Text Available Giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca monitoring and research often require accurate estimates of population size and density. However, obtaining these estimates has been challenging. Innovative technologies, such as fecal near infrared reflectance spectroscopy (FNIRS, may be used to differentiate between sex, age class, and reproductive status as has been shown for several other species. The objective of this study was to determine if FNIRS could be similarly used for giant panda physiological discriminations. Based on samples from captive animals in four U.S. zoos, FNIRS calibrations correctly identified 78% of samples from adult males, 81% from adult females, 85% from adults, 89% from juveniles, 75% from pregnant and 70% from non-pregnant females. However, diet had an impact on the success of the calibrations. When diet was controlled for plant part such that "leaf only" feces were evaluated, FNIRS calibrations correctly identified 93% of samples from adult males and 95% from adult females. These data show that FNIRS has the potential to differentiate between the sex, age class, and reproductive status in the giant panda and may be applicable for surveying wild populations.

  7. Fecal near infrared spectroscopy to discriminate physiological status in giant pandas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiedower, Erin E; Kouba, Andrew J; Vance, Carrie K; Hansen, Rachel L; Stuth, Jerry W; Tolleson, Douglas R

    2012-01-01

    Giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) monitoring and research often require accurate estimates of population size and density. However, obtaining these estimates has been challenging. Innovative technologies, such as fecal near infrared reflectance spectroscopy (FNIRS), may be used to differentiate between sex, age class, and reproductive status as has been shown for several other species. The objective of this study was to determine if FNIRS could be similarly used for giant panda physiological discriminations. Based on samples from captive animals in four U.S. zoos, FNIRS calibrations correctly identified 78% of samples from adult males, 81% from adult females, 85% from adults, 89% from juveniles, 75% from pregnant and 70% from non-pregnant females. However, diet had an impact on the success of the calibrations. When diet was controlled for plant part such that "leaf only" feces were evaluated, FNIRS calibrations correctly identified 93% of samples from adult males and 95% from adult females. These data show that FNIRS has the potential to differentiate between the sex, age class, and reproductive status in the giant panda and may be applicable for surveying wild populations.

  8. CHARM PHYSICS PERFORMANCE STUDIES FOR PANDA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biegun, Aleksandra

    2011-01-01

    The study of the charmonium ((c) over barc) system is a powerful tool to understand the strong interaction. In (p) over barp annihilations studied with PANDA, the mass and width of the charmonium state, such as h(c), will be measured with an excellent accuracy, determined by the very precise

  9. Amdoparvovirus Infection in Red Pandas ( Ailurus fulgens).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alex, Charles E; Kubiski, Steven V; Li, Linlin; Sadeghi, Mohammadreza; Wack, Raymund F; McCarthy, Megan A; Pesavento, Joseph B; Delwart, Eric; Pesavento, Patricia A

    2018-01-01

    Aleutian mink disease virus is the type species in the genus Amdoparvovirus, and in mink and other Mustelidae can cause either subclinical disease or fatal chronic immune stimulation and immune complex disease. The authors describe a novel amdoparvovirus in the endangered red panda ( Ailurus fulgens), discovered using viral metagenomics. The authors analyzed the prevalence, tissue distribution, and disease association by PCR, in situ hybridization, electron microscopy, and histology in a group of 6 red pandas from a single zoological collection. The study incorporates a fecal shedding survey and analysis of tissues from 4 necropsied animals over a 12-year span. The tentatively named red panda amdoparvovirus (RpAPV) was detected in the feces and/or tissues of all animals tested. At necropsy of 1 geriatric animal, infection was associated with pyogranulomatous peritonitis, pancreatitis, and myocarditis. Other animals had detectable low-level viral nucleic acid in lymph nodes and both oral and intestinal epithelium at the time of necropsy. Full-length genome sequences of RpAPV strains from 2 animals had 12% sequence divergence, demonstrating genetic diversity even among in-contact animals. RpAPV is a persistent infection in this cohort of red pandas, and has variable clinical expression.

  10. Online and Offline Pattern Recognition in PANDA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boca Gianluigi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available PANDA is one of the four experiments that will run at the new facility FAIR that is being built in Darmstadt, Germany. It is a fixed target experiment: a beam of antiprotons collides on a jet proton target (the maximum center of mass energy is 5.46 GeV. The interaction rate at the startup will be 2MHz with the goal of reaching 20MHz at full luminosity. The beam of antiprotons will be essentially continuous. PANDA will have NO hardware trigger but only a software trigger, to allow for maximum flexibility in the physics program. All those characteristics are severe challenges for the reconstruction code that 1 must be fast, since it has to be validated up to 20MHz interaction rate; 2 must be able to reject fake tracks caused by the remnant hits, belonging to previous or later events in some slow detectors, for example the straw tubes in the central region. The Pattern Recognition (PR of PANDA will have to run both online to achieve a first fast selection, and offline, at lower rate, for a more refined selection. In PANDA the PR code is continuously evolving; this contribution shows the present status. I will give an overview of three examples of PR following different strategies and/or implemented on different hardware (FPGA, GPUs, CPUs and, when available, I will report the performances.

  11. (RPS28) from the Giant Panda

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-06-03

    Jun 3, 2009 ... The expression product obtained could be used for purification and study of its function further. Key words: RPS28 gene, ribosomal protein S28 (RPS28), giant panda, (Ailuropoda melanoleuca), genomic cloning, overexpression. INTRODUCTION. The ribosome, a compact ribonucleoprotein (RNP), which.

  12. Tics, OCD and Streptococcal Infection (PANDAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Forty matched pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders associated with streptococcal infections (PANDAS case-control pairs were prospectively evaluated clinically and with testing for group A b-hemolytic streptococcus for an average of 2 years, in a study at University of Rochester School of Medicine, New York; and WHO Streptococcal Reference Laboratory, Minneapolis, MN.

  13. Online and Offline Pattern Recognition in PANDA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boca, Gianluigi

    2016-11-01

    PANDA is one of the four experiments that will run at the new facility FAIR that is being built in Darmstadt, Germany. It is a fixed target experiment: a beam of antiprotons collides on a jet proton target (the maximum center of mass energy is 5.46 GeV). The interaction rate at the startup will be 2MHz with the goal of reaching 20MHz at full luminosity. The beam of antiprotons will be essentially continuous. PANDA will have NO hardware trigger but only a software trigger, to allow for maximum flexibility in the physics program. All those characteristics are severe challenges for the reconstruction code that 1) must be fast, since it has to be validated up to 20MHz interaction rate; 2) must be able to reject fake tracks caused by the remnant hits, belonging to previous or later events in some slow detectors, for example the straw tubes in the central region. The Pattern Recognition (PR) of PANDA will have to run both online to achieve a first fast selection, and offline, at lower rate, for a more refined selection. In PANDA the PR code is continuously evolving; this contribution shows the present status. I will give an overview of three examples of PR following different strategies and/or implemented on different hardware (FPGA, GPUs, CPUs) and, when available, I will report the performances.

  14. PANDA : Strong Interaction Studies with Antiprotons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, Klaus; Schmitt, Lars; Stockmanns, Tobias; Messchendorp, Johan

    2017-01-01

    The Antiproton Anihilation in Darmstadt (PANDA) collaboration at the Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research (FAIR) is a cooperation of more than 400 scientists from 19 countries. FAIR will be an accelerator facility leading the European research in nuclear and hadron physics in the coming decade.

  15. Habitat Use and Selection by Giant Pandas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Hull

    Full Text Available Animals make choices about where to spend their time in complex and dynamic landscapes, choices that reveal information about their biology that in turn can be used to guide their conservation. Using GPS collars, we conducted a novel individual-based analysis of habitat use and selection by the elusive and endangered giant pandas (Ailuropoda melanoleuca. We constructed spatial autoregressive resource utilization functions (RUF to model the relationship between the pandas' utilization distributions and various habitat characteristics over a continuous space across seasons. Results reveal several new insights, including use of a broader range of habitat characteristics than previously understood for the species, particularly steep slopes and non-forest areas. We also used compositional analysis to analyze habitat selection (use with respect to availability of habitat types at two selection levels. Pandas selected against low terrain position and against the highest clumped forest at the at-home range level, but no significant factors were identified at the within-home range level. Our results have implications for modeling and managing the habitat of this endangered species by illustrating how individual pandas relate to habitat and make choices that differ from assumptions made in broad scale models. Our study also highlights the value of using a spatial autoregressive RUF approach on animal species for which a complete picture of individual-level habitat use and selection across space is otherwise lacking.

  16. Habitat Use and Selection by Giant Pandas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hull, Vanessa; Zhang, Jindong; Huang, Jinyan; Zhou, Shiqiang; Viña, Andrés; Shortridge, Ashton; Li, Rengui; Liu, Dian; Xu, Weihua; Ouyang, Zhiyun; Zhang, Hemin; Liu, Jianguo

    2016-01-01

    Animals make choices about where to spend their time in complex and dynamic landscapes, choices that reveal information about their biology that in turn can be used to guide their conservation. Using GPS collars, we conducted a novel individual-based analysis of habitat use and selection by the elusive and endangered giant pandas (Ailuropoda melanoleuca). We constructed spatial autoregressive resource utilization functions (RUF) to model the relationship between the pandas' utilization distributions and various habitat characteristics over a continuous space across seasons. Results reveal several new insights, including use of a broader range of habitat characteristics than previously understood for the species, particularly steep slopes and non-forest areas. We also used compositional analysis to analyze habitat selection (use with respect to availability of habitat types) at two selection levels. Pandas selected against low terrain position and against the highest clumped forest at the at-home range level, but no significant factors were identified at the within-home range level. Our results have implications for modeling and managing the habitat of this endangered species by illustrating how individual pandas relate to habitat and make choices that differ from assumptions made in broad scale models. Our study also highlights the value of using a spatial autoregressive RUF approach on animal species for which a complete picture of individual-level habitat use and selection across space is otherwise lacking.

  17. Serosurvey of ex situ giant pandas (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) and red pandas (Ailurus fulgens) in China with implications for species conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loeffler, I Kati; Howard, JoGayle; Montali, Richard J; Hayek, Lee-Ann; Dubovi, Edward; Zhang, Zhihe; Yan, Qigui; Guo, Wanzhu; Wildt, David E

    2007-12-01

    Conservation strategies for the giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) include the development of a self-sustaining ex situ population. This study examined the potential significance of infectious pathogens in giant pandas ex situ. Serologic antibody titers against canine distemper virus (CDV), canine parvovirus (CPV), canine adenovirus (CAV), canine coronavirus (CCV), canine herpesvirus, canine parainfluenza virus (CPIV), Toxoplasma gondii, Neospora caninum, and Leptospira interrogans were measured in 44 samples taken from 19 giant pandas between 1998 and 2003 at the Chengdu Research Base of Giant Panda Breeding in Sichuan, China. Seroassays also included samples obtained in 2003 from eight red pandas (Ailurus fulgens) housed at the same institution. All individuals had been vaccinated with a Chinese canine vaccine that included modified live CDV, CPV, CAV, CCV, and CPIV. Positive antibody titers were found only against CDV, CPV, and T. gondii. Sera were negative for antibodies against the other six pathogens. Results indicate that the quality of the vaccine may not be reliable and that it should not be considered protective or safe in giant pandas and red pandas. Positive antibody titers against T. gondii were found in seven of the 19 giant pandas. The clinical, subclinical, or epidemiologic significance of infection with these pathogens via natural exposure or from modified live vaccines in giant pandas is unknown. Research in this area is imperative to sustaining a viable population of giant pandas and other endangered species.

  18. A PanDA backend for the ganga analysis interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vanderster, D C; Elmsheuser, J; Walker, R; Liko, D; Maeno, T; Wenaus, T; Nilsson, P

    2010-01-01

    Ganga provides a uniform interface for running ATLAS user analyses on a number of local, batch, and grid backends. PanDA is a pilot-based production and distributed analysis system developed and used extensively by ATLAS. This work presents the implementation and usage experiences of a PanDA backend for Ganga. Built upon reusable application libraries from GangaAtlas and PanDA, the Ganga PanDA backend allows users to run their analyses on the worldwide PanDA resources, while providing the ability for users to develop simple or complex analysis workflows in Ganga. Further, the backend allows users to submit and manage 'personal' PanDA pilots: these pilots run under the user's grid certificate and provide a secure alternative to shared pilot certificates while enabling the usage of local resource allocations.

  19. Status of gastrointestinal parasites in Red Panda of Nepal

    OpenAIRE

    Damber Bista; Saroj Shrestha; Ajaya Jang Kunwar; Sakshi Acharya; Shant Raj Jnawali; Krishna Prasad Acharya

    2017-01-01

    Red pandas are known to be highly susceptible to endoparasites, which can have a prominent impact on the population dynamics of this endangered species. There are very limited published reports on prevalence and risk of parasites in wild populations of red panda, especially localized reports. This study attempts to provide an in-depth insight of the status of endoparasites in red pandas, which is critical for strengthening conservation efforts. A total of 272 fecal samples were collected thro...

  20. Resting site use of giant pandas in Wanglang Nature Reserve

    OpenAIRE

    Kang, Dongwei; Wang, Xiaorong; Li, Junqing

    2017-01-01

    Little is known about the resting sites used by the giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca), which restricts our understanding of their resting habits and limits conservation efforts. To enhance our understanding of resting site requirements and factors affecting the resting time of giant pandas, we investigated the characteristics of resting sites in the Wanglang Nature Reserve, Sichuan Province, China. The results indicated that the resting sites of giant pandas were characterised by a mean sl...

  1. Observing giant panda habitat and forage abundance from space

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, T.

    2009-01-01

    Giant pandas are obligate bamboo grazers. The bamboos favoured by giant pandas are typical forest understorey plants. Therefore, the availability and abundance of understorey bamboo is a key factor in determining the quantity and quality of giant panda food resources. However, there is little or no information about the spatial distribution or abundance of bamboo underneath the forest canopy, due to the limitations of traditional ground survey and remote sensing classification techniques. In ...

  2. Ancient DNA from Giant Panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca of South-Western China Reveals Genetic Diversity Loss during the Holocene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gui-Lian Sheng

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The giant panda was widely distributed in China and south-eastern Asia during the middle to late Pleistocene, prior to its habitat becoming rapidly reduced in the Holocene. While conservation reserves have been established and population numbers of the giant panda have recently increased, the interpretation of its genetic diversity remains controversial. Previous analyses, surprisingly, have indicated relatively high levels of genetic diversity raising issues concerning the efficiency and usefulness of reintroducing individuals from captive populations. However, due to a lack of DNA data from fossil specimens, it is unknown whether genetic diversity was even higher prior to the most recent population decline. We amplified complete cytb and 12s rRNA, partial 16s rRNA and ND1, and control region sequences from the mitochondrial genomes of two Holocene panda specimens. We estimated genetic diversity and population demography by analyzing the ancient mitochondrial DNA sequences alongside those from modern giant pandas, as well as from other members of the bear family (Ursidae. Phylogenetic analyses show that one of the ancient haplotypes is sister to all sampled modern pandas and the second ancient individual is nested among the modern haplotypes, suggesting that genetic diversity may indeed have been higher earlier during the Holocene. Bayesian skyline plot analysis supports this view and indicates a slight decline in female effective population size starting around 6000 years B.P., followed by a recovery around 2000 years ago. Therefore, while the genetic diversity of the giant panda has been affected by recent habitat contraction, it still harbors substantial genetic diversity. Moreover, while its still low population numbers require continued conservation efforts, there seem to be no immediate threats from the perspective of genetic evolutionary potential.

  3. Ancient DNA from Giant Panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) of South-Western China Reveals Genetic Diversity Loss during the Holocene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Gui-Lian; Barlow, Axel; Cooper, Alan; Hou, Xin-Dong; Ji, Xue-Ping; Jablonski, Nina G; Zhong, Bo-Jian; Liu, Hong; Flynn, Lawrence J; Yuan, Jun-Xia; Wang, Li-Rui; Basler, Nikolas; Westbury, Michael V; Hofreiter, Michael; Lai, Xu-Long

    2018-04-06

    The giant panda was widely distributed in China and south-eastern Asia during the middle to late Pleistocene, prior to its habitat becoming rapidly reduced in the Holocene. While conservation reserves have been established and population numbers of the giant panda have recently increased, the interpretation of its genetic diversity remains controversial. Previous analyses, surprisingly, have indicated relatively high levels of genetic diversity raising issues concerning the efficiency and usefulness of reintroducing individuals from captive populations. However, due to a lack of DNA data from fossil specimens, it is unknown whether genetic diversity was even higher prior to the most recent population decline. We amplified complete cyt b and 12s rRNA, partial 16s rRNA and ND1 , and control region sequences from the mitochondrial genomes of two Holocene panda specimens. We estimated genetic diversity and population demography by analyzing the ancient mitochondrial DNA sequences alongside those from modern giant pandas, as well as from other members of the bear family (Ursidae). Phylogenetic analyses show that one of the ancient haplotypes is sister to all sampled modern pandas and the second ancient individual is nested among the modern haplotypes, suggesting that genetic diversity may indeed have been higher earlier during the Holocene. Bayesian skyline plot analysis supports this view and indicates a slight decline in female effective population size starting around 6000 years B.P., followed by a recovery around 2000 years ago. Therefore, while the genetic diversity of the giant panda has been affected by recent habitat contraction, it still harbors substantial genetic diversity. Moreover, while its still low population numbers require continued conservation efforts, there seem to be no immediate threats from the perspective of genetic evolutionary potential.

  4. Poor performance status, urban residence and female sex predict inferior survival in pediatric advanced stage mature B-NHL in an Indian tertiary care center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Amol; Sharma, Meher Chand; Mallick, Saumyaranjan; Patel, Manali; Bakhshi, Sameer

    2018-02-01

    Advanced stage is a known prognostic factor in B-Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma (NHL); however, factors within advanced stage and overall data on pediatric B-NHL from India are lacking. This is a retrospective study wherein all consecutive pediatric (≤18 years) patients of advanced stage B-NHL (St. Jude stage 3 and 4) treated at our center from Jan 2003 to June 2016 with BFM-90 protocol were evaluated for outcome and pathology review. Total 140 patients were analyzed with median age 8 years; M:F ratio was 5.2:1; 36% patients presented within 30 days of symptom onset and 58% had rural residence. Burkitt lymphoma (66%) was commonest histopathological subtype; bone marrow was involved in 15% and CSF in 8% cases. Undernourishment was observed in 30% patients and 51% had ECOG performance status of 3&4. At 5 years, EFS was 52 ± 4% (CI 0.43-0.60) and OS was 61 ± 4% (CI 0.52-0.68). On multivariate analysis, poor performance status (p residence (p = 0.016) emerged as significant negative prognostic factors for EFS; while for OS, female sex (p = 0.006), poor performance status (p residence (p = 0.023) predicted inferior outcome. This is the largest study from south Asia on advanced stage pediatric B-NHL and it suggests undernourishment, poor performance status and gender bias to be unique features at presentation. Although, outcomes are comparable with other data from resource-challenged nations, yet they are 15-20% inferior than trial data from other developed countries. Further, poor performance status, female sex and urban residence for poor outcome were identified as unique prognostic factors.

  5. Non-invasive monitoring of reproductive and stress hormones in the endangered red panda (Ailurus fulgens fulgens).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaulah Budithi, Neema Raja; Kumar, Vinod; Yalla, Suneel Kumar; Rai, Upashna; Umapathy, Govindhaswamy

    2016-09-01

    The red panda (Ailurus fulgens fulgens) is classified as endangered due to its declining population, habitat fragmentation and poaching. Efforts are being made to breed them in captivity as part of nationwide conservation breeding program. This study aimed to standardize Enzyme immunoassays (EIAs) to monitor reproductive (Progesterone metabolite, Testosterone) and stress hormone (Cortisol) in red panda. For this purpose, we collected 1471 faecal samples from four females and one male over a period of one year from Padmaja Naidu Himalayan Zoological Park, Darjeeling, India. HPLC confirmed the presence of immunoreactive 5α-pregnan-3α-ol-20-one, testosterone and cortisol metabolites in faecal samples. Using 5α-pregnan-3α-ol-20-one EIA, we were able to monitor reproduction and detect pregnancy in one of the females, which successfully conceived and delivered during the study period. We were also able to monitor testosterone and cortisol in faecal samples of the red panda. Faecal testosterone levels were found in higher concentration in breeding season than in non-breeding season. Faecal cortisol concentrations showed a negative relationship with ambient temperature and peaked during winter months in all animals. Standardization of EIAs and faecal hormone monitoring would facilitate red panda conservation breeding programs in India and elsewhere. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Should the Endangered Status of the Giant Panda Really Be Reduced? The Case of Giant Panda Conservation in Sichuan, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben Ma

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN reduced the threat status of the giant panda from “endangered” to “vulnerable” in September 2016. In this study, we analyzed current practices for giant panda conservation at regional and local environmental scales, based on recent reports of giant panda protection efforts in Sichuan Province, China, combined with the survey results from 927 households within and adjacent to the giant panda reserves in this area. The results showed that household attitudes were very positive regarding giant panda protection efforts. Over the last 10 years, farmers’ dependence on the natural resources provided by giant panda reserves significantly decreased. However, socio-economic development increased resource consumption, and led to climate change, habitat fragmentation, environmental pollution, and other issues that placed increased pressure on giant panda populations. This difference between local and regional scales must be considered when evaluating the IUCN status of giant pandas. While the status of this species has improved in the short-term due to positive local attitudes, large-scale socio-economic development pressure could have long-term negative impacts. Consequently, the IUCN assessment leading to the classification of giant panda as “vulnerable” instead of “endangered”, should not affect its conservation intensity and effort, as such actions could negatively impact population recovery efforts, leading to the extinction of this charismatic species.

  7. PanDA for COMPASS at JINR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrosyan, A. Sh.

    2016-09-01

    PanDA (Production and Distributed Analysis System) is a workload management system, widely used for data processing at experiments on Large Hadron Collider and others. COMPASS is a high-energy physics experiment at the Super Proton Synchrotron. Data processing for COMPASS runs locally at CERN, on lxbatch, the data itself stored in CASTOR. In 2014 an idea to start running COMPASS production through PanDA arose. Such transformation in experiment's data processing will allow COMPASS community to use not only CERN resources, but also Grid resources worldwide. During the spring and summer of 2015 installation, validation and migration work is being performed at JINR. Details and results of this process are presented in this paper.

  8. The Endcap Disc DIRC of PANDA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Düren, M.; Etzelmüller, E.; Föhl, K.; Hayrapetyan, A.; Kröck, B.; Merle, O.; Rieke, J.; Schmidt, M.; Wasem, T.; Britting, A.; Eyrich, W.; Lehmann, A.; Pfaffinger, M.; Uhlig, F.; Belias, A.; Dzhygadlo, R.; Gerhardt, A.; Götzen, K.; Kalicy, G.; Krebs, M.; Lehmann, D.; Nerling, F.; Patsyuk, M.; Peters, K.; Schepers, G.; Schmitt, L.; Schwarz, C.; Schwiening, J.; Traxler, M.; Zühlsdorf, M.; Cowie, E.; Keri, T.; Achenbach, P.; Cardinali, M.; Hoek, M.; Lauth, W.; Schlimme, S.; Sfienti, C.; Thiel, M.

    2017-12-01

    The Endcap Disc DIRC (EDD) for PANDA has been designed to identify traversing pions, kaons and protons in the future PANDA experiment. Its central part is a 2 cm thick fused silica plate. Focussing optics are attached to the outer rim of the plate, outside of the acceptance of the experiment. Fast, high-resolution MCP-PMTs, designed to register single Cherenkov photons, have been tested in magnetic field. Filters limit the spectral acceptance of the sensors to reduce dispersion effects and to extend their lifetime. A compact and fast readout is realized with ASICs. Analytical reconstruction algorithms allow for fast particle identification. The angular resolution of a DIRC prototype has been simulated in Monte Carlo and confirmed in a test beam. The final detector will be able to provide a 4 σπ / K separation up to a momentum of 4 GeV / c .

  9. The PANDA DIRC detectors at FAIR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, C.; Ali, A.; Belias, A.; Dzhygadlo, R.; Gerhardt, A.; Götzen, K.; Kalicy, G.; Krebs, M.; Lehmann, D.; Nerling, F.; Patsyuk, M.; Peters, K.; Schepers, G.; Schmitt, L.; Schwiening, J.; Traxler, M.; Zühlsdorf, M.; Böhm, M.; Britting, A.; Eyrich, W.; Lehmann, A.; Pfaffinger, M.; Uhlig, F.; Düren, M.; Etzelmüller, E.; Föhl, K.; Hayrapetyan, A.; Kreutzfeld, K.; Kröck, B.; Merle, O.; Rieke, J.; Schmidt, M.; Wasem, T.; Achenbach, P.; Cardinali, M.; Hoek, M.; Lauth, W.; Schlimme, S.; Sfienti, C.; Thiel, M.; Allison, L.; Hyde, C.

    2017-07-01

    The PANDA detector at the international accelerator Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research in Europe (FAIR) addresses fundamental questions of hadron physics. An excellent hadronic particle identification (PID) will be accomplished by two DIRC (Detection of Internally Reflected Cherenkov light) counters in the target spectrometer. The design for the barrel region covering polar angles between 22o to 140o is based on the successful BABAR DIRC with several key improvements, such as fast photon timing and a compact imaging region. The novel Endcap Disc DIRC will cover the smaller forward angles between 5o (10o) to 22o in the vertical (horizontal) direction. Both DIRC counters will use lifetime-enhanced microchannel plate PMTs for photon detection in combination with fast readout electronics. Geant4 simulations and tests with several prototypes at various beam facilities have been used to evaluate the designs and validate the expected PID performance of both PANDA DIRC counters.

  10. Compulsive Eating: The Emotional Link of Its Use as a Coping Mechanism for Resident Freshman Female College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beylerian, Nvair Kadian

    An 18-year old's freshman year in college is not only a test of his or her intellect, but also a test in social skills, adaptability to new living situations, and other conditions. This study examined the link of emotions to compulsive eating and its use as a coping mechanism for female college students. It explores the stresses of the transition…

  11. Determinants of puberty health among female adolescents residing in boarding welfare centers in Tehran: An application of health belief model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirzadi, Shayesteh; Asghari Jafarabadi, Mohammad; Nadrian, Haidar; Mahmoodi, Hassan

    2016-01-01

    Background: Adolescence is a critical stage of growth and development. That is associated with changes in body shape and appearance. Issues such as irregular menstrual periods, amenorrhea, and menstrual cycle are major issues in women's health. The purpose of this study was to examine the determinants of physical puberty health based on the Health Belief Model (HBM) among female adolescents. Methods: This analytical cross sectional study was conducted in welfare boarding centers in Tehran, Iran. Data were collected in 2011 by a structured and valid questionnaire. Total 61 female adolescents (age range: 12-19 yrs) participated in this study from welfare boarding centers in Iran, Tehran, by using convenience sampling method. The questionnaire consisted of demographic characteristics, health belief model constructs and physical puberty health behaviors gathered by using interview. A series of univariate general linear models were used to assess the relationship between puberty health and health belief model constructs. Results: According to the results of this study there were positive significant relationships between perceived susceptibility, perceived benefits, perceived barriers, cues to action and increased puberty health in female adolescents (p<0.05). Perceived benefits, perceived barriers and cues to action were predictors of physical puberty health behaviors. Conclusion: Based on the results of the study to improve the physical Puberty health behaviors of female adolescents should make them aware of the benefits of health behaviors, and remove or reform the perceived barriers of health behaviors. Also, the appropriate information resources should be introduced for obtaining information about puberty health.

  12. Analysis of the influence of living environment and age on vaginal fungal microbiome in giant pandas (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) by high throughput sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Danyu; Li, Caiwu; Feng, Lan; Zhang, Zhizhong; Zhang, Heming; Cheng, Guangyang; Li, Desheng; Zhang, Guiquan; Wang, Hongning; Chen, Yanxi; Feng, Mingfu; Wang, Chengdong; Wu, Honglin; Deng, Linhua; Ming, He; Yang, Xin

    2018-02-01

    A recent study has described the normal vaginal bacterial community in giant pandas, but there is a lack of knowledge of the fungal community residing in the vagina of giant pandas. In order to comprehensively understand the vaginal fungal microbial diversity and abundance in giant pandas, high throughput sequencing was used to analyse the ITS1 region, based on thirteen samples taken from the pandas' vaginas, which were grouped by sampling points and age. The results showed that the most abundant phyla were Basidiomycota (73.37%), followed by Ascomycota (20.04%), Zygomycota (5.23%), Glomeromycota (0.014%) and Chytridiomycota (0.006%). At the genus level, Guehomyces (37.92%) was the most abundant, followed by Cladosporium (9.072%), Trichosporon (6.2%) and Mucor (4.97%). Furthermore, Candida only accounted for a low percentage of the vaginal fungal community. With the saturation of rarefaction curves and fungal diversity indices, the samples from Dujiangyan and Chungking Safari Park (DC group) showed a higher fungal species richness and diversity than other living environments. Shannon diversity indices showed significant difference between group WL (Wolong nature reserve) and DC (P giant pandas. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Non-conventional mesons at PANDA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giacosa, Francesco

    2015-04-01

    Non-conventional mesons, such as glueballs and tetraquarks, will be in the focus of the PANDA experiment at the FAIR facility. In this lecture we recall the basic properties of QCD and describe some features of unconventional states. We focus on the search of the not-yet discovered glueballs and the use of the extended Linear Sigma Model for this purpose, and on the already discovered but not-yet understood X, Y, Z states.

  14. PANDA Grid – a Tool for Physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Protopopescu, D; Schwarz, K

    2011-01-01

    PANDA Grid is the computing tool of the P-bar ANDA experiment at FAIR with concerted efforts dedicated to evolving it beyond passive computing infrastructure, into a complete and transparent solution for physics simulation, reconstruction and analysis, a tool right at the fingertips of the physicist. P-bar ANDA's position within the larger FAIR community, synergies with other FAIR experiments and with ALICE-LHC, together with recent progress are reported.

  15. Mapping and modelling the habitat of giant pandas in Foping Nature Reserve, China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, X.

    2001-01-01

    The fact that only about 1000 giant pandas and 29500 km2 of panda habitat are left in the west part of China makes it an urgent issue to save this endangered animal species and protect its habitat. For effective conservation of the giant panda and its habitat, a thorough evaluation of panda habitat

  16. LWR containment safety research in PANDA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paladino, D.; Huggenberger, M.; Andreani, M.; Gupta, S.; Guentay, S.; Dreier, J.; Prasser, H.

    2008-01-01

    In the frame of the OECD/SETH-2 project, an experimental program is being carried out at PSI (PANDA Facility in Switzerland) and CEA (MISTRA Facility in France) with the aim of generating high-quality experimental data which will be used for improving modeling and for Lumped Parameter and 3D (CFD) code validations. The PANDA test program consists of seven types of test series, focusing on gas stratification break-up induced b) mass sources (simulating the release of steam and hydrogen), heat sources (simulating the energy) generated hydrogen-oxygen recombiner operation) or heat sinks (due to condensation of steam caused by containment coolers, sprays or 'cold' walls). Two series of PANDA tests are devoted to obtaining detailed data on the integral behavior of Passive Containment Cooling Systems (PCCS) of Advanced Light Water Reactors (ALWR) in the presence of different non-condensable gases (air; hydrogen) and also to investigating the gas mixing and stratification induced by the sudden interconnection of compartments with large gas concentration differences, e.g. the opening of rupture disks. (authors)

  17. Fatal canine distemper virus infection of giant pandas in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Na; Yu, Yicong; Wang, Tiecheng; Wilker, Peter; Wang, Jianzhong; Li, Yuanguo; Sun, Zhe; Gao, Yuwei; Xia, Xianzhu

    2016-01-01

    We report an outbreak of canine distemper virus (CDV) infection among endangered giant pandas (Ailuropoda melanoleuca). Five of six CDV infected giant pandas died. The surviving giant panda was previously vaccinated against CDV. Genomic sequencing of CDV isolated from one of the infected pandas (giant panda/SX/2014) suggests it belongs to the Asia-1 cluster. The hemagglutinin protein of the isolated virus and virus sequenced from lung samples originating from deceased giant pandas all possessed the substitutions V26M, T213A, K281R, S300N, P340Q, and Y549H. The presence of the Y549H substitution is notable as it is found at the signaling lymphocytic activation molecule (SLAM) receptor-binding site and has been implicated in the emergence of highly pathogenic CDV and host switching. These findings demonstrate that giant pandas are susceptible to CDV and suggest that surveillance and vaccination among all captive giant pandas are warranted to support conservation efforts for this endangered species. PMID:27310722

  18. PANDA: Protein function prediction using domain architecture and affinity propagation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zheng; Zhao, Chenguang; Wang, Yiheng; Sun, Zheng; Wang, Nan

    2018-02-22

    We developed PANDA (Propagation of Affinity and Domain Architecture) to predict protein functions in the format of Gene Ontology (GO) terms. PANDA at first executes profile-profile alignment algorithm to search against PfamA, KOG, COG, and SwissProt databases, and then launches PSI-BLAST against UniProt for homologue search. PANDA integrates a domain architecture inference algorithm based on the Bayesian statistics that calculates the probability of having a GO term. All the candidate GO terms are pooled and filtered based on Z-score. After that, the remaining GO terms are clustered using an affinity propagation algorithm based on the GO directed acyclic graph, followed by a second round of filtering on the clusters of GO terms. We benchmarked the performance of all the baseline predictors PANDA integrates and also for every pooling and filtering step of PANDA. It can be found that PANDA achieves better performances in terms of area under the curve for precision and recall compared to the baseline predictors. PANDA can be accessed from http://dna.cs.miami.edu/PANDA/ .

  19. FEASIBILITY STUDIES FOR THE PANDA EXPERIMENT AT FAIR

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biegun, A.

    PANDA, the detector to study AntiProton ANnihilations at DArmstadt, will be installed at the future international Facility for Anti-proton and Ion Research (FAIR) in Darmstadt, Germany. The PANDA physics program is oriented towards the studies of the strong interaction and hadron structure performed

  20. Computing Activities for the PANDA Experiment at FAIR

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Messchendorp, Johan; Gruntorad, J; Lokajicek, M

    2010-01-01

    The PANDA experiment at the future facility FAIR will provide valuable data for our present understanding of the strong interaction. In preparation for the experiments, large-scale simulations for design and feasibility studies are performed exploiting a new software framework, PandaROOT, which is

  1. Fatal canine distemper virus infection of giant pandas in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Na; Yu, Yicong; Wang, Tiecheng; Wilker, Peter; Wang, Jianzhong; Li, Yuanguo; Sun, Zhe; Gao, Yuwei; Xia, Xianzhu

    2016-06-16

    We report an outbreak of canine distemper virus (CDV) infection among endangered giant pandas (Ailuropoda melanoleuca). Five of six CDV infected giant pandas died. The surviving giant panda was previously vaccinated against CDV. Genomic sequencing of CDV isolated from one of the infected pandas (giant panda/SX/2014) suggests it belongs to the Asia-1 cluster. The hemagglutinin protein of the isolated virus and virus sequenced from lung samples originating from deceased giant pandas all possessed the substitutions V26M, T213A, K281R, S300N, P340Q, and Y549H. The presence of the Y549H substitution is notable as it is found at the signaling lymphocytic activation molecule (SLAM) receptor-binding site and has been implicated in the emergence of highly pathogenic CDV and host switching. These findings demonstrate that giant pandas are susceptible to CDV and suggest that surveillance and vaccination among all captive giant pandas are warranted to support conservation efforts for this endangered species.

  2. Paleoparasitological evidence of pinworm (Enterobius vermicularis) infection in a female adolescent residing in ancient Tehran (Iran) 7000 years ago.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paknazhad, Niloofar; Mowlavi, Gholamreza; Dupouy Camet, Jean; Jelodar, Mohammad Esmaeili; Mobedi, Iraj; Makki, Mahsasadat; Kia, Eshrat Beigom; Rezaeian, Mostafa; Mohebali, Mehdi; Sarlak, Siamak; Najafi, Faezeh

    2016-01-22

    The Molavi street archeological site south of Tehran accidentally provided a unique opportunity for paleoparasitological studies in Iran. A female skeleton was unearthed and evaluated to be 7000 years old. Soil samples were collected around the pelvic and sacrum bones. Careful microscopic investigation of rehydrated soil samples revealed the presence of one Enterobius vermicularis egg attached to the skeleton sacral region. The present finding likely represents the oldest evidence of a human pinworm infection in Asia.

  3. Potential chemosignals in the anogenital gland secretion of giant pandas, Ailuropoda melanoleuca, associated with sex and individual identity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jian-Xu; Liu, Dingzhen; Sun, Lixing; Wei, Rongping; Zhang, Guiquan; Wu, Honglin; Zhang, Hemin; Zhao, Chenghua

    2008-03-01

    With a combination of dichloromethane extraction and analysis by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), we found 39 compounds (corresponding to 38 GC peaks) in the anogenital gland secretion (AGS) of captive adult giant pandas, Ailuropoda melanoleuca, during the non-mating season. In addition to indole, squalene, and some of the straight-chain fatty acids that had been characterized previously from the AGS of giant pandas, we identified several new compounds such as decenal, two isomers of decadienal, phenylacetic acid, 5-methylhydantoin, hydroquinone, phenylpropanoic acid, and erucic acid. Quantitative comparison of the relative abundances of the 20 main GC peaks revealed that 5-methylhydantoin, indole, and erucic acid are putative female pheromones, whereas squalene and hydroquinone are putative male pheromones. In addition to the presence of a few individual-specific compounds, the relative abundances of most of the 21 constituents varied more among individuals than within individuals. This suggests that individual identity might be coded in both digital and analog form. The chemical composition of different AGS samples from the same pandas consistently displayed a minimum cluster distance, much smaller than that between samples from different individuals in a hierarchical linkage cluster (average linkage) dendrogram. Our results indicate that the AGS might contain an "odor fingerprint." Although putative sex pheromones such as squalene and erucic acid should be assessed further by bioassay, our study suggests that synthetic chemosignals might be useful in modulating the behavior and physiology of giant pandas.

  4. Metabolic rates of giant pandas inform conservation strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fei, Yuxiang; Hou, Rong; Spotila, James R.; Paladino, Frank V.; Qi, Dunwu; Zhang, Zhihe

    2016-06-01

    The giant panda is an icon of conservation and survived a large-scale bamboo die off in the 1980s in China. Captive breeding programs have produced a large population in zoos and efforts continue to reintroduce those animals into the wild. However, we lack sufficient knowledge of their physiological ecology to determine requirements for survival now and in the face of climate change. We measured resting and active metabolic rates of giant pandas in order to determine if current bamboo resources were sufficient for adding additional animals to populations in natural reserves. Resting metabolic rates were somewhat below average for a panda sized mammal and active metabolic rates were in the normal range. Pandas do not have exceptionally low metabolic rates. Nevertheless, there is enough bamboo in natural reserves to support both natural populations and large numbers of reintroduced pandas. Bamboo will not be the limiting factor in successful reintroduction.

  5. Study of the Effect of Using Purposeful Activity (Gardening on Depression of Female Resident in Golestan Dormitory of Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahar Ghanbari

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Students encounter many stressful factors during their educational time. Stress can result in different physical and mental disorders such as depression. One intervention is using purposeful activity of gardening. The goal of this research is to investigate the effect of using purposeful activity (gardening on depression of female resident in Golestan dormitory of Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences. This study was an experimental field research with pre and post tests in case controlled groups in the year of 2012-2013. Fifty depressed female students of Golestan dormitory in Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences participated in the study. Students were randomly allocated to case and controlled groups. Both groups were taken Beck Depression Inventory. Then gardening sessions (seed and small tree planting were carried on in dormitory yard for 3 days a week for two months. Each session took approximately one hour. Both groups were assessed with the same questionnaire again after intervention. Results: The results showed a significant recovery after intervention in case group based on the depression scores (P=0.0001. Conclusion: According to this study, it seems that using purposeful activity of gardening has positive effects on decreasing depression in depressed female students.

  6. Long Noncoding RNA PANDA Positively Regulates Proliferation of Osteosarcoma Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotake, Yojiro; Goto, Taiki; Naemura, Madoka; Inoue, Yasutoshi; Okamoto, Haruna; Tahara, Keiichiro

    2017-01-01

    A long noncoding RNA, p21-associated ncRNA DNA damage-activated (PANDA), associates with nuclear transcription factor Y subunit alpha (NF-YA) and inhibits its binding to promoters of apoptosis-related genes, thereby repressing apoptosis in normal human fibroblasts. Here, we show that PANDA is involved in regulating proliferation in the U2OS human osteosarcoma cell line. U2OS cells were transfected with siRNAs against PANDA 72 h later and they were subjected to reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), quantitative RT-PCR and cell-cycle analysis. PANDA was highly expressed in U2OS cells, and its expression was induced by DNA damage. Silencing PANDA caused arrest at the G 1 phase of the cell cycle, leading to inhibition of cell proliferation. Quantitative RT-PCR showed that silencing PANDA increased mRNA levels of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p18, which caused G 1 phase arrest. These results suggest that PANDA promotes G 1 -S transition by repressing p18 transcription, and thus promotes U2OS cell proliferation. Copyright© 2017 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  7. Role of nature reserves in giant panda protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Dongwei; Li, Junqing

    2018-02-01

    Giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) is a flagship species in nature conservation of the world; to protect this species, 67 nature reserves have been established in China. To evaluate the protection effect of giant panda nature reserves, we analyzed the variation of giant panda number and habitat area of 23 giant panda nature reserves of Sichuan province based on the national survey data released by State Forestry Administration and Sichuan Forestry Department. Results showed that from the third national survey to the fourth, giant panda number and habitat area of 23 giant panda nature reserves of Sichuan province failed to realize the significant increase. Furthermore, we found that the total population growth rate of 23 nature reserves in the last 12 years was lower than those of the province total of Sichuan and the national total of China, and the total habitat area of the 23 nature reserves was decreasing in the last 12 years, but the province total and national total were all increasing. We propose that giant panda protection should pay more attention to how to improve the protective effects of nature reserves.

  8. Electromagnetic proton form factors: perspectives for PANDA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasi-Gustafsson Egle

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The PANDA collaboration studies fundamental aspects of the strong interaction in the transition region between non-perturbative and perturbative QCD, investigating charmonium spectroscopy, hybrids and glueballs, hypernuclei, light and heavy meson production with antiproton beams. In this contribution we focus on leptonic final channels which give access to nucleon electromagnetic form factors. The expected precision on the electric and magnetic form factors of the proton in the time-like region and the radiative corrections to be applied to the data are discussed.

  9. Taxonomy Icon Data: giant panda [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available giant panda Ailuropoda melanoleuca Chordata/Vertebrata/Mammalia/Theria/Eutheria/Carnivora Ail...uropoda_melanoleuca_L.png Ailuropoda_melanoleuca_NL.png Ailuropoda_melanoleuca_S.png Ailuropoda_me...lanoleuca_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Ailuropoda+melanoleuca&t=L http://bioscien...cedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Ailuropoda+melanoleuca&t=NL http://biosciencedb...c.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Ailuropoda+melanoleuca&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Ailuropoda+melanoleuca&t=NS ...

  10. Results from the PandaX-II Commissioning Run

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Xiang; PandaX Collaboration

    2016-03-01

    The PandaX dark matter experiment searches WIMP-nucleon scattering signals in the China JinPing Underground Laboratory (CJPL) with a rock burden of 2400 m, employing dual-phase xenon time projection chamber technology. After the completion of PandaX-I, the upgraded experiment, PandaX-II, has been equipped with a 580 kg active xenon target. A commissioning run was carried out in CJPL late in 2015. In this talk, I will present the results from the commissioning run, as well as give an update of the current status of the experiment.

  11. Prototyping a Focussing Lightguide Disc DIRC at WASA for PANDA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foehl, Klaus; Brodski, Irina; Dueren, Michael; Hayrapetyan, Avetik; Kroeck, Benno; Koch, Peter; Merle, Oliver; Sporleder, Michael; Stenzel, Hasko; Zuehlsdorf, M. [II. Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Giessen, Heinrich-Buff-Ring 16, D-35392 Giessen (Germany)

    2009-07-01

    For the future PANDA experiment at the FAIR laboratory particle identification is a crucial capability, and the space constraints favour the use of compact DIRC detectors. For the Endcap area in the PANDA Target Spectrometer a novel Focussing Lightguides Disc DIRC is being investigated. The talk will focus on how a prototype could be placed into the existing WASA experiment at COSY, which would improve the WASA energy resolution for high-energy particles as well as provide proof-of-concept for the PANDA DIRC detector developments.

  12. The PANDA experiment: Antiproton physics at FAIR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montagna, P.

    2011-01-01

    The new Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research (FAIR), under construction at the GSI laboratory at Darmstadt, in a few years will make available, among different types of beams, even antiproton beams with unique features. Through a High Energy Storage Ring (HESR) for antiprotons, an antiproton beam will be available in a momentum range from 1.5 to 15 GeV/c, which will interact on a hydrogen target. The products of the interaction, including hadronic systems with strangeness and/or charm, will be detected with the PANDA magnetic spectrometer (antiProton ANnihilation at DArmstadt), and the spectroscopic analysis will allow a detailed investigation on a number of open problems of the hadronic physics, as the quark confinement, the existence of non-conventional meson states (so-called glueballs and hybrids), the structure of hadrons and of the strong interaction, with particular attention to charmonium spectroscopy. An overview of the scientific program of PANDA and the current status of the project will be presented.

  13. PANDA straw tube detectors and readout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strzempek, P.; PANDA Collaboration

    2016-07-01

    PANDA is a detector under construction dedicated to studies of production and interaction of particles in the charmonium mass range using antiproton beams in the momentum range of 1.5 - 15 GeV/c at the Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research (FAIR) in Darmstadt. PANDA consists of two spectrometers: a Target Spectrometer with a superconducting solenoid and a Forward Spectrometer using a large dipole magnet and covering the most forward angles (Θ < 10 °). In both spectrometers, the particle's trajectories in the magnetic field are measured using self-supporting straw tube detectors. The expected high count rates, reaching up to 1 MHz/straw, are one of the main challenges for the detectors and associated readout electronics. The paper presents the readout chain of the tracking system and the results of tests performed with realistic prototype setups. The readout chain consists of a newly developed ASIC chip (PASTTREC 〈 PANDASTTReadoutChip 〉) with amplification, signal shaping, tail cancellation, discriminator stages and Time Readout Boards as digitizer boards.

  14. Unusual arsenic metabolism in Giant Pandas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braeuer, Simone; Dungl, Eveline; Hoffmann, Wiebke; Li, Desheng; Wang, Chengdong; Zhang, Hemin; Goessler, Walter

    2017-12-01

    The total arsenic concentration and the arsenic speciation in urine and feces samples of the two Giant Pandas living at Vienna zoo and of their feed, bamboo, were determined with ICPMS and HPLC-ICPMS. Urine was the main excretion route and accounted for around 90% of the ingested arsenic. The urinary arsenic concentrations were very high, namely up to 179 μg/L. Dimethylarsinic acid (DMA) was the dominating arsenic compound in the urine samples and ranged from 73 to 92% of the total arsenic, which is unusually high for a terrestrial mammal. The feces samples contained around 70% inorganic arsenic and 30% DMA. The arsenic concentrations in the bamboo samples were between 16 and 920 μg/kg dry mass. The main arsenic species in the bamboo extracts was inorganic arsenic. This indicates that the Giant Panda possesses a unique way of very efficiently methylating and excreting the provided inorganic arsenic. This could be essential for the survival of the animal in its natural habitat, because parts of this area are contaminated with arsenic. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. PANDAS: uma nova doença? PANDAS: a new disease?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheila Knupp Feitosa de Oliveira

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Apresentar as bases diagnósticas e analisar as evidências que têm sido apontadas para a etiopatogenia, tratamento e profilaxia de PANDAS. FONTES DOS DADOS: Revisão de literatura científica através do MEDLINE no período de 1989 a 2006. SÍNTESE DOS DADOS: Os critérios diagnósticos para PANDAS foram estabelecidos há quase 10 anos, mas ainda há muita controvérsia sobre a real existência desta nova doença pediátrica. A escolha deste nome para uma nova doença, supostamente de origem pós-estreptocócica, baseia-se no acrônimo de P (pediátrico, porque ocorre em crianças, A (auto-imune, N (neuropsiquiátrico, D (doença, A (associada e S (Streptococcus. Os tiques e os sintomas obsessivo-compulsivos são as principais manifestações clínicas da doença e surgem após infecções estreptocócicas, provavelmente por mecanismos auto-imunes. Apesar de estes sintomas neuropsiquiátricos serem comuns na coréia reumática, também de etiologia pós-estreptocócica, em PANDAS faltam os movimentos clássicos da coréia e as outras manifestações de febre reumática. As possibilidades de terapia antimicrobiana e imunológica estão sendo pesquisadas e demonstram viabilidade de uso em alguns casos. CONCLUSÕES: Pesquisas ainda são necessárias para responder à pergunta-título. Enquanto isso não ocorre, a identificação de casos de tiques e transtorno obsessivo-compulsivo em crianças deve considerar a possibilidade de PANDAS, buscando a evidência de infecção estreptocócica precedendo os episódios.OBJECTIVE: To establish the diagnostic criteria for PANDAS and to analyze the existing evidence regarding its etiopathogenesis, treatment and prophylaxis. SOURCES: Review of the scientific literature through a MEDLINE search carried out between 1989 and 2006. SUMMARY OF THE FINDINGS: The diagnostic criteria for PANDAS were established nearly 10 years ago, but a lot of controversy still exists over the actual existence of this new

  16. The ATLAS PanDA Monitoring System and its Evolution

    CERN Document Server

    Klimentov, A; The ATLAS collaboration; Potekhin, M; Wenaus, T

    2010-01-01

    The PanDA (Production and Distributed Analysis) Workload Management System is used for ATLAS distributed production and analysis worldwide. The needs of ATLAS global computing imposed challenging requirements on PanDA design in areas such as scalability, robustness, automation, diagnostics, and usability for both production shifters and analysis users. Important to meeting these and other requirements is a comprehensive monitoring system. Through a system-wide job database, the PanDA monitor provides a comprehensive and coherent view of the system and job execution, from high level summaries to detailed drill-down job diagnostics. It is (like the rest of PanDA) an Apache-based Python application backed by Oracle. The presentation layer is HTML code generated on the fly in the Python application which is also responsible for managing database queries. However, this approach is lacking in user interface flexibility, simplicity of communication with external systems, and ease of maintenance. We decided to migrat...

  17. The ATLAS PanDA Monitoring System and its Evolution

    CERN Document Server

    Klimentov, A; The ATLAS collaboration; Potekhin, M; Wenaus, T

    2011-01-01

    The PanDA (Production and Distributed Analysis) Workload Management System is used for ATLAS distributed production and analysis worldwide. The needs of ATLAS global computing imposed challenging requirements on PanDA design in areas such as scalability, robustness, automation, diagnostics, and usability for both production shifters and analysis users. Important to meeting these and other requirements is a comprehensive monitoring system. Through a system-wide job database, the PanDA monitor provides a comprehensive and coherent view of the system and job execution, from high level summaries to detailed drill-down job diagnostics. It is (like the rest of PanDA) an Apache-based Python application backed by Oracle. The presentation layer is HTML code generated on the fly in the Python application which is also responsible for managing database queries. However, this approach is lacking in user interface flexibility, simplicity of communication with external systems, and ease of maintenance. We decided to migrat...

  18. RADIOGRAPHIC ABDOMINAL ANATOMY IN CAPTIVE RED PANDAS ( AILURUS FULGENS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makungu, Modesta; du Plessis, Wencke M; Barrows, Michelle; Groenewald, Hermanus B; Koeppel, Katja N

    2018-03-01

    The red panda ( Ailurus fulgens) is classified as an endangered species by the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources. The aim of this study was to describe the normal radiographic abdominal anatomy in red pandas to provide guidance for clinical use. Radiography of the abdomen was performed in nine captive red pandas during their annual health examinations. Seven of nine animals had six lumbar vertebrae. The sacrum consisted mainly (8/9) of three fused segments. Hypaxial muscles were easily seen in animals weighing 5 kg and above. The pylorus was located to the right of the midline and cranially to the fundus in 8/9 individuals. Bunching of small intestine in the right central abdomen occurred in animals weighing 6 kg and above. The spleen was prominent. Knowledge of the normal radiographic abdominal anatomy of red pandas is important in the diagnosis of diseases and in routine health examinations.

  19. Progress in the ecology and conservation of giant pandas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Fuwen; Swaisgood, Ronald; Hu, Yibo; Nie, Yonggang; Yan, Li; Zhang, Zejun; Qi, Dunwu; Zhu, Lifeng

    2015-12-01

    Giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) conservation is a possible success story in the making. If extinction of this iconic endangered species can be avoided, the species will become a showcase program for the Chinese government and its collaborators. We reviewed the major advancements in ecological science for the giant panda, examining how these advancements have contributed to panda conservation. Pandas' morphological and behavioral adaptations to a diet of bamboo, which bear strong influence on movement ecology, have been well studied, providing knowledge to guide management actions ranging from reserve design to climate change mitigation. Foraging ecology has also provided essential information used in the creation of landscape models of panda habitat. Because habitat loss and fragmentation are major drivers of the panda population decline, efforts have been made to help identify core habitat areas, establish where habitat corridors are needed, and prioritize areas for protection and restoration. Thus, habitat models have provided guidance for the Chinese governments' creation of 67 protected areas. Behavioral research has revealed a complex and efficient communication system and documented the need for protection of habitat that serves as a communication platform for bringing the sexes together for mating. Further research shows that den sites in old-growth forests may be a limiting resource, indicating potential value in providing alternative den sites for rearing offspring. Advancements in molecular ecology have been revolutionary and have been applied to population census, determining population structure and genetic diversity, evaluating connectivity following habitat fragmentation, and understanding dispersal patterns. These advancements form a foundation for increasing the application of adaptive management approaches to move panda conservation forward more rapidly. Although the Chinese government has made great progress in setting aside protected areas

  20. Unique biphasic progestagen profile in parturient and non-parturient giant pandas (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) as determined by faecal hormone monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kersey, David C; Wildt, David E; Brown, Janine L; Snyder, Rebecca J; Huang, Yan; Monfort, Steven L

    2010-07-01

    The luteal phase of the giant panda has been exclusively assessed by studying urinary hormone patterns in a very few individuals. To better understand hormonal dynamics of protracted progestagen excretion in this endangered species, we monitored hormonal metabolites in the fibrous faeces of multiple females in the USA and China. Giant pandas that were anoestrual during the breeding season excreted baseline progestagen throughout the year. In contrast, there were two distinctive periods when progestagen excretion increased in females that experienced behavioural oestrus, the first being modest, lasting for 61-122 days, and likely reflecting presumptive ovulation. This increase was far surpassed by a secondary rise in progestagen excretion associated with a rejuvenated luteal capacity or hormone production from an extra-gonadal source. The duration of this 'secondary' rise in progestagen excretion averaged approximately 45 days and terminated in a decline to baseline coincident with parturition or the end of a non-parturient luteal interval. Data revealed that, even with a complex, biphasic progestagen profile, the longitudinal patterns produced by giant pandas were relatively consistent among animals and across years within individuals. However, progestagen excretion patterns throughout this period could not be used to discriminate among non-pregnant, pregnant or pseudopregnant states.

  1. Event Reconstruction in the PandaRoot framework

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spataro, Stefano

    2012-01-01

    The PANDA experiment will study the collisions of beams of anti-protons, with momenta ranging from 2-15 GeV/c, with fixed proton and nuclear targets in the charm energy range, and will be built at the FAIR facility. In preparation for the experiment, the PandaRoot software framework is under development for detector simulation, reconstruction and data analysis, running on an Alien2-based grid. The basic features are handled by the FairRoot framework, based on ROOT and Virtual Monte Carlo, while the PANDA detector specifics and reconstruction code are implemented inside PandaRoot. The realization of Technical Design Reports for the tracking detectors has pushed the finalization of the tracking reconstruction code, which is complete for the Target Spectrometer, and of the analysis tools. Particle Identification algorithms are currently implemented using Bayesian approach and compared to Multivariate Analysis methods. Moreover, the PANDA data acquisition foresees a triggerless operation in which events are not defined by a hardware 1st level trigger decision, but all the signals are stored with time stamps requiring a deconvolution by the software. This has led to a redesign of the software from an event basis to a time-ordered structure. In this contribution, the reconstruction capabilities of the Panda spectrometer will be reported, focusing on the performances of the tracking system and the results for the analysis of physics benchmark channels, as well as the new (and challenging) concept of time-based simulation and its implementation.

  2. Migration of ATLAS PanDA to CERN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stewart, Graeme Andrew; Klimentov, Alexei; Maeno, Tadashi; Nevski, Pavel; Nowak, Marcin; De Castro Faria Salgado, Pedro Emanuel; Wenaus, Torre; Koblitz, Birger; Lamanna, Massimo

    2010-01-01

    The ATLAS Production and Distributed Analysis System (PanDA) is a key component of the ATLAS distributed computing infrastructure. All ATLAS production jobs, and a substantial amount of user and group analysis jobs, pass through the PanDA system, which manages their execution on the grid. PanDA also plays a key role in production task definition and the data set replication request system. PanDA has recently been migrated from Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) to the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), a process we describe here. We discuss how the new infrastructure for PanDA, which relies heavily on services provided by CERN IT, was introduced in order to make the service as reliable as possible and to allow it to be scaled to ATLAS's increasing need for distributed computing. The migration involved changing the backend database for PanDA from MySQL to Oracle, which impacted upon the database schemas. The process by which the client code was optimised for the new database backend is discussed. We describe the procedure by which the new database infrastructure was tested and commissioned for production use. Operations during the migration had to be planned carefully to minimise disruption to ongoing ATLAS offline computing. All parts of the migration were fully tested before commissioning the new infrastructure and the gradual migration of computing resources to the new system allowed any problems of scaling to be addressed.

  3. The Lushan earthquake and the giant panda: impacts and conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zejun; Yuan, Shibin; Qi, Dunwu; Zhang, Mingchun

    2014-06-01

    Earthquakes not only result in a great loss of human life and property, but also have profound effects on the Earth's biodiversity. The Lushan earthquake occurred on 20 Apr 2013, with a magnitude of 7.0 and an intensity of 9.0 degrees. A distance of 17.0 km from its epicenter to the nearest distribution site of giant pandas recorded in the Third National Survey was determined. Making use of research on the Wenchuan earthquake (with a magnitude of 8.0), which occurred approximately 5 years ago, we briefly analyze the impacts of the Lushan earthquake on giant pandas and their habitat. An earthquake may interrupt ongoing behaviors of giant pandas and may also cause injury or death. In addition, an earthquake can damage conservation facilities for pandas, and result in further habitat fragmentation and degradation. However, from a historical point of view, the impacts of human activities on giant pandas and their habitat may, in fact, far outweigh those of natural disasters such as earthquakes. Measures taken to promote habitat restoration and conservation network reconstruction in earthquake-affected areas should be based on requirements of giant pandas, not those of humans. © 2013 International Society of Zoological Sciences, Institute of Zoology/Chinese Academy of Sciences and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  4. Resting site use of giant pandas in Wanglang Nature Reserve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Dongwei; Wang, Xiaorong; Li, Junqing

    2017-10-23

    Little is known about the resting sites used by the giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca), which restricts our understanding of their resting habits and limits conservation efforts. To enhance our understanding of resting site requirements and factors affecting the resting time of giant pandas, we investigated the characteristics of resting sites in the Wanglang Nature Reserve, Sichuan Province, China. The results indicated that the resting sites of giant pandas were characterised by a mean slope of 21°, mean nearest tree size of 53.75 cm, mean nearest shrub size of 2.82 cm, and mean nearest bamboo number of 56. We found that the resting sites were closer to bamboo than to trees and shrubs, suggesting that the resting site use of giant pandas is closely related to the presence of bamboo. Considering that giant pandas typically rest near a large-sized tree, protection of large trees in the forests is of considerable importance for the conservation of this species. Furthermore, slope was found to be an important factor affecting the resting time of giant pandas, as they tended to rest for a relatively longer time in sites with a smaller degree of slope.

  5. Old-growth forest is what giant pandas really need.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zejun; Swaisgood, Ronald R; Zhang, Shanning; Nordstrom, Lisa A; Wang, Hongjia; Gu, Xiaodong; Hu, Jinchu; Wei, Fuwen

    2011-06-23

    Giant pandas (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) are an iconic conservation species, but despite significant research effort, do we understand what they really need? Estimating and mapping suitable habitat play a critical role in conservation planning and policy. But if assumptions about ecological needs are wrong, maps with misidentified suitable habitat will misguide conservation action. Here, we use an information-theoretic approach to analyse the largest, landscape-level dataset on panda habitat use to date, and challenge the prevailing wisdom about panda habitat needs. We show that pandas are associated with old-growth forest more than with any ecological variable other than bamboo. Other factors traditionally used in panda habitat models, such as topographic slope, are less important. We suggest that our findings are disparate from previous research in part because our research was conducted over a larger ecological scale than previous research conducted over more circumscribed areas within individual reserves. Thus, extrapolating from habitat studies on small scales to conservation planning on large scales may entail some risk. As the Chinese government is considering the renewal of its logging ban, it should take heed of the panda's dependency on old growth.

  6. First report of Enterocytozoon bieneusi from giant pandas (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) and red pandas (Ailurus fulgens) in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Ge-Ru; Zhao, Guang-Hui; Du, Shuai-Zhi; Hu, Xiong-Feng; Wang, Hui-Bao; Zhang, Long-Xian; Yu, San-Ke

    2015-08-01

    Enterocytozoon bieneusi is an emerging and opportunistic enteric pathogen triggering diarrhea and enteric disease in humans and animals. Despite extensive research on this pathogen, the prevalence and genotypes of E. bieneusi infection in precious wild animals of giant and red pandas have not been reported. In the present study, 82 faecal specimens were collected from 46 giant pandas (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) and 36 red pandas (Ailurus fulgens) in the northwest of China. By PCR and sequencing of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of the ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene of E. bieneusi, an overall infection rate of 10.98% (9/82) was observed in pandas, with 8.70% (4/46) for giant pandas, and 13.89% (5/36) for red pandas. Two ITS genotypes were identified: the novel genotype I-like (n=4) and genotype EbpC (n=5). Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) employing three microsatellites (MS1, MS3 and MS7) and one minisatellite (MS4) showed that nine, six, six and nine positive products were amplified and sequenced successfully at four respective loci. A phylogenetic analysis based on a neighbor-joining tree of the ITS gene sequences of E. bieneusi indicated that the genotype EbpC fell into 1d of group 1 of zoonotic potential, and the novel genotype I-like was clustered into group 2. The present study firstly indicated the presence of E. bieneusi in giant and red pandas, and these results suggested that integrated strategies should be implemented to effectively protect pandas and humans from infecting E. bieneusi in China. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Whole-genome sequencing of giant pandas provides insights into demographic history and local adaptation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Shancen; Zheng, Pingping; Dong, Shanshan

    2013-01-01

    The panda lineage dates back to the late Miocene and ultimately leads to only one extant species, the giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca). Although global climate change and anthropogenic disturbances are recognized to shape animal population demography their contribution to panda population...... dynamics remains largely unknown. We sequenced the whole genomes of 34 pandas at an average 4.7-fold coverage and used this data set together with the previously deep-sequenced panda genome to reconstruct a continuous demographic history of pandas from their origin to the present. We identify two...... panda populations that show genetic adaptation to their environments. However, in all three populations, anthropogenic activities have negatively affected pandas for 3,000 years....

  8. Whole-genome sequencing of giant pandas provides insights into demographic history and local adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Shancen; Zheng, Pingping; Dong, Shanshan; Zhan, Xiangjiang; Wu, Qi; Guo, Xiaosen; Hu, Yibo; He, Weiming; Zhang, Shanning; Fan, Wei; Zhu, Lifeng; Li, Dong; Zhang, Xuemei; Chen, Quan; Zhang, Hemin; Zhang, Zhihe; Jin, Xuelin; Zhang, Jinguo; Yang, Huanming; Wang, Jian; Wang, Jun; Wei, Fuwen

    2013-01-01

    The panda lineage dates back to the late Miocene and ultimately leads to only one extant species, the giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca). Although global climate change and anthropogenic disturbances are recognized to shape animal population demography their contribution to panda population dynamics remains largely unknown. We sequenced the whole genomes of 34 pandas at an average 4.7-fold coverage and used this data set together with the previously deep-sequenced panda genome to reconstruct a continuous demographic history of pandas from their origin to the present. We identify two population expansions, two bottlenecks and two divergences. Evidence indicated that, whereas global changes in climate were the primary drivers of population fluctuation for millions of years, human activities likely underlie recent population divergence and serious decline. We identified three distinct panda populations that show genetic adaptation to their environments. However, in all three populations, anthropogenic activities have negatively affected pandas for 3,000 years.

  9. The acute phase protein ceruloplasmin as a non-invasive marker of pseudopregnancy, pregnancy, and pregnancy loss in the giant panda.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin L Willis

    Full Text Available After ovulation, non-pregnant female giant pandas experience pseudopregnancy. During pseudopregnancy, non-pregnant females exhibit physiological and behavioral changes similar to pregnancy. Monitoring hormonal patterns that are usually different in pregnant mammals are not effective at determining pregnancy status in many animals that undergo pseudopregnancy, including the giant panda. Therefore, a physiological test to distinguish between pregnancy and pseudopregnancy in pandas has eluded scientists for decades. We examined other potential markers of pregnancy and found that activity of the acute phase protein ceruloplasmin increases in urine of giant pandas in response to pregnancy. Results indicate that in term pregnancies, levels of active urinary ceruloplasmin were elevated the first week of pregnancy and remain elevated until 20-24 days prior to parturition, while no increase was observed during the luteal phase in known pseudopregnancies. Active ceruloplasmin also increased during ultrasound-confirmed lost pregnancies; however, the pattern was different compared to term pregnancies, particularly during the late luteal phase. In four out of the five additional reproductive cycles included in the current study where females were bred but no birth occurred, active ceruloplasmin in urine increased during the luteal phase. Similar to the known lost pregnancies, the temporal pattern of change in urinary ceruloplasmin during the luteal phase deviated from the term pregnancies suggesting that these cycles may have also been lost pregnancies. Among giant pandas in captivity, it has been presumed that there is a high rate of pregnancy loss and our results are the first to provide evidence supporting this notion.

  10. Resident areas and migrations of female green turtles nesting at Buck Island Reef National Monument, St. Croix, U.S. Virgin Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Kristen M.; Iverson, Autumn; Benscoter, Allison M.; Fujisaki, Ikuko; Cherkiss, Michael S.; Pollock, Clayton; Lundgren, Ian; Hillis-Starr, Zandy

    2017-01-01

    Satellite tracking in marine turtle studies can reveal much about their spatial use of breeding areas, migration zones, and foraging sites. We assessed spatial habitat-use patterns of 10 adult female green turtles (Chelonia mydas) nesting at Buck Island Reef National Monument, U.S. Virgin Islands (BIRNM) from 2011 – 2014. Turtles ranged in size from 89.0 – 115.9 cm CCL (mean + SD = 106.8 + 7.7 cm). The inter-nesting period across all turtles ranged from 31 July to 4 November, and sizes of the 50% core-use areas during inter-nesting ranged from 4.2 – 19.0 km2. Inter-nesting core-use areas were located up to1.4 km from shore and had bathymetry values ranging from -17.0 to -13.0 m. Seven of the ten turtles remained locally resident after the nesting season. Five turtles (50%) foraged around Buck Island, two foraged around the island of St. Croix, and the other three (30%) made longer-distance migrations to Antigua, St. Kitts & Nevis, and Venezuela. Further, five turtles had foraging centroids within protected areas. Delineating spatial areas and identifying temporal periods of nearshore habitat-use can be useful for natural resource managers with responsibility for overseeing vulnerable habitats and protected marine turtle populations.

  11. Acceptance of, inclination for, and barriers in genetic testing for gene mutations that increase the risk of breast and ovarian cancers among female residents of Warsaw

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominik Olejniczak

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the study : To check the degree of acceptance of, inclination for, and barriers in genetic testing for gene mutations that increase the risk of breast and ovarian cancers among female residents of Warsaw Material and methods : This study involved 562 women between 20 and 77 years of age, all of whom were patients visiting gynaecologists practising in clinics in the City of Warsaw. The studied population was divided into six age categories. The study method was a diagnostic poll conducted with the use of an original questionnaire containing 10 multiple-choice questions. Results: Nearly 70% of the women showed an interest in taking a test to detect predispositions to develop breast and ovarian cancer. More than 10% did not want to take such a test, while every fifth women was undecided. No statistically significant differences between the respondents’ willingness to pay and education were found (p = 0.05. The most frequent answer given by women in all groups was that the amount to pay was too high. Such an answer was given by 52.17% of women with primary education, 65.22% of women with vocational education, 58.61% of women with secondary education, and 41.62% of women with higher education. Conclusions : Women with a confirmed increased risk of developing breast and/or ovarian cancer due to inter alia the presence of BRCA1 and BRCA2 gene mutations should pay particular attention to 1 st and 2 nd level prophylaxis.

  12. Experimental overview of the PANDA experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fioravanti, Elisa; Collaboration

    2014-04-01

    The physics program of the PANDA (anti-Proton ANhiliation ar DArmstadt) experiment will address various questions related to the strong interactions by employing a multi-purpose detector system at the High Energy Storage Ring (HESR) for anti-protons of the upcoming Facility for Anti-proton and Ion Research (FAIR). The excellent antiproton beam resolution of Δp/p ~ 10-5 and the high luminosity Script L =2×1032cm-2 s-1 will allow the precise measurement of the charmonium and open charm spectroscopy, the search for exotic hadrons like multiquarks, glueballs and hybrids, the study of in-medium modifications of hadrons and the nucleon structure.

  13. FPGA helix tracking algorithm for PANDA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liang, Yutie; Galuska, Martin; Gessler, Thomas; Kuehn, Wolfgang; Lange, Jens Soeren; Muenchow, David [II. Physikalisches Institut, University of Giessen (Germany); Ye, Hua [Institute of High Energy Physics, CAS (China); Collaboration: PANDA-Collaboration

    2016-07-01

    The PANDA detector is a general-purpose detector for physics with high luminosity cooled antiproton beams, planed to operate at the FAIR facility in Darmstadt, Germany. The central detector includes a silicon Micro Vertex Detector (MVD) and a Straw Tube Tracker (STT). Without any hardware trigger, large amounts of raw data are streaming into the data acquisition system. The data reduction task is performed in the online system by reconstruction algorithms programmed on FPGAs (Field Programmable Gate Arrays) as first level and on a farm of GPUs or PCs as a second level. One important part in the system is the online track reconstruction. In this presentation, an online tracking algorithm for helix tracking reconstruction in the solenoidal field is shown. The VHDL-based algorithm is tested with different types of events, at different event rate. Furthermore, a study of T0 extraction from the tracking algorithm is performed. A concept of simultaneous tracking and T0 determination is presented.

  14. FPGA helix tracking algorithm for PANDA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liang, Yutie; Galuska, Martin; Gessler, Thomas; Hu, Jifeng; Kuehn, Wolfgang; Lange, Jens Soeren; Muenchow, David; Spruck, Bjoern [II. Physikalisches, Giessen University (Germany); Ye, Hua [II. Physikalisches, Giessen University (Germany); Institute of High Energy Physics, Beijing (China); Collaboration: PANDA-Collaboration

    2014-07-01

    The PANDA detector is a general-purpose detector for physics with high luminosity cooled antiproton beams, planed to operate at the FAIR facility in Darmstadt, Germany. The central detector includes a silicon Micro Vertex Detector (MVD) and a Straw Tube Tracker (STT). Without any hardware trigger, large amounts of raw data are streaming into the data acquisition system. The data reduction task is performed in the online system by reconstruction algorithms programmed in VHDL (Very High Speed Integrated Circuit Hardware Description Language) on FPGAs (Field Programmable Gate Arrays) as first level and on a farm of GPUs or PCs as a second level. One important part in the system is the online track reconstruction. In this presentation, an online tracking finding algorithm for helix track reconstruction in the solenoidal field is shown. A performance study using C++ and the status of the VHDL implementation are presented.

  15. FPGA helix tracking algorithm for PANDA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liang, Yutie; Galuska, Martin; Gessler, Thomas; Kuehn, Wolfgang; Lange, Jens Soeren; Muenchow, David; Spruck, Bjoern [II. Physikalisches Institut, Giessen University (Germany); Ye, Hua [Institute of High Energy Physics, Beijing (China); Collaboration: PANDA-Collaboration

    2015-07-01

    The PANDA detector is a general-purpose detector for physics with high luminosity cooled antiproton beams, planed to operate at the FAIR facility in Darmstadt, Germany. The central detector includes a silicon Micro Vertex Detector (MVD) and a Straw Tube Tracker (STT). Without any hardware trigger, large amounts of raw data are streaming into the data acquisition system. The data reduction task is performed in the online system by reconstruction algorithms programmed on FPGAs (Field Programmable Gate Arrays) as first level and on a farm of GPUs or PCs as a second level. One important part in the system is the online track reconstruction. In this presentation, an online tracking algorithm for helix tracking reconstruction in the solenoidal field is shown. The tracking algorithm is composed by two parts, a road finding module followed by an iterative helix parameter calculation module. A performance study using C++ and the status of the VHDL implementation are presented.

  16. Food habits and conservation threats of the red panda in Rara National Park, Nepal

    OpenAIRE

    Sharma, Hari Prasad

    2013-01-01

    This thesis deals with issues of conservation threats to the red panda (Ailurus fulgens), specifically regarding foraging resources and anthropogenic activities i.e. livestock grazing. I studied the diet components of red panda during the pre-monsoon and post-monsoon seasons of this herbivorous carnivore. I evaluated the diet of red panda through micro-histological study of fecal matters to determine the composition of diets. The results indicated that the red panda feeds primarily on bam...

  17. The evolution of the gut microbiota in the giant and the red pandas

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Ying; Guo, Wei; Han, Shushu; Kong, Fanli; Wang, Chengdong; Li, Desheng; Zhang, Heming; Yang, Mingyao; Xu, Huailiang; Zeng, Bo; Zhao, Jiangchao

    2015-01-01

    The independent dietary shift from carnivore to herbivore with over 90% being bamboo in the giant and the red pandas is of great interests to biologists. Although previous studies have shown convergent evolution of the giant and the red pandas at both morphological and molecular level, the evolution of the gut microbiota in these pandas remains largely unknown. The goal of this study was to determine whether the gut microbiota of the pandas converged due to the same diet, or diverged. We char...

  18. Detection of understory bamboo in giant panda habitats using an indirect remote sensing approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bian, B.M.; Wang, T.; Liu, Y.F.; Fei, T.; Skidmore, A.K.

    2007-01-01

    The bamboo is the exclusive food of the wild giant pandas. Detection of the bamboo forest in giant panda habitat will help scientists further understand the spatial distribution pattern of giant pandas and their habitats. Moreover, it provides crucial scientific evidence for estimating habitat

  19. PANDA: a pipeline toolbox for analyzing brain diffusion images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaixu eCui

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (dMRI is widely used in both scientific research and clinical practice in in-vivo studies of the human brain. While a number of post-processing packages have been developed, fully automated processing of dMRI datasets remains challenging. Here, we developed a MATLAB toolbox named Pipeline for Analyzing braiN Diffusion imAges (PANDA for fully automated processing of brain diffusion images. The processing modules of a few established packages, including FMRIB Software Library (FSL, Pipeline System for Octave and Matlab (PSOM, Diffusion Toolkit and MRIcron, were employed in PANDA. Using any number of raw dMRI datasets from different subjects, in either DICOM or NIfTI format, PANDA can automatically perform a series of steps to process DICOM/NIfTI to diffusion metrics (e.g., FA and MD that are ready for statistical analysis at the voxel-level, the atlas-level and the Tract-Based Spatial Statistics (TBSS-level and can finish the construction of anatomical brain networks for all subjects. In particular, PANDA can process different subjects in parallel, using multiple cores either in a single computer or in a distributed computing environment, thus greatly reducing the time cost when dealing with a large number of datasets. In addition, PANDA has a friendly graphical user interface (GUI, allowing the user to be interactive and to adjust the input/output settings, as well as the processing parameters. As an open-source package, PANDA is freely available at http://www.nitrc.org/projects/panda/. This novel toolbox is expected to substantially simplify the image processing of dMRI datasets and facilitate human structural connectome studies.

  20. Functional annotation from the genome sequence of the giant panda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huo, Tong; Zhang, Yinjie; Lin, Jianping

    2012-08-01

    The giant panda is one of the most critically endangered species due to the fragmentation and loss of its habitat. Studying the functions of proteins in this animal, especially specific trait-related proteins, is therefore necessary to protect the species. In this work, the functions of these proteins were investigated using the genome sequence of the giant panda. Data on 21,001 proteins and their functions were stored in the Giant Panda Protein Database, in which the proteins were divided into two groups: 20,179 proteins whose functions can be predicted by GeneScan formed the known-function group, whereas 822 proteins whose functions cannot be predicted by GeneScan comprised the unknown-function group. For the known-function group, we further classified the proteins by molecular function, biological process, cellular component, and tissue specificity. For the unknown-function group, we developed a strategy in which the proteins were filtered by cross-Blast to identify panda-specific proteins under the assumption that proteins related to the panda-specific traits in the unknown-function group exist. After this filtering procedure, we identified 32 proteins (2 of which are membrane proteins) specific to the giant panda genome as compared against the dog and horse genomes. Based on their amino acid sequences, these 32 proteins were further analyzed by functional classification using SVM-Prot, motif prediction using MyHits, and interacting protein prediction using the Database of Interacting Proteins. Nineteen proteins were predicted to be zinc-binding proteins, thus affecting the activities of nucleic acids. The 32 panda-specific proteins will be further investigated by structural and functional analysis.

  1. PANDA: a pipeline toolbox for analyzing brain diffusion images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Zaixu; Zhong, Suyu; Xu, Pengfei; He, Yong; Gong, Gaolang

    2013-01-01

    Diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (dMRI) is widely used in both scientific research and clinical practice in in-vivo studies of the human brain. While a number of post-processing packages have been developed, fully automated processing of dMRI datasets remains challenging. Here, we developed a MATLAB toolbox named "Pipeline for Analyzing braiN Diffusion imAges" (PANDA) for fully automated processing of brain diffusion images. The processing modules of a few established packages, including FMRIB Software Library (FSL), Pipeline System for Octave and Matlab (PSOM), Diffusion Toolkit and MRIcron, were employed in PANDA. Using any number of raw dMRI datasets from different subjects, in either DICOM or NIfTI format, PANDA can automatically perform a series of steps to process DICOM/NIfTI to diffusion metrics [e.g., fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean diffusivity (MD)] that are ready for statistical analysis at the voxel-level, the atlas-level and the Tract-Based Spatial Statistics (TBSS)-level and can finish the construction of anatomical brain networks for all subjects. In particular, PANDA can process different subjects in parallel, using multiple cores either in a single computer or in a distributed computing environment, thus greatly reducing the time cost when dealing with a large number of datasets. In addition, PANDA has a friendly graphical user interface (GUI), allowing the user to be interactive and to adjust the input/output settings, as well as the processing parameters. As an open-source package, PANDA is freely available at http://www.nitrc.org/projects/panda/. This novel toolbox is expected to substantially simplify the image processing of dMRI datasets and facilitate human structural connectome studies.

  2. NORMAL VAGINAL BACTERIAL FLORA OF GIANT PANDAS (AILUROPODA MELANOLEUCA) AND THE ANTIMICROBIAL SUSCEPTIBILITY PATTERNS OF THE ISOLATES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xin; Yang, Jiang; Wang, Hongning; Li, Caiwu; He, Yongguo; Jin, SenYan; Zhang, Hemin; Li, Desheng; Wang, Pengyan; Xu, Yuesong; Xu, Changwen; Fan, Chengyun; Xu, Lulai; Huang, Shan; Qu, Chunmao; Li, Guo

    2016-06-01

    To study the typical vaginal bacterial flora of giant pandas (Ailuropoda melanoleuca), we took vaginal swabs for the sake of bacterial isolation, from 24 healthy female giant pandas. A total of 203 isolates were identified, representing a total of 17 bacterial species. The most common bacteria isolated were Lactobacillus spp. (54.2%, 13/24), followed by Staphylococcus epidermidis (41.7%, 10/24) and Escherichia coli (33.3%, 8/24). Some opportunistic pathogenic bacteria, such as Peptostreptococcus spp., Klebsiella pneumoniae , and Proteus mirabilis , were also isolated but showed no pathology. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing of aerobic bacterial isolates was performed with the disk diffusion method. Of the 152 isolates, resistance was most frequently observed with chloramphenicol (17.8%), followed by tetracycline (14.5%), ciprofloxacin (12.5%), streptomycin (11.8%), and florfenicol (11.8%), whereas 7.2% were multidrug resistant. This is the first report of the normal culturable vaginal bacterial flora of giant pandas and the antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of the isolates.

  3. The Straw Tube Trackers of the PANDA Experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gianotti, P.; Lucherini, V.; Pace, E.; Boca, G.L.; Costanza, S.; Genova, P.; Lavezzi, L.; Montanga, P.; Rotondi, A.; Bragadireanu, M.; Vasile, M.E.; Pietreanu, D.; Biernat, J.; Jowzaee, S.; Korcyl, G.; Palka, M.; Salabura, P.; Smyrski, J.; Fiutowski, T.; Idzik, M.; Przyborowski, D.; Korcyl, K.; Kulessa, P.; Pysz, K.; Dobbs, S.; Tomaradze, A.; Bettoni, D.; Fioravanti, E.; Garzia, I.; Savrie, M.; Kozlov, V.; Mertens, M.; Ohm, H.; Orfanitski, S.; Ritman, J.; Serdyuk, V.; Wintz, P.; Spataro, S.

    2013-06-01

    The PANDA experiment will be built at the FAIR facility at Darmstadt (Germany) to perform accurate tests of the strong interaction through p-bar p and p-bar A annihilation's studies. To track charged particles, two systems consisting of a set of planar, closed-packed, self-supporting straw tube layers are under construction. The PANDA straw tubes will have also unique characteristics in term of material budget and performance. They consist of very thin mylar-aluminized cathodes which are made self-supporting by means of the operation gas-mixture over-pressure. This solution allows to reduce at maximum the weight of the mechanical support frame and hence the detector material budget. The PANDA straw tube central tracker will not only reconstruct charged particle trajectories, but also will help in low momentum (< 1 GeV) particle identification via dE/dx measurements. This is a quite new approach that PANDA tracking group has first tested with detailed Monte Carlo simulations, and then with experimental tests of detector prototypes. This paper addresses the design issues of the PANDA straw tube trackers and the performance obtained in prototype tests. (authors)

  4. PandaEPL: a library for programming spatial navigation experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solway, Alec; Miller, Jonathan F; Kahana, Michael J

    2013-12-01

    Recent advances in neuroimaging and neural recording techniques have enabled researchers to make significant progress in understanding the neural mechanisms underlying human spatial navigation. Because these techniques generally require participants to remain stationary, computer-generated virtual environments are used. We introduce PandaEPL, a programming library for the Python language designed to simplify the creation of computer-controlled spatial-navigation experiments. PandaEPL is built on top of Panda3D, a modern open-source game engine. It allows users to construct three-dimensional environments that participants can navigate from a first-person perspective. Sound playback and recording and also joystick support are provided through the use of additional optional libraries. PandaEPL also handles many tasks common to all cognitive experiments, including managing configuration files, logging all internal and participant-generated events, and keeping track of the experiment state. We describe how PandaEPL compares with other software for building spatial-navigation experiments and walk the reader through the process of creating a fully functional experiment.

  5. The PandaRoot framework for simulation, reconstruction and analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spataro, Stefano

    2011-01-01

    The PANDA experiment at the future facility FAIR will study anti-proton proton and anti-proton nucleus collisions in a beam momentum range from 2 GeV/c up to 15 GeV/c. The PandaRoot framework is part of the FairRoot project, a common software framework for the future FAIR experiments, and is currently used to simulate detector performances and to evaluate different detector concepts. It is based on the packages ROOT and Virtual MonteCarlo with Geant3 and Geant4. Different reconstruction algorithms for tracking and particle identification are under development and optimization, in order to achieve the performance requirements of the experiment. In the central tracker a first track fit is performed using a conformal map transformation based on a helix assumption, then the track is used as input for a Kalman Filter (package genfit), using GEANE as track follower. The track is then correlated to the pid detectors (e.g. Cerenkov detectors, EM Calorimeter or Muon Chambers) to evaluate a global particle identification probability, using a Bayesian approach or multivariate methods. Further implemented packages in PandaRoot are: the analysis tools framework Rho, the kinematic fitter package for vertex and mass constraint fits, and a fast simulation code based upon parametrized detector responses. PandaRoot was also tested on an Alien-based GRID infrastructure. The contribution will report about the status of PandaRoot and show some example results for analysis of physics benchmark channels.

  6. Overview of ATLAS PanDA Workload Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeno, T.; De, K.; Wenaus, T.; Nilsson, P.; Stewart, G. A.; Walker, R.; Stradling, A.; Caballero, J.; Potekhin, M.; Smith, D.; ATLAS Collaboration

    2011-12-01

    The Production and Distributed Analysis System (PanDA) plays a key role in the ATLAS distributed computing infrastructure. All ATLAS Monte-Carlo simulation and data reprocessing jobs pass through the PanDA system. We will describe how PanDA manages job execution on the grid using dynamic resource estimation and data replication together with intelligent brokerage in order to meet the scaling and automation requirements of ATLAS distributed computing. PanDA is also the primary ATLAS system for processing user and group analysis jobs, bringing further requirements for quick, flexible adaptation to the rapidly evolving analysis use cases of the early datataking phase, in addition to the high reliability, robustness and usability needed to provide efficient and transparent utilization of the grid for analysis users. We will describe how PanDA meets ATLAS requirements, the evolution of the system in light of operational experience, how the system has performed during the first LHC data-taking phase and plans for the future.

  7. The ATLAS PanDA Monitoring System and its Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimentov, A.; Nevski, P.; Potekhin, M.; Wenaus, T.

    2011-12-01

    The PanDA (Production and Distributed Analysis) Workload Management System is used for ATLAS distributed production and analysis worldwide. The needs of ATLAS global computing imposed challenging requirements on the design of PanDA in areas such as scalability, robustness, automation, diagnostics, and usability for both production shifters and analysis users. Through a system-wide job database, the PanDA monitor provides a comprehensive and coherent view of the system and job execution, from high level summaries to detailed drill-down job diagnostics. It is (like the rest of PanDA) an Apache-based Python application backed by Oracle. The presentation layer is HTML code generated on the fly in the Python application which is also responsible for managing database queries. However, this approach is lacking in user interface flexibility, simplicity of communication with external systems, and ease of maintenance. A decision was therefore made to migrate the PanDA monitor server to Django Web Application Framework and apply JSON/AJAX technology in the browser front end. This allows us to greatly reduce the amount of application code, separate data preparation from presentation, leverage open source for tools such as authentication and authorization mechanisms, and provide a richer and more dynamic user experience. We describe our approach, design and initial experience with the migration process.

  8. Overview of ATLAS PanDA Workload Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maeno, T.; De, K.; Wenaus, T.; Nilsson, P.; Stewart, G.A.; Walker, R.; Stradling, A.; Caballero, J.; Potekhin, M.; Smith, D.

    2011-01-01

    The Production and Distributed Analysis System (PanDA) plays a key role in the ATLAS distributed computing infrastructure. All ATLAS Monte-Carlo simulation and data reprocessing jobs pass through the PanDA system. We will describe how PanDA manages job execution on the grid using dynamic resource estimation and data replication together with intelligent brokerage in order to meet the scaling and automation requirements of ATLAS distributed computing. PanDA is also the primary ATLAS system for processing user and group analysis jobs, bringing further requirements for quick, flexible adaptation to the rapidly evolving analysis use cases of the early datataking phase, in addition to the high reliability, robustness and usability needed to provide efficient and transparent utilization of the grid for analysis users. We will describe how PanDA meets ATLAS requirements, the evolution of the system in light of operational experience, how the system has performed during the first LHC data-taking phase and plans for the future.

  9. The ATLAS PanDA Monitoring System and its Evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klimentov, A; Nevski, P; Wenaus, T; Potekhin, M

    2011-01-01

    The PanDA (Production and Distributed Analysis) Workload Management System is used for ATLAS distributed production and analysis worldwide. The needs of ATLAS global computing imposed challenging requirements on the design of PanDA in areas such as scalability, robustness, automation, diagnostics, and usability for both production shifters and analysis users. Through a system-wide job database, the PanDA monitor provides a comprehensive and coherent view of the system and job execution, from high level summaries to detailed drill-down job diagnostics. It is (like the rest of PanDA) an Apache-based Python application backed by Oracle. The presentation layer is HTML code generated on the fly in the Python application which is also responsible for managing database queries. However, this approach is lacking in user interface flexibility, simplicity of communication with external systems, and ease of maintenance. A decision was therefore made to migrate the PanDA monitor server to Django Web Application Framework and apply JSON/AJAX technology in the browser front end. This allows us to greatly reduce the amount of application code, separate data preparation from presentation, leverage open source for tools such as authentication and authorization mechanisms, and provide a richer and more dynamic user experience. We describe our approach, design and initial experience with the migration process.

  10. Factors affecting genotyping success in giant panda fecal samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Ying; Liu, Hong-Yi; Yang, Hai-Qiong; Li, Yu-Dong; Zhang, He-Min

    2017-01-01

    Fecal samples play an important role in giant panda conservation studies. Optimal preservation conditions and choice of microsatellites for giant panda fecal samples have not been established. In this study, we evaluated the effect of four factors (namely, storage type (ethanol (EtOH), EtOH -20 °C, 2-step storage medium, DMSO/EDTA/Tris/salt buffer (DETs) and frozen at -20 °C), storage time (one, three and six months), fragment length, and repeat motif of microsatellite loci) on the success rate of microsatellite amplification, allelic dropout (ADO) and false allele (FA) rates from giant panda fecal samples. Amplification success and ADO rates differed between the storage types. Freezing was inferior to the other four storage methods based on the lowest average amplification success and the highest ADO rates ( P panda fecal preservation in microsatellite studies, and EtOH and the 2-step storage medium should be chosen on priority for long-term storage. We recommend candidate microsatellite loci with longer repeat motif to ensure greater genotyping success for giant panda fecal studies.

  11. Status and Evolution of ATLAS Workload Management System PanDA

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2067365; The ATLAS collaboration

    2012-01-01

    The ATLAS experiment at the LHC uses a sophisticated workload management system, PanDA, to provide access for thousands of physicists to distributed computing resources of unprecedented scale. This system has proved to be robust and scalable during three years of LHC operations. We describe the design and performance of PanDA in ATLAS. The features which make PanDA successful in ATLAS could be applicable to other exabyte scale scientific projects. We describe plans to evolve PanDA towards a general workload management system for the new BigData initiative announced by the US government. Other planned future improvements to PanDA will also be described

  12. Biology of the Wild Silkmoth Anaphe panda (Boisduval in the Kakamega Forest of Western Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Mbahin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A study on the life cycle of the silkmoth Anaphe panda (Boisduval was conducted in two different habitats of the Kakamega Forest in western Kenya: Ikuywa, an indigenous forest, and Isecheno, a mixed indigenous forest. Eggs were laid in clusters, and the incubation period ranged from 40 to 45 days. Larvae fed on Bridelia micrantha (Hochst and passed through seven instars. The developmental period took between 83 to 86 days in the dry season and 112 to118 days in the rainy season. The pupal period ranged between 158 and 178 days in the rainy season and, on the other hand, between 107 and 138 days in the dry season. But the later caught up in development with those that formed earlier. Moths emerged from mid-October until mid-May. Longevity of adult Anaphe panda moths took between 4 and 6 days, but generally females seemed to live longer than males. The moth also seems to have higher lifespan in the indigenous forest compared to the mixed indigenous forest.

  13. Exposure to odors of rivals enhances sexual motivation in male giant pandas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bian, Xiaoxing; Liu, Dingzhen; Zeng, Hua; Zhang, Guiquan; Wei, Rongping; Hou, Rong

    2013-01-01

    Males will alter their mating behavior to cope with the presence of their competitors. Even exposure to odors from potential competitors can greatly increase male ejaculate expenditure in a variety of animals including insects, fishes, birds and rodents. Major efforts have been made to examine males' plastic responses to sperm competition and its fitness benefits. However, the effects of competitor absence on male's sexual motivation and behaviors remain unclear, which has been proposed to be one of the causes for the poor sexual performance of some captive mammals. This study revealed that sexual motivation can be greatly enhanced in captive male giant pandas (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) by exposure to chemosensory cues from either one or three conspecifics males. It had been shown that potential rivals' odors increased males' chemosensory investigation behavior, as well as their observing, following and sniffing behaviors towards estrous females. Behaviors changed regardless of the number of rivals (one or three). Our results demonstrate the effects of potential competition on male giant pandas' sexual motivation and behavioral coping strategy. We anticipate that our research will provide a fresh insight into the mechanisms underlying poor sexual performance in male captive mammals, and valuable information for the practical management and ex situ conservation of endangered species.

  14. Exposure to odors of rivals enhances sexual motivation in male giant pandas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoxing Bian

    Full Text Available Males will alter their mating behavior to cope with the presence of their competitors. Even exposure to odors from potential competitors can greatly increase male ejaculate expenditure in a variety of animals including insects, fishes, birds and rodents. Major efforts have been made to examine males' plastic responses to sperm competition and its fitness benefits. However, the effects of competitor absence on male's sexual motivation and behaviors remain unclear, which has been proposed to be one of the causes for the poor sexual performance of some captive mammals. This study revealed that sexual motivation can be greatly enhanced in captive male giant pandas (Ailuropoda melanoleuca by exposure to chemosensory cues from either one or three conspecifics males. It had been shown that potential rivals' odors increased males' chemosensory investigation behavior, as well as their observing, following and sniffing behaviors towards estrous females. Behaviors changed regardless of the number of rivals (one or three. Our results demonstrate the effects of potential competition on male giant pandas' sexual motivation and behavioral coping strategy. We anticipate that our research will provide a fresh insight into the mechanisms underlying poor sexual performance in male captive mammals, and valuable information for the practical management and ex situ conservation of endangered species.

  15. Characterization of the gut microbiota in the red panda (Ailurus fulgens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fanli Kong

    Full Text Available The red panda is the only living species of the genus Ailurus. Like giant pandas, red pandas are also highly specialized to feed mainly on highly fibrous bamboo. Although several studies have focused on the gut microbiota in the giant panda, little is known about the gut microbiota of the red panda. In this study, we characterized the fecal microbiota from both wild (n = 16 and captive (n = 6 red pandas using a pyrosequecing based approach targeting the V1-V3 hypervariable regions of the 16S rRNA gene. Distinct bacterial communities were observed between the two groups based on both membership and structure. Wild red pandas maintained significantly higher community diversity, richness and evenness than captive red pandas, the communities of which were skewed and dominated by taxa associated with Firmicutes. Phylogenetic analysis of the top 50 OTUs revealed that 10 of them were related to known cellulose degraders. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study of the gut microbiota of the red panda. Our data suggest that, similar to the giant panda, the gut microbiota in the red panda might also play important roles in the digestion of bamboo.

  16. Characterization of the gut microbiota in the red panda (Ailurus fulgens).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Fanli; Zhao, Jiangchao; Han, Shushu; Zeng, Bo; Yang, Jiandong; Si, Xiaohui; Yang, Benqing; Yang, Mingyao; Xu, Huailiang; Li, Ying

    2014-01-01

    The red panda is the only living species of the genus Ailurus. Like giant pandas, red pandas are also highly specialized to feed mainly on highly fibrous bamboo. Although several studies have focused on the gut microbiota in the giant panda, little is known about the gut microbiota of the red panda. In this study, we characterized the fecal microbiota from both wild (n = 16) and captive (n = 6) red pandas using a pyrosequecing based approach targeting the V1-V3 hypervariable regions of the 16S rRNA gene. Distinct bacterial communities were observed between the two groups based on both membership and structure. Wild red pandas maintained significantly higher community diversity, richness and evenness than captive red pandas, the communities of which were skewed and dominated by taxa associated with Firmicutes. Phylogenetic analysis of the top 50 OTUs revealed that 10 of them were related to known cellulose degraders. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study of the gut microbiota of the red panda. Our data suggest that, similar to the giant panda, the gut microbiota in the red panda might also play important roles in the digestion of bamboo.

  17. Zespół PANDAS. Opis przypadku

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Cybertowicz

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Celem pracy jest opis przypadku dziewczynki chorującej na zespół PANDAS, którą przed ostatecznym rozpoznaniem wielokrotnie diagnozowano pediatrycznie. Pacjentką była 15‑letnia uczennica gimnazjum. Powodem zgłoszenia dziew‑ czynki do lekarza psychiatry dziecięcego były objawy zmęczenia, osłabienia, pogorszenie wyników w nauce, trudności w funkcjonowaniu w szkole oraz w domu. Pacjentka zgłosiła się wraz z matką, która była zaniepokojona jej stanem zdro‑ wia i brakiem efektu wcześniejszego, długiego leczenia pediatrycznego. Dziewczynka została przebadana psychiatrycznie oraz psychologicznie. Dane z wywiadu, badania, porady, konsultacje psychologiczne wskazywały na rozpoznanie wstępne zaburzeń obsesyjno‑kompulsyjnych. W wyniku przeprowadzonego postępowania, w szczególności pogłębionego wywiadu, badań fizykalnych oraz oceny kart informacyjnych leczenia pediatrycznego, postawiono diagnozę: zespół PAN‑ DAS. Szczególny wpływ na ostateczne rozpoznanie miał wywiad prospektywny oraz charakter pojawienia się objawów (w sposób nagły, dramatyczny. Wykazano również związek z infekcją paciorkowcową, która została potwierdzona ba‑ daniem w trakcie hospitalizacji pediatrycznej. Powyższe dane zwracają uwagę na znaczenie dobrze przeprowadzonego wywiadu oraz potwierdzenie związku czasowego z infekcją paciorkowcową przed ostatecznym postawieniem diagno‑ zy zespołu PANDAS. O ukierunkowanym rozpoznaniu zaburzeń obsesyjno‑kompulsyjnych należy pamiętać zwłaszcza w przypadkach pojawienia się objawów z nagłym bądź gwałtownym początkiem, które wiąże się z infekcją górnych dróg oddechowych. O udziale czynników neuroimmunologicznych w etiologii zaburzenia trzeba myśleć w przypadku, gdy w wywiadzie wśród członków rodziny występowała gorączka reumatyczna.

  18. PANDAS: The Need to Use Definitive Diagnostic Criteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harvey S. Singer

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The entity Pediatric Autoimmune Neuropsychiatric Disorders Associated with Streptococcal infections (PANDAS was initially proposed in 1998 (Swedo, et al. 1998. The formal diagnosis required that the affected individual meet five specific criteria: prepubertal onset, obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD and/or a tic disorder, the dramatic sudden explosive onset of symptoms, a relapsing and remitting course of symptoms that are temporally associated with Group A beta-hemolytic streptococcal (GABHS infection, and the presence of other neuropsychiatric abnormalities (hyperactivity, emotional lability, anxiety, or piano-playing choreiform movements. Since that original report, the PANDAS hypothesis has remained controversial based on both clinical grounds and the failure to confirm a definitive immune process.  This editorial was written in response to:Helm CE, Blackwood RA. Pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorder associated with streptococcal infections (PANDAS: Experience at a tertiary referral center. Tremor Other Hyperkinet Mov. 2015; 5. doi: 10.7916/D8348JCX 

  19. Integration Of PanDA Workload Management System With Supercomputers

    CERN Document Server

    Klimentov, Alexei; The ATLAS collaboration; Maeno, Tadashi; Mashinistov, Ruslan; Nilsson, Paul; Oleynik, Danila; Panitkin, Sergey; Read, Kenneth; Ryabinkin, Evgeny; Wenaus, Torre

    2015-01-01

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC), operating at the international CERN Laboratory in Geneva, Switzerland, is leading Big Data driven scientific explorations. Experiments at the LHC explore the fundamental nature of matter and the basic forces that shape our universe, and were recently credited for the discovery of a Higgs boson. ATLAS, one of the largest collaborations ever assembled in the sciences, is at the forefront of research at the LHC. To address an unprecedented multi-petabyte data processing challenge, the ATLAS experiment is relying on a heterogeneous distributed computational infrastructure. The ATLAS experiment uses PanDA (Production and Data Analysis) Workload Management System for managing the workflow for all data processing on over 140 data centers. Through PanDA, ATLAS physicists see a single computing facility that enables rapid scientific breakthroughs for the experiment, even though the data centers are physically scattered all over the world. While PanDA currently uses more than 100,000 co...

  20. PANDA: A Multipurpose Integral Test Facility for LWR Safety Investigations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domenico Paladino

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The PANDA facility is a large scale, multicompartmental thermal hydraulic facility suited for investigations related to the safety of current and advanced LWRs. The facility is multipurpose, and the applications cover integral containment response tests, component tests, primary system tests, and separate effect tests. Experimental investigations carried on in the PANDA facility have been embedded in international projects, most of which under the auspices of the EU and OECD and with the support of a large number of organizations (regulatory bodies, technical dupport organizations, national laboratories, electric utilities, industries worldwide. The paper provides an overview of the research programs performed in the PANDA facility in relation to BWR containment systems and those planned for PWR containment systems.

  1. Fatal Toxoplasma gondii infection in the giant panda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Toxoplasma gondii can infect nearly all warm-blooded animals. We report an acute fatal T. gondii infection in the endangered giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca in a zoo in China, characterized by acute gastroenteritis and respiratory symptoms. T. gondii infection was confirmed by immunological and molecular methods. Multilocus nested PCR-RFLP revealed clonal type I at the SAG1 and c29-2 loci, clonal type II at the SAG2, BTUB, GRA6, c22-8, and L358 loci, and clonal type III at the alternative SAG2 and SAG3 loci, thus, a potential new genotype of T. gondii in the giant panda. Other possible pathogens were not detected. To our knowledge, this is the first report of clinical toxoplasmosis in a giant panda.

  2. The ATLAS PanDA Pilot in Operation

    CERN Document Server

    Nilsson, P; The ATLAS collaboration

    2010-01-01

    The ATLAS Production and Distributed Analysis system (PanDA) was designed to meet ATLAS requirements for a data-driven workload management system capable of operating at LHC data processing scale. Submitted jobs are executed on worker nodes by pilot jobs sent to the grid sites by pilot factories. This poster provides an overview of the PanDA pilot system and presents major features added in light of recent operational experience, including multi-job processing, advanced job recovery for jobs with output storage failures, gLExec based identity switching from the generic pilot to the actual user, and other security measures. The PanDA system serves all ATLAS distributed processing and is the primary system for distributed analysis; it is currently used at over 100 sites world-wide. We analyze the performance of the pilot system in processing real LHC data on the OSG, EGI and Nordugrid infrastructures used by ATLAS, and describe plans for its evolution.

  3. Equations of state for explosive detonation products: The PANDA model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kerley, G.I.

    1994-05-01

    This paper discusses a thermochemical model for calculating equations of state (EOS) for the detonation products of explosives. This model, which was first presented at the Eighth Detonation Symposium, is available in the PANDA code and is referred to here as ``the Panda model``. The basic features of the PANDA model are as follows. (1) Statistical-mechanical theories are used to construct EOS tables for each of the chemical species that are to be allowed in the detonation products. (2) The ideal mixing model is used to compute the thermodynamic functions for a mixture of these species, and the composition of the system is determined from assumption of chemical equilibrium. (3) For hydrocode calculations, the detonation product EOS are used in tabular form, together with a reactive burn model that allows description of shock-induced initiation and growth or failure as well as ideal detonation wave propagation. This model has been implemented in the three-dimensional Eulerian code, CTH.

  4. Recent Improvements in the ATLAS PanDA Pilot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nilsson, P; De, K; Bejar, J Caballero; Maeno, T; Potekhin, M; Wenaus, T; Compostella, G; Contreras, C; Dos Santos, T

    2012-01-01

    The Production and Distributed Analysis system (PanDA) in the ATLAS experiment uses pilots to execute submitted jobs on the worker nodes. The pilots are designed to deal with different runtime conditions and failure scenarios, and support many storage systems. This talk will give a brief overview of the PanDA pilot system and will present major features and recent improvements including CernVM File System integration, the job retry mechanism, advanced job monitoring including JEM technology, and validation of new pilot code using the HammerCloud stress-testing system. PanDA is used for all ATLAS distributed production and is the primary system for distributed analysis. It is currently used at over 130 sites worldwide. We analyze the performance of the pilot system in processing LHC data on the OSG, EGI and Nordugrid infrastructures used by ATLAS, and describe plans for its further evolution.

  5. PANDA: A Multipurpose Integral Test Facility for LWR Safety Investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paladino, D.; Dreier, J.

    2012-01-01

    The PANDA facility is a large scale, multicompartmental thermal hydraulic facility suited for investigations related to the safety of current and advanced LWRs. The facility is multipurpose, and the applications cover integral containment response tests, component tests, primary system tests, and separate effect tests. Experimental investigations carried on in the PANDA facility have been embedded in international projects, most of which under the auspices of the EU and OECD and with the support of a large number of organizations (regulatory bodies, technical dupport organizations, national laboratories, electric utilities, industries) worldwide. The paper provides an overview of the research programs performed in the PANDA facility in relation to BWR containment systems and those planned for PWR containment systems.

  6. Vocal cues to male androgen levels in giant pandas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlton, Benjamin D; Keating, Jennifer L; Kersey, David; Rengui, Li; Huang, Yan; Swaisgood, Ronald R

    2011-02-23

    Little is known about the potential of non-human mammal vocalizations to signal information on the hormonal status of the caller. In the current study, we used endocrine data and acoustic analyses to determine whether male giant panda bleats provide reliable information about the caller's current androgen levels. Our results revealed significant relationships between acoustic features of male giant panda bleats and the caller's faecal androgen metabolite concentrations. To our knowledge, this constitutes the first demonstration that the acoustic structure of a non-human mammal call has the potential to yield information about the caller's current androgen levels. We go on to discuss the anatomical basis for our findings and the potential functional relevance of signalling information on male androgen levels in giant panda sexual communication.

  7. The future of PanDA in ATLAS distributed computing

    Science.gov (United States)

    De, K.; Klimentov, A.; Maeno, T.; Nilsson, P.; Oleynik, D.; Panitkin, S.; Petrosyan, A.; Schovancova, J.; Vaniachine, A.; Wenaus, T.

    2015-12-01

    Experiments at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) face unprecedented computing challenges. Heterogeneous resources are distributed worldwide at hundreds of sites, thousands of physicists analyse the data remotely, the volume of processed data is beyond the exabyte scale, while data processing requires more than a few billion hours of computing usage per year. The PanDA (Production and Distributed Analysis) system was developed to meet the scale and complexity of LHC distributed computing for the ATLAS experiment. In the process, the old batch job paradigm of locally managed computing in HEP was discarded in favour of a far more automated, flexible and scalable model. The success of PanDA in ATLAS is leading to widespread adoption and testing by other experiments. PanDA is the first exascale workload management system in HEP, already operating at more than a million computing jobs per day, and processing over an exabyte of data in 2013. There are many new challenges that PanDA will face in the near future, in addition to new challenges of scale, heterogeneity and increasing user base. PanDA will need to handle rapidly changing computing infrastructure, will require factorization of code for easier deployment, will need to incorporate additional information sources including network metrics in decision making, be able to control network circuits, handle dynamically sized workload processing, provide improved visualization, and face many other challenges. In this talk we will focus on the new features, planned or recently implemented, that are relevant to the next decade of distributed computing workload management using PanDA.

  8. RADIOGRAPHIC THORACIC ANATOMY OF THE RED PANDA (AILURUS FULGENS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makungu, Modesta; du Plessis, Wencke M; Barrows, Michelle; Groenewald, Hermanus B; Koeppel, Katja N

    2016-09-01

    The red panda ( Ailurus fulgens ) is classified as an endangered species by the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources. The natural distribution of the red panda is in the Himalayas and southern China. Thoracic diseases such as dirofilariasis, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, tracheal obstruction, lung worm infestation, and pneumonia have been reported in the red panda. The aim of this study was to describe the normal radiographic thoracic anatomy of captive red pandas as a species-specific reference for routine health examinations and clinical cases. Right lateral (RL) and dorsoventral (DV) inspiratory phase views of the thorax were obtained in 11 adult captive red pandas. Measurements were made and ratios calculated to establish reference ranges for the mean vertebral heart score on the RL (8.34 ± 0.25) and DV (8.78 ± 0.34) views and the mean ratios of the caudal vena cava diameter to the vertebral body length above tracheal bifurcation (0.67 ± 0.05) and tracheal diameter to the width of the third rib (2.75 ± 0.24). The majority of animals (10/11) had 14 thoracic vertebrae, except for one animal that had 15 thoracic vertebrae. Rudimentary clavicles were seen in 3/11 animals. The ovoid, oblique cardiac silhouette was more horizontally positioned and elongated in older animals. A redundant aortic arch was seen in the oldest animal. The trachea was seen with mineralized cartilage rings in all animals. The carina was clearly seen in the majority of animals (10/11). Variations exist in the normal radiographic thoracic anatomy of different species. Knowledge of the normal radiographic thoracic anatomy of the red panda should prove useful for routine health examinations and in the diagnosis of thoracic diseases.

  9. Prototype test for the PANDA barrel DIRC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dzhygadlo, Roman; Gerhardt, Andreas; Kalicy, Grzegorz; Krebs, Marvin; Lehmann, Dorothe; Schwarz, Carsten; Schwiening, Jochen; Belias, Anastasios; Traxler, Michael [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fur Schwerionenforschung GmbH, Darmstadt (Germany); Peters, Klaus [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fur Schwerionenforschung GmbH, Darmstadt (Germany); Goethe-Universitaet Frankfurt (Germany); Collaboration: PANDA-Collaboration

    2016-07-01

    The Barrel DIRC (Detector of Internally Reflected Cherenkov light) is designed to provide particle identification (PID) for the PANDA experiment at the new Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research in Europe (FAIR) at GSI, Darmstadt. It is based on the successful BABAR DIRC detector with several key improvements, such as focusing optics, fast timing, and a compact expansion volume. A large prototype was constructed and tested in a hadronic particle beam at CERN during the summer of 2015 to test the PID performance of different design options. The prototype included a fused silica radiator (either a narrow bar or a wide plate), an optional focusing lens, and a prism-shaped fused silica expansion volume. An array of microchannel-plate photomultiplier tubes measured the location and arrival time of the Cherenkov photons on 960 pixels. Data were collected for two radiator geometries and several types of focusing lenses at different beam momenta and polar angles. Results of the analysis as well as a comparison to the Geant4 simulation are presented.

  10. From tiger to panda: animal head detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Weiwei; Sun, Jian; Tang, Xiaoou

    2011-06-01

    Robust object detection has many important applications in real-world online photo processing. For example, both Google image search and MSN live image search have integrated human face detector to retrieve face or portrait photos. Inspired by the success of such face filtering approach, in this paper, we focus on another popular online photo category--animal, which is one of the top five categories in the MSN live image search query log. As a first attempt, we focus on the problem of animal head detection of a set of relatively large land animals that are popular on the internet, such as cat, tiger, panda, fox, and cheetah. First, we proposed a new set of gradient oriented feature, Haar of Oriented Gradients (HOOG), to effectively capture the shape and texture features on animal head. Then, we proposed two detection algorithms, namely Bruteforce detection and Deformable detection, to effectively exploit the shape feature and texture feature simultaneously. Experimental results on 14,379 well labeled animals images validate the superiority of the proposed approach. Additionally, we apply the animal head detector to improve the image search result through text based online photo search result filtering.

  11. Low noise preamplifier ASIC for the PANDA experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flemming, H; Wieczorek, P

    2011-01-01

    For the electromagnetic calorimeter of the PANDA detector a preamplifier ASIC named APFEL (ASIC for Panda Front-end ELectronics) has been developed at GSI. It is optimized for the readout of large area avalanche photodiodes (LAAPDs) with a capacitance of 300 pF and an event rate of 350 kHz. The ASIC has two equivalent analog channels each consisting of a charge sensitive amplifier, a shaper stage and differential output drivers. For operating the ASIC in a wide temperature range programmable voltage references are implemented on chip.

  12. “I’ve never asked one question.” Understanding the barriers among orthopedic surgery residents to screening female patients for intimate partner violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conn, Lesley Gotlib; Young, Aynsely; Rotstein, Ori D.; Schemitsch, Emil

    2014-01-01

    Background Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a global public health problem. Orthopedic surgery residents may identify IPV among injured patients treated in fracture clinics. Yet, these residents face a number of barriers to recognizing and discussing IPV with patients. We sought to explore orthopedic surgery residents’ knowledge of IPV and their preparedness to screen patients for IPV in academic fracture clinic settings with a view to developing targeted IPV education and training. Methods We conducted focus groups with junior and intermediate residents. Discussions explored residents’ knowledge of and experiences with IPV screening and preparedness for screening and responding to IPV among orthopedic patients. Data were analyzed iteratively using an inductive approach. Results Residents were aware of the issue of abuse generally, but had received no specific information or training on IPV in orthopedics. Residents did not see orthopedics faculty screen patients for IPV or advocate for screening. They did not view IPV screening or intervention as part of the orthopedic surgeon’s role. Residents’ clinical experiences emphasized time management and surgical intervention by effectively “getting through clinic” and “dealing with the surgical problem.” Communication with patients about other health issues was minimal or nonexistent. Conclusion Orthopedic surgery residents are entering a career path where IPV is well documented. They encounter cultural and structural barriers preventing the incorporation of IPV screening into their clinical and educational experiences. Hospitals and academic programs must collaborate in efforts to build capacity for sustainable IPV screening programs among these trainees. PMID:25421078

  13. PBDEs (polybrominated diphenyl ethers) pose a risk to captive giant pandas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yi-Ping; Zheng, Ying-Juan; Liu, Qiang; Ellison, Aaron M; Zhao, Yan; Ma, Qing-Yi

    2017-07-01

    The Qinling subspecies of giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca qinlingensis), is highly endangered; fewer than 350 individuals still inhabit Qinling Mountains. Previous research revealed captive pandas were exposed to bromine, so we hypothesized that captive pandas were exposed to and affected by polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). To test this hypothesis, we tested blood and feces of captive and wild pandas, their drinking water, food (bamboo leaves) from SWARC (Shaanxi Wild Animal Research Center)and FNNR (Foping National Nature Reserve) and supplemental feedstuff given to captive panda at SWARC. We found 13 congeners of PBDEs in fecal samples, of which BDE47, BDE66, BDE71, BDE99, and BDE154 were the dominant, total PBDE concentration in feces of captive pandas was 255% higher than in wild pandas. We found nine PBDEs congeners in blood samples: BDE153 and BDE183 were the predominant congers. PBDEs in blood from captive pandas were significantly higher than in wild pandas. The total concentration of PBDEs were 5473 and 4835 (pg.g) in Fargesia qinlingensis, were 2192 and 1414 (pg.g) in Bashannia fargesii (2192, 1414 pg g), 0.066, 0.038 (pg/ml) in drinking water, and 28.8 (pg.g) in supplemental feedstuff for captive and wild pandas, which indicate that the PBDEs came from its bamboo feed, especially from Bashannia fargesii. Our results demonstrate that BDE99 and BDE47 could be threatening the pandas' health especially for captive panda and there are potential health risks from PBDEs for pandas. In the short term, this risk may be ameliorated by strict control of food quality. In the long term, however, reducing air, water and soil contamination so as to improve environmental quality can best reduce these risks to meet the international standard such as Stockholm Convention. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. The ψ(4040) at the future PANDA experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zotti, L; Marcello, S; Spataro, S; Filippi, A

    2014-01-01

    The PANDA experiment will be carried out at the future FAIR facility, it will be a fixed target experiment, where antiproton beams, of unprecedented quality and intensity, will be used to study interactions on protons and on nuclei. PANDA will be an excellent tool to investigate those final states which include short-lived particles. Since different charmonium states can be accessed in direct formation with all the available quantum numbers in p-bar p annihilations, the charmonium spectroscopy is one of the main goal of the experiment. The PANDA experiment represents a unique possibility to improve both statistics and precision of existing data and to further explore the physics in the charm quark sector. Indeed, an energy scan with high precision over the full charm spectrum is still missing and it will not be delivered by future experiments currently planned as upgrade of the existing facilities. A detailed description of the possibility to reconstruct the ψ(4040) → D *+ D *− at PANDA, together with the study of the huge hadronic background suppression will be presented. The importance of the Micro-Vertex Detector for the reconstruction of D mesons decay will be showed.

  15. Tests of optical glues for the PANDA electromagnetic calorimeter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dbeyssi, A.; Tomasi-Gustafsson, E.; Hennino, T.; Imre, M.; Kunne, R.; Le Galliard, C.; Marchand, D.; Maroni, A.; Ramstein, B.; Rosier, P.; Bremer, D.; Dormenev, V.; Eissner, T.; Kuske, T.; Novotny, R.; Moeini, H.; Bondarenko, O.; Kavatsyuk, M.; Loehner, H.; Messchendorp, G.; Tambave, G.

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports on the results of tests for low temperature applications of two commercial optical glues in the electromagnetic calorimeter of PANDA at FAIR. Mechanical, thermal and optical properties are presented, as well as radiation hardness to photon and proton radiation. (C) 2013 Elsevier

  16. Online cluster-finding algorithms for the PANDA electromagnetic calorimeter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tiemens, Marcel

    2017-01-01

    Om zeldzame processen zoals de vorming van exotische deeltjes te kunnen bestuderen, is het PANDA experiment opgezet. Om de grote hoeveelheden data te kunnen verwerken, verwerken de subsystemen de data voor. Een voorbeeld is het algoritme om online naar clusters te zoeken in de data van de

  17. Performance of the prototype of the electromagnetic calorimeter for PANDA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kavatsyuk, M.; Bremer, D.; Dormenev, V.; Drexler, P.; Eissner, T.; Erni, W.; Guliyev, E.; Hennino, T.; Krusche, B.; Lewandowski, B.; Löhner, H.; Moritz, M.; Novotny, R. W.; Peters, K.; Pouthas, J.; Rosier, P.; Steinacher, M.; Tambave, G.; Wilms, A.

    2011-01-01

    The PANDA collaboration at FAIR, Germany, will employ antiproton annihilations to investigate yet undiscovered charm-meson states and glueballs. The aim is to study QCD phenomena in the non-perturbative regime and to unravel the origin of hadronic masses. A multi-purpose detector for tracking,

  18. Feature-extraction algorithms for the PANDA electromagnetic calorimeter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kavatsyuk, M.; Guliyev, E.; Lemmens, P. J. J.; Loehner, H.; Poelman, T. P.; Tambave, G.; Yu, B

    2009-01-01

    The feature-extraction algorithms are discussed which have been developed for the digital front-end electronics of the electromagnetic calorimeter of the PANDA detector at the future FAIR facility. Performance parameters have been derived in test measurements with cosmic rays, particle and photon

  19. Modelling of particular phenomena observed in PANDA with Gothic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bandurski, Th.; Putz, F.; Andreani, M.; Analytis, M.

    2000-01-01

    PANDA is a large scale facility for investigating the long-term decay heat removal from the containment of a next generation 'passive' Advanced Light Water Reactor (ALWR). The first test series was aimed at the investigation of the long-term LOCA response of the Passive Containment Cooling System (PCCS) for the General Electric (GE) Simplified Boiling Water Reactor (SBWR). Recently, the facility is used in the framework of two European projects for investigating the performance of four passive cooling systems, i.e. the Building Condenser (BC) designed by Siemens for the SWR-1000 long-term containment cooling, the Passive Containment Cooling System for the European Simplified Boiling Water Reactor (ESBWR), the Containment Plate Condenser (CPC) and the Isolation Condenser (IC) for cooling of a BWR core. The PANDA tests have the dual objectives of improving confidence in the performance of the passive heat removal mechanisms underlying the design of the tested safety systems and extending the data base available for containment analysis code qualification. Among others, the containment analysis code Gothic was chosen for the analysis of particular phenomena observed during the PANDA tests. Ibis paper presents selected safety relevant phenomena observed in the PANDA tests and identified for the analyses and possible approaches for their modeling with Gothic. (author)

  20. Giant Panda movement patterns in the Foping Nature Reserve, China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, X.; Skidmore, A.K.; Wang, T.; Yong, Y.; Prins, H.H.T.

    2002-01-01

    Observing the giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) in the remote mountains of Foping Nature Reserve (NR), China, is difficult due to the dense vegetation and steep terrain. Radiotracking is an effective way to study this animal and understand its behavior and habitat use. We used radiotracking data

  1. Physics Performance Report for PANDA : Strong Interaction Studies with Antiprotons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erni, W.; Keshelashvili, I.; Krusche, B.; Steinacher, M.; Heng, Y.; Liu, Z.; Liu, H.; Shen, X.; Wang, O.; Xu, H.; Becker, J.; Feldbauer, F.; Heinsius, F. -H.; Held, T.; Koch, H.; Kopf, B.; Pelizaeus, M.; Schroeder, T.; Steinke, M.; Wiedner, U.; Zhong, J.; Bianconi, A.; Bragadireanu, M.; Pantea, D.; Tudorache, A.; Tudorache, V.; De Napoli, M.; Giacoppo, F.; Raciti, G.; Rapisarda, E.; Sfienti, C.; Bialkowski, E.; Budzanowski, A.; Czech, B.; Kistryn, M.; Kliczewski, S.; Kozela, A.; Kulessa, P.; Pysz, K.; Schaefer, W.; Siudak, R.; Szczurek, A.; Czy. zycki, W.; Domagala, M.; Hawryluk, M.; Lisowski, E.; Lisowski, F.; Wojnar, L.; Gil, D.; Hawranek, P.; Kamys, B.; Kistryn, St.; Korcyl, K.; Krzemien, W.; Magiera, A.; Moskal, P.; Rudy, Z.; Salabura, P.; Smyrski, J.; Wronska, A.; Al-Turany, M.; Augustin, I.; Deppe, H.; Flemming, H.; Gerl, J.; Goetzen, K.; Hohler, R.; Lehmann, D.; Lewandowski, B.; Luehning, J.; Maas, F.; Mishra, D.; Orth, H.; Peters, K.; Saito, T.; Schepers, G.; Schmidt, C. J.; Schmitt, L.; Schwarz, C.; Voss, B.; Wieczorek, P.; Wilms, A.; Brinkmann, K. -T.; Freiesleben, H.; Jaekel, R.; Kliemt, R.; Wuerschig, T.; Zaunick, H. -G.; Abazov, V. M.; Alexeev, G.; Arefiev, A.; Astakhov, V. I.; Barabanov, M. Yu.; Batyunya, B. V.; Davydov, Yu. I.; Dodokhov, V. Kh.; Efremov, A. A.; Fedunov, A. G.; Feshchenko, A. A.; Galoyan, A. S.; Grigoryan, S.; Karmokov, A.; Koshurnikov, E. K.; Kudaev, V. Ch.; Lobanov, V. I.; Lobanov, Yu. Yu.; Makarov, A. F.; Malinina, L. V.; Malyshev, V. L.; Mustafaev, G. A.; Olshevski, A.; . Pasyuk, M. A.; Perevalova, E. A.; Piskun, A. A.; Pocheptsov, T. A.; Pontecorvo, G.; Rodionov, V. K.; Rogov, Yu. N.; Salmin, R. A.; Samartsev, A. G.; Sapozhnikov, M. G.; Shabratova, A.; Shabratova, G. S.; Skachkova, A. N.; Skachkov, N. B.; Strokovsky, E. A.; Suleimanov, M. K.; Teshev, R. Sh.; Tokmenin, V. V.; Uzhinsky, V. V.; Vodopianov, A. S.; Zaporozhets, S. A.; Zhuravlev, N. I.; Zorin, A. G.; Branford, D.; Foehl, K.; Glazier, D.; Watts, D.; Woods, P.; Eyrich, W.; Lehmann, A.; Teufel, A.; Dobbs, S.; Metreveli, Z.; Seth, K.; Tann, B.; Tomaradze, A.; Bettoni, D.; Carassiti, V.; Cecchi, A.; Dalpiaz, P.; Fioravanti, E.; Garzia, I.; Negrini, M.; Savri`e, M.; Stancari, G.; Dulach, B.; Gianotti, P.; Guaraldo, C.; Lucherini, V.; Pace, E.; Bersani, A.; Macri, M.; Marinelli, M.; Parodi, R. F.; Brodski, I.; Doering, W.; Drexler, P.; Dueren, M.; Gagyi-Palffy, Z.; Hayrapetyan, A.; Kotulla, M.; Kuehn, W.; Lange, S.; Liu, M.; Metag, V.; Nanova, M.; Novotny, R.; Salz, C.; Schneider, J.; Schoenmeier, P.; Schubert, R.; Spataro, S.; Stenzel, H.; Strackbein, C.; Thiel, M.; Thoering, U.; Yang, S.; Clarkson, T.; Cowie, E.; Downie, E.; Hill, G.; Hoek, M.; Ireland, D.; Kaiser, R.; Keri, T.; Lehmann, I.; Livingston, K.; Lumsden, S.; MacGregor, D.; McKinnon, B.; Murray, M.; Protopopescu, D.; Rosner, G.; Seitz, B.; Yang, G.; Babai, M.; Biegun, A. K.; Bubak, A.; Guliyev, E.; Suyam Jothi, Vanniarajan; Kavatsyuk, M.; Loehner, H.; Messchendorp, J.; Smit, H.; van der Weele, J. C.; Garcia, F.; Riska, D. -O.; Buescher, M.; Dosdall, R.; Dzhygadlo, R.; Gillitzer, A.; Grunwald, D.; Jha, V.; Kemmerling, G.; Kleines, H.; Lehrach, A.; Maier, R.; Mertens, M.; Ohm, H.; Prasuhn, D.; Randriamalala, T.; Ritman, J.; Roeder, M.; Stockmanns, T.; Wintz, P.; Wuestner, P.; Kisiel, J.; Li, S.; Li, Z.; Sun, Z.; Xu, H.; Fissum, S.; Hansen, K.; Isaksson, L.; Lundin, M.; Schroeder, B.; Achenbach, P.; Mora Espi, M. C.; Pochodzalla, J.; Sanchez, S.; Sanchez-Lorente, A.; Dormenev, V. I.; Fedorov, A. A.; Korzhik, M. V.; Missevitch, O. V.; Balanutsa, V.; Chernetsky, V.; Demekhin, A.; Dolgolenko, A.; Fedorets, P.; Gerasimov, A.; Goryachev, V.; Boukharov, A.; Malyshev, O.; Marishev, I.; Semenov, A.; Hoeppner, C.; Ketzer, B.; Konorov, I.; Mann, A.; Neubert, S.; Paul, S.; Weitzel, Q.; Khoukaz, A.; Rausmann, T.; Taeschner, A.; Wessels, J.; Varma, R.; Baldin, E.; Kotov, K.; Peleganchuk, S.; Tikhonov, Yu.; Boucher, J.; Hennino, T.; Kunne, R.; Ong, S.; Pouthas, J.; Ramstein, B.; Rosier, P.; Sudol, M.; Van de Wiele, J.; Zerguerras, T.; Dmowski, K.; Korzeniewski, R.; Przemyslaw, D.; Slowinski, B.; Boca, G.; Braghieri, A.; Costanza, S.; Fontana, A.; Genova, P.; Lavezzi, L.; Montagna, P.; Rotondi, A.; Belikov, N. I.; Davidenko, A. M.; Derevschikov, A. A.; Goncharenko, Y. M.; Grishin, V. N.; Kachanov, V. A.; Konstantinov, D. A.; Kormilitsin, V. A.; Kravtsov, V. I.; Matulenko, Y. A.; Melnik, Y. M.; Meschanin, A. P.; Minaev, N. G.; Mochalov, V. V.; Morozov, D. A.; Nogach, L. V.; Nurushev, S. B.; Ryazantsev, A. V.; Semenov, P. A.; Soloviev, L. F.; Uzunian, A. V.; Vasiliev, A. N.; Yakutin, A. E.; Baeck, T.; Cederwall, B.; Bargholtz, C.; Geren, L.; Tegner, P. E.; Belostotski, S.; Gavrilov, G.; Itzotov, A.; Kisselev, A.; Kravchenko, P.; Manaenkov, S.; Miklukho, O.; Naryshkin, Y.; Veretennikov, D.; Vikhrov, V.; Zhadanov, A.; Fava, L.; Panzieri, D.; Alberto, D.; Amoroso, A.; Botta, E.; Bressani, T.; Bufalino, S.; Bussa, M. P.; Busso, L.; De Mori, F.; Destefanis, M.; Ferrero, L.; Grasso, A.; Greco, M.; Kugathasan, T.; Maggiora, M.; Marcello, S.; Serbanut, G.; Sosio, S.; Bertini, R.; Calvo, D.; Coli, S.; De Remigis, P.; Feliciello, A.; Filippi, A.; Giraudo, G.; Mazza, G.; Rivetti, A.; Szymanska, K.; Tosello, F.; Wheadon, R.; Morra, O.; Agnello, M.; Iazzi, F.; Szymanska, K.; Birsa, R.; Bradamante, F.; Bressan, A.; Martin, A.; Clement, H.; Ekstroem, C.; Calen, H.; Grape, S.; Hoeistad, B.; Johansson, T.; Kupsc, A.; Marciniewski, P.; Thome, E.; Zlomanczuk, J.; Diaz, J.; Ortiz, A.; Borsuk, S.; Chlopik, A.; Guzik, Z.; Kopec, J.; Kozlowski, T.; Melnychuk, D.; Plominski, M.; Szewinski, J.; Traczyk, K.; Zwieglinski, B.; Buehler, P.; Gruber, A.; Kienle, P.; Marton, J.; Widmann, E.; Zmeskal, J.; Lutz, M. F. M.; Pire, B.; Scholten, O.; Timmermans, R.

    To study fundamental questions of hadron and nuclear physics in interactions of antiprotons with nucleons and nuclei, the universal PANDA detector will be built. Gluonic excitations, the physics of strange and charm quarks and nucleon structure studies will be performed with unprecedented accuracy

  2. Annotation: PANDAS--A Model for Human Autoimmune Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swedo, Susan E.; Grant, Paul J.

    2005-01-01

    Background: Pediatric Autoimmune Neuropsychiatric Disorders Associated with Streptococcus infections (PANDAS) is a recently recognized syndrome in which pre-adolescent children have abrupt onsets of tics and/or obsessive-compulsive symptoms, a recurring and remitting course of illness temporally related to streptococcal infections, and associated…

  3. Atmospheric deposition exposes Qinling pandas to toxic pollutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yi-Ping; Zheng, Ying-Juan; Liu, Qiang; Song, Yi; An, Zhi-Sheng; Ma, Qing-Yi; Ellison, Aaron M

    2017-03-01

    The giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) is one of the most endangered animals in the world, and it is recognized worldwide as a symbol for conservation. A previous study showed that wild and captive pandas, especially those of the Qinling subspecies, were exposed to toxicants in their diet of bamboo; the ultimate origin of these toxicants is unknown. Here we show that atmospheric deposition is the most likely origin of heavy metals and persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in the diets of captive and wild Qinling pandas. Average atmospheric deposition was 199, 115, and 49 g·m -2 ·yr -1 in the center of Xi'an City, at China's Shaanxi Wild Animal Research Center (SWARC), and at Foping National Nature Reserve (FNNR), respectively. Atmospheric deposition of heavy metals (As, Cd, Cr, Pb, Hg, Co, Cu, Zn, Mn, and Ni) and POPs was highest at Xi'an City, intermediate at SWARC, and lowest at FNNR. Soil concentrations of the aforementioned heavy metals other than As and Zn also were significantly higher at SWARC than at FNNR. Efforts to conserve Qinling pandas may be compromised by air pollution attendant to China's economic development. Improvement of air quality and reductions of toxic emissions are urgently required to protect China's iconic species. © 2017 by the Ecological Society of America.

  4. Ennekuulmatud loomalaulud / Panda Bear (Noah Lennox) ; interv. Siim Nestor

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Panda Bear (Noah Lennox)

    2006-01-01

    Intervjuu eksperimentaalset popmuusikat viljeleva ameerika ansambli Animal Collective laulja Panda Bear'iga (kontsert 4. juulil Tallinnas Lillepaviljonis). Heliplaatidest: "Spirit They're Gone, Spirit They've Vanished", "Danse Manatee", "Hollindagain", "Campfire Songs", "Here Comes the Indian", "Sung Tongs", "Feels"

  5. A systematic study of the strong interaction with PANDA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Messchendorp, J. G.; Hosaka, A; Khemchandani, K; Nagahiro, H; Nawa, K

    2011-01-01

    The theory of Quantum Chromo Dynamics (QCD) reproduces the strong interaction at distances much shorter than the size of the nucleon. At larger distance scales, the generation of hadron masses and confinement cannot yet be derived from first principles on basis of QCD. The PANDA experiment at FAIR

  6. Development of a cluster-jet target for PANDA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gruber, A.; Marton, J.; Widmann, E.; Zmeskal, J.; PANDA Cluster Jet Target Group

    2006-01-01

    Full text: The Stefan Meyer Institute (SMI) is part of the international PANDA collaboration. The universal detector will be constructed for the future high-energy antiproton storage ring HESR at FAIR (Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research, GSI/Darmstadt). PANDA will use antiproton beams (1.5 to 15 GeV/c) for hadron physics in the charmonium region. The physics program of PANDA will comprehend charmonium spectroscopy below and above open charm threshold, search for exotics (glueballs, hybrids), lambda and double-lambda hypernuclei studies and the investigation of in-medium modifications of charmed mesons - an experimentally unexplored field. SMI contributes to major parts of the PANDA detector like the hydrogen cluster-jet target and the antiproton - cluster jet interaction zone: in order to reach the desired target density, an optimization of the nozzle and the skimmer arrangement is essential. A density-profile monitor for the cluster-jet was designed and built at SMI. Several nozzle types have been studied using different gases, temperatures and inlet pressures. To ensure low background the residual gas load in the interaction zone has to be minimized. The installation of NEG (non-evaporative-getter) coated beam pipes is planned. A prototype of the interaction zone has been set up at SMI. The pumping capacity of NEG and the reactivation cycles were tested. The status of the development of the cluster-jet target and studies of the interaction region will be presented (author)

  7. ESBWR related passive decay heat removal tests in PANDA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huggenberger, M.; Aubert, C.; Bandurski, T.; Dreier, J.; Fischer, O.; Strassberger, H.J.; Yadigaroglu, G.

    1999-01-01

    A number of test series to investigate passive safety systems for the next generation of Light Water Reactors have been performed in the PANDA multi-purpose facility at the Paul Scherrer Institut (PSI). The large scale thermal-hydraulic test facility allows to investigate LWR containment phenomena and system behaviour. PANDA was first used to examine the Passive Containment Cooling System (PCCS) for the Simplified Boiling Water Reactor (SBWR). In 1996 new test series were initiated; all related to projects of the EC Fourth Framework Programme on Nuclear Fission Safety. One of these projects (TEPSS) is focused on the European Simplified Boiling Water Reactor (ESBWR). The ESBWR containment features and PCCS long-term post LOCA response were investigated in PANDA. The PCCS start-up was demonstrated, the effect of nitrogen hidden somewhere in the drywell and released later in the transient was simulated and the effect of light gases (helium) on the PCCS performance was investigated. Finally, the influence of low PCC pool levels on PCCS and containment performance was examined. The main findings were that the PCCS works as intended and shows generally a favorable and robust long-term post LOCA behaviour. The system starts working even under extreme conditions and trapped air released from the drywell later in the transient does only temporarily reduce the PCCS performance. The new PANDA test series provided an extensive data base which will contribute to further improve containment design of passive plants and allow for system code assessment in a wide parameter range. (author)

  8. The Future of PanDA in ATLAS Distributed Computing

    CERN Document Server

    De, Kaushik; The ATLAS collaboration; Maeno, Tadashi; Nilsson, Paul; Oleynik, Danila; Panitkin, Sergey; Petrosyan, Artem; Schovancova, Jaroslava; Vaniachine, Alexandre; Wenaus, Torre

    2015-01-01

    Experiments at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) face unprecedented computing challenges. Heterogeneous resources are distributed worldwide at hundreds of sites, thousands of physicists analyze the data remotely, the volume of processed data is beyond the exabyte scale, while data processing requires more than a few billion hours of computing usage per year. The PanDA (Production and Distributed Analysis) system was developed to meet the scale and complexity of LHC distributed computing for the ATLAS experiment. In the process, the old batch job paradigm of locally managed computing in HEP was discarded in favor of a far more automated, flexible and scalable model. The success of PanDA in ATLAS is leading to widespread adoption and testing by other experiments. PanDA is the first exascale workload management system in HEP, already operating at more than a million computing jobs per day, and processing over an exabyte of data in 2013. There are many new challenges that PanDA will face in the near future, in addi...

  9. Panda-Monium at the Library: 1995 Arizona Reading Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arizona State Dept. of Library, Archives and Public Records, Phoenix.

    Panda bears are the theme of this guide which includes many reading-related activities, crafts, and programs on a broad range of topics, and which can be expanded to other theme approaches such as endangered species, bears in general, and the concept of black and white. The program begins with a general definition and discussion of goals,…

  10. Genetic assessment of captive red panda (Ailurus fulgens) population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Arun; Rai, Upashna; Roka, Bhupen; Jha, Alankar K; Reddy, P Anuradha

    2016-01-01

    Red panda (Ailurus fulgens) is threatened across its range by detrimental human activities and rapid habitat changes necessitating captive breeding programs in various zoos globally to save this flagship species from extinction. One of the ultimate aims of ex situ conservation is reintroduction of endangered animals into their natural habitats while maintaining 90 % of the founder genetic diversity. Advances in molecular genetics and microsatellite genotyping techniques make it possible to accurately estimate genetic diversity of captive animals of unknown ancestry. Here we assess genetic diversity of the red panda population in Padmaja Naidu Himalayan Zoological Park, Darjeeling, which plays a pivotal role in ex situ conservation of red panda in India. We generated microsatellite genotypes of fifteen red pandas with a set of fourteen loci. This population is genetically diverse with 68 % observed heterozygosity (H O ) and mean inbreeding (F IS ) coefficient of 0.05. However population viability analysis reveals that this population has a very low survival probability (<2 %) and will rapidly loose its genetic diversity to 37 % mainly due to small population size and skewed male-biased sex ratio. Regular supplementation with a pair of adult individuals every five years will increase survival probability and genetic diversity to 99 and 61 % respectively and will also support future harvesting of individuals for reintroduction into the wild and exchange with other zoos.

  11. INTEGRATION OF PANDA WORKLOAD MANAGEMENT SYSTEM WITH SUPERCOMPUTERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De, K [University of Texas at Arlington; Jha, S [Rutgers University; Maeno, T [Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL); Mashinistov, R. [Russian Research Center, Kurchatov Institute, Moscow, Russia; Nilsson, P [Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL); Novikov, A. [Russian Research Center, Kurchatov Institute, Moscow, Russia; Oleynik, D [University of Texas at Arlington; Panitkin, S [Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL); Poyda, A. [Russian Research Center, Kurchatov Institute, Moscow, Russia; Ryabinkin, E. [Russian Research Center, Kurchatov Institute, Moscow, Russia; Teslyuk, A. [Russian Research Center, Kurchatov Institute, Moscow, Russia; Tsulaia, V. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL); Velikhov, V. [Russian Research Center, Kurchatov Institute, Moscow, Russia; Wen, G. [University of Wisconsin, Madison; Wells, Jack C [ORNL; Wenaus, T [Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL)

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The Large Hadron Collider (LHC), operating at the international CERN Laboratory in Geneva, Switzerland, is leading Big Data driven scientific explorations. Experiments at the LHC explore the funda- mental nature of matter and the basic forces that shape our universe, and were recently credited for the dis- covery of a Higgs boson. ATLAS, one of the largest collaborations ever assembled in the sciences, is at the forefront of research at the LHC. To address an unprecedented multi-petabyte data processing challenge, the ATLAS experiment is relying on a heterogeneous distributed computational infrastructure. The ATLAS experiment uses PanDA (Production and Data Analysis) Workload Management System for managing the workflow for all data processing on over 140 data centers. Through PanDA, ATLAS physicists see a single computing facility that enables rapid scientific breakthroughs for the experiment, even though the data cen- ters are physically scattered all over the world. While PanDA currently uses more than 250000 cores with a peak performance of 0.3+ petaFLOPS, next LHC data taking runs will require more resources than Grid computing can possibly provide. To alleviate these challenges, LHC experiments are engaged in an ambitious program to expand the current computing model to include additional resources such as the opportunistic use of supercomputers. We will describe a project aimed at integration of PanDA WMS with supercomputers in United States, Europe and Russia (in particular with Titan supercomputer at Oak Ridge Leadership Com- puting Facility (OLCF), Supercomputer at the National Research Center Kurchatov Institute , IT4 in Ostrava, and others). The current approach utilizes a modified PanDA pilot framework for job submission to the supercomputers batch queues and local data management, with light-weight MPI wrappers to run single- threaded workloads in parallel on Titan s multi-core worker nodes. This implementation was tested with a variety of

  12. Integration of Panda Workload Management System with supercomputers

    Science.gov (United States)

    De, K.; Jha, S.; Klimentov, A.; Maeno, T.; Mashinistov, R.; Nilsson, P.; Novikov, A.; Oleynik, D.; Panitkin, S.; Poyda, A.; Read, K. F.; Ryabinkin, E.; Teslyuk, A.; Velikhov, V.; Wells, J. C.; Wenaus, T.

    2016-09-01

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC), operating at the international CERN Laboratory in Geneva, Switzerland, is leading Big Data driven scientific explorations. Experiments at the LHC explore the fundamental nature of matter and the basic forces that shape our universe, and were recently credited for the discovery of a Higgs boson. ATLAS, one of the largest collaborations ever assembled in the sciences, is at the forefront of research at the LHC. To address an unprecedented multi-petabyte data processing challenge, the ATLAS experiment is relying on a heterogeneous distributed computational infrastructure. The ATLAS experiment uses PanDA (Production and Data Analysis) Workload Management System for managing the workflow for all data processing on over 140 data centers. Through PanDA, ATLAS physicists see a single computing facility that enables rapid scientific breakthroughs for the experiment, even though the data centers are physically scattered all over the world. While PanDA currently uses more than 250000 cores with a peak performance of 0.3+ petaFLOPS, next LHC data taking runs will require more resources than Grid computing can possibly provide. To alleviate these challenges, LHC experiments are engaged in an ambitious program to expand the current computing model to include additional resources such as the opportunistic use of supercomputers. We will describe a project aimed at integration of PanDA WMS with supercomputers in United States, Europe and Russia (in particular with Titan supercomputer at Oak Ridge Leadership Computing Facility (OLCF), Supercomputer at the National Research Center "Kurchatov Institute", IT4 in Ostrava, and others). The current approach utilizes a modified PanDA pilot framework for job submission to the supercomputers batch queues and local data management, with light-weight MPI wrappers to run singlethreaded workloads in parallel on Titan's multi-core worker nodes. This implementation was tested with a variety of Monte-Carlo workloads

  13. Satisfaction among residents in ASHP-accredited pharmacy residency programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanDenBerg, C; Murphy, J E

    1997-07-01

    The level of work satisfaction among pharmacists in ASHP-accredited residencies was studied. In March 1996 a questionnaire designed to measure residency satisfaction was mailed to 697 individuals in ASHP-accredited pharmacy practice and specialty practice residencies. Subjects responded to 16 statements relating to intrinsic and extrinsic determinants of work satisfaction on a scale of 1 to 5, where 1 = strongly disagree and 5 = strongly agree. Questionnaires were returned by 413 (59%) of the residents. The respondents were predominantly women (76%), and most (86%) had at least a Pharm. D. degree. Hospitals were the primary work setting (88%). Of the 413 residents, 305 were in pharmacy practice residencies and 108 were in specialized residencies. None of the mean scores indicated disagreement (scores 3) with the negatively worded statements. The median and mode were equal to 2 (disagree) for the three negatively worded items and 4 (agree) for all but three positively worded items. Only 8% of the residents indicated that they would not accept the residency again if given the chance. Specialized residents tended to rate positively worded statements higher and negatively worded statements lower than pharmacy practice residents. Female residents indicated greater satisfaction than male residents. Pay and benefits were rated slightly better than neutral. Pharmacy residents appeared generally satisfied with their residencies. Specialized pharmacy residents were more satisfied than pharmacy practice residents, and women were more satisfied than men.

  14. The experiment PANDA: physics with antiprotons at FAIR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boca, Gianluigi

    2015-05-01

    PANDA is an experiment that will run at the future facility FAIR, Darmstadt, Germany. A high intensity and cooled antiproton beam will collide on a fixed hydrogen or nuclear target covering center-of-mass energies between 2.2 and 5.5 GeV. PANDA addresses various physics aspects from the low energy non-perturbative region towards the perturbative regime of QCD. With the impressive theoretical developments in this field, e.g. lattice QCD, the predictions are becoming more accurate in the course of time. The data harvest with PANDA will, therefore, be an ideal test bench with the aim to provide a deeper understanding of hadronic phenomena such as confinement and the generation of hadron masses. A variety of physics topics will be covered with PANDA, for example: the formation or production of exotic non-qqbar charm meson states connected to the recently observed XYZ spectrum; the study of gluon-rich matter, such as glueballs and hybrids; the spectroscopy of the excited states of strange and charm baryons, their production cross section and their spin correlations; the behaviour of hadrons in nuclear matter; the hypernuclear physics; the electromagnetic proton form factors in the timelike region. The PANDA experiment is designed to achieve the above mentioned physics goals with a setup with the following characteristics: an almost full solid angle acceptance; excellent tracking capabilities with high resolution (1-2 % at 1 GeV/c in the central region); secondary vertex detection with resolution ≈ 100 microns or better; electromagnetic calorimetry for detections of gammas and electrons up to 10 GeV; good particle identification of charge tracks (electrons, muons, pions, kaons, protons); a dedicated interchangeable central apparatus for the hypernuclear physics; detector and data acquisition system capable of working at 20 MHz interaction rate with an intelligent software trigger that can provide maximum flexibility.

  15. Factors affecting genotyping success in giant panda fecal samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Zhu

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Fecal samples play an important role in giant panda conservation studies. Optimal preservation conditions and choice of microsatellites for giant panda fecal samples have not been established. In this study, we evaluated the effect of four factors (namely, storage type (ethanol (EtOH, EtOH −20 °C, 2-step storage medium, DMSO/EDTA/Tris/salt buffer (DETs and frozen at −20 °C, storage time (one, three and six months, fragment length, and repeat motif of microsatellite loci on the success rate of microsatellite amplification, allelic dropout (ADO and false allele (FA rates from giant panda fecal samples. Amplification success and ADO rates differed between the storage types. Freezing was inferior to the other four storage methods based on the lowest average amplification success and the highest ADO rates (P < 0.05. The highest microsatellite amplification success was obtained from either EtOH or the 2-step storage medium at three storage time points. Storage time had a negative effect on the average amplification of microsatellites and samples stored in EtOH and the 2-step storage medium were more stable than the other three storage types. We only detected the effect of repeat motif on ADO and FA rates. The lower ADO and FA rates were obtained from tri- and tetra-nucleotide loci. We suggest that freezing should not be used for giant panda fecal preservation in microsatellite studies, and EtOH and the 2-step storage medium should be chosen on priority for long-term storage. We recommend candidate microsatellite loci with longer repeat motif to ensure greater genotyping success for giant panda fecal studies.

  16. Evidence for lignin oxidation by the giant panda fecal microbiome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Fang

    Full Text Available The digestion of lignin and lignin-related phenolic compounds from bamboo by giant pandas has puzzled scientists because of the lack of lignin-degrading genes in the genome of the bamboo-feeding animals. We constructed a 16S rRNA gene library from the microorganisms derived from the giant panda feces to identify the possibility for the presence of potential lignin-degrading bacteria. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the phylotypes of the intestinal bacteria were affiliated with the phyla Proteobacteria (53% and Firmicutes (47%. Two phylotypes were affiliated with the known lignin-degrading bacterium Pseudomonas putida and the mangrove forest bacteria. To test the hypothesis that microbes in the giant panda gut help degrade lignin, a metagenomic library of the intestinal bacteria was constructed and screened for clones that contained genes encoding laccase, a lignin-degrading related enzyme. A multicopper oxidase gene, designated as lac51, was identified from a metagenomic clone. Sequence analysis and copper content determination indicated that Lac51 is a laccase rather than a metallo-oxidase and may work outside its original host cell because it has a TAT-type signal peptide and a transmembrane segment at its N-terminus. Lac51 oxidizes a variety of lignin-related phenolic compounds, including syringaldazine, 2,6-dimethoxyphenol, ferulic acid, veratryl alcohol, guaiacol, and sinapinic acid at conditions that simulate the physiologic environment in giant panda intestines. Furthermore, in the presence of 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS, syringic acid, or ferulic acid as mediators, the oxidative ability of Lac51 on lignin was promoted. The absorbance of lignin at 445 nm decreased to 36% for ABTS, 51% for syringic acid, and 51% for ferulic acid after incubation for 10 h. Our findings demonstrate that the intestinal bacteria of giant pandas may facilitate the oxidation of lignin moieties, thereby clarifying the digestion

  17. Status of gastrointestinal parasites in Red Panda of Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damber Bista

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Red pandas are known to be highly susceptible to endoparasites, which can have a prominent impact on the population dynamics of this endangered species. There are very limited published reports on prevalence and risk of parasites in wild populations of red panda, especially localized reports. This study attempts to provide an in-depth insight of the status of endoparasites in red pandas, which is critical for strengthening conservation efforts. A total of 272 fecal samples were collected through systematic sampling across the red panda distribution range in Nepal and coprological examination was completed using standard techniques. It was followed by an estimation of prevalence and mean intensity of parasites, as well as statistical analysis, which was carried out using R statistical software. Parasite prevalence was documented in 90.80% (n = 247 out of 272 samples examined which includes seven different species along with three genera of parasites belonging to Protozoans (3 species, Cestodes (1 genus, 1 species and Nematodes (2 genera, 3 species. Nematodes predominated in all infected samples (87.62%. Prevalence of Ancyclostoma duodenale (n = 227, 70.06%, having a mean intensity of 3.45 ± 2.88 individuals per sample, was observed, followed by Ascaris lumbricoides (n = 19, 5.86% and Entamoeba histolytica (n = 24, 7.41%. Eight variables for assessing the determinants of infestation were tested: protected areas; non-protected areas; aspect; elevation; slope; and distance to water sources, herding stations, and settlements. Only the settlement displayed significant association (β = −1534e−04, t =  − 2.192, p = 0.0293 though each parasite species displayed dissimilar association with different variables. This study indicates the urgent need of improving existing herding practice through habitat zonation, rotational grazing, medication of livestock, and prohibition of open defecation within and around red panda habitat.

  18. Status of gastrointestinal parasites in Red Panda of Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bista, Damber; Shrestha, Saroj; Kunwar, Ajaya Jang; Acharya, Sakshi; Jnawali, Shant Raj; Acharya, Krishna Prasad

    2017-01-01

    Red pandas are known to be highly susceptible to endoparasites, which can have a prominent impact on the population dynamics of this endangered species. There are very limited published reports on prevalence and risk of parasites in wild populations of red panda, especially localized reports. This study attempts to provide an in-depth insight of the status of endoparasites in red pandas, which is critical for strengthening conservation efforts. A total of 272 fecal samples were collected through systematic sampling across the red panda distribution range in Nepal and coprological examination was completed using standard techniques. It was followed by an estimation of prevalence and mean intensity of parasites, as well as statistical analysis, which was carried out using R statistical software. Parasite prevalence was documented in 90.80% ( n  = 247) out of 272 samples examined which includes seven different species along with three genera of parasites belonging to Protozoans (3 species), Cestodes (1 genus, 1 species) and Nematodes (2 genera, 3 species). Nematodes predominated in all infected samples (87.62%). Prevalence of Ancyclostoma duodenale ( n  = 227, 70.06%), having a mean intensity of 3.45 ± 2.88 individuals per sample, was observed, followed by Ascaris lumbricoides ( n  = 19, 5.86%) and Entamoeba histolytica ( n  = 24, 7.41%). Eight variables for assessing the determinants of infestation were tested: protected areas; non-protected areas; aspect; elevation; slope; and distance to water sources, herding stations, and settlements. Only the settlement displayed significant association ( β = -1534e-04, t  =  - 2.192, p  = 0.0293) though each parasite species displayed dissimilar association with different variables. This study indicates the urgent need of improving existing herding practice through habitat zonation, rotational grazing, medication of livestock, and prohibition of open defecation within and around red panda habitat.

  19. Effects of a social cue on reproductive development and pre-alternate molt in seasonally breeding migrant and resident female songbirds (Zonotrichia leucophrys)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meddle, Simone L.; Wingfield, John C.; Hahn, Thomas P.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT To time reproduction optimally, birds have evolved diverse mechanisms by which they respond to environmental changes that help them anticipate and prepare for the breeding season. While residents initiate reproductive preparation and breed in the same geographic location, migrant birds simultaneously prepare for breeding and migration far from their breeding grounds. As a result, it is hypothesized that migrant and resident birds use environmental cues differently to prepare to breed and that there is adaptive specialization in mechanisms regulating reproductive preparation. Specifically, residents are expected to rely more on non-photic cues (e.g. food, temperature, social cues) than migrants. We tested this general prediction using a social cue manipulation. First, we compared the effects of subspecies-appropriate recorded male song on reproductive development in migrants and residents on a naturally increasing photoperiod. Second, we tested the sensitivity of migrant-specific life history events (fattening and pre-alternate molt) to song treatment. After 82 days, residents had higher luteinizing hormone and greater ovarian development than migrants, but song treatment had no effect on these metrics in either subspecies. Song advanced pre-alternate molt but had no effect on fattening in migrants. While our study does not support specialization in social cue use in migrants and residents, it is consistent with findings in the literature of specialization in photoperiodic response. It also demonstrates for the first time that social cues can influence molt in a migrant species. Additional findings from a pilot study looking at responses to a live male suggest it is important to test other kinds of social cues. PMID:28814612

  20. Reassessing the conservation status of the giant panda using remote sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Weihua; Viña, Andrés; Kong, Lingqiao; Pimm, Stuart L; Zhang, Jingjing; Yang, Wu; Xiao, Yi; Zhang, Lu; Chen, Xiaodong; Liu, Jianguo; Ouyang, Zhiyun

    2017-11-01

    The conservation status of the iconic giant panda is a barometer of global conservation efforts. The IUCN Red List has downgraded the panda's extinction risk from "endangered" to "vulnerable". Newly obtained, detailed GIS and remotely sensed data applied consistently over the last four decades show that panda habitat covered less area and was more fragmented in 2013 than in 1988 when the species was listed as endangered.

  1. Dietary resources shape the adaptive changes of cyanide detoxification function in giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, He; Yie, Shangmian; Liu, Yuliang; Wang, Chengdong; Cai, Zhigang; Zhang, Wenping; Lan, Jingchao; Huang, Xiangming; Luo, Li; Cai, Kailai; Hou, Rong; Zhang, Zhihe

    2016-10-05

    The functional adaptive changes in cyanide detoxification in giant panda appear to be response to dietary transition from typical carnivore to herbivorous bear. We tested the absorption of cyanide contained in bamboo/bamboo shoots with a feeding trial in 20 adult giant pandas. We determined total cyanide content in bamboo shoots and giant panda's feces, levels of urinary thiocyanate and tissue rhodanese activity using color reactions with a spectrophotometer. Rhodanese expression in liver and kidney at transcription and translation levels were measured using real-time RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry, respectively. We compared differences of rhodanese activity and gene expressions among giant panda, rabbit (herbivore) and cat (carnivore), and between newborn and adult giant pandas. Bamboo shoots contained 3.2 mg/kg of cyanide and giant pandas absorbed more than 65% of cyanide. However, approximately 80% of absorbed cyanide was metabolized to less toxic thiocyanate that was discharged in urine. Rhodanese expression and activity in liver and kidney of giant panda were significantly higher than in cat, but lower than in rabbit (all P pandas were higher than that in newborn cub. Phylogenetic analysis of both nucleotide and amino acid sequences of the rhodanese gene supported a closer relationship of giant panda with carnivores than with herbivores.

  2. Evolution of the ATLAS PanDA Workload Management System for Exascale Computational Science

    OpenAIRE

    Maeno, T; De, K; Klimentov, A; Nilsson, P; Oleynik, D; Panitkin, S; Petrosyan, A; Schovancova, J; Vaniachine, A; Wenaus, T; Yu, D

    2013-01-01

    An important foundation underlying the impressive success of data processing and analysis in the ATLAS experiment [1] at the LHC [2] is the Production and Distributed Analysis (PanDA) workload management system [3]. PanDA was designed specifically for ATLAS and proved to be highly successful in meeting all the distributed computing needs of the experiment. However, the core design of PanDA is not experiment specific. The PanDA workload management system is capable of meeting the needs of othe...

  3. Impacts of temperature on giant panda habitat in the north Minshan Mountains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Gang; Guan, Tianpei; Dai, Qiang; Li, Huixin; Gong, Minghao

    2016-02-01

    Understanding the impacts of meteorological factors on giant pandas is necessary for future conservation measures in response to global climate change. We integrated temperature data with three main habitat parameters (elevation, vegetation type, and bamboo species) to evaluate the influence of climate change on giant panda habitat in the northern Minshan Mountains using a habitat assessment model. Our study shows that temperature (relative importance = 25.1%) was the second most important variable influencing giant panda habitat excepting the elevation. There was a significant negative correlation between temperature and panda presence (ρ = -0.133, P pandas within the study area was 18-21°C, followed by 15-17°C and 22-24°C. The overall suitability of giant panda habitats will increase by 2.7%, however, it showed a opposite variation patterns between the eastern and northwestern region of the study area. Suitable and subsuitable habitats in the northwestern region of the study area, which is characterized by higher elevation and latitude, will increase by 18007.8 hm(2) (9.8% habitat suitability), while the eastern region will suffer a decrease of 9543.5 hm(2) (7.1% habitat suitability). Our results suggest that increasing areas of suitable giant panda habitat will support future giant panda expansion, and food shortage and insufficient living space will not arise as problems in the northwest Minshan Mountains, which means that giant pandas can adapt to climate change, and therefore may be resilient to climate change. Thus, for the safety and survival of giant pandas in the Baishuijiang Reserve, we propose strengthening the giant panda monitoring program in the west and improving the integrity of habitats to promote population dispersal with adjacent populations in the east.

  4. Feasibility study of a transversely polarized target in PANDA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmadi, Heybat; Deiseroth, Malte; Khaneft, Dmitry; Noll, Oliver; Valente, Roserio; Zambrana, Manuel [Helmholtz-Institut Mainz (Germany); Johannes Gutenberg-Universitaet Mainz (Germany); Ahmed, Samer [Helmholtz-Institut Mainz (Germany); Capozza, Luigi; Dbeyssi, Alaa; Froehlich, Bertold; Lin, Dexu; Maas, Frank; Mora Espi, Maria Carmen; Morales Morales, Cristina; Rodriguez Pineiro, David; Zimmermann, Iris [Helmholtz-Institut Mainz (Germany); GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung GmbH (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    The PANDA (Antiproton Annihilation at Darmstadt) spectrometer, located at the Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research (FAIR), is an excellent tool for exploring the nucleon structure. An unpolarized target allows the determination of the electromagnetic time-like form factor of the proton. An additional experiment in which the target is transversely polarized is necessary for the first-time extraction of their imaginary part. A transverse polarization requires the shielding of the 2 T longitudinal field from the PANDA-Solenoid at the target volume and an additional transverse holding field. We present results from our first experiment at the Institut fuer Kernphysik in Mainz on intense magnetic flux shielding using a BSCCO (bismuth strontium calcium copper oxide) thin-wall hollow cylinder at 4.2 K and a 1.4 T external magnetic field and compare this to numerical calculations.

  5. Technical Design Report for the: PANDA Straw Tube Tracker

    CERN Document Server

    Erni, W; Krusche, B; Steinacher, M; Heng, Y; Liu, Z; Liu, H; Shen, X; Wang, Q; Xu, H; Aab, A; Albrecht, M; Becker, J; Csapó, A; Feldbauer, F; Fink, M; Friedel, P; Heinsius, F H; Held, T; Klask, L; Koch, H; Kopf, B; Leiber, S; Leyhe, M; Motzko, C; Pelizäus, M; Pychy, J; Roth, B; Schröder, T; Schulze, J; Sowa, C; Steinke, M; Trifterer, T; Wiedner, U; Zhong, J; Beck, R; Bianco, S; Brinkmann, K T; Hammann, C; Hinterberger, F; Kaiser, D; Kliemt, R; Kube, M; Pitka, A; Quagli, T; Schmidt, C; Schmitz, R; Schnell, R; Thoma, U; Vlasov, P; Walther, D; Wendel, C; Würschig, T; Zaunick, H G; Bianconi, A; Bragadireanu, M; Caprini, M; Pantea, D; Pantelica, D; Pietreanu, D; Serbina, L; Tarta, P D; Kaplan, D; Fiutowski, T; Idzik, M; Mindur, B; Przyborowski, D; Swientek, K; Czech, B; Kistryn, M; Kliczewski, S; Kozela, A; Kulessa, P; Lebiedowicz, P; Pysz, K; Schäfer, W; Siudak, R; Szczurek\\inst, A; Jowzaee, S; Kajetanowicz, M; Kamys, B; Kistryn, S; Korcyl, G; Korcyl, K; Krzemien, W; Magiera, A; Moskal, P; Palka, M; Rudy, Z; Salabura, P; Smyrski, J; Wrońska\\inst, A; Al-Turany, M; Arora, R; Augustin, I; Deppe, H; Flemming, H; Gerhardt, A; Götzen, K; Jordi, A F; Kalicy, G; Karabowicz, R; Lehmann, D; Lewandowski, B; Lühning, J; Maas, F; Orth, H; Patsyuk, M; Peters, K; Saito, T; Schepers, G; Schmidt, C J; Schmitt, L; Schwarz, C; Schwiening, J; Traxler, M; Voss, B; Wieczorek, P; Wilms, A; Zühlsdorf\\inst, M; Abazov, V M; Alexeev, G; Arefiev, A; Astakhov, V I; Barabanov, M Yu; Batyunya, B V; Davydov, Yu I; Dodokhov, V Kh; Efremov, A A; Fedunov, A G; Festchenko, A A; Galoyan, A S; Grigoryan, S; Karmokov, A; Koshurnikov, E K; Lobanov, V I; Lobanov, Yu Yu; Makarov, A F; Malinina, L V; Malyshev, V L; Mustafaev, G A; Olshevskiy, A; Pasyuk, M A; Perevalova, E A; Piskun, A A; Pocheptsov, T A; Pontecorvo, G; Rodionov, V K; Rogov, Yu N; Salmin, R A; Samartsev, A G; Sapozhnikov, M G; Shabratova, G S; Skachkova, A N; Skachkov, N B; Strokovsky, E A; Suleimanov, M K; Teshev, R Sh; Tokmenin, V V; Uzhinsky, V V; Vodopyanov, A S; Zaporozhets, S A; Zhuravlev, N I; Zorin, A G; Branford, D; Glazier, D; Watts, D; Woods, P; Britting, A; Eyrich, W; Lehmann, A; Uhlig, F; Dobbs, S; Metreveli, Z; Seth, K; Tomaradze, A; Xiao, T; Bettoni, D; Carassiti, V; Ramusino, A Cotta; Dalpiaz, P; Drago, A; Fioravanti, E; Garzia, I; Savriè, M; Stancari, G; Bianchi, N; Gianotti, P; Guaraldo, C; Lucherini, V; Orecchini, D; Pace, E; Bersani, A; Bracco, G; Macri, M; Parodi, R F; Bremer, D; Dormenev, V; Drexler, P; Düren, M; Eissner, T; Föhl, K; Galuska, M; Gessler, T; Hayrapetyan, A; Hu, J; Koch, P; Kröck, B; Kühn, W; Lange, S; Liang, Y; Merle, O; Metag, V; Moritz, M; Münchow, D; Nanova, M; Novotny, R; Spruck, B; Stenzel, H; Ullrich, T; Werner, M; Xu, H; Euan, C; Hoek, M; Ireland, D; Keri, T; Montgomery, R; Protopopescu, D; Rosner, G; Seitz, B; Babai, M; Glazenborg-Kluttig, A; Kavatsyuk, M; Lemmens, P; Lindemulder, M; Löhner, H; Messchendorp, J; Moeini, H; Schakel, P; Schreuder, F; Smit, H; Tambave, G; Weele, J C van der; Veenstra\\inst, R; Sohlbach, H; Büscher, M; Deermann, D; Dosdall, R; Esch, S; Gillitzer, A; Goldenbaum, F; Grunwald, D; Henssler, S; Herten, A; Hu, Q; Kemmerling, G; Kleines, H; Kozlov, V; Lehrach, A; Maier, R; Mertens, M; Ohm, H; Orfanitski, S; Prasuhn, D; Randriamalala, T; Ritman, J; Schadmand, S; Serdyuk, V; Sterzenbach, G; Stockmanns, T; Wintz, P; Wüstner, P; Xu, H; Kisiel, J; Li, S; Li, Z; Sun, Z; Xu, H; Rigato, V; Fissum, S; Hansen, K; Isaksson, L; Lundin, M; Schröder, B; Achenbach, P; Bleser, S; Cahit, U; Cardinali, M; Denig, A; Distler, M; Fritsch, M; Kangh, D; Karavdina, A; Lauth, W; Merkel, H; Michel, M; Espi, M C Mora; Müller, U; Pochodzalla, J; Prometeusz, J; Sanchez, S; Sanchez-Lorente, A; Schlimme, S; Sfienti, C; Weber\\inst, M Thiel T; Dormenev, V I; Fedorov, A A; Korzhik, M V; Missevitch, O V; Balanutsa, V; Chernetsky, V; Demekhin, A; Dolgolenko, A; Fedorets, P; Gerasimov, A; Goryachev, V; Varentsov, V; Boukharov, A; Malyshev, O; Marishev, I; Semenov, A; Böhmer, F; Dørheim, S; Ketzer, B; Paul, S; Hergemöller, A K; Khoukaz, A; Köhler, E; Täschner, A; Wessels, J; Varma, R; Chaterjee, A; Jha, V; Kailas, S; Roy, B; Yan, Y; Chinorat, K; Khanchai, K; Ayut, L; Pomrad, S; Baldin, E; Kotov, K; Peleganchuk, S; Tikhonov, Yu; Boucher, J; Chambert, V; Dbeyssi, A; Hennino, T; Imre, M; Kunne, R; Galliard, C Le; Ma, B; Marchand, D; Maroni, A; Ong, S; Ramstein, B; Rosier, P; Sudol, M; Tomasi-Gustafsson, E; Wiele, J Van de; Boca, G; Braghieri, A; Costanza, S; Genova, P; Lavezzi, L; Montagna, P; Rotondi, A; Abramov, V; Belikov, N; Davidenko, A; Derevschikov, A; Goncharenko, Y; Grishin, V; Kachanov, V; Konstantinov, D; Kormilitsin, V; Melnik, Y; Levin, A; Minaev, N; Mochalov, V; Morozov, D; Nogach, L; Poslavskiy, S; Ryazantsev, A; Ryzhikov, S; Semenov, P; Shein, I; Uzunian, A; Vasiliev, A; Yakutin, A; Bäck, T; Cederwall, B; Makónyi, K; Tegnér, P E; Würtemberg, K M von; Belostotski, S; Gavrilov, G; Itzotov, A; Kashchuk, A; Kisselev, A; Kravchenko, P; Levitskaya, O; Manaenkov, S; Miklukho, O; Naryshkin, Y; Veretennikov, D; Vikhrov, V; Zhadanov, A; Alberto, D; Amoroso, A; Bussa, M P; Busso, L; Mori, F De; Destefanis, M; Fava, L; Ferrero, L; Greco, M; Maggiora, M; Marcello, S; Sosio, S; Spataro, S; Zotti, L; Calvo, D; Coli, S; Remigis, P De; Filippi, A; Giraudo, G; Lusso, S; Mazza, G; Morra, O; Rivetti, A; Wheadon, R; Iazzi, F; Lavagno, A; Younis, H; Birsa, R; Bradamante, F; Bressan, A; Martin, A; Clement, H; Galander, B; Balkestal, L Caldeira; Calén, H; Fransson, K; Johansson, T; Kupsc, A; Marciniewski, P; Thomé, E; Wolke, M; Zlomanczuk, J; Díaz, J; Ortiz, A; Dmowski, K; Korzeniewski, R; Przemyslaw, D; Slowinski, B; Chlopik, A; Guzik, Z; Kosinski, K; Melnychuk, D; Wasilewski, A; Wojciechowski, M; Wronka, S; Wysocka, A; Zwieglinski, B; Bühler, P; Hartman, O; Kienle, P; Marton, J; Suzuki, K; Widmann, E; Zmeskal, J

    2012-01-01

    This document describes the technical layout and the expected performance of the Straw Tube Tracker (STT), the main tracking detector of the PANDA target spectrometer. The STT encloses a Micro-Vertex-Detector (MVD) for the inner tracking and is followed in beam direction by a set of GEM-stations. The tasks of the STT are the measurement of the particle momentum from the reconstructed trajectory and the measurement of the specific energy-loss for a particle identification. Dedicated simulations with full analysis studies of certain proton-antiproton reactions, identified as being benchmark tests for the whole \\Panda scientific program, have been performed to test the STT layout and performance. The results are presented, and the time lines to construct the STT are described.

  6. Tests and developments of the PANDA Endcap Disc DIRC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Etzelmüller, E.; Belias, A.; Dzhygadlo, R.; Gerhardt, A.; Götzen, K.; Kalicy, G.; Krebs, M.; Lehmann, D.; Nerling, F.; Patsyuk, M.; Peters, K.; Schepers, G.; Schmitt, L.; Schwarz, C.; Schwiening, J.; Traxler, M.; Zühlsdorf, M.; Britting, A.; Eyrich, W.; Lehmann, A.

    2016-01-01

    The PANDA experiment at the future Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research (FAIR) requires excellent particle identification. Two different DIRC detectors will utilize internally reflected Cherenkov light of charged particles to enable the separation of pions and kaons up to momenta of 4 GeV/c. The Endcap Disc DIRC will be placed in the forward endcap of PANDA's central spectrometer covering polar angles between 5° and 22°. Its final design is based on MCP-PMTs for the photon detection and an optical system made of fused silica. A new prototype has been investigated during a test beam at CERN in May 2015 and first results will be presented. In addition a new synthetic fused silica material by Nikon has been tested and was found to be radiation hard.

  7. Improving Security in the ATLAS PanDA System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caballero, J; Maeno, T; Potekhin, M; Wenaus, T; Nilsson, P; Stewart, G

    2011-01-01

    The security challenges faced by users of the grid are considerably different to those faced in previous environments. The adoption of pilot jobs systems by LHC experiments has mitigated many of the problems associated with the inhomogeneities found on the grid and has greatly improved job reliability; however, pilot jobs systems themselves must then address many security issues, including the execution of multiple users' code under a common 'grid' identity. In this paper we describe the improvements and evolution of the security model in the ATLAS PanDA (Production and Distributed Analysis) system. We describe the security in the PanDA server which is in place to ensure that only authorized members of the VO are allowed to submit work into the system and that jobs are properly audited and monitored. We discuss the security in place between the pilot code itself and the PanDA server, ensuring that only properly authenticated workload is delivered to the pilot for execution. When the code to be executed is from a 'normal' ATLAS user, as opposed to the production system or other privileged actor, then the pilot may use an EGEE developed identity switching tool called gLExec. This changes the grid proxy available to the job and also switches the UNIX user identity to protect the privileges of the pilot code proxy. We describe the problems in using this system and how they are overcome. Finally, we discuss security drills which have been run using PanDA and show how these improved our operational security procedures.

  8. Genetic assessment of captive red panda (Ailurus fulgens) population

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar, Arun; Rai, Upashna; Roka, Bhupen; Jha, Alankar K.; Reddy, P. Anuradha

    2016-01-01

    Red panda (Ailurus fulgens) is threatened across its range by detrimental human activities and rapid habitat changes necessitating captive breeding programs in various zoos globally to save this flagship species from extinction. One of the ultimate aims of ex situ conservation is reintroduction of endangered animals into their natural habitats while maintaining 90?% of the founder genetic diversity. Advances in molecular genetics and microsatellite genotyping techniques make it possible to ac...

  9. Technical Design Report for the: PANDA Micro Vertex Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Erni, W; Krusche, B; Steinacher, M; Heng, Y; Liu, Z; Liu, H; Shen, X; Wang, Q; Xu, H; Albrecht, M; Becker, J; Eickel, K; Feldbauer, F; Fink, M; Friedel, P; Heinsius, F H; Held, T; Koch, H; Kopf, B; Leyhe, M; Motzko, C; Pelizäus, M; Pychy, J; Roth, B; Schröder, T; Schulze, J; Steinke, M; Trifterer, T; Wiedner, U; Zhong, J; Beck, R; Becker, M; Bianco, S; Brinkmann, K -Th; Hammann, C; Hinterberger, F; Jäkel, R; Kaiser, D; Kliemt, R; Koop, K; Schmidt, C; Schnell, R; Thoma, U; Vlasov, P; Wendel, C; Winnebeck, A; Würschig, Th; Zaunick, H -G; Bianconi, A; Bragadireanu, M; Caprini, M; Ciubancan, M; Pantea, D; Tarta, P -D; De Napoli, M; Giacoppo, F; Rapisarda, E; Sfienti, C; Fiutowski, T; Idzik, N; Mindur, B; Przyborowski, D; Swientek, K; Bialkowski, E; Budzanowski, A; Czech, B; Kliczewski, S; Kozela, A; Kulessa, P; Lebiedowicz, P; Malgorzata, K; Pysz, K; Schäfer, W; Siudak, R; Szczurek, A; Brandys, P; Czyzewski, T; Czyzycki, W; Domagala, M; Hawryluk, M; Filo, G; Kwiatkowski, D; Lisowski, E; Lisowski, F; Bardan, W; Gil, D; Kamys, B; Kistryn, St; Korcyl, K; Krzemieñ, W; Magiera, A; Moskal, P; Rudy, Z; Salabura, P; Smyrski, J; Wroñska, A; Al-Turany, M; Arora, R; Augustin, I; Deppe, H; Dutta, D; Flemming, H; Götzen, K; Hohler, G; Karabowicz, R; Lehmann, D; Lewandowski, B; Lühning, J; Maas, F; Orth, H; Peters, K; Saito, T; Schepers, G; Schmidt, C J; Schmitt, L; Schwarz, C; Schwiening, J; Voss, B; Wieczorek, P; Wilms, A; Abazov, V M; Alexeev, G D; Arefiev, V A; Astakhov, V I; Barabanov, M Yu; Batyunya, B V; Davydov, Yu I; Dodokhov, V Kh; Efremov, A A; Fedunov, A G; Feshchenko, A A; Galoyan, A S; Grigoryan, S; Karmokov, A; Koshurnikov, E K; Lobanov, V I; Lobanov, Yu Yu; Makarov, A F; Malinina, L V; Malyshev, V L; Mustafaev, G A; Olshevski, A G; Pasyuk, M A; Perevalova, E A; Piskun, A A; Pocheptsov, T A; Pontecorvo, G; Rodionov, V K; Rogov, Yu N; Salmin, R A; Samartsev, A G; Sapozhnikov, M G; Shabratova, G S; Skachkova, A N; Skachkov, N B; Strokovsky, E A; Suleimanov, M K; Teshev, R Sh; Tokmenin, V V; Uzhinsky, V V; Vodopyanov, A S; Zaporozhets, S A; Zhuravlev, N I; Zorin, A G; Branford, D; Glazier, D; Watts, D; Woods, P; Britting, A; Eyrich, W; Lehmann, A; Uhlig, F; Dobbs, S; Metreveli, Z; Seth, K; Tann, B; Tomaradze, A; Bettoni, D; Carassiti, V; Dalpiaz, P; Drago, A; Fioravanti, E; Garzia, I; Negrini, M; Savriè, M; Stancari, G; Dulach, B; Gianotti, P; Guaraldo, C; Lucherini, V; Pace, E; Bersani, A; Macri, M; Marinelli, M; Parodi, R F; Dormenev, V; Drexler, P; Düren, M; Eisner, T; Foehl, K; Hayrapetyan, A; Koch, P; Krïoch, B; Kühn, W; Lange, S; Liang, Y; Liu, M; Merle, O; Metag, V; Moritz, M; Nanova, M; Novotny, R; Spruck, B; Stenzel, H; Strackbein, C; Thiel, M; Wang, Q; Clarkson, T; Euan, C; Hill, G; Hoek, M; Ireland, D; Kaiser, R; Keri, T; Lehmann, I; Livingston, K; Lumsden, P; MacGregor, D; McKinnon, B; Montgomery, R; Murray, M; Protopopescu, D; Rosner, G; Seitz, B; Yang, G; Babai, M; Biegun, A K; Glazenborg-Kluttig, A; Guliyev, E; Jothi, V S; Kavatsyuk, M; Lemmens, P; Löhner, H; Messchendorp, J; Poelman, T; Smit, H; van der Weele, J C; Sohlbach, H; Büscher, M; Dosdall, R; Dzhygadlo, R; Esch, S; Gillitzer, A; Goldenbaum, F; Grunwald, D; Jha, V; Kemmerling, G; Kleines, H; Lehrach, A; Maier, R; Mertens, M; Ohm, H; Pohl, D L; Prasuhn, D; Randriamalala, T; Ritman, J; Roeder, M; Sterzenbach, G; Stockmanns, T; Wintz, P; Wüstner, P; Xu, H; Kisiel, J; Li, S; Li, Z; Sun, Z; Xu, H; Fissum, K; Hansen, K; Isaksson, L; Lundin, M; Schröder, B; Achenbach, P; Denig, A; Distler, M; Fritsch, M; Kangh, D; Karavdina, A; Lauth, W; Michel, M; Espi, M C Mora; Pochodzalla, J; Sanchez, S; Sanchez-Lorente, A; Sfienti, C; Weber, T; Dormenev, V I; Fedorov, A A; Korzhik, M V; Missevitch, O V; Boukharov, A; Malyshev, O; Marishev, I; Semenov, A; Varma, R; Höppner, C; Ketzer, B; Konorov, I; Mann, A; Neubert, S; Paul, S; Vandenbroucke, M; Zhang, Q; Khoukaz, A; Rausmann, T; Täschner, A; Wessels, J; Baldin, E; Kotov, K; Peleganchuk, S; Tikhonov, Yu; Hennino, T; Imre, M; Kunne, R; Galliard, C Le; Normand, J P Le; Marchand, D; Maroni, A; Ong, S; Pouthas, J; Ramstein, B; Rosier, P; Sudol, M; Theneau, C; Tomasi-Gustafsson, E; Van de Wiele, J; Zerguerras, T; Boca, G; Braghieri, A; Costanza, S; Fontana, A; Genova, P; Lavezzi, L; Montagna, P; Rotondi, A; Buda, V; Abramov, V V; Davidenko, A M; Derevschikov, A A; Goncharenko, Y M; Grishin, V N; Kachanov, V A; Konstantinov, D A; Kormilitsin, V A; Matulenko, Y A; Melnik, Y M; Meschanin, A P; Minaev, N G; Mochalov, V V; Morozov, D A; Nogach, L V; Nurushev, S B; Ryazantsev, A V; Semenov, P A; Soloviev, L F; Uzunian, A V; Vasiliev, A N; Yakutin, A E; Belostotski, S; Gavrilov, G; Itzotov, A; Kisselev, A; Kravchenko, P; Manaenkov, S; Miklukho, O; Naryshkin, Y; Veretennikov, D; Vikhrov, V; Zhadanov, A; Bäck, T; Cederwall, B; Bargholtz, C; Gerén, L; Tegnér, P E; Thørngren, P; von Würtemberg, K M; Fava, L; Alberto, D; Amoroso, A; Bussa, M P; Busso, L; De Mori, F; Destefanis, M; Ferrero, L; Greco, M; Kugathasan, T; Maggiora, M; Marcello, S; Sosio, S; Spataro, S; Calvo, D; Coli, S; De Remigis, P; Filippi, A; Giraudo, G; Lusso, S; Mazza, G; Mignone, M; Rivetti, A; Wheadon, R; Zotti, L; Morra, O; Iazzi, F; Lavagno, A; Quarati, P; Szymanska, K; Birsa, R; Bradamante, F; Bressan, A; Martin, A; Clement, H; Galnander, B; Calén, H; Fransson, K; Johansson, T; Kupsc, A; Marciniewski, P; Thomé, E; Wolke, M; Zlomanczuk, J; Díaz, J; Ortiz, A; Buda, P; Dmowski, K; Korzeniewski, R; Przemyslaw, D; Slowinski, B; Borsuk, S; Chlopik, A; Guzik, Z; Kopec, J; Kozlowski, T; Melnychuk, D; Plominski, M; Szewinski, J; Traczyk, K; Zwieglinski, B; Bühler, P; Gruber, A; Kienle, P; Marton, J; Widmann, E; Zmeskal, J

    2012-01-01

    This document illustrates the technical layout and the expected performance of the Micro Vertex Detector (MVD) of the PANDA experiment. The MVD will detect charged particles as close as possible to the interaction zone. Design criteria and the optimisation process as well as the technical solutions chosen are discussed and the results of this process are subjected to extensive Monte Carlo physics studies. The route towards realisation of the detector is outlined.

  10. The PANDA detector and its physics program at FAIR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brinkmann, K.

    2005-01-01

    The PANDA detector will make use of the antiprotons produced in the FAIR complex and stored in the High-Energy Storage Ring HESR for the study of strong interactions in antiproton collisions with protons and heavy targets. The detector features a 4π design for charged particles with a solenoidal magnetic field and full coverage of photons by means of an advanced electromagnetic calorimeter. In addition, a dipole spectrometer will allow high-resolution detection of leading particles characteristic for fixed-target experiments. The physics program of PANDA covers a wide range of topics which address central issues of QCD at low and moderate energies. Spectroscopy of hidden charm in the ccbar level scheme is still a very interesting issue, in particular when states are involved which cannot directly be formed in e + e - reactions. Open charm in the D meson section has recently received renewed interest when states were discovered that are not easily explained in conventional qqbar models. Exotic hadrons and glueballs have been predicted by theory within the energy range covered by PANDA. The search for these and the eventual study of their properties is central to the physics program. Using heavy targets, PANDA intends to study the properties of charm quarks in the hadronic medium. The copious production of baryon-antibaryon pairs at HESR will allow studies using secondary targets for the formation of hypernuclei. Each of these physics topics will be touched while the detector properties needed in order to cover the broad physics program are described. Technical developments and the status of the various detector components will be summarized

  11. Development of a cluster-jet target for PANDA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gruber, A.; Marton, J.; Widmann, E.; Zmeskal, J.; Orth, H.; Luehning, J.

    2008-01-01

    Full text: The Stefan Meyer Institut (SMI) is part of the international PANDA collaboration. The universal detector will be constructed at the future high-energy antiproton storage ring HESR at FAIR (Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research, GSI/Darmstadt). PANDA will use antiproton beams (1.5 to 15 GeV/c) for hadron physics in the charmonium region. The physics program of PANDA will encompass charmonium spectroscopy below and above open charm threshold, search for exotics (glueballs, hybrids), lambda and double-lambda hypernuclei studies and the investigation of in-medium modifications of charmed mesons - an experimentally unexplored field. SMI contributes to major parts of the PANDA detector like the hydrogen cluster-jet target and the vacuum system of the antiproton - target interaction zone. In order to reach the desired target density, an optimization of the cold head, the nozzle and the skimmer arrangement is essential. A density-profile monitor for the cluster-jet was designed and built at SMI. Several nozzle types will be studied using different gases, temperatures and inlet pressures. Additionally we, together with the cluster-jet target group at GSI, are carrying out R and D for improving the jet-density. The Genova/Fermilab cluster-jet target used for these measurements has been in use at Fermilab for the experiments E760 and E835 and has been transferred to GSI for this purpose. The setup of the density-profile monitor at SMI and several measurements at GSI will be presented. (author)

  12. Giant pandas failed to show mirror self-recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xiaozan; Jin, Yuan; Luo, Bo; Zhang, Guiquan; Wei, Rongping; Liu, Dingzhen

    2015-05-01

    Mirror self-recognition (MSR), i.e., the ability to recognize oneself in a mirror, is considered a potential index of self-recognition and the foundation of individual development. A wealth of literature on MSR is available for social animals, such as chimpanzees, Asian elephants and dolphins, yet little is known about MSR in solitary mammalian species. We aimed to evaluate whether the giant panda can recognize itself in the mirror, and whether this capacity varies with age. Thirty-four captive giant pandas (F:M = 18:16; juveniles, sub-adults and adults) were subjected to four mirror tests: covered mirror tests, open mirror tests, water mark control tests, and mark tests. The results showed that, though adult, sub-adult and juvenile pandas exposed to mirrors spent similar amounts of time in social mirror-directed behaviors (χ(2) = 0.719, P = 0.698), none of them used the mirror to touch the mark on their head, a self-directed behavior suggesting MSR. Individuals of all age groups initially displayed attacking, threatening, foot scraping and backwards walking behaviors when exposed to their self-images in the mirror. Our data indicate that, regardless of age, the giant pandas did not recognize their self-image in the mirror, but instead considered the image to be a conspecific. Our results add to the available information on mirror self-recognition in large mammals, provide new information on a solitary species, and will be useful for enclosure design and captive animal management.

  13. Simulation studies for the PANDA endcap disc DIRC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, Mustafa; Biguenko, Klim; Dueren, Michael; Hayrapetyan, Avetik; Kroeck, Benno; Merle, Oliver; Rieke, Julian [II. Physikalisches Institut, Justus-Liebig-Universitaet, Giessen (Germany); Foehl, Klaus [CERN, Genf (Switzerland); Collaboration: PANDA-Collaboration

    2015-07-01

    The physics program of the PANDA detector at the future FAIR facility at GSI requires excellent particle identification. For the Panda forward endcap region a novel detector type called ''Disc DIRC'' has been designed. It covers the angular range between 5 and 22 degrees and uses internally reflected Cherenkov light in order to separate pions, kaons and protons up to a momentum of 4 GeV/c. During the design phase, extensive detector simulations have been performed to optimize and evaluate the design. The simulations were done using Geant4 and the PandaRoot framework in addition with a dedicated reconstruction software. An important aspect was the optimization of the imaging while taking the geometrical tolerances of the manufacturing process of the final detector into account. The main focus lies on the optimization process of the cylindrical and polynomial focussing optics at the edges of the detector plate, which has been performed with the merit function of a raytracer called PyOptics, written by one of the group members.

  14. Diet and nutrient balance of red panda in Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panthi, Saroj; Coogan, Sean C. P.; Aryal, Achyut; Raubenheimer, David

    2015-10-01

    We identified the winter plant species consumed by red panda in the Dhorpatan Hunting Reserve of eastern Nepal and compared this to the early-summer diet which was determined previously by Panthi et al. (2012). In addition, we estimated the proximate nutritional content of the leaves identified in red panda diet for both seasons, and we used nutritional geometry to explore macronutrient balance of leaves from the two different sampling periods. We identified six different plants in winter scats, which were the same as found in the previously determined early-summer diet. Arundinaria spp. bamboos were the main species found (82.1 % relative frequency), followed by Acer spp. (6.3 %), Betula utilis (4.6 %), Quercus semicarpifolia (3.7 %), Berberis spp. (1.3 %), and lichens (1.0 %), leaving 2.0 % unidentified. Geometric analysis suggested that the macronutrient balance of seasonal diets were similar in nutrient balance to the most frequently consumed Arundinaria spp. Differences in macronutrient balance may indicate seasonal nutrient preferences, such as increased carbohydrate intake in winter for thermogenesis, and increased protein and lipid intake in early summer to support reproduction and lactation; however, these differences may also indicate differences in resource availability. Habitat conserved for red panda in the region should include sufficient Arundinaria spp. as well as lesser consumed plants which may serve as complimentary foods.

  15. The ATLAS PanDA Pilot in Operation

    CERN Document Server

    Nilsson, P; The ATLAS collaboration; De, K; Maeno, T; Stradling, A; Wenaus, T

    2011-01-01

    The Production and Distributed Analysis system (PanDA) [1-2] was designed to meet ATLAS [3] requirements for a data-driven workload management system capable of operating at LHC data processing scale. Submitted jobs are executed on worker nodes by pilot jobs sent to the grid sites by pilot factories. This paper provides an overview of the PanDA pilot [4] system and presents major features added in light of recent operational experience, including multi-job processing, advanced job recovery for jobs with output storage failures, gLExec [5-6] based identity switching from the generic pilot to the actual user, and other security measures. The PanDA system serves all ATLAS distributed processing and is the primary system for distributed analysis; it is currently used at over 100 sites world-wide. We analyze the performance of the pilot system in processing real LHC data on the OSG [7], EGI [8] and Nordugrid [9-10] infrastructures used by ATLAS, and describe plans for its evolution.

  16. SWR 1000 related containment cooling system tests in PANDA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dreier, J.; Aubert, C.; Huggenberger, M.; Strassberger, H.J.; Yadigaroglu, G.

    2000-01-01

    Since 1991 the Paul Scherrer Institute has participated in the investigations of several of the new passive Advanced Light Water Reactor designs proposed world-wide. The current phase of the project, ALPHA-II, is focused on both the boiling water and the pressurized water reactor passive designs and consists of three projects under the sponsorship of the European Commission. The paper describes the performed PANDA transient system tests related to one of these projects, called 'BWR R and D Cluster for Innovative Passive Safety Systems (IPSS)', and details the PSI contribution to the experimental investigation of passive containment cooling by a Building Condenser system which is part of the advanced Boiling Water Reactor SWR 1000 designed by Siemens. First, a short description of the relevant systems of the SWR 1000 design and its simulation in the PANDA facility are presented. After the description of the experimental programme for the large-scale integral system test investigations in the PANDA facility, the main results of the performed tests are also given. Finally, the main conclusions, based on the to date available experimental results and their analysis, are summarised. (author)

  17. ATLAS WORLD-cloud and networking in PanDA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barreiro Megino, F.; De, K.; Di Girolamo, A.; Maeno, T.; Walker, R.; ATLAS Collaboration

    2017-10-01

    The ATLAS computing model was originally designed as static clouds (usually national or geographical groupings of sites) around the Tier 1 centres, which confined tasks and most of the data traffic. Since those early days, the sites’ network bandwidth has increased at 0(1000) and the difference in functionalities between Tier 1s and Tier 2s has reduced. After years of manual, intermediate solutions, we have now ramped up to full usage of World-cloud, the latest step in the PanDA Workload Management System to increase resource utilization on the ATLAS Grid, for all workflows (MC production, data (re)processing, etc.). We have based the development on two new site concepts. Nuclei sites are the Tier 1s and large Tier 2s, where tasks will be assigned and the output aggregated, and satellites are the sites that will execute the jobs and send the output to their nucleus. PanDA dynamically pairs nuclei and satellite sites for each task based on the input data availability, capability matching, site load and network connectivity. This contribution will introduce the conceptual changes for World-cloud, the development necessary in PanDA, an insight into the network model and the first half-year of operational experience.

  18. Evolution of the ATLAS PanDA Workload Management System for Exascale Computational Science

    CERN Document Server

    Maeno, T; The ATLAS collaboration; Klimentov, A; Nilsson, P; Oleynik, D; Panitkin, S; Petrosyan, A; Schovancova, J; Vaniachine, A; Wenaus, T; Yu, D

    2014-01-01

    An important foundation underlying the impressive success of data processing and analysis in the ATLAS experiment [1] at the LHC [2] is the Production and Distributed Analysis (PanDA) workload management system [3]. PanDA was designed specifically for ATLAS and proved to be highly successful in meeting all the distributed computing needs of the experiment. However, the core design of PanDA is not experiment specific. The PanDA workload management system is capable of meeting the needs of other data intensive scientific applications. Alpha-Magnetic Spectrometer [4], an astro-particle experiment on the International Space Station, and the Compact Muon Solenoid [5], an LHC experiment, have successfully evaluated PanDA and are pursuing its adoption. In this paper, a description of the new program of work to develop a generic version of PanDA will be given, as well as the progress in extending PanDA's capabilities to support supercomputers and clouds and to leverage intelligent networking. PanDA has demonstrated a...

  19. 78 FR 38800 - Panda Power LLC, Denial of Petition for Decision of Inconsequential Noncompliance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-27

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION National Highway Traffic Safety Administration [Docket No. NHTSA-2010-0166; Notice 2] Panda Power LLC, Denial of Petition for Decision of Inconsequential Noncompliance... manufactured by Guangzhou Kingwoodcar Company, LTD, Guangzhou City, China. Summary of Panda Power's Analyses...

  20. Characterizing the spatial distribution of giant pandas (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) in fragmented forest landscapes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, T.; Ye, X.P.; Skidmore, A.K.; Toxopeus, A.G.

    2010-01-01

    Aim. To examine the effects of forest fragmentation on the distribution of the entire wild giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) population, and to propose a modelling approach for monitoring the spatial distribution and habitat of pandas at the landscape scale using Moderate Resolution Imaging

  1. Evolution of the ATLAS PanDA Workload Management System for Exascale Computational Science

    CERN Document Server

    Maeno, T; The ATLAS collaboration; Klimentov, A; Nilsson, P; Oleynik, D; Panitkin, S; Petrosyan, A; Schovancova, J; Vaniachine, A; Wenaus, T; Yu, D

    2013-01-01

    An important foundation underlying the impressive success of data processing and analysis in the ATLAS experiment [1] at the LHC [2] is the Production and Distributed Analysis (PanDA) workload management system [3]. PanDA was designed specifically for ATLAS and proved to be highly successful in meeting all the distributed computing needs of the experiment. However, the core design of PanDA is not experiment specific. The PanDA workload management system is capable of meeting the needs of other data intensive scientific applications. Alpha-Magnetic Spectrometer [4], an astro-particle experiment on the International Space Station, and the Compact Muon Solenoid [5], an LHC experiment, have successfully evaluated PanDA and are pursuing its adoption. In this paper, a description of the new program of work to develop a generic version of PanDA will be given, as well as the progress in extending PanDA's capabilities to support supercomputers and clouds and to leverage intelligent networking. PanDA has demonstrated a...

  2. Feasibility studies of time-like proton electromagnetic form factors at PANDA at FAIR

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Singh, B.; Erni, W.; Krusche, B.; Steinacher, M.; Walford, N.; Liu, B.; Liu, H.; Liu, Z.; Shen, X.; Wang, C.; Zhao, J.; Albrecht, M.; Erlen, T.; Fink, M.; Heinsius, F.; Held, T.; Holtmann, T.; Jasper, S.; Keshk, I.; Koch, H.; Kopf, B.; Kuhlmann, M.; Kuemmel, M.; Leiber, S.; Mikirtychyants, M.; Musiol, P.; Mustafa, A.; Pelizaeus, M.; Pychy, J.; Richter, M.; Schnier, C.; Schroeder, T.; Sowa, C.; Steinke, M.; Triffterer, T.; Wiedner, U.; Ball, M.; Beck, R.; Hammann, C.; Ketzer, B.; Kube, M.; Mahlberg, P.; Rossbach, M.; Schmidt, C.; Schmitz, R.; Thoma, U.; Urban, M.; Walther, D.; Wendel, C.; Wilson, A.; Bianconi, A.; Bragadireanu, M.; Caprini, M.; Pantea, D.; Patel, B.; Czyzycki, W.; Domagala, M.; Filo, G.; Jaworowski, J.; Krawczyk, M.; Lisowski, F.; Lisowski, E.; Michalek, M.; Poznanski, P.; Plazek, J.; Korcyl, K.; Kozela, A.; Kulessa, P.; Lebiedowicz, P.; Pysz, K.; Schafer, W.; Szczurek, A.; Fiutowski, T.; Idzik, M.; Mindur, B.; Przyborowski, D.; Swientek, K.; Biernat, J.; Kamys, B.; Kistryn, S.; Korcyl, G.; Krzemien, W.; Magiera, A.; Moskal, P.; Pyszniak, A.; Rudy, Z.; Salabura, P.; Smyrski, J.; Strzempek, P.; Wronska, A.; Augustin, I.; Bohm, R.; Lehmann, I.; Marinescu, D. Nicmorus; Schmitt, L.; Varentsov, V.; Al-Turany, M.; Belias, A.; Deppe, H.; Dzhygadlo, R.; Ehret, A.; Flemming, H.; Gerhardt, A.; Goetzen, K.; Gromliuk, A.; Gruber, L.; Karabowicz, R.; Kliemt, R.; Krebs, M.; Kurilla, U.; Lehmann, D.; Loechner, S.; Luehning, J.; Lynen, U.; Orth, H.; Patsyuk, M.; Peters, K.; Saito, T.; Schepers, G.; Schmidt, C. J.; Schwarz, C.; Schwiening, J.; Taeschner, A.; Traxler, M.; Ugur, C.; Voss, B.; Wieczorek, P.; Wilms, A.; Zuehlsdorf, M.; Abazov, V.; Alexeev, G.; Arefiev, V. A.; Astakhov, V.; Barabanov, M. Yu.; Batyunya, B. V.; Davydov, Y.; Dodokhov, V. Kh.; Efremov, A.; Fechtchenko, A.; Fedunov, A. G.; Galoyan, A.; Grigoryan, S.; Koshurnikov, E. K.; Lobanov, Y. Yu.; Lobanov, V. I.; Makarov, A. F.; Malinina, L. V.; Malyshev, V.; Olshevskiy, A. G.; Perevalova, E.; Piskun, A. A.; Pocheptsov, T.; Pontecorvo, G.; Rodionov, V.; Rogov, Y.; Salmin, R.; Samartsev, A.; Sapozhnikov, M. G.; Shabratova, G.; Skachkov, N. B.; Skachkova, A. N.; Strokovsky, E. A.; Suleimanov, M.; Teshev, R.; Tokmenin, V.; Uzhinsky, V.; Vodopianov, A.; Zaporozhets, S. A.; Zhuravlev, N. I.; Zorin, A. G.; Branford, D.; Glazier, D.; Watts, D.; Boehm, M.; Britting, A.; Eyrich, W.; Lehmann, A.; Pfaffinger, M.; Uhlig, F.; Dobbs, S.; Seth, K.; Tomaradze, A.; Xiao, T.; Bettoni, D.; Carassiti, V.; Ramusino, A. Cotta; Dalpiaz, P.; Drago, A.; Fioravanti, E.; Garzia, I.; Savrie, M.; Akishina, V.; Kisel, I.; Kozlov, G.; Pugach, M.; Zyzak, M.; Gianotti, P.; Guaraldo, C.; Lucherini, V.; Bersani, A.; Bracco, G.; Macri, M.; Parodi, R. F.; Biguenko, K.; Brinkmann, K.; Di Pietro, V.; Diehl, S.; Dormenev, V.; Drexler, P.; Dueren, M.; Etzelmueller, E.; Galuska, M.; Gutz, E.; Hahn, C.; Hayrapetyan, A.; Kesselkaul, M.; Kuehn, W.; Kuske, T.; Lange, J. S.; Liang, Y.; Metag, V.; Nanova, M.; Nazarenko, S.; Novotny, R.; Quagli, T.; Reiter, S.; Rieke, J.; Rosenbaum, C.; Schmidt, M.; Schnell, R.; Stenzel, H.; Thoering, U.; Ullrich, M.; Wagner, M. N.; Wasem, T.; Wohlfahrt, B.; Zaunick, H.; Ireland, D.; Rosner, G.; Seitz, B.; Deepak, P. N.; Kulkarni, A.; Apostolou, A.; Babai, M.; Kavatsyuk, M.; Lemmens, P. J.; Lindemulder, M.; Loehner, H.; Messchendorp, J.; Schakel, P.; Smit, H.; Tiemens, M.; van der Weele, J. C.; Veenstra, R.; Vejdani, S.; Dutta, K.; Kalita, K.; Kumar, A.; Roy, A.; Sohlbach, H.; Bai, M.; Bianchi, L.; Buescher, M.; Cao, L.; Cebulla, A.; Dosdall, R.; Gillitzer, A.; Goldenbaum, F.; Grunwald, D.; Herten, A.; Hu, Q.; Kemmerling, G.; Kleines, H.; Lehrach, A.; Nellen, R.; Ohm, H.; Orfanitski, S.; Prasuhn, D.; Prencipe, E.; Puetz, J.; Ritman, J.; Schadmand, S.; Sefzick, T.; Serdyuk, V.; Sterzenbach, G.; Stockmanns, T.; Wintz, P.; Wuestner, P.; Xu, H.; Zambanini, A.; Li, S.; Li, Z.; Sun, Z.; Xu, H.; Rigato, V.; Isaksson, L.; Achenbach, P.; Corell, O.; Denig, A.; Distler, M.; Hoek, M.; Karavdina, A.; Lauth, W.; Liu, Z.; Merkel, H.; Mueller, U.; Pochodzalla, J.; Sanchez, S.; Schlimme, S.; Sfienti, C.; Thiel, M.; Ahmadi, H.; Ahmed, S.; Bleser, S.; Capozza, L.; Cardinali, M.; Dbeyssi, A.; Deiseroth, M.; Feldbauer, F.; Fritsch, M.; Froehlich, B.; Jasinski, P.; Kang, D.; Khaneft, D.; Klasen, R.; Leithoff, H. H.; Lin, D.; Maas, F.; Maldaner, S.; Martinez, M.; Michel, M.; Espi, M. C. Mora; Morales, C. Morales; Motzko, C.; Nerling, F.; Noll, O.; Pflueger, S.; Pitka, A.; Pineiro, D. Rodriguez; Sanchez-Lorente, A.; Steinen, M.; Valente, R.; Weber, T.; Zambrana, M.; Zimmermann, I.; Fedorov, A.; Korjik, M.; Missevitch, O.; Boukharov, A.; Malyshev, O.; Marishev, I.; Balanutsa, V.; Balanutsa, P.; Chernetsky, V.; Demekhin, A.; Dolgolenko, A.; Fedorets, P.; Gerasimov, A.; Goryachev, V.; Chandratre, V.; Datar, V.; Dutta, D.; Jha, V.; Kumawat, H.; Mohanty, A. K.; Parmar, A.; Roy, B.; Sonika, G.; Fritzsch, C.; Grieser, S.; Hergemoeller, A.; Hetz, B.; Huesken, N.; Khoukaz, A.; Wessels, J. P.; Khosonthongkee, K.; Kobdaj, C.; Limphirat, A.; Srisawad, P.; Yan, Y.; Barnyakov, M.; Barnyakov, A. Yu.; Beloborodov, K.; Blinov, A. E.; Blinov, V. E.; Bobrovnikov, V. S.; Kononov, S.; Kravchenko, E. A.; Kuyanov, I. A.; Martin, K.; Onuchin, A. P.; Serednyakov, S.; Sokolov, A.; Tikhonov, Y.; Atomssa, E.; Kunne, R.; Marchand, D.; Ramstein, B.; van de Wiele, J.; Wang, Y.; Boca, G.; Costanza, S.; Genova, P.; Montagna, P.; Rotondi, A.; Abramov, V.; Belikov, N.; Bukreeva, S.; Davidenko, A.; Derevschikov, A.; Goncharenko, Y.; Grishin, V.; Kachanov, V.; Kormilitsin, V.; Levin, A.; Melnik, Y.; Minaev, N.; Mochalov, V.; Morozov, D.; Nogach, L.; Poslavskiy, S.; Ryazantsev, A.; Ryzhikov, S.; Semenov, P.; Shein, I.; Uzunian, A.; Vasiliev, A.; Yakutin, A.; Tomasi-Gustafsson, E.; Roy, U.; Yabsley, B.; Belostotski, S.; Gavrilov, G.; Izotov, A.; Manaenkov, S.; Miklukho, O.; Veretennikov, D.; Zhdanov, A.; Makonyi, K.; Preston, M.; Tegner, P.; Wolbing, D.; Back, T.; Cederwall, B.; Rai, A. K.; Godre, S.; Calvo, D.; Coli, S.; De Remigis, P.; Filippi, A.; Giraudo, G.; Lusso, S.; Mazza, G.; Mignone, M.; Rivetti, A.; Wheadon, R.; Balestra, F.; Iazzi, F.; Introzzi, R.; Lavagno, A.; Olave, J.; Amoroso, A.; Bussa, M. P.; Busso, L.; De Mori, F.; Destefanis, M.; Fava, L.; Ferrero, L.; Greco, M.; Hu, J.; Lavezzi, L.; Maggiora, M.; Maniscalco, G.; Marcello, S.; Sosio, S.; Spataro, S.; Birsa, R.; Bradamante, F.; Bressan, A.; Martin, A.; Calen, H.; Andersson, W. Ikegami; Johansson, T.; Kupsc, A.; Marciniewski, P.; Papenbrock, M.; Pettersson, J.; Schonning, K.; Wolke, M.; Galnander, B.; Diaz, J.; Chackara, V. Pothodi; Chlopik, A.; Kesik, G.; Melnychuk, D.; Slowinski, B.; Trzcinski, A.; Wojciechowski, M.; Wronka, S.; Zwieglinski, B.; Buehler, P.; Marton, J.; Steinschaden, D.; Suzuki, K.; Widmann, E.; Zmeskal, J.

    2016-01-01

    Simulation results for future measurements of electromagnetic proton form factors at PANDA (FAIR) within the PandaRoot software framework are reported. The statistical precision with which the proton form factors can be determined is estimated. The signal channel (p) over barp -> e(+)e(-) is studied

  3. Pulse pile-up recovery for the front-end electronics of the PANDA Electromagnetic Calorimeter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tambave, G.; Guliyev, E.; Kavatsyuk, M.; Schreuder, F.; Löhner, H.

    2011-01-01

    To study the Charmonium spectrum and search for narrow exotic hadronic states, predicted by Quantum Chromodynamics, the PANDA detector will be employed at the future Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research near Darmstadt in Germany. In the PANDA experiment, 1.5 to 15 GeV/c anti-protons will collide

  4. Pulse pile-up recovery for the front-end electronics of the PANDA Electromagnetic Calorimeter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tambave, G.; Kavatsyuk, M.; Guliyev, E.; Schreuder, F.; Moeini, H.; Löhner, H.

    2012-01-01

    At the future Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research near Darmstadt in Germany the PANDA detector will be employed to study the charmonium spectrum and to search for narrow exotic hadronic states, predicted by Quantum Chromodynamics. In the PANDA experiment, 1.5 to 15GeV/c anti-protons will

  5. PANDA a multi-purpose thermal-hydraulics facility devoted to nuclear reactor containment safety analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paladino, Domenico

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the multi purpose facility PANDA devised for the safety analysis of nuclear reactor containment. The passive safety systems for LWRs have been explained with details about the PAssive Nachzerfallswärmeabfuhr und Druck-Abbau Testanlage (PANDA)

  6. Panda-Huggers and Dragon-Slayers: How to View Modern China Today

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gifford, Rob

    2010-01-01

    Panda-hugger and dragon-slayer are phrases used to describe two different kinds of China-watchers, and increasingly, two different types of people in the general public. A panda-hugger is someone who says that almost everything going on in China is good, that China's progress is a great thing for the world, and that any problems are peripheral. A…

  7. Long Non-coding RNA, PANDA, Contributes to the Stabilization of p53 Tumor Suppressor Protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotake, Yojiro; Kitagawa, Kyoko; Ohhata, Tatsuya; Sakai, Satoshi; Uchida, Chiharu; Niida, Hiroyuki; Naemura, Madoka; Kitagawa, Masatoshi

    2016-04-01

    P21-associated noncoding RNA DNA damage-activated (PANDA) is induced in response to DNA damage and represses apoptosis by inhibiting the function of nuclear transcription factor Y subunit alpha (NF-YA) transcription factor. Herein, we report that PANDA affects regulation of p53 tumor-suppressor protein. U2OS cells were transfected with PANDA siRNAs. At 72 h post-transfection, cells were subjected to immunoblotting and quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Depletion of PANDA was associated with decreased levels of p53 protein, but not p53 mRNA. The stability of p53 protein was markedly reduced by PANDA silencing. Degradation of p53 protein by silencing PANDA was prevented by treatment of MG132, a proteasome inhibitor. Moreover, depletion of PANDA prevented accumulation of p53 protein, as a result of DNA damage, induced by the genotoxic agent etoposide. These results suggest that PANDA stabilizes p53 protein in response to DNA damage, and provide new insight into the regulatory mechanisms of p53. Copyright© 2016 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  8. Evolution of the ATLAS PanDA workload management system for exascale computational science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maeno, T; Klimentov, A; Panitkin, S; Schovancova, J; Wenaus, T; Yu, D; De, K; Nilsson, P; Oleynik, D; Petrosyan, A; Vaniachine, A

    2014-01-01

    An important foundation underlying the impressive success of data processing and analysis in the ATLAS experiment [1] at the LHC [2] is the Production and Distributed Analysis (PanDA) workload management system [3]. PanDA was designed specifically for ATLAS and proved to be highly successful in meeting all the distributed computing needs of the experiment. However, the core design of PanDA is not experiment specific. The PanDA workload management system is capable of meeting the needs of other data intensive scientific applications. Alpha-Magnetic Spectrometer [4], an astro-particle experiment on the International Space Station, and the Compact Muon Solenoid [5], an LHC experiment, have successfully evaluated PanDA and are pursuing its adoption. In this paper, a description of the new program of work to develop a generic version of PanDA will be given, as well as the progress in extending PanDA's capabilities to support supercomputers and clouds and to leverage intelligent networking. PanDA has demonstrated at a very large scale the value of automated dynamic brokering of diverse workloads across distributed computing resources. The next generation of PanDA will allow other data-intensive sciences and a wider exascale community employing a variety of computing platforms to benefit from ATLAS' experience and proven tools.

  9. Changes of foraging patch selection and utilization by a giant panda after bamboo flowering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guochun; Song, Huadong; Altigani, Latifa A A; Zheng, Xueli; Bu, Shuhai

    2017-07-01

    The bamboo flowering leads to the habitat fragmentation and food quality decline of a giant panda. Few empirical research has been conducted about the giant panda's response to the bamboo flowering. Here, we investigated the characteristics of bamboo stands, giant panda's activity, and selection and utilization of bamboo stands by giant panda in Taibaishan National Nature Reserve, China, over a 3-year period (September 2013-May 2016) during the Fargesia qinlingensis flowering period. Our results indicated that the proportion of whole bamboo stands flowering has gradually expanded from 26.7% in 2013 and 33.9% in 2014 to 52.3% in 2015. Although the flowering bamboo has lower crude protein and higher crude fiber than a non-flowering bamboo, the giant panda still fed on flowering bamboo from the evidence of droppings. The giant panda left its feeding sites and moved to the high elevation along river when the proportion of flowering reached 69.2% at elevation of 2350-2450 m in the third year. With the decline of the quality of bamboo stand of Fargesia qinlingensis, the giant panda abandoned its feeding sites when the threshold value of bamboo flowering reached 56.9-69.2%. Flexibility in foraging strategy and spatial behavior can help the giant panda to better adapt to the environment.

  10. MOLECULAR CLONING, SEQUENCING, EXPRESSION AND BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITY OF GIANT PANDA (AILUROPODA MELANOLEUCA) INTERFERON-GAMMA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Hui; Wang, Wen-Xiu; Wang, Bao-Qin; Zhu, Xiao-Fu; Wu, Xu-Jin; Ma, Qing-Yi; Chen, De-Kun

    2012-06-29

    The giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) is an endangered species and indigenous to China. Interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) is the only member of type □ IFN and is vital for the regulation of host adapted immunity and inflammatory response. Little is known aboutthe FN-γ gene and its roles in giant panda.In this study, IFN-γ gene of Qinling giant panda was amplified from total blood RNA by RT-CPR, cloned, sequenced and analysed. The open reading frame (ORF) of Qinling giant panda IFN-γ encodes 152 amino acidsand is highly similar to Sichuan giant panda with an identity of 99.3% in cDNA sequence. The IFN-γ cDNA sequence was ligated to the pET32a vector and transformed into E. coli BL21 competent cells. Expression of recombinant IFN-γ protein of Qinling giant panda in E. coli was confirmed by SDS-PAGE and Western blot analysis. Biological activity assay indicated that the recombinant IFN-γ protein at the concentration of 4-10 µg/ml activated the giant panda peripheral blood lymphocytes,while at 12 µg/mlinhibited. the activation of the lymphocytes.These findings provide insights into the evolution of giant panda IFN-γ and information regarding amino acid residues essential for their biological activity.

  11. PD2P : PanDA Dynamic Data Placement for ATLAS

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2012-01-01

    The PanDA Dynamic Data Placement (PD2P) system has been developed to cope with difficulties of data placement for ATLAS. PD2P is an intelligent subsystem of PanDA to distribute data by taking the following factors into account: popularity, locality, the usage pattern of the data, the distribution of CPU and storage resources, ...

  12. Influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 Virus Infection in Giant Pandas, China

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Desheng; Zhu, Ling; Cui, Hengmin; Ling, Shanshan; Fan, Shengtao; Yu, Zhijun; Zhou, Yuancheng; Wang, Tiecheng; Qian, Jun; Xia, Xianzhu; Xu, Zhiwen; Gao, Yuwei; Wang, Chengdong

    2014-01-01

    We confirmed infection with influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 in giant pandas in China during 2009 by using virus isolation and serologic analysis methods. This finding extends the host range of influenza viruses and indicates a need for increased surveillance for and control of influenza viruses among giant pandas.

  13. Proposed conservation landscape for giant pandas in the Minshan Mountains, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Guozhen; Feng, Chaoyang; Xie, Zongqiang; Ouyang, Zhiyun; Li, Junqing; Pascal, Marty

    2008-10-01

    The giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca), is one of the world's most endangered species. Habitat loss and fragmentation have reduced its numbers, shrunk its distribution, and separated the population into isolated subpopulations. Such isolated, small populations are in danger of extinction due to random demographic factors and inbreeding. We used least-cost modeling as a systematic approach to incorporate satellite imagery and data on ecological and behavioral parameters of the giant panda collected during more than 10 years of field research to design a conservation landscape for giant pandas in the Minshan Mountains. We identified 8 core habitats and 4 potential linkages that would link core habitats CH3, CH4, and CH5 with core habitats CH6, CH7, and CH8. Establishing and integrating the identified habitats with existing reserves would create an efficient reserve network for giant panda conservation. The core habitats had an average density of 4.9 pandas/100 km(2) and contained approximately 76.6% of the giant panda population. About 45% of the core habitat (3245.4 km(2)) existed outside the current nature reserves network. Total estimated core habitat decreased between 30.4 and 44.5% with the addition of residential areas and road networks factored into the model. A conservation area for giant panda in the Minshan Mountains should aim to ensure habitat retention and connectivity, improve dispersal potential of corridors, and maintain the evolutionary potential of giant pandas in the face of future environmental changes.

  14. Influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 virus infection in giant pandas, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Desheng; Zhu, Ling; Cui, Hengmin; Ling, Shanshan; Fan, Shengtao; Yu, Zhijun; Zhou, Yuancheng; Wang, Tiecheng; Qian, Jun; Xia, Xianzhu; Xu, Zhiwen; Gao, Yuwei; Wang, Chengdong

    2014-03-01

    We confirmed infection with influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 in giant pandas in China during 2009 by using virus isolation and serologic analysis methods. This finding extends the host range of influenza viruses and indicates a need for increased surveillance for and control of influenza viruses among giant pandas.

  15. Assessing vulnerability of giant pandas to climate change in the Qinling Mountains of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jia; Liu, Fang; Xue, Yadong; Zhang, Yu; Li, Diqiang

    2017-06-01

    Climate change might pose an additional threat to the already vulnerable giant panda ( Ailuropoda melanoleuca ). Effective conservation efforts require projections of vulnerability of the giant panda in facing climate change and proactive strategies to reduce emerging climate-related threats. We used the maximum entropy model to assess the vulnerability of giant panda to climate change in the Qinling Mountains of China. The results of modeling included the following findings: (1) the area of suitable habitat for giant pandas was projected to decrease by 281 km 2 from climate change by the 2050s; (2) the mean elevation of suitable habitat of giant panda was predicted to shift 30 m higher due to climate change over this period; (3) the network of nature reserves protect 61.73% of current suitable habitat for the species, and 59.23% of future suitable habitat; (4) current suitable habitat mainly located in Chenggu, Taibai, and Yangxian counties (with a total area of 987 km 2 ) was predicted to be vulnerable. Assessing the vulnerability of giant panda provided adaptive strategies for conservation programs and national park construction. We proposed adaptation strategies to ameliorate the predicted impacts of climate change on giant panda, including establishing and adjusting reserves, establishing habitat corridors, improving adaptive capacity to climate change, and strengthening monitoring of giant panda.

  16. The evolution of the gut microbiota in the giant and the red pandas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ying; Guo, Wei; Han, Shushu; Kong, Fanli; Wang, Chengdong; Li, Desheng; Zhang, Heming; Yang, Mingyao; Xu, Huailiang; Zeng, Bo; Zhao, Jiangchao

    2015-05-18

    The independent dietary shift from carnivore to herbivore with over 90% being bamboo in the giant and the red pandas is of great interests to biologists. Although previous studies have shown convergent evolution of the giant and the red pandas at both morphological and molecular level, the evolution of the gut microbiota in these pandas remains largely unknown. The goal of this study was to determine whether the gut microbiota of the pandas converged due to the same diet, or diverged. We characterized the fecal microbiota from these two species by pyrosequencing the 16S V1-V3 hypervariable regions using the 454 GS FLX Titanium platform. We also included fecal samples from Asian black bears, a species phylogenetically closer to the giant panda, in our analyses. By analyzing the microbiota from these 3 species and those from other carnivores reported previously, we found the gut microbiotas of the giant pandas are distinct from those of the red pandas and clustered closer to those of the black bears. Our data suggests the divergent evolution of the gut microbiota in the pandas.

  17. Resident resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, J L; Cleary, B

    1999-01-01

    Clearly, faculty must work hard with residents to explore the nature of their resistance to a program's learning and growth opportunities. Initial steps to a deeper, more effective, and longer-lasting change process must be pursued. If resident resistance is mishandled or misunderstood, then learning and professional growth may be sidetracked and the purposes of residency training defeated. Listening to the whole person of the resident and avoiding the trap of getting caught up in merely responding to select resident behaviors that irritate us is critical. Every faculty member in the family practice residency program must recognize resistance as a form of defense that cannot immediately be torn down or taken away. Resident defenses have important purposes to play in stress reduction even if they are not always healthy. Residents, especially interns, use resistance to avoid a deeper and more truthful look at themselves as physicians. A family practice residency program that sees whole persons in their residents and that respects resident defenses will effectively manage the stress and disharmony inherent to the resistant resident.

  18. PanDA Beyond ATLAS: Workload Management for Data Intensive Science

    CERN Document Server

    Schovancova, J; The ATLAS collaboration; Klimentov, A; Maeno, T; Nilsson, P; Oleynik, D; Panitkin, S; Petrosyan, A; Vaniachine, A; Wenaus, T; Yu, D

    2013-01-01

    The PanDA Production ANd Distributed Analysis system has been developed by ATLAS to meet the experiment's requirements for a data-driven workload management system for production and distributed analysis processing capable of operating at LHC data processing scale. After 7 years of impressively successful PanDA operation in ATLAS there are also other experiments which can benefit from PanDA in the Big Data challenge, with several at various stages of evaluation and adoption. The new project "Next Generation Workload Management and Analysis System for Big Data" is extending PanDA to meet the needs of other data intensive scientific applications in HEP, astro-particle and astrophysics communities, bio-informatics and other fields as a general solution to large scale workload management. PanDA can utilize dedicated or opportunistic computing resources such as grids, clouds, and High Performance Computing facilities, and is being extended to leverage next generation intelligent networks in automated workflow mana...

  19. PanDA: Exascale Federation of Resources for the ATLAS Experiment at the LHC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megino Fernando Barreiro

    2016-01-01

    The PanDA (Production and Distributed Analysis system was developed in 2005 for the ATLAS experiment on top of this heterogeneous infrastructure to seamlessly integrate the computational resources and give the users the feeling of a unique system. Since its origins, PanDA has evolved together with upcoming computing paradigms in and outside HEP, such as changes in the networking model, Cloud Computing and HPC. It is currently running steadily up to 200 thousand simultaneous cores (limited by the available resources for ATLAS, up to two million aggregated jobs per day and processes over an exabyte of data per year. The success of PanDA in ATLAS is triggering the widespread adoption and testing by other experiments. In this contribution we will give an overview of the PanDA components and focus on the new features and upcoming challenges that are relevant to the next decade of distributed computing workload management using PanDA.

  20. A critical review of PANDAS research in the context of obsessive compulsive disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan E. Harvey

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The discovery and elaboration of pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders associated with streptococcal infections (PANDAS is emerging from a polemical status and gaining wide recognition. Current research has proposed a specific neurological pathogenesis for the disorder. This paper connects the dominant neurobiological model of obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD with the proposed pathogenesis and treatment of PANDAS. PANDAS presentation is described and an important early debate regarding anti-neuronal antibodies in the brain of PANDAS patients is outlined. Recent research on a specific immunological trigger for antibodies that cause a blood brain barrier breakdown will be discussed along with treatment for the disorder. Future avenues of research are discussed including a critique of the seminal studies in PANDAS pathology and treatment from the focal point of the dominant OCD model.

  1. PANDA-A novel instrument for non-destructive sample analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turunen, Jani; Peraejaervi, Kari; Poellaenen, Roy; Toivonen, Harri

    2010-01-01

    An instrument known as PANDA (Particles And Non-Destructive Analysis) for non-destructive sample analysis has been designed and built at the Finnish Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK). In PANDA the measurement techniques and instruments designed for the basic research are applied to the analysis of environmental samples. PANDA has two vacuum chambers, one for loading samples and the other for measurements. In the measurement chamber there are two individual measurement positions. Currently the first one hosts an HPGe gamma detector and a position-sensitive alpha detector. The second measurement position is intended for precise characterization of found particles. PANDA's data are recorded in event mode and events are timestamped. In the present article the technical design of PANDA is presented in detail. In addition, its performance using depleted uranium particles and an air filter is demonstrated.

  2. Disparities in Surgical Treatment of Early-Stage Breast Cancer Among Female Residents of Texas: The Role of Racial Residential Segregation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojinnaka, Chinedum O; Luo, Wen; Ory, Marcia G; McMaughan, Darcy; Bolin, Jane N

    2017-04-01

    Early-stage breast cancer can be surgically treated by using mastectomy or breast-conserving surgery and adjuvant radiotherapy, also known as breast-conserving therapy (BCT). Little is known about the association between racial residential segregation, year of diagnosis, and surgical treatment of early-stage breast cancer, and whether racial residential segregation influences the association between other demographic characteristics and disparities in surgical treatment. This was a retrospective study using data from the Texas Cancer Registry composed of individuals diagnosed with breast cancer between 1995 and 2012. The dependent variable was treatment using mastectomy or BCT (M/BCT) and the independent variables of interest (IVs) were racial residential segregation and year of diagnosis. The covariates were race, residence, ethnicity, tumor grade, census tract (CT) poverty level, age at diagnosis, stage at diagnosis, and year of diagnosis. Bivariate and multivariable multilevel logistic regression models were estimated. The final sample size was 69,824 individuals nested within 4335 CTs. Adjusting for the IVs and all covariates, there were significantly decreased odds of treatment using M/BCT, as racial residential segregation increased from 0 to 1 (odds ratio [OR] 0.47; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.41-0.54). There was also an increased likelihood of treatment using M/BCT with increasing year of diagnosis (OR 1.14; 95% CI, 1.13-1.16). A positive interaction effect between racial residential segregation and race was observed (OR 0.56; 95% CI, 0.36-0.88). Residents of areas with high indices of racial residential segregation were less likely to be treated with M/BCT. Racial disparities in treatment using M/BCT increased with increasing racial residential segregation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Virome comparisons in wild-diseased and healthy captive giant pandas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wen; Yang, Shixing; Shan, Tongling; Hou, Rong; Liu, Zhijian; Li, Wang; Guo, Lianghua; Wang, Yan; Chen, Peng; Wang, Xiaochun; Feng, Feifei; Wang, Hua; Chen, Chao; Shen, Quan; Zhou, Chenglin; Hua, Xiuguo; Cui, Li; Deng, Xutao; Zhang, Zhihe; Qi, Dunwu; Delwart, Eric

    2017-08-07

    The giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) is a vulnerable mammal herbivore living wild in central China. Viral infections have become a potential threat to the health of these endangered animals, but limited information related to these infections is available. Using a viral metagenomic approach, we surveyed viruses in the feces, nasopharyngeal secretions, blood, and different tissues from a wild giant panda that died from an unknown disease, a healthy wild giant panda, and 46 healthy captive animals. The previously uncharacterized complete or near complete genomes of four viruses from three genera in Papillomaviridae family, six viruses in a proposed new Picornaviridae genus (Aimelvirus), two unclassified viruses related to posaviruses in Picornavirales order, 19 anelloviruses in four different clades of Anelloviridae family, four putative circoviruses, and 15 viruses belonging to the recently described Genomoviridae family were sequenced. Reflecting the diet of giant pandas, numerous insect virus sequences related to the families Iflaviridae, Dicistroviridae, Iridoviridae, Baculoviridae, Polydnaviridae, and subfamily Densovirinae and plant viruses sequences related to the families Tombusviridae, Partitiviridae, Secoviridae, Geminiviridae, Luteoviridae, Virgaviridae, and Rhabdoviridae; genus Umbravirus, Alphaflexiviridae, and Phycodnaviridae were also detected in fecal samples. A small number of insect virus sequences were also detected in the nasopharyngeal secretions of healthy giant pandas and lung tissues from the dead wild giant panda. Although the viral families present in the sick giant panda were also detected in the healthy ones, a higher proportion of papillomaviruses, picornaviruses, and anelloviruses reads were detected in the diseased panda. This viral survey increases our understanding of eukaryotic viruses in giant pandas and provides a baseline for comparison to viruses detected in future infectious disease outbreaks. The similar viral families

  4. Exposure to the tsunami disaster, PTSD symptoms and increased substance use – an Internet based survey of male and female residents of Switzerland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bisson Jonathan I

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background After the tsunami disaster in the Indian Ocean basin an Internet based self-screening test was made available in order to facilitate contact with mental health services. Although primarily designed for surviving Swiss tourists as well as relatives and acquaintances of the victims, the screening instrument was open to anyone who felt psychologically affected by this disaster. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influences between self-declared increased substance use in the aftermath of the tsunami disaster, trauma exposure and current PTSD symptoms. Methods One section of the screening covered addiction related behavior. We analyzed the relationship between increased substance use, the level of PTSD symptoms and trauma exposure using multivariable logistic regression with substance use as the dependent variable. Included in the study were only subjects who reported being residents of Switzerland and the analyses were stratified by gender in order to control for possible socio-cultural or gender differences in the use of psychotropic substances. Results In women PTSD symptoms and degree of exposure enlarged the odds of increased alcohol, pharmaceuticals and cannabis use significantly. In men the relationship was more specific: PTSD symptoms and degree of exposure only enlarged the odds of increased pharmaceutical consumption significantly. Increases in alcohol, cannabis and tobacco use were only significantly associated with the degree of PTSD symptoms. Conclusion The tsunami was associated with increased substance use. This study not only replicates earlier findings but also suggests for a gender specificity of post-traumatic substance use increase.

  5. The minimum area requirements (MAR) for giant panda: an empirical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qing, Jing; Yang, Zhisong; He, Ke; Zhang, Zejun; Gu, Xiaodong; Yang, Xuyu; Zhang, Wen; Yang, Biao; Qi, Dunwu; Dai, Qiang

    2016-12-08

    Habitat fragmentation can reduce population viability, especially for area-sensitive species. The Minimum Area Requirements (MAR) of a population is the area required for the population's long-term persistence. In this study, the response of occupancy probability of giant pandas against habitat patch size was studied in five of the six mountain ranges inhabited by giant panda, which cover over 78% of the global distribution of giant panda habitat. The probability of giant panda occurrence was positively associated with habitat patch area, and the observed increase in occupancy probability with patch size was higher than that due to passive sampling alone. These results suggest that the giant panda is an area-sensitive species. The MAR for giant panda was estimated to be 114.7 km 2 based on analysis of its occupancy probability. Giant panda habitats appear more fragmented in the three southern mountain ranges, while they are large and more continuous in the other two. Establishing corridors among habitat patches can mitigate habitat fragmentation, but expanding habitat patch sizes is necessary in mountain ranges where fragmentation is most intensive.

  6. PANDA: pathway and annotation explorer for visualizing and interpreting gene-centric data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Steven N; Moore, Raymond M; Zimmermann, Michael T; Oliver, Gavin R; Egan, Jan B; Bryce, Alan H; Kocher, Jean-Pierre A

    2015-01-01

    Objective. Bringing together genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, and other -omics technologies is an important step towards developing highly personalized medicine. However, instrumentation has advances far beyond expectations and now we are able to generate data faster than it can be interpreted. Materials and Methods. We have developed PANDA (Pathway AND Annotation) Explorer, a visualization tool that integrates gene-level annotation in the context of biological pathways to help interpret complex data from disparate sources. PANDA is a web-based application that displays data in the context of well-studied pathways like KEGG, BioCarta, and PharmGKB. PANDA represents data/annotations as icons in the graph while maintaining the other data elements (i.e., other columns for the table of annotations). Custom pathways from underrepresented diseases can be imported when existing data sources are inadequate. PANDA also allows sharing annotations among collaborators. Results. In our first use case, we show how easy it is to view supplemental data from a manuscript in the context of a user's own data. Another use-case is provided describing how PANDA was leveraged to design a treatment strategy from the somatic variants found in the tumor of a patient with metastatic sarcomatoid renal cell carcinoma. Conclusion. PANDA facilitates the interpretation of gene-centric annotations by visually integrating this information with context of biological pathways. The application can be downloaded or used directly from our website: http://bioinformaticstools.mayo.edu/research/panda-viewer/.

  7. Long noncoding RNA PANDA and scaffold-attachment-factor SAFA control senescence entry and exit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puvvula, Pavan Kumar; Desetty, Rohini Devi; Pineau, Pascal; Marchio, Agnés; Moon, Anne; Dejean, Anne; Bischof, Oliver

    2014-11-19

    Cellular senescence is a stable cell cycle arrest that limits the proliferation of pre-cancerous cells. Here we demonstrate that scaffold-attachment-factor A (SAFA) and the long noncoding RNA PANDA differentially interact with polycomb repressive complexes (PRC1 and PRC2) and the transcription factor NF-YA to either promote or suppress senescence. In proliferating cells, SAFA and PANDA recruit PRC complexes to repress the transcription of senescence-promoting genes. Conversely, the loss of SAFA-PANDA-PRC interactions allows expression of the senescence programme. Accordingly, we find that depleting either SAFA or PANDA in proliferating cells induces senescence. However, in senescent cells where PANDA sequesters transcription factor NF-YA and limits the expression of NF-YA-E2F-coregulated proliferation-promoting genes, PANDA depletion leads to an exit from senescence. Together, our results demonstrate that PANDA confines cells to their existing proliferative state and that modulating its level of expression can cause entry or exit from senescence.

  8. Habitat assessment for giant pandas in the Qinling Mountain region of China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Tian-Tian; Van Manen, Frank T.; Zhao, Na-Xun; Li, Ming; Wei, Fu-Wen

    2009-01-01

    Because habitat loss and fragmentation threaten giant pandas (Ailuropoda melanoleuca), habitat protection and restoration are important conservation measures for this endangered species. However, distribution and value of potential habitat to giant pandas on a regional scale are not fully known. Therefore, we identified and ranked giant panda habitat in Foping Nature Reserve, Guanyinshan Nature Reserve, and adjacent areas in the Qinling Mountains of China. We used Mahalanobis distance and 11 digital habitat layers to develop a multivariate habitat signature associated with 247 surveyed giant panda locations, which we then applied to the study region. We identified approximately 128 km2 of giant panda habitat in Foping Nature Reserve (43.6% of the reserve) and 49 km2 in Guanyinshan Nature Reserve (33.6% of the reserve). We defined core habitat areas by incorporating a minimum patch-size criterion (5.5 km2) based on home-range size. Percentage of core habitat area was higher in Foping Nature Reserve (41.8% of the reserve) than Guanyinshan Nature Reserve (26.3% of the reserve). Within the larger analysis region, Foping Nature Reserve contained 32.7% of all core habitat areas we identified, indicating regional importance of the reserve. We observed a negative relationship between distribution of core areas and presence of roads and small villages. Protection of giant panda habitat at lower elevations and improvement of habitat linkages among core habitat areas are important in a regional approach to giant panda conservation.

  9. Comparing the plant diversity between artificial forest and nature growth forest in a giant panda habitat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Dongwei; Wang, Xiaorong; Li, Shuang; Li, Junqing

    2017-06-15

    Artificial restoration is an important way to restore forests, but little is known about its effect on the habitat restoration of the giant panda. In the present study, we investigated the characteristics of artificial forest in the Wanglang Nature Reserve to determine whether through succession it has formed a suitable habitat for the giant panda. We compared artificial forest characteristics with those of natural habitat used by the giant panda. We found that the dominant tree species in artificial forest differed from those in the natural habitat. The artificial forest had lower plant species richness and diversity in the tree and shrub layers than did the latter, and its community structure was characterized by smaller tree and bamboo sizes, and fewer and lower bamboo clumps, but more trees and larger shrub sizes. The typical community collocation of artificial forest was a "Picea asperata + no-bamboo" model, which differs starkly from the giant panda's natural habitat. After several years of restoration, the artificial forest has failed to become a suitable habitat for the giant panda. Therefore, a simple way of planting individual trees cannot restore giant panda habitat; instead, habitat restoration should be based on the habitat requirements of the giant panda.

  10. Establishment and cryopreservation of a giant panda skeletal muscle-derived cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Fang-Jian; Zeng, Chang-Jun; Zhang, Yan; Wang, Cheng-Dong; Xiong, Tie-Yi; Fang, Sheng-Guo; Zhang, He-Min

    2015-06-01

    The giant panda Ailuropoda melanoleuca is an endangered species and is a symbol for wildlife conservation. Although efforts have been made to protect this rare and endangered species through breeding and conservative biology, the long-term preservation of giant panda genome resources (gametes, tissues, organs, genomic libraries, etc.) is still a practical option. In this study, the giant panda skeletal muscle-derived cell line was successfully established via primary explants culture and cryopreservation techniques. The population doubling time of giant panda skeletal cells was approximately 33.8 h, and this population maintained a high cell viability before and after cryopreservation (95.6% and 90.7%, respectively). The two skeletal muscle-specific genes SMYD1 and MYF6 were expressed and detected by RT-PCR in the giant panda skeletal muscle-derived cell line. Karyotyping analysis revealed that the frequencies of giant panda skeletal muscle cells showing a chromosome number of 2n=42 ranged from 90.6∼94.2%. Thus, the giant panda skeletal muscle-derived cell line provides a vital resource and material platform for further studies and is likely to be useful for the protection of this rare and endangered species.

  11. Baylisascaris schroederi Infection in Giant Pandas (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) in Foping National Nature Reserve, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Zhiwei; Zhang, Changsheng; Shen, Meiying; Bao, Heng; Hou, Zhijun; He, Shaowen; Hua, Yuping

    2017-10-01

    The giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) is the most iconic endangered species in the world, but there is little information about the spatial and temporal distribution of parasites in the wild giant panda population. In total, 193 fecal samples from giant pandas in the Foping National Nature Reserve, People's Republic of China, were analyzed for parasite eggs using a modification of the McMaster technique. The morphology and size of Baylisascaris schroederi eggs were observed under an optical microscope. The prevalence and intensity of B. schroederi infection during the sampling year 2012 were 52.3% (101/193) and 89 eggs/g of feces, respectively, among giant pandas in this population. The prevalence of B. schroederi in the pandas varied during different months of the year, from 7% to 100%, and the prevalences in spring, summer, autumn, and winter were 71, 77, 23, and 18%, respectively. The prevalence was not significantly different between giant pandas that ate two different types of bamboo, but the intensity of infection was higher in the group eating Arundinaria fargesii (P=0.043). Altitude, temperature, and dew point were correlated with the infection intensity (r=-0.224, Pgiant pandas in Foping National Nature, China.

  12. The minimum area requirements (MAR) for giant panda: an empirical study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qing, Jing; Yang, Zhisong; He, Ke; Zhang, Zejun; Gu, Xiaodong; Yang, Xuyu; Zhang, Wen; Yang, Biao; Qi, Dunwu; Dai, Qiang

    2016-01-01

    Habitat fragmentation can reduce population viability, especially for area-sensitive species. The Minimum Area Requirements (MAR) of a population is the area required for the population’s long-term persistence. In this study, the response of occupancy probability of giant pandas against habitat patch size was studied in five of the six mountain ranges inhabited by giant panda, which cover over 78% of the global distribution of giant panda habitat. The probability of giant panda occurrence was positively associated with habitat patch area, and the observed increase in occupancy probability with patch size was higher than that due to passive sampling alone. These results suggest that the giant panda is an area-sensitive species. The MAR for giant panda was estimated to be 114.7 km2 based on analysis of its occupancy probability. Giant panda habitats appear more fragmented in the three southern mountain ranges, while they are large and more continuous in the other two. Establishing corridors among habitat patches can mitigate habitat fragmentation, but expanding habitat patch sizes is necessary in mountain ranges where fragmentation is most intensive. PMID:27929520

  13. Prevalence and molecular characterization of Cryptosporidium in giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) in Sichuan province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tao; Chen, Zuqin; Xie, Yue; Hou, Rong; Wu, Qidun; Gu, Xiaobing; Lai, Weiming; Peng, Xuerong; Yang, Guangyou

    2015-06-25

    Cryptosporidium spp. have been extensively reported to cause significant diarrheal disease in humans and domestic animals. On the contrary, little information is available on the prevalence and characterization of Cryptosporidium in wild animals in China, especially in giant pandas. The aim of the present study was to detect Cryptosporidium infections and identify Cryptosporidium species at the molecular level in both captive and wild giant pandas in Sichuan province, China. Using a PCR approach, we amplified and sequenced the 18S rRNA gene from 322 giant pandas fecal samples (122 from 122 captive individuals and 200 collected from four habitats) in Sichuan province, China. The Cryptosporidium species/genotypes were identified via a BLAST comparison against published Cryptosporidium sequences available in GenBank followed by phylogenetic analysis. The results revealed that both captive and wild giant pandas were infected with a single Cryptosporidium species, C. andersoni, at a prevalence of 15.6% (19/122) and 0.5% (1/200) in captive and wild giant pandas, respectively. The present study revealed the existence of C. andersoni in both captive and wild giant panda fecal samples for the first time, and also provided useful fundamental data for further research on the molecular epidemiology and control of Cryptosporidium infection in giant pandas.

  14. High-quality PWO crystals for the PANDA-EMC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novotny, R W; Bremer, D; Dormenev, V; Drexler, P; Eissner, T; Kuske, T; Moritz, M

    2011-01-01

    The paper provides a status report on the crystal production and quality control of a major part of the PbWO 4 crystals for the PANDA-EMC. The results confirm the excellent performance of the new generation of PWO-II. The mechanism of stimulated recovery provides an additional tool to recover radiation damage at room and low temperatures by applying an external infrared light source. Even on-line recovery can be considered if the photo sensor is insensitive in that particular wavelength region.

  15. The experiment PANDA: physics with antiprotons at FAIR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boca Gianluigi

    2015-01-01

    The PANDA experiment is designed to achieve the above mentioned physics goals with a setup with the following characteristics: an almost full solid angle acceptance; excellent tracking capabilities with high resolution (1–2 % at 1 GeV/c in the central region; secondary vertex detection with resolution ≈ 100 microns or better; electromagnetic calorimetry for detections of gammas and electrons up to 10 GeV; good particle identification of charge tracks (electrons, muons, pions, kaons, protons; a dedicated interchangeable central apparatus for the hypernuclear physics; detector and data acquisition system capable of working at 20 MHz interaction rate with an intelligent software trigger that can provide maximum flexibility.

  16. THE DIAGNOSIS AND TREATMENT OF PANDAS SYNDROME: A CASE REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. I. Kharitonov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a case of PANDAS in a 12-year-old girl. The unusual clinical manifestations and course of the disease as long-term sneezing attacks make the diagnosis of the syndrome difficult. Long-term video-assisted electroencephalographic monitoring, brain magnetic resonance imaging, and blood biochemical tests could define the nature of the condition. Antibiotic therapy and intravenous immunoglobulin could achieve remission. Further investigations are needed to evaluate the efficacy of antibiotics and intravenous immunoglobulin in this syndrome.

  17. Face of the giant panda sign in Wilson disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumit Chakraborty

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Wilson disease usually presents with neurologic or hepatic manifestations. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI of the brain is very informative in diagnosiing of this disease, especially in patients with neurological features. High T2 signal intensity in the corpus striatum is the most commonly encountered MRI finding. The 'face of the giant panda' sign is seen on axial T2-weighted MRI, and results from abnormal signal intensities in the midbrain. Though uncommon, the sign is considered as the pathognomonic MRI sign of Wilson disease.

  18. Simulations with the PANDA micro-vertex-detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kliemt, Ralf

    2013-01-01

    The PANDA experiment will be built at the upcoming FAIR facility at GSI in Darmstadt, featuring antiproton-proton reactions hadron physics in a medium energy range. Charm physics will play an important role and therefore secondary decays relatively close to the interaction zone as well. The MVD will be the detector closest to these and will provide high-quality vertex position measurements. Alongside the detector layout and hardware development a detailed detector simulation and reconstruction software is required. This work contains the detailed description and the performance studies of the software developed for the MVD. Furthermore, vertexing tools are introduced and their performance is studied for the MVD.

  19. Simulations with the PANDA micro-vertex-detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kliemt, Ralf

    2013-07-17

    The PANDA experiment will be built at the upcoming FAIR facility at GSI in Darmstadt, featuring antiproton-proton reactions hadron physics in a medium energy range. Charm physics will play an important role and therefore secondary decays relatively close to the interaction zone as well. The MVD will be the detector closest to these and will provide high-quality vertex position measurements. Alongside the detector layout and hardware development a detailed detector simulation and reconstruction software is required. This work contains the detailed description and the performance studies of the software developed for the MVD. Furthermore, vertexing tools are introduced and their performance is studied for the MVD.

  20. PD2P: PanDA Dynamic Data Placement for ATLAS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maeno, T; Panitkin, S; De, K

    2012-01-01

    The PanDA (Production and Distributed Analysis) system plays a key role in the ATLAS distributed computing infrastructure. PanDA is the ATLAS workload management system for processing all Monte-Carlo (MC) simulation and data reprocessing jobs in addition to user and group analysis jobs. The PanDA Dynamic Data Placement (PD2P) system has been developed to cope with difficulties of data placement for ATLAS. We will describe the design of the new system, its performance during the past year of data taking, dramatic improvements it has brought about in the efficient use of storage and processing resources, and plans for the future.

  1. Isolation and identification of a canine coronavirus strain from giant pandas (Ailuropoda melanoleuca).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Feng-Shan; Hu, Gui-Xue; Xia, Xian-zhu; Gao, Yu-Wei; Bai, Ya-Duo; Zou, Xiao-Huan

    2009-09-01

    Two giant pandas (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) died of unknown causes in a Chinese zoo. The clinical disease profile suggested that the pandas may have suffered a viral infection. Therefore, a series of detection including virus isolation, electron microscopy, cytobiological assay, serum neutralization and RT-PCR were used to identify the virus. It was determined that the isolated virus was a canine coronavirus (CCV), on the basis of coronavirus, neutralization by canine anti-CCV serum, and 84.3% to 100% amino acid sequence similarity with CCV. The results suggest that the affected pandas had been infected with CCV.

  2. Enhancing captive breeding in giant pandas (Ailuropoda melanoleuca): maintaining lactation when cubs are rejected, and understanding variation in milk collection and associated factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Rongping; Zhang, Guiquan; Yin, Feng; Zhang, Hemin; Liu, Dingzhen

    2009-07-01

    From 1997 to 2002, a female giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) was artificially stimulated and lactation was maintained, after her neonates were removed due to the female's inability to provide maternal care. Milk samples were collected and the amount of milk collected was quantified. The lactation curve of this animal was estimated based on the Gamma function: Y(t)=at(b)e(-ct). The amount of milk collected showed significant, positive relationships with the number of days after parturition both in 1999 and in the whole study period from 1998 to 2002. This female's lactation curves fit the type I pattern of a typical mammalian lactation curve. Daily milk collection (g) during the first 30 days after parturition, and from 31 to 60 days after parturition, showed a consistent pattern with one peak at around 8:00 hr. More milk was collected during the latter period than during the former period. The amount of milk (g) collected on mucus excretion days was significantly less than that on days after mucus excretion had ended, yet no significant difference was found between milk collected one day before mucus days and on mucus days, or between milk collected one day before and one day after mucus days. Mucus excretion from the gastrointestinal tract significantly impacted the amount of milk collected. The results from this study may aid the captive propagation and conservation of giant pandas and other endangered and rare captive mammal species.

  3. ComPWA: A common amplitude analysis framework for PANDA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michel, M; Feldbauer, F; Götzen, K; Jasinski, P; Peters, K; Fritsch, M; Karavdina, A

    2014-01-01

    A large part of the physics program of the PANDA experiment at FAIR deals with the search for new conventional and exotic hadronic states like e.g. hybrids and glueballs. For many analyses PANDA will need an amplitude analysis, e.g. a partial wave analysis (PWA), to identify possible candidates and for the classification of known states. Therefore, a new, agile and efficient amplitude analysis framework ComPWA is under development. It is modularized to provide easy extension with models and formalisms as well as fitting of multiple datasets, even from different experiments. Experience from existing PWA programs was used to fix the requirements of the framework and to prevent it from restrictions. It will provide the standard estimation and optimization routines like Minuit2 and the Geneva library and be open to insert additional ones. The challenges involve parallelization, fitting with a high number of free parameters, managing complex meta-fits and quality assurance / comparability of fits. To test and develop the software, it will be used with data from running experiments like BaBar or BESIII. These proceedings show the status of the framework implementation as well as first test results.

  4. ComPWA: A common amplitude analysis framework for PANDA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michel, M.; Feldbauer, F.; Götzen, K.; Jasinski, P.; Karavdina, A.; Peters, K.; Fritsch, M.

    2014-06-01

    A large part of the physics program of the PANDA experiment at FAIR deals with the search for new conventional and exotic hadronic states like e.g. hybrids and glueballs. For many analyses PANDA will need an amplitude analysis, e.g. a partial wave analysis (PWA), to identify possible candidates and for the classification of known states. Therefore, a new, agile and efficient amplitude analysis framework ComPWA is under development. It is modularized to provide easy extension with models and formalisms as well as fitting of multiple datasets, even from different experiments. Experience from existing PWA programs was used to fix the requirements of the framework and to prevent it from restrictions. It will provide the standard estimation and optimization routines like Minuit2 and the Geneva library and be open to insert additional ones. The challenges involve parallelization, fitting with a high number of free parameters, managing complex meta-fits and quality assurance / comparability of fits. To test and develop the software, it will be used with data from running experiments like BaBar or BESIII. These proceedings show the status of the framework implementation as well as first test results.

  5. Study of preshower in the PANDA target spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dutta, Kamal; Kalita, Kushal; Suzuki, K.; Steinschaden, D.; Roy, B.J.

    2015-01-01

    PANDA (antiProton ANnihilation at DArmstdt) is one of the major projects at FAIR, GSI, Germany. The main objective of this experiment is to study the fundamental questions of hadron physics and QCD in pp¯ annihilation using high intensity cooled anti-proton beams with momenta between 1.5 GeV/c and 15 GeV/c. To achieve high momentum resolution and full solid angle coverage, the PANDA detector is split in to two parts: target spectrometer and forward spectrometer. The target spectrometer is a complex detector consisting of several subsystems surrounding the interaction point. It is surrounded by a 2 T superconducting solenoid magnet. A Micro Vertex Detector (MVD), close to interaction point, detects secondary vertices of D and Hyperon decays. The Straw Tube Tracker (STT) is the central tracking system around the MVD. A cherenkov counter named DIRC (Detection of Internally Reflected Cherenkov light), provides π/K separation for particle momenta up to 3.5 GeV/c. The barrel Time-of-Flight (TOF) detector, consists of plastic scintillator tiles with a time resolution of 100 ps. It is used to identify particles of momentum below cherenkov threshold

  6. 2 T superconducting detector solenoid for the PANDA target spectrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Efremov, A.A.; Koshurnikov, E.K. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, High Energy Physics Laboratory, Joliot-Curie, 6, 141980 Dubna, Moscow Region (Russian Federation); Lobanov, Y.Y. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, High Energy Physics Laboratory, Joliot-Curie, 6, 141980 Dubna, Moscow Region (Russian Federation)], E-mail: lobanov@jinr.ru; Makarov, A.F. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, High Energy Physics Laboratory, Joliot-Curie, 6, 141980 Dubna, Moscow Region (Russian Federation); Orth, H. [Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung, Planckstrasse 1, D-64291, Darmstadt (Germany); Sissakian, A.N.; Vodopianov, A.S. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, High Energy Physics Laboratory, Joliot-Curie, 6, 141980 Dubna, Moscow Region (Russian Federation)

    2008-02-01

    This paper describes the JINR design of the large 2 T superconducting solenoid for the target spectrometer of the PANDA experiment at HESR (FAIR, GSI, Darmstadt, Germany). The solenoid coil has an inner radius of 1.08 m and a length of 2.90 m. This solenoid is non-centrally split providing a warm bore of 100 mm in diameter through the coil to accommodate sufficient space for the internal target installations. Maximally stored energy in the windings is 22.3 MJ. All tracking and calorimetric detectors surrounding the target point, with exception of a forward cone of 5{sup 0} opening, are placed inside the lqHe-cryostat. The main features of the design and technique are as follows: a copper stabilizer and soldering technique for the superconducting cable; a stainless steel cryostat; winding technique over a mandrel; coreless type of the coil; low operational current. The details of the PANDA solenoid design including the magnetic field and stress-strain calculations are covered.

  7. SciTil Detector for the PANDA experiment at FAIR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Ken; Gruber, Lukas; Brunner, Stefan; Marton, Johann; Orth, Herbert; Schwarz, Carsten; Scitil/Panda Collaboration

    2014-09-01

    The PANDA experiment at the Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research (FAIR) is a fixed-target experiment installed in a antiproton storage ring (HESR) in the energy range of 1 GeV to 15 GeV. FAIR is being build on the area of the GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung in Darmstadt, Germany. The universal PANDA detector together with the HESR enables to study fundamental questions of hadron and nuclear physics, e.g. gluonic excitations, the physics of strange and charm quarks and nucleon structure. The SciTil detector is a barrel time-of-flight detector and is a relatively new subcomponent to the system. The demand arose in order to provide a securer event tagging at the event rates of 20-100 MHz instantaneous event rate, to improve a particle identification capability of relatively low momentum particles, and to allow a faster track finding with pattern recognition. The beam test of the SciTil prototype detector in January 2014 showed a promising result. We report the status and outlook of the project.

  8. Development of DIRC counters for the PANDA experiment at FAIR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seitz, B.; Bettoni, D.; Branford, D.; Britting, A.; Carassiti, V.; Cecchi, A.; Cowie, E.; Dodokhof, V.Kh.; Dueren, M.; Eyrich, W.; Foehl, K.; Hayrapetyan, A.; Hill, G.; Hoek, M.; Hohler, R.; Kaiser, R.; Keri, T.; Lehmann, A.; Lehmann, D.; Marton, J.

    2011-01-01

    The PANDA experiment at the planned FAIR facility at GSI, Darmstadt, aims at measuring hadronic final states with unprecedented precision and luminosity. Superior particle identification of charged and neutral particles is mandatory to fulfil PANDA's physics aims. DIRC (Detection of Internally Reflected Cherenkov light) counters are foreseen for charged particle identification. A barrel DIRC will cover the central region while a disc DIRC will provide particle identification in the forward region. Three DIRC concepts differing in the radiator geometry and method for dispersion correction are studied. The barrel DIRC uses a novel imaging system and aims at exploiting a 3D reconstruction to mitigate dispersion effects. Two concepts are investigated for the forward disc DIRC. One concept employs passive dispersion correction and focussing light guides for image reconstruction. Alternatively, time-of-propagation measurements and a wave-length dependent photon detection system are investigated. The three detector designs share common developments such as investigating radiator properties and photon detection systems, and use the same test beam facilities.

  9. ATLAS World-cloud and networking in PanDA

    CERN Document Server

    Barreiro Megino, Fernando Harald; The ATLAS collaboration; De, Kaushik; Di Girolamo, Alessandro; Walker, Rodney

    2016-01-01

    The ATLAS computing model was originally designed as static clouds (usually national or geographical groupings of sites) around the Tier 1 centers, which confined tasks and most of the data traffic. Since those early days, the sites' network bandwidth has increased at O(1000) and the difference in functionalities between Tier 1s and Tier 2s has reduced. After years of manual, intermediate solutions, we have now ramped up to full usage of World-cloud, the latest step in the PanDA Workload Management System to increase resource utilization on the ATLAS Grid, for all workflows (MC production, data (re)processing, etc.). We have based the development on two new site concepts. Nuclei sites are the Tier 1s and large Tier 2s, where tasks will be assigned and the output aggregated, and satellites are the sites that will execute the jobs and send the output to their nucleus. Nuclei and satellite sites are dynamically paired by PanDA for each task based on the input data availability, capability matching, site load and...

  10. ATLAS WORLD-cloud and networking in PanDA

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(SzGeCERN)643806; The ATLAS collaboration; De, Kaushik; Di Girolamo, Alessandro; Maeno, Tadashi; Walker, Rodney

    2017-01-01

    The ATLAS computing model was originally designed as static clouds (usually national or geographical groupings of sites) around the Tier 1 centres, which confined tasks and most of the data traffic. Since those early days, the sites' network bandwidth has increased at 0(1000) and the difference in functionalities between Tier 1s and Tier 2s has reduced. After years of manual, intermediate solutions, we have now ramped up to full usage of World-cloud, the latest step in the PanDA Workload Management System to increase resource utilization on the ATLAS Grid, for all workflows (MC production, data (re)processing, etc.). We have based the development on two new site concepts. Nuclei sites are the Tier 1s and large Tier 2s, where tasks will be assigned and the output aggregated, and satellites are the sites that will execute the jobs and send the output to their nucleus. PanDA dynamically pairs nuclei and satellite sites for each task based on the input data availability, capability matching, site load and network...

  11. ISP42 (PANDA Tests) - Open Phase Comparison Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-05-01

    PANDA is a large-scale facility, which has been constructed at the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI) for the investigation of both overall dynamic response and the key phenomena of passive containment systems during the long-term heat removal phase for Advanced Light Water Reactors (ALWRs). Using a modular concept with a basic set of cylindrical vessels and connecting piping, the facility can be adapted to simulate different passive containment designs. Following a proposal, the OECD/NEA Committee on the Safety of Nuclear Installations approved, at its meeting on December 3-5, 1997, a new International Standard Problem (ISP) involving a test in the PANDA facility, based on a recommendation from the Principal Working Group 2 (PWG2) on System Behaviour. The main interest for this ISP is code validation in relation to a range of LWR and advanced LWR (ALWR) (mainly) containment issues that have been designated as important and involving thermalhydraulic phenomena. The ISP-PANDA test for defined six phases (A to F) was performed on 21/22 April 1998. Since the first part of ISP-42 was going to be conducted as a 'double- blind' or 'blind' exercise, the experimental data was locked. The 'blind' phase calculational results compared to experimental data are presented in the report entitled 'ISP-42 (PANDA Tests ) Blind Phase Comparison'. In the second part, the 'open' exercise has been conducted by providing the ISP-42 PANDA test data to the participants and by performing post-test analysis. The results of the 'open' phase are presented in the present report. 'Open' phase submissions, comparisons, and analyses for ISP-42 are based on the outcome of the results presented in the 'blind' phase report of ISP-42. The experimental data was distributed to all ISP-42 participants for their post-test calculations, 20 June 2000. 'Open' phase analyses of some of the ISP-42 participants, were completely received by the end of January 2001. There were 27 new submissions for different phases

  12. Post-test analysis of PANDA test P4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hart, J.; Woudstra, A.; Koning, H.

    1999-01-01

    The results of a post-test analysis of the integral system test P4, which has been executed in the PANDA facility at PSI in Switzerland within the framework of Work Package 2 of the TEPSS project are presented. The post-test analysis comprises an evaluation of the PANDA test P4 and a comparison of the test results with the results of simulations using the RELAPS/MOD3.2, TRAC-BF1, and MELCOR 1.8.4 codes. The PANDA test P4 has provided data about how trapped air released from the drywell later in the transient affects PCCS performance in an adequate manner. The well-defined measurements can serve as an important database for the assessment of thermal hydraulic system analysis codes, especially for conditions that could be met in passively operated advanced reactors, i.e. low pressure and small driving forces. Based on the analysis of the test data, the test acceptance criteria have been met. The test P4 has been successfully completed and the instrument readings were with the permitted ranges. The PCCs showed a favorable and robust performance and a wide margin for decay heat removal from the containment. The PANDA P4 test demonstrated that trapped air, released from the drywell later in the transient, only temporarily and only slightly affected the performance of the passive containment cooling system. The analysis of the results of the RELAPS code showed that the overall behaviour of the test has been calculated quite well with regards to pressure, mass flow rates, and pool boil-down. This accounts both for the pre-test and the post-test simulations. However, due to the one-dimensional, stacked-volume modeling of the PANDA DW, WW, and GDCS vessels, 3D-effects such as in-vessel mixing and recirculation could not be calculated. The post-test MELCOR simulation showed an overall behaviour that is comparable to RELAPS. However, MELCOR calculated almost no air trapping in the PCC tubes that could hinder the steam condensation rate. This resulted in lower calculated

  13. PanDA: distributed production and distributed analysis system for ATLAS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maeno, T

    2008-01-01

    A new distributed software system was developed in the fall of 2005 for the ATLAS experiment at the LHC. This system, called PANDA, provides an integrated service architecture with late binding of jobs, maximal automation through layered services, tight binding with ATLAS Distributed Data Management system [1], advanced error discovery and recovery procedures, and other features. In this talk, we will describe the PANDA software system. Special emphasis will be placed on the evolution of PANDA based on one and half year of real experience in carrying out Computer System Commissioning data production [2] for ATLAS. The architecture of PANDA is well suited for the computing needs of the ATLAS experiment, which is expected to be one of the first HEP experiments to operate at the petabyte scale

  14. Free mate choice enhances conservation breeding in the endangered giant panda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin-Wintle, Meghan S.; Shepherdson, David; Zhang, Guiquan; Zhang, Hemin; Li, Desheng; Zhou, Xiaoping; Li, Rengui; Swaisgood, Ronald R.

    2015-01-01

    Conservation breeding programmes have become an increasingly important tool to save endangered species, yet despite the allocation of significant resources, efforts to create self-sustaining populations have met with limited success. The iconic giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) embodies the struggles associated with ex situ species conservation. Here we show that behavioural mate preferences in giant pandas predict reproductive outcomes. Giant pandas paired with preferred partners have significantly higher copulation and birth rates. Reproductive rates increase further when both partners show mutual preference for one another. If managers were to incorporate mate preferences more fully into breeding management, the production of giant panda offspring for China's reintroduction programme might be greatly expedited. When extended to the increasing numbers of species dependent on ex situ conservation breeding to avoid extinction, our findings highlight that mate preference and other aspects of informed behavioural management could make the difference between success and failure of these programmes. PMID:26670381

  15. Over Expression of Long Non-Coding RNA PANDA Promotes Hepatocellular Carcinoma by Inhibiting Senescence Associated Inflammatory Factor IL8.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Chuanhui; Hu, Wendi; Weng, Xiaoyu; Tong, Rongliang; Cheng, Shaobing; Ding, Chaofeng; Xiao, Heng; Lv, Zhen; Xie, Haiyang; Zhou, Lin; Wu, Jian; Zheng, Shusen

    2017-06-23

    It has been reported that long non-coding RNA PANDA was disregulated in varieties types of tumor, but its expression level and biological role in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remains contradictory. We detected PANDA expression in two independent cohorts (48 HCC patients following liver transplantation and 84 HCC patients following liver resection), and found that PANDA was down-regulated in HCC. Thereafter we explored its function in cancer biology by inversing its low expression. Surprisingly, overexpression of PANDA promoted HCC proliferation and carcinogenesis in vitro and in vivo. Mechanistically, PANDA repressed transcriptional activity of senescence associated inflammatory factor IL8, which leaded to inhibition of cellular senescence. Therefore, our research help to better understand the complex role of PANDA in HCC, and suggest more thoughtful strategies should be applied before it can be treated as a potential therapeutic target.

  16. Behavioral and hormonal consequences of transporting giant pandas from China to the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Rebecca J; Perdue, Bonnie M; Powell, David M; Forthman, Debra L; Bloomsmith, Mollie A; Maple, Terry L

    2012-01-01

    Zoological institutions strive to ensure the welfare of nonhuman animals in captivity. Part of this effort involves reducing the level of distress experienced by an animal to the greatest extent possible. However, some necessary zoo management practices such as transportation induce stress responses. An extensive literature exists concerning the animal welfare implications of road transportation for farm and laboratory animals. There has, however, been little focus on the effects of air transportation on wild animals in captivity. Because many endangered species are transported by air for breeding purposes, it is especially important to study the effects of stress on these species. This study investigated the behavioral and hormonal consequences of transporting 4 giant pandas (2 male-female pairs) by air from China to the United States. An autoregressive test revealed that urinary cortisol measures were highest for 2 subjects, Lun Lun and Tian Tian, during the flight than during the remainder of the 30-day period posttransport (p < .01). No long-term behavioral changes or problems emerged as a result of the transport. The study found that more research is needed to develop a complete understanding of transportation stress and welfare in captive wildlife.

  17. Red pandas (Mammalia, Carnivora: Parailurus) in the biomes of North Eurasia and North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matishov, G. G.; Kalmykov, N. P.

    2011-05-01

    The discovery of the Pliocene red panda ( Parailurus) in the West Transbaikal area, as well as Asian raccoons in North Eurasia and North America, indicates that forested areas with bamboo bushes were wide-spread in the Holarctic during the Neogene. During the Late Pliocene, due to a gradual cooling of the climate, altiplanation, and other factors, their habitat started disintegrating, and red pandas began dying out, surviving only in China.

  18. Distribution and habitat use of red panda in the Chitwan-Annapurna Landscape of Nepal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damber Bista

    Full Text Available In Nepal, the red panda (Ailurus fulgens has been sparsely studied, although its range covers a wide area. The present study was carried out in the previously untapped Chitwan-Annapurna Landscape (CHAL situated in central Nepal with an aim to explore current distributional status and identify key habitat use. Extensive field surveys conducted in 10 red panda range districts were used to estimate species distribution by presence-absence occupancy modeling and to predict distribution by presence-only modeling. The presence of red pandas was recorded in five districts: Rasuwa, Nuwakot, Myagdi, Baglung and Dhading. The predictive distribution model indicated that 1,904.44 km2 of potential red panda habitat is available in CHAL with the protected area covering nearly 41% of the total habitat. The habitat suitability analysis based on the probability of occurrence showed only 16.58% (A = 315.81 km2 of the total potential habitat is highly suitable. Red Panda occupancy was estimated to be around 0.0667, indicating nearly 7% (218 km2 of the total habitat is occupied with an average detection probability of 0.4482±0.377. Based on the habitat use analysis, altogether eight variables including elevation, slope, aspect, proximity to water sources, bamboo abundance, height, cover, and seasonal precipitation were observed to have significant roles in the distribution of red pandas. In addition, 25 tree species were documented from red panda sign plots out of 165 species recorded in the survey area. Most common was Betula utilis followed by Rhododendron spp. and Abies spectabilis. The extirpation of red pandas in previously reported areas indicates a need for immediate action for the long-term conservation of this species in CHAL.

  19. Adoption, Cynical Detachment, and New Age Beliefs in Juno and Kung Fu Panda

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Fu-jen

    2017-01-01

    In his article "Adoption, Cynical Detachment, and New Age Beliefs in Juno and Kung Fu Panda" Fu-Jen Chen situates his study within today's prevailing climate of global consumption to argue that the 2007 film Juno—featuring an unconventional portrayal of the adoption triad and a cynical detachment from public values—not only trivializes and depoliticizes the practice of adoption but also serves as an ideological supplement to today's global capitalism. Furthermore, Kung Fu Panda 1 & 2 (2008; 2...

  20. Distribution and habitat use of red panda in the Chitwan-Annapurna Landscape of Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bista, Damber; Shrestha, Saroj; Sherpa, Peema; Thapa, Gokarna Jung; Kokh, Manish; Lama, Sonam Tashi; Khanal, Kapil; Thapa, Arjun; Jnawali, Shant Raj

    2017-01-01

    In Nepal, the red panda (Ailurus fulgens) has been sparsely studied, although its range covers a wide area. The present study was carried out in the previously untapped Chitwan-Annapurna Landscape (CHAL) situated in central Nepal with an aim to explore current distributional status and identify key habitat use. Extensive field surveys conducted in 10 red panda range districts were used to estimate species distribution by presence-absence occupancy modeling and to predict distribution by presence-only modeling. The presence of red pandas was recorded in five districts: Rasuwa, Nuwakot, Myagdi, Baglung and Dhading. The predictive distribution model indicated that 1,904.44 km2 of potential red panda habitat is available in CHAL with the protected area covering nearly 41% of the total habitat. The habitat suitability analysis based on the probability of occurrence showed only 16.58% (A = 315.81 km2) of the total potential habitat is highly suitable. Red Panda occupancy was estimated to be around 0.0667, indicating nearly 7% (218 km2) of the total habitat is occupied with an average detection probability of 0.4482±0.377. Based on the habitat use analysis, altogether eight variables including elevation, slope, aspect, proximity to water sources, bamboo abundance, height, cover, and seasonal precipitation were observed to have significant roles in the distribution of red pandas. In addition, 25 tree species were documented from red panda sign plots out of 165 species recorded in the survey area. Most common was Betula utilis followed by Rhododendron spp. and Abies spectabilis. The extirpation of red pandas in previously reported areas indicates a need for immediate action for the long-term conservation of this species in CHAL.

  1. Prevalence and molecular characterization of Cryptosporidium in giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) in Sichuan province, China

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Tao; Chen, Zuqin; Xie, Yue; Hou, Rong; Wu, Qidun; Gu, Xiaobing; Lai, Weiming; Peng, Xuerong; Yang, Guangyou

    2015-01-01

    Background Cryptosporidium spp. have been extensively reported to cause significant diarrheal disease in humans and domestic animals. On the contrary, little information is available on the prevalence and characterization of Cryptosporidium in wild animals in China, especially in giant pandas. The aim of the present study was to detect Cryptosporidium infections and identify Cryptosporidium species at the molecular level in both captive and wild giant pandas in Sichuan province, China. Findin...

  2. Giant pandas are not an evolutionary cul-de-sac: evidence from multidisciplinary research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Fuwen; Hu, Yibo; Yan, Li; Nie, Yonggang; Wu, Qi; Zhang, Zejun

    2015-01-01

    The giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) is one of the world's most endangered mammals and remains threatened by environmental and anthropogenic pressure. It is commonly argued that giant pandas are an evolutionary cul-de-sac because of their specialized bamboo diet, phylogenetic changes in body size, small population, low genetic diversity, and low reproductive rate. This notion is incorrect, arose from a poor understanding or appreciation of giant panda biology, and is in need of correction. In this review, we summarize research across morphology, ecology, and genetics to dispel the idea, once and for all, that giant pandas are evolutionary dead-end. The latest and most advanced research shows that giant pandas are successful animals highly adapted to a specialized bamboo diet via morphological, ecological, and genetic adaptations and coadaptation of gut microbiota. We also debunk misconceptions around population size, population growth rate, and genetic variation. During their evolutionary history spanning 8 My, giant pandas have survived diet specialization, massive bamboo flowering and die off, and rapid climate oscillations. Now, they are suffering from enormous human interference. Fortunately, continued conservation effort is greatly reducing impacts from anthropogenic interference and allowing giant panda populations and habitat to recover. Previous ideas of a giant panda evolutionary cul-de-sac resulted from an unsystematic and unsophisticated understanding of their biology and it is time to shed this baggage and focus on the survival and maintenance of this high-profile species. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Effects of livestock on occurrence of the Vulnerable red panda Ailurus fulgens in Rara National Park, Nepal

    OpenAIRE

    Sharma, Hari Prasad; Belant, Jerrold L.; Swenson, Jon

    2014-01-01

    The Vulnerable red panda Ailurus fulgens is endemic to the Himalayas. Anthropogenic activities, including deforestation, have degraded the species’ habitat but the effects of livestock have not been examined. We assessed the effects of illegal livestock activity on the presence of the red panda in Rara National Park, Nepal. The probability of detecting red panda faecal pellets decreased with livestock occurrence but not with elevation or aspect. The presence of bamboo ...

  4. Lineage-specific evolution of bitter taste receptor genes in the giant and red pandas implies dietary adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Lei; Wu, Qi; Wang, Le; Zhang, Lei; Wei, Fuwen

    2018-03-01

    Taste 2 receptors (TAS2R) mediate bitterness perception in mammals, thus are called bitter taste receptors. It is believed that these genes evolved in response to species-specific diets. The giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) and red panda (Ailurus fulgens styani) in the order Carnivora are specialized herbivores with an almost exclusive bamboo diet (>90% bamboo). Because bamboo is full of bitter tasting compounds, we hypothesized that adaptive evolution has occurred at TAS2R genes in giant and red pandas throughout the course of their dietary shift. Here, we characterized 195 TAS2R genes in 9 Carnivora species and examined selective pressures on these genes. We found that both pandas harbor more putative functional TAS2R genes than other carnivores, and pseudogenized TAS2R genes in the giant panda are different from the red panda. The purifying selection on TAS2R1, TAS2R9 and TAS2R38 in the giant panda, and TAS2R62 in the red panda, has been strengthened throughout the course of adaptation to bamboo diet, while selective constraint on TAS2R4 and TAS2R38 in the red panda is relaxed. Remarkably, a few positively selected sites on TAS2R42 have been specifically detected in the giant panda. These results suggest an adaptive response in both pandas to a dietary shift from carnivory to herbivory, and TAS2R genes evolved independently in the 2 pandas. Our findings provide new insight into the molecular basis of mammalian sensory evolution and the process of adaptation to new ecological niches. © 2017 The Authors. Integrative Zoology published by International Society of Zoological Sciences, Institute of Zoology/Chinese Academy of Sciences and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  5. [Evaluation of a Neuropsychiatric Disorder: From PANDAS to PANS and CANS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baytunca, Muharrem Burak; Donuk, Tuğba; Erermiş, Serpil

    2016-01-01

    PANDAS (Pediatric Autoimmune Neuropsychiatric Disorders Associated with Streptococcal infections) syndrome is a disorder seen before adolescence that possesses an abrupt onset of obsessive-compulsive disorder symptoms and/or tics. Swedo and colleagues defined this disorder in 1998 as a syndrome related to Group A streptoccoccus (GAS) infection with neurological issues, such as motor hyperactivation and choreiform movements. The progress of the disorder may be described as wax-and-waning, apart from abrupt onset, and this relapse and remission course is associated with exacerbating infections, according to the creators of PANDAS syndrome. Ruling out of Rheumatoid Fever and Sydenham's Chorea was a necessity for making a proper diagnosis. Since the recognition of this syndrome, clinicians encountered many children who could not fulfill all 5 criteria, which must be met for PANDAS diagnosis. In addition, due to literature showing failure and lack of strong evidence of a major role of GAS, the newly-defined categories PANS (Pediatric Acute-onset Neuropsychiatric Syndrome) and CANS (Childhood Acute Neuropsychiatric Syndrome) were created to encompass those of "almost met" non-PANDAS cases. PANS and CANS include concurrent significant psychiatric symptoms with abrupt onset of OCD symptoms and/or tics but do not require identification of any infection agent, immune dysfunction, or enviromental precipitants. In this paper, we aimed to discuss PANS/ CANS, alterations of PANDAS, and diagnoses in which "almost met" PANDAS patients should be classified on the basis of a case who developed an abrupt onset of anxiety, obsessions, and vocal tics.

  6. Ultrafast all-optical switching using signal flow graph for PANDA resonator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahadoran, Mahdi; Ali, Jalil; Yupapin, Preecha P

    2013-04-20

    In this paper, the bifurcation behavior of light in the PANDA ring resonator is investigated using the signal flow graph (SFG) method, where the optical transfer function for the through and drop ports of the PANDA Vernier system are derived. The optical nonlinear phenomena, such as bistability, Ikeda instability, and dynamics of light in the silicon-on-insulator (SOI) PANDA ring resonator with four couplers are studied. The transmission curves for bistability and instability as a function of the resonant mode numbers and coupling coefficients for the coupler are derived by the SFG method and simulated. The proposed system has an advantage as no optical pumping component is required. Simulated results show that closed-loop bistable switching can be generated and achieved by varying mode resonant numbers in the SOI-PANDA Vernier resonator, where a smooth and closed-loop bistable switching with low relative output/input power can be obtained and realized. The minimum through-port switching time of 1.1 ps for resonant mode numbers of 5;4;4 and minimum drop port switching time of 1.96 ps for resonant mode numbers of 9;7;7 of the PANDA Vernier resonator are achieved, which makes the PANDA Vernier resonator an operative component for optical applications, such as optical signal processing and a fast switching key in photonics integrated circuits.

  7. Optimizing new components of PanDA for ATLAS production on HPC resources

    CERN Document Server

    Maeno, Tadashi; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The Production and Distributed Analysis system (PanDA) has been used for workload management in the ATLAS Experiment for over a decade. It uses pilots to retrieve jobs from the PanDA server and execute them on worker nodes. While PanDA has been mostly used on Worldwide LHC Computing Grid (WLCG) resources for production operations, R&D work has been ongoing on cloud and HPC resources for many years. These efforts have led to the significant usage of large scale HPC resources in the past couple of years. In this talk we will describe the changes to the pilot which enabled the use of HPC sites by PanDA, specifically the Titan supercomputer at Oakridge National Laboratory. Furthermore, it was decided in 2016 to start a fresh redesign of the Pilot with a more modern approach to better serve present and future needs from ATLAS and other collaborations that are interested in using the PanDA System. Another new project for development of a resource oriented service, PanDA Harvester, was also launched in 2016. The...

  8. Giant panda foraging and movement patterns in response to bamboo shoot growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Mingchun; Zhang, Zhizhong; Li, Zhong; Hong, Mingsheng; Zhou, Xiaoping; Zhou, Shiqiang; Zhang, Jindong; Hull, Vanessa; Huang, Jinyan; Zhang, Hemin

    2018-03-01

    Diet plays a pivotal role in dictating behavioral patterns of herbivorous animals, particularly specialist species. The giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) is well-known as a bamboo specialist. In the present study, the response of giant pandas to spatiotemporal variation of bamboo shoots was explored using field surveys and GPS collar tracking. Results show the dynamics in panda-bamboo space-time relationships that have not been previously articulated. For instance, we found a higher bamboo stump height of foraged bamboo with increasing elevation, places where pandas foraged later in spring when bamboo shoots become more fibrous and woody. The time required for shoots to reach optimum height for foraging was significantly delayed as elevation increased, a pattern which corresponded with panda elevational migration patterns beginning from the lower elevational end of Fargesia robusta distribution and gradually shifting upward until the end of the shooting season. These results indicate that giant pandas can respond to spatiotemporal variation of bamboo resources, such as available shoots. Anthropogenic interference of low-elevation F. robusta habitat should be mitigated, and conservation attention and increased monitoring should be given to F. robusta areas at the low- and mid-elevation ranges, particularly in the spring shooting season.

  9. HEMATOLOGY, SERUM BIOCHEMISTRY, AND URINALYSIS VALUES IN THE ADULT GIANT PANDA ( AILUROPODA MELANOLEUCA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrell, Caitlin; Zhang, Hemin; Li, Desheng; Wang, Chengdong; Li, Caiwu; Aitken-Palmer, Copper

    2017-12-01

    The giant panda ( Ailuropoda melanoleuca) is a high-profile threatened species with individuals in captivity worldwide. As a result of advances in captive animal management and veterinary medicine, the ex situ giant panda population is aging, and improved understanding of age-related changes is necessary. Urine and blood samples were collected in April and July 2015 and analyzed for complete blood count, serum biochemistry, and biochemical and microscopic urine analysis for all individuals sampled ( n = 7, 7-16 yr of age) from giant panda housed at the China Research and Conservation Centre for the Giant Panda in Bifengxia, Sichuan Province, China. Hematology and serum biochemistry values were similar to those previously reported for giant panda aged 2-20 yr and to Species360 (formerly International Species Information System) values. Urine was overall dilute (urine specific gravity range: 1.001-1.021), acellular, and acidic (pH range: 6-7). This is the first report of hematologic and serum biochemistry, with associated urinalysis values, in the giant panda aged 7-16 yr.

  10. A novel polyomavirus from the nasal cavity of a giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Dunwu; Shan, Tongling; Liu, Zhijian; Deng, Xutao; Zhang, Zhihe; Bi, Wenlei; Owens, Jacob Robert; Feng, Feifei; Zheng, Lisong; Huang, Feng; Delwart, Eric; Hou, Rong; Zhang, Wen

    2017-10-27

    Polyomaviruses infect a wide variety of mammalian and avian hosts with a broad spectrum of outcomes including asymptomatic infection, acute systemic disease, and tumor induction. Viral metagenomics and general PCR methods were used to detected viral nucleic acid in the samples from a diseased and healthy giant pandas. A novel polyomavirus, the giant panda polyomavirus 1 (GPPyV1) from the nasal cavity of a dead giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) was characterized. The GPPyV1 genome is 5144 bp in size and reveals five putative open-reading frames coding for the classic small and large T antigens in the early region, and the VP1, VP2 and VP3 capsid proteins in the late region. Phylogenetic analyses of the large T antigen of the GPPyV1 indicated GPPyV1 belonged to a putative new species within genus Deltapolyomavirus, clustering with four human polyomavirus species. The GPPyV1 VP1 and VP2 clustered with genus Alphapolyomavirus. Our epidemiologic study indicated that this novel polyomavirus was also detected in nasal swabs and fecal samples collected from captive healthy giant pandas. A novel polyomavirus was detected in giant pandas and its complete genome was characterized, which may cause latency infection in giant pandas.

  11. Serosurvey of selected viruses in captive giant pandas (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Qin; Li, Desheng; Zhang, Hemin; Hou, Rong; Zhang, Zhihe; Zhang, Chenglin; Zhang, Jinguo; Wei, Fuwen

    2010-05-19

    Serum samples from 92 giant pandas in three captive facilities were tested for antibodies against five viruses of carnivores. Antibody titers against canine distemper virus (CDV) in two facilities in which giant pandas were vaccinated were variable. The canine adenovirus (CAV-1) and canine parvovirus (CPV) titers in vaccinated group were both positive, but titers were not high and varied among individual except one vaccinated panda had extremely high CAV-1 titer, indicating infection with the field virus following vaccination. Our results suggest that the vaccines used for these giant pandas do not elicit consistent antibody titers. Antibody titers against CDV, CPV and CAV-1 in unvaccinated giant pandas were highly variable, especially CPV titer. Almost half of sera were CPV antibody positive, and CPV titers were high enough to suggest infection with the virus. Canine coronavirus (CCV) and canine parainfluenza virus (CPIV) titers were not detected in all serum samples. The results of this study emphasize the need for research on infectious diseases of giant pandas and development of suitable vaccines for the species. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Why does the giant panda eat bamboo? A comparative analysis of appetite-reward-related genes among mammals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ke Jin

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The giant panda has an interesting bamboo diet unlike the other species in the order of Carnivora. The umami taste receptor gene T1R1 has been identified as a pseudogene during its genome sequencing project and confirmed using a different giant panda sample. The estimated mutation time for this gene is about 4.2 Myr. Such mutation coincided with the giant panda's dietary change and also reinforced its herbivorous life style. However, as this gene is preserved in herbivores such as cow and horse, we need to look for other reasons behind the giant panda's diet switch. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Since taste is part of the reward properties of food related to its energy and nutrition contents, we did a systematic analysis on those genes involved in the appetite-reward system for the giant panda. We extracted the giant panda sequence information for those genes and compared with the human sequence first and then with seven other species including chimpanzee, mouse, rat, dog, cat, horse, and cow. Orthologs in panda were further analyzed based on the coding region, Kozak consensus sequence, and potential microRNA binding of those genes. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results revealed an interesting dopamine metabolic involvement in the panda's food choice. This finding suggests a new direction for molecular evolution studies behind the panda's dietary switch.

  13. Permanent resident

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John F. Fisher

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The training of physicians in the past century was based primarily on responsibility and the chain-of-command. Those with the bulk of that responsibility in the fields of pediatrics and internal medicine were residents. Residents trained the medical students and supervised them carefully in caring for patients. Most attending physicians supervised their teams at arm's length, primarily serving as teachers of the finer points of diagnosis and treatment during set periods of the day or week with a perfunctory signature on write-ups or progress notes. Residents endeavored to protect the attending physician from being heavily involved unless they were unsure about a clinical problem. Before contacting the attending physician, a more senior resident would be called. Responsibility was the ultimate teacher. The introduction of diagnosis-related groups by the federal government dramatically changed the health care delivery system, placing greater emphasis on attending physician visibility in the medical record, ultimately resulting in more attending physician involvement in day-to-day care of patients in academic institutions. Without specified content in attending notes, hospital revenues would decline. Although always in charge technically, attending physicians increasingly have assumed the role once dominated by the resident. Using biographical experiences of more than 40 years, the author acknowledges and praises the educational role of responsibility in his own training and laments its declining role in today's students and house staff.

  14. Permanent resident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, John F

    2016-01-01

    The training of physicians in the past century was based primarily on responsibility and the chain-of-command. Those with the bulk of that responsibility in the fields of pediatrics and internal medicine were residents. Residents trained the medical students and supervised them carefully in caring for patients. Most attending physicians supervised their teams at arm's length, primarily serving as teachers of the finer points of diagnosis and treatment during set periods of the day or week with a perfunctory signature on write-ups or progress notes. Residents endeavored to protect the attending physician from being heavily involved unless they were unsure about a clinical problem. Before contacting the attending physician, a more senior resident would be called. Responsibility was the ultimate teacher. The introduction of diagnosis-related groups by the federal government dramatically changed the health care delivery system, placing greater emphasis on attending physician visibility in the medical record, ultimately resulting in more attending physician involvement in day-to-day care of patients in academic institutions. Without specified content in attending notes, hospital revenues would decline. Although always in charge technically, attending physicians increasingly have assumed the role once dominated by the resident. Using biographical experiences of more than 40 years, the author acknowledges and praises the educational role of responsibility in his own training and laments its declining role in today's students and house staff.

  15. Burnout Syndrome During Residency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turgut, Namigar; Karacalar, Serap; Polat, Cengiz; Kıran, Özlem; Gültop, Fethi; Kalyon, Seray Türkmen; Sinoğlu, Betül; Zincirci, Mehmet; Kaya, Ender

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study is identified the degree of Burnout Syndrome (BOS) and find out its correlation with years of recidency and sociodemograpfic chareacteristics, training, sleeping habits, such as smoking and alcohol consumption. After approval from the Hospital Ethics Committee and obtaining informed consent, First, second, third, fourth and fifth year of recidency staff (n=127) working in our hospital were involved in this study. The standardized Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI) was used in this study. Fifty six male (44.1%) and seventy one female (55.9%) residents were enroled in this study (Coranbach Alfa(α)=0.873). 57% of the first year residents smokes cigaret and 54% of them use alcohol. 2% of them gets one day off after hospital night shift, 61% of them suffers from disturbed sleep. 60% of them had been stated that they willingly selected their profession. 61% of them prefers talking to friends and 32% of them prefers shopping to overcome stress. There were statistical difference acording to years of recidency in MBI, Emotional Burnout (EB) and desensitisation scale (DS) points. EB scale points of the second year of residency group was statisticaly higher than fourth year of residency group. DS points of second year of residency group was also statisticaly higher than the third and fourth year of residency group. There was no statistical difference between any groups in Personal Success. BOS is a frequent problem during residency in anaesthesia. Appropriate definition and awareness are the first important steps to prevent this syndrome. Further administrative approaches should be evaluated with regard to their effects.

  16. The PANDA experiment: physics goals and experimental setup

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boca Gianluigi

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available PANDA (antiProton ANnihilation at DArmstadt is an experiment that will run at the GSI laboratory, Darmstadt, Germany, in 2019. A high intensity antiproton beam with momentum up to 15 GeV/c will collide on a fixed proton target (pellet target or jet target. A wide range of physics topics will be investigated: char- monium states and open charm states above the DD¯$D\\overline D $ threshold; exotic states like glueballs, oddballs, hybrids, multiquarks, molecules; the spectroscopy of the excited states of strange and charm baryons; non-perturbative QCD dynamics in the pp¯$p\\overline p $ production cross section of charm and strange baryons and their spin correlations; the behaviour of hadrons in nuclear matter; hypernuclear physics; electromagnetic proton form factors in the timelike region; the CP violation in the charm sector, rare and forbidden decays of charm baryons and mesons.

  17. The PANDA experiment: physics goals and experimental setup

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boca, Gianluigi

    2014-05-01

    PANDA (antiProton ANnihilation at DArmstadt) is an experiment that will run at the GSI laboratory, Darmstadt, Germany, in 2019. A high intensity antiproton beam with momentum up to 15 GeV/c will collide on a fixed proton target (pellet target or jet target). A wide range of physics topics will be investigated: char- monium states and open charm states above the Doverline D threshold; exotic states like glueballs, oddballs, hybrids, multiquarks, molecules; the spectroscopy of the excited states of strange and charm baryons; non-perturbative QCD dynamics in the poverline p production cross section of charm and strange baryons and their spin correlations; the behaviour of hadrons in nuclear matter; hypernuclear physics; electromagnetic proton form factors in the timelike region; the CP violation in the charm sector, rare and forbidden decays of charm baryons and mesons.

  18. The bar PANDA Barrel-TOF Detector at FAIR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, S.; Suzuki, K.; Steinschaden, D.; Chirita, M.; Ahmed, G.; Dutta, K.; Kalita, K.; Lehmann, A.; Böhm, M.; Schwarz, K.; Orth, H.; Brinkmann, K.-Th.

    2017-08-01

    The barrel-Time-of-Flight subdetector is one of the outer layers of the multi-layer design of the \\panda target spectrometer. It is designed with a minimal material budget in mind mainly consisting of 90×30×5 mm3 thin plastic scintillator tiles read out on each end by a serial connection of 4 SiPMs. 120 such tiles are placed on 16 2460 × 180 mm2 PCB boards forming a barrel covering an azimuthal angle from 22.5o to 150o. The detector is designed to achieve a time resolution below σ< 100 ps which allows to distinguish events in the constant stream of hits, as well as particle identification below the Cherenkov threshold via the time-of-flight; simultaneously providing the interaction times of events. The current prototype achieved a time resolution of ~54 ps, well below the design goal.

  19. FPGA Online Tracking Algorithm for the PANDA Straw Tube Tracker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Yutie; Ye, Hua; Galuska, Martin J.; Gessler, Thomas; Kuhn, Wolfgang; Lange, Jens Soren; Wagner, Milan N.; Liu, Zhen'an; Zhao, Jingzhou

    2017-06-01

    A novel FPGA based online tracking algorithm for helix track reconstruction in a solenoidal field, developed for the PANDA spectrometer, is described. Employing the Straw Tube Tracker detector with 4636 straw tubes, the algorithm includes a complex track finder, and a track fitter. Implemented in VHDL, the algorithm is tested on a Xilinx Virtex-4 FX60 FPGA chip with different types of events, at different event rates. A processing time of 7 $\\mu$s per event for an average of 6 charged tracks is obtained. The momentum resolution is about 3\\% (4\\%) for $p_t$ ($p_z$) at 1 GeV/c. Comparing to the algorithm running on a CPU chip (single core Intel Xeon E5520 at 2.26 GHz), an improvement of 3 orders of magnitude in processing time is obtained. The algorithm can handle severe overlapping of events which are typical for interaction rates above 10 MHz.

  20. Particle identification algorithms for the PANDA Endcap Disc DIRC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, M.; Ali, A.; Belias, A.; Dzhygadlo, R.; Gerhardt, A.; Götzen, K.; Kalicy, G.; Krebs, M.; Lehmann, D.; Nerling, F.; Patsyuk, M.; Peters, K.; Schepers, G.; Schmitt, L.; Schwarz, C.; Schwiening, J.; Traxler, M.; Böhm, M.; Eyrich, W.; Lehmann, A.; Pfaffinger, M.; Uhlig, F.; Düren, M.; Etzelmüller, E.; Föhl, K.; Hayrapetyan, A.; Kreutzfeld, K.; Merle, O.; Rieke, J.; Wasem, T.; Achenbach, P.; Cardinali, M.; Hoek, M.; Lauth, W.; Schlimme, S.; Sfienti, C.; Thiel, M.

    2017-12-01

    The Endcap Disc DIRC has been developed to provide an excellent particle identification for the future PANDA experiment by separating pions and kaons up to a momentum of 4 GeV/c with a separation power of 3 standard deviations in the polar angle region from 5o to 22o. This goal will be achieved using dedicated particle identification algorithms based on likelihood methods and will be applied in an offline analysis and online event filtering. This paper evaluates the resulting PID performance using Monte-Carlo simulations to study basic single track PID as well as the analysis of complex physics channels. The online reconstruction algorithm has been tested with a Virtex4 FGPA card and optimized regarding the resulting constraints.

  1. Measuring and modeling the spatial pattern of understory bamboo across landscapes: Implications for giant panda habitat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linderman, Marc Alan

    We examined an approach to classifying understory bamboo, the staple food of the giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca), from remote sensing imagery in the Wolong Nature Reserve, China. We also used these data to estimate the landscape-scale distribution of giant panda habitat, and model the human effects on forest cover and the spatio-temporal dynamics of bamboo and the resulting implications for giant panda habitat. The spatial distribution of understory bamboo was mapped using an artificial neural network and leaf-on remote sensing data. Training on a limited set of ground truth data and using widely available Landsat TM data as input, a non-linear artificial neural network achieved a classification accuracy of 80% despite the presence of co-occurring mid-story and understory vegetation. Using information on the spatial distribution of bamboo in Wolong, we compared the results of giant panda habitat analyses with and without bamboo information. Total amount of habitat decreased by 29--56% and overall habitat patch size decreased by 16--48% after bamboo information was incorporated into the analyses. The decreases in the quantity of panda habitat and increases in habitat fragmentation resulted in decreases of 41--60% in carrying capacity. Using a spatio-temporal model of bamboo dynamics and human activities, we found that local fuelwood collection and household creation will likely reduce secondary habitat relied upon by pandas. Human impacts would likely contribute up to an additional 16% loss of habitat. Furthermore, these impacts primarily occur in the habitat relied upon by giant pandas during past bamboo die-offs. Decreased total area of habitat and increased fragmentation from human activities will likely make giant pandas increasingly sensitive to natural disturbances such as cyclical bamboo die-offs. Our studies suggest that it is necessary to further examine approaches to monitor understory vegetation and incorporate understory information into wildlife

  2. Ancylostoma ailuropodae n. sp. (Nematoda: Ancylostomatidae), a new hookworm parasite isolated from wild giant pandas in Southwest China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Yue; Hoberg, Eric P; Yang, Zijiang; Urban, Joseph F; Yang, Guangyou

    2017-06-02

    Hookworms belonging to the genus Ancylostoma (Dubini, 1843) cause ancylostomiasis, a disease of considerable concern in humans and domestic and wild animals. Molecular and epidemiological data support evidence for the zoonotic potential among species of Ancylostoma where transmission to humans is facilitated by rapid urbanization and increased human-wildlife interactions. It is important to assess and describe these potential zoonotic parasite species in wildlife, especially in hosts that have physiological similarities to humans and share their habitat. Moreover, defining species diversity within parasite groups that can circulate among free-ranging host species and humans also provides a pathway to understanding the distribution of infection and disease. In this study, we describe a previously unrecognized species of hookworm in the genus Ancylostoma in the giant panda, including criteria for morphological and molecular characterization. The hookworm specimens were obtained from a wild giant panda that died in the Fengtongzai Natural Reserve in Sichuan Province of China in November 2013. They were microscopically examined and then genetically analyzed by sequencing the nuclear internal transcribed spacer (ITS, ITS1-5.8S-ITS2) and mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) genes in two representative specimens (one female and one male, FTZ1 and FTZ2, respectively). Ancylostoma ailuropodae n. sp. is proposed for these hookworms. Morphologically the hookworm specimens differ from other congeneric species primarily based on the structure of the buccal capsule in males and females, characterized by 2 pairs of ventrolateral and 2 pairs of dorsolateral teeth; males differ in the structure and shape of the copulatory bursa, where the dorsal ray possesses 2 digitations. Pairwise nuclear and mitochondrial DNA comparisons, genetic distance analysis, and phylogenetic data strongly indicate that A. ailuropodae from giant pandas is a separate species which shared a

  3. Metagenomic Study Suggests That the Gut Microbiota of the Giant Panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca May Not Be Specialized for Fiber Fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Guo

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Bamboo-eating giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca is an enigmatic species, which possesses a carnivore-like short and simple gastrointestinal tract (GIT. Despite the remarkable studies on giant panda, its diet adaptability status continues to be a matter of debate. To resolve this puzzle, we investigated the functional potential of the giant panda gut microbiome using shotgun metagenomic sequencing of fecal samples. We also compared our data with similar data from other animal species representing herbivores, carnivores, and omnivores from current and earlier studies. We found that the giant panda hosts a bear-like gut microbiota distinct from those of herbivores indicated by the metabolic potential of the microbiome in the gut of giant pandas and other mammals. Furthermore, the relative abundance of genes involved in cellulose- and hemicellulose-digestion, and enrichment of enzymes associated with pathways of amino acid degradation and biosynthetic reactions in giant pandas echoed a carnivore-like microbiome. Most significantly, the enzyme assay of the giant panda's feces indicated the lowest cellulase and xylanase activity among major herbivores, shown by an in-vitro experimental assay of enzyme activity for cellulose and hemicellulose-degradation. All of our results consistently indicate that the giant panda is not specialized to digest cellulose and hemicellulose from its bamboo diet, making the giant panda a good mammalian model to study the unusual link between the gut microbiome and diet. The increased food intake of the giant pandas might be a strategy to compensate for the gut microbiome functions, highlighting a strong need of conservation of the native bamboo forest both in high- and low-altitude ranges to meet the great demand of bamboo diet of giant pandas.

  4. Metagenomic Study Suggests That the Gut Microbiota of the Giant Panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) May Not Be Specialized for Fiber Fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Wei; Mishra, Sudhanshu; Zhao, Jiangchao; Tang, Jingsi; Zeng, Bo; Kong, Fanli; Ning, Ruihong; Li, Miao; Zhang, Hengzhi; Zeng, Yutian; Tian, Yuanliangzi; Zhong, Yihang; Luo, Hongdi; Liu, Yunhan; Yang, Jiandong; Yang, Mingyao; Zhang, Mingwang; Li, Yan; Ni, Qingyong; Li, Caiwu; Wang, Chengdong; Li, Desheng; Zhang, Hemin; Zuo, Zhili; Li, Ying

    2018-01-01

    Bamboo-eating giant panda ( Ailuropoda melanoleuca ) is an enigmatic species, which possesses a carnivore-like short and simple gastrointestinal tract (GIT). Despite the remarkable studies on giant panda, its diet adaptability status continues to be a matter of debate. To resolve this puzzle, we investigated the functional potential of the giant panda gut microbiome using shotgun metagenomic sequencing of fecal samples. We also compared our data with similar data from other animal species representing herbivores, carnivores, and omnivores from current and earlier studies. We found that the giant panda hosts a bear-like gut microbiota distinct from those of herbivores indicated by the metabolic potential of the microbiome in the gut of giant pandas and other mammals. Furthermore, the relative abundance of genes involved in cellulose- and hemicellulose-digestion, and enrichment of enzymes associated with pathways of amino acid degradation and biosynthetic reactions in giant pandas echoed a carnivore-like microbiome. Most significantly, the enzyme assay of the giant panda's feces indicated the lowest cellulase and xylanase activity among major herbivores, shown by an in-vitro experimental assay of enzyme activity for cellulose and hemicellulose-degradation. All of our results consistently indicate that the giant panda is not specialized to digest cellulose and hemicellulose from its bamboo diet, making the giant panda a good mammalian model to study the unusual link between the gut microbiome and diet. The increased food intake of the giant pandas might be a strategy to compensate for the gut microbiome functions, highlighting a strong need of conservation of the native bamboo forest both in high- and low-altitude ranges to meet the great demand of bamboo diet of giant pandas.

  5. China's endemic vertebrates sheltering under the protective umbrella of the giant panda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Binbin V; Pimm, Stuart L

    2016-04-01

    The giant panda attracts disproportionate conservation resources. How well does this emphasis protect other endemic species? Detailed data on geographical ranges are not available for plants or invertebrates, so we restrict our analyses to 3 vertebrate taxa: birds, mammals, and amphibians. There are gaps in their protection, and we recommend practical actions to fill them. We identified patterns of species richness, then identified which species are endemic to China, and then which, like the panda, live in forests. After refining each species' range by its known elevational range and remaining forest habitats as determined from remote sensing, we identified the top 5% richest areas as the centers of endemism. Southern mountains, especially the eastern Hengduan Mountains, were centers for all 3 taxa. Over 96% of the panda habitat overlapped the endemic centers. Thus, investing in almost any panda habitat will benefit many other endemics. Existing panda national nature reserves cover all but one of the endemic species that overlap with the panda's distribution. Of particular interest are 14 mammal, 20 bird, and 82 amphibian species that are inadequately protected. Most of these species the International Union for Conservation of Nature currently deems threatened. But 7 mammal, 3 bird, and 20 amphibian species are currently nonthreatened, yet their geographical ranges are <20,000 km(2) after accounting for elevational restriction and remaining habitats. These species concentrate mainly in Sichuan, Yunnan, Nan Mountains, and Hainan. There is a high concentration in the east Daxiang and Xiaoxiang Mountains of Sichuan, where pandas are absent and where there are no national nature reserves. The others concentrate in Yunnan, Nan Mountains, and Hainan. Here, 10 prefectures might establish new protected areas or upgrade local nature reserves to national status. © 2015 Society for Conservation Biology.

  6. Major histocompatibility complex alleles associated with parasite susceptibility in wild giant pandas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, L; Wu, Q; Hu, Y; Wu, H; Wei, F

    2015-01-01

    Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) polymorphism is thought to be driven by antagonistic coevolution between pathogens and hosts, mediated through either overdominance or frequency-dependent selection. However, investigations under natural conditions are still rare for endangered mammals which often exhibit depleted variation, and the mechanism of selection underlying the maintenance of characteristics remains a considerable debate. In this study, 87 wild giant pandas were used to investigate MHC variation associated with parasite load. With the knowledge of the MHC profile provided by the genomic data of the giant panda, seven DRB1, seven DQA1 and eight DQA2 alleles were identified at each single locus. Positive selection evidenced by a significantly higher number of non-synonymous substitutions per non-synonymous codon site relative to synonymous substitutions per synonymous codon site could only be detected at the DRB1 locus, which leads to the speculation that DRB1 may have a more important role in dealing with parasite infection for pandas. Coprological analyses revealed that 55.17% of individuals exhibited infection with 1-2 helminthes and 95.3% of infected pandas carried Baylisascaris shroederi. Using a generalized linear model, we found that Aime-DRB1*10 was significantly associated with parasite infection, but no resistant alleles could be detected. MHC heterozygosity of the pandas was found to be uncorrelated with the infection status or the infection intensity. These results suggested that the possible selection mechanisms in extant wild pandas may be frequency dependent rather than being determined by overdominance selection. Our findings could guide the candidate selection for the ongoing reintroduction or translocation of pandas.

  7. PANDA experiment and International Standard Problem for passive cooling systems for afterheat removal; PANDA-Versuch und Internationales Standardproblem zu passiven Kuehlsystemen fuer die Nachwaermeabfuhr

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yadigaroglu, G.; Aksan, N.S. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland). Lab. fuer Thermohydraulik

    1999-09-03

    In the context of OECD/NEA, Paul Scherrer Institut (PSI) is working on an International Standard Problem which is to provide information on the efficiency and use of computer program systems for passive afterheat removal systems. The PANDA test facility of PSI was designed for these investigations. A six-phase PANDA experiment provides a basis for pre-calculation and recalculation of selected phases covering a limited number of system-typical operating states and phenomena. The experiment was specified and carried out in the year under report. [Deutsch] Im Rahmen der OECD/NEA fuehrt das Paul Scherrer Institut (PSI) ein Internationales Standardproblem durch, das Aufschluss ueber die Leistungsfaehigkeit und Handhabung von Computer-Programmsystemen geben soll, die im Zusammenhang mit passiven Nachwaerme-Abfuhrsystemen eingesetzt werden. Die Versuchsanlage PANDA am PSI ist speziell auf die Untersuchung derartiger Systeme ausgerichtet. Ein PANDA-Versuch in sechs Phasen liefert den teilnehmenden Organisationen die Basis fuer Voraus- und Nachrechnungen einzelner oder mehrerer Phasen, die jeweils eine begrenzte Anzahl von systemtypischen Betriebszustaenden und Phaenomenen abdecken. Im Berichtsjahr wurde der Versuch spezifiziert und gefahren. (orig.)

  8. How do two giant panda populations adapt to their habitats in the Qinling and Qionglai Mountains, China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, Xiaoji; Wang, Tiejun; Wang, Ting; Skidmore, A.K.; Songer, M.

    2015-01-01

    The spatial separation of the Qinling Mountains from the western mountains has caused morphological and genetic distinctions of giant pandas. Could this separation also cause the pandas’ behavior change? In this research, we focused on the pandas’ movement pattern and selected two wild panda groups

  9. Microsatellite variability reveals the necessity for genetic input from wild giant pandas (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) into the captive population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Fujun; Zhang, Zhihe; He, Wei; Yue, Bisong; Zhang, Anju; Zhang, Liang; Hou, Rong; Wang, Chengdong; Watanabe, Toshi

    2009-03-01

    Recent success in breeding giant pandas in captivity has encouraged panda conservationists to believe that the ex situ population is ready to serve as a source for supporting the wild population. In this study, we used 11 microsatellite DNA markers to assess the amount and distribution of genetic variability present in the two largest captive populations (Chengdu Research Base of Giant Panda Breeding, Sichuan Province and the China Research and Conservation Center for the Giant Panda at Wolong, Sichuan Province). The data were compared with those samples from wild pandas living in two key giant panda nature reserves (Baoxing Nature Reserve and Wanglang Nature Reserve). The results show that the captive populations have retained lower levels of allelic diversity and heterozygosity compared to isolated wild populations. However, low inbreeding coefficients indicate that captive populations are under careful genetic management. Excessive heterozygosity suggests that the two captive populations have experienced a genetic bottleneck, presumably caused by founder effects. Moreover, evidence of increased genetic divergence demonstrates restricted breeding options within facilities. Based on these results, we conclude that the genetic diversity in the captive populations is not optimal. Introduction of genetic materials from wild pandas and improved exchange of genetic materials among institutions will be necessary for the captive pandas to be representative of the wild populations.

  10. Integration of PanDA workload management system with Titan supercomputer at OLCF

    CERN Document Server

    Panitkin, Sergey; The ATLAS collaboration; Klimentov, Alexei; Oleynik, Danila; Petrosyan, Artem; Schovancova, Jaroslava; Vaniachine, Alexandre; Wenaus, Torre

    2015-01-01

    The PanDA (Production and Distributed Analysis) workload management system (WMS) was developed to meet the scale and complexity of LHC distributed computing for the ATLAS experiment. While PanDA currently uses more than 100,000 cores at well over 100 Grid sites with a peak performance of 0.3 petaFLOPS, next LHC data taking run will require more resources than Grid computing can possibly provide. To alleviate these challenges, ATLAS is engaged in an ambitious program to expand the current computing model to include additional resources such as the opportunistic use of supercomputers. We will describe a project aimed at integration of PanDA WMS with Titan supercomputer at Oak Ridge Leadership Computing Facility (OLCF). Current approach utilizes modified PanDA pilot framework for job submission to Titan's batch queues and local data management, with light-weight MPI wrappers to run single threaded workloads in parallel on Titan's multi-core worker nodes. It also gives PanDA new capability to collect, in real tim...

  11. Pediatric Autoimmune Neuropsychiatric Disorder Associated with Streptococcal Infections (PANDAS: Experience at a Tertiary Referral Center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caitlin E. Helm

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorder associated with streptococcal infections (PANDAS is an autoimmune disorder presenting with obsessive compulsive disorder and/or tics. Like Sydenham’s chorea, its presumed pathogenesis consists of autoantibodies cross-reacting with neurons in response to a group A beta-hemolytic streptococcal infection (GASI. There are currently no diagnostic laboratory findings and management ranges from antibiotic prophylaxis to intravenous immunoglobulin to plasmapheresis. The diagnosis remains controversial, resulting in inconsistent referrals and significant patient anxiety. Methods: A retrospective study was performed on all patients referred to the Pediatric Infectious Disease Division with a pre-referral diagnosis of PANDAS. Patients were analyzed by demographics, medical history, co-morbidities, symptoms, prior treatment, laboratory tests, management strategies, and treatment outcomes. Results: From 2003 to 2013, there were 21 patients with a pre-referral diagnosis of PANDAS. Only five met the diagnostic criteria. No patient at referral had an objective scale to monitor symptoms. Eight referrals had a major psychiatric disorder, and none fulfilled diagnostic criteria (p<0.01. Discussion: The majority of the patients referred with a pre-diagnosis of PANDAS do not fulfill diagnostic criteria nor do they have objective criteria for symptom monitoring. Major psychiatric disorders do not seem to be associated with PANDAS, and better physician education may prevent misdiagnoses. Multidisciplinary management is recommended.

  12. Extending the ATLAS PanDA Workload Management System for New Big Data Applications

    CERN Document Server

    De, K; The ATLAS collaboration; Maeno, T; Nilsson, P; Panitkin, S; Vaniachine, A; Wenaus, T; Yu, D

    2013-01-01

    The LHC experiments are today at the leading edge of large scale distributed data-intensive computational science. The LHC's ATLAS experiment processes data volumes which are particularly extreme, over 130 PB to date, distributed worldwide at over of 120 sites. An important element in the success of the exciting physics results from ATLAS is the highly scalable integrated workflow and dataflow management afforded by the PanDA workload management system, used for all the distributed computing needs of the experiment. The PanDA design is not experiment specific and PanDA is now being extended to support other data intensive scientific applications. Alpha-Magnetic Spectrometer, an astro-particle experiment on the International Space Station, and the Compact Muon Solenoid, an LHC experiment, have successfully evaluated PanDA and are pursuing its adoption. PanDA was cited as an example of "a high performance, fault tolerant software for fast, scalable access to data repositories of many kinds" during the "Big Data...

  13. A genome-wide survey on basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors in giant panda.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunwang Dang

    Full Text Available The giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca is a critically endangered mammalian species. Studies on functions of regulatory proteins involved in developmental processes would facilitate understanding of specific behavior in giant panda. The basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH proteins play essential roles in a wide range of developmental processes in higher organisms. bHLH family members have been identified in over 20 organisms, including fruit fly, zebrafish, mouse and human. Our present study identified 107 bHLH family members being encoded in giant panda genome. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that they belong to 44 bHLH families with 46, 25, 15, 4, 11 and 3 members in group A, B, C, D, E and F, respectively, while the remaining 3 members were assigned into "orphan". Compared to mouse, the giant panda does not encode seven bHLH proteins namely Beta3a, Mesp2, Sclerax, S-Myc, Hes5 (or Hes6, EBF4 and Orphan 1. These results provide useful background information for future studies on structure and function of bHLH proteins in the regulation of giant panda development.

  14. Kretzoiarctos gen. nov., the oldest member of the giant panda clade.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Abella

    Full Text Available The phylogenetic position of the giant panda, Ailuropoda melanoleuca (Carnivora: Ursidae: Ailuropodinae, has been one of the most hotly debated topics by mammalian biologists and paleontologists during the last century. Based on molecular data, it is currently recognized as a true ursid, sister-taxon of the remaining extant bears, from which it would have diverged by the Early Miocene. However, from a paleobiogeographic and chronological perspective, the origin of the giant panda lineage has remained elusive due to the scarcity of the available Miocene fossil record. Until recently, the genus Ailurarctos from the Late Miocene of China (ca. 8-7 mya was recognized as the oldest undoubted member of the Ailuropodinae, suggesting that the panda lineage might have originated from an Ursavus ancestor. The role of the purported ailuropodine Agriarctos, from the Miocene of Europe, in the origins of this clade has been generally dismissed due to the paucity of the available material. Here, we describe a new ailuropodine genus, Kretzoiarctos gen. nov., based on remains from two Middle Miocene (ca. 12-11 Ma Spanish localities. A cladistic analysis of fossil and extant members of the Ursoidea confirms the inclusion of the new genus into the Ailuropodinae. Moreover, Kretzoiarctos precedes in time the previously-known, Late Miocene members of the giant panda clade from Eurasia (Agriarctos and Ailurarctos. The former can be therefore considered the oldest recorded member of the giant panda lineage, which has significant implications for understanding the origins of this clade from a paleobiogeographic viewpoint.

  15. A new genotype of Cryptosporidium from giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xuehan; He, Tingmei; Zhong, Zhijun; Zhang, Hemin; Wang, Rongjun; Dong, Haiju; Wang, Chengdong; Li, Desheng; Deng, Jiabo; Peng, Guangneng; Zhang, Longxian

    2013-10-01

    Fifty-seven fecal samples were collected from giant pandas (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) in the China Conservation and Research Centre for the Giant Panda (CCRCGP) in Sichuan and examined for Cryptosporidium oocysts by Sheather's sugar flotation technique. An 18-year-old male giant panda was Cryptosporidium positive, with oocysts of an average size of 4.60×3.99 μm (n=50). The isolate was genetically analyzed using the partial 18S rRNA, 70 kDa heat shock protein (HSP70), Cryptosporidium oocyst wall protein (COWP) and actin genes. Multi-locus genetic characterization indicated that the present isolate was different from known Cryptosporidium species and genotypes. The closest relative was the Cryptosporidium bear genotype, with 11, 10, and 6 nucleotide differences in the 18S rRNA, HSP70, and actin genes, respectively. Significant differences were also observed in the COWP gene compared to Cryptosporidium mongoose genotype. The homology to the bear genotype at the 18S rRNA locus was 98.6%, which is comparable to that between Cryptosporidium parvum and Cryptosporidium hominis (99.2%), or between Cryptosporidium muris and Cryptosporidium andersoni (99.4%). Therefore, the Cryptosporidium in giant pandas in this study is considered as a new genotype: the Cryptosporidium giant panda genotype. © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Global heterogeneous resource harvesting: the next-generation PanDA pilot for ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Nilsson, Paul; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The Production and Distributed Analysis system (PanDA), used for workload management in the ATLAS Experiment for over a decade, has in recent years expanded its reach to diverse new resource types such as HPCs, and innovative new workflows such as the event service. PanDA meets the heterogeneous resources it harvests in the PanDA pilot, which has embarked on a next-generation reengineering to efficiently integrate and exploit the new platforms and workflows. The new modular architecture is the product of a year of design and prototyping in conjunction with the design of a completely new component, Harvester, that will mediate a richer flow of control and information between pilot and PanDA. Harvester will enable more intelligent and dynamic matching between processing tasks and resources, with an initial focus on HPCs, simplifying the operator and user view of a PanDA site but internally leveraging deep information gathering on the resource to accrue detailed knowledge of a site's capabilities and dynamic sta...

  17. Experience with ATLAS MySQL PanDA database service

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smirnov, Y; Wlodek, T; Hover, J; Smith, J; Wenaus, T; Yu, D; De, K; Ozturk, N

    2010-01-01

    The PanDA distributed production and analysis system has been in production use for ATLAS data processing and analysis since late 2005 in the US, and globally throughout ATLAS since early 2008. Its core architecture is based on a set of stateless web services served by Apache and backed by a suite of MySQL databases that are the repository for all PanDA information: active and archival job queues, dataset and file catalogs, site configuration information, monitoring information, system control parameters, and so on. This database system is one of the most critical components of PanDA, and has successfully delivered the functional and scaling performance required by PanDA, currently operating at a scale of half a million jobs per week, with much growth still to come. In this paper we describe the design and implementation of the PanDA database system, its architecture of MySQL servers deployed at BNL and CERN, backup strategy and monitoring tools. The system has been developed, thoroughly tested, and brought to production to provide highly reliable, scalable, flexible and available database services for ATLAS Monte Carlo production, reconstruction and physics analysis.

  18. Global heterogeneous resource harvesting: the next-generation PanDA Pilot for ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Nilsson, Paul; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The Production and Distributed Analysis system (PanDA), used for workload management in the ATLAS Experiment for over a decade, has in recent years expanded its reach to diverse new resource types such as HPCs, and innovative new workflows such as the Event Service. PanDA meets the heterogeneous resources it harvests in the PanDA pilot, which has embarked on a next-generation reengineering to efficiently integrate and exploit the new platforms and workflows. The new modular architecture is the product of a year of design and prototyping in conjunction with the design of a completely new component, Harvester, that will mediate a richer flow of control and information between pilot and PanDA. Harvester will enable more intelligent and dynamic matching between processing tasks and resources, with an initial focus on HPCs, simplifying the operator and user view of a PanDA site but internally leveraging deep information gathering on the resource to accrue detailed knowledge of a site's capabilities and dynamic sta...

  19. Canine distemper viral infection threatens the giant panda population in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Yipeng; Zhang, Xinke; Ma, Yisheng; Qiao, Yanchao; Liu, Xiaobin; Zhao, Kaihui; Zhang, Chenglin; Lin, Degui; Fu, Xuelian; Xu, Xinrong; Wang, Yiwei; Wang, Huanan

    2017-12-26

    We evaluated exposure to canine distemper virus (CDV) in eight wild giant pandas ( Ailuropoda melanoleuca ) and 125 unvaccinated domestic dogs living in and around Foping National Nature Reserve (FNNR), China. Seventy-two percent of unvaccinated domestic dogs (mixed breed) had neutralizing antibodies for CDV due to exposure to the disease. The eight wild giant pandas were naïve to CDV and carried no positive antibody titer. RT-PCR assays for hemagglutinin ( H ) gene confirmed the presence of CDV in 31 clinically ill dogs from several areas near FNNR. Genomic sequence analysis showed that the 21 canine CDV were highly homologous to each other and belonged to the Asian-1 genotype. They showed high homology with the GP01 strain sequenced from a fatally infected giant panda, suggesting cross-species infection. Observational and GPS tracking data revealed home range overlap in pandas and dogs around FNNR. This study shows that CDV is endemic in domestic dogs near FNNR and that cross-species CDV infection threatens the wild giant panda population.

  20. Parasites of the Giant Panda: A Risk Factor in the Conservation of a Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tao; Xie, Yue; Zheng, Youle; Wang, Chengdong; Li, Desheng; Koehler, Anson V; Gasser, Robin B

    2018-01-01

    The giant panda, with an estimated population size of 2239 in the world (in 2015), is a global symbol of wildlife conservation that is threatened by habitat loss, poor reproduction and limited resistance to some infectious diseases. Of these factors, some diseases caused by parasites are considered as the foremost threat to its conservation. However, there is surprisingly little published information on the parasites of the giant panda, most of which has been disseminated in the Chinese literature. Herein, we review all peer-reviewed publications (in English or Chinese language) and governmental documents for information on parasites of the giant pandas, with an emphasis on the intestinal nematode Baylisascaris schroederi (McIntosh, 1939) as it dominates published literature. The purpose of this chapter is to: (i) review the parasites recorded in the giant panda and describe what is known about their biology; (ii) discuss key aspects of the pathogenesis, diagnosis, treatment and control of key parasites that are reported to cause clinical problems and (iii) conclude by making some suggestions for future research. This chapter shows that we are only just 'scratching the surface' when it comes to parasites and parasitological research of the giant panda. Clearly, there needs to be a concerted research effort to support the conservation of this iconic species. © 2018 Elsevier Ltd All rights reserved.

  1. [Assessment of ecosystem in giant panda distribution area based on entropy method and coefficient of variation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Zhi Gang; Li, Jun Qing

    2017-12-01

    The areas of the habitat and bamboo forest, and the size of the giant panda wild population have greatly increased, while habitat fragmentation and local population isolation have also intensified in recent years. Accurate evaluation of ecosystem status of the panda in the giant panda distribution area is important for giant panda conservation. The ecosystems of the distribution area and six mountain ranges were subdivided into habitat and population subsystems based on the hie-rarchical system theory. Using the panda distribution area as the study area and the three national surveys as the time node, the evolution laws of ecosystems were studied using the entropy method, coefficient of variation, and correlation analysis. We found that with continuous improvement, some differences existed in the evolution and present situation of the ecosystems of six mountain ranges could be divided into three groups. Ecosystems classified into the same group showed many commonalities, and difference between the groups was considerable. Problems of habitat fragmentation and local population isolation became more serious, resulting in ecosystem degradation. Individuali-zed ecological protection measures should be formulated and implemented in accordance with the conditions in each mountain system to achieve the best results.

  2. Integration of PanDA workload management system with Titan supercomputer at OLCF

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00300320; Klimentov, Alexei; Oleynik, Danila; Panitkin, Sergey; Petrosyan, Artem; Vaniachine, Alexandre; Wenaus, Torre; Schovancova, Jaroslava

    2015-01-01

    The PanDA (Production and Distributed Analysis) workload management system (WMS) was developed to meet the scale and complexity of LHC distributed computing for the ATLAS experiment. While PanDA currently distributes jobs to more than 100,000 cores at well over 100 Grid sites, next LHC data taking run will require more resources than Grid computing can possibly provide. To alleviate these challenges, ATLAS is engaged in an ambitious program to expand the current computing model to include additional resources such as the opportunistic use of supercomputers. We will describe a project aimed at integration of PanDA WMS with Titan supercomputer at Oak Ridge Leadership Computing Facility (OLCF). Current approach utilizes modi ed PanDA pilot framework for job submission to Titan's batch queues and local data management, with light-weight MPI wrappers to run single threaded workloads in parallel on Titan's multi-core worker nodes. It also gives PanDA new capability to collect, in real time, information about unused...

  3. Comparative genomics reveals convergent evolution between the bamboo-eating giant and red pandas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yibo; Wu, Qi; Ma, Shuai; Ma, Tianxiao; Shan, Lei; Wang, Xiao; Nie, Yonggang; Ning, Zemin; Yan, Li; Xiu, Yunfang; Wei, Fuwen

    2017-01-31

    Phenotypic convergence between distantly related taxa often mirrors adaptation to similar selective pressures and may be driven by genetic convergence. The giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) and red panda (Ailurus fulgens) belong to different families in the order Carnivora, but both have evolved a specialized bamboo diet and adaptive pseudothumb, representing a classic model of convergent evolution. However, the genetic bases of these morphological and physiological convergences remain unknown. Through de novo sequencing the red panda genome and improving the giant panda genome assembly with added data, we identified genomic signatures of convergent evolution. Limb development genes DYNC2H1 and PCNT have undergone adaptive convergence and may be important candidate genes for pseudothumb development. As evolutionary responses to a bamboo diet, adaptive convergence has occurred in genes involved in the digestion and utilization of bamboo nutrients such as essential amino acids, fatty acids, and vitamins. Similarly, the umami taste receptor gene TAS1R1 has been pseudogenized in both pandas. These findings offer insights into genetic convergence mechanisms underlying phenotypic convergence and adaptation to a specialized bamboo diet.

  4. Canine distemper viral infection threatens the giant panda population in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Yipeng; Zhang, Xinke; Ma, Yisheng; Qiao, Yanchao; Liu, Xiaobin; Zhao, Kaihui; Zhang, Chenglin; Lin, Degui; Fu, Xuelian; Xu, Xinrong; Wang, Yiwei; Wang, Huanan

    2017-01-01

    We evaluated exposure to canine distemper virus (CDV) in eight wild giant pandas (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) and 125 unvaccinated domestic dogs living in and around Foping National Nature Reserve (FNNR), China. Seventy-two percent of unvaccinated domestic dogs (mixed breed) had neutralizing antibodies for CDV due to exposure to the disease. The eight wild giant pandas were naïve to CDV and carried no positive antibody titer. RT-PCR assays for hemagglutinin (H) gene confirmed the presence of CDV in 31 clinically ill dogs from several areas near FNNR. Genomic sequence analysis showed that the 21 canine CDV were highly homologous to each other and belonged to the Asian-1 genotype. They showed high homology with the GP01 strain sequenced from a fatally infected giant panda, suggesting cross-species infection. Observational and GPS tracking data revealed home range overlap in pandas and dogs around FNNR. This study shows that CDV is endemic in domestic dogs near FNNR and that cross-species CDV infection threatens the wild giant panda population. PMID:29371956

  5. Decreased microbial diversity and Lactobacillus group in the intestine of geriatric giant pandas (Ailuropoda melanoleuca).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Zhirong; Zeng, Dong; Wang, Qiang; Niu, Lili; Ni, Xueqin; Zou, Fuqin; Yang, Mingyue; Sun, Hao; Zhou, Yi; Liu, Qian; Yin, Zhongqiong; Pan, Kangcheng; Jing, Bo

    2016-05-01

    It has been established beyond doubt that giant panda genome lacks lignin-degrading related enzyme, gastrointestinal microbes may play a vital role in digestion of highly fibrous bamboo diet. However, there is not much information available about the intestinal bacteria composition in captive giant pandas with different ages. In this study, we compared the intestinal bacterial community of 12 captive giant pandas from three different age groups (subadults, adults, and geriatrics) through PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and real-time PCR analysis. Results indicated that microbial diversity in the intestine of adults was significantly higher than that of the geriatrics (p 0.05). The predominant bands in DGGE patterns shared by the twelve pandas were related to Firmicutes and Proteobacteria. Additionally, in comparison to healthy individuals, antibiotic-treated animals showed partial microbial dysbiosis. Real-time PCR analyses confirmed a significantly higher abundance of the Lactobacillus in the fecal microbiota of adults (p 0.05). This study revealed that captive giant pandas with different ages showed different intestinal bacteria composition.

  6. Habitat use by giant panda in relation to man-made forest in Wanglang Nature Reserve of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Dongwei; Wang, Xiaorong; Yang, Hongwei; Duan, Lijuan; Li, Junqing

    2014-12-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of human restoration in species conservation, in this study, we undertook a field survey of giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) habitat and man-made forest habitat in Wanglang Nature Reserve of China. Our results revealed that giant panda did not use the man-made forest in this area so far, and that there were significant differences between the giant panda habitat and the man-made forest habitat. Compared with giant panda habitat, the man-made forest habitat was characterized by lower shrub coverage, thinner trees and lower bamboo density. To improve the effectiveness of human restoration, the habitat requirement of giant panda should be fully consider in the whole process of habitat restoration.

  7. Large-scale, multi-compartment tests in PANDA for LWR-containment analysis and code validation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paladino, Domenico; Auban, Olivier; Zboray, Robert

    2006-01-01

    The large-scale thermal-hydraulic PANDA facility has been used for the last years for investigating passive decay heat removal systems and related containment phenomena relevant for next-generation and current light water reactors. As part of the 5. EURATOM framework program project TEMPEST, a series of tests was performed in PANDA to experimentally investigate the distribution of hydrogen inside the containment and its effect on the performance of the Passive Containment Cooling System (PCCS) designed for the Economic Simplified Boiling Water Reactor (ESBWR). In a postulated severe accident, a large amount of hydrogen could be released in the Reactor Pressure Vessel (RPV) as a consequence of the cladding Metal- Water (M-W) reaction and discharged together with steam to the Drywell (DW) compartment. In PANDA tests, hydrogen was simulated by using helium. This paper illustrates the results of a TEMPEST test performed in PANDA and named as Test T1.2. In Test T1.2, the gas stratification (steam-helium) patterns forming in the large-scale multi-compartment PANDA DW, and the effect of non-condensable gas (helium) on the overall behaviour of the PCCS were identified. Gas mixing and stratification in a large-scale multi-compartment system are currently being further investigated in PANDA in the frame of the OECD project SETH. The testing philosophy in this new PANDA program is to produce data for code validation in relation to specific phenomena, such as: gas stratification in the containment, gas transport between containment compartments, wall condensation, etc. These types of phenomena are driven by buoyant high-momentum injections (jets) and/or low momentum injection (plumes), depending on the transient scenario. In this context, the new SETH tests in PANDA are particularly valuable to produce an experimental database for code assessment. This paper also presents an overview of the PANDA SETH tests and the major improvements in instrumentation carried out in the PANDA

  8. Giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) population dynamics and bamboo (subfamily Bambusoideae) life history: a structured population approach to examining carrying capacity when the prey are semelparous

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, J.; Ackleh, A.S.; Leonard, B.P.; Wang, Hongfang

    1999-01-01

    The giant panda, Ailuropoda melanoleuca, is a highly specialized Ursid whose diet consists almost entirely of various species of bamboo. Bamboo (Bambusoideae) is a grass subfamily whose species often exhibit a synchronous semelparity. Synchronous semelparity can create local drops in carrying capacity for the panda. We modeled the interaction of pandas and their bamboo food resources with an age structured panda population model linked to a natural history model of bamboo biomass dynamics based on literature values of bamboo biomass, and giant panda life history dynamics. This paper reports the results of our examination of the interaction between pandas and their bamboo food resource and its implications for panda conservation. In the model all panda populations were well below the carrying capacity of the habitat. The giant panda populations growth was most sensitive to changes in birth rates and removal of reproductive aged individuals. Periodic starvation that has been documented in conjunction with bamboo die-offs is probably related to the inability to move to other areas within the region where bamboo is still available. Based on the results of this model, giant panda conservation should concentrate on keeping breeding individuals in the wild, keep corridors to different bamboo species open to pandas, and to concentrate research on bamboo life history.

  9. Residency training program: Perceptions of residents

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. Background: There is a phobia among doctors for the residency training program, since the establishment of ... Materials and Methods: Structured questionnaires were administered to residents at 3 training institutions in Nigeria. Results: ... Keywords: Decentralization, motivation, perception, remuneration, residents.

  10. Integration Of PanDA Workload Management System With Supercomputers for ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Oleynik, Danila; The ATLAS collaboration; De, Kaushik; Wenaus, Torre; Maeno, Tadashi; Barreiro Megino, Fernando Harald; Nilsson, Paul; Guan, Wen; Panitkin, Sergey

    2016-01-01

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC), operating at the international CERN Laboratory in Geneva, Switzerland, is leading Big Data driven scientific explorations. Experiments at the LHC explore the fundamental nature of matter and the basic forces that shape our universe, and were recently credited for the discovery of a Higgs boson. ATLAS, one of the largest collaborations ever assembled in the sciences, is at the forefront of research at the LHC. To address an unprecedented multi-petabyte data processing challenge, the ATLAS experiment is relying on a heterogeneous distributed computational infrastructure. The ATLAS experiment uses PanDA (Production ANd Distributed Analysis system) Workload Management System for managing the workflow for all data processing on over 150 data centers. Through PanDA, ATLAS physicists see a single computing facility that enables rapid scientific breakthroughs for the experiment, even though the data centers are physically scattered all over the world. While PanDA currently uses more t...

  11. The sequence and de novo assembly of the giant panda genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ruiqiang; Fan, Wei; Tian, Geng; Zhu, Hongmei; He, Lin; Cai, Jing; Huang, Quanfei; Cai, Qingle; Li, Bo; Bai, Yinqi; Zhang, Zhihe; Zhang, Yaping; Wang, Wen; Li, Jun; Wei, Fuwen; Li, Heng; Jian, Min; Li, Jianwen; Zhang, Zhaolei; Nielsen, Rasmus; Li, Dawei; Gu, Wanjun; Yang, Zhentao; Xuan, Zhaoling; Ryder, Oliver A; Leung, Frederick Chi-Ching; Zhou, Yan; Cao, Jianjun; Sun, Xiao; Fu, Yonggui; Fang, Xiaodong; Guo, Xiaosen; Wang, Bo; Hou, Rong; Shen, Fujun; Mu, Bo; Ni, Peixiang; Lin, Runmao; Qian, Wubin; Wang, Guodong; Yu, Chang; Nie, Wenhui; Wang, Jinhuan; Wu, Zhigang; Liang, Huiqing; Min, Jiumeng; Wu, Qi; Cheng, Shifeng; Ruan, Jue; Wang, Mingwei; Shi, Zhongbin; Wen, Ming; Liu, Binghang; Ren, Xiaoli; Zheng, Huisong; Dong, Dong; Cook, Kathleen; Shan, Gao; Zhang, Hao; Kosiol, Carolin; Xie, Xueying; Lu, Zuhong; Zheng, Hancheng; Li, Yingrui; Steiner, Cynthia C; Lam, Tommy Tsan-Yuk; Lin, Siyuan; Zhang, Qinghui; Li, Guoqing; Tian, Jing; Gong, Timing; Liu, Hongde; Zhang, Dejin; Fang, Lin; Ye, Chen; Zhang, Juanbin; Hu, Wenbo; Xu, Anlong; Ren, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Guojie; Bruford, Michael W; Li, Qibin; Ma, Lijia; Guo, Yiran; An, Na; Hu, Yujie; Zheng, Yang; Shi, Yongyong; Li, Zhiqiang; Liu, Qing; Chen, Yanling; Zhao, Jing; Qu, Ning; Zhao, Shancen; Tian, Feng; Wang, Xiaoling; Wang, Haiyin; Xu, Lizhi; Liu, Xiao; Vinar, Tomas; Wang, Yajun; Lam, Tak-Wah; Yiu, Siu-Ming; Liu, Shiping; Zhang, Hemin; Li, Desheng; Huang, Yan; Wang, Xia; Yang, Guohua; Jiang, Zhi; Wang, Junyi; Qin, Nan; Li, Li; Li, Jingxiang; Bolund, Lars; Kristiansen, Karsten; Wong, Gane Ka-Shu; Olson, Maynard; Zhang, Xiuqing; Li, Songgang; Yang, Huanming; Wang, Jian; Wang, Jun

    2010-01-21

    Using next-generation sequencing technology alone, we have successfully generated and assembled a draft sequence of the giant panda genome. The assembled contigs (2.25 gigabases (Gb)) cover approximately 94% of the whole genome, and the remaining gaps (0.05 Gb) seem to contain carnivore-specific repeats and tandem repeats. Comparisons with the dog and human showed that the panda genome has a lower divergence rate. The assessment of panda genes potentially underlying some of its unique traits indicated that its bamboo diet might be more dependent on its gut microbiome than its own genetic composition. We also identified more than 2.7 million heterozygous single nucleotide polymorphisms in the diploid genome. Our data and analyses provide a foundation for promoting mammalian genetic research, and demonstrate the feasibility for using next-generation sequencing technologies for accurate, cost-effective and rapid de novo assembly of large eukaryotic genomes.

  12. Feasibility studies of time-like proton electromagnetic form factors at PANDA at FAIR

    CERN Document Server

    Singh, B.; Krusche, B.; Steinacher, M.; Walford, N.; Liu, B.; Liu, H.; Liu, Z.; Shen, X.; Wang, C.; Zhao, J.; Albrecht, M.; Erlen, T.; Fink, M.; Heinsius, F.; Held, T.; Holtmann, T.; Jasper, S.; Keshk, I.; Koch, H.; Kopf, B.; Kuhlmann, M.; Kümmel, M.; Leiber, S.; Mikirtychyants, M.; Musiol, P.; Mustafa, A.; Pelizäus, M.; Pychy, J.; Richter, M.; Schnier, C.; Schröder, T.; Sowa, C.; Steinke, M.; Triffterer, T.; Wiedner, U.; Ball, M.; Beck, R.; Hammann, C.; Ketzer, B.; Kube, M.; Mahlberg, P.; Rossbach, M.; Schmidt, C.; Schmitz, R.; Thoma, U.; Urban, M.; Walther, D.; Wendel, C.; Wilson, A.; Bianconi, A.; Bragadireanu, M.; Caprini, M.; Pantea, D.; Patel, B.; Czyzycki, W.; Domagala, M.; Filo, G.; Jaworowski, J.; Krawczyk, M.; Lisowski, F.; Lisowski, E.; Michałek, M.; Poznański, P.; Płażek, J.; Korcyl, K.; Kozela, A.; Kulessa, P.; Lebiedowicz, P.; Pysz, K.; Schäfer, W.; Szczurek, A.; Fiutowski, T.; Idzik, M.; Mindur, B.; Przyborowski, D.; Swientek, K.; Biernat, J.; Kamys, B.; Kistryn, S.; Korcyl, G.; Krzemien, W.; Magiera, A.; Moskal, P.; Pyszniak, A.; Rudy, Z.; Salabura, P.; Smyrski, J.; Strzempek, P.; Wronska, A.; Augustin, I.; Böhm, R.; Lehmann, I.; Marinescu, D. Nicmorus; Schmitt, L.; Varentsov, V.; Al-Turany, M.; Belias, A.; Deppe, H.; Dzhygadlo, R.; Ehret, A.; Flemming, H.; Gerhardt, A.; Götzen, K.; Gromliuk, A.; Gruber, L.; Karabowicz, R.; Kliemt, R.; Krebs, M.; Kurilla, U.; Lehmann, D.; Löchner, S.; Lühning, J.; Lynen, U.; Orth, H.; Patsyuk, M.; Peters, K.; Saito, T.; Schepers, G.; Schmidt, C.J.; Schwarz, C.; Schwiening, J.; Täschner, A.; Traxler, M.; Ugur, C.; Voss, B.; Wieczorek, P.; Wilms, A.; Zühlsdorf, M.; Abazov, V.; Alexeev, G.; Arefiev, V.A.; Astakhov, V.; Barabanov, M. Yu.; Batyunya, B.V.; Davydov, Y.; Dodokhov, V. Kh.; Efremov, A.; Fechtchenko, A.; Fedunov, A.G.; Galoyan, A.; Grigoryan, S.; Koshurnikov, E.K.; Lobanov, Y. Yu.; Lobanov, V.I.; Makarov, A.F.; Malinina, L.V.; Malyshev, V.; Olshevskiy, A.G.; Perevalova, E.; Piskun, A.A.; Pocheptsov, T.; Pontecorvo, G.; Rodionov, V.; Rogov, Y.; Salmin, R.; Samartsev, A.; Sapozhnikov, M.G.; Shabratova, G.; Skachkov, N.B.; Skachkova, A.N.; Strokovsky, E.A.; Suleimanov, M.; Teshev, R.; Tokmenin, V.; Uzhinsky, V.; Vodopianov, A.; Zaporozhets, S.A.; Zhuravlev, N.I.; Zorin, A.G.; Branford, D.; Glazier, D.; Watts, D.; Böhm, M.; Britting, A.; Eyrich, W.; Lehmann, A.; Pfaffinger, M.; Uhlig, F.; Dobbs, S.; Seth, K.; Tomaradze, A.; Xiao, T.; Bettoni, D.; Carassiti, V.; Cotta Ramusino, A.; Dalpiaz, P.; Drago, A.; Fioravanti, E.; Garzia, I.; Savrie, M.; Akishina, V.; Kisel, I.; Kozlov, G.; Pugach, M.; Zyzak, M.; Gianotti, P.; Guaraldo, C.; Lucherini, V.; Bersani, A.; Bracco, G.; Macri, M.; Parodi, R.F.; Biguenko, K.; Brinkmann, K.; Di Pietro, V.; Diehl, S.; Dormenev, V.; Drexler, P.; Düren, M.; Etzelmüller, E.; Galuska, M.; Gutz, E.; Hahn, C.; Hayrapetyan, A.; Kesselkaul, M.; Kühn, W.; Kuske, T.; Lange, J.S.; Liang, Y.; Metag, V.; Nanova, M.; Nazarenko, S.; Novotny, R.; Quagli, T.; Reiter, S.; Rieke, J.; Rosenbaum, C.; Schmidt, M.; Schnell, R.; Stenzel, H.; Thöring, U.; Ullrich, M.; Wagner, M.N.; Wasem, T.; Wohlfahrt, B.; Zaunick, H.; Ireland, D.; Rosner, G.; Seitz, B.; Deepak, P.N.; Kulkarni, A.; Apostolou, A.; Babai, M.; Kavatsyuk, M.; Lemmens, P.J.; Lindemulder, M.; Loehner, H.; Messchendorp, J.; Schakel, P.; Smit, H.; Tiemens, M.; van der Weele, J.C.; Veenstra, R.; Vejdani, S.; Dutta, K.; Kalita, K.; Kumar, A.; Roy, A.; Sohlbach, H.; Bai, M.; Bianchi, L.; Büscher, M.; Cao, L.; Cebulla, A.; Dosdall, R.; Gillitzer, A.; Goldenbaum, F.; Grunwald, D.; Herten, A.; Hu, Q.; Kemmerling, G.; Kleines, H.; Lehrach, A.; Nellen, R.; Ohm, H.; Orfanitski, S.; Prasuhn, D.; Prencipe, E.; Pütz, J.; Ritman, J.; Schadmand, S.; Sefzick, T.; Serdyuk, V.; Sterzenbach, G.; Stockmanns, T.; Wintz, P.; Wüstner, P.; Xu, H.; Zambanini, A.; Li, S.; Li, Z.; Sun, Z.; Rigato, V.; Isaksson, L.; Achenbach, P.; Corell, O.; Denig, A.; Distler, M.; Hoek, M.; Karavdina, A.; Lauth, W.; Merkel, H.; Müller, U.; Pochodzalla, J.; Sanchez, S.; Schlimme, S.; Sfienti, C.; Thiel, M.; Ahmadi, H.; Ahmed, S.; Bleser, S.; Capozza, L.; Cardinali, M.; Dbeyssi, A.; Deiseroth, M.; Feldbauer, F.; Fritsch, M.; Fröhlich, B.; Jasinski, P.; Kang, D.; Khaneft, D.; Klasen, R.; Leithoff, H.H.; Lin, D.; Maas, F.; Maldaner, S.; Marta, M.; Michel, M.; Espí, M. C. Mora; Morales Morales, C.; Motzko, C.; Nerling, F.; Noll, O.; Pflüger, S.; Pitka, A.; Piñeiro, D. Rodríguez; Sanchez-Lorente, A.; Steinen, M.; Valente, R.; Weber, T.; Zambrana, M.; Zimmermann, I.; Fedorov, A.; Korjik, M.; Missevitch, O.; Boukharov, A.; Malyshev, O.; Marishev, I.; Balanutsa, V.; Balanutsa, P.; Chernetsky, V.; Demekhin, A.; Dolgolenko, A.; Fedorets, P.; Gerasimov, A.; Goryachev, V.; Chandratre, V.; Datar, V.; Dutta, D.; Jha, V.; Kumawat, H.; Mohanty, A.K.; Parmar, A.; Roy, B.; Sonika, G.; Fritzsch, C.; Grieser, S.; Hergemöller, A.; Hetz, B.; Hüsken, N.; Khoukaz, A.; Wessels, J.P.; Khosonthongkee, K.; Kobdaj, C.; Limphirat, A.; Srisawad, P.; Yan, Y.; Barnyakov, M.; Barnyakov, A. Yu.; Beloborodov, K.; Blinov, A.E.; Blinov, V.E.; Bobrovnikov, V.S.; Kononov, S.; Kravchenko, E.A.; Kuyanov, I.A.; Martin, K.; Onuchin, A.P.; Serednyakov, S.; Sokolov, A.; Tikhonov, Y.; Atomssa, E.; Kunne, R.; Marchand, D.; Ramstein, B.; van de Wiele, J.; Wang, Y.; Boca, G.; Costanza, S.; Genova, P.; Montagna, P.; Rotondi, A.; Abramov, V.; Belikov, N.; Bukreeva, S.; Davidenko, A.; Derevschikov, A.; Goncharenko, Y.; Grishin, V.; Kachanov, V.; Kormilitsin, V.; Levin, A.; Melnik, Y.; Minaev, N.; Mochalov, V.; Morozov, D.; Nogach, L.; Poslavskiy, S.; Ryazantsev, A.; Ryzhikov, S.; Semenov, P.; Shein, I.; Uzunian, A.; Vasiliev, A.; Yakutin, A.; Tomasi-Gustafsson, E.; Roy, U.; Yabsley, B.; Belostotski, S.; Gavrilov, G.; Izotov, A.; Manaenkov, S.; Miklukho, O.; Veretennikov, D.; Zhdanov, A.; Makonyi, K.; Preston, M.; Tegner, P.; Wölbing, D.; Bäck, T.; Cederwall, B.; Rai, A.K.; Godre, S.; Calvo, D.; Coli, S.; De Remigis, P.; Filippi, A.; Giraudo, G.; Lusso, S.; Mazza, G.; Mignone, M.; Rivetti, A.; Wheadon, R.; Balestra, F.; Iazzi, F.; Introzzi, R.; Lavagno, A.; Olave, J.; Amoroso, A.; Bussa, M.P.; Busso, L.; De Mori, F.; Destefanis, M.; Fava, L.; Ferrero, L.; Greco, M.; Hu, J.; Lavezzi, L.; Maggiora, M.; Maniscalco, G.; Marcello, S.; Sosio, S.; Spataro, S.; Birsa, R.; Bradamante, F.; Bressan, A.; Martin, A.; Calen, H.; Andersson, W. Ikegami; Johansson, T.; Kupsc, A.; Marciniewski, P.; Papenbrock, M.; Pettersson, J.; Schönning, K.; Wolke, M.; Galnander, B.; Diaz, J.; Chackara, V. Pothodi; Chlopik, A.; Kesik, G.; Melnychuk, D.; Slowinski, B.; Trzcinski, A.; Wojciechowski, M.; Wronka, S.; Zwieglinski, B.; Bühler, P.; Marton, J.; Steinschaden, D.; Suzuki, K.; Widmann, E.; Zmeskal, J.

    2016-01-01

    The results of simulations for future measurements of electromagnetic form factors at \\PANDA (FAIR) within the PandaRoot software framework are reported. The statistical precision at which the proton form factors can be determined is estimated. The signal channel $\\bar p p \\to e^+ e^-$ is studied on the basis of two different but consistent procedures. The suppression of the main background channel, i.e. the $\\bar p p \\to \\pi^+ \\pi^-$, is studied. Furthermore, the background versus signal efficiency, statistic and systematic uncertainties on the extracted proton form factors are evaluated using to the two different procedures. The results are consistent with those of a previous simulation study using an older, simplified framework. However, a slightly better precision is achieved in the PandaRoot study in a large range of momentum transfer, assuming the nominal beam condition and detector performances.

  13. Feasibility studies of time-like proton electromagnetic form factors at overlinePANDA at FAIR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, B.; Erni, W.; Krusche, B.; Steinacher, M.; Walford, N.; Liu, B.; Liu, H.; Liu, Z.; Shen, X.; Wang, C.; Zhao, J.; Albrecht, M.; Erlen, T.; Fink, M.; Heinsius, F.; Held, T.; Holtmann, T.; Jasper, S.; Keshk, I.; Koch, H.; Kopf, B.; Kuhlmann, M.; Kümmel, M.; Leiber, S.; Mikirtychyants, M.; Musiol, P.; Mustafa, A.; Pelizäus, M.; Pychy, J.; Richter, M.; Schnier, C.; Schröder, T.; Sowa, C.; Steinke, M.; Triffterer, T.; Wiedner, U.; Ball, M.; Beck, R.; Hammann, C.; Ketzer, B.; Kube, M.; Mahlberg, P.; Rossbach, M.; Schmidt, C.; Schmitz, R.; Thoma, U.; Urban, M.; Walther, D.; Wendel, C.; Wilson, A.; Bianconi, A.; Bragadireanu, M.; Caprini, M.; Pantea, D.; Patel, B.; Czyzycki, W.; Domagala, M.; Filo, G.; Jaworowski, J.; Krawczyk, M.; Lisowski, F.; Lisowski, E.; Michałek, M.; Poznański, P.; Płażek, J.; Korcyl, K.; Kozela, A.; Kulessa, P.; Lebiedowicz, P.; Pysz, K.; Schäfer, W.; Szczurek, A.; Fiutowski, T.; Idzik, M.; Mindur, B.; Przyborowski, D.; Swientek, K.; Biernat, J.; Kamys, B.; Kistryn, S.; Korcyl, G.; Krzemien, W.; Magiera, A.; Moskal, P.; Pyszniak, A.; Rudy, Z.; Salabura, P.; Smyrski, J.; Strzempek, P.; Wronska, A.; Augustin, I.; Böhm, R.; Lehmann, I.; Nicmorus Marinescu, D.; Schmitt, L.; Varentsov, V.; Al-Turany, M.; Belias, A.; Deppe, H.; Dzhygadlo, R.; Ehret, A.; Flemming, H.; Gerhardt, A.; Götzen, K.; Gromliuk, A.; Gruber, L.; Karabowicz, R.; Kliemt, R.; Krebs, M.; Kurilla, U.; Lehmann, D.; Löchner, S.; Lühning, J.; Lynen, U.; Orth, H.; Patsyuk, M.; Peters, K.; Saito, T.; Schepers, G.; Schmidt, C. J.; Schwarz, C.; Schwiening, J.; Täschner, A.; Traxler, M.; Ugur, C.; Voss, B.; Wieczorek, P.; Wilms, A.; Zühlsdorf, M.; Abazov, V.; Alexeev, G.; Arefiev, V. A.; Astakhov, V.; Barabanov, M. Yu.; Batyunya, B. V.; Davydov, Y.; Dodokhov, V. Kh.; Efremov, A.; Fechtchenko, A.; Fedunov, A. G.; Galoyan, A.; Grigoryan, S.; Koshurnikov, E. K.; Lobanov, Y. Yu.; Lobanov, V. I.; Makarov, A. F.; Malinina, L. V.; Malyshev, V.; Olshevskiy, A. G.; Perevalova, E.; Piskun, A. A.; Pocheptsov, T.; Pontecorvo, G.; Rodionov, V.; Rogov, Y.; Salmin, R.; Samartsev, A.; Sapozhnikov, M. G.; Shabratova, G.; Skachkov, N. B.; Skachkova, A. N.; Strokovsky, E. A.; Suleimanov, M.; Teshev, R.; Tokmenin, V.; Uzhinsky, V.; Vodopianov, A.; Zaporozhets, S. A.; Zhuravlev, N. I.; Zorin, A. G.; Branford, D.; Glazier, D.; Watts, D.; Böhm, M.; Britting, A.; Eyrich, W.; Lehmann, A.; Pfaffinger, M.; Uhlig, F.; Dobbs, S.; Seth, K.; Tomaradze, A.; Xiao, T.; Bettoni, D.; Carassiti, V.; Cotta Ramusino, A.; Dalpiaz, P.; Drago, A.; Fioravanti, E.; Garzia, I.; Savrie, M.; Akishina, V.; Kisel, I.; Kozlov, G.; Pugach, M.; Zyzak, M.; Gianotti, P.; Guaraldo, C.; Lucherini, V.; Bersani, A.; Bracco, G.; Macri, M.; Parodi, R. F.; Biguenko, K.; Brinkmann, K.; Di Pietro, V.; Diehl, S.; Dormenev, V.; Drexler, P.; Düren, M.; Etzelmüller, E.; Galuska, M.; Gutz, E.; Hahn, C.; Hayrapetyan, A.; Kesselkaul, M.; Kühn, W.; Kuske, T.; Lange, J. S.; Liang, Y.; Metag, V.; Nanova, M.; Nazarenko, S.; Novotny, R.; Quagli, T.; Reiter, S.; Rieke, J.; Rosenbaum, C.; Schmidt, M.; Schnell, R.; Stenzel, H.; Thöring, U.; Ullrich, M.; Wagner, M. N.; Wasem, T.; Wohlfahrt, B.; Zaunick, H.; Ireland, D.; Rosner, G.; Seitz, B.; Deepak, P. N.; Kulkarni, A.; Apostolou, A.; Babai, M.; Kavatsyuk, M.; Lemmens, P. J.; Lindemulder, M.; Loehner, H.; Messchendorp, J.; Schakel, P.; Smit, H.; Tiemens, M.; van der Weele, J. C.; Veenstra, R.; Vejdani, S.; Dutta, K.; Kalita, K.; Kumar, A.; Roy, A.; Sohlbach, H.; Bai, M.; Bianchi, L.; Büscher, M.; Cao, L.; Cebulla, A.; Dosdall, R.; Gillitzer, A.; Goldenbaum, F.; Grunwald, D.; Herten, A.; Hu, Q.; Kemmerling, G.; Kleines, H.; Lehrach, A.; Nellen, R.; Ohm, H.; Orfanitski, S.; Prasuhn, D.; Prencipe, E.; Pütz, J.; Ritman, J.; Schadmand, S.; Sefzick, T.; Serdyuk, V.; Sterzenbach, G.; Stockmanns, T.; Wintz, P.; Wüstner, P.; Xu, H.; Zambanini, A.; Li, S.; Li, Z.; Sun, Z.; Xu, H.; Rigato, V.; Isaksson, L.; Achenbach, P.; Corell, O.; Denig, A.; Distler, M.; Hoek, M.; Karavdina, A.; Lauth, W.; Liu, Z.; Merkel, H.; Müller, U.; Pochodzalla, J.; Sanchez, S.; Schlimme, S.; Sfienti, C.; Thiel, M.; Ahmadi, H.; Ahmed, S.; Bleser, S.; Capozza, L.; Cardinali, M.; Dbeyssi, A.; Deiseroth, M.; Feldbauer, F.; Fritsch, M.; Fröhlich, B.; Jasinski, P.; Kang, D.; Khaneft, D.; Klasen, R.; Leithoff, H. H.; Lin, D.; Maas, F.; Maldaner, S.; Martínez, M.; Michel, M.; Mora Espí, M. C.; Morales Morales, C.; Motzko, C.; Nerling, F.; Noll, O.; Pflüger, S.; Pitka, A.; Rodríguez Piñeiro, D.; Sanchez-Lorente, A.; Steinen, M.; Valente, R.; Weber, T.; Zambrana, M.; Zimmermann, I.; Fedorov, A.; Korjik, M.; Missevitch, O.; Boukharov, A.; Malyshev, O.; Marishev, I.; Balanutsa, V.; Balanutsa, P.; Chernetsky, V.; Demekhin, A.; Dolgolenko, A.; Fedorets, P.; Gerasimov, A.; Goryachev, V.; Chandratre, V.; Datar, V.; Dutta, D.; Jha, V.; Kumawat, H.; Mohanty, A. K.; Parmar, A.; Roy, B.; Sonika, G.; Fritzsch, C.; Grieser, S.; Hergemöller, A.; Hetz, B.; Hüsken, N.; Khoukaz, A.; Wessels, J. P.; Khosonthongkee, K.; Kobdaj, C.; Limphirat, A.; Srisawad, P.; Yan, Y.; Barnyakov, M.; Barnyakov, A. Yu.; Beloborodov, K.; Blinov, A. E.; Blinov, V. E.; Bobrovnikov, V. S.; Kononov, S.; Kravchenko, E. A.; Kuyanov, I. A.; Martin, K.; Onuchin, A. P.; Serednyakov, S.; Sokolov, A.; Tikhonov, Y.; Atomssa, E.; Kunne, R.; Marchand, D.; Ramstein, B.; van de Wiele, J.; Wang, Y.; Boca, G.; Costanza, S.; Genova, P.; Montagna, P.; Rotondi, A.; Abramov, V.; Belikov, N.; Bukreeva, S.; Davidenko, A.; Derevschikov, A.; Goncharenko, Y.; Grishin, V.; Kachanov, V.; Kormilitsin, V.; Levin, A.; Melnik, Y.; Minaev, N.; Mochalov, V.; Morozov, D.; Nogach, L.; Poslavskiy, S.; Ryazantsev, A.; Ryzhikov, S.; Semenov, P.; Shein, I.; Uzunian, A.; Vasiliev, A.; Yakutin, A.; Tomasi-Gustafsson, E.; Roy, U.; Yabsley, B.; Belostotski, S.; Gavrilov, G.; Izotov, A.; Manaenkov, S.; Miklukho, O.; Veretennikov, D.; Zhdanov, A.; Makonyi, K.; Preston, M.; Tegner, P.; Wölbing, D.; Bäck, T.; Cederwall, B.; Rai, A. K.; Godre, S.; Calvo, D.; Coli, S.; De Remigis, P.; Filippi, A.; Giraudo, G.; Lusso, S.; Mazza, G.; Mignone, M.; Rivetti, A.; Wheadon, R.; Balestra, F.; Iazzi, F.; Introzzi, R.; Lavagno, A.; Olave, J.; Amoroso, A.; Bussa, M. P.; Busso, L.; De Mori, F.; Destefanis, M.; Fava, L.; Ferrero, L.; Greco, M.; Hu, J.; Lavezzi, L.; Maggiora, M.; Maniscalco, G.; Marcello, S.; Sosio, S.; Spataro, S.; Birsa, R.; Bradamante, F.; Bressan, A.; Martin, A.; Calen, H.; Ikegami Andersson, W.; Johansson, T.; Kupsc, A.; Marciniewski, P.; Papenbrock, M.; Pettersson, J.; Schönning, K.; Wolke, M.; Galnander, B.; Diaz, J.; Pothodi Chackara, V.; Chlopik, A.; Kesik, G.; Melnychuk, D.; Slowinski, B.; Trzcinski, A.; Wojciechowski, M.; Wronka, S.; Zwieglinski, B.; Bühler, P.; Marton, J.; Steinschaden, D.; Suzuki, K.; Widmann, E.; Zmeskal, J.

    2016-10-01

    Simulation results for future measurements of electromagnetic proton form factors at overlinePANDA (FAIR) within the PandaRoot software framework are reported. The statistical precision with which the proton form factors can be determined is estimated. The signal channel bar{p}p→ e+e- is studied on the basis of two different but consistent procedures. The suppression of the main background channel, i.e. bar{p}p→ π+π-, is studied. Furthermore, the background versus signal efficiency, statistical and systematical uncertainties on the extracted proton form factors are evaluated using two different procedures. The results are consistent with those of a previous simulation study using an older, simplified framework. However, a slightly better precision is achieved in the PandaRoot study in a large range of momentum transfer, assuming the nominal beam conditions and detector performance.

  14. Simulation and reconstruction of photon patterns in the PANDA 3D Disc DIRC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merle, O; Düren, M; Föhl, K; Hayrapetyan, A; Koch, P; Kreutzfeldt, K; Kröck, B; Sporleder, M; Stöckmann, N; Zühlsdorf, M

    2012-01-01

    The PANDA Disc DIRC is a novel type of Cherenkov detector, being developed to improve the charged particle identification of the upcoming PANDA experiment at the future FAIR facility. The detector has to cover the endcap region of the target spectrometer, resulting in a geometry that by now has never been applied to a DIRC detector. Additional complications are implied by tight space constraints at the foreseen position, interaction rates of 20 MHz up to 50 MHz and the experiments trigger-less readout scheme. To cope with the lack of experience, the development of detector concepts is driven by the development of computer simulations and dedicated reconstruction methods. The performance analysis of a preceding detector concept, presented at the DIRC workshop in 2009, showed several weaknesses which have been eliminated by revising the detector design. This publication summarizes the current status of the software, the reconstruction method and resulting detector performance of the improved design: the PANDA 3D Disc DIRC.

  15. First complete genome sequence of parainfluenza virus 5 isolated from lesser panda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Jun-Qiong; Zhai, Shao-Lun; Lin, Tao; Liu, Jian-Kui; Wang, He-Xing; Li, Bing; Zhang, He; Zou, Shu-Zhan; Zhou, Xia; Wu, Meng-Fan; Chen, Wu; Luo, Man-Lin

    2017-05-01

    Parainfluenza virus 5 (PIV5) is widespread in mammals and humans. Up to now, there is little information about PIV5 infection in lesser pandas. In this study, a PIV5 variant (named ZJQ-221) was isolated from a lesser panda with respiratory disease in Guangzhou zoo in Guangdong province, southern China. The full-length genome of ZJQ-221 was found to be 15,246 nucleotides and consisted of seven non-overlapping genes encoding eight proteins (i.e., NP, V, P, M, F, SH, HN and L). Sequence alignment and genetic analysis revealed that ZJQ-221 shared a close relationship with a PIV5 strain of canine-origin (1168-1) from South Korea. The findings of this study confirm the presence of PIV5 in lesser panda and indicate this mammal as a possible natural reservoir. Furthermore they highlight the urgent need to strengthen viral surveillance and control of PIV5 in zoo animals.

  16. Giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) sperm morphometry and function after repeated freezing and thawing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santiago-Moreno, J; Esteso, M C; Pradiee, J; Castaño, C; Toledano-Díaz, A; O'Brien, E; Lopez-Sebastián, A; Martínez-Nevado, E; Delclaux, M; Fernández-Morán, J; Zhihe, Z

    2016-05-01

    This work examines the effects of subsequent cycles of freezing-thawing on giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) sperm morphometry and function, and assesses whether density-gradient centrifugation (DGC) can increase the number of freezing-thawing cycles this sperm can withstand. A sperm sample was collected by electroejaculation from a mature giant panda and subjected to five freezing-thawing cycles. Although repeated freezing-thawing negatively affected (P 60% of the sperm cells in both treatments showed acrosome integrity even after the fifth freezing cycle. In fresh semen, the sperm head length was 4.7 μm, the head width 3.6 μm, area 14.3 μm(2) and perimeter length 14.1 μm. The present results suggest that giant panda sperm trends to be resistant to repeated freezing-thawing, even without DGC selection. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  17. PanDA for ATLAS distributed computing in the next decade

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(SzGeCERN)643806; The ATLAS collaboration; De, Kaushik; Klimentov, Alexei; Maeno, Tadashi; Nilsson, Paul; Oleynik, Danila; Padolski, Siarhei; Panitkin, Sergey; Wenaus, Torre

    2017-01-01

    The Production and Distributed Analysis (PanDA) system has been developed to meet ATLAS production and analysis requirements for a data-driven workload management system capable of operating at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) data processing scale. Heterogeneous resources used by the ATLAS experiment are distributed worldwide at hundreds of sites, thousands of physicists analyse the data remotely, the volume of processed data is beyond the exabyte scale, dozens of scientific applications are supported, while data processing requires more than a few billion hours of computing usage per year. PanDA performed very well over the last decade including the LHC Run 1 data taking period. However, it was decided to upgrade the whole system concurrently with the LHC’s first long shutdown in order to cope with rapidly changing computing infrastructure. After two years of reengineering efforts, PanDA has embedded capabilities for fully dynamic and flexible workload management. The static batch job paradigm was discarde...

  18. PanDA for ATLAS Distributed Computing in the Next Decade

    CERN Document Server

    Barreiro Megino, Fernando Harald; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The Production and Distributed Analysis (PanDA) system has been developed to meet ATLAS production and analysis requirements for a data-driven workload management system capable of operating at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) data processing scale. Heterogeneous resources used by the ATLAS experiment are distributed worldwide at hundreds of sites, thousands of physicists analyse the data remotely, the volume of processed data is beyond the exabyte scale, dozens of scientific applications are supported, while data processing requires more than a few billion hours of computing usage per year. PanDA performed very well over the last decade including the LHC Run 1 data taking period. However, it was decided to upgrade the whole system concurrently with the LHC’s first long shutdown in order to cope with rapidly changing computing infrastructure. After two years of reengineering efforts, PanDA has embedded capabilities for fully dynamic and flexible workload management. The static batch job paradigm was discarde...

  19. gLExec Integration with the ATLAS PanDA Workload Management System

    CERN Document Server

    Karavakis, Edward; Campana, Simone; De, Kaushik; Di Girolamo, Alessandro; Litmaath, Maarten; Maeno, Tadashi; Medrano Llamas, Ramon; Nilsson, Paul; Wenaus, Torre

    2015-01-01

    ATLAS user jobs are executed on Worker Nodes (WNs) by pilots sent to sites by pilot factories. This paradigm serves to allow a high job reliability and although it has clear advantages, such as making the working environment homogeneous, the approach presents security and traceability challenges. To address these challenges, gLExec can be used to let the payloads for each user be executed under a different UNIX user id that uniquely identifies the ATLAS user. This paper describes the recent improvements and evolution of the security model within the ATLAS PanDA system, including improvements in the PanDA pilot, in the PanDA server and their integration with MyProxy, a credential caching system that entitles a person or a service to act in the name of the issuer of the credential. Finally, it presents results from ATLAS user jobs running with gLExec and describes the deployment campaign within ATLAS.

  20. Feasibility studies of time-like proton electromagnetic form factors at PANDA at FAIR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, B. [Aligarth Muslim Univ., Aligarth (India). Physics Dept.; Erni, W.; Krusche, B. [Basel Univ. (Switzerland); Collaboration: The PANDA Collaboration; and others

    2016-10-15

    Simulation results for future measurements of electromagnetic proton form factors at PANDA(FAIR) within the PandaRoot software framework are reported. The statistical precision with which the proton form factors can be determined is estimated. The signal channel anti pp → e{sup +}e{sup -} is studied on the basis of two different but consistent procedures. The suppression of the main background channel, i.e. anti pp → π{sup +}π{sup -}, is studied. Furthermore, the background versus signal efficiency, statistical and systematical uncertainties on the extracted proton form factors are evaluated using two different procedures. The results are consistent with those of a previous simulation study using an older, simplified framework. However, a slightly better precision is achieved in the PandaRoot study in a large range of momentum transfer, assuming the nominal beam conditions and detector performance. (orig.)

  1. Energy digestibility of giant pandas on bamboo-only and on supplemented diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finley, Tommy G; Sikes, Robert S; Parsons, Jennifer L; Rude, Brian J; Bissell, Heidi A; Ouellette, John R

    2011-01-01

    Endangered giant pandas (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) are bears (Family Ursidae), within the order Carnivora. They specialize on an herbivorous diet of bamboo yet retain a gastrointestinal tract typical of their carnivorous ancestry. The evolutionary constraints of their digestive tract result in a low extraction efficiency from bamboo (giant pandas used in digestibility trials and through subsequent analyses with bomb calorimetry. Seven digestibility trials were conducted (three with bamboo-only diets and four with supplemental diets). Energy digestibilities ranged from 7.5-38.9% for mixed diets and 9.2-34.0% for bamboo-only diets. The bamboo-only trials summarized here represent, to our knowledge, the first empirical data available for energy digestibility on a bamboo diet for giant pandas. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  2. Integration of PanDA workload management system with Titan supercomputer at OLCF

    Science.gov (United States)

    De, K.; Klimentov, A.; Oleynik, D.; Panitkin, S.; Petrosyan, A.; Schovancova, J.; Vaniachine, A.; Wenaus, T.

    2015-12-01

    The PanDA (Production and Distributed Analysis) workload management system (WMS) was developed to meet the scale and complexity of LHC distributed computing for the ATLAS experiment. While PanDA currently distributes jobs to more than 100,000 cores at well over 100 Grid sites, the future LHC data taking runs will require more resources than Grid computing can possibly provide. To alleviate these challenges, ATLAS is engaged in an ambitious program to expand the current computing model to include additional resources such as the opportunistic use of supercomputers. We will describe a project aimed at integration of PanDA WMS with Titan supercomputer at Oak Ridge Leadership Computing Facility (OLCF). The current approach utilizes a modified PanDA pilot framework for job submission to Titan's batch queues and local data management, with light-weight MPI wrappers to run single threaded workloads in parallel on Titan's multicore worker nodes. It also gives PanDA new capability to collect, in real time, information about unused worker nodes on Titan, which allows precise definition of the size and duration of jobs submitted to Titan according to available free resources. This capability significantly reduces PanDA job wait time while improving Titan's utilization efficiency. This implementation was tested with a variety of Monte-Carlo workloads on Titan and is being tested on several other supercomputing platforms. Notice: This manuscript has been authored, by employees of Brookhaven Science Associates, LLC under Contract No. DE-AC02-98CH10886 with the U.S. Department of Energy. The publisher by accepting the manuscript for publication acknowledges that the United States Government retains a non-exclusive, paid-up, irrevocable, world-wide license to publish or reproduce the published form of this manuscript, or allow others to do so, for United States Government purposes.

  3. An ecophysiological perspective on likely giant panda habitat responses to climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuke; Mathewson, Paul D; Zhang, Qiongyue; Porter, Warren P; Ran, Jianghong

    2018-04-01

    Threatened and endangered species are more vulnerable to climate change due to small population and specific geographical distribution. Therefore, identifying and incorporating the biological processes underlying a species' adaptation to its environment are important for determining whether they can persist in situ. Correlative models are widely used to predict species' distribution changes, but generally fail to capture the buffering capacity of organisms. Giant pandas (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) live in topographically complex mountains and are known to avoid heat stress. Although many studies have found that climate change will lead to severe habitat loss and threaten previous conservation efforts, the mechanisms underlying panda's responses to climate change have not been explored. Here, we present a case study in Daxiangling Mountains, one of the six Mountain Systems that giant panda distributes. We used a mechanistic model, Niche Mapper, to explore what are likely panda habitat response to climate change taking physiological, behavioral and ecological responses into account, through which we map panda's climatic suitable activity area (SAA) for the first time. We combined SAA with bamboo forest distribution to yield highly suitable habitat (HSH) and seasonal suitable habitat (SSH), and their temporal dynamics under climate change were predicted. In general, SAA in the hottest month (July) would reduce 11.7%-52.2% by 2070, which is more moderate than predicted bamboo habitat loss (45.6%-86.9%). Limited by the availability of bamboo and forest, panda's suitable habitat loss increases, and only 15.5%-68.8% of current HSH would remain in 2070. Our method of mechanistic modeling can help to distinguish whether habitat loss is caused by thermal environmental deterioration or food loss under climate change. Furthermore, mechanistic models can produce robust predictions by incorporating ecophysiological feedbacks and minimizing extrapolation into novel environments. We

  4. Hopes and challenges for giant panda conservation under climate change in the Qinling Mountains of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Minghao; Guan, Tianpei; Hou, Meng; Liu, Gang; Zhou, Tianyuan

    2017-01-01

    One way that climate change will impact animal distributions is by altering habitat suitability and habitat fragmentation. Understanding the impacts of climate change on currently threatened species is of immediate importance because complex conservation planning will be required. Here, we mapped changes to the distribution, suitability, and fragmentation of giant panda habitat under climate change and quantified the direction and elevation of habitat shift and fragmentation patterns. These data were used to develop a series of new conservation strategies for the giant panda. Qinling Mountains, Shaanxi, China. Data from the most recent giant panda census, habitat factors, anthropogenic disturbance, climate variables, and climate predictions for the year 2050 (averaged across four general circulation models) were used to project giant panda habitat in Maxent. Differences in habitat patches were compared between now and 2050. While climate change will cause a 9.1% increase in suitable habitat and 9% reduction in subsuitable habitat by 2050, no significant net variation in the proportion of suitable and subsuitable habitat was found. However, a distinct climate change-induced habitat shift of 11 km eastward by 2050 is predicted firstly. Climate change will reduce the fragmentation of suitable habitat at high elevations and exacerbate the fragmentation of subsuitable habitat below 1,900 m above sea level. Reduced fragmentation at higher elevations and worsening fragmentation at lower elevations have the potential to cause overcrowding of giant pandas at higher altitudes, further exacerbating habitat shortage in the central Qinling Mountains. The habitat shift to the east due to climate change may provide new areas for giant pandas but poses severe challenges for future conservation.

  5. Analysis of the breast milk of giant pandas (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) and the preparation of substitutes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhihe; Hou, Rong; Lan, Jingchao; Wang, Hairui; Kurokawa, Hiroyuki; Takatsu, Zenta; Kobayashi, Toyokazu; Koie, Hiroshi; Kamata, Hiroshi; Kanayama, Kiichi; Watanabe, Toshi

    2016-06-01

    The first milk substitute for giant panda cubs was developed in 1988 based on limited data about giant panda breast milk and that of certain types of bear. Mixtures of other formulas have also been fed to cubs at some facilities. However, they are not of sufficient nutritional quality for promoting growth in panda cubs. Here, we report analysis of giant panda breast milk and propose new milk substitutes for cubs, which were developed based on the results of our analysis. The Chengdu Research Base of Giant Panda Breeding obtained breast milk samples from three giant pandas. Up to 30 ml of breast milk were collected from each mother by hand. Then, the milk samples were frozen and sent to Nihon University. The levels of protein, fat, carbohydrates, ash, moisture, vitamins, minerals, total amino acids, fatty acids, lactose and other carbohydrates in the milk were analyzed. The breast milk samples exhibited the following nutritional values: protein: 6.6-8.5%, fat: 6.9-16.4%, carbohydrates: 2.5-9.1%, ash: 0.9-1.0% and moisture: 67-83%. We designed two kinds of milk substitutes based on the data obtained and the nutritional requirements of dogs, cats and rodents. The nutritional composition of the milk substitutes for the first and second stages was as follows: protein: 38 and 26%, fat: 40 and 40%, carbohydrates: 13 and 25%, ash: 6 and 6% and moisture: 3 and 3%, respectively. In addition, the substitutes contained vitamins, minerals, taurine, docosahexaenoic acid, lactoferrin, nucleotides and other nutrients.

  6. Giant panda BAC library construction and assembly of a 650-kb contig spanning major histocompatibility complex class II region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pan Hui-Juan

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Giant panda is rare and endangered species endemic to China. The low rates of reproductive success and infectious disease resistance have severely hampered the development of captive and wild populations of the giant panda. The major histocompatibility complex (MHC plays important roles in immune response and reproductive system such as mate choice and mother-fetus bio-compatibility. It is thus essential to understand genetic details of the giant panda MHC. Construction of a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC library will provide a new tool for panda genome physical mapping and thus facilitate understanding of panda MHC genes. Results A giant panda BAC library consisting of 205,800 clones has been constructed. The average insert size was calculated to be 97 kb based on the examination of 174 randomly selected clones, indicating that the giant panda library contained 6.8-fold genome equivalents. Screening of the library with 16 giant panda PCR primer pairs revealed 6.4 positive clones per locus, in good agreement with an expected 6.8-fold genomic coverage of the library. Based on this BAC library, we constructed a contig map of the giant panda MHC class II region from BTNL2 to DAXX spanning about 650 kb by a three-step method: (1 PCR-based screening of the BAC library with primers from homologous MHC class II gene loci, end sequences and BAC clone shotgun sequences, (2 DNA sequencing validation of positive clones, and (3 restriction digest fingerprinting verification of inter-clone overlapping. Conclusion The identifications of genes and genomic regions of interest are greatly favored by the availability of this giant panda BAC library. The giant panda BAC library thus provides a useful platform for physical mapping, genome sequencing or complex analysis of targeted genomic regions. The 650 kb sequence-ready BAC contig map of the giant panda MHC class II region from BTNL2 to DAXX, verified by the three-step method, offers a

  7. Prototype radiators of a barrel DIRC for the PANDA experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hohler, Roland

    2011-01-01

    The antiproton experiment PANDA at the future accelerator facility FAIR will among others be able to measure charmonium states with a hitherto unreached accuracy. In order to reach this goal a very good particle-identification ability is required. A good separation between pions and kaons is reached by application of a Cherenkov detector. The power of a DIRC depends on the quality of its radiator. In order to be able to specify the quality of the radiator rods, in the framework of this thesis an optical measuring apparature was developed. This setup allows to measure the transmission as well as the surface roughness of the rods. Several radiator rods of synthetic quartz glass and acryl glass were studied. The measurement accuracy at high-quality rods lies for the transmission measurement at about 1 % and for the roughness at 1-2 Aa. The measurement result at different wavelengths exhibit a good agreement with the scalar scattering theory, which describes the connection between reflection coefficient and roughness. At a beam time at the GSI with a 2 GeV proton beam a first prototype for the barrel DIRC with a rod of synthetical quartz glass as radiator was tested. By variation of the incident angle and the position of the proton beam on the radiator Cherenkov rings could be uniquely detected. Additionally the Cherenkov angle and the single-photon resolution was determined in good agreement with the expected and the simulation.

  8. A novel endogenous betaretrovirus group characterized from polar bears (Ursus maritimus) and giant pandas (Ailuropoda melanoleuca)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mayer, Jens; Tsangaras, Kyriakos; Heeger, Felix

    2013-01-01

    . Molecular dating indicates the group originated before the divergence of bears from a common ancestor but is not present in all carnivores. Closely related sequences were identified in the giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) and characterized from its genome. We have designated the polar bear and giant...... panda sequences U. maritimus endogenous retrovirus (UmaERV) and A. melanoleuca endogenous retrovirus (AmeERV), respectively. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that the bear virus group is nested within the HERV-K supergroup among bovine and bat endogenous retroviruses suggesting a complex evolutionary...

  9. An Investigation of Cellulose Digesting Bacteria in the Panda Gut Microbiome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, M.; Leung, F. C.

    2014-12-01

    The Giant Panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) diet consists primarily of bamboo leaves, stems and shoots. However, the Giant Panda lacks genes for the enzymes needed to digest cellulose, the core component of bamboo. Thus, it is hypothesized that the cellulolytic digestion necessary for maintaining the Giant Panda diet is carried out by microbial symbionts in the panda gut microbiota. Fecal microbiota is used as surrogate index for gut microbiota since the Giant Panda is listed by the World Conservation Union as a Threatened Species. Two bacterial isolates with potential cellulolytic activity were isolated from Giant Panda fecal samples and cultured on selective media CMC (carboxymethyl cellulose) agar and CMC-Congo Red agar using various methods of inoculation. After incubation, clearance zones around colonies were observed and used as qualitative assays for cellulose digestion. Polymerase chain reaction amplification of the 16S rRNA gene was completed and species identification was done based on the BLAST result of 16S rRNA sequence obtained using Sanger sequencing. Once the cellulase activity is confirmed, genomic DNA of the bacteria will be extracted and used for whole genome shotgun sequencing. Illumina next generation sequencing platform will be adopted as it yields high-throughput information, providing a better understanding of cellulose digestion and the molecular genetic pathways to renewable sources of biofuels. Researchers have identified multiple cellulose-digesting microbes in the Giant Panda gut, but few have applied such bacteria in converting cellulose into glucose to create biofuel. Cellulosic ethanol, a biofuel, is produced through the fermentation of lignocellulosic biomasses. This anaerobic process is aided by cellulose-digesting enzymes. Certain microbes, such as those present in the Giant Panda gut, can produce enzymes that cleave the glycosidic bonds of cellulose (C6H10O5) into glucose molecules (C6H12O6), which can then be fermented into ethanol

  10. Analysis of trace elements in the giant panda and arrow bamboo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Nengming; Chen, Suqing; Chen, Jianxuan; Zhang, Dazhong; Feng, Wenhe

    1987-04-01

    Trace elements from the giant panda including hair, liver, kidney, ovary and testis, were determined by PIXE. Comparative studies of the elemental contents in hair, liver and kidney from epileptic and normal giant pandas were performed respectively. The differences in the elemental contents of leaf, stalk, and bamboo shoots from normal and withered arrows were determined. For this research work a Van de Graaff electrostatic accelerator and a Si(Li) semiconductor spectrometer at the Institute of Nuclear Science and Technology of Sichuan University were employed.

  11. Factors Influencing Resident Choice of Prosthodontic Residency Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojnarwsky, Pandora Keala Lee; Wang, Yan; Shah, Kumar; Koka, Sreenivas

    2017-06-01

    The decision by prosthodontic residency program directors to employ the Match process highlights the need to understand applicant priorities that influence their choice of which programs to rank highly. The purpose of this study is to determine the factors that were most important to residents when choosing from among nonmilitary based prosthodontics dental residency programs in the United States. Following completion of a pilot study, all currently enrolled prosthodontic residents at nonmilitary residency programs were invited to participate via the internet. The study consisted of a survey instrument asking residents to rank 26 possible factors that might impact an applicant's choice of residency program. In addition, the instrument collected other possible influencing variables including gender and debt load. Mean rank scores were compared to determine the most and least important factors. Kruskal-Wallis test was used to compare specific factors between the possible influencing variables. Two hundred and thirty residents completed the survey instrument, representing a 54.1% response rate of possible participants. With regard to factors influencing program choice, reputation of the residency program was the factor ranked the highest by participants, followed in descending order by the program director's personality, curriculum content, access to use of the latest digital technology, and opportunities for dental implant placement. Quality of schools for children, community outreach opportunities, and the ability to moonlight were ranked as the least important factors. Male and female residents ranked factors such as tuition/stipend, curriculum content, and community outreach opportunities significantly differently. Depending on debt load, residents ranked the factors tuition/stipend, ability to moonlight, curriculum content, and safety of the area where the program is differently. Current prosthodontic residents valued the reputation of the program as the most

  12. Cognitive screening in Parkinson's disease: Comparison of the Parkinson Neuropsychometric Dementia Assessment (PANDA) with 3 other short scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasser, A-I; Calabrese, P; Kalbe, E; Kessler, J; Rossier, P

    2016-02-01

    Cognitive screening is crucial in Parkinson's disease (PD). However, there is still a lack of short tools in French. In this study, we aimed to compare the Parkinson Neuropsychometric Dementia Assessment (PANDA) with the Mini Mental Parkinson (MMP), the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) and the Clock Test in French-speaking patients. We also aimed to propose cut-off scores for cognitive impairment and dementia for the French language version of the PANDA. Fifty-one patients with PD took the PANDA, the MMSE, the MMP, and the Clock Test. They also underwent extensive neuropsychological testing by a neuropsychologist who was blinded to the above-mentioned screening test results. Patients were classified as either having normal cognition (n=15), mild cognitive impairment (n=20) or dementia (n=16). When compared with the three other screening tools, the PANDA exhibited the highest area under the curve (AUC) for both cognitive disorders and dementia. Using the cut-off scores proposed for the German version, the PANDA had 94% specificity and 100% sensitivity for dementia and 100% and 72%, respectively for cognitive disorders. In our study, the PANDA exhibited a higher discriminative power than the three other tests in detecting cognitive disorders and dementia. In PD patients, the PANDA should thus be considered for the detection of cognitive impairment in routine clinical practice. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. Estimation of the growth curve and heritability of the growth rate for giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) cubs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Che, T D; Wang, C D; Jin, L; Wei, M; Wu, K; Zhang, Y H; Zhang, H M; Li, D S

    2015-03-27

    Giant panda cubs have a low survival rate during the newborn and early growth stages. However, the growth and developmental parameters of giant panda cubs during the early lactation stage (from birth to 6 months) are not well known. We examined the growth and development of giant panda cubs by the Chapman growth curve model and estimated the heritability of the maximum growth rate at the early lactation stage. We found that 83 giant panda cubs reached their maximum growth rate at approximately 75-120 days after birth. The body weight of cubs at 75 days was 4285.99 g. Furthermore, we estimated that the heritability of the maximum growth rate was moderate (h(2) = 0.38). Our study describes the growth and development of giant panda cubs at the early lactation stage and provides valuable growth benchmarks. We anticipate that our results will be a starting point for more detailed research on increasing the survival rate of giant panda cubs. Feeding programs for giant panda cubs need further improvement.

  14. Serotypes, virulence factors, and antimicrobial susceptibilities of vaginal and fecal isolates of Escherichia coli from giant pandas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xin; Yan, Qigui; Xia, Xiaodong; Zhang, Yanming; Li, Desheng; Wang, Chengdong; Chen, Shijie; Hou, Rong

    2013-09-01

    Although Escherichia coli typically colonizes the intestinal tract and vagina of giant pandas, it has caused enteric and systemic disease in giant pandas and greatly impacts the health and survival of this endangered species. In order to understand the distribution and characteristics of E. coli from giant pandas, 67 fecal and 30 vaginal E. coli isolates from 21 giant pandas were characterized for O serogroups, phylogenetic groups, antimicrobial susceptibilities, and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) profiles. In addition, these isolates were tested for the presence of extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli (ExPEC) and diarrheagenic E. coli (DEC) by multiplex PCR detection of specific virulence genes. The most prevalent serogroups for all E. coli isolates were O88, O18, O167, O4, and O158. ExPEC isolates were detected mostly in vaginal samples, and DEC isolates were detected only in fecal samples. Phylogenetic group B1 predominated in fecal isolates, while groups B2 and D were frequently detected in vaginal isolates. Resistance to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole was most frequently observed, followed by resistance to nalidixic acid and tetracycline. All except five isolates were typeable by using XbaI and were categorized into 74 PFGE patterns. Our findings indicate that panda E. coli isolates exhibited antimicrobial resistance, and potentially pathogenic E. coli isolates were present in giant pandas. In addition, these E. coli isolates were genetically diverse. This study may provide helpful information for developing strategies in the future to control E. coli infections of giant pandas.

  15. A Mathematical Model with Pulse Effect for Three Populations of the Giant Panda and Two Kinds of Bamboo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang-yun Shi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A mathematical model for the relationship between the populations of giant pandas and two kinds of bamboo is established. We use the impulsive perturbations to take into account the effect of a sudden collapse of bamboo as a food source. We show that this system is uniformly bounded. Using the Floquet theory and comparison techniques of impulsive equations, we find conditions for the local and global stabilities of the giant panda-free periodic solution. Moreover, we obtain sufficient conditions for the system to be permanent. The results provide a theoretical basis for giant panda habitat protection.

  16. Fast SiPM Readout of the PANDA TOF Detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böhm, M.; Lehmann, A.; Motz, S.; Uhlig, F.

    2016-05-01

    For the identification of low momentum charged particles and for event timing purposes a barrel Time-of-Flight (TOF) detector surrounding the interaction point is planned for the PANDA experiment at FAIR . Since the boundary conditions in terms of available radial space and radiation length are quite strict the favored layout is a hodoscope composed of several thousand small scintillating tiles (SciTils) read out by silicon photomultipliers (SiPMs). A time resolution of well below 100 ps is aimed for. With the originally proposed 30 × 30 × 5 mm3 SciTils read out by two single 3 × 3 mm2 SiPMs at the rims of the scintillator the targeted time resolution can be just reached, but with a considerable position dependence across the scintillator surface. In this paper we discuss other design options to further improve the time resolution and its homogeneity. It will be shown that wide scintillating rods (SciRods) with a size of, e.g., 50 × 30 × 5 mm3 or longer and read out at opposite sides by a chain of four serially connected SiPMs a time resolution down to 50 ps can be reached without problems. In addition, the position dependence of the time resolution is negligible. These SciRods were tested in the laboratory with electrons of a 90Sr source and under real experimental conditions in a particle beam at CERN. The measured time resolutions using fast BC418 or BC420 plastic scintillators wrapped in aluminum foil were consistently between 45 and 75 ps dependent on the SciRod design. This is a significant improvement compared to the original SciTil layout.

  17. Atmospheric dispersion calculation for posturated accident of nuclear facilities and the computer code: PANDA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitahara, Yoshihisa; Kishimoto, Yoichiro; Narita, Osamu; Shinohara, Kunihiko

    1979-01-01

    Several Calculation methods for relative concentration (X/Q) and relative cloud-gamma dose (D/Q) of the radioactive materials released from nuclear facilities by posturated accident are presented. The procedure has been formulated as a Computer program PANDA and the usage is explained. (author)

  18. Thoracic limb morphology of the red panda (Ailurus fulgens evidenced by osteology and radiography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Modesta Makungu

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The red panda (Ailurus fulgens is distributed primarily in the Himalayas and southern China. It is classified as a vulnerable species by the International Union for Conservation of Nature. The aim of this study was to describe the normal osteology and radiographic anatomy of the thoracic limb of the red panda. Radiography of the right thoracic limb was performed in seven captive adult red pandas. Radiographic findings were correlated with bone specimens from three adult animals. The scapula was wide craniocaudally and presented with a large area for the origin of the teres major muscle. The square-shaped major tubercle did not extend proximal to the head of the humerus. The medial epicondyle was prominent. A supracondylar foramen was present. The radial tuberosity and sesamoid bone for the abductor digiti I longus were prominent. The accessory carpal bone was directed palmarolaterally. Metacarpal bones were widely spread. The thoracic limb morphology of the red panda evidenced by osteology and radiography indicated flexibility of the thoracic limb joints and well-developed flexor and supinator muscles, which are important in arboreal quadrupedal locomotion. Knowledge gained during this study may prove useful in identifying skeletal material or remains and diagnosing musculoskeletal diseases and injuries of the thoracic limb.

  19. Technical design report for the PANDA (AntiProton Annihilations at Darmstadt) Straw Tube Tracker

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erni, W.; Keshelashvili, I.; Krusche, B.; Steinacher, M.; Heng, Y.; Liu, Z.; Liu, H.; Shen, X.; Wang, Q.; Xu, H.; Aab, A.; Albrecht, M.; Becker, J.; Csapo, A.; Feldbauer, F.; Fink, M.; Friedel, P.; Heinsius, F. H.; Held, T.; Klask, L.; Koch, H.; Kopf, B.; Leiber, S.; Leyhe, M.; Motzko, C.; Pelizaeus, M.; Pychy, J.; Roth, B.; Schroeder, T.; Schulze, J.; Sowa, C.; Steinke, M.; Trifterer, T.; Wiedner, U.; Zhong, J.; Beck, R.; Bianco, S.; Brinkmann, K. T.; Hammann, C.; Hinterberger, F.; Kaiser, D.; Kliemt, R.; Kube, M.; Pitka, A.; Quagli, T.; Schmidt, C.; Schmitz, R.; Schnell, R.; Thoma, U.; Vlasov, P.; Walther, D.; Wendel, C.; Wuerschig, T.; Zaunick, H. G.; Bianconi, A.; Bragadireanu, M.; Caprini, M.; Pantea, D.; Pantelica, D.; Pietreanu, D.; Serbina, L.; Tarta, P. D.; Kaplan, D.; Fiutowski, T.; Idzik, M.; Mindur, B.; Przyborowski, D.; Swientek, K.; Czech, B.; Kistryn, M.; Kliczewski, S.; Kozela, A.; Kulessa, P.; Lebiedowicz, P.; Pysz, K.; Schaefer, W.; Siudak, R.; Szczurek, A.; Jowzaee, S.; Kajetanowicz, M.; Kamys, B.; Kistryn, S.; Korcyl, G.; Korcyl, K.; Krzemien, W.; Magiera, A.; Moskal, P.; Palka, M.; Rudy, Z.; Salabura, P.; Smyrski, J.; Wronska, A.; Augustin, I.; Lehmann, I.; Nimorus, D.; Schepers, G.; Al-Turany, M.; Arora, R.; Deppe, H.; Flemming, H.; Gerhardt, A.; Goetzen, K.; Jordi, A. F.; Kalicy, G.; Karabowicz, R.; Lehmann, D.; Lewandowski, B.; Luehning, J.; Maas, F.; Orth, H.; Patsyuk, M.; Peters, K.; Saito, T.; Schepers, G.; Schmidt, C. J.; Schmitt, L.; Schwarz, C.; Schwiening, J.; Traxler, M.; Voss, B.; Wieczorek, P.; Wilms, A.; Zuehlsdorf, M.; Abazov, V. M.; Alexeev, G.; Arefiev, A.; Astakhov, V. I.; Barabanov, M. Yu.; Batyunya, B. V.; Davydov, Yu. I.; Dodokhov, V. Kh.; Efremov, A. A.; Fedunov, A. G.; Festchenko, A. A.; Galoyan, A. S.; Grigoryan, S.; Karmokov, A.; Koshurnikov, E. K.; Lobanov, V. I.; Lobanov, Yu. Yu.; Makarov, A. F.; Malinina, L. V.; Malyshev, V. L.; Mustafaev, G. A.; Olshevskiy, A.; Pasyuk, M. A.; Perevalova, E. A.; Piskun, A. A.; Pocheptsov, T. A.; Pontecorvo, G.; Rodionov, V. K.; Rogov, Yu. N.; Salmin, R. A.; Samartsev, A. G.; Sapozhnikov, M. G.; Shabratova, G. S.; Skachkova, A. N.; Skachkov, N. B.; Strokovsky, E. A.; Suleimanov, M. K.; Teshev, R. Sh.; Tokmenin, V. V.; Uzhinsky, V. V.; Vodopyanov, A. S.; Zaporozhets, S. A.; Zhuravlev, N. I.; Zorin, A. G.; Branford, D.; Glazier, D.; Watts, D.; Woods, P.; Britting, A.; Eyrich, W.; Lehmann, A.; Uhlig, F.; Dobbs, S.; Metreveli, Z.; Seth, K.; Tomaradze, A.; Xiao, T.; Bettoni, D.; Carassiti, V.; Ramusino, A. Cotta; Dalpiaz, P.; Drago, A.; Fioravanti, E.; Garzia, I.; Savrie, M.; Stancari, G.; Bianchi, N.; Gianotti, P.; Guaraldo, C.; Lucherini, V.; Orecchini, D.; Pace, E.; Bersani, A.; Bracco, G.; Macri, M.; Parodi, R. F.; Bremer, D.; Dormenev, V.; Drexler, P.; Dueren, M.; Eissner, T.; Foehl, K.; Galuska, M.; Gessler, T.; Hayrapetyan, A.; Hu, J.; Koch, P.; Kroeck, B.; Kuehn, W.; Lange, S.; Liang, Y.; Merle, O.; Metag, V.; Moritz, M.; Muenchow, D.; Nanova, M.; Novotny, R.; Spruck, B.; Stenzel, H.; Ullrich, T.; Werner, M.; Xu, H.; Euan, C.; Hoek, M.; Ireland, D.; Keri, T.; Montgomery, R.; Protopopescu, D.; Rosner, G.; Seitz, B.; Babai, M.; Glazenborg-Kluttig, A.; Kavatsyuk, M.; Lemmens, P.; Lindemulder, M.; Löhner, H.; Messchendorp, J.; Moeini, H.; Schakel, P.; Schreuder, F.; Smit, H.; Tambave, G.; van der Weele, J. C.; Veenstra, Rick; Sohlbach, H.; Buescher, M.; Deermann, D.; Dosdall, R.; Esch, S.; Gillitzer, A.; Goldenbaum, F.; Grunwald, D.; Henssler, S.; Herten, A.; Hu, Q.; Kemmerling, G.; Kleines, H.; Kozlov, V.; Lehrach, A.; Maier, R.; Mertens, M.; Ohm, H.; Orfanitski, S.; Prasuhn, D.; Randriamalala, T.; Ritman, J.; Roeder, M.; Schadmand, S.; Serdyuk, V.; Sterzenbach, G.; Stockmanns, T.; Wintz, P.; Wuestner, P.; Xu, H.; Kisiel, J.; Li, S.; Li, Z.; Sun, Z.; Xu, H.; Rigato, V.; Fissum, S.; Hansen, K.; Isaksson, L.; Lundin, M.; Schroder, B.; Achenbach, P.; Bleser, S.; Cahit, U.; Cardinali, M.; Denig, A.; Distler, M.; Fritsch, M.; Jasinski, P.; Kangh, D.; Karavdina, A.; Lauth, W.; Merkel, H.; Michel, M.; Espi, M. C. Mora; Mueller, U.; Pochodzalla, J.; Sanchez, S.; Sanchez-Lorente, A.; Schlimme, S.; Sfienti, C.; Thiel, M.; Weber, T.; Dormenev, V. I.; Fedorov, A. A.; Korzhik, M. V.; Missevitch, O. V.; Balanutsa, V.; Chernetsky, V.; Demekhin, A.; Dolgolenko, A.; Fedorets, P.; Gerasimov, A.; Goryachev, V.; Varentsov, V.; Boukharov, A.; Malyshev, O.; Marishev, I.; Semenov, A.; Boehmer, F.; Dorheim, S.; Ketzer, B.; Paul, S.; Hergemoeller, A. K.; Khoukaz, A.; Koehler, E.; Taeschner, A.; Wessels, J.; Varma, R.; Chaterjee, A.; Jha, V.; Kailas, S.; Roy, B. J.; Yan, Y.; Chinorat, K.; Khanchai, K.; Ayut, L.; Pomrad, S.; Baldin, E.; Kotov, K.; Peleganchuk, S.; Tikhonov, Yu.; Boucher, J.; Chambert, V.; Dbeyssi, A.; Gumberidze, M.; Hennino, T.; Imre, M.; Kunne, R.; Le Galliard, C.; Ma, B.; Marchand, D.; Maroni, A.; Ong, S.; Ramstein, B.; Rosier, P.; Tomasi-Gustafsson, E.; De Wiele, J. Van; Boca, G.; Braghieri, A.; Costanza, S.; Genova, P.; Lavezzi, L.; Montagna, P.; Rotondi, A.; Abramov, V.; Belikov, N.; Davidenko, A.; Derevschikov, A.; Goncharenko, Y.; Grishin, V.; Kachanov, V.; Konstantinov, D.; Kormilitsin, V.; Melnik, Y.; Levin, A.; Minaev, N.; Mochalov, V.; Morozov, D.; Nogach, L.; Poslavskiy, S.; Ryazantsev, A.; Ryzhikov, S.; Semenov, P.; Shein, I.; Uzunian, A.; Vasiliev, A.; Yakutin, A.; Back, T.; Cederwall, B.; Makonyi, K.; Tegner, P. E.; von Wurtemberg, K. M.; Belostotski, S.; Gavrilov, G.; Itzotov, A.; Kashchuk, A.; Kisselev, A.; Kravchenko, P.; Levitskaya, O.; Manaenkov, S.; Miklukho, O.; Naryshkin, Y.; Veretennikov, D.; Vikhrov, V.; Zhadanov, A.; Alberto, D.; Amoroso, A.; Bussa, M. P.; Busso, L.; De Mori, F.; Destefanis, M.; Fava, L.; Ferrero, L.; Greco, M.; Maggiora, M.; Marcello, S.; Sosio, S.; Spataro, S.; Zotti, L.; Calvo, D.; Coli, S.; De Remigis, P.; Filippi, A.; Giraudo, G.; Lusso, S.; Mazza, G.; Morra, O.; Rivetti, A.; Wheadon, R.; Iazzi, F.; Lavagno, A.; Younis, H.; Birsa, R.; Bradamante, F.; Bressan, A.; Martin, A.; Clement, H.; Galander, B.; Balkestahl, L. Caldeira; Calen, H.; Fransson, K.; Johansson, T.; Kupsc, A.; Marciniewski, P.; Thome, E.; Wolke, M.; Zlomanczuk, J.; Diaz, J.; Ortiz, A.; Dmowski, K.; Duda, P.; Korzeniewski, R.; Slowinski, B.; Chlopik, A.; Guzik, Z.; Kosinski, K.; Melnychuk, D.; Wasilewski, A.; Wojciechowski, M.; Wronka, S.; Wysocka, A.; Zwieglinski, B.; Buehler, P.; Hartman, O. N.; Kienle, P.; Marton, J.; Suzuki, K.; Widmann, E.; Zmeskal, J.; Werner, M.J.

    This document describes the technical layout and the expected performance of the Straw Tube Tracker (STT), the main tracking detector of the PANDA target spectrometer. The STT encloses a Micro-Vertex-Detector (MVD) for the inner tracking and is followed in beam direction by a set of GEM stations.

  20. Outbreak and genotyping of canine distemper virus in captive Siberian tigers and red pandas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, He; Shan, Fen; Zhou, Xia; Li, Bing; Zhai, Jun-Qiong; Zou, Shu-Zhan; Wu, Meng-Fan; Chen, Wu; Zhai, Shao-Lun; Luo, Man-Lin

    2017-08-15

    In this study, four canine distemper virus (CDV) strains were isolated from captive Siberian tigers (Panthera tigris altaica) and red pandas (Ailurus fulgens) during two separate CDV outbreaks in a zoo in Guangdong province, China. Sequence alignment and phylogenetic analyses based on the full-length hemagglutinin (H) and fusion (F) genes showed that they were closely identical to genotype Asia-1. Prior to confirmation of CDV in Siberian tigers, to control spread of the disease, a live attenuated combination CDV vaccine was used among almost all carnivore animals except for red pandas in which another recombinant combination CDV vaccine was used. However, about two months later, CDV re-emerged and caused the death among red pandas. Based on the vaccination records, the live combination vaccine could be considered an ideal weapon against CDV in zoo carnivore animals. Although the recombinant combination CDV vaccine was safe for red pandas, its protection effectiveness remains to be further investigated. Moreover, according to the outbreak interval time and sequence characterization, we suspected that stray cats circulating in the zoo were the intermediate host, which contributed to CDV spread from stray dogs to zoo animals. This study revealed the importance of vaccination and biosecurity for zoo animals.

  1. Prolonged transition time between colostrum and mature milk in a bear, the giant panda, Ailuropoda melanoleuca

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Kate; Hou, Rong; Wang, Hairui; Zhang, Zhihe; Zhang, Liang; Zhang, Tong; Watson, David G.; Burchmore, Richard J. S.; Loeffler, I. Kati; Kennedy, Malcolm W.

    2015-01-01

    Bears produce the most altricial neonates of any placental mammal. We hypothesized that the transition from colostrum to mature milk in bears reflects a temporal and biochemical adaptation for altricial development and immune protection. Comparison of bear milks with milks of other eutherians yielded distinctive protein profiles. Proteomic and metabolomic analysis of serial milk samples collected from six giant pandas showed a prolonged transition from colostrum to main-phase lactation over approximately 30 days. Particularly striking are the persistence or sequential appearance of adaptive and innate immune factors. The endurance of immunoglobulin G suggests an unusual duration of trans-intestinal absorption of maternal antibodies, and is potentially relevant to the underdeveloped lymphoid system of giant panda neonates. Levels of certain milk oligosaccharides known to exert anti-microbial activities and/or that are conducive to the development of neonatal gut microbiomes underwent an almost complete changeover around days 20–30 postpartum, coincident with the maturation of the protein profile. A potential metabolic marker of starvation was detected, the prominence of which may reflect the natural postpartum period of anorexia in giant panda mothers. Early lactation in giant pandas, and possibly in other ursids, appears to be adapted for the unique requirements of unusually altricial eutherian neonates. PMID:26587250

  2. VHDL Implementation of Feature-Extraction Algorithm for the PANDA Electromagnetic Calorimeter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kavatsyuk, M.; Guliyev, E.; Lemmens, P. J. J.; Löhner, H.; Tambave, G.

    2010-01-01

    The feature-extraction algorithm, developed for the digital front-end electronics of the electromagnetic calorimeter of the PANDA detector at the future FAIR facility, is implemented in VHDL for a commercial 16 bit 100 MHz sampling ADC. The use of modified firmware with the running on-line

  3. Design studies of the PWO Forward End-cap calorimeter for PANDA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moeini, H.; Al-Turany, M.; Babai, M.; Biegun, A.; Bondarenko, O.; Goetzen, K.; Kavatsyuk, M.; Lindemulder, M. F.; Loehner, H.; Melnychuk, D.; Messchendorp, J. G.; Smit, H. A. J.; Spataro, S.; Veenstra, R.

    2013-01-01

    The PANDA detection system at FAIR, Germany, is designed to study antiproton-proton annihilations, in order to investigate, among others, the realm of charm-meson states and glueballs, which has still much to reveal. The yet unknown properties of this field are to be unraveled through studying QCD

  4. VHDL implementation of feature-extraction algorithm for the PANDA electromagnetic calorimeter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guliyev, E.; Kavatsyuk, M.; Lemmens, P. J. J.; Tambave, G.; Löhner, H.

    2012-01-01

    A simple, efficient, and robust feature-extraction algorithm, developed for the digital front-end electronics of the electromagnetic calorimeter of the PANDA spectrometer at FAIR, Darmstadt, is implemented in VHDL for a commercial 16 bit 100 MHz sampling ADC. The source-code is available as an

  5. Trigger-less readout system with pulse pile-up recovery for the PANDA electromagnetic calorimeter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kavatsyuk, M.; Tambave, G.; Hevinga, M.; Lemmens, P. J. J.; Schakel, P.; Schreuder, F.; Speelman, R.; Löhner, H.

    2013-01-01

    A simple, efficient, and robust on-line data-processing scheme was developed for the digital front-end electronics of the electromagnetic calorimeter of the PANDA spectrometer at FAIR, Darmstadt. The implementation of the processing algorithm in FPGA enables the construction of an almost dead-time

  6. Assessment of giant panda habitat based on integration of expert system and neural network

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, X.; Skidmore, A.K.; Bronsveld, M.C.

    2006-01-01

    To conserve giant panda effectively, it is important to understand the spatial pattern and temporal change of its habitat. Mapping is an effective approach for wildlife habitat evaluation and monitoring. The application of recently developed artificial intelligence tools, including expert systems

  7. Pediatric Autoimmune Neuropsychiatric Disorder Associated with Streptococcal Infections (PANDAS): Experience at a Tertiary Referral Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helm, Caitlin E; Blackwood, R Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorder associated with streptococcal infections (PANDAS) is an autoimmune disorder presenting with obsessive compulsive disorder and/or tics. Like Sydenham's chorea, its presumed pathogenesis consists of autoantibodies cross-reacting with neurons in response to a group A beta-hemolytic streptococcal infection (GASI). There are currently no diagnostic laboratory findings and management ranges from antibiotic prophylaxis to intravenous immunoglobulin to plasmapheresis. The diagnosis remains controversial, resulting in inconsistent referrals and significant patient anxiety. A retrospective study was performed on all patients referred to the Pediatric Infectious Disease Division with a pre-referral diagnosis of PANDAS. Patients were analyzed by demographics, medical history, co-morbidities, symptoms, prior treatment, laboratory tests, management strategies, and treatment outcomes. From 2003 to 2013, there were 21 patients with a pre-referral diagnosis of PANDAS. Only five met the diagnostic criteria. No patient at referral had an objective scale to monitor symptoms. Eight referrals had a major psychiatric disorder, and none fulfilled diagnostic criteria (pdisorders do not seem to be associated with PANDAS, and better physician education may prevent misdiagnoses. Multidisciplinary management is recommended.

  8. Front-End Electronics and Feature-Extraction Algorithm for the PANDA Electromagnetic Calorimeter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kavatsyuk, M.; Guliyev, E.; Lemmens, P. J. J.; Löhner, H.; Poelman, T. P.; Tambave, G.; Wang, YF; Hu, T

    2011-01-01

    The PANDA collaboration at FAIR, Germany, will employ antiproton annihilations to investigate yet undiscovered charm-mesons and glueballs aiming to unravel the origin of hadronic masses. A multi-purpose detector for tracking, calorimetry and particle identification is presently being developed to

  9. Design studies of the PWO Forward End-cap calorimeter for PANDA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moeini, H.; Babai, M.; Biegun, A.; Bondarenko, O.; Kavatsyuk, M.; Lindemulder, M.F.; Loehner, H.; Messchendorp, J.G.; Smit, H.A.J.; Veenstra, R. [University of Groningen, Kernfysisch Versneller Instituut (KVI), Groningen (Netherlands); Al-Turany, M.; Goetzen, K. [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung GmbH, Darmstadt (Germany); Melnychuk, D. [National Centre for Nuclear Research, Warsaw (Poland); Spataro, S. [Universita di Torino (Italy); INFN, Dipartimento di Fisica, Torino (Italy); Collaboration: PANDA Collaboration

    2013-11-15

    The PANDA detection system at FAIR, Germany, is designed to study antiproton-proton annihilations, in order to investigate, among others, the realm of charm-meson states and glueballs, which has still much to reveal. The yet unknown properties of this field are to be unraveled through studying QCD phenomena in the non-perturbative regime. The multipurpose PANDA detector will be capable of tracking, calorimetry, and particle identification, and is planned to run at high luminosities providing average reaction rates up to 2 . 10{sup 7} interactions/s. The envisaged physics program requires measurements of photons and charged particles with excellent energy, position, and time resolutions. The electromagnetic calorimeter (EMC) will serve as one of the basic components of the detector setup and comprises cooled lead-tungstate (PbWO{sub 4}) crystals. This paper presents the mechanical design of the Forward End-cap calorimeter and analyzes the response of the Forward End-cap calorimeter in conjunction with the full EMC and the complete PANDA detector. The simulation studies are focused on the performance of the planned EMC with respect to the energy and spatial resolution of the reconstructed photons. Results of the Monte Carlo simulations, excluding very low-energy photons, have been validated by data obtained from a prototype calorimeter and shown to fulfil the requirements imposed by the PANDA physics program. (orig.)

  10. The next generation of the ATLAS PanDA Monitoring System

    CERN Document Server

    Schovancova, J; The ATLAS collaboration; Klimentov, A; Love, P; Potekhin, M; Wenaus, T

    2014-01-01

    For many years the PanDA Workload Management System has been the basis for distributed production and analysis for the ATLAS experiment at the LHC. Since the start of data taking PanDA usage has ramped up steadily, with up to 1M completed jobs/day in 2013. The associated monitoring data volume has been rising as well, to levels that present a new set of challenges in the areas of database scalability and monitoring system performance and efficiency. Outside of ATLAS, the PanDA system is also being used in projects like AMS, LSST and a few others. It currently undergoes a significant redesign, both of the core server components responsible for workload management, brokerage and data access, and of the monitoring part, which is critically important for efficient execution of the workflow in a way that’s transparent to the user and also provides an effective set of tools for operational support. The new generation of the PanDA Monitoring Service is designed based on a proven, scalable, industry-standard Web Fr...

  11. Technical Design Report for the PANDA Solenoid and Dipole Spectrometer Magnets

    CERN Document Server

    Erni, W; Krusche, B; Steinacher, M; Heng, Y; Liu, Z; Liu, H; Shen, X; Wang, O; Xu, H; Becker, J; Feldbauer, F; Heinsius, F -H; Held, T; Koch, H; Kopf, B; Pelizaeus, M; Schröder, T; Steinke, M; Wiedner, U; Zhong, J; Bianconi, A; Bragadireanu, M; Pantea, D; Tudorache, A; Tudorache, V; De Napoli, M; Giacoppo, F; Raciti, G; Rapisarda, E; Sfienti, C; Bialkowski, E; Budzanowski, A; Czech, B; Kistryn, M; Kliczewski, S; Kozela, A; Kulessa, P; Pysz, K; Schäfer, W; Siudak, R; Szczurek, A; zycki, W Czy; Domagala, M; Hawryluk, M; Lisowski, E; Lisowski, F; Wojnar, L; Gil, D; Hawranek, P; Kamys, B; Kistryn, St; Korcyl, K; Krzemien, W; Magiera, A; Moskal, P; Rudy, Z; Salabura, P; Smyrski, J; Wronska, A; Al-Turany, M; Augustin, I; Deppe, H; Flemming, H; Gerl, J; Goetzen, K; Hohler, R; Lehmann, D; Lewandowski, B; Lühning, J; Maas, F; Mishra, D; Orth, H; Peters, K; Saitô, T; Schepers, G; Schmidt, C J; Schmitt, L; Schwarz, C; Voss, B; Wieczorek, P; Wilms, A; Brinkmann, K -T; Freiesleben, H; Jaekel, R; Kliemt, R; Wuerschig, T; Zaunick, H -G; Abazov, V M; Alexeev, G; Arefev, A; Astakhov, V I; Barabanov, M Yu; Batyunya, B V; Davydov, Yu I; Dodokhov, V Kh; Efremov, A A; Fedunov, A G; Feshchenko, A A; Galoyan, A S; Grigorian, S; Karmokov, A; Koshurnikov, E K; Kudaev, V Ch; Lobanov, V I; Lobanov, Yu Yu; Makarov, A F; Malinina, L V; Malyshev, V L; Mustafaev, G A; Olshevski, A; Pasyuk, M A; Perevalova, E A; Piskun, A A; Pocheptsov, T A; Pontecorvo, G; Rodionov, V K; Rogov, Yu N; Salmin, R A; Samartsev, A G; Sapozhnikov, M G; Shabratova, A; Shabratova, G S; Skachkova, A N; Skachkov, N B; Strokovsky, E A; Suleimanov, M K; Teshev, R Sh; Tokmenin, V V; Uzhinsky, V V; Vodopyanov, A S; Zaporozhets, S A; Zhuravlev, N I; Zorin, A G; Branford, D; Föhl, K; Glazier, D; Watts, D; Woods, P; Eyrich, W; Lehmann, A; Teufel, A; Dobbs, S; Metreveli, Z; Seth, K; Tann, B; Tomaradze, A G; Bettoni, D; Carassiti, V; Cecchi, A; Dalpiaz, P; Fioravanti, E; Garzia, I; Negrini, M; Savri`e, M; Stancari, G; Dulach, B; Gianotti, P; Guaraldo, C; Lucherini, V; Pace, E; Bersani, A; Macri, M; Marinelli, M; Parodi, R F; Brodski, I; Döring, W; Drexler, P; Düren, M; Gagyi-Palffy, Z; Hayrapetyan, A; Kotulla, M; Kühn, W; Lange, S; Liu, M; Metag, V; Nanova, M; Novotny, R; Salz, C; Schneider, J; Schoenmeier, P; Schubert, R; Spataro, S; Stenzel, H; Strackbein, C; Thiel, M; Thoering, U; Yang, S; Clarkson, T; Cowie, E; Downie, E; Hill, G; Hoek, M; Ireland, D; Kaiser, R; Keri, T; Lehmann, I; Livingston, K; Lumsden, S; MacGregor, D; McKinnon, B; Murray, M; Protopopescu, D; Rosner, G; Seitz, B; Yang, G; Babai, M; Biegun, A K; Bubak, A; Guliyev, E; Jothi, V S; Kavatsyuk, M; Löhner, H; Messchendorp, J; Smit, H; van der Weele, J C; García, F; Riska, D -O; Büscher, M; Dosdall, R; Dzhygadlo, R; Gillitzer, A; Grunwald, D; Jha, V; Kemmerling, G; Kleines, H; Lehrach, A; Maier, R; Mertens, M; Ohm, H; Prasuhn, D; Randriamalala, T; Ritman, J; Roeder, M; Stockmanns, T; Wintz, P; Wüstner, P; Kisiel, J; Li, S; Li, Z; Sun, Z; Xu, H; Fissum, S; Hansen, K; Isaksson, L; Lundin, M; Schröder, B; Achenbach, P; Espi, M C Mora; Pochodzalla, J; Sanchez, S; Sanchez-Lorente, A; Dormenev, V I; Fedorov, A A; Korzhik, M V; Missevitch, O V; Balanutsa, V; Chernetsky, V; Demekhin, A; Dolgolenko, A; Fedorets, P; Gerasimov, A; Goryachev, V; Boukharov, A; Malyshev, O; Marishev, I; Semenov, A; Hoeppner, C; Ketzer, B; Konorov, I; Mann, A; Neubert, S; Paul, S; Weitzel, Q; Khoukaz, A; Rausmann, T; Täschner, A; Wessels, J; Varma, R; Baldin, E; Kotov, K; Peleganchuk, S; Tikhonov, Yu; Boucher, J; Hennino, T; Kunne, R; Ong, S; Pouthas, J; Ramstein, B; Rosier, P; Sudol, M; Van de Wiele, J; Zerguerras, T; Dmowski, K; Korzeniewski, R; Przemyslaw, D; Slowinski, B; Boca, G; Braghieri, A; Costanza, S; Fontana, A; Genova, P; Lavezzi, L; Montagna, P; Rotondi, A; Belikov, N I; Davidenko, A M; Derevshchikov, A A; Goncharenko, Yu M; Grishin, V N; Kachanov, V A; Konstantinov, D A; Kormilitsin, V A; Kravtsov, V I; Matulenko, Yu A; Melnik, Y M; Meshchanin, A P; Minaev, N G; Mochalov, V V; Morozov, D A; Nogach, L V; Nurushev, S B; Ryazantsev, A V; Semenov, P A; Soloviev, L F; Uzunian, A V; Vasilev, A N; Yakutin, A E; Baeck, T; Cederwall, B; Bargholtz, C; Geren, L; Tegnér, P E; Belostotskii, S; Gavrilov, G; Itzotov, A; Kiselev, A; Kravchenko, P; Manaenkov, S; Miklukho, O; Naryshkin, Yu; Veretennikov, D; Vikhrov, V; Zhadanov, A; Fava, L; Panzieri, D; Alberto, D; Amoroso, A; Botta, E; Bressani, T; Bufalino, S; Bussa, M P; Busso, L; De Mori, F; Destefanis, M; Ferrero, L; Grasso, A; Greco, M; Kugathasan, T; Maggiora, M; Marcello, S; Serbanut, G; Sosio, S; Bertini, R; Calvo, D; Coli, S; De Remigis, P; Feliciello, A; Filippi, A; Giraudo, G; Mazza, G; Rivetti, A; Szymanska, K; Tosello, F; Wheadon, R; Morra, O; Agnello, M; Iazzi, F; Szymanska, K; Birsa, R; Bradamante, F; Bressan, A; Martin, A; Clement, H; Ekström, C; Calén, H; Grape, S; Hoeistad, B; Johansson, T; Kupsc, A; Marciniewski, P; Thomé, E; Zlomanczuk, Yu; Díaz, J; Ortiz, A; Borsuk, S; Chlopik, A; Guzik, Z; Kopec, J; Kozlovskii, T; Melnychuk, D; Plominski, M; Szewinski, J; Traczyk, K; Zwieglinski, B; Bühler, P; Gruber, A; Kienle, P; Marton, J; Widmann, E; Zmeskal, J

    2009-01-01

    This document is the Technical Design Report covering the two large spectrometer magnets of the PANDA detector set-up. It shows the conceptual design of the magnets and their anticipated performance. It precedes the tender and procurement of the magnets and, hence, is subject to possible modifications arising during this process.

  12. Thoracic limb morphology of the red panda (Ailurus fulgens evidenced by osteology and radiography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Modesta Makungu

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The red panda (Ailurus fulgens is distributed primarily in the Himalayas and southern China. It is classified as a vulnerable species by the International Union for Conservation of Nature. The aim of this study was to describe the normal osteology and radiographic anatomy of the thoracic limb of the red panda. Radiography of the right thoracic limb was performed in seven captive adult red pandas. Radiographic findings were correlated with bone specimens from three adult animals. The scapula was wide craniocaudally and presented with a large area for the origin of the teres major muscle. The square-shaped major tubercle did not extend proximal to the head of the humerus. The medial epicondyle was prominent. A supracondylar foramen was present. The radial tuberosity and sesamoid bone for the abductor digiti I longus were prominent. The accessory carpal bone was directed palmarolaterally. Metacarpal bones were widely spread. The thoracic limb morphology of the red panda evidenced by osteology and radiography indicated flexibility of the thoracic limb joints and well-developed flexor and supinator muscles, which are important in arboreal quadrupedal locomotion. Knowledge gained during this study may prove useful in identifying skeletal material or remains and diagnosing musculoskeletal diseases and injuries of the thoracic limb.

  13. Thoracic limb morphology of the red panda (Ailurus fulgens) evidenced by osteology and radiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makungu, Modesta; Groenewald, Hermanus B; Du Plessis, Wencke M; Barrows, Michelle; Koeppel, Katja N

    2015-07-15

    The red panda (Ailurus fulgens) is distributed primarily in the Himalayas and southern China. It is classified as a vulnerable species by the International Union for Conservation of Nature. The aim of this study was to describe the normal osteology and radiographic anatomy of the thoracic limb of the red panda. Radiography of the right thoracic limb was performed in seven captive adult red pandas. Radiographic findings were correlated with bone specimens from three adult animals. The scapula was wide craniocaudally and presented with a large area for the origin of the teres major muscle. The square-shaped major tubercle did not extend proximal to the head of the humerus. The medial epicondyle was prominent. A supracondylar foramen was present. The radial tuberosity and sesamoid bone for the abductor digiti I longus were prominent. The accessory carpal bone was directed palmarolaterally. Metacarpal bones were widely spread. The thoracic limb morphology of the red panda evidenced by osteology and radiography indicated flexibility of the thoracic limb joints and well-developed flexor and supinator muscles, which are important in arboreal quadrupedal locomotion. Knowledge gained during this study may prove useful in identifying skeletal material or remains and diagnosing musculoskeletal diseases and injuries of the thoracic limb.

  14. Cloning and characterization of giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) IL-18 binding protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Yue; Deng, Jiabo; Niu, Lili; Wang, Qiang; Yu, Jianqiu; Shao, Huanhuan; Cao, Qinghua; Zhang, Yizheng; Tan, Xuemei

    2016-06-01

    The giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) is an endangered species. Interleukin-18 (IL-18) plays an important role in the innate and adaptive immune responses by inducing IFN-γ. IL-18 has been implicated in the pathogenesis of various diseases. IL-18 binding protein (IL-18BP) is an intrinsic inhibitor of IL-18 that possesses higher affinity to IL-18. In this study, we cloned and characterized IL-18BP in giant panda (AmIL-18BP) from the spleen. The amino acid sequence of giant panda IL-18BP ORF shared about 65% identities with other species. To evaluate the effects of AmIL-18BP on the immune responses, we expressed the recombinant AmIL-18BP in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3).The fusing protein PET-AmIL-18BP was purified by nickel affinity column chromatography. The biological function of purified PET-AmIL-18BP was determined on mice splenocyte by qRT-PCR. The results showed that AmIL-18BP was functional and could significantly reduce IFN-γ production in murine splenocytes. These results will facilitate the study of protecting giant panda on etiology and immunology. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. High precision γ spectroscopy of ΛΛ-Hypernuclei at the PANDA experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez Lorente, A

    2013-01-01

    Hypernuclear research will be one of the main topics addressed by the PANDA experiment at FAIR at Darmstadt (Germany). Thanks to the use of stored antiproton beams, copious production of double ΛΛ-Hypernuclei is expected at the PANDA experiment, which will enable high precision gamma spectroscopy of such nuclei for the first time. At PANDA excited states of hypernuclei will be used as a starting point for the formation of double ΛΛ-Hypernuclei. In order to predict the yield of particle-stable double hypernuclei a microcanonical decay model was developed. For the detection of these nuclei, a devoted hypernuclear detector setup is planned. This set-up consists, in addition to the general purpose of the PANDA set-up, of a primary nuclear target for the production of pairs, a secondary active target for the hypernuclei formation and the identification of associated decay products and a germanium array detector to perform gamma spectroscopy. Moreover, one of the most challenging issues of this project is the fact that all detector systems need to operate in the presence of a high magnetic field and a large hadronic background. In these proceedings details concerning the identification procedure of double hypernuclei and the suppression of background will be presented. In addition, the current status of the activities related to the detector developments for this challenging programme will be briefly given.

  16. Technical Design Report for the PANDA Solenoid and Dipole Spectrometer Magnets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erni, W.; Keshelashvili, I; Krusche, B.

    2009-01-01

    This document is the Technical Design Report covering the two large spectrometer magnets of the PANDA detector set-up. It shows the conceptual design of the magnets and their anticipated performance. It precedes the tender and procurement of the magnets and, hence, is subject to possible

  17. A Summary of the MARS Analysis Results about OECD/SETH PANDA Tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bae, Sung Won; Chung, Bub Dong

    2007-01-01

    The thermal-hydraulic phenomena in a multicompartment space like the containment building under accidents are very complicated and unpredictable as a result of many interacting processes, such as sprays, hydrogen recombiners, etc. Many thermal-hydraulic phenomena, governing the containment response under postulated accidents, have been identified by the SESAR/CAF (OECD) as 'research needs' for current and advanced LWRs. Due to the recent extension of the numerical computation capability and the technology, the safety analysis field is requested to expand their analysis domain beyond the current primary system. In particular, hydrogen mixing and transport has been found to be of special importance for safety and regulation. Up to dates, OECD/CSNI has been leading many experimental projects, for example, OECD-PKL, ISP47, OECD-PANDA, focusing the gas mixing, stratification and vapor condensation phenomena. As the one of the activities, the OECD-SETH group has launched the PANDA Project in order to provide an experimental data base for a multi-dimensional code assessment in 2002. PANDA is a large scale thermal-hydraulic facility to provide a resolved experimental data base about the gas mixing and stratification phenomena. OECD-SETH group expects the PANDA Project will meet the increasing needs for adequate experimental data for a 3D distribution of relevant variables like the temperature, velocity and steam-air concentrations that are measured with a sufficient resolution and accuracy

  18. Isolation and Preliminary Screening of a Weissella confusa Strain from Giant Panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Lvchen; Ni, Xueqin; Niu, Lili; Zhou, Yi; Wang, Qiang; Khalique, Abdul; Liu, Qian; Zeng, Yan; Shu, Gang; Pan, Kangcheng; Jing, Bo; Zeng, Dong

    2018-04-13

    Weissella confusa has recently received attention for its probiotic potential. Some W. confusa and Weissella cibaria strains isolated from fermented foods show favorable probiotic effects. However, the probiotic properties of W. confusa isolated from giant panda remain unreported to date. Thus, this study isolated a W. confusa strain from giant panda feces and then investigated its characteristics and probiotic properties. A lactic acid bacteria strain was isolated from giant panda fecal samples. The isolated strain was screened by in vitro probiotic property tests, including in vitro antimicrobial test, antioxidant test, surface hydrophobicity, and stress resistance. On the basis of biochemical identification and 16S rDNA sequencing, the W. confusa strain was identified as BSP201703. This Weissella confusa strain can survive at pH 2 and 0.3% (w/v) concentration of bile salt environment and inhibit common intestinal pathogens. It also possesses an in vitro antioxidant capacity, a high auto-aggregation ability, and a high surface hydrophobicity. BSP201703 might serve as a probiotic to giant pandas.

  19. Impact of Wenchuan earthquake on the giant panda habitat in Wolong National Nature Reserve, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kou, Cheng; Xu, Yu-Yue; Ke, Chang-Qing; He, Yu-Ting

    2014-01-01

    Monitoring the change of the giant panda habitat is essential to protect this endangered species. The Wolong National Nature Reserve (WNNR) of China, the giant panda habitat, was struck by the Wenchuan earthquake (M=8.0) on May 12, 2008, and was seriously damaged. Landsat images covering the WNNR on four dates, one before and three after the earthquake, are classified using support vector machines to generate land cover maps (with an overall accuracy of ˜90% and Kappa coefficients of ˜0.86). The habitat suitability index and weighted usable area (WUA) are calculated to evaluate the changes of the habitat suitability of the WNNR. The results indicate that the forest area dropped by ˜10% due to the earthquake. The forest located in the east of Wolong town, the home of numerous giant pandas, suffered the most. The WUA decreased significantly after the earthquake, and was showing improvement in 2013, although still not fully recovered to the level of priori earthquake. The habitat between 1200 and 1300 m above sea level (m a.s.l.) was particularly vulnerable and was slowly recovering. Further effective management is necessary to restore and protect the giant panda habitat.

  20. Dietary Shifts May Trigger Dysbiosis and Mucous Stools in Giant Pandas (Ailuropoda melanoleuca).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Candace L; Dill-McFarland, Kimberly A; Vandewege, Michael W; Sparks, Darrell L; Willard, Scott T; Kouba, Andrew J; Suen, Garret; Brown, Ashli E

    2016-01-01

    Dietary shifts can result in changes to the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) microbiota, leading to negative outcomes for the host, including inflammation. Giant pandas (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) are physiologically classified as carnivores; however, they consume an herbivorous diet with dramatic seasonal dietary shifts and episodes of chronic GIT distress with symptoms including abdominal pain, loss of appetite and the excretion of mucous stools (mucoids). These episodes adversely affect the overall nutritional and health status of giant pandas. Here, we examined the fecal microbiota of two giant pandas' non-mucoid and mucoid stools and compared these to samples from a previous winter season that had historically few mucoid episodes. To identify the microbiota present, we isolated and sequenced the 16S rRNA using next-generation sequencing. Mucoids occurred following a seasonal feeding switch from predominately bamboo culm (stalk) to leaves. All fecal samples displayed low diversity and were dominated by bacteria in the phyla Firmicutes and to a lesser extent, Proteobacteria. Fecal samples immediately prior to mucoid episodes had lower microbial diversity as compared to mucoids. Mucoids were mostly comprised of common mucosal-associated taxa including Streptococcus and Leuconostoc species, and exhibited increased abundance for bacteria in the family Pasteurellaceae. Taken together, these findings indicate that mucoids may represent an expulsion of the mucosal lining that is driven by changes in diet. We suggest that these occurrences serve to reset their GIT microbiota following changes in bamboo part preference, as giant pandas have retained a carnivorous GIT anatomy while shifting to an herbivorous diet.

  1. Withered on the stem: is bamboo a seasonally limiting resource for giant pandas?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Youxu; Swaisgood, Ronald R; Wei, Wei; Nie, Yonggang; Hu, Yibo; Yang, Xuyu; Gu, Xiaodong; Zhang, Zejun

    2017-04-01

    In response to seasonal variation in quality and quantity of available plant biomass, herbivorous foragers may alternate among different plant resources to meet nutritional requirements. Giant pandas (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) are reliant almost exclusively on bamboo which appears omnipresent in most occupied habitat, but subtle temporal variation in bamboo quality may still govern foraging strategies, with population-level effects. In this paper, we investigated the possibility that temporal variation in the quality of this resource is involved in population regulation and examined pandas' adaptive foraging strategies in response to temporal variation in bamboo quality. Giant pandas in late winter and early spring consumed a less optimal diet in Foping Nature Reserve, as the availability of the most nutritious and preferred components and age classes of Bashania fargesii declined, suggesting that bamboo may be a seasonally limiting resource. Most panda mortalities and rescues occurred during the same period of seasonal food limitation. Our findings raised the possibility that while total bamboo biomass may not be a limiting factor, carrying capacity may be influenced by subtle seasonal variation in bamboo quality. We recommend that managers and policy-makers should consider more than just the quantity of bamboo in the understory and that carrying capacity estimates should be revised downward to reflect the fact that all bamboos are not equal.

  2. PanDA Beyond ATLAS : A Scalable Workload Management System For Data Intensive Science

    CERN Document Server

    Borodin, M; The ATLAS collaboration; Jha, S; Golubkov, D; Klimentov, A; Maeno, T; Nilsson, P; Oleynik, D; Panitkin, S; Petrosyan, A; Schovancova, J; Vaniachine, A; Wenaus, T

    2014-01-01

    The LHC experiments are today at the leading edge of large scale distributed data-intensive computational science. The LHC's ATLAS experiment processes data volumes which are particularly extreme, over 140 PB to date, distributed worldwide at over of 120 sites. An important element in the success of the exciting physics results from ATLAS is the highly scalable integrated workflow and dataflow management afforded by the PanDA workload management system, used for all the distributed computing needs of the experiment. The PanDA design is not experiment specific and PanDA is now being extended to support other data intensive scientific applications. PanDA was cited as an example of "a high performance, fault tolerant software for fast, scalable access to data repositories of many kinds" during the "Big Data Research and Development Initiative" announcement, a 200 million USD U.S. government investment in tools to handle huge volumes of digital data needed to spur science and engineering discoveries. In this talk...

  3. Integration Of PanDA Workload Management System With Supercomputers for ATLAS and Data Intensive Science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De, K [University of Texas at Arlington; Jha, S [Rutgers University; Klimentov, A [Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL); Maeno, T [Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL); Nilsson, P [Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL); Oleynik, D [University of Texas at Arlington; Panitkin, S [Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL); Wells, Jack C [ORNL; Wenaus, T [Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL)

    2016-01-01

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC), operating at the international CERN Laboratory in Geneva, Switzerland, is leading Big Data driven scientific explorations. Experiments at the LHC explore the fundamental nature of matter and the basic forces that shape our universe, and were recently credited for the discovery of a Higgs boson. ATLAS, one of the largest collaborations ever assembled in the sciences, is at the forefront of research at the LHC. To address an unprecedented multi-petabyte data processing challenge, the ATLAS experiment is relying on a heterogeneous distributed computational infrastructure. The ATLAS experiment uses PanDA (Production and Data Analysis) Workload Management System for managing the workflow for all data processing on over 150 data centers. Through PanDA, ATLAS physicists see a single computing facility that enables rapid scientific breakthroughs for the experiment, even though the data centers are physically scattered all over the world. While PanDA currently uses more than 250,000 cores with a peak performance of 0.3 petaFLOPS, LHC data taking runs require more resources than Grid computing can possibly provide. To alleviate these challenges, LHC experiments are engaged in an ambitious program to expand the current computing model to include additional resources such as the opportunistic use of supercomputers. We will describe a project aimed at integration of PanDA WMS with supercomputers in United States, Europe and Russia (in particular with Titan supercomputer at Oak Ridge Leadership Computing Facility (OLCF), MIRA supercomputer at Argonne Leadership Computing Facilities (ALCF), Supercomputer at the National Research Center Kurchatov Institute , IT4 in Ostrava and others). Current approach utilizes modified PanDA pilot framework for job submission to the supercomputers batch queues and local data management, with light-weight MPI wrappers to run single threaded workloads in parallel on LCFs multi-core worker nodes. This implementation

  4. Giant Panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca Buccal Mucosa Tissue as a Source of Multipotent Progenitor Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilary M A Prescott

    Full Text Available Since the first mammal was cloned, the idea of using this technique to help endangered species has aroused considerable interest. However, several issues limit this possibility, including the relatively low success rate at every stage of the cloning process, and the dearth of usable tissues from these rare animals. iPS cells have been produced from cells from a number of rare mammalian species and this is the method of choice for strategies to improve cloning efficiency and create new gametes by directed differentiation. Nevertheless information about other stem cell/progenitor capabilities of cells from endangered species could prove important for future conservation approaches and adds to the knowledge base about cellular material that can be extremely limited. Multipotent progenitor cells, termed skin-derived precursor (SKP cells, can be isolated directly from mammalian skin dermis, and human cheek tissue has also been shown to be a good source of SKP-like cells. Recently we showed that structures identical to SKPs termed m-SKPs could be obtained from monolayer/ two dimensional (2D skin fibroblast cultures. Here we aimed to isolate m-SKPs from cultured cells of three endangered species; giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca; red panda (Ailurus fulgens; and Asiatic lion (Panthera leo persica. m-SKP-like spheres were formed from the giant panda buccal mucosa fibroblasts; whereas dermal fibroblast (DF cells cultured from abdominal skin of the other two species were unable to generate spheres. Under specific differentiation culture conditions giant panda spheres expressed neural, Schwann, adipogenic and osteogenic cell markers. Furthermore, these buccal mucosa derived spheres were shown to maintain expression of SKP markers: nestin, versican, fibronectin, and P75 and switch on expression of the stem cell marker ABCG2. These results demonstrate that giant panda cheek skin can be a useful source of m-SKP multipotent progenitors. At present lack of

  5. Integration Of PanDA Workload Management System With Supercomputers for ATLAS and Data Intensive Science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klimentov, A; Maeno, T; Nilsson, P; Panitkin, S; Wenaus, T; De, K; Oleynik, D; Jha, S; Wells, J

    2016-01-01

    The.LHC, operating at CERN, is leading Big Data driven scientific explorations. Experiments at the LHC explore the fundamental nature of matter and the basic forces that shape our universe. ATLAS, one of the largest collaborations ever assembled in the sciences, is at the forefront of research at the LHC. To address an unprecedented multi-petabyte data processing challenge, the ATLAS experiment is relying on a heterogeneous distributed computational infrastructure. The ATLAS experiment uses PanDA (Production and Data Analysis) Workload Management System for managing the workflow for all data processing on over 150 data centers. Through PanDA, ATLAS physicists see a single computing facility that enables rapid scientific breakthroughs for the experiment, even though the data centers are physically scattered all over the world. While PanDA currently uses more than 250,000 cores with a peak performance of 0.3 petaFLOPS, LHC data taking runs require more resources than grid can possibly provide. To alleviate these challenges, LHC experiments are engaged in an ambitious program to expand the current computing model to include additional resources such as the opportunistic use of supercomputers. We will describe a project aimed at integration of PanDA WMS with supercomputers in United States, in particular with Titan supercomputer at Oak Ridge Leadership Computing Facility. Current approach utilizes modified PanDA pilot framework for job submission to the supercomputers batch queues and local data management, with light-weight MPI wrappers to run single threaded workloads in parallel on LCFs multi-core worker nodes. This implementation was tested with a variety of Monte-Carlo workloads on several supercomputing platforms for ALICE and ATLAS experiments and it is in full pro duction for the ATLAS since September 2015. We will present our current accomplishments with running PanDA at supercomputers and demonstrate our ability to use PanDA as a portal independent of the

  6. Integration Of PanDA Workload Management System With Supercomputers for ATLAS and Data Intensive Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimentov, A.; De, K.; Jha, S.; Maeno, T.; Nilsson, P.; Oleynik, D.; Panitkin, S.; Wells, J.; Wenaus, T.

    2016-10-01

    The.LHC, operating at CERN, is leading Big Data driven scientific explorations. Experiments at the LHC explore the fundamental nature of matter and the basic forces that shape our universe. ATLAS, one of the largest collaborations ever assembled in the sciences, is at the forefront of research at the LHC. To address an unprecedented multi-petabyte data processing challenge, the ATLAS experiment is relying on a heterogeneous distributed computational infrastructure. The ATLAS experiment uses PanDA (Production and Data Analysis) Workload Management System for managing the workflow for all data processing on over 150 data centers. Through PanDA, ATLAS physicists see a single computing facility that enables rapid scientific breakthroughs for the experiment, even though the data centers are physically scattered all over the world. While PanDA currently uses more than 250,000 cores with a peak performance of 0.3 petaFLOPS, LHC data taking runs require more resources than grid can possibly provide. To alleviate these challenges, LHC experiments are engaged in an ambitious program to expand the current computing model to include additional resources such as the opportunistic use of supercomputers. We will describe a project aimed at integration of PanDA WMS with supercomputers in United States, in particular with Titan supercomputer at Oak Ridge Leadership Computing Facility. Current approach utilizes modified PanDA pilot framework for job submission to the supercomputers batch queues and local data management, with light-weight MPI wrappers to run single threaded workloads in parallel on LCFs multi-core worker nodes. This implementation was tested with a variety of Monte-Carlo workloads on several supercomputing platforms for ALICE and ATLAS experiments and it is in full pro duction for the ATLAS since September 2015. We will present our current accomplishments with running PanDA at supercomputers and demonstrate our ability to use PanDA as a portal independent of the

  7. Giant Panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) Buccal Mucosa Tissue as a Source of Multipotent Progenitor Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prescott, Hilary M A; Manning, Craig; Gardner, Aaron; Ritchie, William A; Pizzi, Romain; Girling, Simon; Valentine, Iain; Wang, Chengdong; Jahoda, Colin A B

    2015-01-01

    Since the first mammal was cloned, the idea of using this technique to help endangered species has aroused considerable interest. However, several issues limit this possibility, including the relatively low success rate at every stage of the cloning process, and the dearth of usable tissues from these rare animals. iPS cells have been produced from cells from a number of rare mammalian species and this is the method of choice for strategies to improve cloning efficiency and create new gametes by directed differentiation. Nevertheless information about other stem cell/progenitor capabilities of cells from endangered species could prove important for future conservation approaches and adds to the knowledge base about cellular material that can be extremely limited. Multipotent progenitor cells, termed skin-derived precursor (SKP) cells, can be isolated directly from mammalian skin dermis, and human cheek tissue has also been shown to be a good source of SKP-like cells. Recently we showed that structures identical to SKPs termed m-SKPs could be obtained from monolayer/ two dimensional (2D) skin fibroblast cultures. Here we aimed to isolate m-SKPs from cultured cells of three endangered species; giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca); red panda (Ailurus fulgens); and Asiatic lion (Panthera leo persica). m-SKP-like spheres were formed from the giant panda buccal mucosa fibroblasts; whereas dermal fibroblast (DF) cells cultured from abdominal skin of the other two species were unable to generate spheres. Under specific differentiation culture conditions giant panda spheres expressed neural, Schwann, adipogenic and osteogenic cell markers. Furthermore, these buccal mucosa derived spheres were shown to maintain expression of SKP markers: nestin, versican, fibronectin, and P75 and switch on expression of the stem cell marker ABCG2. These results demonstrate that giant panda cheek skin can be a useful source of m-SKP multipotent progenitors. At present lack of sample numbers

  8. Antimicrobial and disinfectant resistance of Escherichia coli isolated from giant pandas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, L; Long, M; Huang, Y; Wu, G; Deng, W; Yang, X; Li, B; Meng, Y; Cheng, L; Fan, L; Zhang, H; Zou, L

    2015-07-01

    The study aims to demonstrate the antimicrobial and disinfectant resistance phenotypes and genotypes of Escherichia coli isolates obtained from giant pandas (Ailuropoda melanoleuca). Antimicrobial testing was performed according to the standard disk diffusion method. The minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of disinfectants were determined using the agar dilution method. All isolates were screened for the presence of antimicrobial and disinfectant resistance genes and further analysed for genetic relatedness by pulse-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Results showed that 46·6% of the isolates were resistant to at least one antimicrobial. Escherichia coli isolates showed resistance to fewer antimicrobials as panda age increased. Among antimicrobial-resistant E. coli isolates, the antimicrobial resistance genes blaCTX-M (88·2%) and sul1 (92·3%) were most prevalent. The disinfectant resistance genes emrE, ydgE/ydgF, mdfA and sugE(c) were commonly present (68·2-98·9%), whereas qac and sugE(p) were relatively less prevalent (0-21·3%). The frequencies of resistance genes tended to be higher in E. coli isolated in December than in July, and PFGE profiles were also more diverse in isolates in December. The qacEΔ1 and sugE(p) genes were higher in adolescent pandas than in any other age groups. PFGE revealed that antimicrobial resistance correlated well with sampling time and habitat. This study demonstrated that antimicrobial and disinfectant resistance was common in giant panda-derived E. coli, and the antimicrobial resistance was associated with sampling time and habitat. Escherichia coli could serve as a critical vector in spreading disinfectant and antimicrobial resistance. This is the first study that demonstrated the phenotypic and genetic characterizations of antimicrobial and disinfectant resistance in E. coli isolates from more than 60 giant pandas. Frequent transfer of pandas to other cages may lead to the dissemination of antimicrobial resistance. The

  9. PanDA Pilot Submission using Condor-G: Experience and Improvements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao X.; Hover John; Wlodek Tomasz; Wenaus Torre; Frey Jaime; Tannenbaum Todd; Livny Miron

    2011-01-01

    PanDA (Production and Distributed Analysis) is the workload management system of the ATLAS experiment, used to run managed production and user analysis jobs on the grid. As a late-binding, pilot-based system, the maintenance of a smooth and steady stream of pilot jobs to all grid sites is critical for PanDA operation. The ATLAS Computing Facility (ACF) at BNL, as the ATLAS Tier1 center in the US, operates the pilot submission systems for the US. This is done using the PanDA 'AutoPilot' scheduler component which submits pilot jobs via Condor-G, a grid job scheduling system developed at the University of Wisconsin-Madison. In this paper, we discuss the operation and performance of the Condor-G pilot submission at BNL, with emphasis on the challenges and issues encountered in the real grid production environment. With the close collaboration of Condor and PanDA teams, the scalability and stability of the overall system has been greatly improved over the last year. We review improvements made to Condor-G resulting from this collaboration, including isolation of site-based issues by running a separate Gridmanager for each remote site, introduction of the 'Nonessential' job attribute to allow Condor to optimize its behavior for the specific character of pilot jobs, better understanding and handling of the Gridmonitor process, as well as better scheduling in the PanDA pilot scheduler component. We will also cover the monitoring of the health of the system.

  10. Low major histocompatibility complex class II DQA diversity in the Giant Panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruan Xiang-Dong

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca is one of the most endangered animals due to habitat fragmentation and loss. Although the captive breeding program for this species is now nearly two decades old, researches on the genetic background of such captive populations, especially on adaptive molecular polymorphism of major histocompatibility complex (MHC, are still limited. In this study, we characterized adaptive variation of the giant panda's MHC DQA gene by PCR amplification of its antigen-recognizing region (i.e. the exon 2 and subsequent single-strand conformational polymorphism (SSCP and sequence analyses. Results The results revealed a low level of DQA exon 2 diversity in this rare animal, presenting 6 alleles from 61 giant panda individuals. The observed polymorphism was restricted to 9 amino acid substitutions, all of which occurred at and adjacent to positions forming the functionally important antigen-binding sites. All the samples were in Hardy-Weinberg proportions. A significantly higher rate of non-synonymous than synonymous substitutions at the antigen-binding sites indicated positive selection for diversity in the locus. Conclusion The DQA allelic diversity of giant pandas was low relative to other vertebrates. Nonetheless, the pandas exhibited more alleles in DQA than those in DRB, suggesting the alpha chain genes would play a leading role when coping with certain pathogens and thus should be included in conservation genetic investigation. The microsatellite and MHC loci might predict long-term persistence potential and short-term survival ability, respectively. Consequently, it is recommended to utilize multiple suites of microsatellite markers and multiple MHC loci to detect overall genetic variation in order to design unbiased conservation strategies.

  11. Transcriptome-Derived Tetranucleotide Microsatellites and Their Associated Genes from the Giant Panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Xuhao; Shen, Fujun; Huang, Jie; Huang, Yan; Du, Lianming; Wang, Chengdong; Fan, Zhenxin; Hou, Rong; Yue, Bisong; Zhang, Xiuyue

    2016-09-01

    Recently, an increasing number of microsatellites or simple sequence repeats (SSRs) have been found and characterized from transcriptomes. Such SSRs can be employed as putative functional markers to easily tag corresponding genes, which play an important role in biomedical studies and genetic analysis. However, the transcriptome-derived SSRs for giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) are not yet available. In this work, we identified and characterized 20 tetranucleotide microsatellite loci from a transcript database generated from the blood of giant panda. Furthermore, we assigned their predicted transcriptome locations: 16 loci were assigned to untranslated regions (UTRs) and 4 loci were assigned to coding regions (CDSs). Gene identities of 14 transcripts contained corresponding microsatellites were determined, which provide useful information to study the potential contribution of SSRs to gene regulation in giant panda. The polymorphic information content (PIC) values ranged from 0.293 to 0.789 with an average of 0.603 for the 16 UTRs-derived SSRs. Interestingly, 4 CDS-derived microsatellites developed in our study were also polymorphic, and the instability of these 4 CDS-derived SSRs was further validated by re-genotyping and sequencing. The genes containing these 4 CDS-derived SSRs were embedded with various types of repeat motifs. The interaction of all the length-changing SSRs might provide a way against coding region frameshift caused by microsatellite instability. We hope these newly gene-associated biomarkers will pave the way for genetic and biomedical studies for giant panda in the future. In sum, this set of transcriptome-derived markers complements the genetic resources available for giant panda. © The American Genetic Association. 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. PanDA Pilot Submission using Condor-G: Experience and Improvements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, X.; Hover, John; Wlodek, Tomasz; Wenaus, Torre; Frey, Jaime; Tannenbaum, Todd; Livny, Miron

    2011-01-01

    PanDA (Production and Distributed Analysis) is the workload management system of the ATLAS experiment, used to run managed production and user analysis jobs on the grid. As a late-binding, pilot-based system, the maintenance of a smooth and steady stream of pilot jobs to all grid sites is critical for PanDA operation. The ATLAS Computing Facility (ACF) at BNL, as the ATLAS Tier1 center in the US, operates the pilot submission systems for the US. This is done using the PanDA 'AutoPilot' scheduler component which submits pilot jobs via Condor-G, a grid job scheduling system developed at the University of Wisconsin-Madison. In this paper, we discuss the operation and performance of the Condor-G pilot submission at BNL, with emphasis on the challenges and issues encountered in the real grid production environment. With the close collaboration of Condor and PanDA teams, the scalability and stability of the overall system has been greatly improved over the last year. We review improvements made to Condor-G resulting from this collaboration, including isolation of site-based issues by running a separate Gridmanager for each remote site, introduction of the 'Nonessential' job attribute to allow Condor to optimize its behavior for the specific character of pilot jobs, better understanding and handling of the Gridmonitor process, as well as better scheduling in the PanDA pilot scheduler component. We will also cover the monitoring of the health of the system.

  13. Population genetics of Enterocytozoon bieneusi in captive giant pandas of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei; Song, Yuan; Zhong, Zhijun; Huang, Xiangming; Wang, Chengdong; Li, Caiwu; Yang, Haidi; Liu, Haifeng; Ren, Zhihua; Lan, Jingchao; Wu, Kongju; Peng, Guangneng

    2017-10-18

    Most studies on Enterocytozoon bieneusi are conducted based on the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of the rRNA gene, whereas some have examined E. bieneusi population structures. Currently, the population genetics of this pathogen in giant panda remains unknown. The objective of this study was to determine the E. bieneusi population in captive giant pandas in China. We examined 69 E. bieneusi-positive specimens from captive giant pandas in China using five loci (ITS, MS1, MS3, MS4 and MS7) to infer E. bieneusi population genetics. For multilocus genotype (MLG) analysis of E. bieneusi-positive isolates, the MS1, MS3, MS4, and MS7 microsatellite and minisatellite loci were amplified and sequenced in 48, 45, 50 and 47 specimens, respectively, generating ten, eight, nine and five types. We successfully amplified 36 specimens and sequenced all five loci, forming 24 MLGs. Multilocus sequence analysis revealed a strong and significant linkage disequilibrium (LD), indicating a clonal population. This result was further supported by measurements of pairwise intergenic LD and a standardized index of association (I S A ) from allelic profile data. The analysis in STRUCTURE suggested three subpopulations in E. bieneusi, further confirmed using right's fixation index (F ST ). Subpopulations 1 and 2 exhibited an epidemic structure, whereas subpopulation 3 had a clonal structure. Our results describe E. bieneusi population genetics in giant pandas for the first time, improving the current understanding E. bieneusi epidemiology in the studied region. These data also benefit future studies exploring potential transmission risks from pandas to other animals, including humans.

  14. Prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections in free-ranging Red Panda Ailurus fulgens Cuvier, 1825 (Mammalia: Carnivora: Ailuridae in Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonam Tashi Lama

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The Red Panda Ailurus fulgens is a small carnivore that is adapted to a mainly herbivorous diet.  The present study was conducted to investigate the prevalence of parasitic infections in a free-ranging population of Red Pandas in a community forest in Nepal.  A total of 23 faecal samples were collected and examined.  Protozoa infections were the most common and cestode infections occurred the least.  Our findings suggest that parasites might be a significant problem for the health of the Red Pandas in the study area.  Molecular methods should be used to further investigate the taxonomic position of the parasites and their role in threatening the resilience of Red Panda populations in Nepal.  

  15. Construction of a 7-fold BAC library and cytogenetic mapping of 10 genes in the giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Ying

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The giant panda, one of the most primitive carnivores, is an endangered animal. Although it has been the subject of many interesting studies during recent years, little is known about its genome. In order to promote research on this genome, a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC library of the giant panda was constructed in this study. Results This BAC library contains 198,844 clones with an average insert size of 108 kb, which represents approximately seven equivalents of the giant panda haploid genome. Screening the library with 15 genes and 8 microsatellite markers demonstrates that it is representative and has good genome coverage. Furthermore, ten BAC clones harbouring AGXT, GHR, FSHR, IRBP, SOX14, TTR, BDNF, NT-4, LH and ZFX1 were mapped to 8 pairs of giant panda chromosomes by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH. Conclusion This is the first large-insert genomic DNA library for the giant panda, and will contribute to understanding this endangered species in the areas of genome sequencing, physical mapping, gene cloning and comparative genomic studies. We also identified the physical locations of ten genes on their relative chromosomes by FISH, providing a preliminary framework for further development of a high resolution cytogenetic map of the giant panda.

  16. Simplified pilot module development and testing within the ATLAS PanDA Pilot 2.0 Project

    CERN Document Server

    Drizhuk, Daniil; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The Production and Distributed Analysis (PanDA) system has been developed to meet ATLAS production and analysis requirements for a data-driven workload management system capable of operating at the LHC data processing scale. The PanDA pilot is one of the major components in the PanDA system. It runs on a worker node and takes care of setting up the environment, fetching and pushing data to storage, getting jobs from the PanDA server and executing them. The original PanDA Pilot was designed over 10 years ago and has since then grown organically. Large parts of the original pilot code base are now getting old and are difficult to maintain. Incremental changes and refactoring have been pushed to the limit, and the time is now right for a fresh start, informed by a decade of experience, with the PanDA Pilot 2.0 Project. To create a testing environment for module development and automated unit and functional testing for next generation pilot tasks, a simple pilot version was developed. It resembles the basic workf...

  17. Analysis of the cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (COX1) gene reveals the unique evolution of the giant panda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yao-Dong; Pang, Hui-Zhong; Li, De-Sheng; Ling, Shan-Shan; Lan, Dan; Wang, Ye; Zhu, Yun; Li, Di-Yan; Wei, Rong-Ping; Zhang, He-Min; Wang, Cheng-Dong

    2016-11-05

    As the rate-limiting enzyme of the mitochondrial respiratory chain, cytochrome c oxidase (COX) plays a crucial role in biological metabolism. "Living fossil" giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) is well-known for its special bamboo diet. In an effort to explore functional variation of COX1 in the energy metabolism behind giant panda's low-energy bamboo diet, we looked at genetic variation of COX1 gene in giant panda, and tested for its selection effect. In 1545 base pairs of the gene from 15 samples, 9 positions were variable and 1 mutation leaded to an amino acid sequence change. COX1 gene produces six haplotypes, nucleotide (pi), haplotype diversity (Hd). In addition, the average number of nucleotide differences (k) is 0.001629±0.001036, 0.8083±0.0694 and 2.517, respectively. Also, dN/dS ratio is significantly below 1. These results indicated that giant panda had a low population genetic diversity, and an obvious purifying selection of the COX1 gene which reduces synthesis of ATP determines giant panda's low-energy bamboo diet. Phylogenetic trees based on the COX1 gene were constructed to demonstrate that giant panda is the sister group of other Ursidae. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Italian version of the Parkinson Neuropsychometric Dementia Assessment (PANDA): a useful instrument to detect cognitive impairments in Parkinson's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pignatti, Riccardo; Bertella, Laura; Scarpina, Federica; Mauro, Alessandro; Portolani, Elisa; Calabrese, Pasquale

    2014-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is frequently characterized by cognitive and affective dysfunctions. The "Parkinson Neuropsychometric Dementia Assessment" (PANDA) is a screening tool designed for the early detection of mild cognitive impairment as well as dementia in PD. The PANDA is already validated in German and in French. The aim of the present work was to provide normative data for the Italian-speaking population, Swiss regions included; moreover, the effectiveness of the PANDA compared to the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) was tested. One-hundred and eleven PD patients with and without cognitive impairment and one-hundred and three matched healthy subjects participated at this study; all patients underwent an extensive neuropsychological evaluation. A PANDA total score of 13 appeared to be the most fitting cut-off with a sensitivity of 96.6% and a specificity of 82.2%; with the MMSE, the same value of sensitivity but with a specificity of 72,4% was reached only by adopting a cut-off of 28. Moreover, a PANDA range of 13-17 appeared to be suggestive for possible cognitive disturbance. The present work provides evidence for the effectiveness of the PANDA in evaluating cognitive deficits also in PD Italian-speaking patients, even when their pathological degree is still initial or very mild.

  19. Residency Allocation Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — The Residency Allocation Database is used to determine allocation of funds for residency programs offered by Veterans Affairs Medical Centers (VAMCs). Information...

  20. Pediatric Autoimmune Neuropsychiatric Disorders Associated with Streptococcal Infections (PANDAS: An Evolving Concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonella Macerollo

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders associated with streptococcus infections (PANDAS originated from the observational work of Swedo and collaborators, who formalized their definition in 1998 in a set of operational criteria. The application of these criteria, which focuses on tics and obsessive-compulsive symptoms as core symptoms, has encountered difficulties, eventually leading to a high rate of misdiagnosis. In particular, the core feature represented by the association between newly diagnosed infections and neuropsychiatric symptom relapses in youths with this diagnosis could not be demonstrated by longitudinal studies. Exploratory studies aiming to identify clinical or cognitive features that could discriminate PANDAS from other pediatric obsessive-compulsive and tic disorders present methodological limitations, and therefore are not conclusive. Other behavioral features, in addition to obsessive-compulsive symptoms and tics, have been included in pediatric acute-onset neuropsychiatric syndromes (PANS and childhood acute neuropsychiatric syndromes (CANS, two new concepts recently proposed in order to define a much broader clinical spectrum encompassing etiologically diverse entities. Given the uncertainties on the clinical definition of PANDAS, it is not surprising that evidence in support of a post-infectious, immune-mediated pathophysiology is also insufficient. Anti-dopamine receptor antibodies might be relevant to both Sydenham’s chorea (SC—the prototypical post-streptococcal neuropsychiatric disorder—and some rare forms of encephalitis targeting the basal ganglia specifically, but studies exploring their association with children fulfilling Swedo’s criteria for PANDAS have been inconclusive. Moreover, we lack evidence in favor of the efficacy of antibiotic prophylaxis or tonsillectomy in patients fulfilling Swedo’s criteria for PANDAS, whereas a response to immune-mediated treatments like intravenous

  1. Pediatric Autoimmune Neuropsychiatric Disorders Associated with Streptococcal Infections (PANDAS): An Evolving Concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macerollo, Antonella; Martino, Davide

    2013-01-01

    Pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders associated with streptococcus infections (PANDAS) originated from the observational work of Swedo and collaborators, who formalized their definition in 1998 in a set of operational criteria. The application of these criteria, which focuses on tics and obsessive-compulsive symptoms as core symptoms, has encountered difficulties, eventually leading to a high rate of misdiagnosis. In particular, the core feature represented by the association between newly diagnosed infections and neuropsychiatric symptom relapses in youths with this diagnosis could not be demonstrated by longitudinal studies. Exploratory studies aiming to identify clinical or cognitive features that could discriminate PANDAS from other pediatric obsessive-compulsive and tic disorders present methodological limitations, and therefore are not conclusive. Other behavioral features, in addition to obsessive-compulsive symptoms and tics, have been included in pediatric acute-onset neuropsychiatric syndromes (PANS) and childhood acute neuropsychiatric syndromes (CANS), two new concepts recently proposed in order to define a much broader clinical spectrum encompassing etiologically diverse entities. Given the uncertainties on the clinical definition of PANDAS, it is not surprising that evidence in support of a post-infectious, immune-mediated pathophysiology is also insufficient. Anti-dopamine receptor antibodies might be relevant to both Sydenham's chorea (SC)-the prototypical post-streptococcal neuropsychiatric disorder-and some rare forms of encephalitis targeting the basal ganglia specifically, but studies exploring their association with children fulfilling Swedo's criteria for PANDAS have been inconclusive. Moreover, we lack evidence in favor of the efficacy of antibiotic prophylaxis or tonsillectomy in patients fulfilling Swedo's criteria for PANDAS, whereas a response to immune-mediated treatments like intravenous immunoglobulins has been documented by

  2. The bamboo-eating giant panda harbors a carnivore-like gut microbiota, with excessive seasonal variations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Zhengsheng; Zhang, Wenping; Wang, Linghua; Hou, Rong; Zhang, Menghui; Fei, Lisong; Zhang, Xiaojun; Huang, He; Bridgewater, Laura C; Jiang, Yi; Jiang, Chenglin; Zhao, Liping; Pang, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Zhihe

    2015-05-19

    The giant panda evolved from omnivorous bears. It lives on a bamboo-dominated diet at present, but it still retains a typical carnivorous digestive system and is genetically deficient in cellulose-digesting enzymes. To find out whether this endangered mammalian species, like other herbivores, has successfully developed a gut microbiota adapted to its fiber-rich diet, we conducted a 16S rRNA gene-based large-scale structural profiling of the giant panda fecal microbiota. Forty-five captive individuals were sampled in spring, summer, and late autumn within 1 year. Significant intraindividual variations in the diversity and structure of gut microbiota across seasons were observed in this population, which were even greater than the variations between individuals. Compared with published data sets involving 124 gut microbiota profiles from 54 mammalian species, these giant pandas, together with 9 captive and 7 wild individuals investigated previously, showed extremely low gut microbiota diversity and an overall structure that diverged from those of nonpanda herbivores but converged with those of carnivorous and omnivorous bears. The giant panda did not harbor putative cellulose-degrading phylotypes such as Ruminococcaceae and Bacteroides bacteria that are typically enriched in other herbivores, but instead, its microbiota was dominated by Escherichia/Shigella and Streptococcus bacteria. Members of the class Clostridia were common and abundant in the giant panda gut microbiota, but most of the members present were absent in other herbivores and were not phylogenetically related with known cellulolytic lineages. Therefore, the giant panda appears not to have evolved a gut microbiota compatible with its newly adopted diet, which may adversely influence the coevolutionary fitness of this herbivore. The giant panda, an endangered mammalian species endemic to western China, is well known for its unique bamboo diet. Unlike other herbivores that have successfully evolved

  3. Material screening with HPGe counting station for PandaX experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, X.; Chen, X.; Fu, C.; Ji, X.; Liu, X.; Mao, Y.; Wang, H.; Wang, S.; Xie, P.; Zhang, T.

    2016-12-01

    A gamma counting station based on high-purity germanium (HPGe) detector was set up for the material screening of the PandaX dark matter experiments in the China Jinping Underground Laboratory. Low background gamma rate of 2.6 counts/min within the energy range of 20 to 2700 keV is achieved due to the well-designed passive shield. The sentivities of the HPGe detetector reach mBq/kg level for isotopes like K, U, Th, and even better for Co and Cs, resulted from the low-background rate and the high relative detection efficiency of 175%. The structure and performance of the counting station are described in this article. Detailed counting results for the radioactivity in materials used by the PandaX dark-matter experiment are presented. The upgrading plan of the counting station is also discussed.

  4. Molecular diagnosis of Baylisascaris schroederi infections in giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) feces using PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xuan; Yu, Hua; Wang, Ning; Xie, Yue; Liang, Yi-nan; Li, De-sheng; Wang, Cheng-dong; Chen, Si-jie; Yan, Yu-bo; Gu, Xiao-bin; Wang, Shu-xian; Peng, Xue-rong; Yang, Guang-you

    2013-10-01

    The helminth Baylisascaris schroederi is one of the most harmful parasites infecting giant pandas (Ailuropoda melanoleuca). It is therefore important to develop an exact diagnostic technique to detect this parasite. Using a known number (1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 10, 25, 50, 100) of feces-isolated B. schroederi egg and adult DNA, we developed a PCR to detect a portion of the mitochondrial 12S rRNA and applied it to giant panda fecal samples. The method was sufficiently sensitive to detect B. schroederi DNA from isolated eggs in a fecal sample with a detection threshold of one egg. We detected B. schroederi in 88% of fecal samples, 30% higher than the conventional flotation technique. No cross-reactivity with other common nematode DNA was detected. Our PCR assay may constitute a valuable alternative for the diagnosis of B. schroederi infections.

  5. Molecular buffer using a PANDA ring resonator for drug delivery use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suwanpayak, N; Jalil, MA; Aziz, MS; Ali, J; Yupapin, PP

    2011-01-01

    A novel design of molecular buffer for molecule storage and delivery using a PANDA ring resonator is proposed. The optical vortices can be generated and controlled to form the trapping tools in the same way as the optical tweezers. In theory, the trapping force is formed by the combination between the gradient field and scattering photons, which is reviewed. By using the intense optical vortices generated within the PANDA ring resonator, the required molecules can be trapped and moved (transported) dynamically within the wavelength router or network, ie, a molecular buffer. This can be performed within the wavelength router before reaching the required destination. The advantage of the proposed system is that a transmitter and receiver can be formed within the same system, which is available for molecule storage and transportation. PMID:21674014

  6. Tissue culture system using a PANDA ring resonator and wavelength router for hydroponic plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamoldilok, Surachart; Suwanpayak, Nathaporn; Suttirak, Saisudawan; Yupapin, Preecha P

    2012-06-01

    A novel system of nanofluidics trapping and delivery, which is known as a tissue culture system is proposed. By using the intense optical pulse(i.e., a soliton pulse) and a system constructed by a liquid core waveguide, the optical vortices (gradient optical fields/wells) can be generated, where the trapping tools in the same way as the optical tweezers in the PANDA ring resonator can be formed. By controlling the suitable parameters, the intense optical vortices can be generated within the PANDA ring resonator, in which the nanofluidics can be trapped and moved (transported) dynamically within the Tissue culture system(a wavelength router), which can be used for tissue culture and delivery in the hydroponic plant system.

  7. Development of noSQL data storage for the ATLAS PanDA Monitoring System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potekhin, M

    2012-01-01

    For several years the PanDA Workload Management System has been the basis for distributed production and analysis for the ATLAS experiment at the LHC. Since the start of data taking PanDA usage has ramped up steadily, typically exceeding 500k completed jobs/day by June 2011. The associated monitoring data volume has been rising as well, to levels that present a new set of challenges in the areas of database scalability and monitoring system performance and efficiency. These challenges are being met with a R and D effort aimed at implementing a scalable and efficient monitoring data storage based on a noSQL solution (Cassandra). We present our motivations for using this technology, as well as data design and the techniques used for efficient indexing of the data. We also discuss the hardware requirements as they were determined by testing with actual data and realistic loads.

  8. The PANDA endcap Disc Dirc and its opto-mechanical system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Etzelmueller, Erik; Biguenko, Klim; Dueren, Michael; Hayrapetyan, Avetik; Kroeck, Benno; Merle, Oliver; Rieke, Julian; Schmidt, Mustafa [II. Physikalisches Institut, Justus-Liebig-Universitaet, Giessen (Germany); Foehl, Klaus [II. Physikalisches Institut, Justus-Liebig-Universitaet, Giessen (Germany); CERN, Genf (Switzerland); Collaboration: PANDA-Collaboration

    2015-07-01

    The physics program of the PANDA detector at the future FAIR facility at GSI requires excellent particle identification. For the Panda forward endcap region a novel detector type called ''Disc DIRC'' has been designed. It covers the angular range between 5 and 22 degrees and uses internally reflected Cherenkov light in order to separate pions, kaons and protons up to a momentum of 4 GeV/c. The concept of a Disc DIRC is explained with an emphasis on the optics which play a major role for the detector design. Different types of optical components have to fulfill a number of requirements to allow a precision measurement. Further challenges arise from the necessity of an exact and robust alignment. Solutions are presented and discussed along with the possibilities for an in-house quality assurance.

  9. gadfly: A pandas-based Framework for Analyzing GADGET Simulation Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hummel, Jacob A.

    2016-11-01

    We present the first public release (v0.1) of the open-source gadget Dataframe Library: gadfly. The aim of this package is to leverage the capabilities of the broader python scientific computing ecosystem by providing tools for analyzing simulation data from the astrophysical simulation codes gadget and gizmo using pandas, a thoroughly documented, open-source library providing high-performance, easy-to-use data structures that is quickly becoming the standard for data analysis in python. Gadfly is a framework for analyzing particle-based simulation data stored in the HDF5 format using pandas DataFrames. The package enables efficient memory management, includes utilities for unit handling, coordinate transformations, and parallel batch processing, and provides highly optimized routines for visualizing smoothed-particle hydrodynamics data sets.

  10. Material screening with HPGe counting station for PandaX experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, X.; Chen, X.; Fu, C.; Ji, X.; Liu, X.; Xie, P.; Zhang, T.; Mao, Y.; Wang, S.; Wang, H.

    2016-01-01

    A gamma counting station based on high-purity germanium (HPGe) detector was set up for the material screening of the PandaX dark matter experiments in the China Jinping Underground Laboratory. Low background gamma rate of 2.6 counts/min within the energy range of 20 to 2700 keV is achieved due to the well-designed passive shield. The sentivities of the HPGe detetector reach mBq/kg level for isotopes like K, U, Th, and even better for Co and Cs, resulted from the low-background rate and the high relative detection efficiency of 175%. The structure and performance of the counting station are described in this article. Detailed counting results for the radioactivity in materials used by the PandaX dark-matter experiment are presented. The upgrading plan of the counting station is also discussed.

  11. Natural Circulation Characteristics at Low-Pressure Conditions through PANDA Experiments and ATHLET Simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domenico Paladino

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Natural circulation characteristics at low pressure/low power have been studied by performing experimental investigations and numerical simulations. The PANDA large-scale facility was used to provide valuable, high quality data on natural circulation characteristics as a function of several parameters and for a wide range of operating conditions. The new experimental data allow for testing and improving the capabilities of the thermal-hydraulic computer codes to be used for treating natural circulation loops in a range with increased attention. This paper presents a synthesis of a part of the results obtained within the EU-Project NACUSP “natural circulation and stability performance of boiling water reactors.” It does so by using the experimental results produced in PANDA and by showing some examples of numerical simulations performed with the thermal-hydraulic code ATHLET.

  12. Development of noSQL data storage for the ATLAS PanDA Monitoring System

    CERN Document Server

    Ito, H; The ATLAS collaboration; Wenaus, T

    2012-01-01

    For several years the PanDA Workload Management System has been the basis for distributed production and analysis for the ATLAS experiment at the LHC. Since the start of data taking PanDA usage has ramped up steadily, typically exceeding 500k completed jobs/day by June 2011. The associated monitoring data volume has been rising as well, to levels that present a new set of challenges in the areas of database scalability and monitoring system performance and efficiency. These challenges have being met with a R&D and development effort aimed at implementing a scalable and efficient monitoring data storage based on a noSQL solution (Cassandra). We present the data design and indexing strategies for efficient queries, as well as our experience of operating a Cassandra cluster and interfacing it with a Web service.

  13. First results of the front-end ASIC for the strip detector of the PANDA MVD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quagli, T.; Brinkmann, K.-T.; Calvo, D.; Di Pietro, V.; Lai, A.; Riccardi, A.; Ritman, J.; Rivetti, A.; Rolo, M. D.; Stockmanns, T.; Wheadon, R.; Zambanini, A.

    2017-03-01

    PANDA is a key experiment of the future FAIR facility and the Micro Vertex Detector (MVD) is the innermost part of its tracking system. PASTA (PAnda STrip ASIC) is the readout chip for the strip part of the MVD. The chip is designed to provide high resolution timestamp and charge information with the Time over Threshold (ToT) technique. Its architecture is based on Time to Digital Converters with analog interpolators, with a time bin width of 50 ps. The chip implements Single Event Upset (SEU) protection techniques for its digital parts. A first full-size prototype with 64 channels was produced in a commercial 110 nm CMOS technology and the first characterizations of the prototype were performed.

  14. Large anthropogenic impacts on a charismatic small carnivore: Insights from distribution surveys of red panda Ailurus fulgens in Nepal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saroj Panthi

    Full Text Available Protected areas are key to preserving biodiversity and maintaining ecosystem services. However, their ability to ensure long-term survival of threatened andendangered species varies across countries, regions and landscapes. Distribution surveys can beparticularly important for assessing the value of protected areas, and gauging their efficacy incatering to species-specific requirements. We assessed the conservation value of one such reserve for a charismatic yet globally endangered species, the red panda Ailurus fulgens,in the light of on-going land-use transformation in Nepal. We conducted field surveys forindirect signs of red pandas along forest trails in 25-km2 sampling grid cells (n = 54 of Dhorpatan Hunting Reserve, and confronted a set of ecological hypotheses to the data using hierarchical occupancy models. We estimated overall occupancy at Ψ(SE = 0.41 (0.007, with relatively high site-level detectability [p = 0.93 (SE = 0.001]. Our results show that despitebeing a subsistence form of small-scale resource use, extraction of bamboo and livestock grazing negatively affected panda occurrence, albeit at different intensities. The amount of bamboo cover,rather than the overall proportion of forest cover, had greater influence on the panda occurrence. Despite availability of bamboo cover, areas with bamboo extraction and anthropogenic disturbances were less likely to be occupied by pandas. Together, these results suggest that long-term persistence of red pandas in this reserve and elsewhere across the species' range will require preventing commercial extractionof bamboo, coupled with case-specific regulation of anthropogenic exploitation of red panda habitats.

  15. Basic Fibroblast Growth Factor Stimulates the Proliferation of Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Giant Panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun-Jie Wang

    Full Text Available It has been widely known that the giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca is one of the most endangered species in the world. An optimized platform for maintaining the proliferation of giant panda mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs is very necessary for current giant panda protection strategies. Basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF, a member of the FGF family, is widely considered as a growth factor and differentiation inducer within the stem cell research field. However, the role of bFGF on promoting the proliferation of MSCs derived from giant panda bone marrow (BM has not been reported. In this study, we aimed to investigate the role of bFGF on the proliferation of BM-MSCs derived from giant panda. MSCs were cultured for cell proliferation analysis at 24, 48 and 72 hrs following the addition of bFGF. With increasing concentrations of bFGF, cell numbers gradually increased. This was further demonstrated by performing 3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl-2,5-diphenyl-2-H-tetrazolium bromide (MTT cell proliferation assay, 5-Bromo-2-deoxyUridine (BrdU labeling and cell cycle testing. Furthermore, the percentage of MSCs that were OCT4 positive increased slightly following treatment with 5 ng/ml bFGF. Moreover, we demonstrated that the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK signaling pathway may play an important role in the proliferation of panda MSCs stimulated by bFGF. In conclusion, this study suggests that giant panda BM-MSCs have a high proliferative capacity with the addition of 5 ng/ml bFGF in vitro.

  16. Basic Fibroblast Growth Factor Stimulates the Proliferation of Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Giant Panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jun-Jie; Liu, Yu-Liang; Sun, Yuan-Chao; Ge, Wei; Wang, Yong-Yong; Dyce, Paul W; Hou, Rong; Shen, Wei

    2015-01-01

    It has been widely known that the giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) is one of the most endangered species in the world. An optimized platform for maintaining the proliferation of giant panda mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) is very necessary for current giant panda protection strategies. Basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), a member of the FGF family, is widely considered as a growth factor and differentiation inducer within the stem cell research field. However, the role of bFGF on promoting the proliferation of MSCs derived from giant panda bone marrow (BM) has not been reported. In this study, we aimed to investigate the role of bFGF on the proliferation of BM-MSCs derived from giant panda. MSCs were cultured for cell proliferation analysis at 24, 48 and 72 hrs following the addition of bFGF. With increasing concentrations of bFGF, cell numbers gradually increased. This was further demonstrated by performing 3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyl-2-H-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) cell proliferation assay, 5-Bromo-2-deoxyUridine (BrdU) labeling and cell cycle testing. Furthermore, the percentage of MSCs that were OCT4 positive increased slightly following treatment with 5 ng/ml bFGF. Moreover, we demonstrated that the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) signaling pathway may play an important role in the proliferation of panda MSCs stimulated by bFGF. In conclusion, this study suggests that giant panda BM-MSCs have a high proliferative capacity with the addition of 5 ng/ml bFGF in vitro.

  17. Large anthropogenic impacts on a charismatic small carnivore: Insights from distribution surveys of red panda Ailurus fulgens in Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panthi, Saroj; Khanal, Gopal; Acharya, Krishna Prasad; Aryal, Achyut; Srivathsa, Arjun

    2017-01-01

    Protected areas are key to preserving biodiversity and maintaining ecosystem services. However, their ability to ensure long-term survival of threatened andendangered species varies across countries, regions and landscapes. Distribution surveys can beparticularly important for assessing the value of protected areas, and gauging their efficacy incatering to species-specific requirements. We assessed the conservation value of one such reserve for a charismatic yet globally endangered species, the red panda Ailurus fulgens,in the light of on-going land-use transformation in Nepal. We conducted field surveys forindirect signs of red pandas along forest trails in 25-km2 sampling grid cells (n = 54) of Dhorpatan Hunting Reserve, and confronted a set of ecological hypotheses to the data using hierarchical occupancy models. We estimated overall occupancy at Ψ(SE) = 0.41 (0.007), with relatively high site-level detectability [p = 0.93 (SE = 0.001)]. Our results show that despitebeing a subsistence form of small-scale resource use, extraction of bamboo and livestock grazing negatively affected panda occurrence, albeit at different intensities. The amount of bamboo cover,rather than the overall proportion of forest cover, had greater influence on the panda occurrence. Despite availability of bamboo cover, areas with bamboo extraction and anthropogenic disturbances were less likely to be occupied by pandas. Together, these results suggest that long-term persistence of red pandas in this reserve and elsewhere across the species' range will require preventing commercial extractionof bamboo, coupled with case-specific regulation of anthropogenic exploitation of red panda habitats.

  18. PanDA: Next Generation Workload Management and Analysis System for Big Data

    CERN Document Server

    De, K; The ATLAS collaboration; Panitkin, S; Titov, M; Vaniachine, A; Wenaus, T; Yu, D; Záruba, G

    2012-01-01

    In real world any big science project implies to use a sophisticated Workload Management System (WMS) that deals with a huge amount of highly distributed data, which is often accessed by large collaborations. The Production and Distributed Analysis System (PanDA) is a high-performance WMS that is aimed to meet production and analysis requirements for a data-driven workload management system capable of operating at The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) data processing scale.

  19. Generation of THz frequency using PANDA ring resonator for THz imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalil, MA; Abdolkarim, Afroozeh; Saktioto, T; Ong, CT; Yupapin, Preecha P

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we have generated terahertz (THz) frequency by a novel design of microring resonators for medical applications. The dense wavelength-division multiplexing can be generated and obtained by using a Gaussian pulse propagating within a modified PANDA ring resonator and an add/drop filter system. Our results show that the THz frequency region can be obtained between 40–50 THz. This area of frequency provides a reliable frequency band for THz pulsed imaging. PMID:22359455

  20. The Influence of Pyrite on the Solubility of Minjingu and Panda ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    -+-P:S 2:1 ....... PS 3:1 -+-P:S 1:4. " Figure 2: Effect of Minjingu RPlPyrite mixture and incubationpe-. riod on pH in the' Panda phosphate rock mixtures resulted to very little extra drop in. pH. The effect of P:S ratios on pH differed in the first 49 day~ after- wards all ratios behaved the same way. The extent of pH drop in the so.,-,.

  1. Pediatric Autoimmune Neuropsychiatric Disorder Associated with Streptococcal Infections (PANDAS): Experience at a Tertiary Referral Center

    OpenAIRE

    Singer, Harvey S.

    2015-01-01

    The entity Pediatric Autoimmune Neuropsychiatric Disorders Associated with Streptococcal infections (PANDAS) was initially proposed in 1998 (Swedo, et al. 1998). The formal diagnosis required that the affected individual meet five specific criteria: prepubertal onset, obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) and/or a tic disorder, the dramatic sudden explosive onset of symptoms, a relapsing and remitting course of symptoms that are temporally associated with Group A beta-hemolytic streptococcal (G...

  2. A fast and compact electromagnetic calorimeter for the PANDA detector at FAIR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilms, Andrea

    2005-01-01

    In this presentation we report on the electromagnetic calorimeter of the 4π detector PANDA to be installed at the antiproton storage ring of the proposed Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research (FAIR). We present details of the R and D work with two scintillator materials, PbWO4 (PWO) and BGO, and the new developed large area avalanche photodiodes (LAAPDs) as detector readout

  3. Hopes and challenges for giant panda conservation under climate change in the Qinling Mountains of China

    OpenAIRE

    Gong, Minghao; Guan, Tianpei; Hou, Meng; Liu, Gang; Zhou, Tianyuan

    2016-01-01

    Abstract One way that climate change will impact animal distributions is by altering habitat suitability and habitat fragmentation. Understanding the impacts of climate change on currently threatened species is of immediate importance because complex conservation planning will be required. Here, we mapped changes to the distribution, suitability, and fragmentation of giant panda habitat under climate change and quantified the direction and elevation of habitat shift and fragmentation patterns...

  4. Pediatric Autoimmune Neuropsychiatric Disorders Associated with Streptococcal Infections (PANDAS): An Evolving Concept

    OpenAIRE

    Macerollo, Antonella; Martino, Davide

    2013-01-01

    Pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders associated with streptococcus infections (PANDAS) originated from the observational work of Swedo and collaborators, who formalized their definition in 1998 in a set of operational criteria. The application of these criteria, which focuses on tics and obsessive-compulsive symptoms as core symptoms, has encountered difficulties, eventually leading to a high rate of misdiagnosis. In particular, the core feature represented by the association betwe...

  5. Translation Methods Used In Writing Indonesian Subtitles Of “Kung Fu Panda Holiday”

    OpenAIRE

    NURMALLAH, HERDIANTI

    2013-01-01

    In Indonesia, western movies that are spoken in English make the need for Indonesian subtitles increase. To make subtitles in different language, translation has an important role. The translator must use appropriate methods to produce good translation. This study aims to find out the kinds of translation methods used in writing Indonesian subtitles of the movie “Kung Fu Panda Holiday” by using Newmark's theory (1988). This study uses descriptive qualitative approach with document analysis. T...

  6. The influence of pyrite on the solubility of minjingu and panda ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A laboratory study was conducted to investigate the effect of pyrite rock on the solubility of Minjingu and Panda phosphate rocks. The rocks were ground to 100 mesh (0.045 mm) after which each phosphate rock was mixed with pyrite at P:S ratios of 1:4, 1 :3, 1:2, 1:1, 2:1, and 3: 1. The mixtures were moistened and incubated ...

  7. Dietary shift and dysbiosis may trigger mucous stools in giant pandas (Ailuropoda melanoleuca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Candace L Williams

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Dietary shifts can result in dysbiosis between the host and its gastrointestinal tract (GIT microbiota, leading to negative outcomes including inflammation. Giant pandas (Ailuropoda melanoleuca are physiologically classified as carnivores; however, they consume a herbivorous diet with dramatic seasonal feeding shifts and episodes of chronic GIT distress with symptoms including abdominal pain, loss of appetite and the excretion of mucous stools (mucoids. These episodes adversely affect the overall nutritional and health status of giant pandas. Here, we examined the fecal microbiota of two giant pandas’ normal and mucoid stools and compared these microbiota to baseline samples from a season with historically few episodes. To identify the microbiota present, we isolated and sequenced 16S rRNA using next-generation sequencing. Mucoids occurred following a seasonal feeding switch from predominately bamboo culm (stalk to leaves. All fecal samples displayed low diversity and were dominated by bacterial in the phyla Firmicutes and to a lesser extent, the Proteobacteria. Fecal samples immediately prior to mucoid episodes had lower microbial diversity compared to baseline samples, followed by increased diversity in mucoids. Mucoids were mostly comprised of common mucosal-associated taxa including Streptococcus and Leuconostoc species, and exhibited increased abundance for bacteria in the family Pasteurellaceae. Taken together, these findings indicate that diet-induced intestinal dysbiosis in giant pandas likely results in an expulsion of the mucosal lining in the form of mucoids. We suggest that these occurrences serve to reset their GIT microbiota, as giant pandas have retained a carnivorous GIT anatomy while shifting to an herbivorous diet.

  8. The CAD model of the PANDA Micro-Vertex-Detector in physics simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bianco, Simone; Wuerschig, Thomas; Stockmanns, Tobias; Brinkmann, Kai-Thomas

    2011-01-01

    The Micro-Vertex-Detector (MVD) constitutes the inner tracker of the PANDA experiment, one of the large installations at the forthcoming FAIR facility. An optimization of the overall design has been accomplished. Currently the project is making rapid progress in hardware developments towards a finalized technical solution for the detector assembly. Therefore, suited tools are necessary to validate the impact of engineering solutions on the physics performance and to introduce a more realistic description of the detector. The cross-link between engineering developments and detector simulations is important for both further optimization of the detector assembly and appropriate implementation of the MVD into the PANDA simulation framework. In this article, a full chain of the migration of a detailed CAD model including all technical and engineering input to the software framework used for detector simulations and future data analysis of the PANDA experiment is presented. First, a short introduction to the experiment and a description of the conceptual layout is given. Afterward, the detailed MVD model and introduction to the physics simulation framework are described. Finally, first results of coverage tests performed and radiation length studies are exemplarily presented in order to demonstrate the successful migration of the entire detector model.

  9. The PASTA chip for the silicon micro strip sensor of the PANDA MVD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riccardi, Alberto; Brinkmann, Kai-Thomas; Di Pietro, Valentino; Quagli, Tommaso; Schnell, Robert; Zaunick, Hans-Georg [II. Physikalisches Institut, Justus-Liebig-Universitaet, Giessen (Germany); Ritman, James; Stockmanns, Tobias; Zambanini, Andre [Forschungszentrum Juelich (Germany); Rivetti, Angelo; Rolo, Manuel [INFN Sezione di Torino (Italy); Collaboration: PANDA-Collaboration

    2016-07-01

    In the Micro Vertex Detector, which is the innermost detector of PANDA, there are two different types of sensors: hybrid pixel and double sided micro strips. My work is focused on the development of the ASIC readout for the strips, which in the PANDA experiment must cope with a hit rate up to 50 kHz per channel. The energy loss measurement of the particles crossing the silicon sensor is obtained by implementing the Time over Threshold technique. The first PASTA (PANDA Strip ASIC) prototype is based on a Time to Digital Converter with an analog clock interpolator which combines good time resolution with a low power consumption. A full size chip was developed in a 0.11μ m CMOS technology and delivered in Autumn 2015. It features 64 channels with both analog and digital parts, a digital global controller, LVDS drivers and integrated bias. In the presentation, an overview of PASTA and the results of the first tests is presented.

  10. Python for data analysis data wrangling with Pandas, NumPy, and IPython

    CERN Document Server

    McKinney, Wes

    2017-01-01

    Get complete instructions for manipulating, processing, cleaning, and crunching datasets in Python. Updated for Python 3.6, the second edition of this hands-on guide is packed with practical case studies that show you how to solve a broad set of data analysis problems effectively. You’ll learn the latest versions of pandas, NumPy, IPython, and Jupyter in the process. Written by Wes McKinney, the creator of the Python pandas project, this book is a practical, modern introduction to data science tools in Python. It’s ideal for analysts new to Python and for Python programmers new to data science and scientific computing. Data files and related material are available on GitHub. Use the IPython shell and Jupyter notebook for exploratory computing Learn basic and advanced features in NumPy (Numerical Python) Get started with data analysis tools in the pandas library Use flexible tools to load, clean, transform, merge, and reshape data Create informative visualizations with matplotlib ...

  11. Microsatellite variability reveals high genetic diversity and low genetic differentiation in a critical giant panda population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiandong YANG, Zhihe ZHANG, Fujun SHEN, Xuyu YANG, Liang ZHANG, Limin CHEN, Wenping ZHANG, Qing ZHU, Rong HOU

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Understanding present patterns of genetic diversity is critical in order to design effective conservation and management strategies for endangered species. Tangjiahe Nature Reserve (NR is one of the most important national reserves for giant pandas Ailuropoda melanoleuca in China. Previous studies have shown that giant pandas in Tangjiahe NR may be threatened by population decline and fragmentation. Here we used 10 microsatellite DNA markers to assess the genetic variability in the Tangjiahe population. The results indicate a low level of genetic differentiation between the Hongshihe and Motianling subpopulations in the reserve. Assignment tests using the Bayesian clustering method in STRUCTURE identified one genetic cluster from 42 individuals of the two subpopulations. All individuals from the same subpopulation were assigned to one cluster. This indicates high gene flow between subpopulations. F statistic analyses revealed a low FIS-value of 0.024 in the total population and implies a randomly mating population in Tangjiahe NR. Additionally, our data show a high level of genetic diversity for the Tangjiahe population. Mean allele number (A, Allelic richness (AR and mean expected heterozygosity (HE for the Tangjiahe population was 5.9, 5.173 and 0.703, respectively. This wild giant panda population can be restored through concerted effort [Current Zoology 57 (6: 717–724, 2011].

  12. Molecular buffer using a PANDA ring resonator for drug delivery use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Suwanpayak

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available N Suwanpayak1, MA Jalil2, MS Aziz3, J Ali3, PP Yupapin11Nanoscale Science and Engineering Research Alliance (N’SERA, Advanced Research Center for Photonics, Faculty of Science, King Mongkut’s Institute of Technology, Ladkrabang, Bangkok, Thailand; 2Ibnu Sina Institute of Fundamental Science Studies (IIS, 3Institute of Advanced Photonics Science, Nanotechnology Research Alliance, Universitiy Teknologi Malaysia, Johor Bahru, MalaysiaAbstract: A novel design of molecular buffer for molecule storage and delivery using a PANDA ring resonator is proposed. The optical vortices can be generated and controlled to form the trapping tools in the same way as the optical tweezers. In theory, the trapping force is formed by the combination between the gradient field and scattering photons, which is reviewed. By using the intense optical vortices generated within the PANDA ring resonator, the required molecules can be trapped and moved (transported dynamically within the wavelength router or network, ie, a molecular buffer. This can be performed within the wavelength router before reaching the required destination. The advantage of the proposed system is that a transmitter and receiver can be formed within the same system, which is available for molecule storage and transportation.Keywords: molecular buffer, molecular memory, molecular transceiver, molecular repeater, PANDA ring resonator 

  13. Genetic consequences of historical anthropogenic and ecological events on giant pandas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Lifeng; Hu, Yibo; Qi, Dunwu; Wu, Hua; Zhan, Xiangjiang; Zhang, Zhejun; Bruford, Michael W; Wang, Jinliang; Yang, Xuyu; Gu, Xiaodong; Zhang, Lei; Zhang, Baowei; Zhang, Shanning; Wei, Fuwen

    2013-10-01

    The giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) was taken to the brink of extinction in the 1980s through a combination of deforestation, large-scale loss of bamboo in the core of its range, poaching, and zoo collection, causing over 1000 deaths from the 1950s. It was thought that the drastic population decline was likely to impose a severe impact on population viability. Here, based on temporal genotyping of individuals, we show that this rapid decline did not significantly reduce the overall effective population size and genetic variation of this species, or of the two focal populations (Minshan and Qionglai) that declined the most. These results are contrary to previously assumptions, probably because the population decline has not produced the expected negative impact due to the short time scale involved (at most 10 generations), or because previous surveys underestimated the population size at the time of decline. However, if present-day habitat fragmentation and limited migration of giant pandas remains, we predict a loss of genetic diversity across the giant pandas' range in the near future. Thus, our findings highlight the substantial resilience of this species when facing demographic and environmental stochasticity, but key conservation strategies, such as enhancing habitat connectivity and habitat restoration should be immediately implemented to retain the extant genetic variation and maintain long-term evolutionary potential of this endangered species.

  14. PANDA: a Large Scale Multi-Purpose Test Facility for LWR Safety Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dreier, Joerg; Paladino, Domenico; Huggenberger, Max; Andreani, Michele [Laboratory for Thermal-Hydraulics, Nuclear Energy and Safety Research Department, Paul Scherrer Institut (PSI), CH-5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Yadigaroglu, George [ETH Zuerich, Technoparkstrasse 1, Einstein 22- CH-8005 Zuerich (Switzerland)

    2008-07-01

    PANDA is a large-scale multi-purpose thermal-hydraulics test facility, built and operated by PSI. Due to its modular structure, PANDA provides flexibility for a variety of applications, ranging from integral containment system investigations, primary system tests, component experiments to large-scale separate-effects tests. For many applications, the experimental results are directly used for example for concept demonstrations or for the characterisation of phenomena or components, but all the experimental data generated in the various test campaigns is unique and was or/and will still be widely used for the validation and improvement of a variety of computer codes, including codes with 3D capabilities, for reactor safety analysis. The paper provides an overview of the already completed and on-going research programs performed in the PANDA facility in the different area of applications, including the main results and conclusions of the investigations. In particular the advanced passive containment cooling system concept investigations of the SBWR, ESBWR as well as of the SWR1000 in relation to various aspects are presented and the main findings are summarised. Finally the goals, planned investigations and expected results of the on-going OECD project SETH-2 are presented. (authors)

  15. Influence of the distribution of non-condensables on passive containment condenser performance in PANDA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bandurski, Th.; Huggenberger, M.; Dreier, J.; Aubert, C.; Putz, F.; Gamble, R.E.; Yadigaroglu, G.

    2001-01-01

    Recently passive cooling systems have been designed for the long-term decay heat removal from the containment of Advanced Light Water Reactors. In particular, the long-term LOCA response of the Passive Containment Cooling System (PCCS) for the General Electric European Simplified Boiling Water Reactor (ESBWR) has been tested in the large-scale PANDA facility. The PANDA tests achieved the dual objectives of improving confidence in the performance of the passive heat removal mechanisms underlying the design of the system, and extending the database available for containment analysis code qualification. The tests conducted subject the PCCS to a variety of conditions representing design-basis and beyond-design-basis accident conditions. These include operation in the presence of both heavier and lighter than steam non-condensable gases, as well as a variety of asymmetric and challenging start-up conditions. The present paper addresses the transient distribution of non-condensables in PANDA, and their effect on (passive) condenser performance. (author)

  16. Influence of the distribution of non-condensables on passive containment condenser performance in PANDA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bandurski, Th.; Huggenberger, M.; Dreier, J.; Aubert, C.; Putz, F.; Gamble, R.E.; Yadigaroglu, G

    2001-03-01

    Recently passive cooling systems have been designed for the long-term decay heat removal from the containment of Advanced Light Water Reactors. In particular, the long-term LOCA response of the Passive Containment Cooling System (PCCS) for the General Electric European Simplified Boiling Water Reactor (ESBWR) has been tested in the large-scale PANDA facility. The PANDA tests achieved the dual objectives of improving confidence in the performance of the passive heat removal mechanisms underlying the design of the system, and extending the database available for containment analysis code qualification. The tests conducted subject the PCCS to a variety of conditions representing design-basis and beyond-design-basis accident conditions. These include operation in the presence of both heavier and lighter than steam non-condensable gases, as well as a variety of asymmetric and challenging start-up conditions. The present paper addresses the transient distribution of non-condensables in PANDA, and their effect on (passive) condenser performance. (author)

  17. Influence of the distribution of noncondensibles on passive containment condenser performance in PANDA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bandurski, T.; Huggenberger, M.; Dreier, J.; Aubert, C.; Putz, F.; Gamble, R.E.; Yadigaroglu, G.

    2001-01-01

    Recently, passive cooling systems have been designed for the long-term decay heat removal from the containment of Advanced Light Water Reactors. In particular, the long-term LOCA response of the Passive Containment Cooling System (PCCS) for the General Electric European Simplified Boiling Water Reactor (ESBWR) has been tested in the large scale PANDA facility. The PANDA tests achieved the dual objective of improving confidence in the performance of the passive heat removal mechanisms underlying the design of the tested systems and extending the data base available for containment analysis code qualification. The tests conducted subject the PCCS to a variety of conditions representing design-basis and beyond-design-basis accident conditions. These include operation in the presence of both heavier and lighter than steam noncondensible gases as well as a variety of asymmetric conditions and challenging start-up conditions. The present paper addresses the transient distribution of noncondensibles and their effect on the passive condenser performance in PANDA

  18. Influence of the distribution of noncondensibles on passive containment condenser performance in PANDA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bandurski, T. E-mail: thomas.bandurski@psi.ch; Huggenberger, M.; Dreier, J.; Aubert, C.; Putz, F.; Gamble, R.E. E-mail: robert.gamble@gene.ge.com; Yadigaroglu, G. E-mail: yadigaroglu@iet.mavt.ethz.ch

    2001-02-01

    Recently, passive cooling systems have been designed for the long-term decay heat removal from the containment of Advanced Light Water Reactors. In particular, the long-term LOCA response of the Passive Containment Cooling System (PCCS) for the General Electric European Simplified Boiling Water Reactor (ESBWR) has been tested in the large scale PANDA facility. The PANDA tests achieved the dual objective of improving confidence in the performance of the passive heat removal mechanisms underlying the design of the tested systems and extending the data base available for containment analysis code qualification. The tests conducted subject the PCCS to a variety of conditions representing design-basis and beyond-design-basis accident conditions. These include operation in the presence of both heavier and lighter than steam noncondensible gases as well as a variety of asymmetric conditions and challenging start-up conditions. The present paper addresses the transient distribution of noncondensibles and their effect on the passive condenser performance in PANDA.

  19. The Forward Endcap of the Electromagnetic Calorimeter for the PANDA Detector at FAIR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albrecht, Malte

    2015-01-01

    The versatile 4π-detector PANDA will be built at the Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research (FAIR), an accelerator complex, currently under construction near Darmstadt, Germany. A cooled antiproton beam in a momentum range of 1.5 – 15GeV/c will be provided by the High Energy Storage Ring (HESR). All measurements at PANDA rely on an excellent performance of the detector with respect to tracking, particle identification and energy measurement. The electromagnetic calorimeter (EMC) of the PANDA detector will be equipped with 15744 PbWO 4 crystals (PWO-II), which will be operated at a temperature of – 25° C in order to increase the light output. The design of the forward endcap of the EMC has been finalized. The crystals will be read out with Large Area Avalanche Photo Diodes (LAAPDs) in the outer regions and with Vacuum Photo Tetrodes (VPTTs) in the innermost part. Production of photosensor units utilizing charge integrating preamplifiers has begun. A prototype comprised of 216 PbWO4 crystals has been built and tested at various accelerators (CERN SPS, ELSA/Bonn, MAMI/Mainz), where the crystals have been exposed to electron and photon beams of 25MeV up to 15GeV. The results of these test measurements regarding the energy and position resolution are presented

  20. Proton electromagnetic form factors: present status and future perspectives at PANDA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasi-Gustafsson E.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Data and models on electromagnetic proton form factors are reviewed, highlighting the contribution foreseen by the PANDA collaboration. Electromagnetic hadron form factors contain essential information on the internal structure of hadrons. Precise and surprising data have been obtained at electron accelerators, applying the polarization method in electron-proton elastic scattering. At electron-positron colliders, using initial state radiation, BABAR measured proton time-like form factors in a wide time-like kinematical region and the BESIII collaboration will measure very precisely proton and neutron form factors in the threshold region. In the next future an antiproton beam with momentum up to 15 GeV/c will be available at FAIR (Darmstadt. Measurements of the reaction p̅ + p → e+ + e− by the PANDA collaboration will contribute to the individual determination of electric and magnetic form factors in the time-like region of momentum transfer squared, as well as to their first determination in the unphysical region (below the kinematical threshold, through the reaction p̅ + p → e+ + e− + π0. From the discussion on feasibility studies at PANDA, we focus on the consequences of such measurements in view of an unified description of form factors in the full kinematical region. We present models which have the necessary analytical requirements and apply to the data in the whole kinematical region.

  1. Counterpart experimental study of ISP-42 PANDA tests on PUMA facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Jun; Choi, Sung-Won; Lim, Jaehyok; Lee, Doo-Yong; Rassame, Somboon; Hibiki, Takashi; Ishii, Mamoru

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Counterpart tests were performed on two large-scale BWR integral facilities. ► Similarity of post-LOCA system behaviors observed between two tests. ► Passive core and containment cooling systems work as design in both tests. -- Abstract: A counterpart test to the Passive Nachwärmeabfuhr und Druckabbau Test Anlage (Passive Decay Heat Removal and Depressurization Test Facility, PANDA) International Standard Problem (ISP)-42 test was conducted at the Purdue University Multi-Dimensional Integral Test Assembly (PUMA) facility. Aimed to support code validation on a range of light water reactor (LWR) containment issues, the ISP-42 test consists of six sequential phases (Phases A–F) with separately defined initial and boundary conditions, addressing different stages of anticipated accident scenario and system responses. The counterpart test was performed from Phases A to D, which are within the scope of the normal integral tests performed on the PUMA facility. A scaling methodology was developed by using the PANDA facility as prototype and PUMA facility as test model, and an engineering scaling has been applied to the PUMA facility. The counterpart test results indicated that functions of passive safety systems, such as passive containment cooling system (PCCS) start-up, gravity-driven cooling system (GDCS) discharge, PCCS normal operation and overload function were confirmed in both the PANDA and PUMA facilities with qualitative similarities

  2. Thermal Stress-Induced Depolarization Loss in Conventional and Panda-Shaped Photonic Crystal Fiber Lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mousavi, Seyedeh Laleh; Sabaeian, Mohammad

    2016-10-01

    We report on the modeling of the depolarization loss in the conventional and panda-shaped photonic crystal fiber lasers (PCFLs) due to the self-heating of the fiber, which we call it thermal stress-induced depolarization loss (TSIDL). We first calculated the temperature distribution over the fiber cross sections and then calculated the thermal stresses/strains as a function of heat load per meter. Thermal stress-induced birefringence (TSIB), which is defined as | n x - n y |, in the core and cladding regions was calculated. Finally, TSIDL was calculated for the conventional and panda-shaped PCFLs as a function of fiber length and, respectively, saturated values of 22 and 25 % were obtained which were independent of heat load per meter. For panda-shaped PCFLs, prior to being saturated, an oscillating and damping behavior against the fiber length was seen where in some lengths reached 35 %. The results are close to an experimental value of 30 % reported for a pulsed PCFL (Limpert et al., Opt Express 12:1313-1319, 2004) where the authors reported a degree of polarization of 70 % (i.e., a depolarization of 30 %). The most important result of this work is a saturation behavior of TSIDL at long-enough lengths of the fiber laser which is independent of heat load per meter. To our knowledge, this the first report of TSIBL for PCFLs.

  3. Book Reivew: A chance for lasting survival: Ecology and behavior of wild giant pandas

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Manen, Frank T.

    2015-01-01

    “If we watch species going extinct in front of us, how useful is that we publish 100 or even 1,000 papers by studying them?” (p. 330). This quote from senior author Pan Wenshi captures an important essence of this book. A translation of a 2001 monograph originally published in Chinese, this volume details the findings of a 15-year research program in the Qinling Mountains by Wenshi and his students. Starting in 1984, this Chinese research team from Peking University was only the second to study free-ranging pandas. This is the remarkable journey of a devoted group of field researchers who helped changed the course of giant panda conservation, events that few conservationists outside of China have been aware of until now.Review info: A chance for lasting survival: Ecology and behavior of wild giant pandas. By Pan Wenshi, Lü Zhi, Zhu Xiaojian, Wang Dajun, Wang Hao, Long Yu, Fu Dali, and Zhou Xin; edited by, William J. McShea, Richard B. Harris, David L. Garshelis, and Wang Dajun, 2014. ISBN: 978-1-935623-17-5, 349pp.

  4. PANDA: a Large Scale Multi-Purpose Test Facility for LWR Safety Research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dreier, Joerg; Paladino, Domenico; Huggenberger, Max; Andreani, Michele; Yadigaroglu, George

    2008-01-01

    PANDA is a large-scale multi-purpose thermal-hydraulics test facility, built and operated by PSI. Due to its modular structure, PANDA provides flexibility for a variety of applications, ranging from integral containment system investigations, primary system tests, component experiments to large-scale separate-effects tests. For many applications, the experimental results are directly used for example for concept demonstrations or for the characterisation of phenomena or components, but all the experimental data generated in the various test campaigns is unique and was or/and will still be widely used for the validation and improvement of a variety of computer codes, including codes with 3D capabilities, for reactor safety analysis. The paper provides an overview of the already completed and on-going research programs performed in the PANDA facility in the different area of applications, including the main results and conclusions of the investigations. In particular the advanced passive containment cooling system concept investigations of the SBWR, ESBWR as well as of the SWR1000 in relation to various aspects are presented and the main findings are summarised. Finally the goals, planned investigations and expected results of the on-going OECD project SETH-2 are presented. (authors)

  5. Determination of the Ds0(2317) width with the PANDA detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mertens, Marius Christian

    2012-01-01

    The D s0 *(2317) meson which was discovered at BaBar in 2003 has the interesting properties of a surprisingly narrow width and a mass just below the DK threshold. Different theoretical models try to explain the nature of its properties. A precise knowledge of the width is an important criterion to evaluate these models. However, only an upper limit of 3.8 MeV is known so far. A suitable method to determine the width of particles which are significantly narrower than the experimental mass resolution is to measure the production cross section as a function of the center of mass energy. The shape of this excitation function allows to deduce the width. At PANDA, the measurement of the production cross section will be possible in antiproton-proton collisions. The PANDA experiment at the future FAIR facility is designed to combine precisely adjustable beam momenta and high luminosities which make it an excellent tool for this kind of measurement. In the following we will describe the experimental procedure to carry out this measurement with the PANDA detector in order to achieve a resolution in the order of 0.1 MeV for the width of the D s0 *(2317).

  6. Conservation implications of drastic reductions in the smallest and most isolated populations of giant pandas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Lifeng; Zhan, Xiangjiang; Wu, Hua; Zhang, Shanning; Meng, Tao; Bruford, Michael W; Wei, Fuwen

    2010-10-01

    In conservation biology, understanding the causes of endangerment is a key step to devising effective conservation strategies. We used molecular evidence (coalescent simulations of population changes from microsatellite data) and historical information (habitat and human population changes) to investigate how the most-isolated populations of giant pandas (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) in the Xiaoxiangling Mountains became highly endangered. These populations experienced a strong, recent demographic reduction (60-fold), starting approximately 250 years BP. Explosion of the human population and use of non-native crop species at the peak of the Qing Empire resulted in land-use changes, deforestation, and habitat fragmentation, which are likely to have led to the drastic reduction of the most-isolated populations of giant pandas. We predict that demographic, genetic, and environmental factors will lead to extinction of giant pandas in the Xiaoxiangling Mountains in the future if the population remains isolated. Therefore, a targeted conservation action--translocation--has been proposed and is being implemented by the Chinese government. © 2010 Society for Conservation Biology.

  7. Seasonal variation in nutrient utilization shapes gut microbiome structure and function in wild giant pandas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qi; Wang, Xiao; Ding, Yun; Hu, Yibo; Nie, Yonggang; Wei, Wei; Ma, Shuai; Yan, Li; Zhu, Lifeng; Wei, Fuwen

    2017-09-13

    Wild giant pandas use different parts of bamboo (shoots, leaves and stems) and different bamboo species at different times of the year. Their usage of bamboo can be classified temporally into a distinct leaf stage, shoot stage and transition stage. An association between this usage pattern and variation in the giant panda gut microbiome remains unknown. Here, we found associations using a gut metagenomic approach and nutritional analyses whereby diversity of the gut microbial community in the leaf and shoot stages was significantly different. Functional metagenomic analysis showed that in the leaf stage, bacteria species over-represented genes involved in raw fibre utilization and cell cycle control. Thus, raw fibre utilization by the gut microbiome was guaranteed during the nutrient-deficient leaf stage by reinforcing gut microbiome robustness. During the protein-abundant shoot stage, the functional capacity of the gut microbiome expanded to include prokaryotic secretion and signal transduction activity, suggesting active interactions between the gut microbiome and host. These results illustrate that seasonal nutrient variation in wild giant pandas substantially influences gut microbiome composition and function. Nutritional interactions between gut microbiomes and hosts appear to be complex and further work is needed. © 2017 The Author(s).

  8. Phenotypic and genotypic characterisation of antimicrobial resistance in faecal bacteria from 30 Giant pandas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, An-Yun; Wang, Hong-Ning; Tian, Guo-Bao; Zhang, Yi; Yang, Xin; Xia, Qing-Qing; Tang, Jun-Ni; Zou, Li-Kou

    2009-05-01

    To study the prevalence of antimicrobial resistance in faecal bacteria from Giant pandas in China, 59 isolates were recovered from faecal pats of 30 Giant pandas. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing of the isolates was performed by the standardised disk diffusion method (Kirby-Bauer). Of the 59 study isolates, 32.20% were resistant to at least one antimicrobial and 16.95% showed multidrug-resistant phenotypes. Thirteen drug resistance genes [aph(3')-IIa, aac(6')-Ib, ant(3'')-Ia, aac(3)-IIa, sul1, sul2, sul3, tetA, tetC, tetM, cat1, floR and cmlA] were analysed using four primer sets by multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The detection frequency of the aph(3')-IIa gene was the highest (10.17%), followed by cmlA (8.47%). The genes aac(6')-Ib, sul2 and tetA were not detected. PCR products were confirmed by DNA sequence analysis. The results revealed that multidrug resistance was widely present in bacteria isolated from Giant pandas.

  9. Genetic evidence of recent population contraction in the southernmost population of giant pandas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yibo; Qi, Dunwu; Wang, Hongjia; Wei, Fuwen

    2010-12-01

    Anthropogenic habitat loss and fragmentation have been implicated in the endangerment and extinction of many species. Here we assess genetic variation and demographic history in the southernmost population of giant pandas (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) that continues to be threatened by habitat degradation and fragmentation, using noninvasive genetic sampling, mitochondrial control region sequence and 12 microsatellite loci. Compared to other giant panda populations, this population has medium-level genetic diversity based on the measure of both mitochondrial and nuclear markers. Mitochondrial DNA-based demographic analyses revealed that no historical population expansion or contraction has occurred, indicating a relatively stable population size. However, a Bayesian-coalescent method based on the observed allele distribution and allele frequencies of microsatellite clearly did detect, quantify and date a recent decrease in population size. Overall, the results indicate that a population contraction in the order of 95-96% has taken place over the last 910-999 years and is most likely due to anthropogenic habitat loss. These findings highlight the need for a greater focus on habitat protection and restoration for the long-term survival of this giant panda population.

  10. Climate-change impacts on understorey bamboo species and giant pandas in China's Qinling Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuanmu, Mao-Ning; Viña, Andrés; Winkler, Julie A.; Li, Yu; Xu, Weihua; Ouyang, Zhiyun; Liu, Jianguo

    2013-03-01

    Climate change is threatening global ecosystems through its impact on the survival of individual species and their ecological functions. Despite the important role of understorey plants in forest ecosystems, climate impact assessments on understorey plants and their role in supporting wildlife habitat are scarce in the literature. Here we assess climate-change impacts on understorey bamboo species with an emphasis on their ecological function as a food resource for endangered giant pandas (Ailuropoda melanoleuca). An ensemble of bamboo distribution projections associated with multiple climate-change projections and bamboo dispersal scenarios indicates a substantial reduction in the distributional ranges of three dominant bamboo species in the Qinling Mountains, China during the twenty-first century. As these three species comprise almost the entire diet of the panda population in the region, the projected changes in bamboo distribution suggest a potential shortage of food for this population, unless alternative food sources become available. Although the projections were developed under unavoidable simplifying assumptions and uncertainties, they indicate potential challenges for panda conservation and underscore the importance of incorporating interspecific interactions into climate-change impact assessments and associated conservation planning.

  11. Eating disorder training and attitudes among primary care residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banas, David A; Redfern, Roberta; Wanjiku, Stephen; Lazebnik, Rina; Rome, Ellen S

    2013-04-01

    The ability to diagnose eating disorders (ED) is important and difficult for primary care physicians (PCPs). Previous reports suggest that PCPs feel their training is inadequate. To explore residents' interest and comfort diagnosing and treating ED. An internet survey was sent to primary care residencies. Logistic regression models were fitted to identify factors correlated with residents' interest and comfort in diagnosing and treating ED. Family Medicine and Internal Medicine residents had higher interest in ED than Pediatric residents, as did female residents and residents exposed to teenagers with unexplained weight loss. Residents in programs with an ED program and faculty interested in ED were more comfortable diagnosing ED. Interest in, and comfort diagnosing and treating ED are associated with specialty type, presence of an ED program, presence of faculty interested in ED, and resident exposure to ED outpatients and teenagers with unexplained weight loss.

  12. Residency training program: Perceptions of residents

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was carried out to ascertain the perception of the residency ... the time of the study. Analysis of the respondents showed similar findings for both senior and junior levels of training. Discussion. The introduction of the residency training program .... Overseas training/ attachment should be re-introduced. 12. (10.1).

  13. Development and test of a prototype for the PANDA barrel DIRC detector at FAIR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalicy, Grzegorz

    2014-07-01

    The PANDA experiment at FAIR will perform world class physics studies using high-intensity cooled antiproton beams with momenta between 1.5 and 15 GeV/c. A rich physics program requires very good particle identification (PID). Charged hadron PID for the barrel section of the target spectrometer has to cover the angular range of 22-140 and separate pions from kaons for momenta up to 3.5 GeV/c with a separation power of at least 3 standard deviations. The system that will provide it has to be thin and operate in a strong magnetic field. A ring imaging Cherenkov detector using the DIRC principle meets those requirements. The design of the PANDA Barrel DIRC is based on the successful BABAR DIRC counter with several important changes to improve the performance and optimize the costs. The design options are being studied in detailed Monte Carlo simulation, and implemented in increasingly complex system prototypes and tested in particle beams. Before building the full system prototypes the radiator bars and lenses are measured on the test benches. The performance of the DIRC prototype was quantified in terms of the single photon Cherenkov angle resolution and the photon yield. Results for two full system prototypes will be presented. The prototype in 2011 aimed at investigating the full size expansion volume. It was found that the resolution for this configuration is at the level of in good agreement with ray tracing simulation results. A more complex prototype, tested in 2012, provided the first experience with a compact fused silica prism expansion volume, a wide radiator plate, and several advanced lens options for the focusing system. The performance of the baseline configuration of the prototype with a standard lens and an air gap met the requirements for the PANDA PID for most of the polar angle range but failed at polar angles around 90 due to photon loss at the air gap. Measurements with a prototype high-refractive index compound lens without an air gap at a polar

  14. Crystal chemistry of pyrochlore from the Mesozoic Panda Hill carbonatite deposit, western Tanzania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boniface, Nelson

    2017-02-01

    The Mesozoic Panda Hill carbonatite deposit in western Tanzania hosts pyrochlore, an ore and source of niobium. This study was conducted to establish the contents of radioactive elements (uranium and thorium) in pyrochlore along with the concentration of niobium in the ore. The pyrochlore is mainly hosted in sövite and is structurally controlled by NW-SE (SW dipping) or NE-SW (NW dipping) magmatic flow bands with dip angles of between 60° and 90°. Higher concentrations of pyrochlore are associated with magnetite, apatite and/or phlogopite rich flow bands. Electron microprobe analyses on single crystals of pyrochlore yield very low UO2 concentrations that range between 0 and 0.09 wt% (equivalent to 0 atoms per formula unit: a.p.f.u.) and ThO2 between 0.55 and 1.05 wt% (equivalent to 0.1 a.p.f.u.). The analyses reveal high concentrations of Nb2O5 (ranging between 57.13 and 65.50 wt%, equivalent to a.p.f.u. ranging between 1.33 and 1.43) and therefore the Panda Hill Nb-oxide is classified as pyrochlore sensu stricto. These data point to a non radioactive pyrochlore and a deposit rich in Nb at Panda Hill. The Panda Hill pyrochlore has low concentrations of REEs as displayed by La2O3 that range between 0.10 and 0.49 wt% (equivalent to a.p.f.u. ranging between 0 and 0.01) and Ce2O3 ranging between 0.86 and 1.80 wt% (equivalent to a.p.f.u. ranging between 0.02 and 0.03), Pr2O3 concentrations range between 0 and 0.23 wt% (equivalent to 0 a.p.f.u.), and Y2O3 is 0 wt% (equivalent to 0 a.p.f.u.). The abundance of the REEs in pyroclore at the Panda Hill Carbonatite deposit is of no economic significance.

  15. No cases of PANDAS on follow-up of patients of patients referred to a pediatric movement disorders clinic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah eKilbertus

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Pediatric autoimmune disorders associated with streptococcal infection (PANDAS remains a controversial diagnosis and it is unclear how frequently it is encountered in clinical practice. Our study aimed to determine how many children with acute onset tics and/or OCD met criteria for PANDAS.Materials and Methods: A retrospective review was performed on 39 children who presented to a movement disorders clinic with acute onset tics or OCD from 2005-2012.Results: Out of 284 patients seen over the course of 7 years, only 39 had acute onset tics and/or OCD symptoms. None of the 39 children who presented to us acutely met full criteria for PANDAS. 38% had no association between their symptoms and a group A beta-hemolytic streptococcal infection, while 54% had prior inconclusive laboratory testing done and no prospective exacerbations during the course of the study. Only 8% of patients prospectively had acute exacerbations, however prospective testing for GAHBS in these patients was negative. Discussion: Our results support the notion that PANDAS, if it exists, is an exceedingly rare diagnosis encountered in a pediatric movement disorder clinic. While none of our patients met criteria for PANDAS, two with acute onset OCD would have met criteria for pediatric acute-onset neuropsychiatric syndrome (PANS indicating that PANS may be a more appropriate diagnosis.

  16. PANDA-T1ρ: Integrating principal component analysis and dictionary learning for fast T1ρ mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yanjie; Zhang, Qinwei; Liu, Qiegen; Wang, Yi-Xiang J; Liu, Xin; Zheng, Hairong; Liang, Dong; Yuan, Jing

    2015-01-01

    Long scanning time greatly hinders the widespread application of spin-lattice relaxation in rotating frame (T1ρ) in clinics. In this study, a novel method is proposed to reconstruct the T1ρ-weighted images from undersampled k-space data and hence accelerate the acquisition of T1ρ imaging. The proposed approach (PANDA-T1ρ) combined the benefit of PCA and dictionary learning when reconstructing image from undersampled data. Specifically, the PCA transform was first used to sparsify the image series along the parameter direction and then the sparsified images were reconstructed by means of dictionary learning and finally solved the images. A variation of PANDA-T1ρ was also developed for the heavy noise case. Numerical simulation and in vivo experiments were carried out with the accelerating factor from 2 to 4 to verify the performance of PANDA-T1ρ. The reconstructed T1ρ maps using the PANDA-T1ρ method were found to be comparable to the reference at all verified acceleration factors. Moreover, the variation exhibited better performance than the original version when the k-space data were contaminated by heavy noise. PANDA-T1ρ can significantly reduce the scanning time of T1ρ by integrating PCA and dictionary learning and provides better parameter estimation than the state-of-art methods for a fixed acceleration factor. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Quantifying the evidence for co-benefits between species conservation and climate change mitigation in giant panda habitats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Renqiang; Xu, Ming; Powers, Ryan; Zhao, Fen; Jetz, Walter; Wen, Hui; Sheng, Qingkai

    2017-10-05

    Conservationists strive for practical, cost-effective management solutions to forest-based species conservation and climate change mitigation. However, this is compromised by insufficient information about the effectiveness of protected areas in increasing carbon storage, and the co-benefits of species and carbon conservation remain poorly understood. Here, we present the first rigorous quantitative assessment of the roles of giant panda nature reserves (NRs) in carbon sequestration, and explore the co-benefits of habitat conservation and climate change mitigation. Results show that more than 90% of the studied panda NRs are effective in increasing carbon storage, with the mean biomass carbon density of the whole NRs exhibiting a 4.2% higher growth rate compared with lands not declared as NRs over the period 1988-2012, while this effectiveness in carbon storage masks important patterns of spatial heterogeneity across the giant panda habitats. Moreover, the significant associations have been identified between biomass carbon density and panda's habitat suitability in ~85% NRs and at the NR level. These findings suggest that the planning for carbon and species conservation co-benefits would enhance the greatest return on limited conservation investments, which is a critical need for the giant panda after its conservation status has been downgraded from "endangered" to "vulnerable".

  18. Exosomal microRNAs in giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) breast milk: potential maternal regulators for the development of newborn cubs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jideng; Wang, Chengdong; Long, Keren; Zhang, Hemin; Zhang, Jinwei; Jin, Long; Tang, Qianzi; Jiang, Anan; Wang, Xun; Tian, Shilin; Chen, Li; He, Dafang; Li, Desheng; Huang, Shan; Jiang, Zhi; Li, Mingzhou

    2017-06-14

    The physiological role of miRNAs is widely understood to include fine-tuning the post-transcriptional regulation of a wide array of biological processes. Extensive studies have indicated that exosomal miRNAs in the bodily fluids of various organisms can be transferred between living cells for the delivery of gene silencing signals. Here, we illustrated the expression characteristics of exosomal miRNAs in giant panda breast milk during distinct lactation periods and highlighted the enrichment of immune- and development-related endogenous miRNAs in colostral and mature giant panda milk. These miRNAs are stable, even under certain harsh conditions, via the protection of extracellular vesicles. These findings indicate that breast milk may facilitate the dietary intake of maternal miRNAs by infants for the regulation of postnatal development. We also detected exogenous plant miRNAs from the primary food source of the giant panda (bamboo) in the exosomes of giant panda breast milk that were associated with regulatory roles in basic metabolism and neuron development. This result suggested that dietary plant miRNAs are absorbed by host cells and subsequently secreted into bodily fluids as potential cross-kingdom regulators. In conclusion, exosomal miRNAs in giant panda breast milk may be crucial maternal regulators for the development of intrinsic 'slink' newborn cubs.

  19. Motherhood during residency training: challenges and strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Allyn; Gold, Michelle; Jensen, Phyllis; Jedrzkiewicz, Michelle

    2005-07-01

    To determine what factors enable or impede women in a Canadian family medicine residency program from combining motherhood with residency training. To determine how policies can support these women, given that in recent decades the number of female family medicine residents has increased. Qualitative study using in-person interviews. McMaster University Family Medicine Residency Program. Twenty-one of 27 family medicine residents taking maternity leave between 1994 and 1999. Semistructured interviews. The research team reviewed transcripts of audiotaped interviews for emerging themes; consensus was reached on content and meaning. NVIVO software was used for data analysis. Long hours, unpredictable work demands, guilt because absences from work increase workload for colleagues, and residents' high expectations of themselves cause pregnant residents severe stress. This stress continues upon return to work; finding adequate child care is an added stress. Residents report receiving less support from colleagues and supervisors upon return to work; they associate this with no longer being visibly pregnant. Physically demanding training rotations put additional strain on pregnant residents and those newly returned to work. Flexibility in scheduling rotations can help accommodate needs at home. Providing breaks, privacy, and refrigerators at work can help maintain breastfeeding. Allowing residents to remain involved in academic and clinical work during maternity leave helps maintain clinical skills, build new knowledge, and promote peer support. Pregnancy during residency training is common and becoming more common. Training programs can successfully enhance the experience of motherhood during residency by providing flexibility at work to facilitate a healthy balance among the competing demands of family, work, and student life.

  20. Genome-wide survey and analysis of microsatellites in giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca), with a focus on the applications of a novel microsatellite marker system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jie; Li, Yu-Zhi; Du, Lian-Ming; Yang, Bo; Shen, Fu-Jun;