Chen, Xiaodong Phoenix; Sullivan, Amy M; Bengtson, Joan M; Dalrymple, John L
To identify entrustment evidence used by expert gynecologic surgical teachers to determine obstetrics and gynecology residents' level of autonomy in the operating room. A qualitative interview study was undertaken from March to November 2016. Four selection criteria were used to define and purposefully sample expert gynecologic surgical teachers across the United States to represent all four geographic regions. All interviews were audio-recorded and transcribed. We applied the Framework Method of content analysis. Transcripts were iteratively analyzed and emergent themes identified. Twenty-seven expert gynecologic surgical teachers from 15 institutions across the United States participated in 30-minute interviews. We identified four domains of entrustment evidence (resident characteristics, medical knowledge, technical performance, and "beyond current surgical case") commonly reported by expert gynecologic surgical teachers to determine residents' autonomy as well as the particular evidence associated with expert gynecologic surgical teachers' determination of resident autonomy at two decision-making points (surgical time-out and taking over certain intraoperative steps) in the operating room. Onsite direct observation and conversation were two common methods used by expert gynecologic surgical teachers to obtain this evidence. Entrustment evidence from resident characteristics, medical knowledge, and technical performance domains and from "beyond current surgical case" was commonly used by expert gynecologic surgical teachers to determine residents' autonomy. Our findings provide a potential framework for designing educational interventions that aim to increase residents' readiness for autonomy and entrustment in the operating room.
Chen, Xiaodong Phoenix; Sullivan, Amy M; Alseidi, Adnan; Kwakye, Gifty; Smink, Douglas S
Providing resident autonomy in the operating room (OR) is one of the major challenges for surgical educators today. The purpose of this study was to explore what approaches expert surgical teachers use to assess residents' readiness for autonomy in the OR. We particularly focused on the assessments that experts make prior to conducting the surgical time-out. We conducted semistructured in-depth interviews with expert surgical teachers from March 2016 to September 2016. Purposeful sampling and snowball sampling were applied to identify and recruit expert surgical teachers from general surgery residency programs across the United States to represent a range of clinical subspecialties. All interviews were audio-recorded, deidentified, and transcribed. We applied the Framework Method of content analysis, discussed and reached final consensus on the themes. We interviewed 15 expert teachers from 9 institutions. The majority (13/15) were Program or Associate Program Directors; 47% (7/15) primarily performed complex surgical operations (e.g., endocrine surgery). Five themes regarding how expert surgical teachers determine residents' readiness for OR autonomy before the surgical time-out emerged. These included 3 domains of evidence elicited about the resident (resident characteristics, medical knowledge, and beyond the current OR case), 1 variable relating to attending characteristics, and 1 variable composed of contextual factors. Experts obtained one or more examples of evidence, and adjusted residents' initial autonomy using factors from the attending variable and the context variable. Expert surgical teachers' assessments of residents' readiness for OR autonomy included 5 key components. Better understanding these inputs can contribute to both faculty and resident development, enabling increased resident autonomy and preparation for independent practice. Copyright © 2017 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Mackenzie, Colin F; Garofalo, Evan; Puche, Adam; Chen, Hegang; Pugh, Kristy; Shackelford, Stacy; Tisherman, Samuel; Henry, Sharon; Bowyer, Mark W
Surgical patient outcomes are related to surgeon skills. To measure resident surgeon technical and nontechnical skills for trauma core competencies before and after training and up to 18 months later and to compare resident performance with the performance of expert traumatologists. This longitudinal study performed from May 1, 2013, through February 29, 2016, at Maryland State Anatomy Board cadaver laboratories included 40 surgical residents and 10 expert traumatologists. Performance was measured during extremity vascular exposures and lower extremity fasciotomy in fresh cadavers before and after taking the Advanced Surgical Skills for Exposure in Trauma (ASSET) course. The primary outcome variable was individual procedure score (IPS), with secondary outcomes of IPSs on 5 components of technical and nontechnical skills, Global Rating Scale scores, errors, and time to complete the procedure. Two trained evaluators located in the same laboratory evaluated performance with a standardized script and mobile touch-screen data collection. Thirty-eight (95%) of 40 surgical residents (mean [SD] age, 31 [2.9] years) who were evaluated before and within 4 weeks of ASSET training completed follow-up evaluations 12 to 18 months later (mean [SD], 14 [2.7] months). The experts (mean [SD] age, 52 [10.0] years) were significantly older and had a longer (mean [SD], 46 [16.3] months) interval since taking the ASSET course (both P knowledge, correct procedural steps, and decreased errors from 60% to 19% after the ASSET course regardless of clinical year of training (P knowledge (the 2 IPS components most improved with training) indicates the resident's performance was within 1 nearest-neighbor classifier of experts after ASSET training. Five residents had no improvement with training. The Trauma Readiness Index for experts (mean [SD], 74 ) was significantly different compared with the trained residents (mean [SD], 48  before training vs 63  after training [P = .004
Phitayakorn, Roy; Kelz, Rachel R; Petrusa, Emil; Sippel, Rebecca S; Sturgeon, Cord; Patel, Kepal N; Perrier, Nancy D
Proficiency with common endocrine operations is expected of graduating, general surgery residents. However, no expert consensus guidelines exist about these expectations. Members of the American Association of Endocrine Surgeons were surveyed about their opinions on resident proficiency with common endocrine operations. Overall response rate was 38%. A total of 92% of the respondents operate with residents. On average, they believed that the steps of a total thyroidectomy for benign disease and a well-localized parathyroidectomy could be performed by a postgraduate year 4 surgery resident. Specific steps that they thought might require more training included decisions to divide the strap muscles or leaving a drain. Approximately 66% of respondents thought that a postgraduate year 5 surgery resident could independently perform a total thyroidectomy for benign disease, but only 45% felt similarly for malignant thyroid disease; 79% thought that a postgraduate year 5 surgery resident could independently perform a parathyroidectomy. Respondents' years of experience correlated with their opinions about resident autonomy for total thyroidectomy (benign r = 0.38, P general agreement among responding members of the AAES about resident proficiency and autonomy with common endocrine operations. As postgraduate year 5 residents may not be proficient in advanced endocrine operations, opportunities exist to improve training prior to the transition to independent practice for graduates that anticipate performing endocrine operations routinely. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
The information contained in this summary report reflects the analysis and assessment that have been undertaken beginning January 2013 mainly to assess the effectiveness of TalentCorp’s efforts to attract and retain global talent through its Returning Expert Program (REP) and Residence Pass-Talent (RP-T). The initial research included various activities aimed at improving the client’s abil...
Mace, Sandra T.; Wagoner, Cynthia L.; Teachout, David J.; Hodges, Donald A.
The purpose of this study was to examine how well individuals were able to identify different music genres from very brief excerpts and whether musical training, gender and preference played a role in genre identification. Listeners were asked to identify genre from classical, jazz, country, metal, and rap/hip hop excerpts that were 125, 250, 500,…
King, Ashley B; Klausner, Adam P; Johnson, Corey M; Moore, Blake W; Wilson, Steven K; Grob, B Mayer
The challenge of resident education in urologic surgery programs is to overcome disparity imparted by diverse patient populations, limited training times, and inequalities in the availability of expert surgical educators. Specifically, in the area of prosthetic urology, only a small proportion of programs have full-time faculty available to train residents in this discipline. To examine whether a new model using yearly training sessions from a recognized expert can establish a successful penile prosthetics program and result in better outcomes, higher case volumes, and willingness to perform more complex surgeries. A recognized expert conducted one to two operative training sessions yearly to teach standardized technique for penile prosthetics to residents. Each session consisted of three to four operative cases performed under the direct supervision of the expert. Retrospective data were collected from all penile prosthetic operations before (February, 2000 to June, 2004: N = 44) and after (July, 2004 to October, 2007: N = 79) implementation of these sessions. Outcomes reviewed included patient age, race, medical comorbidities, operative time, estimated blood loss, type of prosthesis, operative approach, drain usage, length of stay, and complications including revision/explantation rates. Statistical analysis was performed using Student's t-tests, Fisher's tests, and survival curves using the Kaplan-Meier technique (P value ≤ 0.05 to define statistical significance). Patient characteristics were not significantly different pre- vs. post-training. Operative time and estimated blood loss significantly decreased. Inflatable implants increased from 19/44 (43.2%, pre-training) to 69/79 (87.3%, post-training) (P prosthetics surgery. © 2011 International Society for Sexual Medicine.
Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 16; Issue 9. Excerpt of the Interview with Mathew Sands. Mathew Sands Finn Aaserud. Face to Face Volume 16 Issue 9 September 2011 pp 881-885. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:
Dalkin, Sonia; Lhussier, Monique; Jones, Diana; Phillipson, Pete; Cunningham, William
In order to meet policy drivers on death in usual place of residence, it is key to understand how shared decision-making can be facilitated in practice. An integrated care pathway was implemented in primary care in the North East of England to facilitate death in usual place of residence. To understand how, for whom and in which circumstances death in usual place of residence is facilitated. A mixed method realist evaluation was employed. Local primary care practice death audit data were analysed to identify outcomes using a mixed effects logistic regression model. Focus groups and interviews with staff of the integrated care pathway and bereaved relatives were analysed to identify the related contexts and mechanisms. Death audit data of 4182 patients were readily available from 14 general practitioner practices. Three focus groups were conducted with primary and secondary care staff, voluntary sector organisations and care home representatives. Interviews with bereaved relatives were carried out in participants' homes ( n = 5). A mixed effects logistic regression model indicated a significant effect of year on death in usual place of residence when compared to a model without year using an analysis of deviance ( p = 0.016). Qualitative analysis suggested that this outcome was achieved when a triad of 'experts' (comprising patient, family members/family carers/formal carers and healthcare professionals) used open communication strategies. An empirically supported theory of how, for whom and in which circumstances death in usual place of residence happens is provided, which has important implications for both policy and practice.
Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: The adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS is a spine deformity that occurs in both the coronal plane and the sagittal plane of patients between 10 and 17 years. The Cobb method is the most widely used to determine the angular value of scoliosis and it is defined as the "gold standard". The goal is to verify the reproducibility of the measured angles between orthopedic residents and spinal pathologies specialists, comparing the variability of the angles measured by professionals with greater and lesser experience. Method: A total of 10 radiographs of patients diagnosed with AIS were assessed. Radiographs were handed over to 7 orthopedists specialized in spine and 14 orthopedic residents. The measurement of the angles for each of the examiners was described using means and standard deviations and intraclass correlations were calculated, as well as the measure of repeatability, and Bland-Altman plots were designed with the results of the measurements of each group of examiners, according to experience, to assess the agreement/reproducibility of Cobb angle measurements. Results: Each examiner obtained a resulting average of 10 cases summation. In order to assess trends in variability of the measurements of the angles of each group graphs were plotted based on the arithmetic mean of each of the 10 cases by the total number of participants in the group versus the standard deviation in each case. Conclusion: There was a poor correlation (ICC=0.4 in the measurement of Cobb in both groups, demonstrating difficulties in the method, which cannot be overcome by the expertise.
Professional musicians and college students commonly study orchestral excerpts, but a similar practice has yet to be implemented in the band field. Due to their widespread use in orchestral auditions, excerpts have been incorporated as a tool for musical development. Many college professors regularly assign excerpt study as part of their…
This case study examines the hazard and risk perception and the need for decontamination according to people exposed to soil pollution. Using an ecological-symbolic approach (ESA), a multidisciplinary model is developed that draws upon psychological and sociological perspectives on risk perception and includes ecological variables by using data from experts' risk assessments. The results show that hazard perception is best predicted by objective knowledge, subjective knowledge, estimated knowledge of experts, and the assessed risks. However, experts' risk assessments induce an increase in hazard perception only when residents know the urgency of decontamination. Risk perception is best predicted by trust in the risk management. Additionally, need for decontamination relates to hazard perception, risk perception, estimated knowledge of experts, and thoughts about sustainability. In contrast to the knowledge deficit model, objective and subjective knowledge did not significantly relate to risk perception and need for decontamination. The results suggest that residents can make a distinction between hazards in terms of the seriousness of contamination on the one hand, and human health risks on the other hand. Moreover, next to the importance of social determinants of environmental risk perception, this study shows that the output of experts' risk assessments-or the objective risks-can create a hazard awareness rather than an alarming risk consciousness, despite residents' distrust of scientific knowledge.
Full Text Available The emotions evoked by music can enhance recognition of excerpts. It has been suggested that memory is better for high than for low arousing music (Eschrich et al., 2005; Samson et al., 2009, but it remains unclear whether positively (Eschrich et al., 2008 or negatively valenced music (Aubé et al., 2013; Vieillard and Gilet, 2013 may be better recognized. Moreover, we still know very little about the influence of age on emotional memory for music. To address these issues, we tested emotional memory for music in young and older adults using musical excerpts varying in terms of arousal and valence. Participants completed immediate and 24h delayed recognition tests. We predicted highly arousing excerpts to be better recognized by both groups in immediate recognition. We hypothesized that arousal may compensate consolidation deficits in aging, thus showing more prominent benefit of high over low arousing stimuli in older than younger adults on delayed recognition. We also hypothesized worst retention of negative excerpts for the older group, resulting in a recognition benefit for positive over negative excerpts specific to older adults. Our results suggest that although older adults had worse recognition than young adults overall, effects of emotion on memory do not seem to be modified by aging. Results on immediate recognition suggest that recognition of low arousing excerpts can be affected by valence, with better memory for positive relative to negative low arousing music. However, 24h delayed recognition results demonstrate effects of emotion on memory consolidation regardless of age, with a recognition benefit for high arousal and for negatively valenced music. The present study highlights the role of emotion on memory consolidation. Findings are examined in light of to the literature on emotional memory for music and for other stimuli. We finally discuss the implication of the present results for potential music interventions in aging and
Alonso, Irene; Dellacherie, Delphine; Samson, Séverine
The emotions evoked by music can enhance recognition of excerpts. It has been suggested that memory is better for high than for low arousing music (Eschrich et al., 2005; Samson et al., 2009), but it remains unclear whether positively (Eschrich et al., 2008) or negatively valenced music (Aubé et al., 2013; Vieillard and Gilet, 2013) may be better recognized. Moreover, we still know very little about the influence of age on emotional memory for music. To address these issues, we tested emotional memory for music in young and older adults using musical excerpts varying in terms of arousal and valence. Participants completed immediate and 24 h delayed recognition tests. We predicted highly arousing excerpts to be better recognized by both groups in immediate recognition. We hypothesized that arousal may compensate consolidation deficits in aging, thus showing more prominent benefit of high over low arousing stimuli in older than younger adults on delayed recognition. We also hypothesized worst retention of negative excerpts for the older group, resulting in a recognition benefit for positive over negative excerpts specific to older adults. Our results suggest that although older adults had worse recognition than young adults overall, effects of emotion on memory do not seem to be modified by aging. Results on immediate recognition suggest that recognition of low arousing excerpts can be affected by valence, with better memory for positive relative to negative low arousing music. However, 24 h delayed recognition results demonstrate effects of emotion on memory consolidation regardless of age, with a recognition benefit for high arousal and for negatively valenced music. The present study highlights the role of emotion on memory consolidation. Findings are examined in light of the literature on emotional memory for music and for other stimuli. We finally discuss the implication of the present results for potential music interventions in aging and dementia.
Amonashvili, Shalva Aleksandrovich
Offers excerpts from Shalva Amonashvili's 1983 teaching guide, "Hello Children." Includes chapters on Amonashvili's analysis of Day No. 122 in the school year and reflections on the last day. The guide is based on Amonashvili's experiences teaching six-year olds that incorporated his love for children and humanistic teaching methods. (CH)
Amonashvili, Shalva Aleksandrovich
Provides excerpts from Shalva Amonashvili's 1983 teacher's guide, "Hello Children." Explains that "Hello Children" is based on Amonashvili's successful experience teaching six-year olds and increasing the elementary grades to four (now implemented throughout the USSR). Amonashvili stresses teachers' love for children and…
Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 12; Issue 3. Excerpts from Prodigal Genius: The Life of Nikola Tesla. John J O Neill. Classics Volume 12 Issue 3 March 2007 pp 91-96. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/012/03/0091-0096 ...
Still, George F.
This article presents excerpts of the three lectures delivered by George F. Still on March 4, 1902, March 6, 1902, and March 11, 1902. In the first lecture, Still discussed several points in the psychology and development of social control in the normal child and considered the occurrence of defective moral control in in association with general…
Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 12; Issue 3. Excerpts from Prodigal Genius: The Life of Nikola Tesla. John J O Neill. Classics Volume 12 Issue 3 March 2007 pp 91-96. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: https://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/012/03/0091-0096 ...
Alonso, Irene; Dellacherie, Delphine; Samson, S?verine
International audience; The emotions evoked by music can enhance recognition of excerpts. It has been suggested that memory is better for high than for low arousing music (Eschrich et al., 2005; Samson et al., 2009), but it remains unclear whether positively (Eschrich et al., 2008) or negatively valenced music (Aubé et al., 2013; Vieillard and Gilet, 2013) may be better recognized. Moreover, we still know very little about the influence of age on emotional memory for music. To address these i...
El Jammal, Marie H.
Full text: Since 1997, IRSN conducts a yearly survey designed to understand how the French population perceives risk: the IRSN barometer. In this survey, 30 risks are investigated from three different angles: a) Seriousness of the risk; b) Trust in the authorities; c) Credibility of information given about these risks. The 30 risks include situations widely covered by the media (traffic accidents, smoking, alcohol, etc.), as well as situations of which the public can be unaware (such as radon in homes) and situations perceived as low risk (X-rays, noise, etc.). The list includes nuclear power plants, nuclear waste storage, Chernobyl pollution impacts, chemical industries, chemical waste, transportation of hazardous chemicals, etc. Statistical analysis of the answers highlighted five groups of risks in relation with a common rationale of perception by the French people. This will be presented as the first part of the paper. The conclusion will show that the risk perceptions of the French population are not at all versatile. Their perception logic is based on the perceived seriousness of the risk, on their 'trust in the protective measures taken by the French authorities' and on the perceived credibility of information. Risk perception varies greatly with age, gender, culture and level of education. We know this with the IRSN Barometer and others opinion pools. However, few surveys are carried out among experts in risk. Do they have a different perception of risk from the general public? It's the subject of a study entitled PERPLEX (Perception of Risk by the Public and Experts) who was realized in October 2004. This will be presented in the second part of the paper. The same question can be asked for the population who live near a nuclear power plant or other nuclear facility. So, in November 2007, 318 residents in the vicinity of twenty nuclear facility have answered at the IRSN's annual barometer questionnaire. The results of these three surveys will be presented
Center for Religious Freedom, 2006
This appendix is a companion document to "Saudi Arabia's Curriculum of Intolerance with Excerpts from Saudi Ministry of Education Textbooks for Islamic Studies." The appendix includes selected excerpts in Arabic with English translations for currently-used textbooks in grades 1, 4, 5, 6, 8, 9, 10, 11, and 12. These excerpts support the…
Irene eAlonso; Irene eAlonso; Irene eAlonso; Delphine eDellacherie; Delphine eDellacherie; Séverine eSamson; Séverine eSamson
The emotions evoked by music can enhance recognition of excerpts. It has been suggested that memory is better for high than for low arousing music (Eschrich et al., 2005; Samson et al., 2009), but it remains unclear whether positively (Eschrich et al., 2008) or negatively valenced music (Aubé et al., 2013; Vieillard and Gilet, 2013) may be better recognized. Moreover, we still know very little about the influence of age on emotional memory for music. To address these issues, we tested emotion...
Fujii, H.; Hamamichi, S.; Iimoto, T.; Tsuzuki, T.; Iiizumi, S.; Someya, S.; Kessler, M.M.
After the Fukushima nuclear power plant accident, 'hot spots' were found in Tokatsu area in Chiba prefecture. Although ambient radiation dose in this area was too low to harm residents' health, local residents were particularly worried about possible adverse effects from exposure to radiation. To avoid unnecessary panic reactions in the public, local governments in Tokatsu area collaborated with radiation specialists and conducted activities to provide local residents with accurate information on health effects from radiation. In addition to these activities, the authors offered one-to-one consultations with a radiologist for parents of small children and expecting mothers. They herein report this unique attempt, focusing on parents' anxiety and the age of their children. Taken together, this unique collaborative activity between local government and experts would be one of the procedures to relieve residents' anxiety. (authors)
Full Text Available This essay is an excerpt for a larger paper exploring the concept of autonomy as it emerges in the life and work of the composer, performer, record label executive and club-owner John Zorn. Zorn’s activities over his wide-ranging career span from performing at jazz lofts in the 1970s to winning the MacArthur “genius” grant in 2008, while maintaining his status as a prolific composer and producer of avant-garde music. In interviews, documentaries, and in his music, Zorn often comments on his status as an avant-garde producer, specifically within the context of the record industry and within New York City’s so-called “Downtown” scene. Economics take the forefront in determining artistic attitudes towards both production of music and the music itself, as Zorn has, seemingly, been forced by the “mainstream market” to create a parallel, vertically-integrated economic system to support the livelihood of himself and his collaborators. This excerpt, from the first third of the essay, unpacks Zorn’s relationship with Downtown scene, his conception of the avant-garde, and his attitude towards artists who have set precedents for Zorn’s version of autonomous cultural production. It also notes the idiosyncratic way that both Zorn and his critics have placed Zorn’s music both within and without two distinct traditions: Avant-Garde composition and free Jazz.
William A. Gleason
Full Text Available This excerpt from William A. Gleason’s Sites Unseen: Architecture, Race, and American Literature juxtaposes the work of Richard Harding Davis and Olga Beatriz Torres, two international travelers during the generation preceding US involvement in World War I. Davis, a popular author and magazine editor, barnstormed through Central and South America, which he made the subject of a popular travelogue and “imperialist novel.” Torres, a teenaged girl, traveled north from Mexico into the United States and reported on conditions there in a series of letters published after her death. Yet despite their obvious disparities in point of view, the two works not only address similar themes of US power (albeit from different directions but they both focus on architecture and how it reflects race and class structures. The excerpt forms a fascinating counterpoint to Rhys Isaac’s pioneering study of architecture and social hierarchy in colonial Virginia, The Transformation of Virginia, 1740–1790 (1983.
Ellis, Mark C.
Investigates the effects of field dependence-independence, gender, previous musical experience, and general music ability on music listening. College students recorded their observations about music excerpts. Weeks later they used these observations to identify the excerpts. Multiple regression analyses examined the contributions of subject…
This article presents excerpts from the discussion on nuclear science and technology in food and agriculture. The discussions covered all aspects of nuclear applications in food and agriculture, namely, food preservation cultivation, animal husbandry and pest control
The definitions of the terms 'artificial intelligence' and 'expert systems', the methodology, areas of employment and limits of expert systems are discussed. The operation of an expert system is described, especially the presentation and organization of knowledge as well as interference and control. Methods and tools for expert system development are presented and their application in nuclear energy are briefly addressed. 7 figs., 2 tabs., 6 refs
Georgiana Marin; Mihai Catalin Andrei
In recent decades IT and computer systems have evolved rapidly in economic informatics field. The goal is to create user friendly information systems that respond promptly and accurately to requests. Informatics systems evolved into decision assisted systems, and such systems are converted, based on gained experience, in expert systems for creative problem solving that an organization is facing. Expert systems are aimed at rebuilding human reasoning on the expertise obtained from experts, sto...
Hildebrandt, Thomas Troels; Cattani, Gian Luca
An expert system is a computer system for inferring knowledge from a knowledge base, typically by using a set of inference rules. When the concept of expert systems was introduced at Stanford University in the early 1970s, the knowledge base was an unstructured set of facts. Today the knowledge...... base of expert systems is often given in terms of an ontology, extracted and built from various data sources by employing natural language-processing and statistics. To emphasize such capabilities, the term “expert” is now often replaced by “cognitive,” “knowledge,” “knowledge-based,” or “intelligent......” system. With very few exceptions, general-purpose expert systems have failed to emerge so far. However, expert systems are applied in specialized domains, particularly in healthcare. The increasing availability of large quantities of data to organizations today provides a valuable opportunity...
Osorio, Viktoria Klara Lakatos; Tiedemann, Peter Wilhelm; Porto, Paulo Alves
The excerpts from The Periodic Table book written by Primo Levi is discussed related to chemical concepts. The use of a literary text as a starting point of discussions of chemical concepts has allowed the integration of various topics covered in separate courses of the undergraduate program in chemistry.
Geringer, John M.; Madsen, Clifford K.; Macleod, Rebecca B.
We investigated effects of legato, staccato and pizzicato articulation styles on the perception of modulated tempos. Seventy-two music majors served as participants. Two solo violin excerpts were chosen with contrasting rhythmic rates and were recorded in all three articulation styles. Examples were presented to listeners in three conditions of…
demonstrated that, on the balance of probabilities, a correct diagnosis at that time would not have altered the course of the illness. Quantum. Where it appears likely that the claimant may have a strong case on both breach of duty and causation, MPS may seek the opinion of a quantum expert to assist in determining the size.
Excerpts are given from the Introductory Statement to the Board of Governors by the IAEA Director General Dr. Mohamed ElBaradei. Major topics covered in his introductory remarks include: protection against terrorism, nuclear technology, water resource management, application of sterile insect technique, human health, nuclear power, radioactive waste management, management of nuclear knowledge, nuclear safety, safety of radioactive sources, safeguards agreements and additional protocols, conceptual framework for integrated safeguards, Democratic People's Republic of Korea, and Iraq
Duval, Beverly K.; Main, Linda
Describes expert systems and discusses their use in libraries. Highlights include parts of an expert system; expert system shells; an example of how to build an expert system; a bibliography of 34 sources of information on expert systems in libraries; and a list of 10 expert system shells used in libraries. (Contains five references.) (LRW)
Moghimi, Saba; Schudlo, Larissa; Chau, Tom; Guerguerian, Anne-Marie
Music-induced brain activity modulations in areas involved in emotion regulation may be useful in achieving therapeutic outcomes. Clinical applications of music may involve prolonged or repeated exposures to music. However, the variability of the observed brain activity patterns in repeated exposures to music is not well understood. We hypothesized that multiple exposures to the same music would elicit more consistent activity patterns than exposure to different music. In this study, the temporal and spatial variability of cerebral prefrontal hemodynamic response was investigated across multiple exposures to self-selected musical excerpts in 10 healthy adults. The hemodynamic changes were measured using prefrontal cortex near infrared spectroscopy and represented by instantaneous phase values. Based on spatial and temporal characteristics of these observed hemodynamic changes, we defined a consistency index to represent variability across these domains. The consistency index across repeated exposures to the same piece of music was compared to the consistency index corresponding to prefrontal activity from randomly matched non-identical musical excerpts. Consistency indexes were significantly different for identical versus non-identical musical excerpts when comparing a subset of repetitions. When all four exposures were compared, no significant difference was observed between the consistency indexes of randomly matched non-identical musical excerpts and the consistency index corresponding to repetitions of the same musical excerpts. This observation suggests the existence of only partial consistency between repeated exposures to the same musical excerpt, which may stem from the role of the prefrontal cortex in regulating other cognitive and emotional processes.
Gfeller, Kate; Olszewski, Carol; Rychener, Marly; Sena, Kimberly; Knutson, John F; Witt, Shelley; Macpherson, Beth
The purposes of this study were (a) to compare recognition of "real-world" music excerpts by postlingually deafened adults using cochlear implants and normal-hearing adults; (b) to compare the performance of cochlear implant recipients using different devices and processing strategies; and (c) to examine the variability among implant recipients in recognition of musical selections in relation to performance on speech perception tests, performance on cognitive tests, and demographic variables. Seventy-nine cochlear implant users and 30 normal-hearing adults were tested on open-set recognition of systematically selected excerpts from musical recordings heard in real life. The recognition accuracy of the two groups was compared for three musical genre: classical, country, and pop. Recognition accuracy was correlated with speech recognition scores, cognitive measures, and demographic measures, including musical background. Cochlear implant recipients were significantly less accurate in recognition of previously familiar (known before hearing loss) musical excerpts than normal-hearing adults (p genre. Implant recipients were most accurate in the recognition of country items and least accurate in the recognition of classical items. There were no significant differences among implant recipients due to implant type (Nucleus, Clarion, or Ineraid), or programming strategy (SPEAK, CIS, or ACE). For cochlear implant recipients, correlations between melody recognition and other measures were moderate to weak in strength; those with statistically significant correlations included age at time of testing (negatively correlated), performance on selected speech perception tests, and the amount of focused music listening following implantation. Current-day cochlear implants are not effective in transmitting several key structural features (i.e., pitch, harmony, timbral blends) of music essential to open-set recognition of well-known musical selections. Consequently, implant
Dziedzic, Lukasz; Davies, Gareth; De Lange, Janneke; Biersteker, Anouk; Navia-Rodriguez, Lorena
This is an English language summary of an extensive Dutch expert opinion concerning a pending ECJ case of wide relevance - a follow up to Ruiz Zambrano and Dereci which explores some of the more complex and realistic scenarios which may arise. That expert opinion provides a legal analysis of the
The document contains excerpts from the Introductory Statement made by the Director General of the IAEA at the IAEA Board of Governors on 7 December 2000. The following aspects from the Agency's activities are briefly presented: nuclear verification (status of integrated safeguards, plan of action for safeguards agreements and additional protocols, safeguards related to the Democratic People's Republic of Korea), technology issues (results of the 6th Conference of the Parties to the Convention on Climate Change, international project on innovative reactor and fuel cycle technologies), and safety issues (depleted uranium, safety standard discussions with the International Civil Aviation Organization, exchange of regulators or other safety personnel, emergency response co-ordination)
José David Saldívar
Full Text Available José David Saldívar’s work, excerpted from Trans-Americanity: Subaltern Modernities, Global Coloniality, and the Cultures of Greater Mexico, focuses on Américo Paredes, whom he refers to as a “proto-Chicano.” Here he discusses Paredes’s columns written from Asia for the United States Army magazine Stars and Stripes and how his experience in Asia between 1945 and 1950 crossed with and informed his evolving viewpoint on US–Mexican borderlands and his “outernationalist” envisioning of a “Greater Mexico.”
Full Text Available Music-induced brain activity modulations in areas involved in emotion regulation may be useful in achieving therapeutic outcomes. Clinical applications of music may involve prolonged or repeated exposures to music. However, the variability of the observed brain activity patterns in repeated exposures to music is not well understood. We hypothesized that multiple exposures to the same music would elicit more consistent activity patterns than exposure to different music. In this study, the temporal and spatial variability of cerebral prefrontal hemodynamic response was investigated across multiple exposures to self-selected musical excerpts in 10 healthy adults. The hemodynamic changes were measured using prefrontal cortex near infrared spectroscopy and represented by instantaneous phase values. Based on spatial and temporal characteristics of these observed hemodynamic changes, we defined a consistency index to represent variability across these domains. The consistency index across repeated exposures to the same piece of music was compared to the consistency index corresponding to prefrontal activity from randomly matched non-identical musical excerpts. Consistency indexes were significantly different for identical versus non-identical musical excerpts when comparing a subset of repetitions. When all four exposures were compared, no significant difference was observed between the consistency indexes of randomly matched non-identical musical excerpts and the consistency index corresponding to repetitions of the same musical excerpts. This observation suggests the existence of only partial consistency between repeated exposures to the same musical excerpt, which may stem from the role of the prefrontal cortex in regulating other cognitive and emotional processes.
Discusses: (1) the architecture of expert systems; (2) features that distinguish expert systems from conventional programs; (3) conditions necessary to select a particular application for the development of successful expert systems; (4) issues to be resolved when building expert systems; and (5) limitations. Examples of selected expert systems…
In this amended excerpt from "Hope Against Hope", educational reform in post-Katrina New Orleans is considered from a journalistic perspective in presenting the story of Geraldlynn Stewart as she and her family navigate the new school system. In providing voices of lived experiences of Stewart as well as other individuals within this new…
Johnson, Tracey Jean
This study was an examination of participants' preference for classical music excerpts presented in differentiated types of music video formats. Participants (N = 83) were volunteer students enrolled in intact music appreciation classes at a suburban community college located in a Midwestern city. Participants listened to and viewed music video…
Price, J L; Cleary, B
Clearly, faculty must work hard with residents to explore the nature of their resistance to a program's learning and growth opportunities. Initial steps to a deeper, more effective, and longer-lasting change process must be pursued. If resident resistance is mishandled or misunderstood, then learning and professional growth may be sidetracked and the purposes of residency training defeated. Listening to the whole person of the resident and avoiding the trap of getting caught up in merely responding to select resident behaviors that irritate us is critical. Every faculty member in the family practice residency program must recognize resistance as a form of defense that cannot immediately be torn down or taken away. Resident defenses have important purposes to play in stress reduction even if they are not always healthy. Residents, especially interns, use resistance to avoid a deeper and more truthful look at themselves as physicians. A family practice residency program that sees whole persons in their residents and that respects resident defenses will effectively manage the stress and disharmony inherent to the resistant resident.
Johannsen, J.; Macallister, J.; Michalek, T.; Ross, S.
Various authors have pointed out that humans can become quite adept at deriving phonetic transcriptions from speech spectrograms (as good as 90percent accuracy at the phoneme level). The authors describe an expert system which attempts to simulate this performance. The speech spectrogram expert (spex) is actually a society made up of three experts: a 2-dimensional vision expert, an acoustic-phonetic expert, and a phonetics expert. The visual reasoning expert finds important visual features of the spectrogram. The acoustic-phonetic expert reasons about how visual features relates to phonemes, and about how phonemes change visually in different contexts. The phonetics expert reasons about allowable phoneme sequences and transformations, and deduces an english spelling for phoneme strings. The speech spectrogram expert is highly interactive, allowing users to investigate hypotheses and edit rules. 10 references.
Long, Derle Ray
Coincidence theory states that when the components of harmony are in enhanced alignment the sound will be more consonant to the human auditory system. An objective method of examining the components of harmony is by investigating alignment of the mathematics of a particular sound or harmony. The study examined preference responses to excerpts tuned in just intonation, Pythagorean intonation, and equal temperament. Musical excerpts were presented in pairs and study subjects simply picked one version from the pair that they perceived as the most consonant. Results of the study revealed an overall preference for equal temperament in contradiction to coincidence theory. Several additional areas for research are suggested to further investigate the results of this study.
The document contains excerpts from the Introductory Statement made by the Director General of the IAEA at the IAEA Board of Governors on 8 December 1997. The following aspects from the Agency's activity are presented: nuclear energy, Agency's inspections in Iraq in relation to its clandestine nuclear programme, Agency's involvement in safeguards verification in the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (DPRK), and conclusion of safeguards agreements and additional protocols
Intended for potential business users, this paper describes the main characteristics of expert systems; discusses practical use considerations; presents a taxonomy of the systems; and reviews several expert system development projects in business and industry. (MBR)
The profession of an expert auditor is a public trust occupation with a distinctive feature of taking responsibility for actions in the public interest. The main responsibility of expert auditors is performing financial auditing; however, expert auditors are prepared to carry out different tasks which encompass a wide plethora of financial and auditing services for different kinds of institutions and companies. The aim of the article is first of all the description of expert auditors’ service...
Dijkstra, JJ; Liebrand, WBG; Timminga, E; Liebrand, Wim B.G.
Expert system advice is not always evaluated by examining its contents. Users can be persuaded by expert system advice because they have certain beliefs about advice given by a computer. The experiment in this paper shows that subjects (n = 84) thought that, given the same argumentation, expert
Mark A Burgman
Full Text Available Expert judgements are essential when time and resources are stretched or we face novel dilemmas requiring fast solutions. Good advice can save lives and large sums of money. Typically, experts are defined by their qualifications, track record and experience. The social expectation hypothesis argues that more highly regarded and more experienced experts will give better advice. We asked experts to predict how they will perform, and how their peers will perform, on sets of questions. The results indicate that the way experts regard each other is consistent, but unfortunately, ranks are a poor guide to actual performance. Expert advice will be more accurate if technical decisions routinely use broadly-defined expert groups, structured question protocols and feedback.
The document contains excerpts from the Introductory Statement made by the Director General of the IAEA at the IAEA Board of Governors on 8 June 1998. The following aspects from the Agency's activity are presented: nuclear testing, technical co-operation, programme and budget, safeguards, safeguards implementation report, Agency's involvement in safeguards verification in the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (DPRK), Agency's inspections in Iraq in relation to its clandestine nuclear programme, security of material, measures to strengthen international co-operation in nuclear, radiation and waste safety, study of the radiological situation at the atolls of Mururoa and Fangataufa, and Agency's role in safety assessment of the Mochovce nuclear power plant
The document contains excerpts from the Introductory Statement made by the Director General of the IAEA at the IAEA Board of Governors on 14 September 1998. The following aspects from the Agency's activity are presented: nuclear safety, technical co-operation programme, safeguards and verification, fissile material treaty, nuclear material released from the military sector, Agency's involvement in safeguards verification in the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (DPRK), Agency's inspections in Iraq in relation to its clandestine nuclear programme, and Agency's safeguards in the Middle East region
Malin, Cameron H; Aquilina, James M
Linux Malware Incident Response is a ""first look"" at the Malware Forensics Field Guide for Linux Systems, exhibiting the first steps in investigating Linux-based incidents. The Syngress Digital Forensics Field Guides series includes companions for any digital and computer forensic investigator and analyst. Each book is a ""toolkit"" with checklists for specific tasks, case studies of difficult situations, and expert analyst tips. This compendium of tools for computer forensics analysts and investigators is presented in a succinct outline format with cross-references to suppleme
John F. Fisher
Full Text Available The training of physicians in the past century was based primarily on responsibility and the chain-of-command. Those with the bulk of that responsibility in the fields of pediatrics and internal medicine were residents. Residents trained the medical students and supervised them carefully in caring for patients. Most attending physicians supervised their teams at arm's length, primarily serving as teachers of the finer points of diagnosis and treatment during set periods of the day or week with a perfunctory signature on write-ups or progress notes. Residents endeavored to protect the attending physician from being heavily involved unless they were unsure about a clinical problem. Before contacting the attending physician, a more senior resident would be called. Responsibility was the ultimate teacher. The introduction of diagnosis-related groups by the federal government dramatically changed the health care delivery system, placing greater emphasis on attending physician visibility in the medical record, ultimately resulting in more attending physician involvement in day-to-day care of patients in academic institutions. Without specified content in attending notes, hospital revenues would decline. Although always in charge technically, attending physicians increasingly have assumed the role once dominated by the resident. Using biographical experiences of more than 40 years, the author acknowledges and praises the educational role of responsibility in his own training and laments its declining role in today's students and house staff.
Fisher, John F
The training of physicians in the past century was based primarily on responsibility and the chain-of-command. Those with the bulk of that responsibility in the fields of pediatrics and internal medicine were residents. Residents trained the medical students and supervised them carefully in caring for patients. Most attending physicians supervised their teams at arm's length, primarily serving as teachers of the finer points of diagnosis and treatment during set periods of the day or week with a perfunctory signature on write-ups or progress notes. Residents endeavored to protect the attending physician from being heavily involved unless they were unsure about a clinical problem. Before contacting the attending physician, a more senior resident would be called. Responsibility was the ultimate teacher. The introduction of diagnosis-related groups by the federal government dramatically changed the health care delivery system, placing greater emphasis on attending physician visibility in the medical record, ultimately resulting in more attending physician involvement in day-to-day care of patients in academic institutions. Without specified content in attending notes, hospital revenues would decline. Although always in charge technically, attending physicians increasingly have assumed the role once dominated by the resident. Using biographical experiences of more than 40 years, the author acknowledges and praises the educational role of responsibility in his own training and laments its declining role in today's students and house staff.
Brechet, Y.; Musseau, O.; Bruna, G.; Sperandio, M.; Roulleaux-Dugage, M.; Andrieux, S.; Metteau, L.
This series of short articles are dedicated to the role of the expert in the enterprise. There is an important difference between a scientific counsellor and an expert, the expert, recognized by his peers, can speak publicly in his field of expertise but has a duty of transparency while the job of a scientific counsellor requires confidentiality. The making and the use of an expert in an enterprise requires a dedicated organization. The organization of the expertise in 5 enterprises in nuclear industry are considered: CEA (French Alternative Energies and Atomic Energy Commission), IRSN (Institute of Radioprotection and Nuclear Safety), AREVA, ANDRA (National Radioactive Waste Management Agency) and EDF (Electricity of France)
Karcher, Donald S.; Harrison, James H.; Sinard, John H.; Riben, Michael W.; Boyer, Philip J.; Plath, Sue; Thompson, Arlene; Pantanowitz, Liron
Context: Recognition of the importance of informatics to the practice of pathology has surged. Training residents in pathology informatics has been a daunting task for most residency programs in the United States because faculty often lacks experience and training resources. Nevertheless, developing resident competence in informatics is essential for the future of pathology as a specialty. Objective: To develop and deliver a pathology informatics curriculum and instructional framework that guides pathology residency programs in training residents in critical pathology informatics knowledge and skills, and meets Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education Informatics Milestones. Design: The College of American Pathologists, Association of Pathology Chairs, and Association for Pathology Informatics formed a partnership and expert work group to identify critical pathology informatics training outcomes and to create a highly adaptable curriculum and instructional approach, supported by a multiyear change management strategy. Results: Pathology Informatics Essentials for Residents (PIER) is a rigorous approach for educating all pathology residents in important pathology informatics knowledge and skills. PIER includes an instructional resource guide and toolkit for incorporating informatics training into residency programs that vary in needs, size, settings, and resources. PIER is available at http://www.apcprods.org/PIER (accessed April 6, 2016). Conclusions: PIER is an important contribution to informatics training in pathology residency programs. PIER introduces pathology trainees to broadly useful informatics concepts and tools that are relevant to practice. PIER provides residency program directors with a means to implement a standardized informatics training curriculum, to adapt the approach to local program needs, and to evaluate resident performance and progress over time. PMID:28725772
Walter H. Henricks MD
Full Text Available Context: Recognition of the importance of informatics to the practice of pathology has surged. Training residents in pathology informatics has been a daunting task for most residency programs in the United States because faculty often lacks experience and training resources. Nevertheless, developing resident competence in informatics is essential for the future of pathology as a specialty. Objective: To develop and deliver a pathology informatics curriculum and instructional framework that guides pathology residency programs in training residents in critical pathology informatics knowledge and skills, and meets Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education Informatics Milestones. Design: The College of American Pathologists, Association of Pathology Chairs, and Association for Pathology Informatics formed a partnership and expert work group to identify critical pathology informatics training outcomes and to create a highly adaptable curriculum and instructional approach, supported by a multiyear change management strategy. Results: Pathology Informatics Essentials for Residents (PIER is a rigorous approach for educating all pathology residents in important pathology informatics knowledge and skills. PIER includes an instructional resource guide and toolkit for incorporating informatics training into residency programs that vary in needs, size, settings, and resources. PIER is available at http://www.apcprods.org/PIER (accessed April 6, 2016. Conclusions: PIER is an important contribution to informatics training in pathology residency programs. PIER introduces pathology trainees to broadly useful informatics concepts and tools that are relevant to practice. PIER provides residency program directors with a means to implement a standardized informatics training curriculum, to adapt the approach to local program needs, and to evaluate resident performance and progress over time.
Asami, Tohru; Hashimoto, Kazuo; Yamamoto, Seiichi
Recently, aiming at the application to the plant control for nuclear reactors and traffic and communication control, the research and the practical use of the expert system suitable to real time processing have become conspicuous. In this report, the condition for the required function to control the object that dynamically changes within a limited time is presented, and the technical difference between the real time expert system developed so as to satisfy it and the expert system of conventional type is explained with the actual examples and from theoretical aspect. The expert system of conventional type has the technical base in the problem-solving equipment originating in STRIPS. The real time expert system is applied to the fields accompanied by surveillance and control, to which conventional expert system is hard to be applied. The requirement for the real time expert system, the example of the real time expert system, and as the techniques of realizing real time processing, the realization of interruption processing, dispersion processing, and the mechanism of maintaining the consistency of knowledge are explained. (K.I.)
Hendrix, E.M.T.; Kornelis, M.; Pegge, S.M.; Galen, van M.A.
In this study, focus is on a systematic way to detect future changes in trends that may effect the dynamics in the agro-food sector, and on the combination of opinions of experts. For the combination of expert opinions, the usefulness of multilevel models is investigated. Bayesian data analysis is
The purpose of this article is to introduce readers to the basic principles of rule-based expert systems. Four topics are discussed in subsequent sections: (1) Definition; (2) Structure of an expert system; (3) State of the art and (4) Impact and future research. (orig.)
This paper argues that the concepts and techniques used in the development of expert systems should be expanded and applied to the field of education, particularly in the area of intelligent tutoring systems. It is noted that expert systems are a well known area of artificial intelligence and have been proven effective in well-defined topic areas.…
W.M. Koolen-Wijkstra (Wouter); S. de Rooij (Steven)
htmlabstractWe show how models for prediction with expert advice can be defined concisely and clearly using hidden Markov models (HMMs); standard HMM algorithms can then be used to efficiently calculate, among other things, how the expert predictions should be weighted according to the model. We
Sherwin, Jason; Sajda, Paul
Humans are extremely good at detecting anomalies in sensory input. For example, while listening to a piece of Western-style music, an anomalous key change or an out-of-key pitch is readily apparent, even to the non-musician. In this paper we investigate differences between musical experts and non-experts during musical anomaly detection. Specifically, we analyzed the electroencephalograms (EEG) of five expert cello players and five non-musicians while they listened to excerpts of J.S. Bach's Prelude from Cello Suite No. 1. All subjects were familiar with the piece, though experts also had extensive experience playing the piece. Subjects were told that anomalous musical events (AMEs) could occur at random within the excerpts of the piece and were told to report the number of AMEs after each excerpt. Furthermore, subjects were instructed to remain still while listening to the excerpts and their lack of movement was verified via visual and EEG monitoring. Experts had significantly better behavioral performance (i.e. correctly reporting AME counts) than non-experts, though both groups had mean accuracies greater than 80%. These group differences were also reflected in the EEG correlates of key-change detection post-stimulus, with experts showing more significant, greater magnitude, longer periods of, and earlier peaks in condition-discriminating EEG activity than novices. Using the timing of the maximum discriminating neural correlates, we performed source reconstruction and compared significant differences between cellists and non-musicians. We found significant differences that included a slightly right lateralized motor and frontal source distribution. The right lateralized motor activation is consistent with the cortical representation of the left hand - i.e. the hand a cellist would use, while playing, to generate the anomalous key-changes. In general, these results suggest that sensory anomalies detected by experts may in fact be partially a result of an embodied
Wong, Roger Y; Saber, Sadra S; Ma, Irene; Roberts, J Mark
To address evidence-based effective communication skills in the formal academic half day curriculum of our core internal medicine residency program, we designed and delivered an interactive session using excerpts taken from medically-themed television shows. We selected two excerpts from the television show House, and one from Gray's Anatomy and featured them in conjunction with a brief didactic presentation of the Kalamazoo consensus statement on doctor-patient communication. To assess the efficacy of this approach a set of standardized questions were given to our residents once at the beginning and once at the completion of the session. Our residents indicated that their understanding of an evidence-based model of effective communication such as the Kalamazoo model, and their comfort levels in applying such model in clinical practice increased significantly. Furthermore, residents' understanding levels of the seven essential competencies listed in the Kalamazoo model also improved significantly. Finally, the residents reported that their comfort levels in three challenging clinical scenarios presented to them improved significantly. We used popular television shows to teach residents in our core internal medicine residency program about effective communication skills with a focus on the Kalamazoo's model. The results of the subjective assessment of this approach indicated that it was successful in accomplishing our objectives.
a case study of the May 2003 Danish consensus conference on environmental economics as a policy tool, the article reflects on the politics of expert authority permeating practices of public participation. Adopting concepts from the sociology of scientific knowledge (SSK), the conference is seen......-than-successful defense in the citizen perspective. Further, consensus conferences are viewed alternatively as "expert dissent conferences," serving to disclose a multiplicity of expert commitments. From this perspective, some challenges for democratizing expertise through future exercises in public participation...
Bley, D.C.; Read, J.W.; Kaplan, S.; Liming, J.K.; Brosee, N.M.; Hanley, D.W.
The idea of developing artificial intelligence (AI) systems to capture the knowledge of human experts is receiving much attention these days. The idea is even more attractive when important expertise resides within a single individual, especially one who is nearing retirement and who has not otherwise recorded or passed along his important knowledge and thought processes. The diesel generators at Pilgrim Nuclear Power Station have performed exceptionally well, primarily due to the care and attention of one man. Therefore, the authors are constructing an expert system for the diagnosis of diesel generator problems at Pilgrim. This paper includes a description of the expert system design and operation, examples from the knowledge base, and sample diagnoses, so the reader can observe the process in action
Oliva, Peter F.; Henson, Kenneth T.
The curriculum and instruction specialist should not fall prey to the "expert syndrome," in which the specialist decides on the "best" curriculum or instructional method without considering the teacher's discipline or personality. (CJ)
The brochure presents, in full wording, 20 papers read at the experts' meeting ''Maintenance '83'' in Wiesbaden. Most of the papers discuss reliability data (acquisition, evaluation, processing) of nearly all fields of industry. (RW) [de
This study was designed to develop a method for collecting music therapy majors' hypothesized self-attributions of comfort and skill in diverse clinical scenarios and relating their attributions to recall and perceptions of similar personal and clinical experience. Fifty eight music therapy majors, from freshmen to graduate (board-certified) students, watched 10 brief video excerpts. After each excerpt participants moved 2 Continuous Response Digital Interface (CRDI) dials, one labeled "comfort" and the other labeled "skill," to indicate their feelings about themselves as therapist with the client(s) in the excerpt. At the end of viewing all excerpts, participants completed an open-ended total recall paper/pencil form requesting estimation of personal and clinical experience with any population represented in the excerpts. Participants recalled more personal experience compared to clinical experience. A strong positive correlation was found between personal and clinical experience estimates. A strong positive correlation was also found between comfort and skill scores. Personal experience estimates were not related to self-attributions of comfort or skill. Clinical excerpts prompted neutral self-attributions of comfort and skill with comfort being slightly higher than skill self-attributions. Clinical experience estimates, although not related to self-attributions of comfort; were positively related to self-attributions of skill. Exploratory comparisons with small groups within the total sample suggest a highly positive impact of specific music therapy clinical experience, particularly the post-coursework internship, on skill self-attributions. Results are discussed within the context of using the assessment to investigate the predictive value of self-attributes as clinical indicators of persistence for recruitment and retention of potentially successful music therapy students and young professionals.
Abstract. Background: There is a phobia among doctors for the residency training program, since the establishment of ... Materials and Methods: Structured questionnaires were administered to residents at 3 training institutions in Nigeria. Results: ... Keywords: Decentralization, motivation, perception, remuneration, residents.
Thorndahl, Kathrine Liedtke; Ravn, Susanne
and autoethnographic material from one former elite skipper, we take some initial steps toward the development of a more nuanced understanding of the concept of incorporation; one that is able to accommodate the experiences of expert tool users. In sum, our analyses indicate that the possibility for experiencing...... a tool as incorporated depends on the existence of an extraordinary kind of relationship between the tool and the expert tool user. This relation, that can persist even when successful manipulation of the tool fails, is not only cultivated through deliberate practice of physical skills, but also through...... the collective sense-making process going on within a particular community of practice. Therefore, expert tool users may experience a more profound kind of incorporation that can persist even when normal motor incorporation fails....
Citizen deliberation on technoscientific developments is regularly regarded as a hallmark of Danish democracy, embodied in particular by the Danish Board of Technology. Few empirically guided questions have been raised, however, as to how the Board's democratic projects actually work. Through...... a case study of the May 2003 Danish consensus conference on environmental economics as a policy tool, the article reflects on the politics of expert authority permeating practices of public participation. Adopting concepts from the sociology of scientific knowledge (SSK), the conference is seen......-than-successful defense in the citizen perspective. Further, consensus conferences are viewed alternatively as "expert dissent conferences," serving to disclose a multiplicity of expert commitments. From this perspective, some challenges for democratizing expertise through future exercises in public participation...
Full Text Available In 1999, Molodtsov introduced the concept of soft set theory as a general mathematical tool for dealing with uncertainty. Many researchers have studied this theory, and they created some models to solve problems in decision making and medical diagnosis, but most of these models deal only with one expert. This causes a problem with the user, especially with those who use questionnaires in their work and studies. In our model, the user can know the opinion of all experts in one model. So, in this paper, we introduce the concept of a soft expert set, which will more effective and useful. We also define its basic operations, namely, complement, union intersection AND, and OR. Finally, we show an application of this concept in decision-making problem.
Helton, William S
The motor control of novice participants is often cognitively demanding and susceptible to interference by other tasks. As people develop expertise, their motor control becomes less susceptible to interference from other tasks. Researchers propose a transition in human motor skill from active control to automaticity. This progression may also be the case with nonhuman animals. Differences in performance characteristics between expert, advanced, intermediate, and novice dogs competing in the sport of agility were investigated. There were statistically significant differences between dogs of varying competitive levels in speed, motor control, and signal detections suggestive of increasing motor control automaticity in highly skilled, or expert, dogs. The largest sequential motor control difference was between novice and intermediate dogs, d = .96, whereas the largest sequential signal detection difference was between advanced and expert dogs, d = .90. These findings have two significant implications for expertise researchers: first, the observed similarities between dogs and humans may enable dogs to be used as expert models; and second, expertise science and methods may be profitably employed in the future to create more proficient canine workers.
Dowell, Laurie; Gary, Jack; Illingworth, Bill; Sargent, Tom
Gathering information, necessary forms, and financial calculations needed to generate a "capital investment proposal" is an extremely complex and difficult process. The intent of the capital investment proposal is to ensure management that the proposed investment has been thoroughly investigated and will have a positive impact on corporate goals. Meeting this requirement typically takes four or five experts a total of 12 hours to generate a "Capital Package." A Capital Expert System was therefore developed using "Personal Consultant." The completed system is hybrid and as such does not depend solely on rules but incorporates several different software packages that communicate through variables and functions passed from one to another. This paper describes the use of expert system techniques, methodology in building the knowledge base, contexts, LISP functions, data base, and special challenges that had to be overcome to create this system. The Capital Expert System is the successful result of a unique integration of artificial intelligence with business accounting, financial forms generation, and investment proposal expertise.
Roč. 8, č. 2 (1995), s. 261-271 ISSN 0893-6080 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA201/95/0976 Keywords : expert system * knowledge representation * multilayered neural network * back propagation * interval neuron function * incomplete information * explanation Impact factor: 1.262, year: 1995
Atkins, T.; Demuysere, P.
The EXPERT Program is funded by ESA. The objective of the EXPERT mission is to perform a sub-orbital flight during which measurements of critical aero- thermodynamic phenomena will be obtained by using state-of-the-art instrumentation. As part of the EXPERT Flight Segment, the responsibility of the Cold Structure Development Design, Manufacturing and Validation was committed to the Belgian industrial team SONACA/SABCA. The EXPERT Cold Structure includes the Launcher Adapter, the Bottom Panel, the Upper Panel, two Cross Panels and the Parachute Bay. An additional Launcher Adapter was manufactured for the separation tests. The selected assembly definition and manufacturing technologies ( machined parts and sandwich panels) were dictated classically by the mass and stiffness, but also by the CoG location and the sensitive separation interface. Used as support for the various on-board equipment, the Cold Structure is fixed to but thermally uncoupled from the PM 1000 thermal shield. It is protect on its bottom panel by a thermal blanket. As it is a protoflight, analysis was the main tool for the verification. Low level stiffness and modal analysis tests have also been performed on the Cold Structure equipped with its ballast. It allowed to complete its qualification and to prepare SONACA/SABCA support for the system dynamic tests foreseen in 2011. The structure was finally coated with a thermal control black painting and delivered on time to Thales Alenia Space-Italy end of March 201.
Along with rapidly expanding applications of life science and technology, technical experts have been implicated more and more often with ethical, social, and legal problems than before. It should be noted that in this background there are scientific and social uncertainty elements which are inevitable during the progress of life science in addition to the historically-established social unreliability to scientists and engineers. In order to solve these problems, therefore, we should establish the social governance with ‘relief’ and ‘reliance’ which enables for both citizens and engineers to share the awareness of the issues, to design social orders and criterions based on hypothetical sense of values for bioethics, to carry out practical use management of each subject carefully, and to improve the sense of values from hypothetical to universal. Concerning these measures, the technical experts can learn many things from the present performance in the medical field.
Expert PL/SQL Practices is a book of collected wisdom on PL/SQL programming from some of the best and the brightest in the field. Each chapter is a deep-dive into a specific problem, technology, or feature set that you'll face as a PL/SQL programmer. Each author has chosen their topic out of the strong belief that what they share can make a positive difference in the quality and scalability of code that you write. The path to mastery begins with syntax and the mechanics of writing statements to make things happen. If you've reached that point with PL/SQL, then let the authors of Expert PL/SQL
was able to prove such a machine could exist. 3 Lady Ada Lovelace was a contemporary of George Babbage. She studied with Babbage and wrote a popular...essay explaining the analytical engine. She is sometimes credited with inventing computer languages. The Ada computer language is named in her honor. -8...documentation and logic flow charting of the whole system. If your expert system is written in a highly structured language such as Ada , logic flow
Wouda, Jan C.; van de Wiel, Harry B. M.
Objective: The model of expert performance predicts that neither physicians in training nor experienced physicians will reach an expert level in communication. This study tested this hypothesis. Methods: Seventy-one students, twenty-five residents and fourteen consultants performed a 'breaking bad
Ionita, C; Carena, F
The ALICE experiment at CERN employs a number of human operators (shifters), who have to make sure that the experiment is always in a state compatible with taking Physics data. Given the complexity of the system and the myriad of errors that can arise, this is not always a trivial task. The aim of this paper is to describe an expert system that is capable of assisting human shifters in the ALICE control room. The system diagnoses potential issues and attempts to make smart recommendations for troubleshooting. At its core, a Prolog engine infers whether a Physics or a technical run can be started based on the current state of the underlying sub-systems. A separate C++ component queries certain SMI objects and stores their state as facts in a Prolog knowledge base. By mining the data stored in different system logs, the expert system can also diagnose errors arising during a run. Currently the system is used by the on-call experts for faster response times, but we expect it to be adopted as a standard tool by regular shifters during the next data taking period
Schiltenwolf, Marcus; Beckmann, Nickolas; Gaidzik, Peter
Experts in criminal, civil and, increasingly, in social court cases have to present their expert opinions in court. This should be regarded not only as a burden, even if this may at times appear superfluous to the expert, perhaps because the discussion is mere repetition of the opinion he has already written, or because the questions appear to be biased against the expert. Nonetheless, the expert is always advised to appear calm and objective during the interrogation by judges and parties or participants and their legal representatives, and should not allow himself or herself to be provoked by questioning. Furthermore, it may be necessary to correct the written expert statement in the course of the interrogation, but this can be a sign of a truly competent medical expert. The expert consulted can be held liable for adverse health effects resulting from the interrogation and investigation, as well as for deliberate or grossly faulty reports. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
Tavella, Elena; Papadopoulos, Thanos
the behaviour of one expert and two novice facilitators during a Viable System Model workshop. The findings suggest common facilitation patterns in the behaviour of experts and novices. This contrasts literature claiming that experts and novices behave and use their available knowledge differently......This paper provides an empirical study based on action research in which expert and novice facilitators in facilitated modelling workshops are compared. There is limited empirical research analysing the differences between expert and novice facilitators. Aiming to address this gap we study...... and facilitation strategies in contexts in which external, expert facilitation is not always possible are also discussed, and limitations of this study are provided....
Daamen, M A M J; Hamers, J P H; Brunner-la Rocca, H P; Schols, J M G A
To determine the prevalence of heart failure (HF) in nursing home residents and to gain insight into the clinical characteristics of residents with heart failure. Multi-centre, observational, cross-sectional study. 501 nursing home residents aged 65 years and over, in a department for chronic somatic diseases or a psychogeriatric department, participated in this study. The diagnosis of HF and the related characteristics were based on data collected from clinical examinations for heart failure (including history, physical examination, ECG, cardiac markers and echocardiography), patient records and questionnaires. A panel of two cardiologists and an internist-geriatrician made the final diagnosis of HF. The prevalence of HF in nursing home residents was 33%. Dyspnoea, oedema and a history of cardiac disease were more common in residents with heart failure. Diabetes mellitus and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease also appeared to be more prevalent in this group. In 54% of the residents with HF, the diagnosis had not previously been made. Diagnosis of HF was not confirmed by the expert panel in 31% of residents with a history of HF. Heart failure does indeed appear to be very prevalent in nursing home residents. Heart failure had not been previously diagnosed in many cases but also a previous diagnosis of heart failure could be disproved in many participants. It is therefore important that the diagnostic process for heart failure in nursing home residents be improved.
The document contains excerpts from the Introductory Statement made by the Director General of the IAEA at the IAEA Board of Governors on 22 March 1999. The following aspects from the Agency's activity are presented: nuclear safety, measures against illicit trafficking and for the physical protection of nuclear material, status of safeguards agreements and additional protocols, Agency's involvement in safeguards verification in the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (DPRK), and inspections in Iraq in relation to its clandestine nuclear programme
CHAIRMAN Ousmane Sy, Minister of territorial administration and local institutions (Republic of Mali) SCIENTIFIC COORDINATORS Jérôme Marie (Paris 10 University) Pierre Morand (IRD) Hamady N’Djim (Consulting engineer) MEMBERS Jean-François Bélières (Cirad) Cheik Cissé (Consulting legal expert) Lassine Diarra (IER-CRRA) Almoustapha Fofana (DNH) Pierrick Givone (Cemagref) Housseini Maïga (DNH) Mamadou Kabirou N’Diaye (IER) Didier Orange (IRD) Pierre Sibiri Traoré (Icrisat/IER)
In an article critical of experts, the cases argued for and against nuclear power are discussed under the headings: environmental hazards arising from the nuclear fuel cycle; proliferation of nuclear weapons capabilities via expansion of the nuclear power industry; political and social threats and restraints of a nuclear society (terrorism, reduction in civil liberties, centralised political and economic power); economic and employment disadvantages of nuclear power; impact of uranium mining on (Australian) aboriginal culture; inadequacy of nuclear power as a solution to energy problems; advantages of a 'soft energy path' based around conservation and renewable energy technologies. (U.K.)
Limitations of Expert Evidence Edited by Stephen Leadbeatter MB ChB MCRPath ISBN 1 86016 029 8 Printed in Great Britain by Cathedral Print Services Ltd, Salisbury, 1996 Kitap 25 Ekim 1994 te The Royal College of Physicians ve The Royal College of Pathologists tarafından düzenlenen konferanstan sonra hekimlere ve avukatlara konuyu tartışmaya açmak için basılmış. Bilirkişi görüşünün temel filozofisinin, bu görevi yapanlar ve bu hizmeti alanların yapabileceklerin...
Throughout history, advances in technology have come in spurts. A single great idea can often spur rapid change as the idea takes hold and is propagated, often in totally unexpected directions. Exadata embodies such a change in how we think about and manage relational databases. The key change lies in the concept of offloading SQL processing to the storage layer. That concept is a huge win, and its implementation in the form of Exadata is truly a game changer. Expert Oracle Exadata will give you a look under the covers at how the combination of hardware and software that comprise Exadata actua
Cass, Nathan; Kominsky, Alan; Cabrera-Muffly, Cristina
(1) Ascertain the most important concepts and topics for otolaryngology resident education in sleep medicine and surgery, as determined by faculty who teach sleep medicine to otolaryngology residents. (2) Create learning objectives within the area of otolaryngologic sleep medicine in order to design a sleep medicine curriculum for otolaryngology residents. Two web-based surveys were sent to 163 academic otolaryngologists who teach sleep medicine. The first survey determined the topics, and their relative importance, considered most vital to learn during otolaryngology training. Using the Delphi method, the second clarified questions regarding topics determined by the first survey. Sleep medicine learning objectives for residents were ascertained from responses. The response rate of first and second surveys were 24.5% and 19%, respectively. Topics ranked most important for resident education included upper airway anatomy, polysomnogram interpretation, and understanding the range of medical and surgical therapies used to treat sleep disorders. Respondents listed surgical therapy as the most critical topic that most residents do not understand well. The second survey clarified the specific anatomic features, surgical techniques, and polysomnography data points deemed most critical for resident learning. Academic otolaryngology sleep experts hold opinions regarding relative value of different topics for teaching sleep medicine, which is useful in creating a curriculum for otolaryngology residents. Otolaryngology learning objectives related to sleep medicine identified during this study are being used to create an online curriculum to supplement resident education. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Hofmeister, Alan M.; Ferrara, Joseph M.
The article discusses the characteristics of expert systems (computer programs designed to replicate human expertise in a variety of areas), describes recently available expert system development tools, suggests applications within the field of special education, and reviews recent efforts to apply expert systems technology to special education…
In summary, there is a close analogical relationship between Expert Systems fundamental processes and Darwinian evolution processes: Just as evolution reaches a stabilization phase only after a successful mutation survives the natural selection, so does the new knowledge of the expert become a habit and noticeable only after it has been successfully transmitted as rules in the Expert System26.
Shadbolt, N. R.
This paper examines the origins, current state and future prospects for expert systems. The origins are traced from the schism with classic Artificial Intelligence. The characteristics of early expert systems are described and contrasted with more recent developments. A number of influential forces operating on present day systems are reviewed. The future trends in the evolution of expert systems are discussed.
Department of Veterans Affairs — The Residency Allocation Database is used to determine allocation of funds for residency programs offered by Veterans Affairs Medical Centers (VAMCs). Information...
Tsoukalas, L.; Ikonomopoulos, A.; Uhrig, R.E.
This paper presents a methodology that couples rule-based expert systems using fuzzy logic, to pre-trained artificial neutral networks (ANN) for the purpose of transient identification in Nuclear Power Plants (NPP). In order to provide timely concise, and task-specific information about the may aspects of the transient and to determine the state of the system based on the interpretation of potentially noisy data a model-referenced approach is utilized. In it, the expert system performs the basic interpretation and processing of the model data, and pre-trained ANNs provide the model. having access to a set of neural networks that typify general categories of transients, the rule based system is able to perform identification functions. Membership functions - condensing information about a transient in a form convenient for a rule-based identification system characterizing a transient - are the output of neural computations. This allows the identification function to be performed with a speed comparable to or faster than that of the temporal evolution of the system. Simulator data form major secondary system pipe rupture is used to demonstrate the methodology. The results indicate excellent noise-tolerance for ANN's and suggest a new method for transient identification within the framework of Fuzzy Logic
Constantin, Anca; Feitosa, Klebert
We present here a program that aims at significantly diminishing the increasingly pervasive fear of approaching scientific concepts, particularly for people without math related backgrounds or interests. We built a series of grassroots yet unique science shows delivered in an up-beat, visually, and socially appealing environment, that bring forward the crucially needed bridge between the realm of scientific research and that of ordinary people through... comedy. While staged by two physics professors as hosts, the hilarious interactions between a science expert and a student-led improvisational comedy troupe constitute the main tool to unlock, decipher, and enjoy the mystery of the scientific research. Our program gets everyone in with lots of laughs, at no expense to academic quality, community involvement, diversity, excellence, integrity, and student focus. Our independent dedicated website for this project (sites.jmu.edu/demystifying), archives the podcasts (soundcloud.com/demystifying), short segment videos, blog posts, experts' bios, photo albums, testimonials, press releases, along with quantitative results of our assessment efforts. The overarching goal of this program is to pioneer a low cost yet efficient method of science education that can be replicated world wide.
Weiss, Kenneth J
In this clinical paper, the author discusses criminal confessions from the point of view of the expert witness who may be asked to comment on the reliability of the statement and waiver of rights. From the time a suspect is in police custody, constitutional protections against self-incrimination and for due process are in place. The Supreme Court set the standard for these situations in the 1966 Miranda v. Arizona decision. Although it has long been criticized by law enforcement, the decision was upheld in the 2000 decision in Dickerson v. U.S. For a waiver of rights to be valid, it must be a knowing, intelligent, and voluntary decision. Voluntariness is an equation of objective and subjective variables. Treatment by police, physical conditions of interrogation, the suspect's experience and mental state can alter the reliability of a confession. Accordingly, the author has devised a mnemonic for the recognition of conditions that may give rise to expert testimony. The conditions are: Mental illness, Intoxication, Retardation, Acquiescence, Narcotic withdrawal, Deception, and Abuse. These are discussed, supported by examples from the author's practice.
Goeltz, R.; Purucker, S.; Tonn, B. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA)); Wiggen, T. (Oak Ridge Associated Universities, Inc., TN (USA)); MacGregor, D. (MacGregor-Bates, Inc., Eugene, OR (USA))
This report describes the Communications Alarm Processor (CAP), a prototype expert system developed for the Bonneville Power Administration by Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The system is designed to receive and diagnose alarms from Bonneville's Microwave Communications System (MCS). The prototype encompasses one of seven branches of the communications network and a subset of alarm systems and alarm types from each system. The expert system employs a backward chaining approach to diagnosing alarms. Alarms are fed into the expert system directly from the communication system via RS232 ports and sophisticated alarm filtering and mailbox software. Alarm diagnoses are presented to operators for their review and concurrence before the diagnoses are archived. Statistical software is incorporated to allow analysis of archived data for report generation and maintenance studies. The delivered system resides on a Digital Equipment Corporation VAX 3200 workstation and utilizes Nexpert Object and SAS for the expert system and statistical analysis, respectively. 11 refs., 23 figs., 7 tabs.
Cooper, E. G.
The Automation Technology Branch of NASA's Langley Research Center is employing increasingly complex degrees of operator/robot cooperation (telerobotics). A good relationship between the operator and computer is essential for smooth performance by a telerobotic system. ESG (Expert Script Generator) is a software package that automatically generates high-level task objective commands from the NASA Intelligent Systems Research Lab's (ISRL's) complex menu-driven language. ESG reduces errors and makes the telerobotics lab accessible to researchers who are not familiar with the comprehensive language developed by ISRL for interacting with the various systems of the ISRL testbed. ESG incorporates expert system technology to capture the typical rules of operation that a skilled operator would use. The result is an operator interface which optimizes the system's capability to perform a task remotely in a hazardous environment, in a timely manner, and without undue stress to the operator, while minimizing the chance for operator errors that may damage equipment. The intricate menu-driven command interface which provides for various control modes of both manipulators and their associated sensors in the TeleRobotic System Simulation (TRSS) has a syntax which is both irregular and verbose. ESG eliminates the following two problems with this command "language": 1) knowing the correct command sequence to accomplish a task, and 2) inputting a known command sequence without typos and other errors. ESG serves as an additional layer of interface, working in conjunction with the menu command processor, not supplanting it. By specifying task-level commands, such as GRASP, CONNECT, etc., ESG will generate the appropriate menu elements to accomplish the task. These elements will be collected in a script file which can then be executed by the ISRL menu command processor. In addition, the operator can extend the list of task-level commands to include customized tasks composed of sub
Denadai, Rafael; Muraro, Carlos Alberto Salomão; Raposo-Amaral, Cassio Eduardo
To assess residents' perceptions of plastic surgeons as craniofacial surgery specialists in Brazil. Brazilian residents were asked to choose 1 or 2 specialists that they perceived to be an expert for 14 craniofacial surgery-related scenarios. Both an overall analysis (all 14 scenarios) and subanalysis (each scenario separately) were performed. Response patterns were distributed as "plastic surgeons alone," "plastic surgeons combined with other specialists," or "without plastic surgeons." Overall, plastic surgeons were chosen more (all P plastic surgeons were chosen more (all P surgery-related scenarios and also demonstrated that "plastic surgeons alone" and "without plastic surgeons" were selected more (all P surgery residents and male residents chose more (all P plastic surgeons as experts than their peers. Residents' perceptions of plastic surgeons as craniofacial surgery specialists are limited in Brazil.
Hosein Nejad, Hooman; Bagherabadi, Mehdi; Sistani, Alireza; Dargahi, Helen
Over the past 30 years, recognizing the need and importance of training residents in teaching skills has resulted in several resident-as-teacher programs. The purpose of this study was to explore the impact of this teaching initiative and investigate the improvement in residents' teaching skills through evaluating their satisfaction and perceived effectiveness as well as assessing medical students' perception of the residents' teaching quality. This research is a quasi-experimental study with pre- and post-tests, continuing from Dec 2010 to May 2011 in Imam Hospital, Tehran University of Medical Sciences. In this survey, Emergency Medicine Residents (n=32) participated in an 8-hour workshop. The program evaluation was performed based on Kirkpatrick's model by evaluation of residents in two aspects: self-assessment and evaluation by interns who were trained by these residents. Content validity of the questionnaires was judged by experts and reliability was carried out by test re-test. The questionnaires were completed before and after the intervention. Paired sample t-test was applied to analyze the effect of RAT curriculum and workshop on the improvement of residents' teaching skills based on their self-evaluation and Mann-Whitney U test was used to identify significant differences between the two evaluator groups before and after the workshop. The results indicated that residents' attitude towards their teaching ability was improved significantly after participating in the workshop (pTeacher for emergency medicine residents resulted in favorable outcomes in the second evaluated level of Kirkpatrick's model, i.e. it showed measurable positive changes in the self-assessments of medical residents about different aspects of teaching ability and performance. However, implementing training sessions for resident physicians, although effective in improving their confidence and self-assessment of their teaching skills, seems to cause no positive change in the third
Tobita, Yoshimasa; Yamaguchi, Takashi; Matsumoto, Mitsuo; Ono, Kiyoshi.
The computer code system which can evaluate the mass balance and cycle cost in nuclear fuel cycle has been developing a PNC using an artificial intelligence technique. This system is composed of the expert system, data base and analysis codes. The expert system is the most important one in the system and the content of the expert system is explained in this paper. The expert system has the three functions. The first is the function of understanding the meaning of user's questions by natural language, the second is the function of selecting the best way to solve the problem given by the user using the knowledge which is already installed in the system, and the last is the function of answering the questions. The knowledge of the experts installed in the expert system is represented by the frame-type rules. Therefore, the knowledge will be simply added to the system, and consequently the system will be easily extended. (author)
Dunand, R.; Gondran, M.; Thomas, J.B.
The concepts and the steps to be taken into account for applying expert systems are reviewed. The role of expert systems as a new computer programming concept and the gain in productivity, flexibility and reliability by applying a programming methodology are underlined. The main components of the methodology applied are explained and illustrated. The application of expert systems in the design and operation of the nuclear power plants is presented. The experience acquired and the perspectives in the use of expert systems are discussed [fr
This study was carried out to ascertain the perception of the residency ... the time of the study. Analysis of the respondents showed similar findings for both senior and junior levels of training. Discussion. The introduction of the residency training program .... Overseas training/ attachment should be re-introduced. 12. (10.1).
de Monchy, Allan R.; And Others
Discusses two computer problem solving programs: rule-based expert systems and decision analysis expert systems. Explores the application of expert systems to automated chemical analyses. Presents six factors to consider before using expert systems. (MVL)
Grider, Daryl A.
Discusses expertise, what an expert system is, what an expert system shell is, what expert systems can and cannot do, knowledge engineering and technical communicators, and planning and managing expert system projects. (SR)
Zahir, Sajjad; Chang, Chew Lik
Describes the design and development of a prototype expert system called ONLINE-EXPERT that helps users select online databases and vendors that meet users' needs. Search strategies are discussed; knowledge acquisition and knowledge bases are described; and the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP), a decision analysis technique that ranks databases,…
Mieg, Harald A.
Purpose: This paper aims at a better understanding of expert roles in transdisciplinary projects. Thus, the main purpose is the analysis of the roles of experts in transdisciplinary projects. Design/methodology/approach: The analysis of the ETH-UNS case studies from the point of view of the psychology of expertise and the sociology of professions…
Stoll, W.; Becker, K.
In an expert opinion written by Professor H. Kuni, Marburg, for the North Rhine-Westphalian state government, plutonium is called by far the most dangerous element in the Periodic Table. The Marburg medical expert holds that even improved legal instruments are unable to warrant effective protection of the workers handling this material, in the light of the present standards of industrial safety, because of radiological conditions and measuring problems with plutonium isotopes. In this article by an internationally renowned expert in the field, the ideas expressed in the expert opinion about the toxicity of plutonium, the cause-and-effect relationship in radiation damage by plutonium, and recent findings about the toxicity are subjected to a critical review. On the basis of results of radiation protection and of case studies, the statements in the expert opinion are contrasted with facts which make them appear in a very different light. (orig./RB) [de
Byrne, John M; Kashner, Michael; Gilman, Stuart C; Aron, David C; Cannon, Grant W; Chang, Barbara K; Godleski, Linda; Golden, Richard M; Henley, Steven S; Holland, Gloria J; Kaminetzky, Catherine P; Keitz, Sheri A; Kirsh, Susan; Muchmore, Elaine A; Wicker, Annie B
To develop a survey instrument designed to quantify supervision by attending physicians in nonprocedural care and to assess the instrument's feasibility and reliability. In 2008, the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) Office of Academic Affiliations convened an expert panel to adopt a working definition of attending supervision in nonprocedural patient care and to construct a survey to quantify it. Feasibility was field-tested on residents and their supervising attending physicians at primary care internal medicine clinics at the VA Loma Linda Healthcare System in their encounters with randomly selected outpatients diagnosed with either major depressive disorder or diabetes. The authors assessed both interrater concurrent reliability and test-retest reliability. The expert panel adopted the VA's definition of resident supervision and developed the Resident Supervision Index (RSI) to measure supervision in terms of residents' case understanding, attending physicians' contributions to patient care through feedback to the resident, and attending physicians' time (minutes). The RSI was field-tested on 60 residents and 37 attending physicians for 148 supervision episodes from 143 patient encounters. Consent rates were 94% for residents and 97% for attending physicians; test-retest reliability intraclass correlations (ICCs) were 0.93 and 0.88, respectively. Concurrent reliability between residents' and attending physicians' reported time was an ICC of 0.69. The RSI is a feasible and reliable measure of resident supervision that is intended for research studies in graduate medical education focusing on education outcomes, as well as studies assessing quality of care, patient health outcomes, care costs, and clinical workload.
Roysdon, Christine, Ed.; White, Howard D., Ed.
Eleven articles introduce expert systems applications in library and information science, and present design and implementation issues of system development for reference services. Topics covered include knowledge based systems, prototype development, the use of artificial intelligence to remedy current system inadequacies, and an expert system to…
Hofmeister, Alan M.; Ferrara, Joseph M.
The application of artificial intelligence to the problems of education is examined. One of the most promising areas in artificial intelligence is expert systems technology which engages the user in a problem-solving diaglogue. Some of the characteristics that make expert systems "intelligent" are identified and exemplified. The rise of…
-printer specialist solve their printer problems, and give time-based assistance to those who are in need of instant help when the maintenance experts are not handy. 2.0. Architecture of the LAPTEX Expert System. Working memory. (Fact base).
Department of Housing and Urban Development — The Resident Characteristics Report summarizes general information about households who reside in Public Housing, or who receive Section 8 assistance. The report...
As part of SCK-CEN's social sciences and humanities programme, a reflection group on 'Expert Culture' was established. The objectives of the reflection group are: (1) to clarify the role of SCK-CEN experts; (2) to clarify the new role of expertise in the evolving context of risk society; (3) to confront external views and internal SCK-CEN experiences on expert culture; (4) to improve trust building of experts and credibility of SCK-CEN as a nuclear actor in society; (5) to develop a draft for a deontological code; (6) to integrate the approach in training on assertivity and communication; (7) to create an output for a topical day on the subject of expert culture. The programme, achievements and perspectives of the refection group are summarised
Iwata, Takashi; Kurita, Nobuhiro; Nishioka, Masanori; Morimoto, Shinya; Yoshikawa, Kozo; Higashijima, Jun; Nakao, Toshihiro; Komatsu, Masato; Shimada, Mitsuo
Laparoscopic skills training is becoming the standard for educating surgical residents. Because of the specific procedure which differs from that of open surgery, it is imperative to establish a unique training system to promote efficiency of learning laparoscopic skills. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of learning laparoscopic skills with or without authorized experts of JSES. Among 71 patients who underwent laparoscopic colectomy from 2004 to 2009, 30 patients who underwent operation in introduction era without a technical expert (2004-2006), 17 patients who underwent operation in late period of introduction era without a technical expert (2006-2008), 12 patients who underwent operation by resident with technical expert (2008-2009) and 12 patients who underwent operation by technical expert, were investigated. Operative time, amount of blood loss, intra- and post-operative complications and conversion to open surgery were investigated. Operative time: 477:333:262:220 minutes (early period:late period:resident:expert), amount of blood loss: 494:73:21:20mL and complications: ileus: 0:1:0:0, leakage: 1:1:3:0, neurological disturbance: 2:1:0:0. Instruction by authorized technical experts of JSES is helpful to avoid pitfalls which are not seen in open surgery without an expert.
Jones, Darrick C.
One important goal of physics education is to help students develop reasoning patterns similar to those of expert physicists. To achieve this goal, physics educators must know what makes physics experts so successful at solving challenging physics problems. However, this dimension of physics expertise has not been fully explored by the physics education research (PER) community. In this dissertation, I describe several studies I have conducted that further the PER community's understanding of physics expertise. In these studies, I investigate how expert physicists reason as they solve unfamiliar, challenging physics problems by using a resource-based model of cognition to analyze videotaped recordings of problem solving sessions. By developing a way to determine when experts are making conceptual breakthroughs I analyze what resources experts use during conceptual breakthroughs. In the first study, I show that physics conceptual breakthroughs are characterized by reasoning which combines resources related to intuitive knowledge, higher level physics based conceptual knowledge, and epistemological knowledge. In the second study, I develop a way to reliably code for epistemological resources and determine what epistemological resources experts rely on most during conceptual breakthroughs. My findings show that experts rely on contrasting cases more often than any other epistemological resource. In the third study, I use variation theory to investigate how experts use contrasting cases. I look for patterns across all instances when experts use contrasting cases to make a conceptual breakthrough and show how scientific epistemology can be used to better understand experts' use of contrasting cases. I discuss how the findings of each study can be used to inform physics education.
Dobnikar, M.; Nemec, T.; Muehleisen, A.
Each type of an accident in a Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) causes immediately after the start of the accident variations of physical parameters that are typical for that type of the accident thus enabling its identification. Examples of these parameter are: decrease of reactor coolant system pressure, increase of radiation level in the containment, increase of pressure in the containment. An expert software enabling a fast preliminary identification of the type of the accident in Krsko NPP has been developed. As input data selected typical parameters from Emergency Response Data System (ERDS) of the Krsko NPP are used. Based on these parameters the expert software identifies the type of the accident and also provides the user with appropriate references (past analyses and other documentation of such an accident). The expert software is to be used as a support tool by an expert team that forms in case of an emergency at Slovenian Nuclear Safety Administration (SNSA) with the task to determine the cause of the accident, its most probable scenario and the source term. The expert software should provide initial identification of the event, while the final one is still to be made after appropriate assessment of the event by the expert group considering possibility of non-typical events, multiple causes, initial conditions, influences of operators' actions etc. The expert software can be also used as an educational/training tool and even as a simple database of available accident analyses. (author)
This article briefly discusses the role of the expert physician witness at trial and describes what is emerging as the physician professional witness (AKA hired gun). The trial court's powers to evaluate the professionalism and objectivity of an expert witness are examined in light of a recent Western District Missouri Court of Appeals case. This case, while limited to its peculiar set of facts, permitted both a hearing and production of documents of a physician who had been hired to testify. This article reviews the role of the expert physician witness in Missouri litigation in light of recent caselaw outlining discovery procedures to monitor use of professional witnesses. The term "professional witness" does not refer to witnesses who are professionals, but rather to persons who make their entire living witnessing. The Missouri Court of Appeals ruling in State ex rel. Lichtor v. Clark, 845 S.W.2d (Mo.App. W.D. 1992) elucidates the Missouri Courts' authority in sorting out unprofessional physicians who would offer unobjective expert testimony. While this particular article is intended for medical readership and discusses expert physician witnesses, expert witnesses can come from any profession including engineering, accounting, nursing, etc. It might thus be assumed that the Lichtor Court's procedure may be applied to any expert whose objectivity has been put into question.
Wouda, Jan C.; van de Wiel, Harry B. M.
Objective: The model of expert performance predicts that neither physicians in training nor experienced physicians will reach an expert level in communication. This study tested this hypothesis. Methods: Seventy-one students, twenty-five residents and fourteen consultants performed a 'breaking bad news' exercise with a simulated patient. Their communication competency was assessed with the CELI instrument. Actor assessments were also obtained. The differences in communication competency betwe...
Janssen, José; Stoyanov, Slavi
Janssen, J., & Stoyanov, S. (2012, 20 November). Online Consultation for a Digital Competence Framework: Experts' views on Digital Competence. Workshop presentation at the Institute for Prospective Technological Studies, Seville, Spain.
Byrd, J.S.; Fisher, J.J.; DeVries, K.R.; Martin, T.P.
Expert robots will enhance safety and operations in nuclear plants. E. I. du Pont de Nemours and Company, Savannah River Laboratory, is developing expert mobile robots for deployment in nuclear applications at the Savannah River Plant. Knowledge-based expert systems are being evaluated to simplify operator control, to assist in navigation and manipulation functions, and to analyze sensory information. Development work using two research vehicles is underway to demonstrate semiautonomous, intelligent, expert robot system operation in process areas. A description of the mechanical equipment, control systems, and operating modes is presented, including the integration of onboard sensors. A control hierarchy that uses modest computational methods is being used to allow mobile robots to autonomously navigate and perform tasks in known environments without the need for large computer systems
This page provides an overview Cornell Mixing Zone Expert System water quality modeling and decision support system designed for environmental impact assessment of mixing zones resulting from wastewater discharge from point sources
Herman, Rod A; Raybould, Alan
Expert opinion is often sought by government regulatory agencies when there is insufficient empirical evidence to judge the safety implications of a course of action. However, it can be reckless to continue following expert opinion when a preponderance of evidence is amassed that conflicts with this opinion. Factual evidence should always trump opinion in prioritizing the information that is used to guide regulatory policy. Evidence-based medicine has seen a dramatic upturn in recent years spurred by examples where evidence indicated that certain treatments recommended by expert opinions increased death rates. We suggest that scientific evidence should also take priority over expert opinion in the regulation of genetically modified crops (GM). Examples of regulatory data requirements that are not justified based on the mass of evidence are described, and it is suggested that expertise in risk assessment should guide evidence-based regulation of GM crops. PMID:24637724
Byrd, J.S.; Fisher, J.J.; DeVries, K.R.; Martin, T.P.
Expert robots enhance a safety and operations in nuclear plants. E.I. du Pont de Nemours and Company, Savannah River Laboratory, is developing expert mobile robots for deployment in nuclear applications at the Savannah River Plant. Knowledge-based expert systems are being evaluated to simplify operator control, to assist in navigation and manipulation functions, and to analyze sensory information. Development work using two research vehicles is underway to demonstrate semiautonomous, intelligence, expert robot system operation in process areas. A description of the mechanical equipment, control systems, and operating modes is presented, including the integration of onboard sensors. A control hierarchy that uses modest computational methods is being used to allow mobile robots to autonomously navigate and perform tasks in known environments without the need for large computer systems
Wilson, Harold O.; Burford, Anna Marie
Delineates artificial intelligence/expert systems (AI/ES) concepts; provides an exposition of some business application areas; relates progress; and creates an awareness of the benefits, limitations, and reservations of AI/ES. (Author)
Winstanley, Trevor; Courvalin, Patrice
This review aims to discuss expert systems in general and how they may be used in medicine as a whole and clinical microbiology in particular (with the aid of interpretive reading). It considers rule-based systems, pattern-based systems, and data mining and introduces neural nets. A variety of noncommercial systems is described, and the central role played by the EUCAST is stressed. The need for expert rules in the environment of reset EUCAST breakpoints is also questioned. Commercial automated systems with on-board expert systems are considered, with emphasis being placed on the "big three": Vitek 2, BD Phoenix, and MicroScan. By necessity and in places, the review becomes a general review of automated system performances for the detection of specific resistance mechanisms rather than focusing solely on expert systems. Published performance evaluations of each system are drawn together and commented on critically.
An expert system plays an important role on alleviating primarily shortage of experts in a specific area of interest. With the help of an expert system, personnel with little expertise can solve problems that require expert knowledge. In this paper all major aspects of an expert system development have been presented.
In today's complex world, we have come to rely increasingly on those who have expertise in specific areas and can bring their knowledge to bear on crucial social, political and scientific questions. Taking the viewpoint that experts are consulted when there is something important at stake for an individual, a group, or society at large, Experts in Science and Society explores expertise as a relational concept. How do experts balance their commitment to science with that to society? How does a society actually determine that a person has expertise? What personal traits are valued in an expert? From where does the expert derive authority? What makes new forms of expertise emerge? These and related questions are addressed from a wide range of areas in order to be inclusive, as well as to demonstrate similarities across areas. Likewise, in order to be culturally comparative, this volume includes examples and discussions of experts in different countries and even in different time periods. The topics include the r...
Full Text Available Limitations of Expert Evidence Edited by Stephen Leadbeatter MB ChB MCRPath ISBN 1 86016 029 8 Printed in Great Britain by Cathedral Print Services Ltd, Salisbury, 1996 Kitap 25 Ekim 1994 te The Royal College of Physicians ve The Royal College of Pathologists tarafından düzenlenen konferanstan sonra hekimlere ve avukatlara konuyu tartışmaya açmak için basılmış. Bilirkişi görüşünün temel filozofisinin, bu görevi yapanlar ve bu hizmeti alanların yapabileceklerinin sınırlarının tartışılması amaçlanmış.Seksen altı sayfadan oluşan kitabın fiatı on iki İngiliz Sterlini. Kitap üç bölüm ve bunların altında toplanan on ana başlıktan oluşmakta. Elinize aldığınızda küçük boyutu ve anlaşılır dili ile hemen okunup bitirelecek kitaplardan sanılıyor. En azından ben böyle düşünmüştüm. Ancak daha L A Tuınberg ve A J Bellinham’ın ön yazısında ben çarpıldım. Değerli yazarların kaleme aldığı başlıklar ve gündeme getirdiği tartışmaların tüm Adli Bilimlerle uğraşanların dikkatle okuması gereken cinsten olduğu kanısındayım. Birinci bölüm The Legal Perspective iki anabaşlıktan oluşuyor, The Criminal legal perspective Honour Judje Martin Stephens tarafından yazılmış,bilirkişi olarak görev yapabilmek için belgelenmiş bir eğitim olması gerektiği, mahkemelerde ya da yazılı raporlarda verilebilecek görüşlerin incelikleri tartışılmış. Bu bölümün ikinci anabaşlığı The civil legal perspective avukat Jennifer Cummin tarafından yazılmış. Toplum gözünde bilirkişinin anlamı ve mahkemenin bilirkişi görüşünü değişmez bilimsel doğru gibi algılayarak düştüğü bilimsel yanılgı ve raporlardaki kavram farkı dile getirilmiş. İkinci Bölüm The Medical And Scientific Perspective başlığı altında Roger C Evans MD Clinical evidence başlığında toplumun hasta tedavisi ve bilirkişilik hizmetinden beklentilerinin unrealistik olduğu ve
Ricciotti, Hope A; Freret, Taylor S; Aluko, Ashley; McKeon, Bri Anne; Haviland, Miriam J; Newman, Lori R
To pilot a short video-based resident-as-teacher training toolkit and assess its effect on resident teaching skills in clinical settings. A video-based resident-as-teacher training toolkit was previously developed by educational experts at Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School. Residents were recruited from two academic hospitals, watched two videos from the toolkit ("Clinical Teaching Skills" and "Effective Clinical Supervision"), and completed an accompanying self-study guide. A novel assessment instrument for evaluating the effect of the toolkit on teaching was created through a modified Delphi process. Before and after the intervention, residents were observed leading a clinical teaching encounter and scored using the 15-item assessment instrument. The primary outcome of interest was the change in number of skills exhibited, which was assessed using the Wilcoxon signed-rank test. Twenty-eight residents from two academic hospitals were enrolled, and 20 (71%) completed all phases of the study. More than one third of residents who volunteered to participate reported no prior formal teacher training. After completing two training modules, residents demonstrated a significant increase in the median number of teaching skills exhibited in a clinical teaching encounter, from 7.5 (interquartile range 6.5-9.5) to 10.0 (interquartile range 9.0-11.5; Pteaching skills assessed, there were significant improvements in asking for the learner's perspective (P=.01), providing feedback (P=.005), and encouraging questions (P=.046). Using a resident-as-teacher video-based toolkit was associated with improvements in teaching skills in residents from multiple specialties.
Franco, Gianfábio Pimentel; de Barros, Alba Lúcia Bottura Leite; Nogueira-Martins, Luiz Antônio; Zeitoun, Sandra Salloum
Nursing residents may experience physical and emotional exhaustion from the daily life of attending the Program. The aim of this study was to determine the Burnout incidence among Nursing Residents. An investigative, descriptive, analytical, longitudinal-prospective study was conducted with 16 Residents over two years. The Maslach Burnout Inventory was used, translated and validated for Brazil, as well as a sociodemographic/occupational data tool. Of all residents, 17.2% showed high rates in Emotional Exhaustion and Depersonalization; 18.8% showed impaired commitment in Personal Accomplishment, 75% of which belonged to specialty areas, such as Emergency Nursing, Adult and Pediatric Intensive Care. Age and specialty area were positively correlated with Personal Accomplishment. One of the Residents was identified with changes in three subscales of the Maslach Burnout Inventory, thus characterized as a Burnout Syndrome patient. Nursing Residents have profiles of disease. Knowing these factors can minimize health risks of these workers.
... the Experts | Diphtheria, Tetanus, Pertussis Ask the Experts Diphtheria, Tetanus, Pertussis Ask the Experts Home Administering Vaccines ... infants have died. How many doses of pediatric diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis (DTaP) vaccine does an infant ...
Gonzelez, Avelino J.; Ragusa, James M.
Artificial intelligence (AI) technology, and in particular expert systems, has shown potential applicability in many areas of operation at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC). In an era of limited resources, the early identification of good expert system applications, and their segregation from inappropriate ones can result in a more efficient use of available NASA resources. On the other hand, the education of students in a highly technical area such as AI requires an extensive hands-on effort. The nature of expert systems is such that proper sample applications for the educational process are difficult to find. A pilot project between NASA-KSC and the University of Central Florida which was designed to simultaneously address the needs of both institutions at a minimum cost. This project, referred to as Expert Systems Prototype Training Project (ESPTP), provided NASA with relatively inexpensive development of initial prototype versions of certain applications. University students likewise benefit by having expertise on a non-trivial problem accessible to them at no cost. Such expertise is indispensible in a hands-on training approach to developing expert systems.
The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and the Electric Power Research Institute have initiated a broad-based exploration of means to evaluate the potential applications of expert systems in the nuclear industry. This exploratory effort will assess the use of expert systems to augment the diagnostic and decision-making capabilities of personnel with the goal of enhancing productivity, reliability, and performance. The initial research effort is the development and documentation of guidelines for verifying and validating (V and V) expert systems. An initial application of expert systems in the nuclear industry is to aid operations and maintenance personnel in decision-making tasks. The scope of the decision aiding covers all types of cognitive behavior consisting of skill, rule, and knowledge-based behavior. For example, procedure trackers were designed and tested to support rule-based behavior. Further, these systems automate many of the tedious, error-prone human monitoring tasks, thereby reducing the potential for human error. The paper version of the procedure contains the knowledge base and the rules and thus serves as the basis of the design verification of the procedure tracker. Person-in-the-loop tests serve as the basis for the validation of a procedure tracker. When conducting validation tests, it is important to ascertain that the human retains the locus of control in the use of the expert system
Kimberly A.B. Cauthon
Full Text Available Objective: The objective was to utilize an Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE for assessment of pharmacy residents. Innovation: Post-graduate year 1 (PGY1 and post-graduate year 2 (PGY2 pharmacy residents completing multiple, local residency programs were invited to participate in an OSCE. A total of eight PGY1 residents and one PGY2 resident completed the OSCE. American Society of Health-System Pharmacists (ASHP residency program goals were aligned for each case, which were originally developed for a fourth-year pharmacy student OSCE. Station design included outpatient and inpatient settings with patient and physician interactions. Median communication and clinical skills scores were evaluated. Critical Analysis: The OSCE allows for assessment of all residents on common scenarios. Pharmacy residents met competency requirements and demonstrated excellent communication skills. The OSCE was able to evaluate both physician-pharmacist communication and patient-pharmacist communication. Baseline performance related to the ASHP goals and objectives was not completed; however, the OSCE could highlight resident strengths and weaknesses in communication and clinical skills. The OSCE could simulate independent practice, may reduce bias, and could provide an evaluation of the resident by a patient. However, the OSCE incurs higher resource utilization, specifically monetary and time, than other assessment methods. Next Steps: The pilot study results provide a beginning for further study of OSCEs for pharmacy residents. Further study should include surveying the residency directors about use of the OSCE, a comparison of performance between the OSCE and preceptor evaluations of residents on ASHP goals and objectives, and an evaluation of OSCE implementation at different time points within the residency. Conflict of Interest We declare no conflicts of interest or financial interests that the authors or members of their immediate families have in
The feasibility of using expert systems as an aid in regulatory compliance functions has been investigated. A literature review was carried out to identify applications of expert systems to regulatory affairs. A bibliography of the small literature on such applications was prepared. A prototype system, ARIES, was developed to demonstrate the use of an expert system as an aid to a Project Officer in assuring compliance with licence requirements. The system runs on a personal computer with a graphical interface. Extensive use is made of hypertext to link interrelated rules and requirements as well as to provide an explanation facility. Based on the performance of ARIES the development of a field version is recommended
Choi, Young Sung; Lee, Sun Ho; Lee, Byong Whi
Public perception on nuclear energy is much influenced by subjective impressions mostly formed through sensational and dramatic news of mass media or anti-nuclear groups. However, nuclear experts, those who have more relevant knowledge and information about nuclear energy, may have reasonable opinion based on scientific facts or inferences. Thus their opinion and consensus should be examined and taken into account during the process of nuclear energy policy formulation. For the purpose of eliciting experts' opinion, the web-based on-line survey system (eBOSS) was developed. Using the survey system, experts' views on nuclear energy were tallied, analyzed and compared with the public's. Based on the survey results, the paper suggests some recommendations about the future direction of the public information program in Korea
Ludtke, P. R.
This register presents the names of approximately 235 individuals who are considered experts, or very knowledgeable, in various fields of technology related to hydrogen. Approximately 90 organizations are represented. Each person is listed by organizational affiliation, address, and principal area of expertise. The criteria for selection of names for the register are extensive experience in a given field of work, participation in or supervision of relevant research programs, contributions to the literature, or being recognized as an expert in a particular field. The purpose of the register is to present, in easy form, sources of dependable information regarding highly technical areas of hydrogen technology, with particular emphasis on safety. The register includes two indexes: an alphabetical listing of the experts and an alphabetical listing of the organizations with which they are affiliated.
College Planning & Management, 2003
Describes four examples of residence hall design, one renovation and three new residence halls, that exemplify design principles that meet student and institutional requirements. The examples are at (1) the University of Illinois at Chicago; (2) Bowdoin College; (3) Muhlenberg College; and (4) Spring Arbor University. (SLD)
Outlines the author's experience as a dancer and choreographer artist-in-residence with third graders at a public elementary school, providing a cultural arts experience to tie in with a theme study of the rain forest. Details the residency and the insights she gained working with students, teachers, and theme. (SR)
Reuben, D B
The intense situational and physiologic stresses that accompany postgraduate training may have serious psychosocial ramifications. Although only a small proportion of residents have overt psychiatric illness, virtually all display some psychologic impairment. Contributing factors include life-changes, stresses associated with providing patient care, loss of social support, long working hours, sleep deprivation, and underlying personality traits of residents. The manifestations of this impairment are variable and may be subtle. In response to these problems, residency programs have taken steps to provide psychosocial support. Unfortunately, most programs do not offer formal support groups or seminars to discuss difficulties that accompany residency. Further definition of the psychosocial effects of residency may prompt changes that make the training of physicians a more humane process.
Brandi, M C
"The OECD recently recognised that the Human Resources for Science and Technology (HRST) stock of any given country is sharply affected by migration flows of qualified people. We have thus undertaken a study of highly-qualified immigrants in Rome.... The conclusion is that the resident foreign population in Rome has a high mean level of instruction by no means lower than the mean level of Romans, at least up until the 1991 census. It also emerges, however, that among graduates differences in level of instruction vary according to geographical areas and, above all, the level of industrialisation of the country of origin." (EXCERPT)
Takahashi, Makoto; Yagi, Ekou; Kitamura, Masaharu
An attempt of a dialog forum between technology experts and local community residents is described in this paper. The forum has been introduced with the aim of reconstructing the trust in nuclear experts badly spoiled by the JCO accident and TEPCO troubles. Particular attention bas been paid to semantic consistency of the information provided by the experts with the actual needs of residents living near nuclear facilities. In other words, the experts are requested to improvise the explanation directly relevant to various concerns of the residents in an on-demand manner. Three types of on-demandness have been identifled as guidelines for improved expert-resident communication: i.e. on-demand information provision (at an appropriate timing, with an appropriate spatial coverage, to fulfill the need of semantic diversity). The dialog forums have been held in two municipalities where nuclear facilities are located. The effectiveness of the dialog forum with on-demand information provision in reconstructing the trust bas been confirmed through the analysis of dialog records
C++, and Microsoft C/C++ compilers. The personal edition is licensed for educational, research, and hobby use. Applications created with RT -Expert personal edition are not licensed for commercial purposes. Professional editions are available for commercial applications using DOS, Windows, and. Unix environments.
TNO Physics and Electronics laboratory, in collaboration with the University of Limburg and the Research Institute for Knowledge Systems, worked on a technology project named 'QUEST: Quality of Expert Systems' [FEL90]. QUEST was carried out under commision of the Dutch Ministry of Defence. A strong
The expert's role in the involvement in decisions on nuclear risks is discussed. The responsibility of scientists in ethics and in several sociological problems is highlighted. The mandates, the positivist reaction, way to knowledge, the scientist as a subject studying an object, and application in the domain of radioprotection are the main issues of the somewhat philosophical essay. (R.P.)
Christensen, Mette Krogh; O'Neill, Lotte; Hansen, Dorthe Høgh
Background The majority of studies on prevalence and characteristics of residents in difficulty have been conducted in English-speaking countries and the existing literature may not reflect the prevalence and characteristics of residents in difficulty in other parts of the world such as the Scand......Background The majority of studies on prevalence and characteristics of residents in difficulty have been conducted in English-speaking countries and the existing literature may not reflect the prevalence and characteristics of residents in difficulty in other parts of the world...... such as the Scandinavian countries, where healthcare systems are slightly different. The aim of this study was to examine prevalence and characteristics of residents in difficulty in one out of three postgraduate medical training regions in Denmark, and to produce both a quantifiable overview and in-depth understanding...... of the topic. Methods We performed a mixed methods study. All regional residency program directors (N = 157) were invited to participate in an e-survey about residents in difficulty. Survey data were combined with database data on demographical characteristics of the background population (N = 2399...
Skiveren, J; Wahlers, B; Bermark, S
residents >65 years of age. The residents were assessed for presence, number and location of skin tears. Data were collected using a data collection sheet developed for this study. The survey team consisted of four expert nurses from a university hospital (two dermatology and two wound care nurses). Data...
Henriksen, Mikael Johannes Vuokko; Wienecke, Troels; Thagesen, Helle
Background: Lumbar puncture is often associated with uncertainty and limited experience on the part of residents; therefore, preparatory interventions can be essential. There is growing interest in the potential benefit of videos over written text. However, little attention has been given...... of three interventions as preparation for performing lumbar puncture: 1) goal- and learner-centered video (GLV) presenting procedure-specific process goals and learner-centered information; 2) traditional video (TV) providing expert-driven content, but no process goals; and 3) written text (WT...... a traditionally designed video or written text. Participants’ self-confidence was not predictive of their actual performance....
Discusses the necessity for incorporating current technology in today's college residence halls to meet the more diverse and continued activities of its students. Technology addressed covers data networking and telecommunications, heating and cooling systems, and fire-safety systems. (GR)
Wilmot, R.D.; Galson, D.A.
This report is a pilot study that systematically describes the various types of expert judgement that are made throughout the development of a PA, and summarizes existing tools and practices for dealing with expert judgements. The report also includes recommendations for further work in the area of expert judgement. Expert judgements can be classified in a number of ways, including classification according to why the judgements are made and according to how the judgements are made. In terms of why judgements are made, there is a broad distinction between: Judgements concerning data that are made because alternatives are not feasible; and Judgements about the conduct of a PA that are made because there are no alternative approaches for making the decision. In the case of how judgements are made, the report distinguishes between non-elicited judgements made by individuals, non-elicited judgements made by groups, and elicited judgements made by individuals or groups. These types of judgement can generally be distinguished by the extent of the associated documentation, and hence their traceability. Tools for assessing judgements vary depending on the type of judgements being examined. Key tools are peer review, an appropriate QA regime, documentation, and elicitation. Dialogue with stake holders is also identified as important in establishing whether judgements are justified in the context in which they are used. The PA process comprises a number of stages, from establishing the assessment context, through site selection and repository design, to scenario and model development and parametrisation. The report discusses how judgements are used in each of these stages, and identifies which of the tools and procedures for assessing judgements are most appropriate at each stage. Recommendations for further work include the conduct of a trial expert elicitation to gain experience in the advantages and disadvantages of this technique, the development of guidance for peer
Thomson, L.; McLennan, Donald; Anderson, Rebecca D.; Wegeberg, S.; Pettersvik Arvnes, Maria; Sergienko, Liudmila; Behe, Carolina; Moss-Davies, Pitseolak; Fritz, S.; Christensen, T.; Price, C.
The Coastal Expert Workshop brought together a diverse group of coastal experts with the common goal of developing a biodiversity monitoring program for coastal ecosystems across the circumpolar Arctic. Meeting participants, including northern residents, industry and Non-Governmental Organization (NGO) representatives, scientists, and government regulators from across the circumpolar Arctic, gathered at the Lord Elgin Hotel in Ottawa from March 1 to 3, 2016, to discuss current biodiversity monitoring efforts, understand key issues facing biodiversity in the Arctic coastal areas and suggest monitoring indicators, or Focal Ecosystem Components, for the program. A Traditional Knowledge Holders meeting was held on February 29, 2016 in conjunction with the workshop. The following document provides a summary of the workshop activities and outcomes, and will be followed by a more complete Workshop Report.
Hagemann, Kit S.; Scholderer, Joachim
between technical experts and consumers over the nature of the hazards on which risk assessments should focus, and perceptions of insufficient openness about uncertainties in risk assessment. Whilst previous research has almost exclusively focused on genetically modified foods, the present paper...... investigates plant varieties developed by means of mutation breeding, a less-debated class of novel foods. Two studies were conducted that investigated the mental models of experts and laypeople. The results revealed that the mental models of both groups differed in terms of scope, depth and the role...... of uncertainty. Furthermore, a number of misconceptions became apparent in the study of laypeople's mental models, often related to the regulatory system governing risk assessments of novel foods. Critical issue are outlined and communication needs are discussed....
Swett, H.A.; Fisher, P.; Mutalik, P.
Conventional medical expert systems deliver advice as text (a diagnosis, list, recommendation, or discussion). This may be quite useful in some areas of medical decision making but has distinct limitations in such a visually oriented discipline as diagnostic imaging, where decisions often depend on pattern recognition and the appreciation of subtle morphologic features. We are developing an expert system that displays groups of images as part of its intelligent output. This system uses a rule-based strategy to select images for display. They may be displayed because they share a common feature, cluster of features, or clinical history. Such a system may be useful as a diagnostic aid or for continuing medical education. It is likely to have particular value in the setting of picture archiving and communication systems
Aarnio, P.A.; Ala-Heikkil, J.J.; Hakulinen, T.T.; Nikkinen, M.T.
An expert system coupled with the gamma spectrum analysis system SAMPO has been developed for automating the qualitative identification of radionuclides as well as for determining the quantitative parameters of the spectrum components. The program is written in C-language and runs in various environments ranging from PCs to UNIX workstations. The expert system utilizes a complete gamma library with over 2600 nuclides and 80,000 lines, and a rule base of about fifty criteria including energies, relative peak intensities, genesis modes, half lives, parent-daughter relationships, etc. The rule base is furthermore extensible by the user. This is not an original contribution but a somewhat updated version of papers and reports previously published elsewhere. (author)
VanDenBerg, C; Murphy, J E
The level of work satisfaction among pharmacists in ASHP-accredited residencies was studied. In March 1996 a questionnaire designed to measure residency satisfaction was mailed to 697 individuals in ASHP-accredited pharmacy practice and specialty practice residencies. Subjects responded to 16 statements relating to intrinsic and extrinsic determinants of work satisfaction on a scale of 1 to 5, where 1 = strongly disagree and 5 = strongly agree. Questionnaires were returned by 413 (59%) of the residents. The respondents were predominantly women (76%), and most (86%) had at least a Pharm. D. degree. Hospitals were the primary work setting (88%). Of the 413 residents, 305 were in pharmacy practice residencies and 108 were in specialized residencies. None of the mean scores indicated disagreement (scores 3) with the negatively worded statements. The median and mode were equal to 2 (disagree) for the three negatively worded items and 4 (agree) for all but three positively worded items. Only 8% of the residents indicated that they would not accept the residency again if given the chance. Specialized residents tended to rate positively worded statements higher and negatively worded statements lower than pharmacy practice residents. Female residents indicated greater satisfaction than male residents. Pay and benefits were rated slightly better than neutral. Pharmacy residents appeared generally satisfied with their residencies. Specialized pharmacy residents were more satisfied than pharmacy practice residents, and women were more satisfied than men.
relevant cases quickly from a large memory -plus the requirement for an explicit theory of index content in the complex social domain where relevance often...Sep 89 - 31 Jan 92 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5. FUNDING NUMBERS " MEMORY -BASED EXPERT SYSTEMS" (U) 61102F 2304/A7 6. AUTHOR(S) Dr. Roger C. Schank 7...three problems: (1) The development of a robust memory -based parsing technology (Direct Memory Access Parsing, or DMP), (2) The development of case
Experts have been in charge of the formal business of development for 50-odd years. But despite good intentions, they cannot boast an impressive track record, particularly in Sub-Saharan Africa. Sure, there has been progress on several fronts. But too many people still live in abject poverty, lack decent basic services, and suffer daily indignities at the hands of the very authorities meant to serve them.
Gupta, Shri N.; Arshak, Khalil I.; McDonnell, Pearse; Boyce, Conor; Duggan, Andrew
With the developments in the techniques of artificial intelligence over the last few years, development of advisory, scheduling and similar class of problems has become very convenient using tools such as PROLOG. In this paper an expert system has been described which helps lithographers and process engineers in several ways. The methodology used is to model each work station according to its input, output and control parameters, combine these work stations in a logical sequence based on past experience and work out process schedule for a job. In addition, all the requirements vis-a-vis a particular job parameters are converted into decision rules. One example is the exposure time, develop time for a wafer with different feature sizes would be different. This expert system has been written in Turbo Prolog. By building up a large number of rules, one can tune the program to any facility and use it for as diverse applications as advisory help, trouble shooting etc. Leitner (1) has described an advisory expert system that is being used at National Semiconductor. This system is quite different from the one being reported in the present paper. The approach is quite different for one. There is stress on job flow and process for another.
Intelligent control is a very successful way to transform the expert's knowledge of the type 'if the velocity is big and the distance from the object is small, hit the brakes and decelerate as fast as possible' into an actual control. To apply this transformation, one must choose appropriate methods for reasoning with uncertainty, i.e., one must: (1) choose the representation for words like 'small', 'big'; (2) choose operations corresponding to 'and' and 'or'; (3) choose a method that transforms the resulting uncertain control recommendations into a precise control strategy. The wrong choice can drastically affect the quality of the resulting control, so the problem of choosing the right procedure is very important. From a mathematical viewpoint these choice problems correspond to non-linear optimization and are therefore extremely difficult. In this project, a new mathematical formalism (based on group theory) is developed that allows us to solve the problem of optimal choice and thus: (1) explain why the existing choices are really the best (in some situations); (2) explain a rather mysterious fact that fuzzy control (i.e., control based on the experts' knowledge) is often better than the control by these same experts; and (3) give choice recommendations for the cases when traditional choices do not work.
Lallave, Juan Antonio; Gutheil, Thomas Gordon
Jung's theories of archetype, shadow, and the personal and collective unconscious provide a postmodern framework in which to consider the role of the expert witness in judicial proceedings. Archetypal themes, motifs, and influences help to illuminate the shadow of the judicial system and projections and behaviors among the cast of the court in pursuing justice. This article speaks to archetypal influences and dialectical tensions encountered by the expert witness in this judicial drama. The archetype of Justice is born from the human need for order and relational fairness in a world of chaos. The persona of justice is the promise of truth in the drama. The shadow of justice is untruth, the need to win by any means. The dynamics of the trickster archetype serve and promote injustice. These influences are examined by means of a case example. This approach will deepen understanding of court proceedings and the role of the expert witness in the heroic quest for justice. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Schobitz, Erik P; Schmidt, James M; Poirier, Michael P
This study was conducted to determine the baseline fund of knowledge of pediatric and emergency medicine residents at a single institution in the medical management of pediatric victims of biologic and chemical terrorism. A test covering essential content was developed and validated by experts. The test was given anonymously to volunteer pediatric and emergency medicine residents at a single institution. The test was readministered 5 months after a lecture on the content. The 34 pediatric residents and 15 emergency medicine residents scored a median of 65% and 73%, respectively (P = .03). Residents from both specialties combined scored a median of 70% correct versus those residents who did not attend the lecture. Pediatric and emergency medicine residents are significantly unprepared to manage pediatric victims of biologic and chemical terrorism. Education curriculums on this topic must be incorporated into these residencies. The traditional lecture format may not be the most effective technique.
Abby Swanson Kazley
Full Text Available Stroke is a leading cause of death and disability, and rtPA can significantly reduce the long-term impact of acute ischemic stroke (AIS if given within 3 hours of symptom onset. South Carolina is located in the stroke belt and has a high rate of stroke and stroke mortality. Many small rural SC hospitals do not maintain the expertise needed to treat AIS patients with rtPA. MUSC is an academic medical center using REACH MUSC telemedicine to deliver stroke care to 15 hospitals in the state, increasing the likelihood of timely treatment with rtPA. The purpose of this study is to determine the increase in access to rtPA through the use of telemedicine for AIS in the general population and in specific segments of the population based on age, gender, race, ethnicity, education, urban/rural residence, poverty, and stroke mortality.We used a retrospective cross-sectional design examining Census data from 2000 and Geographic Information Systems (GIS analysis to identify South Carolina residents that live within 30 or 60 minutes of a Primary Stroke Center (PSC or a REACH MUSC site. We include all South Carolina citizens in our analysis and specifically examine the population’s age, gender, race, ethnicity, education, urban/rural residence, poverty, and stroke mortality. Our sample includes 4,012,012 South Carolinians. The main measure is access to expert stroke care at a Primary Stroke Center (PSC or a REACH MUSC hospital within 30 or 60 minutes. We find that without REACH MUSC, only 38% of the population has potential access to expert stroke care in SC within sixty minutes given that most PSCs will maintain expert stroke coverage. REACH MUSC allows 76% of the population to be within sixty minutes of expert stroke care, and 43% of the population to be within 30 minute drive time of expert stroke care. These increases in access are especially significant for groups that have faced disparities in care and high rates of AIS. The use of telemedicine can
Turgut, Namigar; Karacalar, Serap; Polat, Cengiz; Kıran, Özlem; Gültop, Fethi; Kalyon, Seray Türkmen; Sinoğlu, Betül; Zincirci, Mehmet; Kaya, Ender
The aim of this study is identified the degree of Burnout Syndrome (BOS) and find out its correlation with years of recidency and sociodemograpfic chareacteristics, training, sleeping habits, such as smoking and alcohol consumption. After approval from the Hospital Ethics Committee and obtaining informed consent, First, second, third, fourth and fifth year of recidency staff (n=127) working in our hospital were involved in this study. The standardized Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI) was used in this study. Fifty six male (44.1%) and seventy one female (55.9%) residents were enroled in this study (Coranbach Alfa(α)=0.873). 57% of the first year residents smokes cigaret and 54% of them use alcohol. 2% of them gets one day off after hospital night shift, 61% of them suffers from disturbed sleep. 60% of them had been stated that they willingly selected their profession. 61% of them prefers talking to friends and 32% of them prefers shopping to overcome stress. There were statistical difference acording to years of recidency in MBI, Emotional Burnout (EB) and desensitisation scale (DS) points. EB scale points of the second year of residency group was statisticaly higher than fourth year of residency group. DS points of second year of residency group was also statisticaly higher than the third and fourth year of residency group. There was no statistical difference between any groups in Personal Success. BOS is a frequent problem during residency in anaesthesia. Appropriate definition and awareness are the first important steps to prevent this syndrome. Further administrative approaches should be evaluated with regard to their effects.
Ortiz, N.R.; Wheeler, T.A.; Breeding, R.J.; Hora, S.; Meyer, M.A.; Kenney, R.L.
The explicit expert judgment process used in NUREG-1150, 'Severe Accident Risks: An Assessment for Five US Nuclear Plants', is discussed in this paper. The main steps of the process are described, including selection of issues and experts, elicitation training, presentation of issues to the experts, preparation of issue analyses by the experts, discussion of issue analyses and elicitation, and recomposition and aggregation of results. To demonstrate the application of the expert judgment process to NUREG-1150, two issues are summarized: one from the accident frequency analysis, and one from the accident progression analysis. Recommendations and insights are provided to improve the use of explicit expert judgment in complex technical issues. (orig.)
Robles, Ana I; Olsen, Karina Standahl; Tsui, Dana W T; Georgoulias, Vassilis; Creaney, Jenette; Dobra, Katalin; Vyberg, Mogens; Minato, Nagahiro; Anders, Robert A; Børresen-Dale, Anne-Lise; Zhou, Jianwei; Sætrom, Pål; Nielsen, Boye Schnack; Kirschner, Michaela B; Krokan, Hans E; Papadimitrakopoulou, Vassiliki; Tsamardinos, Ioannis; Røe, Oluf D
The goal of biomarker research is to identify clinically valid markers. Despite decades of research there has been disappointingly few molecules or techniques that are in use today. The "1st International NTNU Symposium on Current and Future Clinical Biomarkers of Cancer: Innovation and Implementation", was held June 16th and 17th 2016, at the Knowledge Center of the St. Olavs Hospital in Trondheim, Norway, under the auspices of the Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU) and the HUNT biobank and research center. The Symposium attracted approximately 100 attendees and invited speakers from 12 countries and 4 continents. In this Symposium original research and overviews on diagnostic, predictive and prognostic cancer biomarkers in serum, plasma, urine, pleural fluid and tumor, circulating tumor cells and bioinformatics as well as how to implement biomarkers in clinical trials were presented. Senior researchers and young investigators presented, reviewed and vividly discussed important new developments in the field of clinical biomarkers of cancer, with the goal of accelerating biomarker research and implementation. The excerpts of this symposium aim to give a cutting-edge overview and insight on some highly important aspects of clinical cancer biomarkers to-date to connect molecular innovation with clinical implementation to eventually improve patient care.
Antoine, Edwige; Grabar, Natalia
Technical medical terms are complicated to be correctly understood by non-experts. Vocabulary, associating technical terms with layman expressions, can help in increasing the readability of technical texts and their understanding. The purpose of our work is to build this kind of vocabulary. We propose to exploit the notion of reformulation following two methods: extraction of abbreviations and of reformulations with specific markers. The segments associated thanks to these methods are aligned with medical terminologies. Our results allow to cover over 9,000 medical terms and show precision of extractions between 0.24 and 0.98. The results and analyzed and compared with the existing work.
Yamamoto, Satoshi; Tanaka, Pedro; Madsen, Matias Vested
Our goal in this study was to examine Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education case logs for Stanford anesthesia residents graduating in 2013 (25 residents) and 2014 (26 residents). The resident with the fewest recorded patients in 2013 had 43% the number of patients compared with the...
Ng, Victor K; Burke, Clarissa A; Narula, Archna
To examine Canadian family medicine residents' perspectives surrounding teaching opportunities and mentorship in teaching. A 16-question online survey. Canadian family medicine residency programs. Between May and June 2011, all first- and second-year family medicine residents registered in 1 of the 17 Canadian residency programs as of September 2010 were invited to participate. A total of 568 of 2266 residents responded. Demographic characteristics, teaching opportunities during residency, and resident perceptions about teaching. A total of 77.7% of family medicine residents indicated that they were either interested or highly interested in teaching as part of their future careers, and 78.9% of family medicine residents had had opportunities to teach in various settings. However, only 60.1% of respondents were aware of programs within residency intended to support residents as teachers, and 33.0% of residents had been observed during teaching encounters. It appears that most Canadian family medicine residents have the opportunity to teach during their residency training. Many are interested in integrating teaching as part of their future career goals. Family medicine residencies should strongly consider programs to support and further develop resident teaching skills.
Expert systems, a branch of artificial-intelligence studies, is introduced with a view to its relevance in transportation engineering. Knowledge engineering, the process of building expert systems or transferring knowledge from human experts to compu...
Decroix, Marjolein; Wazir, Mohd Rozilee Wazir Norjali; Zeuwts, Linus; Deconinck, Frederik; Lenoir, Matthieu; Vansteenkiste, Pieter
The aim of this study was to investigate visual behaviour of expert and non-expert ski athletes during an alpine slalom. Fourteen non-experts and five expert slalom skiers completed an alpine slalom course in an indoor ski slope while wearing a head-mounted eye tracking device. Experts completed the slalom clearly faster than non-experts, but no significant difference was found in timing and position of the turn initiation. Although both groups already looked at future obstacles approximately...
Chen, Hung-Hsuan; Ororbia II, Alexander G.; Giles, C. Lee
We describe ExpertSeer, a generic framework for expert recommendation based on the contents of a digital library. Given a query term q, ExpertSeer recommends experts of q by retrieving authors who published relevant papers determined by related keyphrases and the quality of papers. The system is based on a simple yet effective keyphrase extractor and the Bayes' rule for expert recommendation. ExpertSeer is domain independent and can be applied to different disciplines and applications since t...
Olmstadt, William J.
Discusses artificial intelligence and attempts to catalog expert systems. Topics include the nature of expertise; examples of cataloging expert systems; barriers to implementation; and problems, including total automation, cataloging expertise, priorities, and system design. (LRW)
The goal of the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) Expert Systems for Crash Data Collection Program was to use expert system technology to improve the accuracy and consistency of police-reported data. The program included the development and evalu...
Dwyer, Tim; Wright, Sara; Kulasegaram, Kulamakan M; Theodoropoulos, John; Chahal, Jaskarndip; Wasserstein, David; Ringsted, Charlotte; Hodges, Brian; Ogilvie-Harris, Darrell
Competency-based medical education as a resident-training format will move postgraduate training away from time-based training, to a model based on observable outcomes. The purpose of this study was to determine whether junior residents and senior residents could demonstrate clinical skills to a similar level, after a sports medicine rotation. All residents undertaking a three-month sports medicine rotation had to pass an Objective Structured Clinical Examination. The stations tested the fundamentals of history-taking, examination, image interpretation, differential diagnosis, informed consent, and clinical decision-making. Performance at each station was assessed with a binary station-specific checklist and an overall global rating scale, in which 1 indicated novice, 2 indicated advanced beginner, 3 indicated competent, 4 indicated proficient, and 5 indicated expert. A global rating scale was also given for each domain of knowledge. Over eighteen months, thirty-nine residents (twenty-one junior residents and eighteen senior residents) and six fellows (for a total of forty-five participants) completed the examination. With regard to junior residents and senior residents, analysis using a two-tailed t test demonstrated a significant difference (p < 0.01) in both total checklist score and overall global rating scale; the mean total checklist score (and standard deviation) was 56.15% ± 10.99% for junior residents and 71.87% ± 8.94% for senior residents, and the mean global rating scale was 2.44 ± 0.55 for junior residents and 3.79 ± 0.49 for senior residents. There was a significant difference between junior residents and senior residents for each knowledge domain, with a significance of p < 0.05 for history-taking and p < 0.01 for the remainder of the domains. Despite intensive teaching within a competency-based medical education model, junior residents were not able to demonstrate knowledge as well as senior residents, suggesting that overall clinical experience
Le, Thach C.
This paper describes a CLIPS-based fuzzy expert system development environment called FCLIPS and illustrates its application to the simulated cart-pole balancing problem. FCLIPS is a straightforward extension of CLIPS without any alteration to the CLIPS internal structures. It makes use of the object-oriented and module features in CLIPS version 6.0 for the implementation of fuzzy logic concepts. Systems of varying degrees of mixed Boolean and fuzzy rules can be implemented in CLIPS. Design and implementation issues of FCLIPS will also be discussed.
Prusinski, Ben; Chung, Richard
Expert Oracle GoldenGate is a hands-on guide to creating and managing complex data replication environments using the latest in database replication technology from Oracle. GoldenGate is the future in replication technology from Oracle, and aims to be best-of-breed. GoldenGate supports homogeneous replication between Oracle databases. It supports heterogeneous replication involving other brands such as Microsoft SQL Server and IBM DB2 Universal Server. GoldenGate is high-speed, bidirectional, highly-parallelized, and makes only a light impact on the performance of databases involved in replica
This paper discusses the results of an indepth interview survey of experts, both social and natural scientists, about estimates of the economic impact of potential greenhouse warming. The range of estimate impacts was enormous as was the difference between disciplines, particularly mainstream economists and natural scientists. The nineteen survey participants and their affiliations are listed. The general areas discussed in the paper include the following: survey development; estimation of subjective probabilities; description of different scenarios presented; discussion of pertinent answers and general trends in answers including influence of point of view; magnitude of problem; ecosystems; secondary effects; ability to adapt; regional distribution of impacts; nonmarket effects; limits to understanding. 7 figs
Shamsudeen, Riyaj; Yu, Kai; Farooq, Tariq
Expert Oracle RAC 12c is a hands-on book helping you understand and implement Oracle Real Application Clusters (RAC), and to reduce the total-cost-of-ownership (TCO) of a RAC database. As a seasoned professional, you are probably aware of the importance of understanding the technical details behind the RAC stack. This book provides deep understanding of RAC concepts and implementation details that you can apply toward your day-to-day operational practices. You'll be guided in troubleshooting and avoiding trouble in your installation. Successful RAC operation hinges upon a fast-performing netwo
Chernysheva, Tatiana Yurievna; Korchuganova, Mariya Anatolievna; Borisov, V. V.; Minkov, S. L.
Revealing experts' competences is a multi-objective issue. Authors of the paper deal with competence assessing methods of experts seen as objects, and criteria of qualities. An analytic hierarchy process of assessing and ranking experts is offered, which is based on paired comparison matrices and scores, quality parameters are taken into account as well. Calculation and assessment of experts is given as an example.
Chhipa, V.K.; Sengupta, M.
Artificial intelligence is an emerging technology in the field of computer application. Expert systems have been developed to imitate human intelligence and reasoning process. Expert systems have much scope of application in the decision making process in mineral exploration as such decisions are highly subjective and expert opinions are very helpful. This paper presents a small expert system to analyze the reasoning process in exploring for uranium deposits in sandstone
To illustrate where the fundamental difference between expert systems in classical diagnosis and in industrial control lie, the work of process control instrumentation is used as an example for the job of expert systems. Starting from the general process of problem-solving, two classes of expert systems can be defined accordingly. (orig.) [de
Robert E. Martin
Predicting the effects of fires in the year 2000 and beyond will be enhanced by the use of expert systems. Although our predictions may have broad confidence limits, expert systems should help us to improve the predictions and to focus on the areas where improved knowledge is most needed. The knowledge of experts can be incorporated into previously existing knowledge...
Canal-Bruland, Rouwen; Mooren, Merel; Savelsbergh, Geert J. P.
In this study, we examined how perceptual-motor expertise and watching experience contribute to anticipating the outcome of opponents' attacking actions in beach volleyball. To this end, we invited 8 expert beach volleyball players, 8 expert coaches, 8 expert referees, and 8 control participants with no beach volleyball experience to watch videos…
Brooks, H. M.
Explores what an intelligent information retrieval system involves and why expert system techniques might interest system designers. Expert systems research is reviewed with emphasis on components, architecture, and computer interaction, and it is concluded that information retrieval is not an ideal problem domain for expert system application at…
Full Text Available Expert systems are built with the help of: specialised programming languages or expert system generators (shell. But this structure was reached after tens of years of work and research, because expert systems are nothing but pragmatic capitalisation of the results of research carried out in artificial intelligence and theory of knowledge.
R. Legerstee (Rianne); Ph.H.B.F. Franses (Philip Hans)
textabstractWe analyze the behavior of experts who quote forecasts for monthly SKU-level sales data where we compare data before and after the moment that experts received different kinds of feedback on their behavior. We have data for 21 experts located in as many countries who make
R. Legerstee (Rianne); Ph.H.B.F. Franses (Philip Hans)
textabstractWe analyze the behavior of experts who quote forecasts for monthly SKU-level sales data where we compare data before and after the moment that experts received different kinds of feedback on their behavior. We have data for 21 experts located in as many countries who make SKU-level
Nida, Andrew M; Googe, Benjamin J; Lewis, Andrea F; May, Warren L
Resident fatigue has become a point of emphasis in medical education and its effects on otolaryngology residents and their patients require further study. The purpose of our study was to evaluate the prevalence and nature of fatigue in otolaryngology residents, evaluate various quality of life measures, and investigate associations of increased fatigue with resident safety. Anonymous survey. Internet based. United States allopathic otolaryngology residents. None. The survey topics included demographics, residency structure, sleep habits and perceived stress. Responses were correlated with a concurrent Epworth Sleep Scale questionnaire to evaluate effects of fatigue on resident training and quality of life. 190 residents responded to the survey with 178 completing the Epworth Sleep Scale questionnaire. Results revealed a mean Epworth Sleep Scale score of 9.9±5.1 with a median of 10.0 indicating a significant number of otolaryngology residents are excessively sleepy. Statistically significant correlations between Epworth Sleep Scale and sex, region, hours of sleep, and work hours were found. Residents taking in-house call had significantly fewer hours of sleep compared to home call (p=0.01). Residents on "head and neck" (typically consisting of a large proportion of head and neck oncologic surgery) rotations tended to have higher Epworth Sleep Scale and had significantly fewer hours of sleep (p=.003) and greater work hours (potolaryngology residents are excessively sleepy. Our data suggest that the effects of fatigue play a role in resident well-being and resident safety. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Wong, Roger Y; Roberts, J Mark
To manage the voluminous formal curriculum content in a limited amount of structured teaching time, we describe the development and evaluation of a curriculum map for academic half days (AHD) in a core internal medicine residency program. We created a 3-year cyclical curriculum map (an educational tool combining the content, methodology and timetabling of structured teaching), comprising a matrix of topics under various specialties/themes and corresponding AHD hours. All topics were cross-matched against the ACP-ASIM in-training examination, and all hours were colour coded based on the categories of core competencies. Residents regularly updated the map on a real time basis. There were 208 topics covered in 283 AHD hours. All topics represented core competencies with minimal duplication (78% covered once in 3 years). Only 42 hours (15%) involved non-didactic teaching, which increased after implementation of the map (18-19 hours/year versus baseline 5 hours/year). Most AHD hours (78%) focused on medical expert competencies. Resident satisfaction (90% response) was high throughout (range 3.64 +/- 0.21, 3.84 +/- 0.14 out of 4), which improved after 1 year but returned to baseline after 2 years. We developed and implemented an internal medicine curriculum map based on real time resident input, with minimal topic duplication and high resident satisfaction. The map provided an opportunity to balance didactic versus non-didactic teaching, and teaching on medical versus non medical expert topics.
Suen, Ching Y
This book is part of a new series on operational expert systems worldwide. Expert systems are now widely used in different parts of the world for various applications. The past four years have witnessed a steady growth in the development and deployment of expert systems in Canada. Research in this field has also gained considerable momentum during the past few years. However, the field of expert systems is still young in Canada. This book contains 13 chapters contributed by 31 experts from both universities and industries across Canada covering a wide range of applications related to electric
MacAllister, D.J.; Day, R.; McCormack, M.D.
This paper gives an overview of a major integrated oil company's experience with artificial intelligence (AI) over the last 5 years, with an emphasis on expert systems. The authors chronicle the development of an AI group, including details on development tool selection, project selection strategies, potential pitfalls, and descriptions of several completed expert systems. Small expert systems produced by teams of petroleum technology experts and experienced expert system developers that are focused in well-defined technical areas have produced substantial benefits and accelerated petroleum technology transfer
Gfeller, Kate; Jiang, Dingfeng; Oleson, Jacob J; Driscoll, Virginia; Olszewski, Carol; Knutson, John F; Turner, Christopher; Gantz, Bruce
Cochlear implants (CI) are effective in transmitting salient features of speech, especially in quiet, but current CI technology is not well suited in transmission of key musical structures (e.g., melody, timbre). It is possible, however, that sung lyrics, which are commonly heard in real-world music may provide acoustical cues that support better music perception. The purpose of this study was to examine how accurately adults who use CIs (n = 87) and those with normal hearing (NH) (n = 17) are able to recognize real-world music excerpts based upon musical and linguistic (lyrics) cues. CI recipients were significantly less accurate than NH listeners on recognition of real-world music with or, in particular, without lyrics; however, CI recipients whose devices transmitted acoustic plus electric stimulation were more accurate than CI recipients reliant upon electric stimulation alone (particularly items without linguistic cues). Recognition by CI recipients improved as a function of linguistic cues. Participants were tested on melody recognition of complex melodies (pop, country, & classical styles). Results were analyzed as a function of: hearing status and history, device type (electric only or acoustic plus electric stimulation), musical style, linguistic and musical cues, speech perception scores, cognitive processing, music background, age, and in relation to self-report on listening acuity and enjoyment. Age at time of testing was negatively correlated with recognition performance. These results have practical implications regarding successful participation of CI users in music-based activities that include recognition and accurate perception of real-world songs (e.g., reminiscence, lyric analysis, & listening for enjoyment).
Gfeller, Kate; Jiang, Dingfeng; Oleson, Jacob; Driscoll, Virginia; Olszewski, Carol; Knutson, John F.; Turner, Christopher; Gantz, Bruce
Background Cochlear implants (CI) are effective in transmitting salient features of speech, especially in quiet, but current CI technology is not well suited in transmission of key musical structures (e.g., melody, timbre). It is possible, however, that sung lyrics, which are commonly heard in real-world music may provide acoustical cues that support better music perception. Objective The purpose of this study was to examine how accurately adults who use CIs (n=87) and those with normal hearing (NH) (n=17) are able to recognize real-world music excerpts based upon musical and linguistic (lyrics) cues. Results CI recipients were significantly less accurate than NH listeners on recognition of real-world music with or, in particular, without lyrics; however, CI recipients whose devices transmitted acoustic plus electric stimulation were more accurate than CI recipients reliant upon electric stimulation alone (particularly items without linguistic cues). Recognition by CI recipients improved as a function of linguistic cues. Methods Participants were tested on melody recognition of complex melodies (pop, country, classical styles). Results were analyzed as a function of: hearing status and history, device type (electric only or acoustic plus electric stimulation), musical style, linguistic and musical cues, speech perception scores, cognitive processing, music background, age, and in relation to self-report on listening acuity and enjoyment. Age at time of testing was negatively correlated with recognition performance. Conclusions These results have practical implications regarding successful participation of CI users in music-based activities that include recognition and accurate perception of real-world songs (e.g., reminiscence, lyric analysis, listening for enjoyment). PMID:22803258
Blash, Anthony; Saltsman, Connie L; Steil, Condit
Upon completion of their post-graduate training, pharmacy informatics residents need to be prepared to interact with clinical and technology experts in the new healthcare environment. This study describes pharmacy informatics residency programs within the United States. Preliminary information for all pharmacy informatics residency programs was accessed from program webpages. An email was sent out to programs asking them to respond to a six-item questionnaire. This questionnaire was designed to elicit information on attributes of the program, behaviors of the preceptors and residents, and attitudes of the residency directors. Of 22 pharmacy informatics residencies identified, nineteen (86%) participated. Twenty (91%) were second post-graduate year (PGY2) residencies. Ten (45%) were accredited by the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists (ASHP), while eight (36%) were candidates for accreditation. Hospital (17/22, 77%) and administrative offices (3/22, 14%) were the predominant training sites for pharmacy informatics residents. Large institutions were the predominant training environment for the pharmacy informatics resident, with 19 of 22 (86%) institutions reporting a licensed bed count of 500 or more. The median (range) number of informatics preceptors at a site was six to eight. Regarding barriers to pharmacy informatics residency education, residency directors reported that residents did not feel prepared based on the limited availability of curricular offerings. In the United States, relatively few residencies are explicitly focused on pharmacy informatics. Most of these are accredited and hospital affiliated, especially with large institutions (>500 beds). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Cohen, Elaine R.; Caprio, Timothy; McGaghie, William C.; Simuni, Tanya; Wayne, Diane B.
Objective: To evaluate the effect of simulation-based mastery learning (SBML) on internal medicine residents' lumbar puncture (LP) skills, assess neurology residents' acquired LP skills from traditional clinical education, and compare the results of SBML to traditional clinical education. Methods: This study was a pretest-posttest design with a comparison group. Fifty-eight postgraduate year (PGY) 1 internal medicine residents received an SBML intervention in LP. Residents completed a baseline skill assessment (pretest) using a 21-item LP checklist. After a 3-hour session featuring deliberate practice and feedback, residents completed a posttest and were expected to meet or exceed a minimum passing score (MPS) set by an expert panel. Simulator-trained residents' pretest and posttest scores were compared to assess the impact of the intervention. Thirty-six PGY2, 3, and 4 neurology residents from 3 medical centers completed the same simulated LP assessment without SBML. SBML posttest scores were compared to neurology residents' baseline scores. Results: PGY1 internal medicine residents improved from a mean of 46.3% to 95.7% after SBML (p < 0.001) and all met the MPS at final posttest. The performance of traditionally trained neurology residents was significantly lower than simulator-trained residents (mean 65.4%, p < 0.001) and only 6% met the MPS. Conclusions: Residents who completed SBML showed significant improvement in LP procedural skills. Few neurology residents were competent to perform a simulated LP despite clinical experience with the procedure. PMID:22675080
Hofmann, Katja; Balog, Krisztian; Bogers, Toine
Expertise-seeking research studies how people search for expertise and choose whom to contact in the context of a specific task. An important outcome are models that identify factors that influence expert finding. Expertise retrieval addresses the same problem, expert finding, but from a system......-centered perspective. The main focus has been on developing content-based algorithms similar to document search. These algorithms identify matching experts primarily on the basis of the textual content of documents with which experts are associated. Other factors, such as the ones identified by expertise......-seeking models, are rarely taken into account. In this article, we extend content-based expert-finding approaches with contextual factors that have been found to influence human expert finding. We focus on a task of science communicators in a knowledge-intensive environment, the task of finding similar experts...
Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi verificar respostas emocionais a trechos musicais do repertório erudito ocidental. Músicos e não músicos ouviam cada trecho musical e associavam-no a categorias emocionais (Alegria, Tristeza, Serenidade ou Medo/Raiva. Os resultados indicaram que, para ambos os grupos, cada trecho musical, na maioria, não foi associado a mais de uma categoria emocional. De um modo geral, as associações foram semelhantes entre os grupos, embora as respostas dos músicos tenham sido mais consistentes. Estes resultados sugerem um processamento cognitivo de respostas emocionais à música ocidental relacionado à estrutura cognitiva do evento, a diferenças entre indivíduos e à expertise musical.The aim of this study was to evaluate emotional responses to musical excerpts from Western repertoire. Musicians and nonmusicians listened to each musical excerpt and linked it to emotional categories (Joy, Sadness, Serenity or Fear / Anger. The results indicated that each musical excerpt, in majority, was not associated to more than one emotional category, for both groups. In general, associations were similar between groups, although the responses of musicians have been more consistent. These results suggest a cognitive processing of emotional responses to music related to the cognitive structure of the event, to individual differences and to musical expertise.
Full Text Available Some remarks on the problem of knowledge representation and processing, as recognized in connection with the use of computers in the scientific research work, emphasizes the relevance of these problems for the studies on both the theory of languages and the expert system. A consideration of the common traits in the recent history of these studies, with reference to the use of computers on texts in natural language motivates the introduction of set theoretic and algebraic methods, suitable for applications in the analysis and in the automatic treatment of languages, based on the concept of model sets and on relational structures suggested from the connections between syntax and semantics evidenced in some example of sub-languages corresponding to theories of different classes of physical phenomena. Some details of these methods are evidenced, which have already successfully used or whose applications appears suggestive of interesting development.
Fedele, P.; Grandoni, G.; Mammarella, M.C.
The great debate concerning the Italian high-school reform has induced a ferment of activity among the most interested and sensible of people. This was clearly demonstrated by the course 'Innovazione metodologico-didattica e tecnologie informatiche' organized for the staff of the 'lstituto Professionale L. Einaudi' of Lamezia Terme. The course was an interesting opportunity for discussions and interaction between the world of School and computer technology used in the Research field. This three day course included theoretical and practical lessons, showing computer facilities that could be useful for teaching. During the practical lessons some computer tools were presented from the very simple Electronic Sheets to the more complicated information Retrieval on CD-ROM interactive realizations. The main topics will be discussed later. They are: Modelling, Data Base, Integrated Information Systems, Expert Systems, Information Retrieval. (author)
Viborg Andersen, Kim; Debenham, John; Wagner, Roland
submissions. The papers are organized in topical sections on workflow automation, database queries, data classification and recommendation systems, information retrieval in multimedia databases, Web applications, implementational aspects of databases, multimedia databases, XML processing, security, XML......This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the 16th International Conference on Database and Expert Systems Applications, DEXA 2005, held in Copenhagen, Denmark, in August 2005.The 92 revised full papers presented together with 2 invited papers were carefully reviewed and selected from 390...... schemata, query evaluation, semantic processing, information retrieval, temporal and spatial databases, querying XML, organisational aspects of databases, natural language processing, ontologies, Web data extraction, semantic Web, data stream management, data extraction, distributed database systems...
Bent, John P; Fried, Marvin P; Smith, Richard V; Hsueh, Wayne; Choi, Karen
Although residency training offers numerous leadership opportunities, most residents are not exposed to scripted leadership instruction. To explore one program's attitudes about leadership training, a group of otolaryngology faculty (n = 14) and residents (n = 17) was polled about their attitudes. In terms of self-perception, more faculty (10 of 14, 71.4%) than residents (9 of 17, 52.9%; P = .461) considered themselves good leaders. The majority of faculty and residents (27 of 31) thought that adults could be taught leadership ability. Given attitudes about leadership ability and the potential for improvement through instruction, consideration should be given to including such training in otolaryngology residency.
Prince-Embury, S; Rooney, J F
Psychological adaptation is examined in a sample of residents who remained in the vicinity of Three Mile Island following the restart of the nuclear generating facility which had been shut down since the 1979 accident. Findings indicate a lowering of psychological symptoms between 1985 and 1989 in spite of increased lack of control, less faith in experts and increased fear of developing cancer. The suggestion is made that reduced stress might have been related to a process of adaptation whereby a cognition of emergency preparedness was integrated by some of these residents as a modulating cognitive element. Findings also indicate that "loss of faith in experts" is a persistently salient cognition consistent with the "shattered assumptions" theory of victimization.
Watkins, Amy; Wagner, Jennifer; Martin, Christina; Grant, Brandy; Maule, Katrina; Resh, Kimberly; King, Lisa; Eaton, Holly; Fetter, Katrina; King, Stacey L; Thompson, Elizabeth J
To ensure succession planning within the ranks of nurse managers meet current and projected nursing management needs and organizational goals, we developed and implemented a nurse manager residency program at our hospital. By identifying, supporting, and mentoring clinical experts who express a desire and display an aptitude for nursing leadership, we are graduating individuals who can transition to a nurse manager position with greater ease and competence.
Department of Homeland Security — A lawful permanent resident (LPR) or 'green card' recipient is defined by immigration law as a person who has been granted lawful permanent residence in the United...
Ojczyk, C.; Huelman, P.; Carmody, J.
In the Expert Meeting Plan, the NorthernSTAR Team proposed to host two Expert Meetings in calendar year 2011. Invitees to the meetings would include experts in the current field of study, other BA team members, and representatives from DOE and NREL. They will invite leading industry experts to present at these meetings. The Expert Meetings will focus on key systems areas that will be required to meet the Building America performance goals and shall be sufficiently narrow in scope that specific conclusions, action items, and delegation of future tasks can be identified and completed. The two expert meeting topics are 'Foundations' and 'Window Retrofit.' The first session is designed as a webinar only and the second will be a live meeting.
Becker, G.K.; Determan, J.C.
Nondestructive assay waste characterization data generated for use in the National TRU Program must be of known and demonstrable quality. Each measurement is required to receive an independent technical review by a qualified expert. An expert system prototype has been developed to automate waste NDA data review of a passive/active neutron drum counter system. The expert system is designed to yield a confidence rating regarding measurement validity. Expert system rules are derived from data in a process involving data clustering, fuzzy logic, and genetic algorithms. Expert system performance is assessed against confidence assignments elicited from waste NDA domain experts. Performance levels varied for the active, passive shielded, and passive system assay modes of the drum counter system, ranging from 78% to 94% correct classifications
Becker, G.K.; Determan, J.C.
Nondestructive assay waste characterization data generated for use in the National TRU Program must be of known and demonstrable quality. Each measurement is required to receive an independent technical review by a qualified expert. An expert system prototype has been developed to automate waste NDA data review of a passive/active neutron drum counter system. The expert system is designed to yield a confidence rating regarding measurement validity. Expert system rules are derived from data in a process involving data clustering, fuzzy logic, and genetic algorithms. Expert system performance is assessed against confidence assignments elicited from waste NDA domain experts. Performance levels varied for the active, passive shielded, and passive system assay modes of the drum counter system, ranging from 78% to 94% correct classifications.
This article reviews the utility of expert opinion in legal proceedings and the deployment of expert witnesses in adversarial litigation. The use of expert witnesses to assist courts in making just and fair conclusions may be contrasted with the partisan interests of those who call them. An adversarial system is a bad method of scientific enquiry and undermines the court's capacity to reach the 'right' answer. As a consequence, courts may reach the wrong conclusion based on bad science. The role of the expert as a witness places strain on an expert to provide certainty, where in fact there may be none. Recent reforms in the civil courts have changed little and the problem is even more acute in criminal trials. The expert can rely solely on the integrity of his or her own opinion, tempered with a little humility. However, when filtered through the rhetoric and advocacy of a court arena, even this may be compromised.
Correia, Aldina; e Silva, Eliana Costa; Lopes, I. Cristina; Braga, Alexandra; Braga, Vitor
The Global Entrepreneurship Monitor is a large scale database for internationally comparative entrepreneurship. This database includes information of more than 100 countries concerning several aspects of entrepreneurship activities, perceptions, conditions, national and regional policy, among others, in two main sources of primary data: the Adult Population Survey and the National Expert Survey. In the present work the National Expert Survey datasets for 2011, 2012 and 2013 are analyzed with the purpose of studying the effects of different type of entrepreneurship expert specialization on the perceptions about the Entrepreneurial Framework Conditions (EFCs). The results of the multivariate analysis of variance for the 2013 data show significant differences of the entrepreneurship experts when compared the 2011 and 2012 surveys. For the 2013 data entrepreneur experts are less favorable then most of the other experts to the EFCs.
Chernysheva, T. Y.; Korchuganova, M. A.; Borisov, V. V.; Min'kov, S. L.
Revealing experts’ competences is a multi-objective issue. Authors of the paper deal with competence assessing methods of experts seen as objects, and criteria of qualities. An analytic hierarchy process of assessing and ranking experts is offered, which is based on paired comparison matrices and scores, quality parameters are taken into account as well. Calculation and assessment of experts is given as an example.
A general description of expert systems is given. The operation of a fast reactor is reviewed. The expert system to the diagnosis of breakdowns limited to the reactor core. The structure of the system is described: specification of the diagnostics; structure of the data bank and evaluation of the rules; specification of the prediagnostics and evaluation; explanation of the diagnostics; time evolution of the system; comparison with other expert systems. Applications to some cases of faults are finally presented [fr
Dinuca Elena Claudia
Full Text Available In this article I focus on developing an expert system for advising the choice of wine that best matches a specific occasion. An expert system is a computer application that performs a task that would be performed by a human expert. The implementation is done using Delphi programming language. I used to represent the knowledge bases a set of rules. The rules are of type IF THEN ELSE rules, decision rules based on different important wine features.
Hernández-Martín, A; Torrelo-Fernández, A; de Lucas-Laguna, R; Casco, F; González-Sarmiento, R; Vega, A; Pedreira-Massa, J L; de Unamuno-Pérez, P; Larcher, F; Arroyo, I; Traupe, H
On June 22, 2012 the First Symposium of Ichthyosis Experts in Spain was held at the Hospital Niño de Jesús in Madrid. It was a one-day symposium for dermatologists, pediatricians, and physicians-in-training interested in this disease, as well as for other health care professionals involved in the care of patients with ichthyosis. The aim of the meeting was to try to structure the care of ichthyosis patients in Spain. As happens in other rare diseases, because of the low prevalence of ichthyosis and the absence of designated referral centers, the number of patients treated in each center is very low and few dermatologists have any real clinical experience with this condition or know how to order diagnostic genetic tests. This article summarizes the presentations given at the symposium and is intended as a reference for anyone interested in the subject. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier España, S.L. and AEDV. All rights reserved.
Padmini, S.; Diwakar, M.P.; Rathode, N.C.; Bairi, B.R.
An Expert System Development (ESD) Shell design implementation is desribed in detail. The shell provides high-level generic facilities for Knowledge Representation (KR) and inferencing and tools for developing user interfaces. Powerful set of tools in the shell relieves much of the programming burden in the ES development. The shell is written in PROLOG under IBM PC/AT. KR facilities are based on two very powerful formalisms namely, frames and rules. Inference Engine (IE) draws most of its power from unification and backward reasoning strategy in PROLOG. This basic mechanism is enhanced further by incorporating both forward and backward chaining of rules and frame-based inferencing. Overall programming style integrates multiple paradigms including logic, object oriented, access-oriented and imperative programming. This permits ES designer a lot of flexibility in organizing inference control. Creation and maintainance of knowledge base is a major activity. The shell, therefore, provides number of facilities to simplify these tasks. Shell design also takes note of the fact that final success of any system depends on end-user satisfaction and hence provides features to build use-friendly interfaces. The shell also provides a set of interfacing predicates so that it can be embedded within any PROLOG program to incorporate functionalilty of the shell in the user program. (author). 10 refs., 8 figs
Kirk, Bernadette Lugue [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Cain, Ronald A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Dewji, Shaheen A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Agreda, Carla L. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)
This report describes a methodology for identifying, evaluating, and mitigating the loss of key technical skills at nuclear operations facilities. The methodology can be adapted for application within regulatory authorities and research and development organizations, and can be directly applied by international engagement partners of the Department of Energy’s National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA). The resultant product will be of direct benefit to two types of NNSA missions: (1) domestic human capital development programs tasked to provide focused technical expertise to succeed an aging nuclear operations workforce, and (2) international safeguards programs charged with maintaining operational safeguards for developing/existing nuclear power program in nations where minimal available resources must be used effectively. This report considers succession planning and the critical skills necessary to meet an institution’s goals and mission. Closely tied to succession planning are knowledge management and mentorship. In considering succession planning, critical skill sets are identified and are greatly dependent on the subject matter expert in question. This report also provides examples of critical skills that are job specific.
Kirk, Bernadette Lugue; Cain, Ronald A.; Dewji, Shaheen A.; Agreda, Carla L.
This report describes a methodology for identifying, evaluating, and mitigating the loss of key technical skills at nuclear operations facilities. The methodology can be adapted for application within regulatory authorities and research and development organizations, and can be directly applied by international engagement partners of the Department of Energy’s National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA). The resultant product will be of direct benefit to two types of NNSA missions: (1) domestic human capital development programs tasked to provide focused technical expertise to succeed an aging nuclear operations workforce, and (2) international safeguards programs charged with maintaining operational safeguards for developing/existing nuclear power program in nations where minimal available resources must be used effectively. This report considers succession planning and the critical skills necessary to meet an institution’s goals and mission. Closely tied to succession planning are knowledge management and mentorship. In considering succession planning, critical skill sets are identified and are greatly dependent on the subject matter expert in question. This report also provides examples of critical skills that are job specific.
Butts, Sydney C; Truong, Alan; Forde, Christina; Stefanov, Dimitre G; Marrinan, Eileen
To assess the ability of otolaryngology residents to rate the hypernasal resonance of patients with velopharyngeal dysfunction. We hypothesize that experience (postgraduate year [PGY] level) and training will result in improved ratings of speech samples. Prospective cohort study. Otolaryngology training programs at 2 academic medical centers. Thirty otolaryngology residents (PGY 1-5) were enrolled in the study. All residents rated 30 speech samples at 2 separate times. Half the residents completed a training module between the rating exercises, with the other half serving as a control group. Percentage agreement with the expert rating of each speech sample and intrarater reliability were calculated for each resident. Analysis of covariance was used to model accuracy at session 2. The median percentage agreement at session 1 was 53.3% for all residents. At the second session, the median scores were 53.3% for the control group and 60% for the training group, but this difference was not statistically significant. Intrarater reliability was moderate for both groups. Residents were more accurate in their ratings of normal and severely hypernasal speech. There was no correlation between rating accuracy and PGY level. Score at session 1 positively correlated with score at session 2. Perceptual training of otolaryngology residents has the potential to improve their ratings of hypernasal speech. Length of time in residency may not be best predictor of perceptual skill. Training modalities incorporating practice with hypernasal speech samples could improve rater skills and should be studied more extensively. © American Academy of Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery Foundation 2016.
Horowitz, Richard E; Naritoku, Wesley; Wagar, Elizabeth A
Success in the practice of pathology demands proficiency in management, but management training for pathology residents is generally inadequate, with little agreement on an appropriate curriculum or competency assessment. Most residency training programs do not have faculty members who are interested and have expertise in management and who are dedicated to and have time available for teaching. To develop a didactic management training program for the residents from 6 separate pathology residency programs in Southern California, with a comprehensive curriculum taught by experts in each area without undue burden on any single training program. Faculty from the University of California-Los Angeles and the University of Southern California reviewed the literature and the management needs of practicing pathologists and devised the curriculum. Pathologist and nonpathologist speakers were identified who were working in important management positions both regionally and nationally. Seminars were presented in alternate months during a 2-year period. Sessions were videotaped, and each session was evaluated by the attendees. The curriculum consisted of 12 major topics, and seminars were delivered by 15 presenters from 6 institutions. Attendance was highest for residents in postgraduate years 2 and 3. The overall evaluation scores were exceedingly high (4.66 of a possible 5.0), and residents reported a significant increase in subject knowledge. Videotaping of presentations provided flexibility for residents who were unable to attend the seminars. This program was effective and could serve as a template for other pathology residency training programs to establish curriculum content and develop resident competency. Teaching responsibilities were less burdensome when spread among several programs and when supplemented by nonpathology faculty. Electronic and audiovisual support enhanced flexibility and access to the program.
Chiang, S.C.; Morimoto, C.N.; Torres, M.R.
At General Electric (GE), an on-line expert system to support maintenance decisions for BWR recirculation pumps for nuclear power plants has been developed. This diagnostic expert system is an interactive on-line system that furnishes diagnostic information concerning BWR recirculation pump operational problems. It effectively provides the recirculation pump diagnostic expertise in the plant control room continuously 24 hours a day. The expert system is interfaced to an on-line monitoring system, which uses existing plant sensors to acquire non-safety related data in real time. The expert system correlates and evaluates process data and vibration data by applying expert rules to determine the condition of a BWR recirculation pump system by applying knowledge based rules. Any diagnosis will be automatically displayed, indicating which pump may have a problem, the category of the problem, and the degree of concern expressed by the validity index and color hierarchy. The rules incorporate the expert knowledge from various technical sources such as plant experience, engineering principles, and published reports. These rules are installed in IF-THEN formats and the resulting truth values are also expressed in fuzzy terms and a certainty factor called a validity index. This GE Recirculation Pump Expert System uses industry-standard software, hardware, and network access to provide flexible interfaces with other possible data acquisition systems. Gensym G2 Real-Time Expert System is used for the expert shell and provides the graphical user interface, knowledge base, and inference engine capabilities. (author)
Ferrada, J.J.; Abraham, T.J.; Jackson, J.R.
An expert system has been developed as part of a new initiative for the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) systems analysis program. This expert system will aid in prioritizing radioactive waste streams for treatment and disposal by evaluating the severity and treatability of the problem, as well as the final waste form. The objectives of the expert system development included: (1) collecting information on process treatment technologies for liquid low-level waste (LLLW) that can be incorporated in the knowledge base of the expert system, and (2) producing a prototype that suggests processes and disposal technologies for the ORNL LLLW system. 4 refs., 9 figs
Bohn, S.J.; Pennock, K.A.; Franklin, A.L.
The United States Department of Energy (DOE) is facing a large task in completing Remedial Investigations and Feasibility Studies (RI/FS) for hazardous waste sites across the nation. One of the primary objectives of an RI/FS is the specification of viable sequences of technology treatment trains which can provide implementable site solutions. We present a methodology which integrates expert system technology within an object-oriented framework to create a cooperative reasoning system designed to provide a comprehensive list of these implementable solutions. The system accomplishes its goal of specifying technology trains by utilizing a team'' of expert system objects. The system distributes the problem solving among the individual expert objects, and then coordinates the combination of individual decisions into a joint solution. Each expert object possesses the knowledge of an expert in a particular technology. An expert object can examine the parameters and characteristics of the waste site, seek information and support from other expert objects, and then make decisions concerning its own applicability. This methodology has at least two primary benefits. First, the creation of multiple expert objects provides a more direct mapping from the actual process to a software system, making the system easier to build. Second, the distribution of the inferencing among a number of loosely connected expert objects allows for a more robust and maintainable final product.
Bohn, S.J.; Pennock, K.A.; Franklin, A.L.
The United States Department of Energy (DOE) is facing a large task in completing Remedial Investigations and Feasibility Studies (RI/FS) for hazardous waste sites across the nation. One of the primary objectives of an RI/FS is the specification of viable sequences of technology treatment trains which can provide implementable site solutions. We present a methodology which integrates expert system technology within an object-oriented framework to create a cooperative reasoning system designed to provide a comprehensive list of these implementable solutions. The system accomplishes its goal of specifying technology trains by utilizing a ``team`` of expert system objects. The system distributes the problem solving among the individual expert objects, and then coordinates the combination of individual decisions into a joint solution. Each expert object possesses the knowledge of an expert in a particular technology. An expert object can examine the parameters and characteristics of the waste site, seek information and support from other expert objects, and then make decisions concerning its own applicability. This methodology has at least two primary benefits. First, the creation of multiple expert objects provides a more direct mapping from the actual process to a software system, making the system easier to build. Second, the distribution of the inferencing among a number of loosely connected expert objects allows for a more robust and maintainable final product.
Zarri, Gian Piero
Operational Expert System Applications in Europe describes the representative case studies of the operational expert systems (ESs) that are used in Europe.This compilation provides examples of operational ES that are realized in 10 different European countries, including countries not usually examined in the standard reviews of the field.This book discusses the decision support system using several artificial intelligence tools; expert systems for fault diagnosis on computerized numerical control (CNC) machines; and expert consultation system for personal portfolio management. The failure prob
Bohn, S.J.; Pennock, K.A.; Franklin, A.L.
The United States Department of Energy (DOE) is facing a large task in completing Remedial Investigations and Feasibility Studies (RI/FS) for hazardous waste sites across the nation. One of the primary objectives of an RI/FS is the specification of viable sequences of technology treatment trains which can provide implementable site solutions. We present a methodology which integrates expert system technology within an object-oriented framework to create a cooperative reasoning system designed to provide a comprehensive list of these implementable solutions. The system accomplishes its goal of specifying technology trains by utilizing a ''team'' of expert system objects. The system distributes the problem solving among the individual expert objects, and then coordinates the combination of individual decisions into a joint solution. Each expert object possesses the knowledge of an expert in a particular technology. An expert object can examine the parameters and characteristics of the waste site, seek information and support from other expert objects, and then make decisions concerning its own applicability. This methodology has at least two primary benefits. First, the creation of multiple expert objects provides a more direct mapping from the actual process to a software system, making the system easier to build. Second, the distribution of the inferencing among a number of loosely connected expert objects allows for a more robust and maintainable final product
Jones, R.D.; Barrett, C.L.; Hand, U.; Gordon, R.C.
The authors smoothed and captured a set of expert rules with adaptive networks. The motivation for doing this is discussed. (1) Smoothing leads to stabler control actions. (2) For some sets of rules, the evaluation of the rules can be sped up. This is important in large-scale simulations where many intelligent elements are present. (3) Variability of the intelligent elements can be achieved by adjusting the weights in an adaptive network. (4) After capture has occurred, the weights can be adjusted based on performance criteria. The authors thus have the capability of learning a new set of rules that lead to better performance. The set of rules the authors chose to capture were based on a set of threat determining rules for tank commanders. The approach in this paper: (1) They smoothed the rules. The rule set was converted into a simple set of arithmetic statements. Continuous, non-binary inputs, are now permitted. (2) An operational measure of capturability was developed. (3) They chose four candidate networks for the rule set capture: (a) multi-linear network, (b) adaptive partial least squares, (c) connectionist normalized local spline (CNLS) network, and (d) CNLS net with a PLS preprocessor. These networks were able to capture the rule set to within a few percent. For the simple tank rule set, the multi-linear network performed the best. When the rules were modified to include more nonlinear behavior, CNLS net performed better than the other three nets which made linear assumptions. (4) The networks were tested for robustness to input noise. Noise levels of plus or minus 10% had no real effect on the network performance. Noise levels in the plus or minus 30% range degraded performance by a factor of two. Some performance enhancement occurred when the networks were trained with noisy data. (5) The scaling of the evaluation time was calculated. (6) Human variation can be mimicked in all the networks by perturbing the weights.
... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Medical and Vocational Expert System. 405.10... Vocational Expert System. (a) General. The Medical and Vocational Expert System is comprised of the Medical... Vocational Expert System. (3) Experts who provide evidence at your request. Experts whom you ask to provide...
Orwig, Gary; Barron, Ann
Provides an overview of expert systems for teacher librarians. Highlights include artificial intelligence and expert systems; the development of the MYCIN medical expert system; rule-based expert systems; the use of expert system shells to develop a specific system; and how to select an appropriate application for an expert system. (11 references)…
van den Heuvel, Meta; Martimianakis, Maria Athina Tina; Levy, Rebecca; Atkinson, Adelle; Ford-Jones, Elizabeth; Shouldice, Michelle
Social pediatrics teaches pediatric residents how to understand disease within their patients' social, environmental and political contexts. It's an essential component of pediatric residency training; however there is very little literature that addresses how such a broad-ranging topic can be taught effectively. The aim of this study was to determine and characterize social pediatric education in our pediatric residency training in order to identify strengths and gaps. A social pediatrics curriculum map was developed, attending to 3 different dimensions: (1) the intended curriculum as prescribed by the Objectives of Training for Pediatrics of the Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Canada (RCPSC), (2) the formal curriculum defined by rotation-specific learning objectives, and (3) the informal/hidden curriculum as reflected in resident and teacher experiences and perceptions. Forty-one social pediatric learning objectives were extracted from the RCPSC Objectives of Training for Pediatrics, most were listed in the Medical Expert (51%) and Health Advocate competencies (24%). Almost all RCPSC social pediatric learning objectives were identified in more than one rotation and/or seminar. Adolescent Medicine (29.2%), Pediatric Ambulatory Medicine (26.2%) and Developmental Pediatrics (25%) listed the highest proportion of social pediatric learning objectives. Four (10%) RCPSC social pediatric objectives were not explicitly named within learning objectives of the formal curriculum. The informal curriculum revealed that both teachers and residents viewed social pediatrics as integral to all clinical encounters. Perceived barriers to teaching and learning of social pediatrics included time constraints, particularly in a tertiary care environment, and the value of social pediatrics relative to medical expert knowledge. Despite the lack of an explicit thematic presentation of social pediatric learning objectives by the Royal College and residency training program
Franklin, J.E.; Carmody, C.L.; Buteau, B.L.; Keller, K.; Levitt, T.S.
This paper is concerned with the applications of expert systems to complex military problems. A brief description of needs for expert systems in the military arena is given. A short tutorial on some of the elements of an expert system is found in Appendix I. An important aspect of expert systems concerns using uncertain information and ill-defined procedures. Many of the general techniques of dealing with uncertainty are described in Appendix II. These techniques include Bayesian certainty factors, Dempster-Shafer theory of uncertainty, and Zadeh's fuzzy set theory. The major portion of the paper addresses specific expert system examples such as resource allocation, identification of radar images, maintenance and troubleshooting of electronic equipment, and the interpretation and understanding of radar images. Extensions of expert systems to incorporate learning are examined in the context of military intelligence to determine the disposition, location, and intention of the adversary. The final application involves the use of distributed communicating cooperating expert systems for battle management. Finally, the future of expert systems and their evolving capabilities are discussed
Cooke, Roger M.; Goossens, Louis L.H.J.
We review the applications of structured expert judgment uncertainty quantification using the 'classical model' developed at the Delft University of Technology over the last 17 years [Cooke RM. Experts in uncertainty. Oxford: Oxford University Press; 1991; Expert judgment study on atmospheric dispersion and deposition. Report Faculty of Technical Mathematics and Informatics No.01-81, Delft University of Technology; 1991]. These involve 45 expert panels, performed under contract with problem owners who reviewed and approved the results. With a few exceptions, all these applications involved the use of seed variables; that is, variables from the experts' area of expertise for which the true values are available post hoc. Seed variables are used to (1) measure expert performance, (2) enable performance-based weighted combination of experts' distributions, and (3) evaluate and hopefully validate the resulting combination or 'decision maker'. This article reviews the classical model for structured expert judgment and the performance measures, reviews applications, comparing performance-based decision makers with 'equal weight' decision makers, and collects some lessons learned
Managers use prescribed fire to accomplish a variety of resource objectives. The knowledge needed to design successful prescriptions is both quantitative and qualitative. Some of it is available through publications and computer programs, but much of the knowledge of expert practitioners has never been collected or published. An expert system being developed at the,...
The formation and dispersion of tropospheric ozone are discussed only marginally in this expert opinion; the key interest is in the effects of ground level ozone on plants, animals, and humans. The expert opinion is based on an analysis of the available scientific publications. (orig./MG) [de
Walters, Jerry L.; Quinn, Todd M.
Autonomous Power Expert (APEX) computer program is prototype expert-system program detecting faults in electrical-power-distribution system. Assists human operators in diagnosing faults and deciding what adjustments or repairs needed for immediate recovery from faults or for maintenance to correct initially nonthreatening conditions that could develop into faults. Written in Lisp.
In our courtrooms you can meet, up to this day, experts of dubious qualities if not mere shams and deceivers. They are found in all sciences, but also in pseudo-sciences as paramedicine and parapsychology. In any case such expert pretenders must be exposed by the judge to prevent dangerous miscarriage of justice. Examples are given how to unmask the fraudulent rascals.
An Artificial Intelligence-Expert System called APES (Analysis of Proliferation by Expert System) has been developed and tested to permit a non proliferation expert to evaluate the capability and capacity of a specified LWR reactor and PUREX reprocessing system for producing and separating plutonium even when system information may be limited and uncertain. APES employs an expert system coded in LISP and based upon an HP-RL (Hewlett Packard-Representational Language) Expert System Shell. The user I/O interface communicates with a blackboard and the knowledge base which contains the quantitative models required to describe the reactor, selected fission product production and radioactive decay processes, Purex reprocessing and ancillary knowledge
The book is a comprehensive narration of the use of expertise in international criminal trials offering reflection on standards concerning the quality and presentation of expert evidence. It analyzes and critiques the rules governing expert evidence in international criminal trials...... and the strategies employed by counsel and courts relying upon expert evidence and challenges that courts face determining its reliability. In particular, the author considers how the procedural and evidentiary architecture of international criminal courts and tribunals influences the courts' ability to meaningfully...... incorporate expert evidence into the rational fact-finding process. The book provides analysis of the unique properties of expert evidence as compared with other forms of evidence and the challenges that these properties present for fact-finding in international criminal trials. It draws conclusions about...
Martinez i Coma, F.; van Ham, C.T.
Expert surveys have been used to measure a wide variety of phenomena in political science, ranging from party positions, to corruption, to the quality of democracy and elections. However, expert judgments raise important validity concerns, both about the object being measured as well as the experts.
Stefanidis, Dimitrios; Acker, Christina E; Greene, Frederick L
To assess the impact of setting simulator training goals on resident motivation and skills laboratory attendance. Residents followed a proficiency-based laparoscopic curriculum on the 5 Fundamentals of Laparoscopic Surgery and 9 virtual reality tasks. Training goals consisted of the average expert performance on each task + 2 SD (mandatory) and best expert performance (optional). Residents rated the impact of the training goals on their motivation on a 20-point visual analog scale. Performance and attendance data were analyzed and correlated (Spearman's). Data are reported as medians (range). General Surgery residency program at a regional referral Academic Medical Center. General surgery residents (n = 15). During the first 5 months of the curriculum, weekly attendance rate was 51% (range, 8-96). After 153 (range, 21-412) repetitions, resident speed improved by 97% (range, 18-230), errors improved by 17% (range, 0-24), and motion efficiency by 59% (range, 26-114) compared with their baseline. Nine (60%) residents achieved proficiency in 7 (range, 3-14) and the best goals in 3.5 (range, 1-9) tasks; the other 6 residents had attendance rates performance goals on their motivation as 15 (range, 1-18) and setting a best goal as 13 (range, 1-18). Motivation ratings correlated positively with attendance rates, number of repetitions, performance improvement, and achievement of proficiency and best goals (r = 0.59-0.75; p attendance. Copyright 2010 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Young, Timothy P; Bailey, Caleb J; Guptill, Mindi; Thorp, Andrea W; Thomas, Tamara L
A "flipped classroom" educational model exchanges the traditional format of a classroom lecture and homework problem set. We piloted two flipped classroom sessions in our emergency medicine (EM) residency didactic schedule. We aimed to learn about resident and faculty impressions of the sessions, in order to develop them as a regular component of our residency curriculum. We evaluated residents' impression of the asynchronous video component and synchronous classroom component using four Likert items. We used open-ended questions to inquire about resident and faculty impressions of the advantages and disadvantages of the format. For the Likert items evaluating the video lectures, 33/35 residents (94%, 95% CI 80%-99%) responded that the video lecture added to their knowledge about the topic, and 33/35 residents felt that watching the video was a valuable use of their time. For items evaluating the flipped classroom format, 36/38 residents (95%, 95% CI 82%-99%) preferred the format to a traditional lecture on the topic, and 38/38 residents (100%, 95% CI 89%-100%) felt that the small group session was effective in helping them learn about the topic. Most residents preferred to see the format monthly in our curriculum and chose an ideal group size of 5.5 (first session) and 7 (second session). Residents cited the interactivity of the sessions and access to experts as advantages of the format. Faculty felt the ability to assess residents' understanding of concepts and provide feedback were advantages. Our flipped classroom model was positively received by EM residents. Residents preferred a small group size and favored frequent use of the format in our curriculum. The flipped classroom represents one modality that programs may use to incorporate a mixture of asynchronous and interactive synchronous learning and provide additional opportunities to evaluate residents.
Rosqvist, T.; Tuominen, R.
Expert judgement is a valuable source of information in risk management. Especially, risk-based decision making relies significantly on quantitative risk assessment, which requires numerical data describing the initiator event frequencies and conditional probabilities in the risk model. This data is seldom found in databases and has to be elicited from qualified experts. In this report, we discuss some modelling approaches to expert judgement in risk modelling. A classical and a Bayesian expert model is presented and applied to real case expert judgement data. The cornerstone in the models is the log-normal distribution, which is argued to be a satisfactory choice for modelling degree-of-belief type probability distributions with respect to the unknown parameters in a risk model. Expert judgements are qualified according to bias, dispersion, and dependency, which are treated differently in the classical and Bayesian approaches. The differences are pointed out and related to the application task. Differences in the results obtained from the different approaches, as applied to real case expert judgement data, are discussed. Also, the role of a degree-of-belief type probability in risk decision making is discussed
Anderson, Rebecca D.; McLennan, Donald; Thomson, Laura; Wegeberg, Susse; Pettersvik Arvnes, Maria; Sergienko, Liudmila; Behe, Carolina; Moss-Davies, Pitseolak; Fritz, Stacey; Christensen, Thomas K.; Price, Courtney
The Coastal Expert Workshop, which took place in Ottawa, Canada from March 1 to 3, 2016, initiated the development of the Arctic Coastal Biodiversity Monitoring Plan (Coastal Plan). Meeting participants, including northern residents, representatives from industry, non-governmental organisations (NGOs), academia, and government regulators and agencies from across the circumpolar Arctic, discussed current biodiversity monitoring efforts, key issues facing biodiversity in Arctic coastal areas, and collectively identified monitoring indicators, or Focal Ecosystem Components (FECs). On February 29, the day before the workshop, a full day was allocated to Traditional Knowledge (TK) holders to meet and elucidate how this important knowledge can be included in the process of building the Coastal Plan and monitoring biodiversity in Arctic coastal areas, along with scientific data and variables. This document provides 1) background information about the Circumpolar Biodiversity Monitoring Programme and the Coastal Expert Monitoring Group, 2) overviews on workshop presentations and breakout sessions, and 3) details regarding outcomes of the workshop that will inform the drafting of the Coastal Plan.
Mayans, David; Schneider, Logan; Adams, Nellie; Khawaja, Ayaz M.; Engstrom, John
Objective: To survey US-trained graduating neurology residents who are American Academy of Neurology members, in an effort to trend perceived quality and completeness of graduate neurology education. Methods: An electronic survey was sent to all American Academy of Neurology members graduating from US neurology residency programs in the Spring of 2014. Results: Of 805 eligible respondents, 24% completed the survey. Ninety-three percent of adult neurology residents and 56% of child neurology residents reported plans to pursue fellowship training after residency. Respondents reported a desire for additional training in neurocritical care, neuro-oncology, neuromuscular diseases, botulinum toxin injection, and nerve blocks. There remains a clear deficit in business training of neurology residents, although there was notable improvement in knowledge of coding and office management compared to previous surveys. Discussion: Although there are still areas of perceived weakness in neurology training, graduating neurology residents feel generally well prepared for their chosen careers. However, most still pursue fellowship training for reasons that are little understood. In addition to certain subspecialties and procedures, practice management remains deficient in neurology training and is a point of future insecurity for most residents. Future curriculum changes should consider resident-reported gaps in knowledge, with careful consideration of improving business training. PMID:26976522
Wendt, Sabrina Lyngbye; Welinder, Peter; Sørensen, Helge Bjarup Dissing
with higher reliability than the estimation of spindle duration. Reliability of sleep spindle scoring can be improved by using qualitative confidence scores, rather than a dichotomous yes/no scoring system. Conclusions We estimate that 2–3 experts are needed to build a spindle scoring dataset......Objectives To measure the inter-expert and intra-expert agreement in sleep spindle scoring, and to quantify how many experts are needed to build a reliable dataset of sleep spindle scorings. Methods The EEG dataset was comprised of 400 randomly selected 115 s segments of stage 2 sleep from 110...... sleeping subjects in the general population (57 ± 8, range: 42–72 years). To assess expert agreement, a total of 24 Registered Polysomnographic Technologists (RPSGTs) scored spindles in a subset of the EEG dataset at a single electrode location (C3-M2). Intra-expert and inter-expert agreements were...
Skyllingstad, E.D.; Ramsdell, J.V.
A prototype expert system designed to diagnose dispersion model uncertainty is described in this paper with application to a puff transport model. The system obtains qualitative information from the model user and through an expert-derived knowledge base, performs a rating of the current simulation. These results can then be used in combination with dispersion model output for deciding appropriate evacuation measures. Ultimately, the goal of this work is to develop an expert system that may be operated accurately by an individual uneducated in meteorology or dispersion modeling. 5 refs., 3 figs
Decroix, Marjolein; Wazir, Mohd Rozilee Wazir Norjali; Zeuwts, Linus; Deconinck, Frederik F J A; Lenoir, Matthieu; Vansteenkiste, Pieter
The aim of this study was to investigate visual behaviour of expert and non-expert ski athletes during an alpine slalom. Fourteen non-experts and five expert slalom skiers completed an alpine slalom course in an indoor ski slope while wearing a head-mounted eye tracking device. Experts completed the slalom clearly faster than non-experts, but no significant difference was found in timing and position of the turn initiation. Although both groups already looked at future obstacles approximately 0,5s before passing the upcoming pole, the higher speed of experts implied that they shifted gaze spatially earlier in the bend than non-experts. Furthermore, experts focussed more on the second next pole while non-expert slalom skiers looked more to the snow surface immediately in front of their body. No difference was found in the fixation frequency, average fixation duration, and quiet eye duration between both groups. These results suggest that experts focus on the timing of their actions while non-experts still need to pay attention to the execution of these actions. These results also might suggest that ski trainers should instruct non-experts and experts to focus on the next pole and, shift their gaze to the second next pole shortly before reaching it. Based on the current study it seems unadvisable to instruct slalom skiers to look several poles ahead during the actual slalom. However, future research should test if these results still hold on a real outdoor slope, including multiple vertical gates. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Wojnarwsky, Pandora Keala Lee; Wang, Yan; Shah, Kumar; Koka, Sreenivas
The decision by prosthodontic residency program directors to employ the Match process highlights the need to understand applicant priorities that influence their choice of which programs to rank highly. The purpose of this study is to determine the factors that were most important to residents when choosing from among nonmilitary based prosthodontics dental residency programs in the United States. Following completion of a pilot study, all currently enrolled prosthodontic residents at nonmilitary residency programs were invited to participate via the internet. The study consisted of a survey instrument asking residents to rank 26 possible factors that might impact an applicant's choice of residency program. In addition, the instrument collected other possible influencing variables including gender and debt load. Mean rank scores were compared to determine the most and least important factors. Kruskal-Wallis test was used to compare specific factors between the possible influencing variables. Two hundred and thirty residents completed the survey instrument, representing a 54.1% response rate of possible participants. With regard to factors influencing program choice, reputation of the residency program was the factor ranked the highest by participants, followed in descending order by the program director's personality, curriculum content, access to use of the latest digital technology, and opportunities for dental implant placement. Quality of schools for children, community outreach opportunities, and the ability to moonlight were ranked as the least important factors. Male and female residents ranked factors such as tuition/stipend, curriculum content, and community outreach opportunities significantly differently. Depending on debt load, residents ranked the factors tuition/stipend, ability to moonlight, curriculum content, and safety of the area where the program is differently. Current prosthodontic residents valued the reputation of the program as the most
Luz, Jennifer; Siddiqui, Imran; Jain, Nitin B.; Kohler, Minna J.; Donovan, Jayne; Gerrard, Paul; Borg-Stein, Joanne
Musculoskeletal ultrasound (MSUS) training is now a required component of physiatry residency, but formal curriculum guidelines are not yet required or established. The authors’ objective was to assess the educational value of a collaborative residency MSUS training program. The authors designed a structured MSUS training curriculum for residents based on the authors’ experience and previous literature. Twenty-five residents participated in this MSUS curriculum designed by faculty and chief residents. Resident volunteers were trained by the faculty as “table trainers” who taught their peers in small groups. Handson MSUS training sessions were led by a Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation faculty MSUS expert. A Likert scale–formatted questionnaire assessed resident-perceived value of the curriculum. Response rate was 96% (22 of 23). Self-reported MSUS knowledge comparing precurriculum and postcurriculum implementation resulted in significant improvement (P = 0.001). Peer teaching was highly valued, with 86% of residents rating it “very” or “extremely” beneficial (mean [SD] score, 3.9 [1.1]). Self-guided learning, by supplemental scanning and reading, was rated “beneficial” or “very beneficial” by 73% of residents (3.0 [0.7]). The authors’ successful pilot program may serve as a teaching model for other residency programs. PMID:26098924
Rosenblum, N D; Nagler, J; Lovejoy, F H; Hafler, J P
To determine the pedagogic characteristics of a clinical conference for senior pediatric residents and selected faculty. Nineteen senior pediatric residents and 14 selected faculty members participated in a daily clinical conference at Children's Hospital, Boston, Mass. Qualitative research design using videotapes of nine consecutive hour-long sessions to generate pedagogic topics to be investigated using a questionnaire administered to participating residents and faculty. Narrative responses were analyzed to find pedagogic themes. Analysis of videotapes generated the following three topics: What facilitated learning? What was learned? What makes the process of teaching and learning effective? In the questionnaire residents indicated that learning was facilitated by resident-faculty interactions (19/19), faculty participation (19/19), and information resources (12/19). Content learned included information (16/19), approach to diagnosis (11/19), management strategies (14/19), and different perspective (14/19). An effective process of teaching and learning was attributed to case-based resident initiated discussion (19/19), facilitation by the chief resident (16/19), and non-competitive discussions in which expert faculty played a nondominant role (19/19). Faculty identified identical factors relating to all three themes. The mean rating of the conference was 4.5/5 (SD, +/- 0.50) and 4.7/5 (SD, +/- 0.45) by residents and faculty, respectively (Likert scale, 1 to 5). The pedagogic effectiveness of this conference was attributed to a resident-centered, case-based learning format and a discussion process characterized by noncompetitive interactions among faculty and residents, strong group facilitation by the chief resident, and participation of faculty experts in a nondominant role.
Santos, Elizabeth G; Salles, Gil F
Phenomenon: Recent studies have shown that up to 40% of the General Surgery (GS) residents are not confident with their surgical skills. There is concern that residents are at risk of receiving inadequate training due to the low number of operations they perform. In Brazil, although all GS residents receive by law the Board Certification at the end of their programs, the assessment of their technical skills is not mandatory in Medical Residency programs' training. Consequently, our concern was that current GS medical residency format might be insufficient to create competent and autonomous general surgery residents after 2 years of regular training. Hence, the aim was to assess GS residents' surgical skills in their final months of training to evaluate the present format of GS residency programs in Brazil. Trained surgical faculty members directly observed 11 operations of varying difficulty performed by 2nd-year regular GS residents and by 4th-year residents in the optional Advanced Program in General Surgery. Participants were located at 3 university and 3 nonuniversity hospitals in Rio de Janeiro and Sao Paulo (Brazil's largest cities). Surgical skills were assessed using an internally developed observation checklist reviewed by subject matter experts. Sixty residents (46 regular 2nd-year trainees and 14 advanced 4th-year trainees) were assessed on performing 499 operations. Only 10 residents (17%), all advanced 4th-year residents, satisfactorily performed all operations and were considered eligible for the Board Certification. Even after excluding the 2 operations of greatest difficulty, only 24 regular 2nd-year residents (52%) satisfactorily performed the other 9 operations. Residents from hospitals with open Emergency Departments performed better than those from hospitals without Emergency Departments. Insights: The results of this pilot study suggest that residents with 2 years of training are not prepared for independent high-level surgical practice. The
Wagner, Richard F; Raimer, Sharon S; Kelly, Brent C
Programmatic changes for the dermatology residency program at The University of Texas Medical Branch were first introduced in 2005, with the faculty goal incorporating formal dermatology research projects into the 3-year postgraduate training period. This curriculum initially developed as a recommendation for voluntary scholarly project activity by residents, but it evolved into a program requirement for all residents in 2009. Departmental support for this activity includes assignment of a faculty mentor with similar interest about the research topic, financial support from the department for needed supplies, materials, and statistical consultation with the Office of Biostatistics for study design and data analysis, a 2-week elective that provides protected time from clinical activities for the purpose of preparing research for publication and submission to a peer-reviewed medical journal, and a departmental award in recognition for the best resident scholarly project each year. Since the inception of this program, five classes have graduated a total of 16 residents. Ten residents submitted their research studies for peer review and published their scholarly projects in seven dermatology journals through the current academic year. These articles included three prospective investigations, three surveys, one article related to dermatology education, one retrospective chart review, one case series, and one article about dermatopathology. An additional article from a 2012 graduate about dermatology education has also been submitted to a journal. This new program for residents was adapted from our historically successful Dermatology Honors Research Program for medical students at The University of Texas Medical Branch. Our experience with this academic initiative to promote dermatology research by residents is outlined. It is recommended that additional residency programs should consider adopting similar research programs to enrich resident education. PMID:23901305
Roberts J Mark
Full Text Available Abstract Background To manage the voluminous formal curriculum content in a limited amount of structured teaching time, we describe the development and evaluation of a curriculum map for academic half days (AHD in a core internal medicine residency program. Methods We created a 3-year cyclical curriculum map (an educational tool combining the content, methodology and timetabling of structured teaching, comprising a matrix of topics under various specialties/themes and corresponding AHD hours. All topics were cross-matched against the ACP-ASIM in-training examination, and all hours were colour coded based on the categories of core competencies. Residents regularly updated the map on a real time basis. Results There were 208 topics covered in 283 AHD hours. All topics represented core competencies with minimal duplication (78% covered once in 3 years. Only 42 hours (15% involved non-didactic teaching, which increased after implementation of the map (18–19 hours/year versus baseline 5 hours/year. Most AHD hours (78% focused on medical expert competencies. Resident satisfaction (90% response was high throughout (range 3.64 ± 0.21, 3.84 ± 0.14 out of 4, which improved after 1 year but returned to baseline after 2 years. Conclusion We developed and implemented an internal medicine curriculum map based on real time resident input, with minimal topic duplication and high resident satisfaction. The map provided an opportunity to balance didactic versus non-didactic teaching, and teaching on medical versus non medical expert topics.
... (military, sporting or business teams). This suggests that expert teams may be utilising shared mental models of both the roles of their teammates and how they should be working together in a group situation...
This research was performed to enhance the software tool (Illinois Construction Scheduling Expert : System, ICSES) developed in Phase I of this project (ICT project R27-86) by mining data collected on : IDOT construction projects and differentiating ...
Bessenyei, Z.; Tomcsanyi, T.; Toth, Z.; Laczay, I.
In 1990, an expert system for turbo-generator diagnostics (EST-D) was installed at the 3rd and 4th units of the Paks NPP (Hungary). The expert system is strongly integrated to the ARGUS II vibration monitoring and diagnostics system. The system works on IBM PC AT. The VEIKI's and the NPP's human experts were interviewed to fill up the knowledgebase. The system is able to identify 13 different faults of the parts of a turbogenerator. The knowledgebase consists of ca 200 rules. The rules were built in and the system was verified and validated using a model of the turbines and using the experiences gathered with ARGUS II during the last 3 years. The maintenance personnel is authorized to modify and/or extend the knowledgebase. The input data for evaluation come from measured vibration patterns produced by the ARGUS II system, database of events, and maintenance data input by the maintenance personnel. The expert system is based on the modified GENESYS 2.1 shell (developed by SZAMALK, Hungary). Some limitations from PC application were eliminated, and a new, independent explanation module and man-machine interface were developed. Using this man-machine interface, one of the basic goals of the expert system developments was achieved: the human experts contribution is not necessary for diagnoses. The operator of the diagnostics system is able to produce the reports of diagnoses. Of course the interface allows the human experts to see the diagnoses through. It should be mentioned, at the beginning of 1991, we installed a similar expert system at the 1st 1000 MW WWER type unit of the Kalinin NPP (Soviet Union). In this paper, the operation of the EST-D, the man-machine interface and the operational experiences of the first 4 months work are explained. 2 refs., 14 figs
This report describes Jess, a clone of the popular CLIPS expert system shell written entirely in Java. Jess supports the development of rule-based expert systems which can be tightly coupled to code written in the powerful, portable Java language. The syntax of the Jess language is discussed, and a comprehensive list of supported functions is presented. A guide to extending Jess by writing Java code is also included.
Prins, J.T.; Hoekstra-Weebers, J.E.; Van De Wiel, H.B.; Gazendam-Donofrio, S.M.; Sprangers, F.; Jaspers, F.C.; van der Heijden, F.M.
We examined levels of burnout and relationships between burnout, gender, age, years in training, and medical specialty in 158 medical residents working at the University Medical Center Groningen, the Netherlands. Thirteen percent of the residents met the criteria for burnout, with the highest
'To sleep: perchance to dream', is the frequent mantra of the surgical resident. However, unlike. Hamlet, there is no ensuing speculation as to what dreams may come as there are seldom any!! Surgical residency has been both vilified and immortalized, but the fact remains that it is one of the most challenging, provocative ...
M.C. Traub (Myriam); J.R. van Ossenbruggen (Jacco); J. He (Jiyin); L. Hardman (Lynda); M. de Rijke (Maarten); T Kentner; A.P. de Vries (Arjen); F.M.G. de Jong (Franciska); C. Zhai (ChengXiang ); K. Hofmann (Katja); K. Radinsky
htmlabstractTasks that require users to have expert knowledge are diffi- cult to crowdsource. They are mostly too complex to be carried out by non-experts and the available experts in the crowd are difficult to target. Adapting an expert task into a non-expert user task, thereby enabling the
Morris, Gavin; O'Connor, Donna
Experiential knowledge of elite National Rugby League (NRL) referees was investigated to determine the key attributes contributing to expert officiating performance. Fourteen current first-grade NRL referees were asked to identify the key attributes they believed contributed to their expert refereeing performance. The modified Delphi method involved a 3-round process of an initial semi-structured interview followed by 2 questionnaires to reach consensus of opinion. The data revealed 25 attributes that were rated as most important that underpin expert NRL refereeing performance. Results illustrate the significance of the cognitive category, with the top 6 ranked attributes all cognitive skills. Of these, the referees ranked decision-making accuracy as the most important attribute, followed by reading the game, communication, game understanding, game management and knowledge of the rules. Player rapport, positioning and teamwork were the top ranked game skill attributes underpinning performance excellence. Expert referees also highlighted a number of psychological attributes (e.g., concentration, composure and mental toughness) that were significant to performance. There were only 2 physiological attributes (fitness, aerobic endurance) that were identified as significant to elite officiating performance. In summary, expert consensus was attained which successfully provided a hierarchy of the most significant attributes of expert NRL refereeing performance.
Louis, Michelle Y; Hussain, Lala R; Dhanraj, David N; Khan, Bilal S; Jung, Steven R; Quiles, Wendy R; Stephens, Lorraine A; Broering, Mark J; Schrand, Kevin V; Klarquist, Lori J
sustainability include (1) developing patient safety faculty and resident experts in each training program to teach patient safety and to be role models, (2) working toward decreasing the barriers to reporting, and (3) providing timely feedback and system changes.
Kansagra, Akash P
The revised ABR board certification process has updated the method by which diagnostic radiology residents are evaluated for competency in clinical radiologic physics. In this work, the author reports the successful design and implementation of a resident-taught physics course consisting of 5 weekly, hour-long lectures intended for incoming first-year radiology residents in their first month of training. To the author's knowledge, this is the first description of a course designed to provide a very early framework for ongoing physics education throughout residency without increasing the didactic burden on faculty members. Twenty-six first-year residents spanning 2 academic years took the course and reported subjective improvement in their knowledge (90%) and interest (75%) in imaging physics and a high level of satisfaction with the use of senior residents as physics educators. Based on the success of this course and the minimal resources required for implementation, this work may serve as a blueprint for other radiology residency programs seeking to develop revised physics curricula. Copyright © 2014 American College of Radiology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Brandman, David M; Haji, Faizal A; Matte, Marie C; Clarke, David B
Residents must develop a diverse range of skills in order to practice neurosurgery safely and effectively. The purpose of this study was to identify the foundational skills required for neurosurgical trainees as they transition from medical school to residency. Based on the CanMEDS competency framework, a web-based survey was distributed to all Canadian academic neurosurgical centers, targeting incoming and current PGY-1 neurosurgical residents as well as program directors. Using Likert scale and free-text responses, respondents rated the importance of various cognitive (e.g. management of raised intracranial pressure), technical (e.g. performing a lumbar puncture) and behavioral skills (e.g. obtaining informed consent) required for a PGY-1 neurosurgical resident. Of 52 individuals contacted, 38 responses were received. Of these, 10 were from program directors (71%), 11 from current PGY-1 residents (58%) and 17 from incoming PGY-1 residents (89%). Respondents emphasized operative skills such as proper sterile technique and patient positioning; clinical skills such as lesion localization and interpreting neuro-imaging; management skills for common scenarios such as raised intracranial pressure and status epilepticus; and technical skills such as lumbar puncture and external ventricular drain placement. Free text answers were concordant with the Likert scale results. We surveyed Canadian neurosurgical program directors and PGY-1 residents to identify areas perceived as foundational to neurosurgical residency education and training. This information is valuable for evaluating the appropriateness of a training program's goals and objectives, as well as for generating a national educational curriculum for incoming PGY-1 residents.
Hukki, Kristiina; Pulkkinen, Urho
Faced with problems of public acceptance most nuclear waste management organisations now acknowledge the importance of transparency in their pursuit of solutions for high-level nuclear waste disposal. To make progress the implementing organizations need the trust of other stakeholders in the decision-making process. For such trust these outside stakeholders need knowledge on the grounds for the judgments and decisions made in different scientific and technical disciplines. Transparency is, however, at least as important for the multidisciplinary expert communication itself. As a matter of fact, the transparency of the internal expert interaction processes is a prerequisite for the true transparency of the communication between the implementer and the external stakeholder groups. The introduced conceptual framework has been developed for the identification of the requirements of safety-informed communication in multidisciplinary expert work in nuclear waste management. The framework offers a common thinking model and common concepts which can be utilized in the development of the communication practices. The basis of the framework is on the possibility to understand the safety-critical significance of one's work. The transparency of communication is, for its part, based on making explicit the relevant knowledge necessary for gaining the understanding. This supplementary knowledge, which is related to the substance issues but is not scientific-technical by nature, enhances the experts' awareness of the context of their own contribution and of the background of the other experts' contributions. The common conceptualization and modelling of the knowledge-related dependencies between the tasks make it possible to realize the significance of the supplementary knowledge for transparent communication in actual situations. They also facilitate the recognition of the need for different types of supplementary knowledge in the interfaces between the tasks. By enhancing mutual
Full Text Available Utilization of expert effort estimation approach shows promising results when it is applied to software development process. It is based on judgment and decision making process and due to comparative advantages extensively used especially in situations when classic models cannot be accounted for. This becomes even more accentuated in today’s highly dynamical project environment. Confronted with these facts companies are placing ever greater focus on their employees, specifically on their competences. Competences are defined as knowledge, skills and abilities required to perform job assignments. During effort estimation process different underlying expert competences influence the outcome i.e. judgments they express. Special problem here is the elicitation, from an input collection, of those competences that are responsible for accurate estimates. Based on these findings different measures can be taken to enhance estimation process. The approach used in study presented in this paper was targeted at elicitation of expert estimator competences responsible for production of accurate estimates. Based on individual competences scores resulting from performed modeling experts were ranked using weighted scoring method and their performance evaluated. Results confirm that experts with higher scores in competences identified by applied models in general exhibit higher accuracy during estimation process. For the purpose of modeling data mining methods were used, specifically the multilayer perceptron neural network and the classification and regression decision tree algorithms. Among other, applied methods are suitable for the purpose of elicitation as in a sense they mimic the ways human brains operate. Data used in the study was collected from real projects in the company specialized for development of IT solutions in telecom domain. The proposed model, applied methodology for elicitation of expert competences and obtained results give evidence that in
One dominant aspect of improvement in safe nuclear power plant operation is the very high speed in the development and introduction of computer technologies. This development commenced recently when advanced control technology was incorporated into the nuclear industry. This led to an increasing implementation of information displays, annunciator windows and other devices inside the control room, eventually overburdening the control room operator with detailed information. Expert systems are a further step in this direction being designed to apply large knowledge bases to solve practical problems. These ''intelligent'' systems have to incorporate enough knowledge to reach expert levels of importance and represent a very advanced man-machine interface. The aims of the Technical Committee were addressed by the three Working Groups and summarized in Sections 2, 3 and 4 of this report. Section 2 summarizes the results and discussions on the current capabilities of expert systems and identifies features for the future development and use of Expert Systems in Nuclear Power Plants. Section 3 provides an overview of the discussions and investigations into the current status of Expert Systems in NPPs. This section develops a method for assessing the overall benefit of different applications and recommends a broad strategy for priority developments of Expert Systems in NPPs. Section 4 assesses the overall use of PSA type studies in Expert Systems in NPPs and identifies specific features to be adopted in the design of these systems in future applications. The conclusions of the three Working Groups are presented in Section 5. The 15 papers presented at the meeting formed the Annex of this document. A separate abstract was prepared for each of these papers. Refs, figs, tabs and pictures
Full Text Available Eisha M Gaffas,1 Reginald P Sequeira,2 Riyadh A Al Namla,1 Khalid S Al-Harbi31Al-Amal Complex for Mental Health, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia; 2College of Medicine and Medical Sciences, Arabian Gulf University, Manama, Bahrain; 3King Saud Bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, King Abdulaziz Medical City, Kingdom of Saudi ArabiaBackground: The postgraduate training program in psychiatry in Saudi Arabia, which was established in 1997, is a 4-year residency program. Written exams comprising of multiple choice questions (MCQs are used as a summative assessment of residents in order to determine their eligibility for promotion from one year to the next. Test blueprints are not used in preparing examinations.Objective: To develop test blueprints for the written examinations used in the psychiatry residency program.Methods: Based on the guidelines of four professional bodies, documentary analysis was used to develop global and detailed test blueprints for each year of the residency program. An expert panel participated during piloting and final modification of the test blueprints. Their opinion about the content, weightage for each content domain, and proportion of test items to be sampled in each cognitive category as defined by modified Bloom's taxonomy were elicited.Results: Eight global and detailed test blueprints, two for each year of the psychiatry residency program, were developed. The global test blueprints were reviewed by experts and piloted. Six experts participated in the final modification of test blueprints. Based on expert consensus, the content, total weightage for each content domain, and proportion of test items to be included in each cognitive category were determined for each global test blueprint. Experts also suggested progressively decreasing the weightage for recall test items and increasing problem solving test items in examinations, from year 1 to year 4 of the psychiatry residence program.Conclusion: A systematic
Shore, Eliane M; Lefebvre, Guylaine G; Husslein, Heinrich
surgery, and asked 39 experts in gynecologic education to rate the items on a Likert scale (1-5) for inclusion in the curriculum. Consensus was predefined as Cronbach α of ≥0.80. We then conducted another Delphi survey with 9 experienced users of laparoscopic virtual reality simulators to delineate...... of the curriculum Delphi, and after 2 rounds (Cronbach α=0.80) in the virtual reality curriculum Delphi. Consensus was reached for cognitive, technical, and nontechnical skills as well as for 6 virtual reality tasks. Median time and economy of movement scores defined benchmarks for all tasks. CONCLUSIONS...... residents using Delphi consensus methodology. METHODS: This study began with Delphi methodology to determine expert consensus on the components of a gynecology laparoscopic skills curriculum. We generated a list of cognitive content, technical skills, and nontechnical skills for training in laparoscopic...
Timothy P. Young
Full Text Available Introduction: A “flipped classroom” educational model exchanges the traditional format of a classroom lecture and homework problem set. We piloted two flipped classroom sessions in our emergency medicine (EM residency didactic schedule. We aimed to learn about resident and faculty impressions of the sessions, in order to develop them as a regular component of our residency curriculum. Methods: We evaluated residents’ impression of the asynchronous video component and synchronous classroom component using four Likert items. We used open-ended questions to inquire about resident and faculty impressions of the advantages and disadvantages of the format. Results: For the Likert items evaluating the video lectures, 33/35 residents (94%, 95% CI 80%-99% responded that the video lecture added to their knowledge about the topic, and 33/35 residents felt that watching the video was a valuable use of their time. For items evaluating the flipped classroom format, 36/38 residents (95%, 95% CI 82%-99% preferred the format to a traditional lecture on the topic, and 38/38 residents (100%, 95% CI 89%-100% felt that the small group session was effective in helping them learn about the topic. Most residents preferred to see the format monthly in our curriculum and chose an ideal group size of 5.5 (first session and 7 (second session. Residents cited the interactivity of the sessions and access to experts as advantages of the format. Faculty felt the ability to assess residents’ understanding of concepts and provide feedback were advantages. Conclusion: Our flipped classroom model was positively received by EM residents. Residents preferred a small group size and favored frequent use of the format in our curriculum. The flipped classroom represents one modality that programs may use to incorporate a mixture of asynchronous and interactive synchronous learning and provide additional opportunities to evaluate residents. [West J Emerg Med. 2014;15(7:-0.
Green, Michael L.; Aagaard, Eva M.; Caverzagie, Kelly J.; Chick, Davoren A.; Holmboe, Eric; Kane, Gregory; Smith, Cynthia D.; Iobst, William
Background The Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) Outcome Project requires that residency program directors objectively document that their residents achieve competence in 6 general dimensions of practice. Intervention In November 2007, the American Board of Internal Medicine (ABIM) and the ACGME initiated the development of milestones for internal medicine residency training. ABIM and ACGME convened a 33-member milestones task force made up of program directors, experts in evaluation and quality, and representatives of internal medicine stakeholder organizations. This article reports on the development process and the resulting list of proposed milestones for each ACGME competency. Outcomes The task force adopted the Dreyfus model of skill acquisition as a framework the internal medicine milestones, and calibrated the milestones with the expectation that residents achieve, at a minimum, the “competency” level in the 5-step progression by the completion of residency. The task force also developed general recommendations for strategies to evaluate the milestones. Discussion The milestones resulting from this effort will promote competency-based resident education in internal medicine, and will allow program directors to track the progress of residents and inform decisions regarding promotion and readiness for independent practice. In addition, the milestones may guide curriculum development, suggest specific assessment strategies, provide benchmarks for resident self-directed assessment-seeking, and assist remediation by facilitating identification of specific deficits. Finally, by making explicit the profession's expectations for graduates and providing a degree of national standardization in evaluation, the milestones may improve public accountability for residency training. PMID:21975701
Hughes, Peter M. (Inventor); Luczak, Edward C. (Inventor)
A system and method provides for the creation of a highly graphical expert system without the need for programming in code. An expert system is created by initially building a data interface, defining appropriate Mission, User-Defined, Inferred, and externally-generated GenSAA (EGG) data variables whose data values will be updated and input into the expert system. Next, rules of the expert system are created by building appropriate conditions of the rules which must be satisfied and then by building appropriate actions of rules which are to be executed upon corresponding conditions being satisfied. Finally, an appropriate user interface is built which can be highly graphical in nature and which can include appropriate message display and/or modification of display characteristics of a graphical display object, to visually alert a user of the expert system of varying data values, upon conditions of a created rule being satisfied. The data interface building, rule building, and user interface building are done in an efficient manner and can be created without the need for programming in code.
So-called First Generation Expert Systems were aimed at capturing the expert's know-how. Though providing remarkable achievements, this first wave did not give the expected outcome. A new generation is getting out from the laboratories. Instead of remaining at a shallow level of knowledge - that is the unmotivated reasoning processes expressed by an expert when he is forced to tell them - one attempts to re-build this level of knowledge from the first principles which constitute the basis of an expert's knowledge. These systems are called deep knowledge-based, or second generation expert systems. Discussion in the three first parts rests on two examples: A first generation and a half system for process control in nuclear powers plants, than the system EXTRA for alarm processing in nuclear plants, wherein fonctional knowledge is explicitely represented. We show how deep knowledge can be implemented, and the advantages that can be expected from this methodology. Qualitative Physics is discussed in the next part. Future research developments as well as potential payoffs are mentioned [fr
Zhou, Yun; Wijewickrema, Sudanthi; Ioannou, Ioanna; Bailey, James; Kennedy, Gregor; Nestel, Debra; O'Leary, Stephen
We investigated the variation of drilled regions of expert and trainee surgeons performing virtual temporal bone surgery to identify their compliance with standard drilling procedures. To this end, we recruited seven expert and six trainee ENT surgeons, who were asked to perform the surgical preparations for cochlear implantation on a virtual temporal bone. The temporal bone was divided into six regions using a semi-automated approach. The drilled area in each region was compared between groups using a sign test. Similarity within groups was calculated as a ratio of voxels (3D points) drilled by at least 75% of surgeons and at least 25% of surgeons. We observed a significant difference between groups when performing critical tasks such as exposing the facial nerve, opening the facial recess, and finding the round window. In these regions, experts' practice is more similar to each other than that between trainees. Consistent with models of skills development, expertise and expert-performance, the outcome of the analysis shows that experts perform similarly in critical parts of the procedure, and do indeed practice what they profess.
Watson, Clarence; Weiss, Kenneth J; Pouncey, Claire
The confession of a criminal defendant serves as a prosecutor's most compelling piece of evidence during trial. Courts must preserve a defendant's constitutional right to a fair trial while upholding the judicial interests of presenting competent and reliable evidence to the jury. When a defendant seeks to challenge the validity of that confession through expert testimony, the prosecution often contests the admissibility of the expert's opinion. Depending on the content and methodology of the expert's opinion, testimony addressing the phenomenon of false confessions may or may not be admissible. This article outlines the scientific and epistemological bases of expert testimony on false confession, notes the obstacles facing its admissibility, and provides guidance to the expert in formulating opinions that will reach the judge or jury. We review the 2006 New Jersey Superior Court decision in State of New Jersey v. George King to illustrate what is involved in the admissibility of false-confession testimony and use the case as a starting point in developing a best-practice approach to working in this area.
Fattahi, Fariba; Geshani, Ahmad; Jafari, Zahra; Jalaie, Shohreh; Salman Mahini, Mona
Chess is a game that involves many aspects of high level cognition such as memory, attention, focus and problem solving. Long term practice of chess can improve cognition performances and behavioral skills. Auditory memory, as a kind of memory, can be influenced by strengthening processes following long term chess playing like other behavioral skills because of common processing pathways in the brain. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the auditory memory function of expert chess players using the Persian version of dichotic auditory-verbal memory test. The Persian version of dichotic auditory-verbal memory test was performed for 30 expert chess players aged 20-35 years and 30 non chess players who were matched by different conditions; the participants in both groups were randomly selected. The performance of the two groups was compared by independent samples t-test using SPSS version 21. The mean score of dichotic auditory-verbal memory test between the two groups, expert chess players and non-chess players, revealed a significant difference (p≤ 0.001). The difference between the ears scores for expert chess players (p= 0.023) and non-chess players (p= 0.013) was significant. Gender had no effect on the test results. Auditory memory function in expert chess players was significantly better compared to non-chess players. It seems that increased auditory memory function is related to strengthening cognitive performances due to playing chess for a long time.
Spruijt, Pita; Knol, Anne B; Petersen, Arthur C; Lebret, Erik
The overall evidence for adverse health effects of electromagnetic fields (EMF) at levels of exposure normally experienced by the public is generally considered weak. However, whether long-term health effects arise remains uncertain and scientific policy advice is therefore given against a background of uncertainty. Several theories exist about different roles that experts may take when they provide advice on complex issues such as EMF. To provide empirical evidence for these theories, we conducted an expert consultation with as main research question: What are the different roles of EMF experts when they provide policy advice? Q methodology was used to empirically test theoretical notions on the existence and determinants of different expert roles and to analyze which roles actually play out in the domain of EMF. Experts were selected based on a structured nominee process. In total 32 international EMF experts participated. Responses were analyzed using Principal Component Analysis and for the open questions we used Atlas.ti. Four expert roles were found. Most striking differences between the four roles are whether experts consider current EMF policies adequate or not, whether additional -precautionary- measures are needed, and how experts view their position vis-à-vis policymakers and/or other stakeholders. This empirical study provides support for the so far mainly theoretical debate about the existence of different roles of experts when they give policy advice. The experts' assessment of the degree of uncertainty of the issue turned out to be highly associated with their role. We argue that part of the controversy that exists in the debate regarding scientific policy advice on EMF is about different values and roles.
Ackerman, Robert A; Hands, Aaron J; Donnellan, M Brent; Hopwood, Christopher J; Witt, Edward A
There is debate over the definition of narcissism across social/personality and clinical psychology. The current article aims to quantify the level of disagreement by measuring experts' opinions concerning the attributes most central to narcissism. Accordingly, we developed a comprehensive list of attributes associated with narcissism and had 49 self-identified experts (among them 17 women, 23 psychologists from clinical psychology and 22 from social/personality psychology) rate these characteristics and provide their opinions on several issues related to the conceptualization of narcissism. Experts generally believe that the grandiose features of narcissism are more central than the vulnerable features. However, differences between clinical and social/personality psychologists were evident, especially regarding the relevance of self-esteem. Given the results, we suggest that researchers specify the kind of narcissism being assessed in a given study and consider using assessments of the full range of narcissistic features in future research to provide a more comprehensive perspective on the construct.
Erdmann, R.C.; Sun, B.K.H.
An expert system was developed with the intent to provide real-time information about an accident to an operator who is in the process of diagnosing and bringing that accident under control. Explicit use was made of probabilistic risk analysis techniques and plant accident response information in constructing this system. The expert system developed contains 70 logic rules and provides contextual messages during simulated accident sequences and logic sequence information on the entire sequence in graphical form for accident diagnosis. The present analysis focuses on integrated control system-related transients with Babcock and Wilcox-type reactors. While the system developed here is limited in extent and was built for a composite reactor, it demonstrates that an expert system may enhance the operator's capability in the control room
The advisory expert system MAESTRO (Modular Advisory Expert System for Test Rig Operator) has been designed to guide the operator of large experimental installation during start-up, steady state and shut down. The installation is located in the research reactor MARIA in the Institute of Atomic Energy in Swierk, Poland. The system acquires and analyses on line signals from installation and performs two tasks in real time: leading the operator and monitoring of the installation (including signal validation). Systems tasks, architecture and knowledge representation concepts are described. The system is based on expert systems techniques what makes in phases of continuous change of process parameters and it has been achieved by special knowledge representation allowing its dynamical modification. (author). 147 refs, 42 figs, 5 tab
Mars, Sarah G; Ling, Pamela M
Over the last 50 years, tobacco has been excluded from and then included in the category of addictive substances. We investigated influences on these opposing definitions and their application in expert witness testimony in litigation in the 1990s and 2000s. A scientist with ties to the tobacco industry influenced the selection of a definition of addiction that led to the classification of tobacco as a "habituation" in the 1964 Surgeon General's Advisory Committee report. Tobacco was later defined as addictive in the 1988 surgeon general's report. Expert witnesses for tobacco companies used the 1964 report's definition until Philip Morris Tobacco Company publicly changed its position in 1997 to agree that nicotine was addictive. Expert witnesses for plaintiffs suing the tobacco industry used the 1988 report's definition, arguing that new definitions were superior because of scientific advance. Both sides viewed addiction as an objective entity that could be defined more or less accurately.
Gieci, A.; Macko, J.; Mosny, J.; Gese, A.
The operator's mental activity is the most important part of his work. A processing of a large amount of the information by the operator is possible only if he/she possesses appropriate cognitive skills. To facilitate the novice's acquisition of the experienced operator's cognitive skills of the decision-making process a special type of the expert system was developed. The cognitive engineering's models and problem-solving methodology constitutes the basis of this expert system. The article gives an account of the prototype of the mentioned expert system developed to aid the whole mental activity of the nuclear power plant operator during his decision-making process. (author). 6 refs, 6 figs
Raboanary, R.; Raoelina Andriambololona; Soffer, J.; Raboanary, J.
Health problem is still a crucial one in some countries. It is so important that it becomes a major handicap in economic and social development. In order to solve this problem, we have conceived an expert system that we called MITSABO, which means TO HEAL, to help the physicians to diagnose tropical diseases. It is clear that by extending the data base and the knowledge base, we can extend the application of the software to more general areas. In our expert system, we used the concept of 'self organization' of neural network based on the determination of the eigenvalues and the eigenvectors associated to the correlation matrix XX t . The projection of the data on the two first eigenvectors gives a classification of the diseases which is used to get a first approach in the diagnosis of the patient. This diagnosis is improved by using an expert system which is built from the knowledge base.
Lykke, Marianne; Weidel, Eva
The survey aimed at investigating how companies deal with the challenge of sharing of employees’ expert knowledge. We wanted to find out which tools are being used to register, communicate and search employees as a knowledge resource. Specifically, we wanted to know how service organizations use...... expert finder systems to share knowledge about employees’ knowledge, interest, competences and activities. The purpose of the survey was to provide insight into goals, content and functionality of expert finder systems, including updating strategies and connection to social media knowledge sharing tools......, for example LinkedIn, Twitter, Facebook, Lotus Quickr, RSS feed. We ran our survey with the online-service SurveyXact. The survey was open February and March 2011. The questionnaire was distributed by e-mail and sent to 2.853 service companies in Denmark, Norway, Sweden, Finland, Germany, Holland, Belgium...
Building on the successful early engagement of the Plain Sect agricultural community, the Eastern Lancaster County Source Water Protection Collaborative is expanding its efforts to involve local residents in the work of protecting drinking water sources.
A telephone survey of resident physicians to the basic conditions in which they work has been conducted in 14 of the 16 federal states. In the center of the survey stood the general medicine within the prisons. This limitation was necessary in order to achieve comparability to primary medical care outside of correctional services. There are 140 salaried and tenured resident pysicians and 97 contract doctors in the general medical care of approx. 70000 prisoners in 185 independent prisons ...
Objective: A comparative study of the role of expert and non-expert librarians to attract users, public libraries and public libraries of Tehran Municipality Art and Cultural Organization of Tehran, is in 1395. Research Methodology: This study is functional and causal-comparative. A questionnaire was used for data collection.
de Reuver, Philip R.; Dijkgraaf, Marcel G. W.; Gevers, Sjef K. M.; Gouma, Dirk J.
Objective: To determine the inter-rater agreement of expert witness testimonies in bile duct injury malpractice litigation. Background Data: Malpractice litigation is an increasing concern in modem surgical practice. As most of the lawyers are not educated in medicine, expert witnesses are asked to
Reuver, P.R. de; Dijkgraaf, M.G.; Gevers, S.K.; Gouma, D.J.; Bleichrodt, R.P.; Cuesta, M.A.; Erp, W.F. van; Gerritsen, J.; Hesselink, E.J.; Laarhoven, C.J.H.M. van; Lange, J. de; Obertop, H.; Stassen, L.P.; Terpstra, O.T.; Tilanus, H.W.; Vroonhoven, T.J.; Wit, L. de
OBJECTIVE: To determine the inter-rater agreement of expert witness testimonies in bile duct injury malpractice litigation. BACKGROUND DATA: Malpractice litigation is an increasing concern in modern surgical practice. As most of the lawyers are not educated in medicine, expert witnesses are asked to
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The MDS Active Resident Report summarizes information for residents currently in nursing homes. The source of these counts is the residents MDS assessment record....
Harnof, Sagi; Hadani, Moshe; Ziv, Amitai; Berkenstadt, Haim
Communication skills are an important component of the neurosurgery residency training program. We developed a simulation-based training module for neurosurgery residents in which medical, communication and ethical dilemmas are presented by role-playing actors. To assess the first national simulation-based communication skills training for neurosurgical residents. Eight scenarios covering different aspects of neurosurgery were developed by our team: (1) obtaining informed consent for an elective surgery, (2) discharge of a patient following elective surgery, (3) dealing with an unsatisfied patient, (4) delivering news of intraoperative complications, (5) delivering news of a brain tumor to parents of a 5 year old boy, (6) delivering news of brain death to a family member, (7) obtaining informed consent for urgent surgery from the grandfather of a 7 year old boy with an epidural hematoma, and (8) dealing with a case of child abuse. Fifteen neurosurgery residents from all major medical centers in Israel participated in the training. The session was recorded on video and was followed by videotaped debriefing by a senior neurosurgeon and communication expert and by feedback questionnaires. All trainees participated in two scenarios and observed another two. Participants largely agreed that the actors simulating patients represented real patients and family members and that the videotaped debriefing contributed to the teaching of professional skills. Simulation-based communication skill training is effective, and together with thorough debriefing is an excellent learning and practical method for imparting communication skills to neurosurgery residents. Such simulation-based training will ultimately be part of the national residency program.
Ali, Moonis; Crawford, Roger
This paper focuses on the application of expert systems technology to the automatic detection, verification and correction of anomalous rocket engine operations through interfacing with an intelligent adaptive control system. The design of a reliable and intelligent propulsion control and monitoring system is outlined which includes the architecture of an Integrated Expert System (IES) serving as the core component. The IES functions include automatic knowledge acquisition, integrated knowledge base, and fault diagnosis and prediction methodology. The results of fault analysis and diagnostic techniques are presented for an example fault in the SSME main combustion chamber injectors.
Sebo, D.E.; Bray, M.A.; King, M.A.
The Reactor Safety Assessment System (RSAS) is an expert system under development for the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC). RSAS is intended for use at the NRC's Operations Center in the event of a serious incident at a licensed nuclear power plant. RSAS is a situation assessment expert system which uses plant parametric data to generate conclusions for use by the NRC Reactor Safety Team. RSAS uses multiple rule bases and plant specific setpoint files in order to be applicable to all licensed power plants. RSAS currently covers several generic reactor types and power plants within those classes
Rogers, Mark N.
The broad objective of this expert system software based application was to demonstrate the enhancements and cost savings that can be achieved through expert system software utilization in a spacecraft ground control center. Spacelab provided a valuable proving ground for this advanced software technology; a technology that will be exploited and expanded for future ISS operations. Our specific focus was on demonstrating payload cadre command and control efficiency improvements through the use of "smart" software which monitors flight telemetry, provides enhanced schematic-based data visualization, and performs advanced engineering data analysis.
Cody, Edward J
This book is written in a simple, easy to understand format with screenshots, code samples, and step-by-step explanations that will guide you through the advanced techniques used by the experts. If you are an Oracle Hyperion Interactive reporting user or developer looking to become an expert in the product, then this book is for you. You will require a basic knowledge of Interactive Reporting, as this book starts with a brief overview and then dives into advanced techniques, functions, and best practices. Beginner users should consult The Business Analyst's Guide to Oracle Hyperion Interactive
Molokanov, Valentin; Romanov, Dmitry; Tsibulsky, Valentin
We present the results of our enterprise expert search system application to the task introduced at the Text Retrieval Conference (TREC) in 2007. The expert search system is based on analysis of content and communications topology in an enterprise information space. An optimal set of weighting coefficients for three query-candidate associating algorithms is selected for achieving the best search efficiency on the search collection. The obtained performance proved to be better than at most TREC participants. The hypothesis of additional efficiency improvement by means of query classification is proposed.
Barreto, J M; de Azevedo, F M
In this paper neural networks are used as associative memories to build an expert system for aiding medical diagnosis. As in expert systems using symbolic manipulation, the knowledge is introduced by a knowledge engineer using a collection of known cases. The system has an object-oriented approach to knowledge organization and the resulting network topology. Fuzzy sets are used to interpret connection values and/or excitation state of the units. The main result is that the proposed neural network allows not only finding a solution in some cases, but also suggests obtaining more clinical data if the data available is insufficient to reach a conclusion. This approach is illustrated by examples.
Recent developments in expert system technology have led to the question whether such systems could be used for the enhancement of nuclear safety, particularly as advisory system during abnormal plant conditions. This document was produced during the Technical Committee Meeting (TCM) to Demonstrate and Review Expert System Prototypes, which was organized jointly by the International Atomic Energy Agency and British Nuclear Fuels Ltd (BNFL) and held at the BNFL site in Springfields, United Kingdom, from 30 September to 4 October 1991. A separate abstract was prepared for each of the 14 papers in this document. Refs, figs and tabs
A network of distributed expert systems is the heart of a prototype supervisory control architecture developed at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) for an advanced multimodular reactor. Eight expert systems encode knowledge on signal acquisition, diagnostics, safeguards, and control strategies in a hybrid rule-based, multiprocessing and object-oriented distributed computing environment. An interactive simulation of a power block consisting of three reactors and one turbine provides a realistic, testbed for performance analysis of the integrated control system in real-time. Implementation details and representative reactor transients are discussed
Full Text Available In this work, an expert system used in computer aided design has been developed. In the developed program, the features which are used in the models prepared by a feature based design program are evaluated by the expert system module and are used in part modeling after determining of their compatibilty according to the rules. This program, particulary for those who do not know or know very little manufacturing stages, accomplishes the duty of informing and directing them. The program developed warns the user for design mistakes made during modeling.
Belikov, E S
Medical expert qualification of iatrogenic disease is developed on the basis of insurance assessment of events (accident, realized risk, error) and classification of their causes according to the principle of the triad patient-medical professional-environment taking into account medical technology (diagnosis, treatment, rehabilitation, prophylaxis). Medical error is considered as an integral term and include inadequate (erroneous) professional thinking and/or action. Therefore, it is suggested to qualify a medical error either as a fallacy, or negligence, or omission. Medical-technological standards, apart from legitimacy, are necessary for realization of an expert activity.
Full Text Available Because of the fact that specialty agricultural assistance is not always available when the farmers need it, we identified expert systems as a strong instrument with an extended potential in agriculture. This started to grow in scale recently, including all socially-economic activity fields, having the role of collecting data regarding different aspects from human experts with the purpose of assisting the user in the necessary steps for solving problems, at the performance level of the expert, making his acquired knowledge and experience available. We opted for a general presentation of the expert systems as well as their necessity, because, the solution to develop the agricultural system can come from artificial intelligence by implementing the expert systems in the field of agricultural insurance, promoting existing insurance products, farmers finding options in depending on their necessities and possibilities. The objective of this article consists of collecting data about different aspects about specific areas of interest of agricultural insurance, preparing the database, a conceptual presentation of a pilot version which will become constantly richer depending on the answers received from agricultural producers, with the clearest exposure of knowledgebase possible. We can justify picking this theme with the fact that even while agricultural insurance plays a very important role in agricultural development, the registered result got from them are modest, reason why solutions need to be found in the scope of developing the agricultural sector. The importance of this consists in the proposal of an immediate viable solution to correspond with the current necessities of agricultural producers and in the proposal of an innovative solution, namely the implementation of expert system in agricultural insurance as a way of promoting insurance products. Our research, even though it treats the subject at an conceptual level, it wants to undertake an
Carvalho Aguiar Melo, Matias; das Chagas Medeiros, Francisco; Meireles Sales de Bruin, Veralice; Pinheiro Santana, José Abraão; Bastos Lima, Alexandre; De Francesco Daher, Elizabeth
Medical residency programs are traditionally known for long working hours, which can be associated with a poor quality of sleep and daytime sleepiness. However, few studies have focused on this theme. Our objective was to investigate sleep quality, daytime sleepiness, and their relation with anxiety, social phobia, and depressive symptoms. This cross-sectional observational study involved 59 psychiatry residents. The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) were used to measure the quality of sleep and excessive daytime sleepiness ([EDS] and ESS > 10), respectively. Among the 59 psychiatry residents, 59.3% had poor sleep quality (PSQI > 5) and 28.8% had EDS. Poor sleep quality was associated with higher EDS (P = 0.03) and the year of residency program (P = 0.03). Only 20% of residents with poor sleep had consulted at least once for sleep problems; 54.2% had used medications for sleep; and 16.9% were using medications at the time of interview. Only 30% obtained medication during medical consultations. Poor sleep was associated with irregular sleep hours (P = 0.001) and long periods lying down without sleep (P = 0.03). Poor sleep quality was also associated with high scores of anxiety symptoms (P Psychiatry residents frequently have poor sleep quality and EDS. Considering that sleep disorders can affect quality of life, predispose to metabolic syndrome, and be associated with worse performance at work, attention to this clinical problem is needed. © The Author(s) 2016.
Marwan, Yousef; Ayed, Adel
In Kuwait, 21 residency training programs were offered in the year 2011; however, no data is available regarding the criteria of selecting residents for these programs. This study aims to provide information about the importance of these criteria. A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect data from members (e.g. chairmen, directors, assistants …etc.) of residency programs in Kuwait. A total of 108 members were invited to participate. They were asked to rate the importance level (scale from 1 to 5) of criteria that may affect the acceptance of an applicant to their residency programs. Average scores were calculated for each criterion. Of the 108 members invited to participate, only 12 (11.1%) declined to participate. Interview performance was ranked as the most important criteria for selecting residents (average score: 4.63/5.00), followed by grade point average (average score: 3.78/5.00) and honors during medical school (average score: 3.67/5.00). On the other hand, receiving disciplinary action during medical school and failure in a required clerkship were considered as the most concerning among other criteria used to reject applicants (average scores: 3.83/5.00 and 3.54/5.00 respectively). Minor differences regarding the importance level of each criterion were noted across different programs. This study provided general information about the criteria that are used to accept/reject applicants to residency programs in Kuwait. Future studies should be conducted to investigate each criterion individually, and to assess if these criteria are related to residents' success during their training.
Full Text Available Landscape represents appropriate spatial dimension for a study of ecosystems, especially due to ability to translate scientific knowledge into proper guidance for land use practice and enhancing the inclusion of local stakeholders in decision-making procedures. We tested social preferences method to reach initial and raw overview of the ecosystem services (ES distribution and their values in the study areas. Perception of experts and local residents about capacities of relevant CORINE land cover (CLC types to provide various ES was linked with Geographic Information System databases. We quantified the results on the basis of the mean values for each CLC type and the ES groups and these were interpreted also in spatial context. The expectation about perceptible capacities of forest to provide goods and services was fulfilled by responses of the experts, as was the expected difficulty to assess capacities of transitional woodland shrub or complex cultivation patterns. However, additional land cover types in question are meadows and pastures or discon-tinuous urban fabric. Mostly middle ranking values prevail in responses of local residents and uncertainty in the background is much greater comparing to the experts. On the other hand, rural people may better recognise diversified fow of services due to their everyday close connection to more ES. Large variation in the scores of some valued CLC classes in responses of the local residents and also experts seems resulting from lack of knowledge in the background and differences in viewpoint and appreciation. We understand the gaps in evaluating ES by the experts and resident population as good experience and key challenge for the further steps and fine-tuning of the research methods.
Klein, Katherine P; Hannum, Wallace M; Koroluk, Lorne D; Proffit, William R
likely to use the seminars again (P = 0.0018). Despite feedback regarding the need for technologic improvements of the recorded seminars, such as better editing, more frequent slides, quicker pace, and improved sound quality, most residents and faculty agreed that they would like to use this approach to distance learning again. Blended distance learning is an acceptable method of instruction that allows residents to access various experts, supplement traditional instructor-led training, and ease the strain of current faculty shortages. The content of the recorded seminars needs to remain evidence-based, and some technologic aspects of the recordings should be improved. Copyright © 2012 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
Fok Mark C
Full Text Available Abstract Background The CanMEDS Health Advocate role, one of seven roles mandated by the Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons Canada, pertains to a physician's responsibility to use their expertise and influence to advance the wellbeing of patients, communities, and populations. We conducted our study to examine resident attitudes and self-reported competencies related to health advocacy, due to limited information in the literature on this topic. Methods We conducted a pilot experience with seven internal medicine residents participating in a community health promotion event. The residents provided narrative feedback after the event and the information was used to generate items for a health advocacy survey. Face validity was established by having the same residents review the survey. Content validity was established by inviting an expert physician panel to review the survey. The refined survey was then distributed to a cohort of core Internal Medicine residents electronically after attendance at an academic retreat teaching residents about advocacy through didactic sessions. Results The survey was completed by 76 residents with a response rate of 68%. The majority agreed to accept an advocacy role for societal health needs beyond caring for individual patients. Most confirmed their ability to identify health determinants and reaffirmed the inherent requirements for health advocacy. While involvement in health advocacy was common during high school and undergraduate studies, 76% of residents reported no current engagement in advocacy activity, and 36% were undecided if they would engage in advocacy during their remaining time as residents, fellows or staff. The common barriers reported were insufficient time, rest and stress. Conclusions Medical residents endorsed the role of health advocate and reported proficiency in determining the medical and bio-psychosocial determinants of individuals and communities. Few residents, however, were
Full Text Available Ehyal Shweiki,1 Niels D Martin,2 Alec C Beekley,1 Jay S Jenoff,1 George J Koenig,1 Kris R Kaulback,1 Gary A Lindenbaum,1 Pankaj H Patel,1 Matthew M Rosen,1 Michael S Weinstein,1 Muhammad H Zubair,2 Murray J Cohen1 1Department of Surgery, Thomas Jefferson University Hospital, Philadelphia, PA, USA; 2Department of Surgery, Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, USA Abstract: Medical resident education in the United States has been a matter of national priority for decades, exemplified initially through the Liaison Committee for Graduate Medical Education and then superseded by the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education. A recent Special Report in the New England Journal of Medicine, however, has described resident educational programs to date as prescriptive, noting an absence of innovation in education. Current aims of contemporary medical resident education are thus being directed at ensuring quality in learning as well as in patient care. Achievement and work-motivation theories attempt to explain people's choice, performance, and persistence in tasks. Expectancy Theory as one such theory was reviewed in detail, appearing particularly applicable to surgical residency training. Correlations between Expectancy Theory as a work-motivation theory and residency education were explored. Understanding achievement and work-motivation theories affords an opportunity to gain insight into resident motivation in training. The application of Expectancy Theory in particular provides an innovative perspective into residency education. Afforded are opportunities to promote the development of programmatic methods facilitating surgical resident motivation in education. Keywords: learning, education, achievement
Rubin, Stuart H; Murthy, S N Jayaram; Smith, Michael H; Trajković, Ljiljana
In this paper and attached video, we present a third-generation expert system named Knowledge Amplification by Structured Expert Randomization (KASER) for which a patent has been filed by the U.S. Navy's SPAWAR Systems Center, San Diego, CA (SSC SD). KASER is a creative expert system. It is capable of deductive, inductive, and mixed derivations. Its qualitative creativity is realized by using a tree-search mechanism. The system achieves creative reasoning by using a declarative representation of knowledge consisting of object trees and inheritance. KASER computes with words and phrases. It possesses a capability for metaphor-based explanations. This capability is useful in explaining its creative suggestions and serves to augment the capabilities provided by the explanation subsystems of conventional expert systems. KASER also exhibits an accelerated capability to learn. However, this capability depends on the particulars of the selected application domain. For example, application domains such as the game of chess exhibit a high degree of geometric symmetry. Conversely, application domains such as the game of craps played with two dice exhibit no predictable pattern, unless the dice are loaded. More generally, we say that domains whose informative content can be compressed to a significant degree without loss (or with relatively little loss) are symmetric. Incompressible domains are said to be asymmetric or random. The measure of symmetry plus the measure of randomness must always sum to unity.
Jonassen, David H.; Wang, Sherwood
Cognitive simulations are runnable computer programs for modeling human cognitive activities. A case study is reported where expert systems were used as a formalism for modeling metacognitive processes in a seminar. Building cognitive simulations engages intensive introspection, ownership and meaning making in learners who build them. (Author/AEF)
Six mistakes by the operators led to the accident at the Cherobyl nuclear reactor. These have been studied. It is suggested that an expert systems approach could prevent similar accidents. The expert system is a new approach to software programming where programs are required to perform intelligent analyses of complex situations. It separates the knowledge of a problem from the procedural code that performs the decision. An expert system will evaluate data and indicate a priority on alarms in real time. Now software systems can detect the cause of a problem in a process plant and present their findings to the operators in the control room. This should enable operators to make the correct decisions as they will know which underlying process faults are causing the alarms to operate. The Chernobyl post-mortem meeting made 13 proposals for improving safety. Two in particular are noted as relevant to expert advice systems; international collaboration on man-reactor relationships and a conference to explore the balance of automation and human action to minimise operating errors. (U.K.)
Van Hecke, T.
Students wanting to succeed in higher education are required to adopt an adequate learning approach. By analyzing individual learning characteristics, teachers can give personal advice to help students identify their learning success factors. An expert system based on fuzzy logic can provide economically viable solutions to help students identify…
Flandrois, J; Carret, G
Artificial intelligence is a part of computer science that deals with programs mimicking intelligence of man. Artificial intelligence is now used to check the quality of the determination of antibiotics susceptibility of bacteria. This application is useful because antibiotic susceptibility is subject to biological and technical variation that have to be detected. Three types of reasoning are used either by the biologist or by expert systems: low level quality checking dealing with individual results, microbiological interpretation of the whole set of results and medical interpretation of the results. The use of artificial intelligence in these fields is sustained by the structured nature of the knowledge. Two type of expert systems are already of routine use, either based on production rules (ATB plus EXPERT, bioMerieux, La Balme-les-Grottes, France and SIR, 12A, Montpellier, France), or on object-oriented representation of the knowledge (EXPRIM from our laboratory). The main problem is, as usually in artificial intelligence applications, to transfer human expertise into an adapted knowledge base. The advantage of experts systems over man are their reproducibility of answer and their availability.
VanDeventer, Stephanie S.; White, James A.
Investigates the display of expert behavior by seven outstanding video game-playing children ages 10 and 11. Analyzes observation and debriefing transcripts for evidence of self-monitoring, pattern recognition, principled decision making, qualitative thinking, and superior memory, and discusses implications for educators regarding the development…
Miller, Helen B.
NCR (National Cash Register) Corporation is pursuing opportunities to make their point of sale (POS) terminals easy to use and easy to learn. To approach the goal of making the technology invisible to the user, NCR has developed an adaptive expert prototype system for a department store POS operation. The structure for the adaptive system, the…
Spurrier, Michael; Blaszczynski, Alexander; Rhodes, Paul
The purpose of the current study was to investigate the moderating or mediating role played by risk perception in decision-making, gambling behaviour, and disordered gambling aetiology. Eleven gambling expert clinicians and researchers completed a semi-structured interview derived from mental models and grounded theory methodologies. Expert interview data was used to construct a comprehensive expert mental model 'map' detailing risk-perception related factors contributing to harmful or safe gambling. Systematic overlapping processes of data gathering and analysis were used to iteratively extend, saturate, test for exception, and verify concepts and emergent themes. Findings indicated that experts considered idiosyncratic beliefs among gamblers result in overall underestimates of risk and loss, insufficient prioritization of needs, and planning and implementation of risk management strategies. Additional contextual factors influencing use of risk information (reinforcement and learning; mental states, environmental cues, ambivalence; and socio-cultural and biological variables) acted to shape risk perceptions and increase vulnerabilities to harm or disordered gambling. It was concluded that understanding the nature, extent and processes by which risk perception predisposes an individual to maintain gambling despite adverse consequences can guide the content of preventative educational responsible gambling campaigns.
ence on Artificial Inteligence , Tbilisi, USSR, 1975. Fain, J., D. Gorlin, F. Hayes-Roth, S. Rosenschein, H. Sowizral, and D. Waterman, The ROSIE Language...gramming environment for artificial intelligence (AI) applications. It provides particular support for designing expert systems, systems that embody
Ahmadabadi, M N; Asadpour, M
By using other agents' experiences and knowledge, a learning agent may learn faster, make fewer mistakes, and create some rules for unseen situations. These benefits would be gained if the learning agent can extract proper rules from the other agents' knowledge for its own requirements. One possible way to do this is to have the learner assign some expertness values (intelligence level values) to the other agents and use their knowledge accordingly. Some criteria to measure the expertness of the reinforcement learning agents are introduced. Also, a new cooperative learning method, called weighted strategy sharing (WSS) is presented. In this method, each agent measures the expertness of its teammates and assigns a weight to their knowledge and learns from them accordingly. The presented methods are tested on two Hunter-Prey systems. We consider that the agents are all learning from each other and compare them with those who cooperate only with the more expert ones. Also, the effect of communication noise, as a source of uncertainty, on the cooperative learning method is studied. Moreover, the Q-table of one of the cooperative agents is changed randomly and its effects on the presented methods are examined.
Zoolalian, M.L.; Gibbs, A.; Kuhns, J.D.
Transuranic wastes are generated at the Savannah River Site (SRS) as a result of routine production of nuclear materials. These wastes contain Pu-238 and Pu-239 and are placed into lined 55-gallon waste drums. The drums are placed on monitored storage pads pending shipment to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant in New Mexico. A passive-active neutron (PAN) assay system is used to determine the mass of the radioactive material within the waste drums. Assay results are used to classify the wastes as either low-level or transuranic (TRU). During assays, the PAN assay system communicates with an IBM-AT computer. A Fortran computer program, called NEUT, controls and performs all data analyses. Unassisted, the NEUT program cannot adequately interpret assay results. To eliminate this limitation, an expert system shell was used to write a new algorithm, called the Transuranic Expert System (TRUX), to drive the NEUT program and add decision making capabilities for analysis of the assay results. The TRUX knowledge base was formulated by consulting with human experts in the field of neutron assay, by direct experimentation on the PAN assay system, and by observing operations on a daily basis. TRUX, with its improved ability to interpret assay results, has eliminated the need for close supervision by a human expert, allowing skilled technicians to operate the PAN assay system. 4 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs
Considers three powerful techniques--heuristics, context trees, and search via backward chaining--that a knowledge engineer might employ to develop an expert system to automate performance engineering, i.e., the branch of instructional technology that focuses on the problems of business and industry. (MBR)
This article describes results of an agreement between the North Penn Water Authority in Lansdale, Pa., and the US Environmental Protection Agency, Drinking Water Research Division, Cincinnati, Ohio, to study use of expert systems technology in a water utility. The threeyear stud...
Orstein, Roberto M.
Argentina has provided expert services in the nuclear field to almost all the countries of Latin America and to many countries of other continents, in the framework of bilateral and multilateral cooperation agreements. A short history of these services is outlined and some statistical data are presented
Balog, K.; de Rijke, M.; Shanahan, J.G.; Amer-Yahia, S.; Zhang, Y.; Kołcz, A.; Chowdury, A.; Kelly, D.
The task addressed in this paper, finding experts in an enterprise setting, has gained in importance and interest over the past few years. Commonly, this task is approached as an association finding exercise between people and topics. Existing techniques use either documents (as a whole) or
Groothuis, Marga M.; Svensson, Jorgen S.; Breuker, J.; Leenes, R.E.; Winkels, R.
This article discusses the use of expert systems as a means of achieving juridical quality within administrative organisations. Do these systems really improve the quality of decision making and provide the desired guarantees with respect to the correct treatment of clients?
Martini, C.; Boumans, M.
This book brings together the research of philosophers and social scientists. It examines those areas of scientific practice where reliance on the subjective judgment of experts and practitioners is the main source of useful knowledge to address, and, possibly, bring solutions to social problems. A
This paper model an expert system called LAPTEX for troubleshooting LaserJet printers' faults. Today, with the innumerable advances in information technologies, computerizing printer's fault troubleshooting and identifying faults is far becoming so vital. Also, printers' fault detection is a complicated process that requires a ...
Mason-Mason, Susan Dale; Tessmer, Martin A.
This exploratory study investigated whether the process of constructing an expert system model promotes the formation of expert-like mental models. Discusses expert systems as mindtools, expert systems as learning tools, the assessment of mental models, results of pretests and posttests, and future research. (Contains 56 references.) (Author/LRW)
Henricks, Walter H; Karcher, Donald S; Harrison, James H; Sinard, John H; Riben, Michael W; Boyer, Philip J; Plath, Sue; Thompson, Arlene; Pantanowitz, Liron
-Recognition of the importance of informatics to the practice of pathology has surged. Training residents in pathology informatics has been a daunting task for most residency programs in the United States because faculty often lacks experience and training resources. Nevertheless, developing resident competence in informatics is essential for the future of pathology as a specialty. -To develop and deliver a pathology informatics curriculum and instructional framework that guides pathology residency programs in training residents in critical pathology informatics knowledge and skills, and meets Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education Informatics Milestones. -The College of American Pathologists, Association of Pathology Chairs, and Association for Pathology Informatics formed a partnership and expert work group to identify critical pathology informatics training outcomes and to create a highly adaptable curriculum and instructional approach, supported by a multiyear change management strategy. -Pathology Informatics Essentials for Residents (PIER) is a rigorous approach for educating all pathology residents in important pathology informatics knowledge and skills. PIER includes an instructional resource guide and toolkit for incorporating informatics training into residency programs that vary in needs, size, settings, and resources. PIER is available at http://www.apcprods.org/PIER (accessed April 6, 2016). -PIER is an important contribution to informatics training in pathology residency programs. PIER introduces pathology trainees to broadly useful informatics concepts and tools that are relevant to practice. PIER provides residency program directors with a means to implement a standardized informatics training curriculum, to adapt the approach to local program needs, and to evaluate resident performance and progress over time.
Deffenbacher, Brandy; Langner, Shannon; Khodaee, Morteza
A family medicine residency is a unique training environment where residents are exposed to care in multiple settings, across all ages. Procedures are an integral part of family medicine practice. Family medicine residency (FMR) programs are tasked with the job of teaching these skills at a level of intensity and frequency that allows a resident to achieve competency of such skills. In an environment that is limited by work hour restrictions, self-study teaching methods are one way to ensure all residents receive the fundamental knowledge of how to perform procedures. We developed and evaluated the efficacy of a self-study procedure teaching method and procedure evaluation checklist. A self-study procedure teaching intervention was created, consisting of instructional articles and videos on three procedures. To assess the efficacy of the intervention, and the competency of the residents, pre- and postintervention procedure performance sessions were completed. These sessions were reviewed and scored using a standardized procedure performance checklist. All 24 residents participated in the study. Overall, the resident procedure knowledge increased on two of the three procedures studied, and ability to perform procedure according to expert-validated checklist improved significantly on all procedures. A self-study intervention is a simple but effective way to increase and improve procedure training in a way that fits the complex scheduling needs of a residency training program. In addition, this study demonstrates that the procedure performance checklists are a simple and reliable way to increase assessment of resident procedure performance skills in a residency setting.
Full Text Available
ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Artificial intelligence techniques are rapidly emerging as important contributors to more effective management. One of the greatest growth areas probably lies in the use of Expert System methodology for supporting managerial decision processes.
Existing Decision Support Systems often attempt to apply analytical techniques in combination with traditional data access and retrieval functions. One of the problems usually encountered while developing such decision support systems is the need to transform an unstructured problem environment into a structured analytical model. Using an expert system approach to strategic decision making in such unstructured problem environments may provide significant advantages.
The financial Risk diagnostic EXpert System (REXS concentrates on Financial Risk Analysis. Based on a Forecasting Model the system will, with the support of several expert system knowledge bases, attempt to evaluate the financial risk of a business and provide guidelines for improvement.
AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Tegnieke gebaseer op Kunsmatige Intelligensie toon tans die belofte om belangrike bydraes te maak tot meerBestaande Besluitsteunstelsels poog dikwels om analitiese tegnieke en lradisionele datatoegang- en onttrekkingsfunksies te kombineer. Een van die probleme wat gewoonlik ondervind word gedurende die ontwikkeling van '0 besluitsteunstelsel bestaan uit die behoefte om 'n ongestruktueerde probleemomgewing te transformeer na 'n gestruktueerde analitiese model. 'n Ekspertstelselbenadering lot strategiese besluitneming in 'n ongeSlruktureerde probleemomgewing mag betekenisvolle voordele inhou.
Die "financial Risk diagnostic EXpert System (REXS" konsentreer op fmansiele risiko-analise. Uitgaande vanaf 'n Vooruitskattingsmode~ en deur gebruik te maak van verskeie ekspertstelselkennisbasisse, poog die stelsel om die fmansiele risiko van 'n onderneming te evalueer en riglyne vir moontlike verbetering
The Institute for Nuclear Safety and Protection (IPSN) has begun work on an expert system to aid in the diagnosis of fire hazards in nuclear installations. This system is called Vulcain N and is designed as a support tool for the analyses carried out by the IPSN. Vulcain N, is based on the Vulcain expert system already developed by Bertin for its own needs and incorporates the specific rules and know-how of the IPSN experts. The development of Vulcain N began in October 1986 with the drawing up of the technical specifications, and should be completed by the end of 1988. Vulcain N brings together knowledge from a number of different domains: the locations of the combustible materials, the thermal characteristics of the combustible materials and of the walls of the room, the ventilation conditions and, finally, knowledge of fire experts concerning the development of fire. The latter covers four levels of expert knowledge: standards and their associated calculations, the simplified physics of the fire enabling more precise values to be obtained for the figures given by the standards, the rules and knowledge which enables a certain number of deductions to be made concerning the development of the fire, and a numerical simulation code which can be used to monitor the variation of certain characteristic parameters with time. For a given fire out-break scenario, Vulcain N performs diagnosis of different aspects: development of fire, effect of ventilation, emergency action possibilities, propagation hazards, etc. Owing to its flexibility, it can be used in the analysis of fire hazards to simulate a number of possible scenarios and to very rapidly deduce the essential, predominant factors. It will also be used to assist in drafting emergency procedures for application in facilities with nuclear hazards
Ashack, Kurt A; Burton, Kyle A; Soh, Jonathan M; Lanoue, Julien; Boyd, Anne H; Milford, Emily E; Dunnick, Cory; Dellavalle, Robert P
Internet resources play an important role in how medical students access information related to residency programs.Evaluating program websites is necessary in order to provide accurate information for applicants and provide information regarding areas of website improvement for programs. To date, dermatology residency websites (D WS) have not been evaluated.This paper evaluates dermatology residency websites based on availability of predefined measures. Using the FREIDA (Fellowship and Residency Electronic Interactive Database) Online database, authors searched forall accredited dermatology program websites. Eligible programs were identified through the FREIDA Online database and had a functioning website. Two authors independently extracted data with consensus or third researcher resolution of differences. This data was accessed and archived from July 15th to July 17th, 2015.Primary outcomes measured were presence of content on education, resident and faculty information, program environment, applicant recruitment, schedule, salary, and website quality evaluated using an online tool (WooRank.com). Out of 117 accredited dermatology residencies, 115 had functioning webpages. Of these, 76.5% (75) had direct links found on the FRIEDA Online database. Most programs contained information on education, faculty, program environment, and applicant recruitment. However, website quality and marketing effectiveness were highly variable; most programs were deemed to need improvements in the functioning of their webpages. Also, additional information on current residents and about potential away rotations were lacking from most websites with only 52.2% (60) and 41.7% (48) of programs providing this content, respectively. A majority of dermatology residency websites contained adequate information on many of the factors we evaluated. However, many were lacking in areas that matter to applicants. We hope this report will encourage dermatology residencyprograms
Deutsch, Ellen S; Wiet, Gregory J; Seidman, Michael; Hussey, Heather M; Malekzadeh, Sonya; Fried, Marvin P
Simulation has become a valuable tool in medical education, and several specialties accept or require simulation as a resource for resident training or assessment as well as for board certification or maintenance of certification. This study investigates current simulation resources and activities in US otolaryngology residency programs and examines interest in advancing simulation training and assessment within the specialty. Web-based survey. US otolaryngology residency training programs. An electronic web-based survey was disseminated to all US otolaryngology program directors to determine their respective institutional and departmental simulation resources, existing simulation activities, and interest in further simulation initiatives. Descriptive results are reported. Responses were received from 43 of 104 (43%) residency programs. Simulation capabilities and resources are available in most respondents' institutions (78.6% report onsite resources; 73.8% report availability of models, manikins, and devices). Most respondents (61%) report limited simulation activity within otolaryngology. Areas of simulation are broad, addressing technical and nontechnical skills related to clinical training (94%). Simulation is infrequently used for research, credentialing, or systems improvement. The majority of respondents (83.8%) expressed interest in participating in multicenter trials of simulation initiatives. Most respondents from otolaryngology residency programs have incorporated some simulation into their curriculum. Interest among program directors to participate in future multicenter trials appears high. Future research efforts in this area should aim to determine optimal simulators and simulation activities for training and assessment as well as how to best incorporate simulation into otolaryngology residency training programs. © American Academy of Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery Foundation 2015.
Segal, Scott; Gelfand, Brian J; Hurwitz, Shelley; Berkowitz, Lori; Ashley, Stanley W; Nadel, Eric S; Katz, Joel T
Anecdotal reports suggest that some residency application essays contain plagiarized content. To determine the prevalence of plagiarism in a large cohort of residency application essays. Retrospective cohort study. 4975 application essays submitted to residency programs at a single large academic medical center between 1 September 2005 and 22 March 2007. Specialized software was used to compare residency application essays with a database of Internet pages, published works, and previously submitted essays and the percentage of the submission matching another source was calculated. A match of more than 10% to an existing work was defined as evidence of plagiarism. Evidence of plagiarism was found in 5.2% (95% CI, 4.6% to 5.9%) of essays. The essays of non-U.S. citizens were more likely to demonstrate evidence of plagiarism. Other characteristics associated with the prevalence of plagiarism included medical school location outside the United States and Canada; previous residency or fellowship; lack of research experience, volunteer experience, or publications; a low United States Medical Licensing Examination Step 1 score; and non-membership in the Alpha Omega Alpha Honor Medical Society. The software database is probably incomplete, the 10%-match threshold for defining plagiarism has not been statistically validated, and the study was confined to applicants to 1 institution. Evidence of matching content in an essay cannot be used to infer the applicant's intent and is not sensitive to variations in the cultural context of copying in some societies. Evidence of plagiarism in residency application essays is more common in international applicants but was found in those by applicants to all specialty programs, from all medical school types, and even among applicants with significant academic honors. No external funding.
Albrecht, Martina; Kupfer, Ramona; Reissmann, Daniel R; Mühlhauser, Ingrid; Köpke, Sascha
Associations between nursing home residents' oral health status and quality of life, respiratory tract infections, and nutritional status have been reported. Educational interventions for nurses or residents, or both, focusing on knowledge and skills related to oral health management may have the potential to improve residents' oral health. To assess the effects of oral health educational interventions for nursing home staff or residents, or both, to maintain or improve the oral health of nursing home residents. We searched the Cochrane Oral Health Trials Register (to 18 January 2016), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (the Cochrane Library, 2015, Issue 12), MEDLINE Ovid (1946 to 18 January 2016), Embase Ovid (1980 to 18 January 2016), CINAHL EBSCO (1937 to 18 January 2016), and Web of Science Conference Proceedings (1990 to 18 January 2016). We searched ClinicalTrials.gov and the World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry Platform for ongoing trials to 18 January 2016. In addition, we searched reference lists of identified articles and contacted experts in the field. We placed no restrictions on language or date of publication when searching the electronic databases. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and cluster-RCTs comparing oral health educational programmes for nursing staff or residents, or both with usual care or any other oral healthcare intervention. Two review authors independently screened articles retrieved from the searches for relevance, extracted data from included studies, assessed risk of bias for each included study, and evaluated the overall quality of the evidence. We retrieved data about the development and evaluation processes of complex interventions on the basis of the Criteria for Reporting the Development and Evaluation of Complex Interventions in healthcare: revised guideline (CReDECI 2). We contacted authors of relevant studies for additional information. We included nine RCTs involving
... FOR NURSING HOME CARE OF VETERANS IN STATE HOMES Standards § 51.70 Resident rights. The resident has a... legal representative. (5) Conveyance upon death. Upon the death of a resident with a personal fund...; (iii) Physicians of the resident's choice (to provide care in the nursing home, physicians must meet...
Background: Mentorship is important in residency training as it is necessary for personal and professional development of the resident trainees. Objectives: This study documents mentorship in orthopaedic residency training programme in Nigeria by assessing the awareness of orthopaedic residents on the role of a mentor, ...
Contessa, Jack; Ciardiello, Kenneth A; Perlman, Stacie
To determine if surgical residents share a preferred learning style as measured by Kolb's Learning Style Inventory (LSI) and if a relationship exists between resident learning style and achievement as measured by a standardized examination (AME). Also, core faculty learning styles were assessed to determine if faculty and residents share a preferred learning style. Kolb's LSI, Version 3, was administered to 16 surgical residents and the residency program's core faculty of 6 attending physicians. To measure academic achievement, the American Medical Education (AME) examination was administered to residents. The Hospital of Saint Raphael, General Surgery Residency Program, New Haven, Connecticut. Both instruments were administered to residents during protected core curriculum time. Core faculty were administered the LSI on an individual basis. Surgical residents of the Hospital of Saint Raphael's General Surgery Residency Program and 6 core faculty members Analysis of resident learning style preference revealed Converging as the most commonly occurring style for residents (7) followed by Accommodating (5), Assimilating (3), and Diverging (1). The predominant learning style for core faculty was also Converging (4) with 2 Divergers. The average score for the Convergers on the AME was 62.6 compared with 42 for the next most frequently occurring learning style, Accommodators. In this surgical residency program, a preferred learning style for residents seems to exist (Converging), which confirms what previous studies have found. Additionally, residents with this learning style attained a higher average achievement score as measured by the AME. Also, core faculty share the same preferential learning style as this subset of residents.
Fish, D G
In the view of residents in their last year of specialty training, the Fellowship is now becoming the operative standard for obtaining hospital privileges in urban centres and they felt that this implied that the two standards, the Certificate and the Fellowship of the Royal College, were not achieving the purpose for which they were designed. Although 80% of the residents intended to write the Fellowship, few viewed a year in a basic science department or in research as of intrinsic value in terms of their future practice.The examinations of the Royal College were the subject of criticism, most residents feeling that the examinations did not test the knowledge and ability gained in training. Most expressed a desire for ongoing evaluation during the training period.Service responsibilities were generally regarded as too heavy.Despite the criticism of both training and examination, most residents felt that their training had provided them with the experience and background they needed to practise as specialists.
Background Acupuncture is a promising treatment approach in patients with chronic low back pain (cLBP) but little is known about the quality of acupuncture in randomized controlled trials (RCT) of acupuncture cLBP. Objective To determine how international experts (IES) rate the quality of acupuncture in RCTs of cLBP; independent international validation of the Low Back Pain Acupuncture Score (LBPAS). Methodology Fifteen experts from 9 different countries outside China were surveyed (IES). They were asked to read anonymized excerpts of 24 RCTs of cLBP and answer a three-item questionnaire on how the method of acupuncture conformed to 1) Chinese textbook standards, 2) the expert's personally preferred style, and 3) how acupuncture is performed in the expert's country. Likert scale rating, calculation of the mode for each answer, and Spearman's rank correlation coefficient between all three answers and the LBPAS were calculated. Results On comparison with Chinese textbook standards (question 1), 6 RCTs received a good rating, 8 trials a fair and 10 trials a poor or very poor rating. 5 of the 6 trials rated good, received at least a good rating also in question 2 or 3. We found a high correlation of 0.85 (p acupuncture for cLBP were rated "good" in respect to Chinese textbook acupuncture standards. There were only small differences in how the acupuncture quality was rated in comparison to Chinese textbook acupuncture, personally preferred and local styles of acupuncture. The rating showed a high correlation with the Low Back Pain Acupuncture Score LBPAS. PMID:21486726
Hirst, Sandra P; LeNavenec, Carole Lynne; Aldiabat, Khaldoun
Traumatic events in one's younger years can have an impact on how an individual copes with later life. One traumatic experience for Jewish individuals was the Holocaust. Some of these people are moving into long-term care facilities. It was within this context that the research question emerged: What are Holocaust survivor residents' perceptions of a life lived as they move into a long-term care facility? For this qualitative study, Holocaust survivors were individually interviewed. Findings emphasize that nursing care needs to ensure that Holocaust survivor residents participate in activities, receive timely health care, and receive recognition of their life experiences. Copyright 2011, SLACK Incorporated.
In many data exploratory tasks, extraordinary and rarely occurring patterns called outliers are more interesting than the prevalent ones. For example, they could represent frauds in insurance, intrusions in network and system monitoring, or motion in video surveillance. Decades of research have...... in practice and we empirically evaluate them on synthetic and real world data sets. First, we tackle the problem that most algorithms leave the end user without any explanation of how or why the identified outliers deviate. Such knowledge is important for domain experts in order to be able to validate...... to a supervised classifier. The resulting method is robust to parameters and as such it can be easily applied to data by non-experts in data mining. We also consider the case where computational resources at test time are limited and introduce a feature selection technique that respects a computational budget...
Norcross, Scott; Grieser, William H.
This paper describes a product called the Intelligent Mission Toolkit (IMT), which was created to meet the changing demands of the spacecraft command and control market. IMT is a command and control system built upon an expert system. Its primary functions are to send commands to the spacecraft and process telemetry data received from the spacecraft. It also controls the ground equipment used to support the system, such as encryption gear, and telemetry front-end equipment. Add-on modules allow IMT to control antennas and antenna interface equipment. The design philosophy for IMT is to utilize available commercial products wherever possible. IMT utilizes Gensym's G2 Real-time Expert System as the core of the system. G2 is responsible for overall system control, spacecraft commanding control, and spacecraft telemetry analysis and display. Other commercial products incorporated into IMT include the SYBASE relational database management system and Loral Test and Integration Systems' System 500 for telemetry front-end processing.
Christie, R.D.; Talukdar, S.N.
This paper argues that automatic security assessment schemes cannot generate information of high quality until their architectures, which are now wholly algorithmic, are changed to hybrids combining algorithms with expert systems. In particular, numerical algorithms should continue to be used for simulating the effects of contingencies, but expert systems should be developed for selecting the contingencies and interpreting the simulation results. These changes will make automatic schemes more closely resemble the manual schemes that are used off line too generate assessment information of high quality. The problems of integrating hybrid software into existing Energy Management Systems (EMSs) are far from trivial. The paper goes on to discuss these problems and suggest a solution, namely the use of a network of workstations tied to existing EMS computers.
After the author presided over the photographer's group for 15 years or more, the author met with the Photo Master certificate examination. And the author took the certificate examination, and was authorized as a Photo Master Expert in 2005. In this report, the outline how photographic technology has been mastered in order to adapt the photographer's group to the great change of photography from film to digital and how the contents of the activity of a photographer's group have changed is described. And the progress which took the Photo Master certificate examination as a good opportunity to prove the achievement level of those activities is described. And as a photographic activity after Photo Master Expert authorization, the shooting method of mural painting in the royal tomb of Amenophis III is described.
The characteristic features of expert systems are explained in detail, and the systems' application in process control engineering. Four points of main interest are there, namely: Applications for diagnostic tasks, for safety analyses, planning, and training and expert training. For the modelling of the technical systems involved in all four task fields mentioned above, an object-centred approach has shown to be the suitable method, as process control techniques are determined by technical objects that in principle are specified by data sheets, schematic representations, flow charts, and plans. The graphical surface allows these data to be taken into account, so that the object can be displayed in the way best suited to the individual purposes. (orig./GL) [de
Silverman, Barry G.; Diakite, Coty
Successful project managers (PMs) have been shown to rely on 'intuition,' experience, and analogical reasoning heuristics. For new PMs to be trained and experienced PMs to avoid repeating others' mistakes, it is necessary to make the knowledge and heuristics of successful PMs more widely available. The preparers have evolved a model of PM thought processes over the last decade that is now ready to be implemented as a generic PM aid. This aid consists of a series of 'specialist' expert systems (CRITIC, LIBRARIAN, IDEA MAN, CRAFTSMAN, and WRITER) that communicate with each other via a 'blackboard' architecture. The various specialist expert systems are driven to support PM training and problem solving since any 'answers' they pass to the blackboard are subjected to conflict identification (AGENDA FORMULATOR) and GOAL SETTER inference engines.
Fifteen years after its first CERN edition, the Shielding Aspects of Accelerator, Targets and Irradiation Facility (SATIF) conference was held again here from 2-4 June. Now at its 10th edition, SATIF10 brought together experts from all over the world to discuss issues related to the shielding techniques. They set out the scene for an improved collaboration and discussed novel shielding solutions. This was the most attended meeting of the series with more than 65 participants from 34 institutions and 14 countries. “We welcomed experts from many different laboratories around the world. We come from different contexts but we face similar problems. In this year’s session, among other things, we discussed ways for improving the effectiveness of calculations versus real data, as well as experimental solutions to investigate the damage that radiation produces on various materials and the electronics”, says Marco Silari, Chair of the conference and member of the DGS/RP gro...
Qin, H; Xiao, J; Gao, X; Wang, H
In contrast to the rapid development of the horse husbandry in China, the ability of horse veterinarians to diagnose diseases has not been improved and only a few domain experts have considerable expertise. At present, many expert systems have been developed for diseases diagnosis, but few for horse diseases diagnosis have been studied in depth. This paper presents the design and development of a computer-aided expert system for diagnosing horse diseases. We suggest an approach for diagnosis of horse diseases based on the analysis of diagnostic characteristics and the experiential knowledge of domain experts. It is based on using evidence-weighted uncertainty reasoning theory, which is a combination of evidence theory and an uncertainty pass algorithm of confidence factors. It enables drawing of inferences with atypical clinical signs and the uncertainty of the user's subjective understanding. It reduces the influence of subjective factors on diagnostic accuracy. The system utilizes a user friendly interface for users and requests a confidence factor from users when feedback is given to the system. Horse-Expert combines the confidence factors with weight factors assigned to clinical signs by experts during the knowledge acquisition process to make diagnostic conclusions. The system can diagnose 91 common horse diseases, and provides suggestions for appropriate treatment options. In addition, users can check the medical record through statistical charts. The system has been tested in seven demonstration areas of Xinjiang province in northwestern China. By constantly maintaining and updating the knowledge base, the system has potential application in veterinary practice.
Abe, Isamu; Nakahara, Kazuo; Kitamura, Masaharu.
A prototype diagnostic expert system (ES) was developed for the Photon Factory 2.5-GeV electron/positron LINAC injector system. The ES has been on-lined with the conventional linac computer network for receiving real data. This project was undertaken in an attempt to reduce the linac operator's mental workload, diagnosis duties, and to explore Artificial Intelligence (AI) technologies. The outlook for ES and its problems, and what has been achieved are outlined in this presentation. (author)
AUTHOR|(CDS)2160780; Timkó, Helga
This Thesis describes software tools developed for automated, precision setting-up of low-power level radio frequency (LLRF) loops, which will help expert users to have better control and faster setting-up of the radio-frequency (RF) system in the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) experiment. The aim was to completely redesign the software architecture, to add new features, to improve certain algorithms, and to increase the automation.
Fattahi, Fariba; Geshani, Ahmad; Jafari, Zahra; Jalaie, Shohreh; Salman Mahini, Mona
Background: Chess is a game that involves many aspects of high level cognition such as memory, attention, focus and problem solving. Long term practice of chess can improve cognition performances and behavioral skills. Auditory memory, as a kind of memory, can be influenced by strengthening processes following long term chess playing like other behavioral skills because of common processing pathways in the brain. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the auditory memory function of expert...
Sajjad ur Rehman; Abdus Sattar Chaudhry; Sakeena A. Al-Alawi
Knowledge management (KM) is maturing as a field of study with an interdisciplinary orientation, being taught in a variety of schools by the faculty from diverse affiliations. In this context, KM curriculum design becomes a major challenge for educators. This study was designed with the purpose of analyzing the perceptions of senior KM academics and KM experts about the relevance and value of KM constructs in graduate programs. KM curriculum content was proposed based on an earlier study of K...
informal I Stibiec live, impressionistic) and Formal (Mechani cal, Algorithmic) Piediction Procedures� The clinical-Statistical Coniro~�ersy,� Psicholog ...systems have demonstrated Ignoring questions about the tech nological feasibility of such a system. Fundamental epistemologi � cal flaws present...concerned with the epistemology of their domain, not just philosophically but practically. They want to know how experts in their discipline reach
Brand, Larry [Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit (PARR), Des Plaines, IL (United States)
This is an overview of "The Best Approach to Combustion Safety in a Direct Vent World," held June 28, 2012, in San Antonio, TX. The objective of this Expert Meeting was to identify gaps and barriers that need to be addressed by future research, and to develop data-driven technical recommendations for code updates so that a common approach for combustion safety can be adopted by all members of the building energy efficiency and code communities.
This is a meeting overview of 'The Best Approach to Combustion Safety in a Direct Vent World', held June 28, 2012, in San Antonio, Texas. The objective of this Expert Meeting was to identify gaps and barriers that need to be addressed by future research, and to develop data-driven technical recommendations for code updates so that a common approach for combustion safety can be adopted by all members of the building energy efficiency and code communities.
Stanley, G. M.
This paper gives an overview of industrial applications of real-time knowledge based expert systems (KBES's) in the process industries. After a brief overview of the features of a KBES useful in process applications, the general roles of KBES's are covered. A particular focus is diagnostic applications, one of the major applications areas. Many applications are seen as an expansion of supervisory control. The lessons learned from numerous online applications are summarized.
Cardozo, E.; Talukdar, S.N.
This paper describes a hybrid approach to synthesizing solutions for diagnosis and set covering problems from the area of power system operations. The approach combines expert systems written in a rule-based language (OPS5) with algorithmic programs written in C and Lisp. An environment called DPSK has been developed to allow these programs to be run in parallel in a network of computers. Speeds sufficient for real-time applications can thereby be obtained.
Strohal, R; Assenheimer, B; Augustin, M; Hämmerle, G; Läuchli, S; Pundt, B; Stern, G; Storck, M; Ulrich, C
The challenges of modern wound management, such as the treatment of chronic wounds and their phase-specific handling, are demanding and require optimally adapted therapeutic measures. The principles of moist wound care as well as an adequate debridement have priority here. To support these necessary measures, different options are available, e.g., a new product group operating across several wound phases. A new treatment principle in modern wound management based on an expert consensus is presented. On the basis of clinical experience reports and published evidence, the current and new principles of wound treatment were discussed in a panel of experts and formulated as a consensus statement. Enzyme alginogels represent a combination of agents that allow phase-specific wound care. They exhibit autolytic, absorbent, and antimicrobial properties and simultaneously cover three components of wound management based on the TIME framework. Thus, according to the experts, they differ from other wound healing products and can be classified in a distinct product group. Clinical studies, as well as clinical experiences, provide evidence for the efficacy of enzyme alginogels. According to the experts, the potential of enzyme alginogels used considering the principles of moist wound care, comprises the three-fold effect (continuous and significantly simplified debridement, maintaining a moist wound environment and antimicrobial effect without cytotoxicity), the ease of use, and the flexible application. In addition, the flexibility of the product class regarding frequency of application, duration of treatment and combinability with secondary dressings, are of economic benefit in the health care sector.
Chen, Xiaoling; Chang, Jeffrey T
Bioinformatic analyses are becoming formidably more complex due to the increasing number of steps required to process the data, as well as the proliferation of methods that can be used in each step. To alleviate this difficulty, pipelines are commonly employed. However, pipelines are typically implemented to automate a specific analysis, and thus are difficult to use for exploratory analyses requiring systematic changes to the software or parameters used. To automate the development of pipelines, we have investigated expert systems. We created the Bioinformatics ExperT SYstem (BETSY) that includes a knowledge base where the capabilities of bioinformatics software is explicitly and formally encoded. BETSY is a backwards-chaining rule-based expert system comprised of a data model that can capture the richness of biological data, and an inference engine that reasons on the knowledge base to produce workflows. Currently, the knowledge base is populated with rules to analyze microarray and next generation sequencing data. We evaluated BETSY and found that it could generate workflows that reproduce and go beyond previously published bioinformatics results. Finally, a meta-investigation of the workflows generated from the knowledge base produced a quantitative measure of the technical burden imposed by each step of bioinformatics analyses, revealing the large number of steps devoted to the pre-processing of data. In sum, an expert system approach can facilitate exploratory bioinformatic analysis by automating the development of workflows, a task that requires significant domain expertise. https://github.com/jefftc/changlab. email@example.com. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
The proliferation of automatic test equipment (ATE) is resulting in the generation of large amounts of component data. Some of this component data is not accurate due to the presence of noise. Analyzing this data requires the use of new techniques. This paper describes the process of developing an expert system to analyze ATE data and provides an example rule in the CLIPS language for analyzing trip thresholds for high gain/high speed comparators.
Viterbi, Andrew J.; Jestin, Richard W.; Pelton, Joseph N.; Evans, Barry G.; Golding, Joseph
The paper presents the opinions of industry experts (from vendor organizations, service providers, research institutions, and international carriers) on the planned activities and future trends with regard to very-small-aperture terminals (VSATs). Consideration is given to technology, business, and applications issues. Included in the discussion are the impact of mobile satellite technology on VSAT products and markets, international VSAT applications and ISDN, the influence of OBP satellites, and the use of microterminals in Europe.
Koney, Nii; Roudenko, Alexandra; Ro, Maryann; Bahl, Sumeet; Kagen, Alexander
The evolving health care landscape demands a multidisciplinary approach to care and increased emphasis on patient engagement. Radiologists may play an important role in this respect, by improving patient agency and understanding through direct patient interaction. The purpose of this study is to assess patient preferences and perceptions regarding direct communication with radiologists, focusing on a medically underserved demographic. Our institutional review board approved this HIPAA-compliant study. English- and/or Spanish-speaking adults undergoing imaging studies across two tertiary-care hospitals and a busy outpatient center were surveyed over a consecutive two-month period, to assess knowledge of the role of a radiologist, interest in, and perceived benefits of reviewing examination results with imaging experts. A total of 628 surveys were completed: 20% of total respondents accurately identified the role of radiologists; 28% identified radiologists as doctors. A total of 68% of respondents expressed an interest in receiving imaging results immediately, or whenever results became available, regardless of when referring physicians received results. An interest in reviewing imaging results with an expert was indicated by 81% of respondents; 88% anticipated that reviewing imaging results with an expert would be beneficial. Although 58% of respondents indicated that they might be willing to pay out of pocket for such a service, 50% selected $0 when asked to indicate an amount. Although most patients do not know the role of radiologists, they want immediate results, and perceive value in consulting directly with imaging experts. Copyright © 2016 American College of Radiology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
EURATOM Basic Safety Standards (BSS) Directives have long included requirements for the involvement of qualified experts, the definition of which has scarcely changed since at least 1976. The Directive requirement, in the definition of qualified expert,, for competent authorities to recognise the capacity to act as a qualified expert has been interpreted by Member States in widely differing ways, ranging from the minimalist or case by case to the highly detailed and prescriptive. In the United Kingdom (UK), the qualified expert for occupational radiation protection is the radiation protection adviser and the competent authority is the Health and Safety Executive (HSE). The Ionising Radiations Regulations 1985, which largely implemented the 1980 BSS Directive, required an employer to appoint one or more radiation protection advisers for the purpose of advising him as to the observance of these Regulations and other health and safety matters in connection with ionising radiation. The Regulations addressed the question of recognition by forbidding an employer to appoint a person as a radiation protection adviser unless: that person was suitably qualified and experienced; the employer had notified the Health and Safety Executive in writing of the intended appointment at least 28 days in advance, giving the name of the person and particulars of his qualifications and experience and the scope of the advice he would be required to give; and the employer had received from HSE an acknowledgement in writing of the notification. This system allowed HSE to follow up and query any apparently unsuitable potential appointments while applying a light overall administrative touch. The Approved Code of Practice supporting the Regulations included advice on the qualifications, experience and qualities that the employer should look for in a suitable radiation protection adviser
Chen, Xiaoling; Chang, Jeffrey T.
Abstract Motivation: Bioinformatic analyses are becoming formidably more complex due to the increasing number of steps required to process the data, as well as the proliferation of methods that can be used in each step. To alleviate this difficulty, pipelines are commonly employed. However, pipelines are typically implemented to automate a specific analysis, and thus are difficult to use for exploratory analyses requiring systematic changes to the software or parameters used. Results: To automate the development of pipelines, we have investigated expert systems. We created the Bioinformatics ExperT SYstem (BETSY) that includes a knowledge base where the capabilities of bioinformatics software is explicitly and formally encoded. BETSY is a backwards-chaining rule-based expert system comprised of a data model that can capture the richness of biological data, and an inference engine that reasons on the knowledge base to produce workflows. Currently, the knowledge base is populated with rules to analyze microarray and next generation sequencing data. We evaluated BETSY and found that it could generate workflows that reproduce and go beyond previously published bioinformatics results. Finally, a meta-investigation of the workflows generated from the knowledge base produced a quantitative measure of the technical burden imposed by each step of bioinformatics analyses, revealing the large number of steps devoted to the pre-processing of data. In sum, an expert system approach can facilitate exploratory bioinformatic analysis by automating the development of workflows, a task that requires significant domain expertise. Availability and Implementation: https://github.com/jefftc/changlab Contact: email@example.com PMID:28052928
Bouat, M.; Godin, R.
CHOOZ-A Nuclear Power Plant, the first French-Belgian PWR unit (300 MWe) was definitively shut down at the end of October 1991, after 24 years in operation. Since summer 1991, the steering committee of the French (EDF) Lifetime Project has initiated a large inquiry to the different technical specialists of EDF and external organizations, trying to define a wide expert assessment program on this plant. The aim is to improve the knowledge of aging mechanisms such as those observed on the 52 PWR French nuclear power plants (900 and 1,300 MWe), and contribute to the validation of non-destructive in-service testing methods. This paper presents the retained CHOOZ-A expert assessment program and technical lines followed during its set up. First major project stages are described, then technical choices are explained, and at last the final program is presented with the specific content of each expert assessment. The definitive program is scheduled for a three year period starting at the moment of final shutdown license acquisition, with a provisional total budget of more than US $10 million
Wisse, Bram; Bedford, Tim; Quigley, John
Moment methods have been employed in decision analysis, partly to avoid the computational burden that decision models involving continuous probability distributions can suffer from. In the Bayes linear (BL) methodology prior judgements about uncertain quantities are specified using expectation (rather than probability) as the fundamental notion. BL provides a strong foundation for moment methods, rooted in work of De Finetti and Goldstein. The main objective of this paper is to discuss in what way expert assessments of moments can be combined, in a non-Bayesian way, to construct a prior assessment. We show that the linear pool can be justified in an analogous but technically different way to linear pools for probability assessments, and that this linear pool has a very convenient property: a linear pool of experts' assessments of moments is coherent if each of the experts has given coherent assessments. To determine the weights of the linear pool we give a method of performance based weighting analogous to Cooke's classical model and explore its properties. Finally, we compare its performance with the classical model on data gathered in applications of the classical model
Gobet, Fernand; Waters, Andrew J
A great deal of research has been devoted to developing process models of expert memory. However, K. J. Vicente and J. H. Wang (1998) proposed (a) that process theories do not provide an adequate account of expert recall in domains in which memory recall is a contrived task and (b) that a product theory, the constraint attunement hypothesis (CAH), has received a significant amount of empirical support. We compared 1 process theory (the template theory; TT; F. Gobet & H. A. Simon, 1996c) with the CAH in chess. Chess players (N=36) differing widely in skill levels were required to recall briefly presented chess positions that were randomized in various ways. Consistent with TT, but inconsistent with the CAH, there was a significant skill effect in a condition in which both the location and distribution of the pieces were randomized. These and other results suggest that process models such as TT can provide a viable account of expert memory in chess. ((c) 2003 APA, all rights reserved)
Hassan, Norlida; Arbaiy, Nureize; Shah, Noor Aziyan Ahmad; Afizah Afif@Afip, Zehan
Heart attack is one of the serious illnesses and reported as the main killer disease. Early prevention is significant to reduce the risk of having the disease. The prevention efforts can be strengthen through awareness and education about risk factor and healthy lifestyle. Therefore the knowledge dissemination is needed to play role in order to distribute and educate public in health care management and disease prevention. Since the knowledge dissemination in medical is important, there is a need to develop a knowledge based system that can emulate human intelligence to assist decision making process. Thereby, this study utilized hybrid artificial intelligence (AI) techniques to develop a Fuzzy Expert System for Diagnosing Heart Attack Disease (HAD). This system integrates fuzzy logic with expert system, which helps the medical practitioner and people to predict the risk and as well as diagnosing heart attack based on given symptom. The development of HAD is expected not only providing expert knowledge but potentially become one of learning resources to help citizens to develop awareness about heart-healthy lifestyle.
Wiesemann, J.S.; Maguire, H.T. Jr.
The age degradation of components involves a complex relationship between a variety of variables. These relationships are typically modeled using probabilistic and deterministic analyses. These methods depend upon a formal understanding of the underlying degradation mechanisms and a database of experience which allows statistical analyses to extract numerical trends. At present, not all age degradation mechanisms are adequately modeled and available data for age degradation is in most cases insufficient. In addition, these methods tend to focus upon answers to isolated questions (e.g., What is the component failure rate?) rather than the more pertinent questions concerning operations and maintenance (e.g., should the component be replaced at the next outage). Fortunately, knowledge in the form of personal experience does exist which allows plant personnel to make decisions concerning operations and maintenance. This knowledge can be modeled using expert systems. This paper discusses CAGES (Component Aging Expert System). It combines expert rules (heuristics), probabilistic models, and deterministic models to make evaluations of component aging; predict the implications for component life extension, operational readiness, maintenance effectiveness, and safety, and make recommendations for maintenance and operation
This is the ninth Technical Progress Report, describing work performed under DOE Contract No. (DE-FC2290PC896631) Development of a Coal Quality Expert.'' The contract is a Cooperative Agreement between the US Department of Energy, CQ Inc., and ABB Combustion Engineering, Inc. This report covers the period from April 1, through June 30, 1992. Four companies and seven host utilities have teamed with CQ Inc. and ABB/CE to perform the work on this project. The work falls under DOE's Clean Coal Technology Program category of Advanced Coal Cleaning.'' The 45-month project will provide the utility industry with a PC expert system to confidently and inexpensively evaluate the potential for coal cleaning blending, and switching options to reduce emissions while producing lowest cost electricity. Specifically, this project will: (1) Enhance the existing Coal Quality Information System (CQIS) database and. Coal Quality Impact Model (CQIM) to allow confident assessment of the effects of cleaning on specific boiler cost and performance. (2) Develop and validate a methodology, Coal Quality Expert (CQE) which allows accurate and detailed predictions of coal quality impacts on total power plant capital cost, operating cost, and performance based upon inputs from inexpensive bench-scale tests.
Singh, Harpreet; Singh, Reema; Malhotra, Arjun; Kaur, Manjit
Efficient identification of subject experts or expert communities is vital for the growth of any organization. Most of the available expert finding systems are based on self-nomination, which can be biased, and are unable to rank experts. Thus, the objective of this work was to develop a robust and unbiased expert finding system which can quantitatively measure expertise. Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) is a controlled vocabulary developed by the National Library of Medicine (NLM) for indexing research publications, articles and books. Using the MeSH terms associated with peer-reviewed articles published from India and indexed in PubMed, we developed a Web-based program which can be used to identify subject experts and subjects associated with an expert. We have extensively tested our system to identify experts from India in various subjects. The system provides a ranked list of experts where known experts rank at the top of the list. The system is general; since it uses information available with the PubMed, it can be implemented for any country. The expert finding system is able to successfully identify subject experts in India. Our system is unique because it allows the quantification of subject expertise, thus enabling the ranking of experts. Our system is based on peer-reviewed information. Use of MeSH terms as subjects has standardized the subject terminology. The system matches requirements of an ideal expert finding system.
Higher Education in the States, 1971
Because of the radical variance in residency requirements from state to state and sometimes from institution to institution, and because of several court cases involving this issue, the Education Commission of the States appointed a Committee to develop (1) a statement of principles for consideration in drafting legislation in connection with…
The residency training experience is the perfect environment for learning. The university/institution patient population provides a never-ending supply of patients with unique management challenges. Resources abound that allow the discovery of knowledge about similar situations. Senior teachers provide counseling and help direct appropriate care. Periodic testing and evaluations identify deficiencies, which can be corrected with future study. What happens, however, when the resident graduates? Do they possess all the knowledge they'll need for the rest of their career? Will medical discovery stand still limiting the need for future study? If initial certification establishes that the physician has the skills and knowledge to function as an independent physician and surgeon, how do we assure the public that plastic surgeons will practice lifelong learning and remain safe throughout their career? Enter Maintenance of Certification (MOC). In an ideal world, MOC would provide many of the same tools as residency training: identification of gaps in knowledge, resources to correct those deficiencies, overall assessment of knowledge, feedback about communication skills and professionalism, and methods to evaluate and improve one's practice. This article discusses the need; for education and self-assessment that extends beyond residency training and a commitment to lifelong learning. The American Board of Plastic Surgery MOC program is described to demonstrate how it helps the diplomate reach the goal of continuous practice improvement.
Walling, Anne; Nilsen, Kari; Callaway, Paul; Grothusen, Jill; Gillenwater, Cole; King, Samantha; Unruh, Gregory
The student costs of residency interviewing are of increasing concern but limited current information is available. Updated, more detailed information would assist students and residency programs in decisions about residency selection. The study objective was to measure the expenses and time spent in residency interviewing by the 2016 graduating class of the University of Kansas School of Medicine and assess the impact of gender, regional campus location, and primary care application. All 195 students who participated in the 2016 National Residency Matching Program (NRMP) received a 33 item questionnaire addressing interviewing activity, expenses incurred, time invested and related factors. Main measures were self-reported estimates of expenses and time spent interviewing. Descriptive analyses were applied to participant characteristics and responses. Multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) and chi-square tests compared students by gender, campus (main/regional), and primary care/other specialties. Analyses of variance (ANOVA) on the dependent variables provided follow-up tests on significant MANOVA results. A total of 163 students (84%) completed the survey. The average student reported 38 (1-124) applications, 16 (1-54) invitations, 11 (1-28) completed interviews, and spent $3,500 ($20-$12,000) and 26 (1-90) days interviewing. No significant differences were found by gender. After MANOVA and ANOVA analyses, non-primary care applicants reported significantly more applications, interviews, and expenditures, but less program financial support. Regional campus students reported significantly fewer invitations, interviews, and days interviewing, but equivalent costs when controlled for primary care application. Cost was a limiting factor in accepting interviews for 63% and time for 53% of study respondents. Students reported investing significant time and money in interviewing. After controlling for other variables, primary care was associated with significantly
Coleridge, S T
Medical writing and publications are important in developing a scholarly basis for residency programs and in providing a learning experience for both resident and faculty mentors. Residency directors must provide the stimulus and support for both faculty and residents' varied creative activities. This support manifests itself in a commitment to scholarly activity (including a dedicated research person), the procurement of available research materials, the establishment of a process or plan for beginning a research project, and the development of a method for rewarding or recognizing faculty and residents who produce scholarly works. Some osteopathic residency programs may need to train faculty in research skills at the same time that residents are learning to write. Trained faculty are better models and coaches for residents engaged in research. Beginning with a fundamental, but disciplined, writing program, both faculty and residents may learn methods for sharing new knowledge or acquiring those skills necessary to critically analyze the medical literature.
Champion, Caitlin; Saidenberg, Elianna; Lampron, Jacinthe; Pugh, Debra
Evidence-based transfusion education for surgical residents is crucial to improving practice. A pilot study was undertaken to assess the effectiveness of an education module for improving transfusion knowledge among surgical residents. Modules were developed and delivered by experts in surgery and transfusion medicine. They were delivered to residents in their first 2 years of training (Surgical Foundations), and to General Surgery residents across all years of training. Premodule and postmodule and retention knowledge assessments were used to assess efficacy. Median assessment scores for each group were compared using a two-sample Wilcoxon rank-sum analysis. Chi-square tests were used to compare each group's correct response rates for each question across the three tests. Median assessment scores of residents in the Surgical Foundations program improved from a mean of 60% premodule to 80% postmodule and remained at 80% in the retention assessment (p transfusion dose, preoperative blood management, management of reactions, and informed consent (p Transfusion knowledge of surgical residents was improved by a collaborative educational initiative. This could serve as a model for other training programs to improve resident knowledge of evidence-based transfusion practices. The efficacy of such interventions in changing practice remains untested. © 2017 AABB.
Guillén Astete, Carlos Antonio; de la Casa Resino, Cristina; Lucica Boteanu, Alina; Blázquez Cañamero, María de Los Ángeles; Braña Cardeñosa, Adela Florinda
To analyze the benefits of using a cooperative learning (CL) model to teach hospital residents doing rotations in the emergency department and to compare the CL approach to traditional training. Two training sessions on the same content were given by 2 expert instructors. A traditional method of instruction was used in one of the sessions and the CL model was used in the other. Immediately after the sessions and 3 months later, the residents took a multiple-choice test that was developed by a third expert. A control group of residents who had not attended either session also took the test. Twenty-one residents were in the CL group and 17 were in the traditional-training group. The mean (SD) scores on the examinations immediately after training were 8.81 (1.40) and 7.88 (1.26), in the CL and traditional groups, respectively (P=.0414). Three months later, the mean scores of these same residents retaking the examination and 32 control residents were as follows: CL group, 8.19 (1.12); traditional group, 7.00 (1.22); and control group, 6.37 (1.37) (P.05, traditional vs control). The CL approach proved superior to traditional training in terms of short- and medium-term retention of information. Although this is the first analysis of CL in this type of specialized medical training, extending its use in preparing medical residents working in emergency departments would seem to be justified.
Professor Fred Wegman is one of the world’s most respected road safety experts. Fred’s residency has focused on making our roads safer, looking at our roads, the vehicles, road users and travel speeds. This record contains his final lecture, completing his third and final visit to South Australia
Vink, Sylvia; van Tartwijk, Jan; Verloop, Nico; Gosselink, Manon; Driessen, Erik; Bolk, Jan
To determine the content of integrated curricula, clinical concepts and the underlying basic science concepts need to be made explicit. Preconstructed concept maps are recommended for this purpose. They are mainly constructed by experts. However, concept maps constructed by residents are
Vink, Sylvia; van Tartwijk, Jan; Verloop, Nico; Gosselink, Manon; Driessen, Erik; Bolk, Jan
To determine the content of integrated curricula, clinical concepts and the underlying basic science concepts need to be made explicit. Preconstructed concept maps are recommended for this purpose. They are mainly constructed by experts. However, concept maps constructed by residents are hypothesized to be less complex, to reveal more tacit basic…
Jansma, J.D.; Wagner, C.; Bijnen, A.B.
Objectives: To develop a patient safety course for medical residents based on the views of medical residents and their supervisors. Methods: In 2007, questionnaires were distributed to investigate residents' and supervisors' perspectives on the current patient safety performance and educational
Applying Artificial Intelligence technology to steam generator non-destructive examination (NDE) can help identify high risk locations in steam generators and can aid in preparing technical specification compliant eddy current test (ECT) programs. A steam Generator Inspection Planning Expert System has been developed which can assist NDE or utility personnel in planning ECT programs. This system represents and processes its information using an object oriented declarative knowledge base, heuristic rules, and symbolic information processing, three artificial intelligence based techniques incorporated in the design. The output of the system is an automated generation of ECT programs. Used in an outage inspection, this system significantly reduced planning time
Brito, J. de; Branco, F. A.; Thoft-Christensen, Palle
management systems are presently being implemented by bridge authorities in several countries. The prototype of an expert system for concrete bridge management is presented in this paper, with its functionality relying on two modules. The inspection module relies on a periodic acquisition of field......The importance of bridge repair versus new bridge construction has risen in recent decades due to high deterioration rates that have been observed in these structures. Budgets both for building new bridges and keeping the existing ones are always limited. To help rational decision-making, bridge...
D'Souza, Martin Giffy
Expert Oracle Application Express Plugins is your "go to" book on the groundbreaking plugin architecture introduced in Oracle Application Express 4.0. Using the new APEX functionality, you can create well-packaged, documented, reusable components and reliably leverage your coding investments across many applications. Components you create can define new item and region types, specify validation processes, and present dynamic actions to client applications. You can design innovative and colorful ways to display information, such as displaying the temperature using an image of a thermometer, or
Alapati, Sam R
Sam Alapati s Expert Oracle Database 11g Administration is a comprehensive handbook for Oracle database administrators (DBAs) using the latest release of the Oracle Database (Oracle Database 11g). All key aspects of database administration are covered, including backup and recovery, day to day administration and monitoring, performance tuning, and more. This is the one book to have on your desk as a continual reference. Refer to it frequently. It ll help you get the job done. * Comprehensive handbook for Oracle DBAs. Covers all major aspects of database administration. * Tests and explains in detail key DBA commands. * Offers primers on Linux/Unix, data modeling, SQL, and PL/SQL.
Carotenuto, M.; Corleto, P.; Landeyro, P.
The availability and suitability of technological information is of great importance in every kind of design task, especially when safety and reliability considerations are involved. In this paper an ''expert system for plant design'' (SEPI), is presented, together with its first application to nuclear back-end plants. This system is available on ENEA computer network. It is thought to be used both to collect know-how developed in the field and to assist unskilled designers during selection, evaluation and dimensioning tasks. It attemps to reproduce the normal way of ''reasoning'' and acting, and provides some graphic facilities
Reji, A.Y.; Rathakrishnan, S.; Das, R.; Krishnamohan, B.
This paper presents a broad conceptual picture for creating an expert system for PHWRs fuel management which can lead to an optimal choice among many possibilities. The main objective of fuel management is to meet optimally a large number of conflicting requirements viz maximum discharge burnup, optimum bundle power, maximum global power, optimum excess reactivity, clean core condition, predictive removal of channels prior to failure, balanced global flux/power distribution and ability to meet any other special requirement as when the situation demands it. (author). 5 refs., 1 fig
This report describes part of the development of an expert system in the domain of well-test analysis. This work has been done during my final internship, completed at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. The report is divided in three parts: the first one gives a description of the state of the project at the time I first began to work on it, and raises some problems that have to be solved. The second section shows the results that have been reached, and the last one draws conclusions from these results and proposes extensions that would be useful in the future
Jensen, Karsten Klint; Lassen, Jesper; Robinson, P.
. The paper reports a series of qualitative interviews with lay people and experts on zoonotic food risks. The interviews are used to reconstruct the values underlying some of the dominant perspectives. The conflict between these stylised perspectives is then analysed with the help of moral theory. Finally...... concepts of risk and hence are bound more or less to talk at cross-purposes. This paper suggests an alternative analysis: In the light of moral theory, the conflicting perspectives can be understood as a genuine moral conflict. When this conflict is conceptualised, a rational dialogue becomes possible...
Reis, Thiago; Barroso, Antonio C.O.; Baptista, Benedito Filho D., E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org, E-mail: email@example.com, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)
In this paper we present preliminary research on web search and crawling algorithm applied specifically to nuclear-related web information. We designed a web-based nuclear-oriented expert system guided by a web crawler algorithm and a neural network able to search and retrieve nuclear-related hyper textual web information in autonomous and massive fashion. Preliminary experimental results shows a retrieval precision of 80% for web pages related to any nuclear theme and a retrieval precision of 72% for web pages related only to nuclear power theme. (author)
Reis, Thiago; Barroso, Antonio C.O.; Baptista, Benedito Filho D.
In this paper we present preliminary research on web search and crawling algorithm applied specifically to nuclear-related web information. We designed a web-based nuclear-oriented expert system guided by a web crawler algorithm and a neural network able to search and retrieve nuclear-related hyper textual web information in autonomous and massive fashion. Preliminary experimental results shows a retrieval precision of 80% for web pages related to any nuclear theme and a retrieval precision of 72% for web pages related only to nuclear power theme. (author)
Rosenking, Jeffrey P.; Roth, Stefan P.
REACT (Rapid Expert Assessment to Counter Threats) is a prototype artificial intelligence system which is being developed at the Grumman Corporate Research Center. The purpose of REACT is to aid pilots in determining appropriate threat response strategies during combat situations. REACT is also being designed to monitor the state of the aircraft's onboard systems in order to offload the pilot from performing some of these tasks. REACT will notify the pilot during unusual circumstances which require some corrective actions to be taken. Our approach to carrying out these tasks is to develop individual, cooperating expert systems. The REACT experts are being designed to execute independently to obtain specified goals and they will also have the capability to share information using a blackboard model so that they can work collectively to solve problems as a single system.
Kolade, Victor O; Staton, Lisa J; Jayarajan, Ramesh; Bentley, Nanette K; Huang, Xiangke
The role of the internal medicine chief resident includes various administrative, academic, social, and educational responsibilities, fulfillment of which prepares residents for further leadership tasks. However, the chief resident position has historically only been held by a few residents. As fourth-year chief residents are becoming less common, we considered a new model for rotating third-year residents as the chief resident. Online surveys were given to all 29 internal medicine residents in a single university-based program after implementation of a leadership curriculum and specific job description for the third-year chief resident. Chief residents evaluated themselves on various aspects of leadership. Participation was voluntary. Descriptive statistics were generated using SPSS version 21. Thirteen junior (first- or second-year) resident responses reported that the chief residents elicited input from others (mean rating 6.8), were committed to the team (6.8), resolved conflict (6.7), ensured efficiency, organization and productivity of the team (6.7), participated actively (7.0), and managed resources (6.6). Responses from senior residents averaged 1 point higher for each item; this pattern repeated itself in teaching evaluations. Chief resident self-evaluators were more comfortable running a morning report (8.4) than with being chief resident (5.8). The feasibility of preparing internal medicine residents for leadership roles through a rotating PGY-3 (postgraduate year) chief residency curriculum was explored at a small internal medicine residency, and we suggest extending the study to include other programs.
Cremmins, Edward T.
Recommends use of entries from the information retrieval diary of Ted Crump, expert technical translator at the National Institute of Health, in the construction of computer models showing how expert translators solve problems of ambiguity in language. Expert and inexpert translation systems, eponyms, abbreviations, and alphabetic solutions are…
Duff, Jon M.
Presents current trends in the development of expert systems within the Department of the Navy, particularly research into expert graphics systems intended to support the Authoring Instructional Methods (AIM) research project. Defines artificial intelligence and expert systems. Discusses the operations and functions of the Navy's intelligent…
Madsen, Poul Thøis
It is well-known that economic experts (as well as other experts) are biased. However, it is not normally demonstrated systematically. By identifying and analyzing the viewpoints of the most quoted Danish expert on five characteristic debates bias is demonstrated. The character of the bias...
Furman, A.; Delgado, R.
The present work describes the analysis made to start with the development of an Expert System for the CAREM (SE) reactor's conduction. The following tasks are presented: a) purpose of the Expert System; b) Decision Making structure; c) Architecture of the Expert System; d) Description of Subsystems and e) Licensing. (Author) [es
Prominent figures believe that expert judgment must play a decisive role in implementing the NWPAA. A critical philosophical examination of this method is provided. Resolution of difficulties inherent to expert judgment reveals the adoption of equally problematic epistemological assumptions. A fresh approach which rejects the dichotomies bred by the controversy over the status of expert judgment is offered
Kiselev, N. N.; Kiseleva, E. V.
An analysis of pedagogical expert reviews at children's therapeutic recreation camps in Novosibirsk Region shows that it is necessary to implement an expert review system that plays a supporting and developmental role. Such a system should allow teams of teachers to submit their work to expert review and to move forward by reflecting on their…
Ito, Takayuki; Yokoo, Makoto; Matsubara, Shigeo
Auctions have become an integral part of electronic commerce and a promising field for applying multi-agent technologies. Correctly judging the quality of auctioned goods is often difficult for amateurs, in particular, in Internet auctions. However, experts can correctly judge the quality of goods. In this situation, it is difficult to make experts tell the truth and attain an efficient allocation, since experts have a clear advantage over amateurs and they would not reveal their valuable information without some reward. In our previous work, we have succeeded in developing such auction protocols under the following two cases: (1) the case of a single-unit auction among experts and amateurs, and (2) the case of a combinatorial auction among single-skilled experts and amateurs. In this paper, we focus on versatile experts. Versatile experts have an interest in, and expert knowledge on the qualities of several goods. In the case of versatile experts, there would be several problems, e.g., free riding problems, if we simply extended the previous VCG-style auction protocol. Thus, in this paper, we employ PORF (price-oriented, rationing-free) protocol for designing our new protocol to realize a strategy-proof auction protocol for experts. In the protocol, the dominant strategy for experts is truth-telling. Also, for amateurs, truth-telling is the best response when two or more experts select the dominant strategy. Furthermore, the protocol is false-name-proof.
Abreha Mesele Zinabu
The Reception of Incriminating Expert Evidence (i.e., Forensic Science) in Four. Adversarial Jurisdictions. University of Denver Criminal Law Review, Vol. 3, pp 31-109. 9 This is all about competence where it incorporates both the relevance of the qualification and the capability of the expert to provide the expert testimony.
Warby, Simon C.; Wendt, Sabrina Lyngbye; Welinder, Peter
to crowdsource spindle identification by human experts and non-experts, and we compared their performance with that of automated detection algorithms in data from middle- to older-aged subjects from the general population. We also refined methods for forming group consensus and evaluating the performance...... that crowdsourcing the scoring of sleep data is an efficient method to collect large data sets, even for difficult tasks such as spindle identification. Further refinements to spindle detection algorithms are needed for middle- to older-aged subjects....
The validation and evaluation of an expert system for traffic control in highway work zones (TRANZ) is described. The stages in the evaluation process consisted of the following: revisit the experts, selectively distribute copies of TRANZ with docume...
Diagnostic is an intelligent act which means recognition of offnormal and identification of cause of plant. In the diagnosis process the operator has an image of the system in his mind by education, training, experience and makes use of his reasoning capacity. The lack of a centralized system to take into consideration the overall available data may lead to unnecessary shutdowns because of false alarms. It will be difficult all automatization of diagnosis instead of man, especially automatization of operator's diagnosis process. The solution would be a computerized operator support system to assist the operator in decision making. The paper brings into attention the use of an expert system for diagnosis in nuclear power plants and draws a global overview of such a system. As it is known an expert system consists in a resolution system (application independent) a knowledge base (representation of knowledge in declarative form) and a communication system. The system input consists in measured data from the process. This data are compared with rule conditions and associated actions are executed. The system provides a classification of possible diagnostics in the decreased order of certainty factors
M. Sarath Kumar
Full Text Available Modern rotating machines such as turbomachines, either produce or absorb huge amount of power. Some of the common applications are: steam turbine-generator and gas turbine-compressor-generator trains produce power and machines, such as pumps, centrifugal compressors, motors, generators, machine tool spindles, etc., are being used in industrial applications. Condition-based maintenance of rotating machinery is a common practice where the machine's condition is monitored constantly, so that timely maintenance can be done. Since modern machines are complex and the amount of data to be interpreted is huge, we need precise and fast methods in order to arrive at the best recommendations to prevent catastrophic failure and to prolong the life of the equipment. In the present work using vibration characteristics of a rotor-bearing system, the condition of a rotating machinery (electrical rotor is predicted using an off-line expert system. The analysis of the problem is carried out in an Object Oriented Programming (OOP framework using the finite element method. The expert system which is also developed in an OOP paradigm gives the type of the malfunctions, suggestions and recommendations. The system is implemented in C++.
Rahmani Katigari, Meysam; Ayatollahi, Haleh; Malek, Mojtaba; Kamkar Haghighi, Mehran
To design a fuzzy expert system to help detect and diagnose the severity of diabetic neuropathy. The research was completed in 2014 and consisted of two main phases. In the first phase, the diagnostic parameters were determined based on the literature review and by investigating specialists' perspectives ( n = 8). In the second phase, 244 medical records related to the patients who were visited in an endocrinology and metabolism research centre during the first six months of 2014 and were primarily diagnosed with diabetic neuropathy, were used to test the sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of the fuzzy expert system. The final diagnostic parameters included the duration of diabetes, the score of a symptom examination based on the Michigan questionnaire, the score of a sign examination based on the Michigan questionnaire, the glycolysis haemoglobin level, fasting blood sugar, blood creatinine, and albuminuria. The output variable was the severity of diabetic neuropathy which was shown as a number between zero and 10, had been divided into four categories: absence of the disease, (the degree of severity) mild, moderate, and severe. The interface of the system was designed by ASP.Net (Active Server Pages Network Enabled Technology) and the system function was tested in terms of sensitivity (true positive rate) (89%), specificity (true negative rate) (98%), and accuracy (a proportion of true results, both positive and negative) (93%). The system designed in this study can help specialists and general practitioners to diagnose the disease more quickly to improve the quality of care for patients.
Paal, Piret; Frick, Eckhard; Roser, Traugott; Jobin, Guy
This article elaborates on the hazards of spiritual history taking. It provides expert insights to consider before entering the field. In summer 2012, a group of spiritual care experts were invited to discuss the complexity of taking spiritual histories in a manner of hermeneutic circle. Thematic analysis was applied to define the emerging themes. The results demonstrate that taking a spiritual history is a complex and challenging task, requiring a number of personal qualities of the interviewer, such as 'being present', 'not only hearing, but listening', 'understanding the message beyond the words uttered', and 'picking up the words to respond'. To 'establish a link of sharing', the interviewer is expected 'to go beyond the ethical stance of neutrality'. The latter may cause several dilemmas, such as 'fear of causing more problems', 'not daring to take it further', and above all, 'being ambivalent about one's role'. Interviewer has to be careful in terms of the 'patient's vulnerability'. To avoid causing harm, it is essential to propose 'a follow-up contract' that allows responding to 'patient's yearning for genuine care'. These findings combined with available literature suggest that the quality of spiritual history taking will remain poor unless the health-care professionals revise the meaning of spirituality and the art of caring on individual level.
Expert Oracle SQL: Optimization, Deployment, and Statistics is about optimizing individual SQL statements, especially on production database systems. This Oracle-specific book begins by assuming you have already identified a particular SQL statement and are considering taking steps to improve its performance. The book describes a systematic process by which to diagnose a problem statement, identify a fix, and to implement that fix safely in a production system. You'll learn not only to improve performance when it is too slow, but also to stabilize performance when it is too variable. You'll learn about system statistics and how the Cost-Based Optimizer uses them to determine a suitable execution plan for a given statement. That knowledge provides the foundation from which to identify the root cause, and to stabilize and improve performance. Next after identifying a problem and the underlying root cause is to put in place a solution. Expert Oracle SQL: Optimization, Deployment, and Statistics explains how to ...
Department of Homeland Security — Lawful permanet residents (LPRs) are foreign nationals who have been gratned the right to reside permanently in the United States. LPRs are also known as 'permanent...
Department of Homeland Security — Lawful permanent residents (LPRs) are foreign nationals who have been granted the right to reside permanently in the United States. LPRs are also known as 'permanent...
Department of Homeland Security — Lawful permanent residents (LPRs) are foreign nationals who have been granted the right to reside permanently in the United States. LPRs are also known as 'permanent...
Department of Homeland Security — Lawful permanent residents (LPRs) are foreign nationals who have been granted the right to reside permanently in the United States. LPRs are also known as 'permanent...
Hafner, John W. Jr., MD, MPH
Full Text Available Study Objectives: Although other specialties have examined the role of the chief resident (CR, the role and training of the emergency medicine (EM CR has largely been undefined.Methods: A survey was mailed to all EM CRs and their respective program directors (PD in 124 EM residency programs. The survey consisted of questions defining demographics, duties of the typical CR, and opinions regarding the level of support and training received. Multiple choice, Likert scale (1 strong agreement, 5 strong disagreement and short-answer responses were used. We analyzed associations between CR and PD responses using Chi-square, Student’s T and Mann-Whitney U tests.Results: Seventy-six percent of CRs and 65% of PDs responded and were similar except for age (31 vs. 42 years; p<0.001. CR respondents were most often male, in year 3 of training and held the position for 12 months. CRs and PDs agreed that the assigned level of responsibility is appropriate (2.63 vs. 2.73, p=0.15; but CRs underestimate their influence in the residency program (1.94 vs. 2.34, p=0.002 and the emergency department (2.61 vs. 3.03, p=0.002. The majority of CRs (70% and PDs (77% report participating in an extramural training program, and those CRs who participated in training felt more prepared for their job duties (2.26 vs. 2.73; p=0.03.Conclusion: EM CRs feel they have appropriate job responsibility but believe they are less influential in program and department administration than PD respondents. Extramural training programs for incoming CRs are widely used and felt to be helpful. [West J Emerg Med. 2010; 11(2:120-125.
Lee, Young Hee; Lee, Young-Mee; Kwon, Hyo Jin
The purpose of this study was to describe the development of a code of professional conduct that should be practiced by medical students and residents. The content of a draft version of a code of professional conduct was generated through extensive literature reviews and the results of surveys that were administered to students and residents. The content validity for the draft version was reviewed by an expert panel: five experts in medical ethics and eight specialists in medical education. The survey was distributed as an email questionnaire and included closed-ended items and open comments. SPSS for Windows version 12.0 (SPSS Inc.) was used for the analysis. After analyzing the experts' reviews and holding a reiterative discussion, we developed the final version of a code of conduct for professional behavior. It consists of nine categories and 44 items for students and 44 items for residents. The nine categories were academic integrity, responsibility during clerkship or hospital work, endeavor to improve clinical competency, respect for patients and keeping confidentiality, honesty in patient care, boundary issues and conflicts of interests, impaired physician behaviors, respect for others, and research ethics. Because our code of conduct for professional behaviors cannot extensively include all aspects of medical professionalism, we focused on behaviors that can be used to monitor and prevent misconduct by medical learners. Further studies and discourse among stakeholders should be performed to develop a national consensus statement or code of conduct to reinforce professionalism for learners in medicine.
Carson, Savanna L; Perkins, Kate; Reilly, Maura R; Sim, Myung-Shin; Li, Su-Ting T
Residency program leaders are required to support resident well-being, but often do not receive training in how to do so. Determine frequency in which program leadership provides support for resident well-being, comfort in supporting resident well-being, and factors associated with need for additional training in supporting resident well-being. National cross-sectional web-based survey of pediatric program directors, associate program directors, and coordinators in June 2015, on their experience supporting resident well-being. Univariate and bivariate descriptive statistics compared responses between groups. Generalized linear modeling, adjusting for program region, size, program leadership role, and number of years in role determined factors associated with need for additional training. 39.3% (322/820) of participants responded. Most respondents strongly agreed that supporting resident well-being is an important part of their role, but few reported supporting resident well-being as part of their job description. Most reported supporting residents' clinical, personal, and health issues at least annually, and in some cases weekly, with 72% spending >10% of their time on resident well-being. Most program leaders desired more training. After adjusting for level of comfort in dealing with resident well-being issues, program leaders more frequently exposed to resident well-being issues were more likely to desire additional training (pProgram leaders spend a significant amount of time supporting resident well-being. While they feel that supporting resident well-being is an important part of their job, opportunities exist for developing program leaders through including resident wellness on job descriptions and training program leaders how to support resident well-being. Copyright © 2018 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Taylor, David R; Park, Yoon Soo; Smith, Christopher A; Karpinski, Jolanta; Coke, William; Tekian, Ara
Competency-based medical education has not advanced residency training as much as many observers expected. Some medical educators now advocate reorienting competency-based approaches to focus on a resident's ability to do authentic clinical work. To develop descriptions of clinical work for which internal medicine residents must gain proficiency to deliver meaningful patient care (for example, "Admit and manage a medical inpatient with a new acute problem"). A modified Delphi process involving clinical experts followed by a conference of educational experts. The Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Canada. In phase 1 of the project, members of the Specialty Committee for Internal Medicine participated in a modified Delphi process to identify activities in internal medicine that represent the scope of the specialty. In phase 2 of the project, 5 experts who were scholars and leaders in competency-based medical education reviewed the results. Phase 1 identified important activities, revised descriptions to improve accuracy and avoid overlap, and assigned activities to stages of training. Phase 2 compared proposed activity descriptions with published guidelines for their development and application in medical education. The project identified 29 activities that qualify as entrustable professional activities. The project also produced a detailed description of each activity and guidelines for using them to assess residents. These activities reflect the practice patterns of the developers and may not fully represent internal medicine practice in Canada. Identification of these activities is expected to facilitate modification of training and assessment programs for medical residents so that programs focus less on isolated skills and more on integrated tasks. Southeastern Ontario Academic Medical Organization Endowed Scholarship and Education Fund and Queen's University Department of Medicine Innovation Fund.
Huh, Young Hwan; Kim, Yeong Jin; Park, Nam Seog; Dong, In Sook; Choi, In Seon
The application of artificial intelligence techniques to nuclear power plants such as expert systems is rapidly emerging. expert systems can contribute significantly to the availability and the improved operation and safety of nuclear power plants. The objective of the project is to develop an expert system in a selected application area in the nuclear power plants. This project will last for 3 years. The first year's tasks are: - Information collection and literature survey on expert systems. - Analysis of several applicable areas for applying AI technologies to the nuclear power plants. - Conceptual design of a few selected domains. - Selection of hardware and software tools for the development of the expert system
Paris, Cecile L.
Our work in Explainable Expert Systems (EES) had two goals: to extend and enhance the range of explanations that expert systems can offer, and to ease their maintenance and evolution. As suggested in our proposal, these goals are complementary because they place similar demands on the underlying architecture of the expert system: they both require the knowledge contained in a system to be explicitly represented, in a high-level declarative language and in a modular fashion. With these two goals in mind, the Explainable Expert Systems (EES) framework was designed to remedy limitations to explainability and evolvability that stem from related fundamental flaws in the underlying architecture of current expert systems.
The article investigates why journalists choose to use experts as sources in their news coverage and the nature of the interaction of experts and journalists. During a month-long period in 2003, both journalists and experts were contacted on the day a news article appearing in one of the three...... largest national Danish newspapers referred to experts. In the vast majority of the cases, the contact comes as the result of initiatives taken by the journalists (approximately 90% of the cases), not the other way around (1 — 2% of the cases). Relatively active interaction proceeds between experts...
.... For purposes of this section: (1) A resident of a State is one: (i) Who is living in the State... resident of the State in which he or she is living other than on a temporary basis. Residence may not depend upon the reason for which the individual entered the State, except insofar as it may bear upon...
Geeta, M G; Krishnakumar, P
The present study evaluated the perceptions and practice of 92 final year pediatric residents with regard to breaking bad news. Only 16% of residents had received any training in communication skills. Majority (65%) of the residents were not comfortable while breaking bad news.
... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Residence. 325.3 Section 325.3 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY NATIONALITY REGULATIONS NATIONALS BUT NOT CITIZENS OF THE UNITED STATES; RESIDENCE WITHIN OUTLYING POSSESSIONS § 325.3 Residence. (a) For purposes of applying the...
Waineo, Eva; Arfken, Cynthia L.; Morreale, Mary K.
Objective: This report discusses psychiatric residents' perceptions of sexual health education and their opinions regarding curricular improvements. Methods: An anonymous, web-based survey was sent to residents in one general psychiatry program (N = 33). The response rate was 69.7%. Results: Residents reported inadequate experience in multiple…
Baur, V.E.; Abma, T.A.; Boelsma, F.; Woelders, S.
Resident involvement in residential care homes is a challenge due to shortcomings of consumerist and formal approaches such as resident councils. The PARTNER approach aims to involve residents through collective action to improve their community life and wellbeing. The purpose of this article is to
... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Principal residence. 206.39 Section... CONVERSION MORTGAGE INSURANCE Eligibility; Endorsement Eligible Mortgagors § 206.39 Principal residence. The property must be the principal residence of each mortgagor at closing. For purposes of this section, the...
... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Residence. 700.97 Section 700.97 Indians THE OFFICE OF NAVAJO AND HOPI INDIAN RELOCATION COMMISSION OPERATIONS AND RELOCATION PROCEDURES General Policies and Instructions Definitions § 700.97 Residence. (a) Residence is established by proving that the head of household...
van der Heijden, Frank; Dillingh, Gea; Bakker, Arnold; Prins, Jelle
Objectives: Recent research showed that medical residents have a high risk for developing burnout. The present study investigates the prevalence of burnout and its relationship with suicidal thoughts among medical residents. Methods: All Dutch medical residents (n = 5126) received a self-report
Polreis, Sean; D'Eon, Marcel F.; Premkumar, Kalyani; Trinder, Krista; Bonnycastle, Deirdre
Resident doctors have an important and integral responsibility of teaching a number of individuals. The purpose of this study was to measure the effectiveness of the University of Saskatchewan's resident-as-teacher training course--Teaching Improvement Project Systems (TIPS). Residents who attended the TIPS course from January, 2010 through June,…
Andersen, Nina Blom
The article presents an analysis of communication processes between residents, between residents and people in the broader societal context as well as of media coverage of a fireworks disaster in a Danish suburb. It demonstrates how residents (all members of the Danish middle class) were able...
Gibson, H.; Stewart, I. S.; Stokes, A.; Pahl, S.
In communicating geoscience topics, emphasis is often given to approaches such as the use of narrative to make a message engaging and reducing the use of jargon to ensure that it is understood by as wide a group of people as possible. Whilst these are undeniably important techniques to promote effective communication, an aspect of geoscience communication that is often overlooked is the publics' conceptual frameworks about core geoscience concepts. The consideration of different conceptual frameworks fits with the need to ensure that the framing is appropriate for the message, but it extends beyond simple framing into more complicated issues of addressing and incorporating pre- and mis-conceptions in geoscience. In a study examining expert and non-expert cognitive (mental) models of the geological subsurface in south-west England, several gaps were found between the fundamental ways that experts and non-experts conceptualise this invisible realm. Of these, three gaps were considered to be particularly important and common to many participants: the use of spatial reasoning; the application of surface experiences to subsurface processes; and the connection between the surface and subsurface. This paper will examine the evidence for these three important conceptual gaps between specialists and non-specialists and will address how this type of cognitive study can help improve effective geoscience communication.
In Jones v Kaney  2 AC 398, the United Kingdom Supreme Court held that in England and Wales (but not in Scotland), clients can sue expert witnesses in negligence and/or contract for work performed under their retainer, whether in civil or criminal trials. The duties of expert witnesses in England are regulated by the Civil Procedure Rules and Protocols; the former also regulate the conduct of cases involving expert opinions. The legal context that led to the litigation is examined in the light of these rules, in particular, the nature of the allegations against Dr Kaney, a psychologist retained to provide psychiatric opinion. Jones v Kaney, as a decision of the United Kingdom Supreme Court, is not a binding precedent in Australia. However, unlike statutory enactments, common law judgments are retrospective in their operation, which means that health care practitioners who follow a generally accepted practice today may still be sued for damages by their patients or clients in the future. By definition, the future, including the refusal by the Australian High Court to follow Kaney's abolition of expert witnesses' immunity from suit for breach of duty to their clients, cannot be predicted with certainty. Consequently, health care practitioners in Australia and other countries should be aware of the case, its jurisprudential and practical ramifications.
The goal of this study was to determine how Finnish energy policies are realised and the attitudes of consumers regarding energy issues. Further research was done to study if the attitudes of residents and their behaviour regarding energy issues are inter-related. A goal was also to study if place of residence affects attitudes and behaviour. Are residents willing to improve their efficiency in terms of energy consumption? The range of applied research methods was diverse. A literature review was performed and experts operating in the energy industry were interviewed. Ordinary energy consumers, i.e. residents, were studied using interviews and measurements and by forming consumer panels. Content analysis and statistical methods were used for analysing the results. Based on this study, Finland should strive to utilise more diverse energy sources and engage in closer co-operation with different stakeholders. Resident attitudes on energy matters must be influenced. The most effective influencing methods are peer groups, communication, media, training and education, perceptions and visions. Age and the location of residence influence people's attitudes and behaviour with respect to energy issues, whereas their life satisfaction level does not. For example, research subjects that reside in a more densely populated suburban area are more concerned with climate change and more willing to give up driving than research subjects that live in more scarcely populated residential areas. Residents are willing to improve their energy behaviour, although young and elderly people are more willing to make environmentally friendly choices than the middle-aged demographic. There is a gap that needs to be bridged between attitudes and behaviour. If the attitudes of residents were to become more active and positive towards energy, they could lead to the desired energy-efficient behaviour. This study does not aim to make generalisations regarding Finns. Instead, it wishes to explain
Most judges, by the very nature of their educational background, are less than sufficiently prepared for the task to fully comprehend the problems in disputes concerning scientific subjects. Judicial cognizance in such matters gives no support. The judge has no recourse but to rely on Expert Evidence. However, such evidence, especially in the adversarial system, requires the ability to evaluate it. Back to square one? Almost. The Israeli court borrowed, and followed for many years, the American solution - the Frye Principle (Frye v. United States, 54 App.D.C. at 47, 293 F. 1013 (1923) 1014) - "the thing from which the deduction is made must be sufficiently established to have gained general acceptance in the particular field in which it belongs " - meaning that an Expert's view is held as true if proven that it had been held by "the scientific community." This solution presented an almost insurmountable problem for novel scientific ideas. The were also exceptions - several Israeli Courts made the rather difficult task of examining the Experts' "working papers", i.e. the "crude" data on which he based his deductions. The model of such effort seems to be the English decision, by Stuart-Smith LJ in Loveday v Renton and Wellcome Foundation Ltd. ( (QBD) 1 Med Law Review, 1990:117). Seventy years after Frye the U.S. Supreme Court reviewed the subject of evaluation of scientific evidence. The new requirements were "... (1) ... whether the theory or technique can be and has been tested; (2) ... whether the theory or technique has been subjected to peer review ... (3) ... the known or potential rate of error of[the] technique; (4) [no requirement of] a particular degree of acceptance of the theory or technique within that [scientific] community, ... and (5) the inquiry is a flexible one, and the focus must be solely on principles and methodology, not on the conclusions that such principles and methodology generate ". Namely - the Judge, guided by intelligence and logic, is
Leeuwenburgh, Marjolein M.N., E-mail: email@example.com [Department of Surgery, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam (Netherlands); Department of Radiology, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam (Netherlands); Wiarda, Bart M. [Department of Radiology, Alkmaar Medical Center, Alkmaar (Netherlands); Jensch, Sebastiaan [Department of Radiology, Sint Lucas Andreas Hospital, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Wouter van Es, H. [Department of Radiology, Sint Antonius Hospital, Nieuwegein (Netherlands); Stockmann, Hein B.A.C. [Department of Surgery, Kennemer Gasthuis, Haarlem (Netherlands); Gratama, Jan Willem C. [Department of Radiology, Gelre Hospitals, Apeldoorn (Netherlands); Cobben, Lodewijk P.J. [Department of Radiology, Haaglanden Medical Center, Leidschendam (Netherlands); Bossuyt, Patrick M.M. [Department of Clinical Epidemiology, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam (Netherlands); Boermeester, Marja A. [Department of Surgery, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam (Netherlands); Stoker, Jaap [Department of Radiology, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam (Netherlands)
Objective: To compare accuracy and interobserver agreement between radiologists with limited experience in the evaluation of abdominal MRI (non-experts), and radiologists with longer MR reading experience (experts), in reading MRI in patients with suspected appendicitis. Methods: MR imaging was performed in 223 adult patients with suspected appendicitis and read independently by two members of a team of eight MR-inexperienced radiologists, who were trained with 100 MR examinations previous to this study (non-expert reading). Expert reading was performed by two radiologists with a larger abdominal MR experience (>500 examinations) in consensus. A final diagnosis was assigned after three months based on all available information, except MRI findings. We estimated MRI sensitivity and specificity for appendicitis and for all urgent diagnoses separately. Interobserver agreement was evaluated using kappa statistics. Results: Urgent diagnoses were assigned to 147 of 223 patients; 117 had appendicitis. Sensitivity for appendicitis was 0.89 by MR-non-expert radiologists and 0.97 in MR-expert reading (p = 0.01). Specificity was 0.83 for MR-non-experts versus 0.93 for MR-expert reading (p = 0.002). MR-experts and MR-non-experts agreed on appendicitis in 89% of cases (kappa 0.78). Accuracy in detecting urgent diagnoses was significantly lower in MR-non-experts compared to MR-expert reading: sensitivity 0.84 versus 0.95 (p < 0.001) and specificity 0.71 versus 0.82 (p = 0.03), respectively. Agreement on urgent diagnoses was 83% (kappa 0.63). Conclusion: MR-non-experts have sufficient sensitivity in reading MRI in patients with suspected appendicitis, with good agreement with MR-expert reading, but accuracy of MR-expert reading was higher.
Leeuwenburgh, Marjolein M.N.; Wiarda, Bart M.; Jensch, Sebastiaan; Wouter van Es, H.; Stockmann, Hein B.A.C.; Gratama, Jan Willem C.; Cobben, Lodewijk P.J.; Bossuyt, Patrick M.M.; Boermeester, Marja A.; Stoker, Jaap
Objective: To compare accuracy and interobserver agreement between radiologists with limited experience in the evaluation of abdominal MRI (non-experts), and radiologists with longer MR reading experience (experts), in reading MRI in patients with suspected appendicitis. Methods: MR imaging was performed in 223 adult patients with suspected appendicitis and read independently by two members of a team of eight MR-inexperienced radiologists, who were trained with 100 MR examinations previous to this study (non-expert reading). Expert reading was performed by two radiologists with a larger abdominal MR experience (>500 examinations) in consensus. A final diagnosis was assigned after three months based on all available information, except MRI findings. We estimated MRI sensitivity and specificity for appendicitis and for all urgent diagnoses separately. Interobserver agreement was evaluated using kappa statistics. Results: Urgent diagnoses were assigned to 147 of 223 patients; 117 had appendicitis. Sensitivity for appendicitis was 0.89 by MR-non-expert radiologists and 0.97 in MR-expert reading (p = 0.01). Specificity was 0.83 for MR-non-experts versus 0.93 for MR-expert reading (p = 0.002). MR-experts and MR-non-experts agreed on appendicitis in 89% of cases (kappa 0.78). Accuracy in detecting urgent diagnoses was significantly lower in MR-non-experts compared to MR-expert reading: sensitivity 0.84 versus 0.95 (p < 0.001) and specificity 0.71 versus 0.82 (p = 0.03), respectively. Agreement on urgent diagnoses was 83% (kappa 0.63). Conclusion: MR-non-experts have sufficient sensitivity in reading MRI in patients with suspected appendicitis, with good agreement with MR-expert reading, but accuracy of MR-expert reading was higher
Delaigue, D.; Grundstein, M.
The French multinational nuclear energy world leader, Framatome, has designed and installed more than 40000 MWe of power in both France and abroad using Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) technology. The French nuclear program ranks as one of the most successful in the world. In 1983, Framatome entered the Applied Artificial Intelligence (A.I.) field by setting up FRAMENTEC S.A., a joint venture with TEKNOWLEDGE Inc. Today, Framentec is a wholly-owned subsidiary of Framatome and is among the leading European companies specializing in Applied Artificial Intelligence. Framatome now has a 7.5% stake in Teknowledge Inc. The main applications in the nuclear industry can be summarized as follows: quality assurance; design of systems subject to extreme operating conditions; maintenance of complex systems; control of complex phenomenon producing high velocity transients; expert advice in multiple fields; compliance with complex regulations; high-skill personnel requirements; heavy financial investments
Hashemi, S.; Patterson, L.; Jeffery, M.; Delashmutt, L.
The PLEXSYS software engineering tool provides an environment with which utility engineers can build and use expert systems for power plant applications. PLEXSYS provides the engineer with access to many powerful Artificial Intelligence methodologies, while retaining an engineering frame of reference and minimizing the need for a formal background in computer science. The principle concept is that the description and understanding of power plant systems centers on graphical forms such as piping and instrumentation diagrams and electrical line diagrams, which define a graphics-based model of plant knowledge that is common to many applications. PLEXSYS provides a model editor that allows the user to construct and modify models of hydraulic, electrical, and information systems in terms of elementary components and their interconnections. Analysis of the resulting schematic models is provided by several functions that perform network analysis, schematic browsing, mathematical modeling and customization of the user interface. 41 figs., 1 tab
Many US Department of Energy sites and facilities will be environmentally remediated during the next several decades. A number of the restoration activities (e.g., decontamination and decommissioning of inactive nuclear facilities) can only be carried out by remote means and will be manipulation-intensive tasks. Experience has shown that manipulation tasks are especially slow and fatiguing for the human operator of a remote manipulator. In this paper, the authors present a rule-based expert system for automated, dextrous robotic grasping. This system interprets the features of an object to generate hand shaping and wrist orientation for a robot hand and arm. The system can be used in several different ways to lessen the demands on the human operator of a remote manipulation system - either as a fully autonomous grasping system or one that generates grasping options for a human operator and then automatically carries out the selected option
Benoist, P.; Besnard, R.; Bayon, G.; Boutaine, J.L.
C.E.A. has developed an original tool, a N.D.E software running on a workstation, able to handle different types of files: ultrasonics, eddy current, radiography, neutronography. The system is based on the experience of different SACLAY's laboratories and the different experts have brought their competence and knowledge in order to build this new software. Following the SPARTACUS approach, this tool allows to superpose images issued from various N.D.E. acquisitions. Modeling is directly integrated to the system, which permits to combine simulation and processing displays. 3 D imaging, signal processing and direct convolution of the data are also available. This software, named CIVA, improves the capacities of the N.D.E.; different examples of applications are shown, either for industrial or industrial applications. (authors) 6 refs., 14 figs
Mamdani, A.; Efstathiou, J.
This report brings together recent developments both in expert systems and in optimisation, and deals with current applications in industry. Part One is concerned with Artificial Intellegence in planning and scheduling and with rule-based control implementation. The tasks of control maintenance, rescheduling and planning are each discussed in relation to new theoretical developments, techniques available, and sample applications. Part Two covers model based control techniques in which the control decisions are used in a computer model of the process. Fault diagnosis, maintenance and trouble-shooting are just some of the activities covered. Part Three contains case studies of projects currently in progress, giving details of the software available and the likely future trends. One of these, on qualitative plant modelling as a basis for knowledge-based operator aids in nuclear power stations is indexed separately. (author)
Ojczyk, C. [Univ. of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN (United States); Huelman, P. [Univ. of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN (United States); Carmody, J. [Univ. of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN (United States)
The NorthernSTAR Building America Partnership held an expert meeting on Foundations–Research Results on November 15, 2011, in Minneapolis, MN. Audience participation was actively encouraged during each presentation to uncover needs and promote dialog among researchers and industry professionals. Key results were: greater understanding of the role of moisture transport through foundation and insulation materials and its potential impact on building durability; greater understanding of the role of foundation type in the process of selecting an insulation system for energy performance and building durability; need for research to quantify the risks associated with insulation processes to better enable users to weigh costs and benefits against the existing conditions of a home; need for improved performance modeling capabilities that address variations in foundation types and soil conditions.
Gobet, F; Simon, H A
After reviewing the relevant theory on chess expertise, this paper re-examines experimentally the finding of Chase and Simon (1973a) that the differences in ability of chess players at different skill levels to copy and to recall positions are attributable to the experts' storage of thousands of chunks (patterned clusters of pieces) in long-term memory. Despite important differences in the experimental apparatus, the data of the present experiments regarding latencies and chess relations between successively placed pieces are highly correlated with those of Chase and Simon. We conclude that the two-second inter-chunk interval used to define chunk boundaries is robust, and that chunks have psychological reality. We discuss the possible reasons why Masters in our new study used substantially larger chunks than the Master of the 1973 study, and extend the chunking theory to take account of the evidence for large retrieval structures (templates) in long-term memory.
As experience with on-line information systems, experts systems and artificial intelligence tools grows, the authors retreat from the first euphoria that AI could help them solve the problem they were unable to solve with conventional programming. The major effort of the development time goes into building the knowledge-base. There is no such thing as a generic knowledge-base for nuclear power plants as there is, for example, for the diagnosis of a Boeing 747 aircraft. AI-methods, tools and hardware are still in a state which does not optimally lend itself to real-time application. The ability of developing prototype systems to investigate variants otherwise too costly to justify is one advantage that the authors gladly accept. Last, but no least the tools provide a flexible and adaptable user interface (desktop window systems) etc. The development of such tools in a project would be prohibitive and room for experimentation would be limited
Full Text Available The dynamic nature of economic processes and phenomena, their complexity and diversity, the prospect of economic globalization and decentralization, have determined the decision makers to focus on continually improving the methods and techniques aimed to support them, both at the microeconomic and the macroeconomic level. The work in hand compares Business Intelligence Systems (BIS in relation to Intelligent Business Systems (IBS. We highlight the ways to shift from an E-business system to an IBS system, provide a solution for an Intelligent Business System based on Production Rules (IBSPR. We use this solution in developing a four levels Web application to solve a problem of planning, in compliance with all of the developing phases of an expert system, by using a methodology like UML-Agent for the analysis of the application and by using .Net technology.
Heard, Astrid E.; Pinkowski, Patrick P.; Adler, Richard M.; Hosken, R. Bruce
Artificial intelligence aids engineers and technicians in controlling and monitoring complicated systems. Operations Analyst for Distributed Systems (OPERA) software is developmental suite of expert-system computer programs helping engineers and technicians operating from number of computer workstations to control and monitor spacecraft during prelaunch and launch phases of operation. OPERA designed to serve as consultant to operating engineers and technicians. It preprocesses incoming data, using expertise collected from conglomerate of specialists in design and operation of various parts of system. Driven by menus and mouse-activated commands. Modified versions of OPERA used in chemical-processing plants, factories, banks, and other enterprises in which there are distributed-computer systems including computers that monitor or control other computers.
Verma, Anoop K.; Kumar, Sachil; Rathore, Shiuli; Pandey, Abhishek
Forensic dentistry has become an integral part of forensic science over the past 100 years that utilizes dental or oro-facial findings to serve the judicial system. This has been due to the dedication of people like Gustafson's, Keiser-Nielson, and Suzuki for this field. They established the essential role which forensic dentistry plays mainly in the identification of human remains. The tooth has been used as weapons and under certain circumstances, may leave information about the identity of the biter. Dental professionals have a major role to play in keeping accurate dental records and providing all necessary information so that legal authorities may recognize mal practice, negligence, fraud or abuse, and identity of unknown individuals. This paper will try to summarize the various roles of dental experts in forensic medicine. PMID:25298709
Science as an input to patented inventions is a fundamental of economic growth. However, our understanding of how science is transformed into patents is limited. In the present paper I seek to fill this gap by examining the micro-foundations of science-patent transformations. Using an inductive......, grounded theory approach to study the transformation of 12 scientific discoveries into patents I recast the relationship between science and patents: I show it as a particular process that affects patent breadth. Exploiting surplus patent breadth depends on the processes of abstraction and cognitive...... variety, which can be mobilized by patenting experts. The theory is tested using a recently published algebraic interpretive method for examining causal relationships in small-N studies....
Wang, Y.C.; Qin, S.J.
Expert systems, known as a powerful tool to those numerical problems accompanied with logical argumentation, are facing the era of extended application into the engineering fields beyond the classical scopes of diagnosis and consultation. With regard to pressure vessels design it seems that the most important task is to establish a general purpose frame based on a microcomputer skeleton system to meet the various requirements of different vessels. The authors have made an attempt to perform such a skeleton designated file, ESTOOL, in order to achieve the objectives of executing numerical calculation combined with logical reasoning, and attaining higher efficiency of rules searching process. It has been successfully patched to the design software package for jacketed vessel with stirring shaft. This paper presents the guiding concepts and basic structure of ESTOOL via knowledge acquisition subsystem and inference engine
Full Text Available Background. The Latin American region is undergoing a demographic and epidemiological transition, which is leading to an increase in chronic and degenerative diseases. Osteoporosis (OP and fragility fractures (FF are emerging as main causes of disease burden with great impact on health institutions. Purpose. This review article provides an updated overview of trends in the epidemiology and economic impact of OP and FF, as well as in diagnosis and available treatments in Latin America, including calcium, vitamin D and prevention programs. Methods. Expert panel. Conclusions. According to this review, there is a lack of epidemiological and economic information in the region. It is desirable to obtain information regarding quality of life in OP and FF as well as to highlight prevention as a tool to reduce FF.
Verma, Anoop K; Kumar, Sachil; Rathore, Shiuli; Pandey, Abhishek
Forensic dentistry has become an integral part of forensic science over the past 100 years that utilizes dental or oro-facial findings to serve the judicial system. This has been due to the dedication of people like Gustafson's, Keiser-Nielson, and Suzuki for this field. They established the essential role which forensic dentistry plays mainly in the identification of human remains. The tooth has been used as weapons and under certain circumstances, may leave information about the identity of the biter. Dental professionals have a major role to play in keeping accurate dental records and providing all necessary information so that legal authorities may recognize mal practice, negligence, fraud or abuse, and identity of unknown individuals. This paper will try to summarize the various roles of dental experts in forensic medicine.
Science as an input to patented inventions is a fundamental of economic growth. However, our understanding of how science is transformed into patents is limited. In the present paper I seek to fill this gap by examining the micro-foundations of science-patent transformations. Using an inductive......, grounded theory approach to study the transformation of 12 scientific discoveries into patents I recast the relationship between science and patents: I show it as a particular process that affects patent breadth. Exploiting surplus patent breadth depends on the processes of abstraction and cognitive...... variety, which can be mobilized by patenting experts. The theory is tested using a recently published algebraic interpretive method for examining causal relationships in small-N studies....
Booth, A.W.; Forster, R.; Gustafsson, L.; Ho, N.
It is well known that the FASTBUS Segment Interconnect (SI) provides a communication path between two otherwise independent, asynchronous bus segments. The SI is probably the most important module in any FASTBUS data acquisition network since it's failure to function can cause whole segments of the network to be inaccessible and sometimes inoperable. This paper describes SIDES, an intelligent program designed to diagnose SI's both in situ as they operate in a data acquisition network, and in the laboratory in an acceptance/repair environment. The paper discusses important issues such as knowledge acquisition; extracting knowledge from human experts and other knowledge sources. SIDES can benefit high energy physics experiments, where SI problems can be diagnosed and solved more quickly. Equipment pool technicians can also benefit from SIDES, first by decreasing the number of SI's erroneously turned in for repair, and secondly as SIDES acts as an intelligent assistant to the technician in the diagnosis and repair process
Race, Margaret S.; MacGregor, Donald G.; Slovic, Paul
As space scientists and engineers plan new missions to Mars and other planets in our solar system, they will face critical questions about the potential for biological contamination of planetary surfaces. In a society that places ever-increasing importance on the role of public involvement in science and technology policy, questions about risks of biological contamination will be examined and debated in the media, and will lead to the formation of public perceptions of planetary-contamination risks. These perceptions will, over time, form an important input to the development of space policy. Previous research in public and expert perceptions of technological risks and hazards has shown that many of the problems faced by risk-management organizations are the result of differing perceptions of risk (and risk management) between the general public and scientific and technical experts. These differences manifest themselves both as disagreements about the definition (and level) of risk associated with a scientific, technological or industrial enterprise, and as distrust about the ability of risk-management organizations (both public and private) to adequately protect people's health and safety. This report presents the results of a set of survey studies designed to reveal perceptions of planetary exploration and protection from a wide range of respondents, including both members of the general public and experts in the life sciences. The potential value of this research lies in what it reveals about perceptions of risk and benefit that could improve risk-management policies and practices. For example, efforts to communicate with the public about Mars sample return missions could benefit from an understanding of the specific concerns that nonscientists have about such a mission by suggesting areas of potential improvement in public education and information. Assessment of both public and expert perceptions of risk can also be used to provide an advanced signal of
Motov, Sergey M; Marshall, John P
Pain is the most common reason people visit emergency departments (EDs); this implies that emergency physicians (EPs) should be experts in managing acute painful conditions. The current trend in the literature, however, demonstrates that EPs possess inadequate knowledge and lack formal training in acute pain management. The purpose of this article is to create a formal educational curriculum that would assist emergency medicine (EM) residents in proper assessment and treatment of acute pain, as well as in providing a solid theoretical and practical knowledge base for managing acute pain in the ED. The authors propose a series of lectures, case-oriented study groups, practical small group sessions, and class-specific didactics with the goal of enhancing the theoretical and practical knowledge of acute pain management in the ED. © 2011 by the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine.
McGann, Camille; Miaullis, Aaron; Page, Neil
The social and political climates are changing rapidly in the United States and the world at large. The threat of a chemical, biologic, radiologic, and/or nuclear event is a rising concern to many. The current Ebola crisis has shed light on health care providers' preparedness for such an event. Radiologists, including radiation oncologists, nuclear medicine specialists, and all radiology subspecialists are considered "subject matter experts" in this area and are likely to be called upon in response to a radiation incident. Although others, such as radiation safety officers, provide important expertise, the clinical leadership will be the responsibility of physicians and other health care providers. However, many radiologists are unaware that they are considered subject matter experts who may be called on to assist, should their local hospital's emergency department need to take care of casualties from a radiation incident. A mass-casualty situation with hundreds of patients would require the immediate assistance of all available medical providers. Radiologists are primed and positioned to take the lead in ensuring preparedness of their local hospital and community, through emergency planning for a radiologic incident, given their combined medical and radiation physics knowledge. Therefore, increasing the skills of radiologists first is the more prudent approach in such planning. This preparation can be done through understanding of the critical components of such scenarios: the threat, types of radiation incidents, contamination, detection, decontamination, and acute radiation syndrome and its treatment. Once the necessary knowledge supplementation has been completed, radiologists can participate in educating their fellow medical colleagues and health care staff, and assist in the radiation-related aspects of an "all hazards" emergency department response, decreasing "radiophobia" in the process. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Marquet, A; Ollivier, F; Boutoille, D; Thibaut, S; Potel, G; Ballereau, F
The aim of this study was to consider the implementation of a network of infectious diseases (ID) experts to optimize the antibiotic prescriptions of community and hospital practitioners. An observational prospective study was conducted among ID experts in the Pays-de-la-Loire Region to evaluate the number of calls and to determine the practitioner's reasons for soliciting ID expertise. For each phone consultation, four criteria were recorded during 5 days: origin of the call (internal/external), kind of question (diagnostic/therapeutic) time spent for the advice provided, type of advice. A total of 386 phone consultations for 20 infectious disease specialists were recorded during the study period (5 days); 81% were internal to the hospital, 7.7% from another hospital, and 11.3% from private practice, 56.3% of the questions concerned a therapeutic strategy, 21% a diagnostic advice, and 22.6% concerned both diagnosis and therapy. Two third of the questions were answered within 10minutes. In 68.7% of cases, the ID specialist answered immediately, 19.8% of calls required following-up the patient, 6% led to refer the patient to an ID consultation, and 5.5% to hospitalization. The survey results stress the important need for such ID expertise, both in hospitals and in ambulatory medicine. Collaboration of ID specialists in a regional network would allow an easy and permanent access to antibiotic therapy advice for prescribers. This network would improve the quality and safety of care. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Buckley, Peter; Bahmiller, Daniel; Kenna, Courtney Amanda; Shevitz, Stewart; Powell, Ike; Fricks, Larry
Recovery is emerging as a guiding influence in mental health service delivery and transformation. As a consequence, the expectations and curricular needs of trainees (as future stakeholders in a transformed, recovery-oriented system) are now of considerable importance. To this end, resident-led focus groups were held at the Medical College of Georgia to obtain perceptions of the Recovery Model. Certified Peer Support Specialists (CPSS) attended and topics covered were the Recovery Model, the CPSS training curriculum, and developing a Wellness Recovery Action Plan (WRAP) with consumers. Advantages and disadvantages of the Recovery model were discussed, with residents generally expressing cautious optimism regarding implementation of these principles, yet concern regarding the potential for diminishing confidence and support for traditional professional services. All residents indicated an interest in obtaining more information about the Recovery Model, including how to incorporate WRAPS and the role of CPSS in Recovery. Almost half of the residents selected a recovery-oriented workshop as the best method for further education about these concepts, with less support for other options of didactic handouts and expert lecture. Future efforts should be directed at implementing recovery curricula into resident education and evaluating the changes in resident knowledge, attitude toward recovery, and plans to implement recovery-oriented principles into their own professional practice.
White, Colin P; Lecours, Catherine; Bortoluzzi, Patricia; Caouette-Laberge, Louise; Ying, Yvonne
Residency education has shifted over the past decade in an attempt to graduate well-rounded physicians. There is a recognition that a physician's abilities must extend beyond medical knowledge. The Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Canada introduced the CanMEDS physician competency framework in 2005. The framework provides 7 areas of competencies that are aimed at providing improved patient care. These competencies are medical expert, communicator, collaborator, manager, health advocate, scholar, and professional. Teaching and evaluating many of these competencies is often challenging for residency training programs. We believe that international surgical missions provide a prime opportunity to teach and evaluate all CanMEDS' roles.Plastic surgery is a field with many different organizations involved in international surgery. Many plastic surgery training programs offer opportunities for residents to become involved in these international surgical missions. Through these trips, residents gain surgical experience, see a variety and volume of clinical cases, and have the opportunity to travel to a foreign country and experience different cultures. We believe that international plastic surgery surgical missions also provide an exceptional micro environment for the teaching of CanMEDS roles. Using examples from residents' personal experiences on international plastic surgery missions to China, Mali, and Cambodia, we describe the benefits of these missions in transferring the CanMEDS competencies to resident training.
Full Text Available Background. Dermatology residency programs are relatively diverse in their resident selection process. The authors investigated the importance of 25 dermatology residency selection criteria focusing on differences in program directors’ (PDs’ perception based on specific program demographics. Methods. This cross-sectional nationwide observational survey utilized a 41-item questionnaire that was developed by literature search, brainstorming sessions, and online expert reviews. The data were analyzed utilizing the reliability test, two-step clustering, and K-means methods as well as other methods. The main purpose of this study was to investigate the differences in PDs’ perception regarding the importance of the selection criteria based on program demographics. Results. Ninety-five out of 114 PDs (83.3% responded to the survey. The top five criteria for dermatology residency selection were interview, letters of recommendation, United States Medical Licensing Examination Step I scores, medical school transcripts, and clinical rotations. The following criteria were preferentially ranked based on different program characteristics: “advanced degrees,” “interest in academics,” “reputation of undergraduate and medical school,” “prior unsuccessful attempts to match,” and “number of publications.” Conclusions. Our survey provides up-to-date factual data on dermatology PDs’ perception in this regard. Dermatology residency programs may find the reported data useful in further optimizing their residency selection process.
Reilly, James B; Ogdie, Alexis R; Von Feldt, Joan M; Myers, Jennifer S
Trends in medical education have reflected the patient safety movement's initial focus on systems. While the role of cognitive-based diagnostic errors has been increasingly recognised among safety experts, literature describing strategies to teach about this important problem is scarce. 48 PGY-2 internal medicine residents participated in a three-part, 1-year curriculum in cognitive bias and diagnostic error. Residents completed a multiple-choice test designed to assess the recognition and knowledge of common heuristics and biases both before and after the curriculum. Results were compared with PGY-3 residents who did not receive the curriculum. An additional assessment in which residents reviewed video vignettes of clinical scenarios with cognitive bias and debiasing techniques was embedded into the curriculum. 38 residents completed all three parts of the curriculum and completed all assessments. Performance on the 13-item multiple-choice knowledge test improved post-curriculum when compared to both pre-curriculum performance (9.26 vs 8.26, p=0.002) and the PGY-3 comparator group (9.26 vs 7.69, perror and cognitive bias improved internal medicine residents' knowledge and recognition of cognitive biases as measured by a novel assessment tool. Further study is needed to refine learner assessment tools and examine optimal strategies to teach clinical reasoning and cognitive bias avoidance strategies.
Lingard, L; Tallett, S; Rosenfield, J
Increasing evidence suggests that communication plays a central role in effective clinical care. To facilitate effective instruction in this domain, this study seeks to understand how pediatric residents approach the challenge of cross-cultural communication. A convenience sample of 29 pediatric residents participated in five focus groups that were jointly facilitated by a clinical and a process expert. Discussion was stimulated using two video scenarios of pediatric cross-cultural communication challenges. Seven dominant categories were evident in the discussions: characteristics of culture, beliefs about culture, attitudes towards culture, opinions about how to build expertise in communication, cultural conflict, insights regarding prejudice, and comments about interview technique. Residents tended to view culture and difference as residing in patients (not in themselves), reflecting their assumption that western medicine is acultural. Residents believe that lack of knowledge about other cultures causes their communication difficulties. Our findings suggest, however, that more basic issues may underlie their difficulties. Residents may recognize prejudice in the abstract but fail to see it in their environment, and they may spend minimal time reflecting on their professional culture and beliefs.
Gorouhi, Farzam; Alikhan, Ali; Rezaei, Arash; Fazel, Nasim
Background. Dermatology residency programs are relatively diverse in their resident selection process. The authors investigated the importance of 25 dermatology residency selection criteria focusing on differences in program directors' (PDs') perception based on specific program demographics. Methods. This cross-sectional nationwide observational survey utilized a 41-item questionnaire that was developed by literature search, brainstorming sessions, and online expert reviews. The data were analyzed utilizing the reliability test, two-step clustering, and K-means methods as well as other methods. The main purpose of this study was to investigate the differences in PDs' perception regarding the importance of the selection criteria based on program demographics. Results. Ninety-five out of 114 PDs (83.3%) responded to the survey. The top five criteria for dermatology residency selection were interview, letters of recommendation, United States Medical Licensing Examination Step I scores, medical school transcripts, and clinical rotations. The following criteria were preferentially ranked based on different program characteristics: "advanced degrees," "interest in academics," "reputation of undergraduate and medical school," "prior unsuccessful attempts to match," and "number of publications." Conclusions. Our survey provides up-to-date factual data on dermatology PDs' perception in this regard. Dermatology residency programs may find the reported data useful in further optimizing their residency selection process.
Yee, Don; Fairchild, Alysa; Keyes, Mira; Butler, Jim; Dundas, George
Purpose: Radiation oncology's popularity as a career in Canada has surged in the past 5 years. Consequently, resident numbers in Canadian radiation oncology residencies are at all-time highs. This study aimed to survey Canadian radiation oncology residents about their opinions of their specialty and training experiences. Methods and Materials: Residents of Canadian radiation oncology residencies that enroll trainees through the Canadian Resident Matching Service were identified from a national database. Residents were mailed an anonymous survey. Results: Eight of 101 (7.9%) potential respondents were foreign funded. Fifty-two of 101 (51.5%) residents responded. A strong record of graduating its residents was the most important factor residents considered when choosing programs. Satisfaction with their program was expressed by 92.3% of respondents, and 94.3% expressed satisfaction with their specialty. Respondents planning to practice in Canada totaled 80.8%, and 76.9% plan to have academic careers. Respondents identified job availability and receiving adequate teaching from preceptors during residency as their most important concerns. Conclusions: Though most respondents are satisfied with their programs and specialty, job availability and adequate teaching are concerns. In the future, limited time and resources and the continued popularity of radiation oncology as a career will magnify the challenge of training competent radiation oncologists in Canada
Tso, Michael K; Dakson, Ayoub; Ahmed, Syed Uzair; Bigder, Mark; Elliott, Cameron; Guha, Daipayan; Iorio-Morin, Christian; Kameda-Smith, Michelle; Lavergne, Pascal; Makarenko, Serge; Taccone, Michael S; Wang, Bill; Winkler-Schwartz, Alexander; Sankar, Tejas; Christie, Sean D
Background Currently, the literature lacks reliable data regarding operative case volumes at Canadian neurosurgery residency programs. Our objective was to provide a snapshot of the operative landscape in Canadian neurosurgical training using the trainee-led Canadian Neurosurgery Research Collaborative. Anonymized administrative operative data were gathered from each neurosurgery residency program from January 1, 2014, to December 31, 2014. Procedures were broadly classified into cranial, spine, peripheral nerve, and miscellaneous procedures. A number of prespecified subspecialty procedures were recorded. We defined the resident case index as the ratio of the total number of operations to the total number of neurosurgery residents in that program. Resident number included both Canadian medical and international medical graduates, and included residents on the neurosurgery service, off-service, or on leave for research or other personal reasons. Overall, there was an average of 1845 operative cases per neurosurgery residency program. The mean numbers of cranial, spine, peripheral nerve, and miscellaneous procedures were 725, 466, 48, and 193, respectively. The nationwide mean resident case indices for cranial, spine, peripheral nerve, and total procedures were 90, 58, 5, and 196, respectively. There was some variation in the resident case indices for specific subspecialty procedures, with some training programs not performing carotid endarterectomy or endoscopic transsphenoidal procedures. This study presents the breadth of neurosurgical training within Canadian neurosurgery residency programs. These results may help inform the implementation of neurosurgery training as the Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons residency training transitions to a competence-by-design curriculum.
Karlen, Naomi; Cruz, Brian; Leigh, A E
Despite the growth of palliative medicine, 39% of hospitals do not have palliative care teams for consultation or to provide resident education. We examined the impact of resident-led education in palliative care principles on attitudes toward and comfort with palliative medicine and end-of-life care among internal medicine residents. An educational module designed by the authors was presented to other internal medicine residents in the program. Pre- and post-intervention survey data measuring residents' agreement with various statements regarding palliative medicine and end-of-life care were analyzed. Residents' agreement with various statements regarding palliative medicine and end-of-life care on a 5-point Likert scale was analyzed. Following the intervention, participants reported improved comfort with general knowledge of palliative medicine (p palliative care and end-of-life care (p curriculum in palliative medicine can improve resident comfort within this still-under-represented area of medicine.
general field some views on the nature of organization and relationships that arose during many years of study of the microstructures of metals and alloys. In a landscape painting of the Far East, a rock in the foreground with cracks and crystalline texture is often echoed in a distant mountain with cliffs, chasms, wrinkles, and ...
Hunger, Theresa; Schnell-Inderst, Petra; Sahakyan, Narine; Siebert, Uwe
External experts can be consulted at different stages of an HTA. When using vague information sources, it is particularly important to plan, analyze, and report the information processing in a standardized and transparent way. Our objective was to search and analyze recommendations regarding where and how to include expert data in HTA. We performed a systematic database search and screened the Internet pages of seventy-seven HTA organizations for guidelines, recommendations, and methods papers that address the inclusion of experts in HTA. Relevant documents were downloaded, and information was extracted in a standard form. Results were merged in tables and narrative evidence synthesis. From twenty-two HTA organizations, we included forty-two documents that consider the use of expert opinion in HTA. Nearly all documents mention experts in the step of preparation of the evidence report. Six documents address their role for priority setting of topics, fifteen for scoping, twelve for the appraisal of evidence and results, another twelve documents mention experts when considering the dissemination of HTA results. During the assessment step, experts are most often asked to amend the literature search or to provide expertise for special data analyses. Another issue for external experts is to appraise the HTA results and refer them back to a clinical and social context. Little is reported on methods of expert elicitation when their input substitutes study data. Despite existing recommendations on the use of expert opinion in HTA, common standards for elicitation are scarce in HTA guidelines.
Truong, Phuong N.; Heuvelink, Gerard B. M.; Gosling, John Paul
The variogram is the keystone of geostatistics. Estimation of the variogram is deficient and difficult when there are no or too few observations available due to budget constraints or physical and temporal obstacles. In such cases, expert knowledge can be an important source of information. Expert knowledge can also fulfil the increasing demand for an a priori variogram in Bayesian geostatistics and spatial sampling optimization. Formal expert elicitation provides a sound scientific basis to reliably and consistently extract knowledge from experts. In this study, we aimed at applying existing statistical expert elicitation techniques to extract the variogram of a regionalized variable that is assumed to have either a multivariate normal or lognormal spatial probability distribution from expert knowledge. To achieve this, we developed an elicitation protocol and implemented it as a web-based tool to facilitate the elicitation of beliefs from multiple experts. Our protocol has two main rounds: elicitation of the marginal probability distribution and elicitation of the variogram. The web-based tool has three main components: a web interface for expert elicitation and feedback; a component for statistical computation and mathematical pooling of multiple experts' knowledge; and a database management component. Results from a test case study show that the protocol is adequate and that the online elicitation tool functions satisfactorily. The web-based tool is free to use and supports scientists to conveniently elicit the variogram of spatial random variables from experts. The source code is available from the journal FTP site under the GNU General Public License.
An expert system prototype has been developed to support system analysis activities at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) for waste management tasks. This expert system will aid in prioritizing radioactive waste streams for treatment and disposal by evaluating the severity and treatability of the problem as well as the final waste form. The objectives of the expert system development included: (1) collecting information on process treatment technologies for liquid low-level waste (LLLW) that can be incorporated in the knowledge base of the expert system, and (2) producing a prototype that suggests processes and disposal technologies for the ORNL LLLW system. The concept under which the expert system has been designed is integration of knowledge. There are many sources of knowledge (data bases, text files, simulation programs, etc.) that an expert would regularly consult in order to solve a problem of liquid waste management. The expert would normally know how to extract the information from these different sources of knowledge. The general scope of this project would be to include as much pertinent information as possible within the boundaries of the expert system. As a result, the user, who may not be an expert in every aspect of liquid waste management, may be able to apply the content of the information to a specific waste problem. This paper gives the methodological steps to develop the expert system under this general framework
Full Text Available Among the experimental actions fostered so far by the Compagnia di San Paolo through its Housing Program, committed in handling the complex and fragmented housing discomfort issue, the Temporary Dwellings initiative represents a unique and innovative experience, as it actually offers the chance to activate a proper managerial direction around and about the real estate development processes. In particular, the Temporary Dwellings action is marked by two key aspects: a structured co-planning vision and projects selected through a requests for proposal system. The process in the whole aims on the one hand at reaching an high transparent level of decision making , while, on the other hand, at developing a continuous and mutual monitoring and matching activity between the Housing Program and the group of cross-curricular experts teamed up in the project: technicians, designers, managers, psychologists, contractors, and the other local stakeholders.
Lau, Frank H; Sinha, Indranil; Jiang, Wei; Lipsitz, Stuart R; Eriksson, Elof
Resident work hours are under scrutiny and have been subject to multiple restrictions. The studies supporting these changes have not included data on surgical residents. We studied the workday of a team of plastic surgery residents to establish prospective time-study data of plastic surgery (PRS) residents at a single tertiary-care academic medical center. Five trained research assistants observed all residents (n = 8) on a PRS service for 10 weeks and produced minute-by-minute activity logs. Data collection began when the team first met in the morning and continued until the resident being followed completed all non-call activities. We analyzed our data from 3 perspectives: 1) time spent in direct patient care (DPC), indirect patient care, and didactic activities; 2) time spent in high education-value activities (HEAs) versus low education-value activities; and 3) resident efficiency. We defined HEAs as activities that surgeons must master; other activities were LEAs. We quantified resident efficiency in terms of time fragmentation and time spent waiting. A total of 642.4 hours of data across 50 workdays were collected. Excluding call, residents worked an average of 64.2 hours per week. Approximately 50.7% of surgical resident time was allotted to DPC, with surgery accounting for the largest segment of this time (34.8%). Time spent on HEAs demonstrated trended upward with higher resident level (P = 0.086). Time in spent in surgery was significantly associated with higher resident levels (P time study of PRS residents, we found that compared with medicine trainees, surgical residents spent 3.23 times more time on DPC. High education-value activities comprised most of our residents' workdays. Surgery was the leading component of both DPC and HEAs. Our residents were highly efficient and fragmented, with the majority of all activities requiring 4 minutes or less. Residents spent a large portion of their time waiting for other services. In light of these data, we
Drogan, O.; Manno, E.; Geocadin, R.G.; Ziai, W.
Objective: Limited information is available regarding the current state of neurocritical care education for neurology residents. The goal of our survey was to assess the need and current state of neurocritical care training for neurology residents. Methods: A survey instrument was developed and, with the support of the American Academy of Neurology, distributed to residency program directors of 132 accredited neurology programs in the United States in 2011. Results: A response rate of 74% (98 of 132) was achieved. A dedicated neuroscience intensive care unit (neuro-ICU) existed in 64%. Fifty-six percent of residency programs offer a dedicated rotation in the neuro-ICU, lasting 4 weeks on average. Where available, the neuro-ICU rotation was required in the vast majority (91%) of programs. Neurology residents' exposure to the fundamental principles of neurocritical care was obtained through a variety of mechanisms. Of program directors, 37% indicated that residents would be interested in performing away rotations in a neuro-ICU. From 2005 to 2010, the number of programs sending at least one resident into a neuro-ICU fellowship increased from 14% to 35%. Conclusions: Despite the expansion of neurocritical care, large proportions of US neurology residents have limited exposure to a neuro-ICU and neurointensivists. Formal training in the principles of neurocritical care may be highly variable. The results of this survey suggest a charge to address the variability of resident education and to develop standardized curricula in neurocritical care for neurology residents. PMID:22573636
Ramsey, J. E., Jr.
Three expert systems (ATEOPS, ATEFEXPERS, and ATEFATLAS), which were created to direct automatic test equipment (ATE), are reviewed. The purpose of the project was to develop an expert system to troubleshoot the converter-programmer power supply card for the F-15 aircraft and have that expert system direct the automatic test equipment. Each expert system uses a different knowledge base or inference engine, basing the testing on the circuit schematic, test requirements document, or ATLAS code. Implementing generalized modules allows the expert systems to be used for any different unit under test. Using converted ATLAS to LISP code allows the expert system to direct any ATE using ATLAS. The constraint propagated frame system allows for the expansion of control by creating the ATLAS code, checking the code for good software engineering techniques, directing the ATE, and changing the test sequence as needed (planning).
Cain, D.G.; Schmidt, F.
One of the primary goals of the application of mathematical methods and computational techniques in reactor physics is the effective and accurate solution of the neutron diffusion equation under various conditions. To reach this goal still requires much skill, experience, knowledge and imagination as can be seen from various contributions at this and other conferences. Experts are necessary. Will expert systems replace them. We shall discuss this question by describing the basic principles of problem solving by expert systems as compared to problem solving by mathematical and computational methods. From this we shall identify areas of possible applications of the new techniques in nuclear energy and develop some thoughts on present limitations. As a result we conclude that expert systems will not be able to replace experts as long as the experts use the systems to improve their own expertise
The general growth of expert, knowledge-based (KB) or rule based systems will significantly increase in the next three to five years. Improvements in computer hardware (speed, reduced size, power) and software (rule based, data based, user interfaces) in recent years are providing the foundations for the growth of expert systems. A byproduct of this growth will undoubtedly be the application of expert systems to various safeguards problems. Characteristics of these expert systems will involve 1) multiple rules governing an outcome, 2) confidence factors on individual variables and rule sets, 3) priority, cost, and risk based rule sets, and 4) the reasoning behind the advice or decision given by the expert system. This paper presents characteristics, structures, and examples of simple rule based systems. Potential application areas for these expert systems may include training, operations, management, designs, evaluations, and specific hardware operation
Full Text Available Since the past half century, expert testimony has played an increasingly important role in Chinese litigation. As the amount of expert testimony has grown, the issues about its admissibility and scientific foundation related to evidence are becoming to be questioned commonly. Since eighteenth central committee (China adopted the decision of the Central Committee of China on several important issues in promoting the legal system, the evidence was redefined to become the predominance in the whole proceeding. This article reviews the expert knowledge implicit in the opinions. It argues that the expert opinions ask judges to be aware of the role of communicationg between participants. Expert opinion is not only gained from laboratory, but also socially constructed in the rational expression and communication, which requir us think logically in terms of legal perceptions of science and expert knowledge in the empirical world.
Dam Otten, Nina; Rousing, Tine; Forkman, Björn
welfare criteria: Hunger, Thirst, Resting comfort, Ease of movement, Injuries, Disease, Human-animal bond and Emotional state. A total of 54 dairy cattle experts (RES = 15%, CONS = 22%, VET = 35%, AWC = 28%) and 34 swine experts (RES = 24%, CONS = 35%, AWC = 41%) participated. Between—and within......The present study seeks to investigate the influence of expert affiliation in the weighing procedures within animal welfare assessments. Experts are often gathered with different backgrounds with differing approaches to animal welfare posing a potential pitfall if affiliation groups...... are not balanced in numbers of experts. At two time points (2012 and 2016), dairy cattle and swine experts from four different stakeholder groups, namely researchers (RES), production advisors (CONS), practicing veterinarians (VET) and animal welfare control officers (AWC) were asked to weigh eight different...
Quellec, Gwénolé; Lamard, Mathieu; Cochener, Béatrice; Droueche, Zakarya; Lay, Bruno; Chabouis, Agnès; Roux, Christian; Cazuguel, Guy
In recent years, many image analysis algorithms have been presented to assist Diabetic Retinopathy (DR) screening. The goal was usually to detect healthy examination records automatically, in order to reduce the number of records that should be analyzed by retinal experts. In this paper, a novel application is presented: these algorithms are used to 1) discover image characteristics that sometimes cause an expert to disagree with his/her peers and 2) warn the expert whenever these characteristics are detected in an examination record. In a DR screening program, each examination record is only analyzed by one expert, therefore analyzing disagreements among experts is challenging. A statistical framework, based on Parzen-windowing and the Patrick-Fischer distance, is presented to solve this problem. Disagreements among eleven experts from the Ophdiat screening program were analyzed, using an archive of 25,702 examination records.
Debarnot, Ursula; Sperduti, Marco; Di Rienzo, Franck; Guillot, Aymeric
Skill learning is the improvement in perceptual, cognitive, or motor performance following practice. Expert performance levels can be achieved with well-organized knowledge, using sophisticated and specific mental representations and cognitive processing, applying automatic sequences quickly and efficiently, being able to deal with large amounts of information, and many other challenging task demands and situations that otherwise paralyze the performance of novices. The neural reorganizations that occur with expertise reflect the optimization of the neurocognitive resources to deal with the complex computational load needed to achieve peak performance. As such, capitalizing on neuronal plasticity, brain modifications take place over time-practice and during the consolidation process. One major challenge is to investigate the neural substrates and cognitive mechanisms engaged in expertise, and to define "expertise" from its neural and cognitive underpinnings. Recent insights showed that many brain structures are recruited during task performance, but only activity in regions related to domain-specific knowledge distinguishes experts from novices. The present review focuses on three expertise domains placed across a motor to mental gradient of skill learning: sequential motor skill, mental simulation of the movement (motor imagery), and meditation as a paradigmatic example of "pure" mental training. We first describe results on each specific domain from the initial skill acquisition to expert performance, including recent results on the corresponding underlying neural mechanisms. We then discuss differences and similarities between these domains with the aim to identify the highlights of the neurocognitive processes underpinning expertise, and conclude with suggestions for future research.
Das, Kamalika; Avrekh, Ilya; Matthews, Bryan; Sharma, Manali; Oza, Nikunj
Often the manual review of large data sets, either for purposes of labeling unlabeled instances or for classifying meaningful results from uninteresting (but statistically significant) ones is extremely resource intensive, especially in terms of subject matter expert (SME) time. Use of active learning has been shown to diminish this review time significantly. However, since active learning is an iterative process of learning a classifier based on a small number of SME-provided labels at each iteration, the lack of an enabling tool can hinder the process of adoption of these technologies in real-life, in spite of their labor-saving potential. In this demo we present ASK-the-Expert, an interactive tool that allows SMEs to review instances from a data set and provide labels within a single framework. ASK-the-Expert is powered by an active learning algorithm for training a classifier in the backend. We demonstrate this system in the context of an aviation safety application, but the tool can be adopted to work as a simple review and labeling tool as well, without the use of active learning.
Carmen N. Spalding
Full Text Available Introduction Emergency Medicine (EM is a unique clinical learning environment. The American College of Graduate Medical Education Clinical Learning Environment Review Pathways to Excellence calls for “hands-on training” of disclosure of medical error (DME during residency. Training and practicing key elements of DME using standardized patients (SP may enhance preparedness among EM residents in performing this crucial skill in a clinical setting. Methods This training was developed to improve resident preparedness in DME in the clinical setting. Objectives included the following: the residents will be able to define a medical error; discuss ethical and professional standards of DME; recognize common barriers to DME; describe key elements in effective DME to patients and families; and apply key elements during a SP encounter. The four-hour course included didactic and experiential learning methods, and was created collaboratively by core EM faculty and subject matter experts in conflict resolution and healthcare simulation. Educational media included lecture, video exemplars of DME communication with discussion, small group case-study discussion, and SP encounters. We administered a survey assessing for preparedness in DME pre-and post-training. A critical action checklist was administered to assess individual performance of key elements of DME during the evaluated SP case. A total of 15 postgraduate-year 1 and 2 EM residents completed the training. Results After the course, residents reported increased comfort with and preparedness in performing several key elements in DME. They were able to demonstrate these elements in a simulated setting using SP. Residents valued the training, rating the didactic, SP sessions, and overall educational experience very high. Conclusion Experiential learning using SP is effective in improving resident knowledge of and preparedness in performing medical error disclosure. This educational module can be adapted
Prior, Jason; Rai, Tapan
In recent decades the diversity of remediation technologies has increased significantly, with the breadth of technologies ranging from dig and dump to emergent technologies like phytoremediation and nanoremediation. The benefits of these technologies to the environment and human health are believed to be substantial. However, they also potentially constitute risks. Whilst there is a growing body of knowledge about the risks and benefits of these technologies from the perspective of experts, little is known about how residents perceive the risks and benefits of the application of these technologies to address contaminants in their local environment. This absence of knowledge poses a challenge to remediation practitioners and policy makers who are increasingly seeking to engage these affected local residents in choosing technology applications. Building on broader research into the perceived benefits and risks of technologies, and data from a telephone survey of 2009 residents living near 13 contaminated sites in Australia, regression analysis of closed-ended survey questions and coding of open-ended questions are combined to identify the main predictors of resident's perceived levels of risk and benefit to resident's health and to their local environment from remediation technologies. This research identifies a range of factors associated with the residents' physical context, their engagement with institutions during remediation processes, and the technologies which are associated with residents' level of perceived risk and benefit for human health and the local environment. The analysis found that bioremediation technologies were perceived as less risky and more beneficial than chemical, thermal and physical technologies. The paper also supports broader technology research that reports an inverse correlation between levels of perceived risks and benefits. In addition, the paper reveals the types of risks and benefits to human health and the local environment that
Spalding, Carmen N; Rudinsky, Sherri L
Emergency Medicine (EM) is a unique clinical learning environment. The American College of Graduate Medical Education Clinical Learning Environment Review Pathways to Excellence calls for "hands-on training" of disclosure of medical error (DME) during residency. Training and practicing key elements of DME using standardized patients (SP) may enhance preparedness among EM residents in performing this crucial skill in a clinical setting. This training was developed to improve resident preparedness in DME in the clinical setting. Objectives included the following: the residents will be able to define a medical error; discuss ethical and professional standards of DME; recognize common barriers to DME; describe key elements in effective DME to patients and families; and apply key elements during a SP encounter. The four-hour course included didactic and experiential learning methods, and was created collaboratively by core EM faculty and subject matter experts in conflict resolution and healthcare simulation. Educational media included lecture, video exemplars of DME communication with discussion, small group case-study discussion, and SP encounters. We administered a survey assessing for preparedness in DME pre-and post-training. A critical action checklist was administered to assess individual performance of key elements of DME during the evaluated SP case. A total of 15 postgraduate-year 1 and 2 EM residents completed the training. After the course, residents reported increased comfort with and preparedness in performing several key elements in DME. They were able to demonstrate these elements in a simulated setting using SP. Residents valued the training, rating the didactic, SP sessions, and overall educational experience very high. Experiential learning using SP is effective in improving resident knowledge of and preparedness in performing medical error disclosure. This educational module can be adapted to other clinical learning environments through creation of
Johnson, R.R.; Canales, T.; Lager, D.
This paper describes a system that automates neutral beam source conditioning. The system achieves this with artificial intelligence techniques by encoding the behavior of several experts as a set of if-then rules in an expert system. One of the functions of the expert system is to control an adaptive controller that, in turn, controls the neutral beam source. The architecture of the system is presented followed by a description of its performance
Creider, R.D.; Sundar Singh, P.S. [Texas A& M Univ., Commerce, TX (United States)
Nasal congestion is a common problem for many people. It is a symptom of chronic sinusitis and also a characteristic of allergic rhinitis. Individuals frequently confuse sinusitis and allergic rhinitis. The expert system described below will diagnose the problem to be either rhinitis or sinusitis. In this paper we describe the expert system, the need for such an expert system and the process of developing the system.
Full Text Available Background. Pneumonia remains one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide, especially in advanced age. Prognosis of the disease depends on premorbid condition and immune competence of the patient, severity of the disease and causative microorganism. In our analysis we wanted to establish clinical, x-ray and microbiological characteristics of pneumonia in nursing home residents, estimate suitability of therapeutic measures and find out risk factors for adverse outcome in this group of patients.Material and methods. This retrospective study includes all nursing home residents hospitalised due to CAP in Hospital Golnik in 2000. Clinical data was/were evaluated according to case history. Microbiological data and laboratory results were gathered from the patients files. Chi-square test was used for statistical analysis.Results. 30 patients, 17 women were included, aged 82.5 ± 11.7 years. 60% of patients had at least 2 accompanying diseases, most frequently cardiovascular and neurologic diseases. At admittance 83% of patients presented with severe form of the disease. Dispnea (93%, tachypnea, cough (67% and confusion (47% dominate clinical picture. Patients rarely expectorate, are frequently hypoxemic (93%, have leucocytosis (63%, electrolyte disturbances and elevated urea (67%. According to the microbiologic results most frequent causative agents are Enterobacteriae, S. pneumoniae, H. influenzae and also some multiresistant bacteria. Amoxycillin with clavulanic acid was the most frequently used antibiotic, followed by macrolides and 3rd generation cephalosporines.9 patients died, mortality rate was 30%. Their average age was 83,4 years, 67% of them had more than 2 accompanying diseases, all of them severe form of the disease, 89% severe respiratory insufficiency and 22% positive hemoculture.Conclusions. Patients are characterised with numerous comorbidities and advanced age. Clinical presentation is unspecific. Mortality is high
Byszewski, Anna; Lochnan, Heather; Johnston, Donna; Seabrook, Christine; Wood, Timothy
Given their essential role in developing professional identity, academic institutions now require formal assessment of the learning environment (LE). We describe the experience of introducing a novel and practical tool in postgraduate programmes. The Learning Environment for Professionalism (LEP) survey, validated in the undergraduate setting, is relatively short, with 11 questions balanced for positive and negative professionalism behaviours. LEP is anonymous and focused on rotation setting, not an individual, and can be used on an iterative basis. We describe how we implemented the LEP, preliminary results, challenges encountered and suggestions for future application. Academic institutions now require formal assessment of the learning environment METHODS: The study was designed to test the feasibility of introducing the LEP in the postgraduate setting, and to establish the validity and the reliability of the survey. Residents in four programmes completed 187 ratings using LEP at the end of one of 11 rotations. The resident response rate was 87 per cent. Programme and rotation ratings were similar but not identical. All items rated positively (favourably), but displays of altruism tended to have lower ratings (meaning less desirable behaviour was witnessed), as were ratings for derogatory comments (again meaning that less desirable behaviour was witnessed). We have shown that the LEP is a feasible and valid tool that can be implemented on an iterative basis to examine the LE. Two LEP questions in particular, regarding derogatory remarks and demonstrating altruism, recorded the lowest scores, and these areas deserve attention at our institution. Implementation in diverse programmes is planned at our teaching hospitals to further assess reliability. This work may influence other postgraduate programmes to introduce this assessment tool. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd and The Association for the Study of Medical Education.
Dermody, Sarah M; Gao, William; McGinn, Johnathan D; Malekzadeh, Sonya
Objective (1) Evaluate the consistency and manner in which otolaryngology residents log surgical cases. (2) Assess the extent of instruction and guidance provided by program directors on case-logging practices. Study Design Cross-sectional national survey. Setting Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education otolaryngology residency programs in the United States. Subjects and Methods US otolaryngology residents, postgraduate year 2 through graduating chiefs as of July 2016, were recruited to respond to an anonymous questionnaire designed to characterize surgical case-logging practices. Program directors of US otolaryngology residency programs were recruited to respond to an anonymous questionnaire to elucidate how residents are instructed to log cases. Results A total of 272 residents and 53 program directors completed the survey, yielding response rates of 40.6% and 49.5%, respectively. Perceived accuracy of case logs is low among residents and program directors. Nearly 40% of residents purposely choose not to log certain cases, and 65.1% of residents underreport cases performed. More than 80% of program directors advise residents to log procedures performed outside the operating room, yet only 16% of residents consistently log such cases. Conclusion Variability in surgical case-logging behaviors and differences in provided instruction highlight the need for methods to improve consistency of logging practices. It is imperative to standardize practices across otolaryngology residency programs for case logs to serve as an accurate measure of surgical competency. This study provides a foundation for reform efforts within residency programs and for the Resident Case Log System.
Olmos-Vega, Francisco; Dolmans, Diana; Donkers, Jeroen; Stalmeijer, Renée E
A major challenge for clinical supervisors is to encourage their residents to be independent without jeopardising patient safety. Residents' preferences according to level of training on this regard have not been completely explored. This study has sought to investigate which teaching methods of the Cognitive Apprenticeship (CA) model junior, intermediate and senior residents preferred and why, and how these preferences differed between groups. We invited 301 residents of all residency programmes of Javeriana University, Bogotá, Colombia, to participate. Each resident was asked to complete a Maastricht Clinical Teaching Questionnaire (MCTQ), which, being based on the teaching methods of CA, asked residents to rate the importance to their learning of each teaching method and to indicate which of these they preferred the most and why. A total of 215 residents (71 %) completed the questionnaire. All concurred that all CA teaching methods were important or very important to their learning, regardless of their level of training. However, the reasons for their preferences clearly differed between groups: junior and intermediate residents preferred teaching methods that were more supervisor-directed, such as modelling and coaching, whereas senior residents preferred teaching methods that were more resident-directed, such as exploration and articulation. The results indicate that clinical supervision (CS) should accommodate to residents' varying degrees of development by attuning the configuration of CA teaching methods to each level of residency training. This configuration should initially vest more power in the supervisor, and gradually let the resident take charge, without ever discontinuing CS.
López, Eva M; García, Miriam; Schuhmacher, Marta; Domingo, José L
As soil is a natural resource not always renewable, the risk characterization of contaminated soils is an issue of great interest. Artificial Intelligence (AI), based on Decision Support Systems (DSSs), has been developed for a wide range of applications in contaminated soil management. Decision trees have already shown to be easy to interpret and able to treat large scale applications. Fuzzy logic gives an improvement in the perturbations and the variance of the training data, due to the elasticity of fuzzy set formalism. In this study, we have developed a classificatory tool applied to characterize contaminated soil in function of human and environmental risks. Knowledge engineering for constructing the Soil Risk Characterization Decision Support System (SRC-DSS) involves three stages: knowledge acquisition, conceptual design and system implementation. A total of 26 parameters were divided into three groups to facilitate the configuration of the expert system: source attributes, transfer vector attributes, and local properties. Sixteen case studies were evaluated with the SRC-DSS. In comparison with other techniques, the results of the current study have shown that SRC-DDS is an excellent tool to classify and characterize soils according to the associated risk.
In all French enterprises producing or using ionizing radiations, a person is in charge of the protection of workers against radiations: the expert in radiation protection (PCR). The education and training of this profession has been recently reformed, and its status will evolve by 2018 with a transposition of a European directive. While indicating the six main missions of PCRs (risk assessment, definition of protection measures, zoning optimisation, training of exposed workers, dosimetry follow-up, periodic controls), this article comments the current professional profile of PCRs who can be technicians, engineers as well as researchers. It also outlines aspects of the reform which do not satisfy PCRs' needs. A second article reports how PCRs perceive their mission on a daily basis, which obstacles they face, how they are organised to communicate between them and not to be isolated (a map of PCR regional networks is provided with indications of the number of members and of the main actions), and how the IRSN helps them. A third article evokes the content of a new standard (NF C 15-160) which defines the requirements for X ray generating installations, and the related theoretical and practical training proposed by the IRSN