Full Text Available Despite an increasing literature related to elder abuse, sexual abuse of older persons in general and of vulnerable adults living in nursing homes in particular is still sparsely described. The purpose of this study was to assess the state of knowledge on the subject of sexual abuse against older nursing home residents through a literature review. Systematic searches in reference databases including Cinahl, Medline, OVID Nursing Database, ISI Web of Science, PsycINFO, Cochrane Library, and SveMed + were conducted. Through several phases of selection of the articles, using strict inclusion and exclusion criteria, six articles were chosen for a deeper examination. Findings from the review show that sexual abuse occurs in nursing homes and that both older women and men are victims of sexual abuse. Perpetrators appear mainly to be staff and other residents and mainly to be men, but also women abuse both older men and older women. Findings from the literature review show that there is a need for knowledge and further research on the topic of sexual abuse against older residents in nursing homes. Furthermore, there is a need for good policies and reporting systems, as an important step in seriously addressing sexual abuse against older persons.
Pringle, Janice L.; Kowalchuk, Alicia; Meyers, Jessica Adams; Seale, J. Paul
Background The Screening, Brief Intervention and Referral to Treatment (SBIRT) service for unhealthy alcohol use has been shown to be one of the most cost-effective medical preventive services and has been associated with long-term reductions in alcohol use and health care utilization. Recent studies also indicate that SBIRT reduces illicit drug use. In 2008 and 2009, the Substance Abuse Mental Health Service Administration funded 17 grantees to develop and implement medical residency training programs that teach residents how to provide SBIRT services for individuals with alcohol and drug misuse conditions. This paper presents the curricular activities associated with this initiative. Methods We used an online survey delivery application (Qualtrics) to e-mail a survey instrument developed by the project directors of 4 SBIRT residency programs to each residency grantee's director. The survey included both quantitative and qualitative data. Results All 17 (100%) grantees responded. Respondents encompassed residency programs in emergency medicine, family medicine, pediatrics, obstetrics-gynecology, psychiatry, surgery, and preventive medicine. Thirteen of 17 (76%) grantee programs used both online and in-person approaches to deliver the curriculum. All 17 grantees incorporated motivational interviewing and validated screening instruments in the curriculum. As of June 2011, 2867 residents had been trained, and project directors reported all residents were incorporating SBIRT into their practices. Consistently mentioned challenges in implementing an SBIRT curriculum included finding time in residents' schedules for the modules and the need for trained faculty to verify resident competence. Conclusions The SBIRT initiative has resulted in rapid development of educational programs and a cohort of residents who utilize SBIRT in practice. Skills verification, program dissemination, and sustainability after grant funding ends remain ongoing challenges. PMID:23451308
vanIneveld, C H; Cook, D J; Kane, S L; King, D
To survey the extent to which internal medicine housestaff experience abuse and discrimination in their training. Through a literature review and resident focus groups, we developed a self-administered questionnaire. In this cross-sectional survey, respondents were asked to record the frequency with which they experienced and witnessed different types of abuse and discrimination during residency training, using a 7-point Likert scale. Internal medicine housestaff in Canada. Of 543 residents in 13 programs participating (84% response rate), 35% were female. Psychological abuse, as reported by attending physicians (68%), patients (79%), and nurses or other health workers (77%), was widespread. Female residents experienced gender discrimination by attending physicians (70%), patients (88%), and nurses (71%); rates for males were 23%, 38%, and 35%, respectively. Females reported being sexually harassed more often than males, by attending physicians (35% vs 4%, p discrimination and homophobic remarks in the workplace, perpetrated by all groups of health professionals. Psychological abuse, gender discrimination, sexual harassment, physical abuse, homophobia, and racial discrimination are prevalent problems during residency training. Housestaff, medical educators, allied health workers, and the public need to work together to address these problems in the training environment.
Nuttbrock, L A; Rahav, M; Rivera, J J; Ng-Mak, D S; Link, B G
The feasibility and effectiveness of treating homeless mentally ill chemical abusers in community residences compared with a therapeutic community were evaluated. A total of 694 homeless mentally ill chemical abusers were randomly referred to two community residences or a therapeutic community. All programs were enhanced to treat persons with dual diagnoses. Subjects' attrition, substance use, and psychopathology were measured at two, six, and 12 months. Forty-two percent of the 694 referred subjects were admitted to their assigned program and showed up for treatment, and 13 percent completed 12 months or more. Clients retained at both types of program showed reductions in substance use and psychopathology, but reductions were greater at the therapeutic community. Compared with subjects in the community residences, those in the therapeutic community were more likely to be drug free, as measured by urine analysis and self-reports, and showed greater improvement in psychiatric symptoms, as measured by the Center for Epidemiological Studies--Depression Scale and the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale. Their functioning also improved, as measured by the Global Assessment of Functioning scale. Homeless mentally ill chemical abusers who are retained in community-based residential programs, especially in therapeutic communities, can be successfully treated.
Boulis, Sherif; Khanduja, P Kristina; Downey, Kristi; Friedman, Zeev
The abuse of substances available to anesthesiologists in their workspace is a potentially lethal occupational hazard. Our primary objective was to define the prevalence of substance abuse cases among Canadian anesthesiologists at university-affiliated hospitals. Our secondary aim was to describe the current management of confirmed cases, rehabilitation procedures being offered, and preventative strategies being employed. We conducted a cross-sectional electronic survey of all Canadian anesthesia residency program directors and site chiefs at university-affiliated hospitals. Data analysis was performed using descriptive statistics. The survey response rate was 54% (53/98). Substance abuse was reported as 1.6% for residents and 0.3% for clinical fellows over a ten-year period ending in June 2014. Fentanyl was abused in nine of 24 reported cases. At present, one of 22 respondents (4.5%) reported a formal education program on substance abuse for faculty members, and 72% described mandatory education for residents. The majority of participants did not perceive substance abuse as a growing problem. Seventy-one percent of respondents indicated that methods for controlled-drug handling had changed in the previous ten years; however, 66% did not think that the incidence of controlled substance abuse could be decreased further by more stringent measures. Only 21% of respondents supported the introduction of random urine drug testing. The prevalence of substance abuse among Canadian anesthesiologists and the substances abused appear comparable with data from the United States, with residents being the group most often affected. Early recognition and treatment of chemically dependent anesthesiologists remain imperfect.
... make friends. Abuse is a significant cause of depression in young people. Some teens can only feel better by doing things that could hurt them like cutting or abusing drugs or alcohol. They might even attempt suicide. It's common for those who have been abused ...
This CD is multimedia presentation of programme safety upgrading of Bohunice V1 NPP. This chapter consist of introductory commentary and 4 introductory speeches (video records): (1) Introductory speech of Vincent Pillar, Board chairman and director general of Slovak electric, Plc. (SE); (2) Introductory speech of Stefan Schmidt, director of SE - Bohunice Nuclear power plants; (3) Introductory speech of Jan Korec, Board chairman and director general of VUJE Trnava, Inc. - Engineering, Design and Research Organisation, Trnava; Introductory speech of Dietrich Kuschel, Senior vice-president of FRAMATOME ANP Project and Engineering
... someone else Sexual abuse: touching, fondling or any sexual activity when the person is unable to understand, unwilling to consent, threatened or physically forced Willful deprivation: willfully denying ...
Gracia, Enrique; Herrero, Juan
Objective: This study aimed to explore the relationship between perceived neighborhood social disorder and attitudes toward reporting child physical abuse. Method: Data from a national probabilistic sample (N = 9,759) were used. Responses about the perception of neighborhood social disorder, perceived frequency of child physical abuse in Spanish…
Deshpande, Anshula; Macwan, Chirag; Poonacha, K S; Bargale, Seema; Dhillon, Steffi; Porwal, Prriya
Child abuse is a state of emotional, physical, economic, and sexual maltreatment met out to a person below the age of 18 and is a globally prevalent phenomenon. However, in India, there has been no understanding of the extent, magnitude, and trends of the problem. The aim of this study was to determine the level of knowledge and attitudes of medical and dental residents with regards to physical child abuse of central Gujarat. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among the medical and dental residents of central Gujarat. Data were collected from a self-administered questionnaire for a total of 130 residents, in which 89 medical and 41 dental residents responded. Knowledge regarding the social indicator of child abuse was found to be poor in 27.7% (n = 36), average in 68.5% (n = 89), and good in 3.8% (n = 5); and for physical indicator it was found to be poor in 10.8% (n = 14), average 66.9% (n = 87), and good 22.3% (n = 29). Forty-nine percent (n = 64) of the respondents reported having formal training in recognizing child abuse, and 32% (n = 42) had read literature on the topic. Fifty-five percent (n = 72) stated that education regarding child abuse is extremely important. Result of the present study found that medical and dental residents are not sufficiently prepared to endure their role in protection of child from abuse. A significant gap existed between recognizing signs of physical child abuse and responding effectively. Improvements in child abuse education and continuing education courses are advised to provide adequate knowledge.
Kara, Özlem; Çalışkan, Deniz; Suskan, Emine
In this study, it was aimed to evaluate the levels of knowledge and approaches related with child abuse and neglect in pediatricians and practitioners who have a significant role in recognition and prevention of child abuse and neglect. Two hundred residents of pediatrics and 100 pediatricians working in university and education and research hospitals in the center of Ankara province and 250 practicioners working in primary health care centers were included in the study. A scale composed of five parts including history, physical examination, radiology, risk groups and symptoms was prepared to determine the level of knowledge of physician related with child abuse and neglect. The correct answers given to the questions included in the scale were added and knowledge scores for the subscales and the total score were calculated. Approval was obtained from Ankara University, Medical Faculty Ethics Committee for the study. The data were evaluated using Mann-Whitney U and Kruskal Wallis test. A total of 550 physicians (339 female and 221 male) were included in the study. The mean total knowledge score related with child abuse and neglect was found to be 12.4±4.5 in residents of pediatrics, 13.7±2.8 in pediatricians and 13.6±2.8 in practitioners. The level of knowledge was found to be significantly higher in women, married physicians, physicians who received education before and after graduation, physician who confronted with cases of abuse or suspicious abuse and made a legal notice. In the light of these findings, child abuse and neglect should be included in education programs before and after graduation for physicians who have a key role in the subject of child abuse and neglect.
Full Text Available Amanda Phelan School of Nursing, Midwifery and Health Systems, University College Dublin, Ireland Abstract: With a rising older person population with increasing life expectancies, the demand for care homes will increase in the future. Older people in care homes are particularly vulnerable due to their dependencies related to cognitive and/or functional self-care challenges. Although many care homes provide good care, maltreatment and abuse of older people can and does occur. One major step in preventing and addressing maltreatment in care homes is having comprehensive and responsive policy, which delineates national expectations that are locally implemented. This paper examines the literature related to maltreatment in care homes and argues for policy based on a multisystems approach. Policy needs to firstly acknowledge and address general societal issues which tacitly impact on older person care delivery, underpin how care homes and related systems should be operationalized, and finally delineate expected standards and outcomes for individual experience of care. Such a policy demands attention at every level of the health care and societal system. Furthermore, contemporary issues central to policy evolution in care homes are discussed, such as safeguarding education and training and fostering organization whistle-blowing protection. Keywords: care homes, maltreatment, policy, older people
Polcin, Douglas L.; Korcha, Rachael
Social support and psychiatric severity are known to influence substance abuse. However, little is known about how their influences vary under different conditions. We aimed to study how different types of social support were associated with substance abuse outcomes among persons with low and moderate psychiatric severity who entered Sober Living…
Do care homes deliver person-centred care? A cross-sectional survey of staff-reported abusive and positive behaviours towards residents from the MARQUE (Managing Agitation and Raising Quality of Life) English national care home survey.
Cooper, Claudia; Marston, Louise; Barber, Julie; Livingston, Deborah; Rapaport, Penny; Higgs, Paul; Livingston, Gill
There are widespread concerns about abuse of care home residents. We report, in the largest care home survey, prevalence of staff anonymously-reported, perpetrated/witnessed abusive behaviours towards care home residents over 3 months. We also report positive care behaviours. 1544 staff in 92 English care home units completed the revised Modified Conflict Tactics Scale and Maslach Burnout Inventory. Most staff reported positive care behaviours, but specific person-centred activities were sometimes infrequent. Many care home staff were never or almost never aware of a resident being taken out of the home for their enjoyment (34%, n = 520); or an activity planned around a resident's interests (15%, n = 234). 763 (51%; 95% Confidence Interval (CI) 47% to 54%) of care home staff reported carrying out or observing potentially abusive or neglectful behaviours at least sometimes in the preceding 3 months; some abuse was reported as happening "at least sometimes" in 91/92 care homes. Neglect was most frequently reported: making a resident wait for care (n = 399, 26%), avoiding a resident with challenging behaviour (n = 391, 25%), giving residents insufficient time for food (n = 297, 19%), and taking insufficient care when moving residents (n = 169, 11%). 1.1% of staff reported physical and 5% verbal abuse. More staff reported abusive/neglectful behaviour in homes with higher staff burnout-depersonalisation scores (adjusted odds ratio 1.191, CI 1.052-1.349). Staff anonymous reports of abusive behaviour and neglect could be used to monitor care quality, as cases currently reported are probably tip of the iceberg, and be an outcome in intervention studies.
Full Text Available Introductory Comments The fifth yearly volume of the Colloquia Humanistica comprises a thematic section on Nation, Natsiya, Ethnie. The subject it discusses has thus far received little attention as a research problem in the Slavia Orthodoxa, the Slavia Romana, the Balkans but also in Central and Eastern Europe. Uwagi wstępne Piąty numer rocznika "Colloquia Humanistica" przedstawia dział tematyczny, poświęcony kategoriom narodu, nacji i etni. Temat ten, w takiej perspektywie, którą proponujemy, nie spotkał się dotąd z należytym namysłem badawczym w sferze Slavia Otrhodoxa, Slavia Romana i na Bałkanach, jak też w Europie Środkowo-Wschodniej.
Do care homes deliver person-centred care? A cross-sectional survey of staff-reported abusive and positive behaviours towards residents from the MARQUE (Managing Agitation and Raising Quality of Life) English national care home survey
Marston, Louise; Barber, Julie; Livingston, Deborah; Rapaport, Penny; Higgs, Paul; Livingston, Gill
Background There are widespread concerns about abuse of care home residents. We report, in the largest care home survey, prevalence of staff anonymously-reported, perpetrated/witnessed abusive behaviours towards care home residents over 3 months. We also report positive care behaviours. Methods 1544 staff in 92 English care home units completed the revised Modified Conflict Tactics Scale and Maslach Burnout Inventory. Outcomes Most staff reported positive care behaviours, but specific person-centred activities were sometimes infrequent. Many care home staff were never or almost never aware of a resident being taken out of the home for their enjoyment (34%, n = 520); or an activity planned around a resident’s interests (15%, n = 234). 763 (51%; 95% Confidence Interval (CI) 47% to 54%) of care home staff reported carrying out or observing potentially abusive or neglectful behaviours at least sometimes in the preceding 3 months; some abuse was reported as happening “at least sometimes” in 91/92 care homes. Neglect was most frequently reported: making a resident wait for care (n = 399, 26%), avoiding a resident with challenging behaviour (n = 391, 25%), giving residents insufficient time for food (n = 297, 19%), and taking insufficient care when moving residents (n = 169, 11%). 1.1% of staff reported physical and 5% verbal abuse. More staff reported abusive/neglectful behaviour in homes with higher staff burnout-depersonalisation scores (adjusted odds ratio 1.191, CI 1.052–1.349). Interpretation Staff anonymous reports of abusive behaviour and neglect could be used to monitor care quality, as cases currently reported are probably tip of the iceberg, and be an outcome in intervention studies. PMID:29561867
Provencio-Vasquez, Elias; Mata, Holly J; Tomaka, Joe; De Santis, Joseph P
Hispanics experience health disparities in mental health and HIV infection when compared to non-Hispanic Whites, which may be related to childhood abuse. The purpose of our cross-sectional study was to examine the relationship between childhood abuse and depressive symptoms in a sample of Hispanic men (N = 103) living in a metropolitan U.S.-Mexico border area. Secondarily, we examined the role of self-esteem in mediating this relationship, and the moderating role of sexual orientation. Gay/bisexual men (n = 53) were more likely to report childhood abuse than heterosexual (n = 50) counterparts (47.2% vs. 32%). Self-esteem mediated the relationship between childhood abuse and depression for men who have sex with men, but not heterosexual men. Nurses should increase knowledge of mental health disparities that impact Hispanic men to ensure that appropriate treatment can be provided to reduce the risk of co-occurring health risks to these men, including risk for HIV infection. Copyright © 2017 Association of Nurses in AIDS Care. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Gunderson, Erik W.; Coffin, Phillip O.; Chang, Nancy; Polydorou, Soteri; Levin, Frances R.
Objectives: To develop and assess a housestaff curriculum on opioid and other substance abuse among patients with chronic noncancer pain (CNCP). Methods: The two-hour, case-based curriculum delivered to small groups of medical housestaff sought to improve assessment and management of opioid-treated CNCP patients, including those with a substance…
Kohrt, Brandon A; Hruschka, Daniel J; Kohrt, Holbrook E; Carrion, Victor G; Waldman, Irwin D; Worthman, Carol M
Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity is related to childhood disruptive behavior disorders and to exposure to abuse and neglect. This study explores the relationship of diurnal salivary cortisol levels with oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) and caregiver attitudes toward physical punishment among boys in Mongolia. Salivary cortisol was collected in the home or institution 4 times daily for 4 days from 46 boys, aged 4-10 years, in Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia. Caregivers rated child disruptive behavior symptoms, attitudes toward physical punishment, and community violence exposures. Mixed effects models were used to estimate the association of psychopathology and caregiver attitudes with salivary cortisol levels. Boys meeting criteria for ODD displayed consistently lower diurnal salivary cortisol levels compared to boys without ODD diagnoses. Controlling for ODD diagnosis, boys with depression showed higher cortisol levels throughout the day. No other diagnosis was associated with cortisol levels. Psychiatric diagnosis accounted for 17% of between individual variations in cortisol levels unexplained by the covariates. In a separate model, caregivers' beliefs regarding physical punishment accounted for 11% of between individual differences: boys with caregivers who stated physical punishment was necessary for discipline displayed hypocortisolism. Institutionalization did not associate with cortisol levels. Salivary cortisol data from a non-Western naturalistic setting support an association of reduced basal HPA activity with disruptive behavior disorders and caregiver attitudes toward discipline. These findings suggest HPA functioning may be a reflection of or mediate disruptive behavior disorders in children across ethnic and cultural settings. © 2014 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.
Full Text Available PURPOSE: The purpose of this hospital-based case-control study was to evaluate the patient-related risk factors for aseptic loosening after total hip arthroplasty (THA and total knee arthroplasty (TKA in Chinese patients. METHODS: From January 2000 to December 2012, 67 patients undergoing THA and TKA who developed aseptic loosening were detected as case subjects and 336 patients without aseptic loosening, matched by the year of index surgery and type of surgery, were selected as controls. Conditional logistic regression was used to compute odds ratios (ORs and 95% confidence intervals (CIs. RESULTS: The demographic factors and comorbid conditions associated with a risk-adjusted increase in aseptic loosening (in decreasing order of significance were a rural place of residence (OR = 2.28; 95% CI: 1.21-4.30; p = 0.011, body mass index (BMI ≥ 28 kg/m(2 (vs. 18.5-28 kg/m(2 (OR = 2.29; 95% CI: 1.19-4.41; p = 0.013, developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH (OR = 2.91; 95% CI: 1.11-7.66; p = 0.030, tobacco abuse (OR = 2.88; 95% CI: 1.05-7.89; p = 0.039, and age <45 years (vs. 45-65 years (OR = 2.63; 95% CI: 1.01-6.80; p = 0.047. CONCLUSIONS: Patients aged <45 years and those with a BMI of ≥ 28 kg/m(2, a preoperative diagnosis of DDH, history of tobacco abuse, or living in rural areas are at increased risk for aseptic loosening after THA and TKA in Chinese population. Additional systematic large-scale studies are needed to verify these results.
Castle, Nicholas; Beach, Scott
Assisted Living (AL) currently represents one of the most numerous institutional care settings for elders. Very little information exists on abuse in AL. Descriptive information on elder abuse reported by nurse aides working in AL is presented from a survey sent to nurse aides. The questionnaire had items addressing verbal, physical, psychological, caregiving, medication, material, and sexual abuse. The responses to the questions included in the verbal abuse, physical abuse, psychological abuse, caregiving abuse, medication abuse, and material exploitation abuse sections (28 questions) show that suspected abuse is not uncommon. We could not objectively verify the cases of abuse described in the survey, still, they give a first indication that staff abuse may occur in AL. This may be significant given the large number of ALs in the United States and may influence the health, quality of life, and safety of many residents.
Kolmogorov, A N; Silverman, Richard A
Self-contained and comprehensive, this elementary introduction to real and functional analysis is readily accessible to those with background in advanced calculus. It covers basic concepts and introductory principles in set theory, metric spaces, topological and linear spaces, linear functionals and linear operators, and much more. 350 problems. 1970 edition.
Heijden, B.I.J.M. van der; Vos, A. de; Vos, A. de; Heijden, B.I.J.M. van der
In this introductory chapter we will introduce the concept of ‘sustainable careers’ within the broader framework of contemporary careers. Departing from changes in the career context with regard to the dimensions of time, social space, agency and meaning, we advocate a fresh perspective on careers
Sensors: An Introductory Course provides an essential reference on the fundamentals of sensors. The book is designed to help readers in developing skills and the understanding required in order to implement a wide range of sensors that are commonly used in our daily lives. This book covers the basic concepts in the sensors field, including definitions and terminologies. The physical sensing effects are described, and devices which utilize these effects are presented. The most frequently used organic and inorganic sensors are introduced and the techniques for implementing them are discussed. This book: Provides a comprehensive representation of the most common sensors and can be used as a reference in relevant fields Presents learning materials in a concise and easy to understand manner Includes examples of how sensors are incorporated in real life measurements Contains detailed figures and schematics to assist in understanding the sensor performance Sensors: An Introductory Course is ideal for university stu...
This gracefully organized text reveals the rigorous theory of probability and statistical inference in the style of a tutorial, using worked examples, exercises, figures, tables, and computer simulations to develop and illustrate concepts. Drills and boxed summaries emphasize and reinforce important ideas and special techniques.Beginning with a review of the basic concepts and methods in probability theory, moments, and moment generating functions, the author moves to more intricate topics. Introductory Statistical Inference studies multivariate random variables, exponential families of dist
Graph theory is used today in the physical sciences, social sciences, computer science, and other areas. Introductory Graph Theory presents a nontechnical introduction to this exciting field in a clear, lively, and informative style. Author Gary Chartrand covers the important elementary topics of graph theory and its applications. In addition, he presents a large variety of proofs designed to strengthen mathematical techniques and offers challenging opportunities to have fun with mathematics. Ten major topics - profusely illustrated - include: Mathematical Models, Elementary Concepts of Grap
Davis, Norris; And Others
Examines the relationship between paternal drug abuse status and neighborhood crime rates. Although paternal drug abusing families resided in neighborhoods with higher crime rates than parental non-drug abusing families, when controlling for socioeconomic status, ethnicity, and domicile, drug abuse status was not associated with neighborhood crime…
Brahmia, Suzanne M.
Mathematization is central to STEM disciplines as a cornerstone of the quantitative reasoning that characterizes these fields. Introductory physics is required for most STEM majors in part so that students develop expert-like mathematization. This dissertation describes coordinated research and curriculum development for strengthening mathematization in introductory physics; it blends scholarship in physics and mathematics education in the form of three papers. The first paper explores mathematization in the context of physics, and makes an original contribution to the measurement of physics students' struggle to mathematize. Instructors naturally assume students have a conceptual mastery of algebra before embarking on a college physics course because these students are enrolled in math courses beyond algebra. This paper provides evidence that refutes the validity of this assumption and categorizes some of the barriers students commonly encounter with quantification and representing ideas symbolically. The second paper develops a model of instruction that can help students progress from their starting points to their instructor's desired endpoints. Instructors recognize that the introductory physics course introduces new ideas at an astonishing rate. More than most physicists realize, however, the way that mathematics is used in the course is foreign to a large portion of class. This paper puts forth an instructional model that can move all students toward better quantitative and physical reasoning, despite the substantial variability of those students' initial states. The third paper describes the design and testing of curricular materials that foster mathematical creativity to prepare students to better understand physics reasoning. Few students enter introductory physics with experience generating equations in response to specific challenges involving unfamiliar quantities and units, yet this generative use of mathematics is typical of the thinking involved in
Holbrow, Charles H; Amato, Joseph C; Galvez, Enrique; Parks, M. Elizabeth
Modern Introductory Physics, 2nd Edition, by Charles H. Holbrow, James N. Lloyd, Joseph C. Amato, Enrique Galvez, and Beth Parks, is a successful innovative text for teaching introductory college and university physics. It is thematically organized to emphasize the physics that answers the fundamental question: Why do we believe in atoms and their properties? The book provides a sound introduction to basic physical concepts with particular attention to the nineteenth- and twentieth-century physics underlying our modern ideas of atoms and their structure. After a review of basic Newtonian mechanics, the book discusses early physical evidence that matter is made of atoms. With a simple model of the atom Newtonian mechanics can explain the ideal gas laws, temperature, and viscosity. Basic concepts of electricity and magnetism are introduced along with a more complicated model of the atom to account for the observed electrical properties of atoms. The physics of waves---particularly light and x-rays---an...
Vandyke, Michael; Bassichis, William
Calculus-based introductory physics courses intended for future engineers and physicists are often designed and taught in the same fashion as those intended for students of other disciplines. A more mathematically rigorous curriculum should be more appropriate and, ultimately, more beneficial for the student in his or her future coursework. This work investigates the effects of mathematical rigor on student understanding of introductory mechanics. Using a series of diagnostic tools in conjunction with individual student course performance, a statistical analysis will be performed to examine student learning of introductory mechanics and its relation to student understanding of the underlying calculus.
Although Bruning has produced a series of textbook surveys for introductory astronomy for non science majors, the present survey is the first to examine introductory astrophysics books intended for astronomy majors. It provides information about 21 introductory astrophysics textbooks: nine broad topic texts, two on techniques, three on the Solar System, one on galaxies and cosmology, and six on stars. A set of seven tables indicates prices, page counts by topics, pedagogical features of the text, appendixes, and text Web sites to help instructors narrow the list of textbooks for closer inspection as they make adoption decisions.
... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Introductory offers. 502.101 Section 502.101... FAIR PACKAGING AND LABELING ACT Retail Sale Price Representations § 502.101 Introductory offers. (a) The term introductory offer means any printed matter consisting of the words “introductory offer” or...
... or puts a child at risk of harm. Child abuse can be physical, sexual or emotional. Neglect, or not providing for a child's needs, is also a form of abuse. Most abused children suffer greater emotional than physical damage. An abused child may become depressed. He or she may withdraw, ...
Swartz, Clifford E
Introductory physics attracts a wide variety of students, with different backgrounds, levels of preparedness, and academic destinations. To many, the course is one of the most daunting in the science curriclum, full of arcane principles that are difficult to grasp. To others, it is one of the most highly anticipated -the first step on the path to the upper reaches of scientific inquiry. In their years as instructors and as editors of The Physics Teacher, Clifford E. Swartz and the late Thomas Miner developed and encountered many innovative and effective ways of introducing students to the fundamental principles of physics. Teaching Introductory Physics brings these strategies, insights and techniques to you in a unique, convenient volume. This is a reference and a tutorial book for teachers of an introductory physics course at any level. It has review articles on most of the topics of introductory physics, providing background information and suggestions about presentation and relative importance. Whether you...
We describe an effort to develop and to implement a college-level introductory physics (mechanics) MOOC that offers bona fide laboratory experiences. We also discuss efforts to use MOOC curricular materials to ``flip'' the classroom in a large lecture introductory physics course offered on-campus at Georgia Tech. Preliminary results of assessments and surveys from both MOOC and on-campus students will be presented.
Wolfe, Douglas A
This textbook is designed to give an engaging introduction to statistics and the art of data analysis. The unique scope includes, but also goes beyond, classical methodology associated with the normal distribution. What if the normal model is not valid for a particular data set? This cutting-edge approach provides the alternatives. It is an introduction to the world and possibilities of statistics that uses exercises, computer analyses, and simulations throughout the core lessons. These elementary statistical methods are intuitive. Counting and ranking features prominently in the text. Nonparametric methods, for instance, are often based on counts and ranks and are very easy to integrate into an introductory course. The ease of computation with advanced calculators and statistical software, both of which factor into this text, allows important techniques to be introduced earlier in the study of statistics. This book's novel scope also includes measuring symmetry with Walsh averages, finding a nonp...
... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Abusive Relationships KidsHealth / For Teens / Abusive Relationships Print en español Relaciones de maltrato Healthy Relationships = Respect & Trust Healthy relationships involve respect, trust, and ...
... and child abuse. Drug abuse can lead to homelessness, crime, and missed work or problems with keeping a job. It harms unborn babies and destroys families. There are different types of treatment for drug ...
Sobhanzadeh, Mandana; Kalman, Calvin S.; Thompson, R. I.
Traditional lab sections in introductory physics courses at Mount Royal University were replaced by a new style of lab called ‘labatorials’ developed by the Physics Education Development Group at the University of Calgary. Using labatorials in introductory physics courses has lowered student anxiety and strengthened student engagement in lab sessions. Labatorials provide instant feedback to the students and instructors. Interviews with students who had completed Introductory Physics labatorials as well as the anonymous comments left by them showed that labatorials have improved student satisfaction. Students improved their understanding of concepts compared to students who had taken traditional labs in earlier years. Moreover a combination of labatorials and reflective writing can promote positive change in students’ epistemological beliefs.
Forrester, Mathias B
Adderall is used in the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children and is subject to abuse. This study describes the patterns of Adderall abuse calls received by several poison control centers in Texas during 1998-2004. Drug abuse calls were assessed by call year and geographic location. Drug abuse calls were then compared to all other human exposure (nonabuse) calls with respect to various factors. Of all Adderall exposure calls, 12% involved abuse. The number of drug abuse calls received per year increased during the first part of 7-yr period but then declined. Male patients accounted for almost 60% of both drug abuse and nonabuse calls. Adolescent patients comprised 69% of drug abuse calls and children less than 13 yr old comprised 66% of nonabuse calls. Although the majority of both types of human exposures occurred at the patient's own residence, drug abuse calls were more likely than nonabuse calls to involve exposures at another residence (6% vs. 3%), school (22% vs. 5%) and public areas (2% vs. 0.4%). Drug abuse calls were less likely than nonabuse calls to be managed outside of a health care facility (18% vs. 51%) and to be classified as no adverse effect (23% vs. 48%). Adderall abusers are more likely to be adolescents. Adderall abuse as compared to other exposures is more likely to occur outside of the person's home and involve more serious medical outcomes.
Child abuse is common in most, if not all, Western nations; it probably occurs worldwide. It may be a major factor in the increase in violence throughout much of the world. Radiologists who treat children should think of the possibilitys of abuse whenever they diagnose a fracture, intracranial bleeding or visceral injury, especially when the history is not compatible with their findings. Metaphyseal 'corner' fractures in infants usually are caused by abuse. Less than 20% of abused children, however, present injuries that can be recognized by radiologic techniques. Consequently normal roentgenograms, nuclear medicine scans, ultrasound studies, and computed tomograms do not exclude child abuse.
Dorst, J.P.; Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, Baltimore, MD
Child abuse is common in most, if not all, Western nations; it probably occurs worldwide. It may be a major factor in the increase in violence throughout much of the world. Radiologists who treat children should think of the possibilitys of abuse whenever they diagnose a fracture, intracranial bleed, ar visceral injury, especially when the history is not compatible with their findings. Metaphyseal 'corner' fractures in infants usually are caused by abuse. Less than 20% of abused children, however, present injuries that can be recognized by radiologic techniques. Consequently normal roentgenograms, nuclear medicine scans, ultrasound studies, and computed tomograms do not exclude child abuse. (orig.)
Simone, Lacher; Wettstein, Albert; Senn, Oliver; Rosemann, Thomas; Hasler, Susann
Detecting elder abuse is challenging because it is a taboo, and many cases remain unreported. This study aimed to identify types of elder abuse and to investigate its associated risk factors. Retrospective analyses of 903 dossiers created at an Independent Complaints Authority for Old Age in the Canton of Zurich, Switzerland, from January 1, 2008 to October 31, 2012. Characteristics of victims and perpetrators, types of abuse, and associated risk factors related to the victim or the perpetrator were assessed. Bi- and multivariate analysis were used to identify abuse and neglect determinants. A total of 150 cases reflected at least one form of elder abuse or neglect; 104 cases were categorised as abuse with at least one type of abuse (overall 135 mentions), 46 cases were categorised as neglect (active or passive). Psychological abuse was the most reported form (47%), followed by financial (35%), physical (30%) and anticonstitutional abuse (18%). In 81% of the 150 cases at least two risk factors existed. In 13% no associated risk factor could be identified. Compared with neglect, elders with abuse were less likely to be a nursing home resident than living at home (odds ratio [OR] 0.02, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.00-0.19). In addition, they were more likely to be cohabiting with their perpetrators (OR 18.01, 95% CI 4.43-73.19). For the majority of the reported elder abuse cases at least two associated risk factors could be identified. Knowledge about these red flags and a multifaceted strategy are needed to identify and prevent elder abuse.
Williams, H. Thomas
Contends that the large vocabulary used for precise purposes in physics contains many words that have related but potentially confusing meanings in everyday usage. Analyzes the treatment of Newton's Laws of Motion in several well-known introductory textbooks for evidence of inconsistent language use. Makes teaching suggestions. (Contains 11…
Taghizadeh, Sanaz; Lincoln, James
The introductory physics classroom has long educated students about the properties of the atom and the nucleus. But absent from these lessons has been an informed discussion of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and its parent science nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). Physics teachers should not miss the opportunity to instruct upon this highly…
In an after-dinner talk at the fall 2005 meeting of the New England chapter of the AAPT, Professor Robert Arns drew an analogy between classical physics and Classic Coke. To generations of physics teachers and textbook writers, classical physics was the real thing. Modern physics, which in introductory textbooks "appears in one or more extra…
Bennedsen, Jens; Caspersen, Michael Edelgaard
It is a common conception that CS1 is a very difficult course and that failure rates are high. However, until now there has only been anecdotal evidence for this claim. This article reports on a survey among institutions around the world regarding failure rates in introductory programming courses...... solid proof of the actual failure and pass rates of CS1....
Zink, Therese; Klesges, Lisa; Stevens, Susanna; Decker, Paul
Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) is common and is associated with both mental and physical health problems in adulthood. Using data from an age- and sex-stratified population survey of 600 Olmsted County, Minnesota, residents, a Sexual Abuse Severity Score was developed. The abuse characteristics of 156 CSA respondents were associated with…
Full Text Available With the increasing complexity and expansion of the biological sciences, there has been a corresponding increase in content in the first-year introductory biology course sequence for majors. In general this has resulted in courses that introduce students to large amounts of material and leave little time for practicing investigative science or skill development. Based on our analysis of data compiled from 742 biology faculty at a variety of institutions across the United States, we verified that there is strong agreement on the content appropriate for introductory biology courses for majors. Therefore, we propose that faculty teaching these courses focus primarily on the topics identified in this study, and redesign their courses to incorporate active learning strategies that emphasize the investigative nature of biology and provide opportunities for skill development.
The CERN Accelerator School’s introductory course is a great success. This year the CERN Accelerator School held its "Introduction to Accelerator Physics" course in Frascati, Italy, from 2-14 November in collaboration with the University of Rome "La Sapienza" and the INFN Frascati National Laboratory. The Introductory level course is particularly important since, for the majority of participants, it is the first opportunity to discover the various aspects of accelerator physics. For this school the programme had been significantly revised in order to take into account the new trends currently being developed in the field, thus putting more emphasis on linacs, synchrotron light sources and free-electron lasers. The school was a resounding success with 115 participants of more than 23 nationalities. Feedback from the students praised the expertise of the lecturers, the high standard of the lectures as well as the excellent organizati...
... Drinking to Excess U.S. National Library of Medicine, Alcoholism and Alcohol Abuse Last Updated: June 27, 2017 This article was contributed by: familydoctor.org editorial staff Categories: Family Health, Kids and Teens, Men, Seniors, WomenTags: alcohol, alcohol abuse, alcohol addiction ...
Kent, Lindsey; And Others
Five cases of fetal abuse by mothers suffering from depression are discussed. Four of the women had unplanned pregnancies and had considered termination of the pregnancy. Other factors associated with fetal abuse include pregnancy denial, pregnancy ambivalence, previous postpartum depression, and difficulties in relationships. Vigilance for…
... has the right to be free from verbal, sexual, physical, and mental abuse, corporal punishment, and... resident property. (1) The facility must— (i) Not use verbal, mental, sexual, or physical abuse, corporal punishment, or involuntary seclusion; (ii) Not employ individuals who have been— (A) Found guilty of abusing...
Milner, Joel S.; Gold, Ruth G.
Investigated the ability of the Child Abuse Potential Inventory to screen for child abuse in a group of spouse abusers. The completed, valid protocols revealed that 36.5 percent of the spouse abusers had elevated child abuse scores, while only 9.1 percent of the nonabusers had elevated abuse scores. (Author/BL)
... People Abuse » Other Drugs of Abuse Other Drugs of Abuse Listen There are many other drugs of abuse, ... and Rehab Resources About the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) | About This Website Tools and Resources | Contact ...
McFadden, Emily Jean
This manual, one of a series of manuals developed for the Foster Parent Training Project at Eastern Michigan University, was designed to assist instructors in presenting course content to foster parents on how to provide a corrective and healing environment for battered and abused foster children. The introductory section presents information for…
Price, J L; Cleary, B
Clearly, faculty must work hard with residents to explore the nature of their resistance to a program's learning and growth opportunities. Initial steps to a deeper, more effective, and longer-lasting change process must be pursued. If resident resistance is mishandled or misunderstood, then learning and professional growth may be sidetracked and the purposes of residency training defeated. Listening to the whole person of the resident and avoiding the trap of getting caught up in merely responding to select resident behaviors that irritate us is critical. Every faculty member in the family practice residency program must recognize resistance as a form of defense that cannot immediately be torn down or taken away. Resident defenses have important purposes to play in stress reduction even if they are not always healthy. Residents, especially interns, use resistance to avoid a deeper and more truthful look at themselves as physicians. A family practice residency program that sees whole persons in their residents and that respects resident defenses will effectively manage the stress and disharmony inherent to the resistant resident.
... Paper) paint thinner cleaning fluids nail polish remover rubber cement gasoline. Teenagers are the most common abusers ... severe cases, it can cause sudden death. Inhalants block oxygen flow to your brain and other organs. ...
Simon, T.R.; Seastrunk, J.W.; Malone, G.; Knesevich, M.A.; Hickey, D.C.
This paper reports that this study used SPECT to examine patients who have abused drugs to determine whether SPECT could identify abnormalities and whether these findings have clinical importance. Fifteen patients with a history of substance abuse (eight with cocaine, six with amphetamine, and one with organic solvent) underwent SPECT performed with a triple-headed camera and Tc-99m HMPAO both early for blood flow and later for functional information. These images were then processed into a 3D videotaped display used in group therapy. All 15 patients had multiple areas of decreased tracer uptake peppered throughout the cortex but mainly affecting the parietal lobes, expect for the organic solvent abuser who had a large parietal defect. The videotapes were subjectively described by a therapist as an exceptional tool that countered patient denial of physical damage from substance abuse. Statistical studies of recidivism between groups is under way
... a big part of moving from childhood into adolescence and adulthood. Unfortunately, some people may find themselves in a relationship that involves abuse or violence. It can be especially hard for guys to ...
The second edition of a bestselling textbook, Using R for Introductory Statistics guides students through the basics of R, helping them overcome the sometimes steep learning curve. The author does this by breaking the material down into small, task-oriented steps. The second edition maintains the features that made the first edition so popular, while updating data, examples, and changes to R in line with the current version.See What's New in the Second Edition:Increased emphasis on more idiomatic R provides a grounding in the functionality of base R.Discussions of the use of RStudio helps new
Collecting Self-Reported Data on Dating Abuse Perpetration From a Sample of Primarily Black and Hispanic, Urban-Residing, Young Adults: A Comparison of Timeline Followback Interview and Interactive Voice Response Methods.
Rothman, Emily F; Heeren, Timothy; Winter, Michael; Dorfman, David; Baughman, Allyson; Stuart, Gregory
Dating abuse is a prevalent and consequential public health problem. However, relatively few studies have compared methods of collecting self-report data on dating abuse perpetration. This study compares two data collection methods-(a) the Timeline Followback (TLFB) retrospective reporting method, which makes use of a written calendar to prompt respondents' recall, and (b) an interactive voice response (IVR) system, which is a prospective telephone-based database system that necessitates respondents calling in and entering data using their telephone keypads. We collected 84 days of data on young adult dating abuse perpetration using IVR from a total of 60 respondents. Of these respondents, 41 (68%) completed a TLFB retrospective report pertaining to the same 84-day period after that time period had ended. A greater number of more severe dating abuse perpetration events were reported via the IVR system. Participants who reported any dating abuse perpetration were more likely to report more frequent abuse perpetration via the IVR than the TLFB (i.e., may have minimized the number of times they perpetrated dating abuse on the TLFB). The TLFB method did not result in a tapering off of reported events past the first week as it has in prior studies, but the IVR method did result in a tapering off of reported events after approximately the sixth week. We conclude that using an IVR system for self-reports of dating abuse perpetration may not have substantial advantages over using a TLFB method, but researchers' choice of mode may vary by research question, resources, sample, and setting.
Taylor, M. Suzanne
Introductory astronomy classes without laboratory components face a unique challenge of how to expose students to the process of science in the framework of a lecture course. As a solution to this problem small group observing projects are incorporated into a 40 student introductory astronomy class composed primarily of non-science majors. Students may choose from 8 observing projects such as graphing the motion of the moon or a planet, measuring daily and seasonal motions of stars, and determining the rotation rate of the Sun from sunspots. Each group completes two projects, requiring the students to spend several hours outside of class making astronomical observations. Clear instructions and a check-list style observing log help students with minimal observing experience to take accurate data without direct instructor assistance. Students report their findings in a lab report-style paper, as well as in a formal oral or poster presentation. The projects serve a double purpose of allowing students to directly experience concepts covered in class as well as providing students with experience collecting, analyzing, and presenting astronomical data.
Elkins, Donald M.
Discusses the advantages of using a pretest in introductory agronomy courses. Provides a pretest that has been developed for use in an introductory crops course taught at Southern Illinois University. Includes 25 definitions, 17 true-false and multiple choice questions, and 6 short answer questions. (TW)
Walker, Larry D.; Inbody, Paul W.
This introductory psychology course consisting of 16 contemporary films available at each student's convenience; readings; discussion sessions; and laboratory experience, assisted by upper-division psychology students, is an attempt to minimize some of the problems of the usual introductory lecture course. (JH)
Lin, Shih-Yin; Singh, Chandralekha
In this study, we examine introductory physics students' ability to perform analogical reasoning between two isomorphic problems which employ the same underlying physics principles but have different surface features. Three hundred sixty-two students from a calculus-based and an algebra-based introductory physics course were given a quiz in the…
Zucchero, Renee' A.
Previous research revealed that introductory psychology textbooks included limited information about psychology ethics. This study reviewed 48 current introductory psychology textbooks for research and other APA ethics content. These textbooks included slightly more total ethics content and were more thorough in their review of research ethics…
Introductory Guide to European Corporate Law presents in an easily comprehensible and accessible way the main features and principles that govern European corporate law.......Introductory Guide to European Corporate Law presents in an easily comprehensible and accessible way the main features and principles that govern European corporate law....
Landrum, R. Eric; Gurung, Regan A. R.
Almost 2 million students enroll in introductory psychology each year in the United States, making it the second most popular undergraduate course in the nation. Introductory psychology not only serves as a prerequisite for other courses in the discipline but for some students this course provides their only exposure to psychological science.…
This thesis analyzes the concept of corporate residence, with particular reference to the law in the UK and Canada. It explores why corporate residence is relevant in tax policy, how corporate residence is understood in law, and how revenue authorities respond to the use and alleged 'abuse' of residence rules. Part I argues that the residence of taxpayers generally (individual or corporate) remains a relevant factor in international tax design, that taxation of corporations on the basis of re...
... children or pressuring them for sex is sexual abuse. Using a child for pornography is also sexual abuse. Most sexual abusers know the child they abuse. They may be family friends, neighbors or babysitters. ...
Keohane, Jonathan W.; Bartlett, J. L.; Foy, J. P.
We present a collection of short lecture-tutorial (or homework) activities, designed to be both quantitative and accessible to the introductory astronomy student. Each of these involves interpreting some real data, solving a problem using ratios and proportionalities, and making a conclusion based on the calculation. Selected titles include: "The Mass of Neptune” "The Temperature on Titan” "Rocks in the Early Solar System” "Comets Hitting Planets” "Ages of Meteorites” "How Flat are Saturn's Rings?” "Tides of the Sun and Moon on the Earth” "The Gliese 581 Solar System"; "Buckets in the Rain” "How Hot, Bright and Big is Betelgeuse?” "Bombs and the Sun” "What Forms Stars?” "Lifetimes of Cars and Stars” "The Mass of the Milky” "How Old is the Universe?” "Is The Universe Speeding up or Slowing Down?"
Taghizadeh, Sanaz; Lincoln, James
The introductory physics classroom has long educated students about the properties of the atom and the nucleus. But absent from these lessons has been an informed discussion of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and its parent science nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). Physics teachers should not miss the opportunity to instruct upon this highly relevant application of modern physics, especially with so many of our students planning to pursue a career in medicine. This article provides an overview of the physics of MRI and gives advice on how physics teachers can introduce this topic. Also included are some demonstration activities and a discussion of a desktop MRI apparatus that may be used by students in the lab or as a demo.
Gorain, Ganesh C
Introductory Course on DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS provides an excellent exposition of the fundamentals of ordinary and partial differential equations and is ideally suited for a first course of undergraduate students of mathematics, physics and engineering. The aim of this book is to present the elementary theories of differential equations in the forms suitable for use of those students whose main interest in the subject are based on simple mathematical ideas. KEY FEATURES: Discusses the subject in a systematic manner without sacrificing mathematical rigour. A variety of exercises drill the students in problem solving in view of the mathematical theories explained in the book. Worked out examples illustrated according to the theories developed in the book with possible alternatives. Exhaustive collection of problems and the simplicity of presentation differentiate this book from several others. Material contained will help teachers as well as aspiring students of different competitive examinations.
Nguyen, Tuyen D
The present study investigated the prevalence of both current and lifetime physical partner abuse among Vietnamese males who reside in Vietnam. Participants (N = 315) were randomly selected to participate in the study. Participants completed the Vietnamese version of the Conflict Tactics Scale-2. A total of 47% (n = 148) of the sampled participants were identified as current physical abusers and 68% (n = 214) as past abusers. Four of the most common abusive tactics abusers exhibited toward their partner were (a) throwing something at their wife (80%), (b) pushing or shoving their partner (78%), (c) beating up their partner (54%), and (d) twisting their partner's arm or hair (60%).
In this diploma thesis we try to find the answer to why students experience difficulties in introductory programming. We ask ourselves what causes most problems while trying to understand concepts in introductory programming, generating code and designing algorithms. In the first section we introduce programming language Python as the first programming language being taught to students. We compare it with programming language Pascal and stress the advantages of Python that seem important ...
Kong, M. G.; Kroesen, G.; Morfill, G.; Nosenko, T.; Shimizu, T.; van Dijk, J.; Zimmermann, J. L.
This introductory review on plasma health care is intended to provide the interested reader with a summary of the current status of this emerging field, its scope, and its broad interdisciplinary approach, ranging from plasma physics, chemistry and technology, to microbiology, biochemistry, biophysics, medicine and hygiene. Apart from the basic plasma processes and the restrictions and requirements set by international health standards, the review focuses on plasma interaction with prokaryotic cells (bacteria), eukaryotic cells (mammalian cells), cell membranes, DNA etc. In so doing, some of the unfamiliar terminology—an unavoidable by-product of interdisciplinary research—is covered and explained. Plasma health care may provide a fast and efficient new path for effective hospital (and other public buildings) hygiene—helping to prevent and contain diseases that are continuously gaining ground as resistance of pathogens to antibiotics grows. The delivery of medically active 'substances' at the molecular or ionic level is another exciting topic of research through effects on cell walls (permeabilization), cell excitation (paracrine action) and the introduction of reactive species into cell cytoplasm. Electric fields, charging of surfaces, current flows etc can also affect tissue in a controlled way. The field is young and hopes are high. It is fitting to cover the beginnings in New Journal of Physics, since it is the physics (and non-equilibrium chemistry) of room temperature atmospheric pressure plasmas that have made this development of plasma health care possible.
Gashi, Sanije; Ramadani, Naser; Berisha, Merita; Gashi, Musli; Zhjeqi, Valbona; Hoxha, Rina
Currently the drug abuse has become one of the most serious problems in many countries. The drugs abuse is also widespread in less developed societies. This problem is present in Kosova too with the tendency of rising. The of this research was to show the number of drug abusers in Prishtina region, the type of drugs used, the way of drug administration, then survey of the age, sex, marital status, residence of the drug abusers including their social status (employment, profession and economical status). During the surveyed period the number of hospitalized drug abusers in Neuropsychiatry clinic was 39. 25.5% of them were hospitalized more than ones, with 367 stay days with average treatment period of 7.5 days. Average age of those hospitalized for the first time was 27.9 years of age. 64.1% of them were 25-34 years old. 97.4% of the hospitalized were male. 32 (82.1%) patient were from Prishtina, 5 from Ferizaj and 1 from F. Kosova and Kacanik. During the surveyed period there was no patient hospitalized from other cities of Prishtina Region (Besiana, Drenas, Kastriot, Lipjan, Shtime and Shterpc).
John F. Fisher
Full Text Available The training of physicians in the past century was based primarily on responsibility and the chain-of-command. Those with the bulk of that responsibility in the fields of pediatrics and internal medicine were residents. Residents trained the medical students and supervised them carefully in caring for patients. Most attending physicians supervised their teams at arm's length, primarily serving as teachers of the finer points of diagnosis and treatment during set periods of the day or week with a perfunctory signature on write-ups or progress notes. Residents endeavored to protect the attending physician from being heavily involved unless they were unsure about a clinical problem. Before contacting the attending physician, a more senior resident would be called. Responsibility was the ultimate teacher. The introduction of diagnosis-related groups by the federal government dramatically changed the health care delivery system, placing greater emphasis on attending physician visibility in the medical record, ultimately resulting in more attending physician involvement in day-to-day care of patients in academic institutions. Without specified content in attending notes, hospital revenues would decline. Although always in charge technically, attending physicians increasingly have assumed the role once dominated by the resident. Using biographical experiences of more than 40 years, the author acknowledges and praises the educational role of responsibility in his own training and laments its declining role in today's students and house staff.
Fisher, John F
The training of physicians in the past century was based primarily on responsibility and the chain-of-command. Those with the bulk of that responsibility in the fields of pediatrics and internal medicine were residents. Residents trained the medical students and supervised them carefully in caring for patients. Most attending physicians supervised their teams at arm's length, primarily serving as teachers of the finer points of diagnosis and treatment during set periods of the day or week with a perfunctory signature on write-ups or progress notes. Residents endeavored to protect the attending physician from being heavily involved unless they were unsure about a clinical problem. Before contacting the attending physician, a more senior resident would be called. Responsibility was the ultimate teacher. The introduction of diagnosis-related groups by the federal government dramatically changed the health care delivery system, placing greater emphasis on attending physician visibility in the medical record, ultimately resulting in more attending physician involvement in day-to-day care of patients in academic institutions. Without specified content in attending notes, hospital revenues would decline. Although always in charge technically, attending physicians increasingly have assumed the role once dominated by the resident. Using biographical experiences of more than 40 years, the author acknowledges and praises the educational role of responsibility in his own training and laments its declining role in today's students and house staff.
Lucas, Raymond; Choudhri, Tina; Roche, Colleen; Ranniger, Claudia; Greenberg, Larrie
New residents enter emergency medicine (EM) residency programs with varying EM experiences, which makes residency orientation programs challenging to design. There is a paucity of literature to support best practices. We report on a curriculum development project for EM residency orientation using the Kern Model. Components of the revised curriculum include administrative inculcation into the program; delivering skills and knowledge training to ensure an entering level of competence; setting expectations for learning in the overall residency curriculum; performing an introductory performance evaluation; and socialization into the program. Post-implementation resident surveys found the new curriculum to be helpful in preparing them for the first year of training. The Kern Model was a relevant and useful method for redesigning a new-resident orientation curriculum. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
... call the police . Crisis and support contacts For Child Abuse Reporting Numbers in your State please visit: Child ... suspected child abuse and neglect. Parent Resources Prevent Child Abuse America (800) CHILDREN A resource for tips, referrals, ...
Full Text Available Background: The practice of self-medication has been recognized since ages. There has been enough literature available regarding it being there for medical illnesses; however, there is a dearth of information about it for dental causes. Hence, this study was designed to determine the abuse of self-medication for dental illnesses and the reasons for resorting to it. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted in 10 taluks of Belgaum district. Totally, 230 consenting respondents were selected by random sampling from 10 villages and interviewed with the aid of 18-point, closed-ended question-based, semi-structured questionnaire. Results: Odontalgia was the most common reason for which people resorted to self-medication (57.69%. 70% of the respondents did not have the knowledge about the dose, duration, side effects, and interactions of drugs they had used. Paracetamol was the most commonly used drug for self-medication. Conclusion: Analgesics were the most common drugs abused for self-medication. Adequate health education of the populace was found mandatory to make people aware of the use and misuse of drugs, especially analgesics, and regarding the potential adverse effects they can show, especially when used repeatedly, or on a chronic basis. Furthermore, dental health-care services were supposed to be made readily available and affordable so that self-medication among rural patients could be reduced to the barest minimum.
Epidemiology and Symptomatology, Neuroscience and Psychology and Intervention and Policy, focusing on the most salient issues related to substance use and abuse. The introductory chapter provides a very good overview of what each chapter deals with and therefore helps the reader navigate to the chapters that are of.
Introductory Mathematics for the Life Sciences offers a straightforward introduction to the mathematical principles needed for studies in the life sciences. Starting with the basics of numbers, fractions, ratios, and percentages, the author explains progressively more sophisticated concepts, from algebra, measurement, and scientific notation through the linear, power, exponential, and logarithmic functions to introductory statistics. Worked examples illustrate concepts, applications, and interpretations, and exercises at the end of each chapter help readers apply and practice the skills they develop. Answers to the exercises are posted at the end of the text.
Olivares Bøgeskov, Benjamin Miguel
This paper presents the result from our research on how nurse managers use and occasionally misuse inconclusive ethical arguments to engage their personnel in current reforms. The Danish health care system has undergone a series of reforms inspired by New Public Management theories, which have......, paying special attention to the way in which ethical arguments are used in relation to engagement. Our research shows that ethical arguments are extremely common, and they are used either to elicit engagement, or to demand engagement considering the result of a duty. However, most interestingly...... it was possible for us to find recurrence of fallacious arguments of different kinds. Based on these findings, I will argue that the use of fallacious arguments in order to generate engagement is in reality an abusive use of ethics, which raises important questions. I argue that depending on the degree...
Berkers, Gitte; Biesaart, Monique C I H; Leeuwenburgh-Pronk, Wendela G
To give an overview of disciplinary cases regarding action taken by paediatricians and paediatric residents in cases of (suspected) child abuse and to discuss the considerations of the disciplinary board in these cases. Retrospective, descriptive study. We considered all disciplinary cases instigated from 2001 to 2013 against paediatricians or paediatric residents and selected complaints regarding action taken in cases of (suspected) child abuse. We divided these complaints into six categories and studied the considerations of the disciplinary board in these cases. From 33 disciplinary cases instigated from 2001 to 2013, we selected 76 complaints regarding action taken by paediatricians or paediatric residents in cases of (suspected) child abuse. The majority of these complaints concerned the reporting or requesting of information in the context of (suspected) child abuse. All of the complaints in the category 'unwarranted reporting of child abuse' were declared unfounded by the disciplinary judge. The disciplinary board declared all complaints unfounded in cases where the paediatrician or paediatric resident had followed the Dutch national protocol regarding reporting of child abuse and domestic violence. The disciplinary board examines whether action was taken in accordance with reasonable standards of professional competence and considers that paediatricians have an important role in identifying child abuse.
Barbarick, K. A.
Students in introductory courses generally respond favorably to novel approaches to learning. To this end, I developed and used three crossword puzzles in spring and fall 2009 semesters in Introductory Soil Science Laboratory at Colorado State University. The first hypothesis was that crossword puzzles would improve introductory soil science…
Wood, Stacey; Stephens, Mary
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the decision-making abilities of residents in assisted living regarding abuse and neglect. Design and Methods: Twenty-seven residents in assisted living facilities were recruited for this descriptive study. Participants were administered an interview to assess baseline knowledge of support…
McFadden, Emily Jean
This guide on counseling abused children was written to help counselors meet the needs of children and adolescents and to provide ways of working with the child's family. Chapter 1 presents an overview of child maltreatment by identifying types of maltreatment (neglect, physical abuse, sexual abuse and exploitation, and emotional abuse or neglect)…
Substance Abuse . The use -)i illegal drugs or the abuse of prescribed drugs and/or alcohol must be proscribed from the workplace . Also, substance abuse ...resolving their own personal problems. Their problems include money, family, drug or alcohol addiction , gambling, or work-related difficulties perhaps...Moonlighting * Organizational Property * Nonuse/nondisclosure * Substance Abuse * Gambling Employee Assistance Program "Whistle
Rios, Francisco Javier Mesa; Munoz, Maria Del Carmen Lara
Background: Various rates of alcoholism, drug abuse, mental illness, and suicide among physician have been reported, generally higher than those in the general population. Psychiatry residents, as other specializing physicians, seem to be prone to suffering them. The prevalence of psychological symptoms among psychiatry residents has not been…
One of the intermediate goals of STEM education has been turning our students into problem solvers and critical thinkers who are equipped with better scientific analysis skills. In light of this initiative, it is imperative that we, the educators, modify the way we teach classic introductory physics topics, and in the long run all sciences, and…
Caves, Roger W.
This introductory text presents a collection of articles from urban-studies journals to introduce undergraduate students to the interdisciplinary field of urban studies. The book is divided into 9 parts as follows: Part 1: Cities and Urbanism; part 2: Urban History; part 3: Urban Policy; part 4: Economic Development; part 5: Community Services and…
Describes an introductory undergraduate survey course on European history that incorporates three interrelated sections: constitutional government in Europe, the American revolution, and the French Revolution. The instruction emphasizes the interconnectedness among the events and includes repetition of key ideas and information. Discusses the…
Carroll, Michael P.
A section on "world religions" (WRs) is now routinely included in the religion chapters of introductory sociology textbooks. Looking carefully at these WR sections, however, two things seem puzzling. The first is that the criteria for defining a WR varies considerably from textbook to textbook; the second is that these WRs sections…
Full Text Available In this study, we examine introductory physics students’ ability to perform analogical reasoning between two isomorphic problems which employ the same underlying physics principles but have different surface features. Three hundred sixty-two students from a calculus-based and an algebra-based introductory physics course were given a quiz in the recitation in which they had to first learn from a solved problem provided and take advantage of what they learned from it to solve another problem (which we call the quiz problem which was isomorphic. Previous research suggests that the multiple-concept quiz problem is challenging for introductory students. Students in different recitation classes received different interventions in order to help them discern and exploit the underlying similarities of the isomorphic solved and quiz problems. We also conducted think-aloud interviews with four introductory students in order to understand in depth the difficulties they had and explore strategies to provide better scaffolding. We found that most students were able to learn from the solved problem to some extent with the scaffolding provided and invoke the relevant principles in the quiz problem. However, they were not necessarily able to apply the principles correctly. Research suggests that more scaffolding is needed to help students in applying these principles appropriately. We outline a few possible strategies for future investigation.
Lin, Shih-Yin; Singh, Chandralekha
In this study, we examine introductory physics students’ ability to perform analogical reasoning between two isomorphic problems which employ the same underlying physics principles but have different surface features. Three hundred sixty-two students from a calculus-based and an algebra-based introductory physics course were given a quiz in the recitation in which they had to first learn from a solved problem provided and take advantage of what they learned from it to solve another problem (which we call the quiz problem) which was isomorphic. Previous research suggests that the multiple-concept quiz problem is challenging for introductory students. Students in different recitation classes received different interventions in order to help them discern and exploit the underlying similarities of the isomorphic solved and quiz problems. We also conducted think-aloud interviews with four introductory students in order to understand in depth the difficulties they had and explore strategies to provide better scaffolding. We found that most students were able to learn from the solved problem to some extent with the scaffolding provided and invoke the relevant principles in the quiz problem. However, they were not necessarily able to apply the principles correctly. Research suggests that more scaffolding is needed to help students in applying these principles appropriately. We outline a few possible strategies for future investigation.
One challenge for the introductory physics teacher is incorporating calculus techniques into the laboratory setting. It can be difficult to strike a balance between presenting an experimental task for which calculus is essential and making the mathematics accessible to learners who may be apprehensive about applying it. One-dimensional kinematics…
Cutler, David M.
Health care is one of the economy's biggest industries, so it is natural that the health care industry should play some role in the teaching of introductory economics. There are many ways that health care can appear in such a context: in the teaching of microeconomics, as a macroeconomic issue, to learn about social welfare, and even to learn how…
Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 10; Issue 1. Making Introductory Quantum Physics Understandable and Interesting. Ranjana Y Abhang. Classroom Volume 10 Issue 1 January 2005 pp 63-73. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:
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Gnoth, Juergen; Juric, Biljana
Observes that there is little research on Australian students' motivations to enroll in particular college courses. Reports the results of an investigation of the motivations of students to undertake an introductory elective marketing course. Argues that this has implications for the areas of curriculum design, streaming procedures, and teaching…
Clarage, James B.
Much of the mathematical reasoning employed in the typical introductory physics course can be traced to Pythagorean roots planted over two thousand years ago. Besides obvious examples involving the Pythagorean theorem, I draw attention to standard physics problems and derivations which often unknowingly rely upon the Pythagoreans' work on…
Pfannkuch, Maxine; Regan, Matt; Wild, Chris; Budgett, Stephanie; Forbes, Sharleen; Harraway, John; Parsonage, Ross
This article sets out some of the rationale and arguments for making major changes to the teaching and learning of statistical inference in introductory courses at our universities by changing from a norm-based, mathematical approach to more conceptually accessible computer-based approaches. The core problem of the inferential argument with its…
Wirth, Frederick H.
An introductory Natural Science course with a focus on the laboratory is described. The main function of the course is getting students prepared for required individual projects in science. A copy of the syllabus, a description of laboratory experiments, and the context of the course are included. (KR)
Ali Akbar Sayyari
Full Text Available Objective: Child-abuse (physical, mental and sexual is considered as one of the important problems faced by persons specialized in behavioral Sciences and Forensic Medicine, physicians and pediatricians. This cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the status of physical child-abuse in Tehran. Materials & Methods: Forty-five pediatric residents, trained for this purpose, conducted this ten-day study in three teaching hospitals (Children's Medical Center, Bahrami Hospital, Hazrat Ali-Asghar Hospital. A questionnaire on physical child-abuse, designed and proposed by the WHO, was completed for 3019 children (male=1578, 52.3% female=1441, 47.7% less than 18 years of age, who attended the emergency department of the above hospitals. The children and their parents were interviewed and physical examination was performed for the children. Results: A total of 347 children (male=14.5%, female =9.6%, which is 12.2% of the total number of children studied, were physically abused. Injuries were mostly present on the face, upper extremities, back and lower extremities, among which 12.8% of the cases were severe and 87.2% were moderate in intensity. Fathers and mothers were responsible for 51.2% and 34.1% of the cases of child-abuse respectively. Among the persons responsible for causing child-abuse, 34.1% had themselves been physically abused during their childhood period and 26.4% had physically abused children before. Hyperactivity, bed-wetting and an unwanted child were among the most common causes of child-abuse. Conclusion: Factors precipitating child-abuse included: large numbers of children in the family drug addiction of one of the family members, and acute or severe psychological stress during the past 6 months. Using the Chi-square test, a significant relationship (P value=0.00l was found to exist between physical child-abuse and demographic factors such as age, sex, site of residence, history of divorce or separation of the parents and
Tutty, Leslie M; Ogden, Cindy; Giurgiu, Bianca; Weaver-Dunlop, Gillian
Violence from intimate partners is a serious reality for a number of women. For some abused women, leaving becomes a path to homelessness. In fact, when abused women and their children leave their homes because of partner abuse, they become homeless even if they subsequently seek residence in a shelter for woman abuse. This project interviewed 62 women from across Canada who had been abused by partners and were homeless at some point. The women were asked about their experiences with both partner abuse and homelessness and the effects on themselves and their children, which suggest important policy shifts.
Abstract. Background: There is a phobia among doctors for the residency training program, since the establishment of ... Materials and Methods: Structured questionnaires were administered to residents at 3 training institutions in Nigeria. Results: ... Keywords: Decentralization, motivation, perception, remuneration, residents.
Full Text Available Sexual abuse is defined as use of child or adolescent by the adults for satisfying of sexual urges and needs with forcing, threatening or tricking. Sexual abuse can be in the form of sexual abuse without touch, sexual touch, interfemoral intercourse, sexual penetration, and sexual exploitation. The prevalence of sexual abuse is reported as 10-40%. It is seen in female four times more than in males. Abusers are frequently male, only 5-15% of them are female. The abuse by females is usually towards male child. Thirty-fifty percent of abuse cases among child and adolescent are outside the family including strangers or familiar person. Some features of abusers are introvert personality, pedophilic and antisocial personality. Most of the abusers have a history of sexual abuse or aggression during childhood. Sexual intercourse between two people who are not allowed to marry by law is called as incest. Family pattern of incest is defined globally as disorganized and dysfunctional. The most commonly reported familial pattern is rigid and patriarchal family pattern with a harsh father using force quite frequently. The clinical features and impacts of the sexual abuse on the child varies according to the relation between abusers and the child, form of abuse, duration of abuse, presence of physical assault, developmental phase, child age and psychological development before the abuse. Sexual abuse history may result in psychiatric disorders including anxiety, depression, substance dependence, suicide act, borderline personality disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder. Abuse negatively affects interpersonal relationships and self esteem of abused individuals. Several studies reported close association between risky sexual behaviors in adulthood and a history of of sexual abuse during childhood. Four traumatic dynamics including traumatic sexuality with abuse, feeling of betrayal, weakness, and stigmatization exist in childhood abuse. Trauma can cause
..., on or after January 1, 1952, from sources within one of the contracting States by a resident or... taxation in the former State, provided such resident, corporation or other entity does not have a permanent... States and paid to individuals residing in the other contracting State shall be exempt from taxation in...
Philosophy of medicine, narrowly defined as ontology and epistemology of medicine, is a well developed research field, yet education in this field is less well developed. The aim of this paper is to present an educational development in philosophy of medicine-an introductory course in philosophy of medicine. Central features of the course are described. Participants (medical undergraduate students) scored high on average. The conclusion is that further such educational ventures in philosophy of medicine should be developed and implemented.
... respect, and even their freedom. Guarding Against Child Sexual Abuse March 15, 2018 @ 9:58 AM | 9 Min ... Views You can help protect your children from sexual abuse by providing careful supervision, establishing open communication and ...
... Videos for Educators Search English Español Cough & Cold Medicine Abuse KidsHealth / For Teens / Cough & Cold Medicine Abuse ... resfriado Why Do People Use Cough and Cold Medicines to Get High? There's an ingredient in many ...
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... Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Child Abuse URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/ ... V W XYZ List of All Topics All Child Abuse - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on ...
Ermertcan Aylin; Ertan Pelin
Child abuse is a major public health problem all over the world. There are four major types of abuse: physical abuse, sexual abuse, emotional abuse and neglect. The most common manifestations of child abuse are cutaneous and their recognition; and differential diagnosis is of great importance. Clinicians, especially dermatologists, should be alert about the skin lesions of child abuse. In the diagnosis and management of child abuse, a multidisciplinary approach with ethical and legal procedur...
Wilford, B B
An estimated 3% of the United States population deliberately misuse or abuse psychoactive medications, with severe consequences. According to the National Institute on Drug Abuse, more than half of patients who sought treatment or died of drug-related medical problems in 1989 were abusing prescription drugs. Physicians who contribute to this problem have been described by the American Medical Association as dishonest--willfully misprescribing for purposes of abuse, usually for profit; disable...
Stylianou, Amanda Mathisen; Postmus, Judy L; McMahon, Sarah
Recent attention has been given by researchers to exploring economic abuse strategies used by abusers. However, little research has been conducted to understanding how to conceptualize economic abuse in relation to other forms of abuse. This article examines the factor structure of abusive items from the Scale of Economic Abuse--12 and the Abusive Behavior Inventory through confirmatory factor analyses using data collected with 457 female survivors of abuse. The findings provide evidence for conceptualizing economic abuse as a unique form of abuse moderately correlated with psychological, physical, and sexual forms of abuse.
Hufford, Terry L.
Described are modifications made in a traditional introductory biology course and the resulting improvement in student achievement and attitude. The use of cooperative learning groups is stressed. (CW)
Bruce, Peter C
Concise, thoroughly class-tested primer that features basic statistical concepts in the concepts in the context of analytics, resampling, and the bootstrapA uniquely developed presentation of key statistical topics, Introductory Statistics and Analytics: A Resampling Perspective provides an accessible approach to statistical analytics, resampling, and the bootstrap for readers with various levels of exposure to basic probability and statistics. Originally class-tested at one of the first online learning companies in the discipline, www.statistics.com, the book primarily focuses on application
Bagnuls, C.; Bervillier, C.
We critically review the use of the exact renormalization group equations (ERGE) in the framework of the scalar theory. We lay emphasis on the existence of different versions of the ERGE and on an approximation method to solve it: the derivative expansion. The leading order of this expansion appears as an excellent textbook example to underline the nonperturbative features of the Wilson renormalization group theory. We limit ourselves to the consideration of the scalar field (this is why it is an introductory review) but the reader will find (at the end of the review) a set of references to existing studies on more complex systems.
Praise for the First Edition ""Stahl offers the solvability of equations from the historical point of view...one of the best books available to support a one-semester introduction to abstract algebra.""-CHOICE Introductory Modern Algebra: A Historical Approach, Second Edition presents the evolution of algebra and provides readers with the opportunity to view modern algebra as a consistent movement from concrete problems to abstract principles. With a few pertinent excerpts from the writings of some of the greatest mathematicians, the Second Edition uniquely facilitates the understanding of pi
Pfannkuch, Maxine; Regan, Matt; Wild, Chris; Budgett, Stephanie; Forbes, Sharleen; Harraway, John; Parsonage, Ross
This article sets out some of the rationale and arguments for making major changes to the teaching and learning of statistical inference in introductory courses at our universities by changing from a norm-based, mathematical approach to more conceptually accessible computer-based approaches. The core problem of the inferential argument with its hypothetical probabilistic reasoning process is examined in some depth. We argue that the revolution in the teaching of inference must begin. We also discuss some perplexing issues, problematic areas and some new insights into language conundrums associated with introducing the logic of inference through randomization methods.
Welkowitz, Joan; Cohen, Jacob
Introductory Statistics for the Behavioral Sciences provides an introduction to statistical concepts and principles. This book emphasizes the robustness of parametric procedures wherein such significant tests as t and F yield accurate results even if such assumptions as equal population variances and normal population distributions are not well met.Organized into three parts encompassing 16 chapters, this book begins with an overview of the rationale upon which much of behavioral science research is based, namely, drawing inferences about a population based on data obtained from a samp
Cohen, Barry H; Lea, R Brooke
A comprehensive and user-friendly introduction to statistics for behavioral science students-revised and updated Refined over seven editions by master teachers, this book gives instructors and students alike clear examples and carefully crafted exercises to support the teaching and learning of statistics for both manipulating and consuming data. One of the most popular and respected statistics texts in the behavioral sciences, the Seventh Edition of Introductory Statistics for the Behavioral Sciences has been fully revised. The new edition presents all the topics students in the behavioral s
Clarage, James B.
Much of the mathematical reasoning employed in the typical introductory physics course can be traced to Pythagorean roots planted over two thousand years ago. Besides obvious examples involving the Pythagorean theorem, I draw attention to standard physics problems and derivations which often unknowingly rely upon the Pythagoreans' work on proportion, music, geometry, harmony, the golden ratio, and cosmology. Examples are drawn from mechanics, electricity, sound, optics, energy conservation and relativity. An awareness of the primary sources of the mathematical techniques employed in the physics classroom could especially benefit students and educators at schools which encourage integration of their various courses in history, science, philosophy, and the arts.
Vorontsov-Vel'Yaminov, B A
Astronomical Problems: An Introductory Course in Astronomy covers astronomical problems, together with a summary of the theory and the formula to be exercised. The book discusses the types of problems solved with the help of the celestial globe and how to solve astronomical problems. The text tackles problems on interpolation, the celestial sphere, systems of celestial coordinates, and culmination. Problems about the rising and setting of a heavenly body, precession, planetary movement, and parallax and aberration are also considered. The book presents problems about refraction, the apparent m
Department of Veterans Affairs — The Residency Allocation Database is used to determine allocation of funds for residency programs offered by Veterans Affairs Medical Centers (VAMCs). Information...
Kruse, S.; Bank, C. G.; Esmaeili, S.; Jazayeri, S.; Liu, S.; Stoikopoulos, N.
The Software for Introductory Geophysics Toolkit (SIGKit) affords students the opportunity to create model data and perform simple processing of field data for various geophysical methods. SIGkit provides a graphical user interface built with the MATLAB programming language, but can run even without a MATLAB installation. At this time SIGkit allows students to pick first arrivals and match a two-layer model to seismic refraction data; grid total-field magnetic data, extract a profile, and compare this to a synthetic profile; and perform simple processing steps (subtraction of a mean trace, hyperbola fit) to ground-penetrating radar data. We also have preliminary tools for gravity, resistivity, and EM data representation and analysis. SIGkit is being built by students for students, and the intent of the toolkit is to provide an intuitive interface for simple data analysis and understanding of the methods, and act as an entrance to more sophisticated software. The toolkit has been used in introductory courses as well as field courses. First reactions from students are positive. Think-aloud observations of students using the toolkit have helped identify problems and helped shape it. We are planning to compare the learning outcomes of students who have used the toolkit in a field course to students in a previous course to test its effectiveness.
King, Gail Hoover; McConnell, Cheryl
Teaching introductory accounting courses can be both challenging and rewarding. In introductory financial and managerial accounting, students struggle with the unfamiliar terminology and concepts. However, managerial accounting offers distinct challenges in that managerial accounting reports used for decision-making are not publically available,…
Ronsheim, Margaret L.; Pregnall, A. Marshall; Schwarz, Jodi; Schlessman, Mark A.; Raley-Susman, Kathleen M.
We describe a new approach to teaching introductory biology. Our introductory experience for undergraduates is a laboratory course that is entirely inquiry and discovery based. We introduce our students to fundamental concepts in biology in the framework of three multi-week laboratory modules, each of which is an open-ended investigation of a…
Bartels, Jared M.; Milovich, Marilyn M.; Moussier, Sabrina
The present study examined the coverage of Stanford prison experiment (SPE), including criticisms of the study, in introductory psychology courses through an online survey of introductory psychology instructors (N = 117). Results largely paralleled those of the recently published textbook analyses with ethical issues garnering the most coverage,…
During the session on "Introductory College Physics Textbooks" at the 2007 Summer Meeting of the AAPT, there was a brief discussion about whether introductory physics should begin with one-dimensional motion or two-dimensional motion. Here we present the case that by starting with two-dimensional motion, we are able to introduce a considerable…
Marrs, Heath; Sigler, Ellen; Hayes, Kaira
In this study, the relationship between student study strategies and performance in Introductory Psychology was examined. Eighty-eight students in three sections of Introductory Psychology at a Midwestern university in the United States completed a demographic questionnaire and the Learning and Study Strategies Inventory-2nd edition (LASSI-2)…
Greenwood, Nancy A.
Introductory sociology casts a wide net with regard to its audience and plays an important role in capturing the public eye as well as helping students to make more informed choices in their lives and communities. I ask six questions that help us as sociologists to think about how introductory sociology can better serve our discipline, our…
Griggs, Richard A., Ed.; Jackson, Sherri L., Ed.
This book follows in the footsteps of the first three volumes in the "Handbook for Teaching Introductory Psychology" series. In the prefaces to these volumes, the various editors all stressed two major points relevant to the development of this series. These comments also apply to this book. First, introductory psychology is one of the most…
Levine, David M.; Stephan, David F.
Introductory business statistics students often receive little guidance on how to apply the methods they learn to further business objectives they may one day face. And those students may fail to see the continuity among the topics taught in an introductory course if they learn those methods outside a context that provides a unifying framework.…
Griggs, Richard A.; Christopher, Andrew N.
It is important to assess periodically how introductory textbooks portray our discipline because introductory psychology is the most popular psychology course, almost all teachers use textbooks for it, and textbooks play a major role in defining the course for students. To do so, past studies have used textbook citation analyses. We analyzed…
Qualitative Research for Tobacco Control : A How-to Introductory Manual for Researchers and Development Practitioners. Couverture du livre Qualitative Research for Tobacco Control : A How-to Introductory Manual for. Auteur(s) : Alison Mathie et Anne Carnozzi. Maison(s) d'édition : CRDI. 15 janvier 2005. ISBN :.
Abdul-Razzaq, Wathiq; Thakur, Saikat Chakraborty
We all know that we must improve the quality of teaching in science at all levels. Not only physicists but also many students from other areas of study take the introductory physics courses in college. Physics introductory laboratories (labs) can be one of the best tools to help these students understand applications of scientific principles that…
Shi, Jia; Wood, William B.; Martin, Jennifer M.; Guild, Nancy A.; Vicens, Quentin; Knight, Jennifer K.
We have developed and validated a tool for assessing understanding of a selection of fundamental concepts and basic knowledge in undergraduate introductory molecular and cell biology, focusing on areas in which students often have misconceptions. This multiple-choice Introductory Molecular and Cell Biology Assessment (IMCA) instrument is designed…
Kjonaas, Richard A.; Williams, Peggy E.; Counce, David A.; Crawley, Lindsey R.
A method for the synthesis of ibuprofen in introductory organic chemistry laboratory courses is reported. This experiment requires two 3-h lab sessions. All of the reactions and techniques are a standard part of any introductory organic chemistry course. In the first lab session, students reduce p-isobutylacetophenone to an alcohol and then…
Jirapramukpitak, Tawanchai; Prince, Martin; Harpham, Trudy
The aims of this study were to examine the prevalence of child abuse exposure among Thai people in a suburban community and to describe the association of abuse experiences with common mental disorders (CMD), alcohol use disorders and substance use. A population-based cross-sectional survey was conducted in Northern Bangkok on a representative sample of 202 young residents, aged 16-25 years. Thirty eight percent of the respondents reported experiencing some form of abuse during childhood, with 5.8% having been subjected to sexual penetration, 11.7% having been physically abused and 31.8% emotionally abused. A graded relationship was found between the extent of exposure to abuse during childhood and mental problems. After controlling for potential confounders, CMD remained significantly associated with emotional abuse, and alcohol use disorders remained associated with sexual abuse. Strong but non-significant trends were present for associations between CMD and sexual abuse and all forms of abuse with substance use. Child abuse experiences were common among the respondents. Childhood abuse, particularly sexual abuse, has a potentially devastating impact on adult mental health.
Valente, Sharon M
Sexual abuse in childhood can disable self-esteem, self-concept, relationships, and ability to trust. It can also leave psychological trauma that compromises a boy's confidence in adults. While some boys who willingly participate may adjust to sexual abuse, many others face complications, such as reduced quality of life, impaired social relationships, less than optimal daily functioning, and self-destructive behavior. These problems can respond to treatment if detected. In this paper, we examine the prevalence, characteristics, psychological consequences, treatment, and coping patterns of boys who have been sexually abused and their failure to disclose abuse unless asked during a therapeutic encounter. Nurses have a responsibility to detect the clues to sexual abuse, diagnose the psychological consequences, and advocate for protection and treatment. Computerized literature search of the Medline and PsychInfo literature and books on sexual abuse of boys. Psychological responses to abuse such as anxiety, denial, self-hypnosis, dissociation, and self-mutilation are common. Coping strategies may include being the angry avenger, the passive victim, rescuer, daredevil, or conformist. Sexual abuse may precipitate runaway behavior, chronic use of sick days, poor school or job performance, costly medical, emergency and or mental health visits. In worst cases, the boy may decide that life is not worth living and plan suicide. The nurse has a key role to play in screening, assessing, and treating sexual abuse children.
Sutter, M E; Chenoweth, J; Albertson, T E
The incidence of drug abuse with alternative agents is increasing. The term "alternative drugs of abuse" is a catch-all term for abused chemicals that do not fit into one of the classic categories of drugs of abuse. The most common age group abusing these agents range from 17 to 25 years old and are often associated with group settings. Due to their diverse pharmacological nature, legislative efforts to classify these chemicals as a schedule I drug have lagged behind the development of new alternative agents. The potential reason for abuse of these agents is their hallucinogenic, dissociative, stimulant, anti-muscarinic, or sedative properties. Some of these drugs are easily obtainable such as Datura stramonium (Jimson Weed) or Lophophora williamsii (Peyote) because they are natural plants indigenous to certain regions. The diverse pharmacology and clinical effects of these agents are so broad that they do not produce a universal constellation of signs and symptoms. Detailed physical exams are essential for identifying clues leading one to suspect an alternative drug of abuse. Testing for the presence of these agents is often limited, and even when available, the results do not return in a timely fashion. Intoxications from these agents pose unique challenges for health care providers. Physician knowledge of the physiological effects of these alternative agents and the local patterns of drug of abuse are important for the accurate diagnosis and optimal care of poisoned patients. This review summarizes the current knowledge of alternative drugs of abuse and highlights their clinical presentations.
Full Text Available Abuse and neglect are preventable societal problems that influence elderly individuals physically, spiritually and socially. Elder abuse is neglected for many years and is a growing problem all over the world. The aim of this article is to review the evaluation of elderly individuals who are exposed to abuse and neglect with systematic detailed history and physical examination and to describe individual, familial, and social measures that should be taken to prevent these abuses. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2013; 22(3.000: 393-407
Horowitz, Susan; Chadwick, David L.
Two cases of suspected sexual abuse of five-year-old children with syphilis are reported. Lack of confirmation of abuse by either child or in parental interviews led to closing of the cases by Child Protection Services and continued residence by the children in their original homes. (DB)
Sexual abuse of children as a form of power abuse and abuse of the body. ... Abstract. This article investigates the relationship between sexual abuse, power and the body from a Catholic theological viewpoint. ... It discusses how the perception of the body has an impact on dealing with the body and potential sexual abuse.
... permanent establishment therein during such taxable year. Article X (1) Wages, salaries, and similar... studies. Article XIV A professor or teacher, a resident of one of the contracting States, who temporarily...
Full Text Available Incoming radiology residents must rapidly assimilate large amounts of technical, medical, and operational information. This can be overwhelming and contribute to anxiety. Typical introductory curricula focused on radiologic content may not address the concerns of new residents. Two consecutive classes of incoming radiology residents participated in our study. For groups A (n=11 and B (n=11, the existing introductory lectures were given by faculty. For group B, residents hosted sessions for each rotation, including round-table discussions and work area tours, with emphasis on resident roles, personnel, and workflow. With institutional review board exemption, residents were anonymously surveyed before and after the sessions regarding: awareness of responsibilities, familiarity with anatomy, and anxiety regarding each rotation on a 1-4 scale. Free-text comments were collected. Comparison was performed using Wilcoxon rank sum test. Group A reported increased role awareness (P=0.04, greater content familiarity (P<0.05, and decreased anxiety (P=0.02 in one rotation each. There were 3 of 12 rotations in group B that showed significantly increased role awareness (P range <0.01 to 0.01 and decreased anxiety (P range <0.01 to <0.05. In addition, two rotations indicated improved role awareness only (P=0.02 and P=0.04, while there were four rotations reported decreased anxiety only (P range 0.01 to 0.03. Free-text commenters preferred the resident-run portions of the sessions. In conclusion, adding role-oriented introductory sessions to existing lectures for first-year residents decreased anxiety and increased role awareness for all rotations; therefore, it is suggested that anxiety may be better addressed by role-oriented content, and resident-to-resident teaching may have benefits.
The new third edition includes essential details and many examples and problems taken from the routine practice of nuclear medicine. Basic principles and underlying concepts are explained, although it is assumed that the reader has some current use as a bone densitometer. For resident physicians in nuclear medicine, residents in pathology, radiology, and internal medicine, and students of nuclear medicine technology, the third edition offers a simplified and reliable approach to the physics and basic sciences of nuclear medicine
... 5; Updated November 2014 The statistics on physical child abuse are alarming. It is estimated hundreds of thousands ... Physical abuse is not the only kind of child abuse. Many children are also victims of neglect, or ...
... Twitter YouTube Flickr RSS Menu Home Drugs of Abuse Commonly Abused Drugs Charts Emerging Trends and Alerts ... the following language: Source: National Institute on Drug Abuse; National Institutes of Health; U.S. Department of Health ...
Hansen, Michael Reichhardt; Kristensen, Jens Thyge; Rischel, Hans
This paper presents an introductory programming course designed to teach programming as an intellectual activity. The course emphasizes understandable concepts which can be useful in designing programs, while the oddities of today's technology are considered of secondary importance. An important...... goal is to fight the trial-and-error approach to programming which is a result of the students battles with horribly designed and documented systems and languages prior to their studies at university. Instead, the authors strive for giving the students a good experience of programming as a systematic......, intellectual activity where the solution of a programming problem can be described in an understandable way. The approach is illustrated by an example which is a commented solution of a problem posed to the students in the course....
Bagby, Richard J
Introductory Analysis addresses the needs of students taking a course in analysis after completing a semester or two of calculus, and offers an alternative to texts that assume that math majors are their only audience. By using a conversational style that does not compromise mathematical precision, the author explains the material in terms that help the reader gain a firmer grasp of calculus concepts.* Written in an engaging, conversational tone and readable style while softening the rigor and theory* Takes a realistic approach to the necessary and accessible level of abstraction for the secondary education students* A thorough concentration of basic topics of calculus* Features a student-friendly introduction to delta-epsilon arguments * Includes a limited use of abstract generalizations for easy use* Covers natural logarithms and exponential functions* Provides the computational techniques often encountered in basic calculus
Stevenson, A K; Francis, G; Kim, H
Interactive on-line experiments provide a unique and useful method for communicating material to students that is otherwise cumbersome and often confusing. The Java programming language is particularly suited for Internet-based programming applications of this sort because it bypasses many technical issues, including resource availability, security, and cross-platform compatibility. In most cases, topics appropriate to this medium of presentation should (1) not be easily demonstrated by other means, (2) represent an important finding in the field, and (3) be robust with respect to variations in both participants and equipment. The present paper outlines the integration of interactive experiments into an introductory cognitive psychology classroom, describing several experiments currently available on the World-Wide Web (WWW). Evaluation of the technical aspects of the technology as well as expansion of the format to other courses is discussed.
Kim, Dae Mann
This introductory textbook covers fundamental quantum mechanics from an application perspective, considering optoelectronic devices, biological sensors and molecular imagers as well as solar cells and field effect transistors. The book provides a brief review of classical and statistical mechanics and electromagnetism, and then turns to the quantum treatment of atoms, molecules, and chemical bonds. Aiming at senior undergraduate and graduate students in nanotechnology related areas like physics, materials science, and engineering, the book could be used at schools that offer interdisciplinary but focused training for future workers in the semiconductor industry and for the increasing number of related nanotechnology firms, and even practicing people could use it when they need to learn related concepts. The author is Professor Dae Mann Kim from the Korea Institute for Advanced Study who has been teaching Quantum Mechanics to engineering, material science and physics students for over 25 years in USA and Asia.
Scanlon, Erin M.
The purpose of this three study dissertation is to investigate why students are enrolled in introductory physics courses experience difficulties in being successful; one possible source of their difficulties is related to their epistemology. In order to investigate students' epistemologies about mathematics and physics, students were observed solving physics problems in groups during a laboratory course (study 1) and while solving physics and mathematics problems individually during office-hour sessions (study 2). The Epistemological Resources theoretical framework was employed (Hammer & Elby, 2002). Using emergent and a priori epistemological resource operationalizations (Jones, 2015), 25 distinct epistemological resources were identified in study 1. Differences in physics epistemological resource usage between students of varying academic background (as measured by their number of previously completed mathematics and science classes were identified. By employing an external (Jones, 2015) and internal (Scanlon, 2016) a priori epistemological resource coding scheme, a total of 17 distinct epistemological resources were identified in study 2. The data were sampled to compare the mathematics and physics epistemological resource usage of participants with consistent and inconsistent sign usage in an energy conservation physics problem in order to provide a meaningful context for discussion. Participants of the same sign usage group employed epistemological resources similarly. Conversely, participants in different groups had significantly different physics epistemological resource usage patterns. Finally, student epistemological resource usage patterns from the first two studies were compared to course outcomes in order to determine implications for practice (study 3). Educators must be aware of and address the epistemological underpinnings of students' difficulties in introductory physics courses.
... can help abused children regain a sense of self-esteem, cope with feelings of guilt about the abuse, and begin the process of overcoming the trauma. Such treatment can help reduce the risk that the child will develop serious problems ... you find Facts for Families © helpful and would like to make ...
... means feeling withdrawal symptoms when not taking the drug. Addiction is a chronic brain disease that causes a person to compulsively seek out drugs, even though they cause harm. The risks of dependence and addiction are higher if you abuse the medicines. Abuse ...
From costly lawsuits on behalf of victims to negative media coverage, districts can face potentially devastating consequences as a result of sexual abuse of their students by district employees. This article offers a few tips on how to battle sexual abuse particularly in school districts. The author stresses that by adopting strong policies that…
Orendorff, Christopher [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Lamb, Joshua [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Steele, Leigh Anna Marie [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)
This report describes recommended abuse testing procedures for rechargeable energy storage systems (RESSs) for electric vehicles. This report serves as a revision to the FreedomCAR Electrical Energy Storage System Abuse Test Manual for Electric and Hybrid Electric Vehicle Applications (SAND2005-3123).
Burns, Jarrett M; Boyer, Edward W
Abuse of antitussive preparations is a continuing problem in the United States and throughout the world. Illicit, exploratory, or recreational use of dextromethorphan and codeine/promethazine cough syrups is widely described. This review describes the pharmacology, clinical effects, and management of toxicity from commonly abused antitussive formulations.
Ullah Akm Ahsan
Full Text Available This paper explores various abuses Foreign Domestic Helpers (FDHs or migrant domestic workers (MDW in Hong Kong suffer and the strategies they take up to cope with this abuse. Data were collected from 215 domestic helpers (135 from the Philippines, 30 from Thailand, 41 from Indonesia, and 9 from Sri Lanka all of whom had been in residence for at least six months. Selected by snow-balling technique, respondents were interviewed with structured and non-structured questionnaires. Research shows that sexual abuse is the most common form of abuse against MDWs followed by psychological and physical abuses. Female employers are the main perpetuators of psychological abuse while the male employers are culpable for sexual abuses. Coping strategies varied widely among the MDWs. Many of them endure the violence to keep the job; some quit the job and others struggle with the decision to stay or quit.
Baker, Philip R A; Francis, Daniel P; Hairi, Noran N; Othman, Sajaratulnisah; Choo, Wan Yuen
, although there were few details on the components and analysis of the costing.We are uncertain whether these interventions reduce the occurrence or recurrence of elder abuse due to variation in settings, measures and effects reported in the included studies, some of which were very small and at a high risk of bias (low- and very low-quality evidence).Two studies measured the occurrence of elder abuse. A high risk of bias study found a difference in the post-test scores (P value 0.048 and 0.18). In a low risk of bias study there was no difference found (adjusted odds ratio (OR) =0.48, 95% 0.18 to 1.27) (n = 214). For interventions measuring abuse recurrence, one small study (n = 16) reported no difference in post-test means, whilst another found higher levels of abuse reported for the intervention arms (Cox regression, combined intervention hazard ratio (HR) = 1.78, alpha level = 0.01).It is uncertain whether targeted educational interventions improve the relevant knowledge of health professionals and caregivers (very low-quality evidence), although they may improve detection of resident-to-resident abuse. The concept of measuring improvement in detection or reporting as opposed to measuring the occurrence or recurrence of abuse is complicated. An intervention of public education and support services aimed at victims may also improve rates of reporting, however it is unclear whether this was due to an increase in abuse recurrence or better reporting of abuse.The effectiveness of service planning interventions at improving the assessment and documentation of related domains is uncertain. Unintended outcomes were not reported in the studies. There is inadequate trustworthy evidence to assess the effects of elder abuse interventions on occurrence or recurrence of abuse, although there is some evidence to suggest it may change the combined measure of anxiety and depression of caregivers. There is a need for high-quality trials, including from low- or middle-income countries
Albertson, Timothy E
The use of recreational drugs of abuse continues to expand without limitations to national boundaries, social status, race, or education. Beyond the prevalence of illicit drug use and dependence, their contribution to the global burden of disease and death are large and troubling. All medical providers should be aware of the evolving drugs of abuse and their medical and social consequences. In addition to heroin and stimulants such as cocaine and methamphetamine, new designer stimulants called "bath salts" and cannabinoids called "spice," along with the abuse of prescription drugs and volatile substances, are now widely recognized problems in many societies. The wide variety and continuingly expanding clinical manifestations of toxicity of recreational drugs of abuse is not widely appreciated by clinicians. This edition attempts to summarize six major classes of drugs of abuse and their clinical effects with special emphasis on their immunological and respiratory effects.
Wilford, B B
An estimated 3% of the United States population deliberately misuse or abuse psychoactive medications, with severe consequences. According to the National Institute on Drug Abuse, more than half of patients who sought treatment or died of drug-related medical problems in 1989 were abusing prescription drugs. Physicians who contribute to this problem have been described by the American Medical Association as dishonest--willfully misprescribing for purposes of abuse, usually for profit; disabled by personal problems with drugs or alcohol; dated in their knowledge of current pharmacology or therapeutics; or deceived by various patient-initiated fraudulent approaches. Even physicians who do not meet any of these descriptions must guard against contributing to prescription drug abuse through injudicious prescribing, inadequate safeguarding of prescription forms or drug supplies, or acquiescing to the demands or ruses used to obtain drugs for other than medical purposes. PMID:2349801
Schjerning, Ole; Rosenzweig, Mary; Pottegård, Anton
BACKGROUND: Several case reports and epidemiological studies have raised concern about the abuse potential of pregabalin, the use of which has increased substantially over the last decade. Pregabalin is, in some cases, used for recreational purposes and it has incurred attention among drug abusers...... for causing euphoric and dissociative effects when taken in doses exceeding normal therapeutic dosages or used by alternative routes of administration, such as nasal insufflation or venous injection. The magnitude of the abuse potential and the mechanism behind it are not fully known. OBJECTIVE: The aim...... of this study was to present a systematic review of the data concerning the abuse potential of pregabalin. METHODS: We performed a systematic literature search and reviewed the preclinical, clinical and epidemiological data on the abuse potential of pregabalin. RESULTS: We included preclinical (n = 17...
Johnson, Charles Felzen
Child sexual abuse is a worldwide concern. It is an insidious, persistent, and serious problem that, depending on the population studied and definition used, affects 2-62% of women and 3-16% of men as victims. Pain and tissue injury from child sexual abuse can completely heal in time, but psychological and medical consequences can persist through adulthood. Associated sexually transmitted diseases (such as HIV) and suicide attempts can be fatal. All physicians who treat children should be aware of the manifestations and consequences of child sexual abuse, and should be familiar with normal and abnormal genital and anal anatomy of children. This aim is best accomplished through training and routine examination of the anus and genitalia of children. Because as many as 96% of children assessed for suspected sexual abuse will have normal genital and anal examinations, a forensic interview by a trained professional must be relied on to document suspicion of abuse.
This study was carried out to ascertain the perception of the residency ... the time of the study. Analysis of the respondents showed similar findings for both senior and junior levels of training. Discussion. The introduction of the residency training program .... Overseas training/ attachment should be re-introduced. 12. (10.1).
Tanzania Journal of Health Research ... few published studies on child sexual abuse in Africa, with the exception of South Africa (Lalor, ... as extended family. Parents who were not residents of Shinyanga district (parent visitors) during the period of data collection were excluded. The sample size (n) for all respondents was ...
Antai, Diddy; Braithwaite, Patrick; Clerk, George
Child abuse or maltreatment is a significant global public health problem of unknown global prevalence. About 40 million children aged 0-14 years require health and social care globally. The prevalence, determinants, and trends of national or global rates of child abuse and maltreatment are largely unknown. Data for this retrospective cross-sectional study were derived from the 2005 Egyptian Demographic and Health Survey (2005 EDHS), and included 19474 women aged 15-49 years. Multivariate logistic regression analyses by stepwise regression, backward method were used to determine the independent contribution of the possible social determinants of child abuse, with the direction and magnitude of associations expressed as odds ratios (OR) and their 95% confident interval levels (95% CI). Identified determinants of child abuse included exposure to intimate partner violence (IPV), justifying wife beating, exposure to generational IPV, and such factors as younger age of the women, male sex, partners' lower education, poverty, residence in urban areas, younger children, and residence in households with 3-5 children. Experience of IPV, mothers' justification of wife beating, and generational IPV were associated with elevated odds of child abuse. Findings indicate possible high levels of unmet child protection needs, and stress the need for professionals working with children to employ culturally-sensitive methods in investigating social determinants of child abuse. © 2016 KUMS, All rights reserved.
Shinsako, S A; Richman, J A; Rospenda, K M
This study examined the prevalence of sexual harassment and generalized workplace abuse, and their differential effects on drinking behaviors in medical residents and graduate students at an urban American university. While medical residents had greater odds of experiencing harassment and abuse in their training programs, it was found that in most cases their deleterious drinking behaviors decreased, whereas graduate student drinking behaviors increased as a consequence of these experiences. The drinking outcomes of men were more affected by harassment and abuse than those of women.
Department of Housing and Urban Development — The Resident Characteristics Report summarizes general information about households who reside in Public Housing, or who receive Section 8 assistance. The report...
Woelfel, Joseph A.; Boyce, Eric; Patel, Rajul A.
Objective. To describe the design, delivery, and impact of a geriatric introductory pharmacy practice experience (IPPE) to develop students’ skills related to consultant pharmacists’ roles and patient care responsibilities.
Sarantites, D. G.; Sobotka, L. G.
Computational templates used to teach an introductory course in nuclear chemistry and physics at Washington University in St. Louis are presented in brief. The templates cover both basic and applied topics.
Cox, G; Lund, J
The Contemporary Condition: Introductory Thoughts on Contemporaneity and Contemporary Art, the first book in the Contemporary Condition series, introduces key issues concerning contemporaneity as a defining condition of our historical present and calls for a deep ...
DePierro, Ed; Garafalo, Fred
The Dumas method provides a relatively simple way to determine the molar mass of volatile chemical compounds. A potential source of error in the Dumas molar mass method as it is often practiced in introductory chemistry laboratories is reported.
Orear, Jay; Salpeter, E. E.
Discusses the phenomenon of formation of white dwarfs, neutron stars, and black holes from dying stars for the purpose of providing college teachers with materials usable in the introductory physics course. (CC)
The atmosphere within the work setting speaks volumes about your culture, and is often a primary factor in recruitment and retention (or turnover) of staff. Workplace tension and abuse are significant contributing factors as to why nurses are exiting workplaces--and even leaving the profession. Abuse can take many forms from inappropriate interpersonal communication to sexual harassment and even violence. Administrators should adopt a zero tolerance policy towards abusive communication. Addressing peer behavior is essential, but positive behavior must also be authentically modeled from the CNO and other nursing leaders. Raising awareness and holding individuals accountable for their behavior can lead to a safer and more harmonious work environment.
Award Number: W81XWH-11-1-0373 TITLE: “Opioid Abuse after TBI” PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Candace L. Floyd, Ph.D., and Katherine L. Nicholson...30Jun2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE “Opioid Abuse after TBI” 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-11-1-0373 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S...secondly tested the hypothesis that moderate TBI increases the susceptibility for opioid abuse as measured by an alteration in the rewarding properties of
Woika, Shirley; Bowersox, Carissa
Teachers and teachers-in-training are mandated reporters; they are legally required to report any suspected child abuse or neglect. This article describes: (1) How to file a report; (2) How prevalent child abuse is; (3) What abuse is; (4) What it means to be a mandated reporter; (5) When the report should be made; and (6) What to do if abuse is…
Martinez, William; Lehmann, Lisa Soleymani
The "hidden curriculum" and role models for responding to medical errors might play a central role in influencing residents' attitudes about disclosure. We sought to compare surgical and nonsurgical residents' exposure to role modeling for responding to medical errors and their attitudes about error disclosure. We conducted a cross-sectional, electronic survey of surgical and nonsurgical residents at 2 large academic medical centers. The questionnaire asked respondents about personal experience with medical errors; training for responding to errors; frequency of exposure to role modeling related to disclosure; and attitudes about disclosure. Descriptive statistics were used to describe frequencies. Chi-square and Fisher's exact test were used to compare proportions between surgical and nonsurgical trainees. The response rate was 58% (253 of 435). Surgical residents reported more frequently observing a colleague be treated harshly (eg, humiliated or verbally abused) for an error than nonsurgical residents (sometimes or often, 39% [26 of 66] vs 20% [37 of 187]; p = 0.002). Surgical residents were more likely than nonsurgical residents to believe they would be treated harshly by others if they acknowledged making a medical error (35% [23 of 66] vs 12% [23 of 187]; p medical errors at their institution (11% [7 of 66] vs 2% [4 of 187]; p = 0.008). Surgical residents were less likely than nonsurgical residents to feel free to express concerns to other members of the team about medical errors in patient care (70% [46 of 66] vs 83% [115 of 187]; p = 0.02). The punitive response to error by senior members of the health care team might be an impediment to the transparent disclosure of errors among residents that might disproportionally affect surgical training programs. Copyright © 2013 American College of Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
... artists, musicians and athletes. Article XI (1)(a) Wages, salaries and similar compensation, and pensions... tax. (b) Wages, salaries and similar compensation and pensions paid by Switzerland or by any agency or... full consideration in money or money's worth. Article XII A professor or teacher, a resident of one of...
... Substance Abuse or Dependence - 简体中文 (Chinese, Simplified (Mandarin dialect)) Bilingual PDF Health Information Translations Chinese, Traditional (Cantonese dialect) (繁體中文) Expand Section Substance ...
Canadian reports and legislation are reviewed to highlight the school's role in prevention and reporting of suspicions of child sexual abuse. The vulnerability of handicapped children and child pornography are two areas of victimization emphasized. (Author/DB)
... version, located in the "Professional" section of our website: Child Sexual Abuse . Date this content was last updated is at the bottom of the page. ... PILOTS *, the largest citation database on PTSD. What is PILOTS? Subscribe Sign ...
... agree on a secret location where they can pick you up. Keep an alternate cellphone nearby. Try ... 2017 by: Rape, Abuse & Incest National Network (RAINN) Staff Kathleen C. Basile, Ph.D., Lead Behavioral Scientist, ...
Kim, Dae Mann
The result of the nano education project run by the Korean Nano Technology Initiative, this has been recommended for use as official textbook by the Korean Nanotechnology Research Society. The author is highly experienced in teaching both physics and engineering in academia and industry, and naturally adopts an interdisciplinary approach here. He is short on formulations but long on applications, allowing students to understand the essential workings of quantum mechanics without spending too much time covering the wide realms of physics. He takes care to provide sufficient technical background and motivation for students to pursue further studies of advanced quantum mechanics and stresses the importance of translating quantum insights into useful and tangible innovations and inventions. As such, this is the only work to cover semiconductor nanotechnology from the perspective of introductory quantum mechanics, with applications including mainstream semiconductor technologies as well as (nano)devices, ranging from photodetectors, laser diodes, and solar cells to transistors and Schottky contacts. Problems are also provided to test the reader's understanding and supplementary material available includes working presentation files, solutions and instructors manuals. (orig.)
Gorjian, V.; Schimpf, S.; Morris, Mark; Malkan, M.
In an attempt to offer undergraduate students a means of visualizing some of the dynamical, geometric, evolutionary, and spectroscopic concepts encountered in introductory astronomy and astrophysics courses, we have developed a set of ten computer modules intended for the interactive investigation of these concepts in a learning center equipped with a cluster of Unix-based workstations. We present six of these software teaching tools: Galaxy (rotation curves), Redshift (line identifications, redshift determinations, and construction of a Hubble plot), Sky View (an on-screen planetarium), Stellar Evolution (dynamic trajectories in the HR diagram), Parallax (parallactic ellipses and proper motions), and Binaries (eclipsing binary light curves and projected appearances evolving with orbital phase). Developed for the X-windows interface on Unix-based workstations for maximum portability and speed, these programs, along with accompanying instruction sets, guide the student through multi-step exercises designed to demonstrate these basic ideas. The sophistication of the modules is advanced enough to permit their utilization in courses spanning a wide range of skill levels with suitable tailoring of the instruction sets. The use of these modules in lower division astronomy and astrophysics classes at UCLA has been met with positive student reviews. We anticipate increased usage as the package of modules grows. Upon request, it can be exported to other institutions. The development of the package has been supported by NSF.
Martínez, Gladys S.
Exposure to traumatic stress during childhood, in the form of abuse or neglect, is related to an increased vulnerability resulting in the development of several pathologies, this relation has been confi rmed by epidemiological studies; however, the neural mechanisms underlying such abnormalities are still unknown. Most of the research done has focused on the effects in the infant, and only recently it has begun to focus on the neurobiological changes in the abusive parents. In this article, I...
Hossein abbasnezhadriyabi; Mozhganjalali
While a large number of children are losing their lives due to poverty, malnutrition, contagious diseases and war, we are witnessing hundreds of children death by reason of misbehaving. Today, "child abuse" as a social-cultural phenomenon which shows crisis in a society, has a growing process in our country. The goal of this research was to investigate the base factors of child abuse that according to the results are consist as follows, poverty, unemployment, addiction, large families, single...
Full Text Available Jarrett M Burns, Edward W Boyer Division of Medical Toxicology, Department of Emergency Medicine, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, MA, USA Abstract: Abuse of antitussive preparations is a continuing problem in the United States and throughout the world. Illicit, exploratory, or recreational use of dextromethorphan and codeine/promethazine cough syrups is widely described. This review describes the pharmacology, clinical effects, and management of toxicity from commonly abused antitussive formulations. Keywords: dextromethorphan, purple drank, sizzurp, codeine/promethazine
Shen, Xiaoyun; Orson, Frank M.; Kosten, Thomas R.
Current medications for drug abuse have had only limited success. Anti-addiction vaccines to elicit antibodies that block the pharmacological effects of drugs have great potential for treating drug abuse. We review the status for two vaccines that are undergoing clinical trials (cocaine and nicotine) and two that are still in pre-clinical development (methamphetamine and heroin). We also outline the challenges and ethical concerns for anti-addiction vaccine development and their use as future...
Xu, Enquan; Liu, Jianuo; Wang, Xiaobei; Xiong, Huangui
Drug abuse disorders refer to a set of related negative health implications associated with compulsive drug seeking and use. Because almost all addictive drugs act on the brain, many of them cause neurological impairments after long-term abuse. Neuropathological studies have revealed a widespread impairment of the cellular elements. As the key components to limit the damage of neural cells, CNS immune system is also found affected by these drugs, directly or indirectly. It has been shown that drugs of abuse alter neuroimmune gene expression and signaling. Growing studies on neuroimmune factors further demonstrate their indispensable role in drugs-induced neurotoxicity. As an important proinflammatory intracellular receptor, inflammasome is activated in many neurodegenerative diseases in response to a broad range of damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) signals. In the cases of drug abuse, especially in those with comorbid of HIV infection and sustained pain, inflammasome activation significantly promotes the neuroinflammation-associated toxicities. To understand inflammasome in drug-associated neurotoxic activity, we reviewed the role played by inflammasome in drug abuse-induced microglial neurotoxicity and evaluated the potential of imflammasone as a therapeutic target for drug abuse disorders based on recent development of various selective small-molecular inflammasome inhibitors.
Gurung, Regan A R; Hackathorn, Jana; Enns, Carolyn; Frantz, Susan; Cacioppo, John T; Loop, Trudy; Freeman, James E
Introductory psychology (Intro Psych) is one of the most popular and frequently taught courses on college campuses, yet educators in psychology have limited knowledge about what is covered in classes around the nation or the extent to which class content reflects the current scope of the discipline. There is no explicit model to guide course content selection for the intro course, which poses substantial challenges for instructors. This article proposes a new model for teaching the intro course that integrates (a) scientific foundations, (b) 5 major domains or pillars of knowledge (biological, cognitive, developmental, social and personality, and mental and physical health), and (c) cross-cutting themes relevant to all domains (cultural and social diversity, ethics, variations in human functioning, and applications; American Psychological Association, 2014). We advocate for national assessment of the course, a similar introductory course for majors and nonmajors, the inclusion of experiential or laboratory components, and additional training resources for instructors of the intro course. Given the exponential growth of psychological knowledge and applications during the past decades, we caution against attempting to provide exhaustive coverage of all topic areas of psychology in a one-semester course. We conclude by discussing the challenges that lie ahead for the discipline of psychology as it launches this new model for Intro Psych. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
Watkins, Jessica Ellen
In this dissertation we examine several issues related to the retention of under-represented minority students in physics and science. In the first section, we show that in calculus-based introductory physics courses, the gender gap on the FCI is diminished through the use of interactive techniques, but in lower-level introductory courses, the gap persists, similar to reports published at other institutions. We find that under-represented racial minorities perform similar to their peers with comparable academic preparation on conceptual surveys, but their average exam grades and course grades are lower. We also examine student persistence in science majors; finding a significant relationship between pedagogy in an introductory physics course and persistence in science. In the second section, we look at student end-of-semester evaluations and find that female students rate interactive teaching methods a full point lower than their male peers. Looking more deeply at student interview data, we find that female students report more social issues related to the discussions in class and both male and female students cite feeling pressure to obtain the correct answer to clicker questions. Finally, we take a look an often-cited claim for gender differences in STEM participation: cognitive differences explain achievement differences in physics. We examine specifically the role of mental rotations in physics achievement and problem-solving, viewing mental rotations as a tool that students can use on physics problems. We first look at student survey results for lower-level introductory students, finding a low, but significant correlation between performance on a mental rotations test and performance in introductory physics courses. In contrast, we did not find a significant relationship for students in the upper-level introductory course. We also examine student problem-solving interviews to investigate the role of mental rotations on introductory problems.
Westbrook, John; Berenbaum, Howard
To examine pathways to borderline personality disorder (BPD), focusing on childhood abuse and emotional attention and clarity. Among 293 community residents (mean age = 43.1; 53.9% female), measured associations between the BPD symptom factors of disturbed relatedness, affective dysregulation, and behavioral dysregulation and (a) childhood abuse (emotional, physical, and sexual); (b) emotional attention and clarity; and (c) negative affect, using structured interviews, the Schedule for Non-Adaptive and Adaptive Personality-2, the Trait Meta Mood Scale, and the Positive and Negative Affect Scale, respectively. All forms of childhood abuse were associated with BPD symptom factors. Emotional attention and clarity moderated the effects of childhood physical and emotional abuse on behavioral dysregulation and disturbed relatedness. All results held when controlling for negative affect. The relations between childhood abuse and BPD are robust. Emotional attention and clarity may help elucidate the links between childhood abuse and BPD. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Full Text Available The free movement and residence of Union citizens and their third country national family members may be restricted under Article 35 of Directive 2004/38/EC on the grounds of abuse of rights. Although the Court of Justice of the European Union (CJEU had the opportunity to address abuse of rights cases, so far there have been no cases where it has established that abuse of rights took place. For this reason, the legal literature has tended to downplay the significance of the abuse of rights exception. The analysis of national case law, however, demonstrates that the courts of the Member States do apply Article 35 in its implemented form and have established abuse of rights on several occasions. Moreover, national courts have decided legal questions related to the abuse of rights which were not answered previously by the CJEU.
... right to peaceful enjoyment of the premises by other residents. (c) Evidence of criminal activity. The... of assistance for criminals and alcohol abusers. 982.553 Section 982.553 Housing and Urban... Denial of admission and termination of assistance for criminals and alcohol abusers. (a) Denial of...
Aich, Tapas Kumar; Dhungana, Manoj; Khanal, Roshija
Although buprenorphine abusers are a common clinical entity, literature on them is rare in Nepal. To assess whether injectable opioid abusers are any different a subgroup vis-a-vis brown sugar abusers in relation to their demographic and clinical profiles. Seventy-six opioid abusers, who were admitted over a period of one year, in our de-addiction center, were included in the present study. They were divided into two groups based on the history of the presence or absence of buprenorphine injection abuse in them. The demographic and clinical profiles of these two groups were studied and compared. The most characteristic opioid abuse pattern was the abuse of brown sugar through inhalation (chasing). A total of 32 (42.1%) among them had a history of injectable drug abuse (IDU). Most characteristic buprenorphine abuse pattern seen was an evolution from injectable buprenorphine to triple injection to brown sugar abuse (Reverse Transition). Injection buprenorphine abusers, who attended our clinic, were older in age and had a history of a longer duration of abuse than their counterparts who abused opioid drugs through the inhalational route only. Their lifetime diagnosis revealed a polysubstance abuse pattern. They were more unstable, impulsive, and disorganized in their behavior pattern, suggestive of the presence of inadequate personality traits. There were high instances of injection-related side effects in the form of the presence of thrombophlebitis, HIV positivity, and clinical AIDS in them. Findings of the current research indicate the presence of a subgroup of patient population among opioid abusers with a history of injectable buprenorphine abuse, with characteristic personality traits, pattern of drug abuse, and associated physical complications resulting from it.
Franco, Gianfábio Pimentel; de Barros, Alba Lúcia Bottura Leite; Nogueira-Martins, Luiz Antônio; Zeitoun, Sandra Salloum
Nursing residents may experience physical and emotional exhaustion from the daily life of attending the Program. The aim of this study was to determine the Burnout incidence among Nursing Residents. An investigative, descriptive, analytical, longitudinal-prospective study was conducted with 16 Residents over two years. The Maslach Burnout Inventory was used, translated and validated for Brazil, as well as a sociodemographic/occupational data tool. Of all residents, 17.2% showed high rates in Emotional Exhaustion and Depersonalization; 18.8% showed impaired commitment in Personal Accomplishment, 75% of which belonged to specialty areas, such as Emergency Nursing, Adult and Pediatric Intensive Care. Age and specialty area were positively correlated with Personal Accomplishment. One of the Residents was identified with changes in three subscales of the Maslach Burnout Inventory, thus characterized as a Burnout Syndrome patient. Nursing Residents have profiles of disease. Knowing these factors can minimize health risks of these workers.
Nelson, Michael E; Bryant, Sean M; Aks, Steven E
Many new emerging drugs of abuse are marketed as legal highs despite being labeled "not for human consumption" to avoid regulation. The availability of these substances over the Internet and in "head shops" has lead to a multitude of emergency department visits with severe complications including deaths worldwide. Despite recent media attention, many of the newer drugs of abuse are still largely unknown by health care providers. Slight alterations of the basic chemical structure of substances create an entirely new drug no longer regulated by current laws and an ever-changing landscape of clinical effects. The purity of each substance with exact pharmacokinetic and toxicity profiles is largely unknown. Many of these substances can be grouped by the class of drug and includes synthetic cannabinoids, synthetic cathinones, phenethylamines, as well as piperazine derivatives. Resultant effects generally include psychoactive and sympathomimetic-like symptoms. Additionally, prescription medications, performance enhancing medications, and herbal supplements are also becoming more commonly abused. Most new drugs of abuse have no specific antidote and management largely involves symptom based goal directed supportive care with benzodiazepines as a useful adjunct. This paper will focus on the history, epidemiology, clinical effects, laboratory analysis, and management strategy for many of these emerging drugs of abuse. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Shakir, Hakeem J; McPheeters, Matthew J; Shallwani, Hussain; Pittari, Joseph E; Reynolds, Renée M
Burnout is a syndrome of emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and reduced personal accomplishment. Its prevalence among US physicians exceeds 50% and is higher among residents/fellows. This is important to the practice of neurosurgery, as burnout is associated with adverse physical health, increased risk of substance abuse, and increased medical errors. To date, no study has specifically addressed the prevalence of burnout among neurosurgery residents. To determine and compare the prevalence of burnout among US neurosurgery residents with published rates for residents/fellows and practicing physicians from other specialties. We surveyed 106 US neurosurgery residency training programs to perform a descriptive analysis of the prevalence of burnout among residents. Data on burnout among control groups were used to perform a cross-sectional analysis. Nonparametric tests assessed differences in burnout scores among neurosurgery residents, and the 2-tailed Fisher's exact test assessed burnout between neurosurgery residents and control populations. Of approximately 1200 US neurosurgery residents, 255 (21.3%) responded. The prevalence of burnout was 36.5% (95% confidence interval: 30.6%-42.7%). There was no significant difference in median burnout scores between gender (P = .836), age (P = .183), or postgraduate year (P = .963) among neurosurgery residents. Neurosurgery residents had a significantly lower prevalence of burnout (36.5%) than other residents/fellows (60.0%; P burnout than other residents/fellows and practicing physicians. The underlying causes for these findings were not assessed and are likely multifactorial. Future studies should address possible causes of these findings. Copyright © 2017 by the Congress of Neurological Surgeons
Batis, Jeffery C
Since peaking in the 1990s, inhalant abuse has steadily decreased over the past two decades. Concurrently, nearly every state has passed legislation aimed at minimizing inhalant abuse. While males have historically been more likely to abuse inhalants than females, there is no longer a sex effect in self-reported rates of inhalant abuse. The objective of the present study is to evaluate the effect of anti-inhalant abuse legislation on self-reported rates of inhalant abuse, in high school age males and females. Beginning in 1993, the CDC's biannual Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance Survey asked respondents if they have ever used inhalants to get high. Data from these surveys were collected, along with the date of passage of anti-inhalant abuse legislation in 46 of 50 states. ANOVAs were conducted to assess the effect of legislation on self-reported inhalant abuse rates. There were no significant main effects or interactions that demonstrated that inhalant abuse rates decreased in males or females following passage of legislation aimed at decreasing inhalant abuse. Conclusion/Importance: To date, 46 of 50 states have passed laws aimed at minimizing inhalant abuse, and while inhalant abuse rates have been decreasing for the past two decades, there is no evidence that this decline is related to enactment of these laws. Further research is needed to determine the cause of the decrease in inhalant abuse. The laws may benefit from amendments to include options for treatment.
Shinan-Altman, Shiri; Cohen, Miri
Nursing aides' attitudes condoning elder abuse are a possible risk factor for executing abusive behaviors against elder residents of long-term care facilities but have been studied infrequently. The purpose of the study was to assess nursing aides' attitudes that condone abusive behaviors toward elderly people, as well as the relationship of these attitudes to demographic variables, work stressors (role conflict, role ambiguity, and work overload), burnout, and perceived control, based on the theory of planned behavior (Ajzen, 1988, Attitudes, personality and behavior. Milton Keynes: Open University Press) Two hundred and eight nursing aides from 18 nursing homes in Israel completed demographic, work stressors, burnout, and perceived control questionnaires and a case vignette questionnaire to test attitudes condoning elder abuse. The mean score of the attitudes condoning abusive behaviors was relatively high at 3.24 (SD = 0.59) on a 1-4 scale. Condoning abusive behaviors were closely associated with higher levels of work stressors, burnout, and low income. Multiple regression analyses revealed that demographic variables, work stressors, burnout, and perceived control explained 12% of the variance of condoning abusive behaviors among the nursing aides. Of these, role ambiguity, role conflict, and burnout were significantly associated with attitudes condoning abusive behaviors. In addition, burnout partially mediated the relationship between work stressors and attitudes condoning elder abuse. As nursing aides' attitudes condoning elder abuse may influence their actual behaviors, training and supervision programs should be developed to reduce work stressors and burnout and to modify these attitudes.
Herrmann, Nathan; Eryavec, Goran
The authors document the lifetime prevalence and etiological correlates of alcohol abuse in a sample of elderly World War II veterans. Subjects (mean age 74.2 years), residing in a veterans' long-term care facility were given the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-III-R. A second investigator gave the Modified Combat Exposure Scale and administered a checklist of pre-war and wartime variables. The lifetime prevalence of alcohol abuse was 53%. There was no correlation between alcohol abuse and any other psychiatric diagnosis. There was a significant correlation between the severity of combat stress and subsequent alcohol abuse. Veterans with alcohol abuse also had significantly more wartime head injuries. There was also a trend for the alcoholic group to have experienced more pre-war stressors. Examination of pre-war variables and the severity of the combat stress might help to identify veterans at risk for development of alcohol abuse. Copyright © 1996 American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Anyone who has ever managed people who abuse time--whether they are chronic procrastinators or individuals who work obsessively to meet deadlines weeks in advance--knows how disruptive they can be to a business's morale and operating efficiency. But lessons in time management will have no impact on these employees. That's because real time abuse results from psychological conflict that neither a workshop nor a manager's cajoling can cure. Indeed, the time abuser's quarrel isn't even with time but rather with a brittle self-esteem and an unconscious fear of being evaluated and found wanting. This article describes four types of time abusers typically encountered in the workplace: Perfectionists are almost physically afraid of receiving feedback. Their work has to be "perfect," so they can increase their likelihood of earning a positive evaluation or at least avoid getting a negative one. Preemptives try to be in control by handing in work far earlier than they need to, making themselves unpopular and unavailable in the process. People pleasers commit to far too much work because they find it impossible to say no. Procrastinators make constant (and often reasonable-sounding) excuses to mask a fear of being found inadequate in their jobs. Managing these four types of people can be challenging, since time abusers respond differently from most other employees to criticism and approval. Praising a procrastinator when he is on time, for instance, will only exacerbate the problem, because he will fear that your expectations are even higher than before. In fact, some time abusers, like the perfectionist, may need professional treatment. This article will give you insight into why they are the way they are--and what can be done to help them manage their problems.
Shen, X Y; Orson, F M; Kosten, T R
The currently available medications for the treatment of drug abuse have had only limited success. Anti-addiction vaccines, aimed at eliciting antibodies that block the pharmacological effects of drugs, have great potential for treating drug abuse. We review the status of two vaccines that are undergoing clinical trials (for cocaine and nicotine addiction) and two that are still in preclinical development (for methamphetamine and heroin addiction). We also outline the challenges and ethical concerns associated with the development of anti-addiction vaccines and their use as future therapeutics.
Child Abuse or Osteogenesis Imperfecta? A child is brought into the emergency room with a fractured leg. The ... welfare services to report a suspected case of child abuse. The child is taken away from the parents ...
Pediatricians and other medical providers caring for children need to be aware of the dynamics in the significant relationship between substance abuse and child maltreatment. A caregiver's use and abuse of alcohol, marijuana, heroin, cocaine, methamphetamine, and other drugs place the child at risk in multiple ways. Members of the medical community need to understand these risks because the medical community plays a unique and important role in identifying and caring for these children. Substance abuse includes the abuse of legal drugs as well as the use of illegal drugs. The abuse of legal substances may be just as detrimental to parental functioning as abuse of illicit substances. Many substance abusers are also polysubstance users and the compounded effect of the abuse of multiple substances may be difficult to measure. Often other interrelated social features, such as untreated mental illness, trauma history, and domestic violence, affect these families.
A K Aucamp, Ciba (Pty) Ltd - person:aI communication, 1997). (See Table I.) .... literature documenting abuse and its inherent dangers. In other words, patients are not going to acknowledge willingly that they are abusing methylphenidate.
... Connect with Us Contact Us Newsroom FAQ Suspect Abuse? Get Help What We Do Research Synthesize and disseminate high quality research on elder abuse to encourage the translation of research into practice. ...
College Planning & Management, 2003
Describes four examples of residence hall design, one renovation and three new residence halls, that exemplify design principles that meet student and institutional requirements. The examples are at (1) the University of Illinois at Chicago; (2) Bowdoin College; (3) Muhlenberg College; and (4) Spring Arbor University. (SLD)
Outlines the author's experience as a dancer and choreographer artist-in-residence with third graders at a public elementary school, providing a cultural arts experience to tie in with a theme study of the rain forest. Details the residency and the insights she gained working with students, teachers, and theme. (SR)
Fred Ebeid; Tej Kaul; Kathleen Neumann; Hugh Shane
Workplace abuse is a relatively recent phenomenon that affects millions of employee in all types of organizations and occupations. Most of the literature on workplace management deals with employment discrimination and due process. Workplace issues of emotional abuse inflicted on employees by supervisors or managers are seldom addressed. An organization becomes abusive when it permits or tolerates abusive employee treatment by supervisors or managers. In the news each day, the media regularly...
Becker, Jill B.; Hu, Ming
Sex differences are present for all of the phases of drug abuse (initiation, escalation of use, addiction, and relapse following abstinence). While there are some differences among specific classes of abused drugs, the general pattern of sex differences is the same for all drugs of abuse. Females begin regularly self-administering licit and illicit drugs of abuse at lower doses than do males, use escalates more rapidly to addiction, and females are at greater risk for relapse following abstin...
Reuben, D B
The intense situational and physiologic stresses that accompany postgraduate training may have serious psychosocial ramifications. Although only a small proportion of residents have overt psychiatric illness, virtually all display some psychologic impairment. Contributing factors include life-changes, stresses associated with providing patient care, loss of social support, long working hours, sleep deprivation, and underlying personality traits of residents. The manifestations of this impairment are variable and may be subtle. In response to these problems, residency programs have taken steps to provide psychosocial support. Unfortunately, most programs do not offer formal support groups or seminars to discuss difficulties that accompany residency. Further definition of the psychosocial effects of residency may prompt changes that make the training of physicians a more humane process.
Kendler, Kenneth S; Maes, Hermine H; Sundquist, Kristina; Ohlsson, Henrik; Sundquist, Jan
Using Swedish nationwide registry data, the authors investigated genetic and environmental risk factors in the etiology of drug abuse by twin sibling modeling. The authors followed up with epidemiological analyses to identify shared environmental influences on drug abuse. Drug abuse was defined using public medical, legal, or pharmacy records. Twin and sibling pairs were obtained from the national twin and genealogical registers. Information about sibling pair residence within the same household, small residential area, or municipality was obtained from Statistics Sweden. The authors predicted concordance for drug abuse by years of co-residence until the older sibling turned 21 and risk for future drug abuse in adolescents living with parental figures as a function of family-level socioeconomic status and neighborhood social deprivation. The best twin sibling fit model predicted substantial heritability for drug abuse in males (55%) and females (73%), with environmental factors shared by siblings operating only in males and accounting for 23% of the variance in liability. For each year of living in the same household, the probability of sibling concordance for drug abuse increased 2%-5%. When not residing in the same household, concordance was predicted from residence in the same small residential area or municipality. Risk for drug abuse was predicted both by family socioeconomic status and neighborhood social deprivation. Controlling for family socioeconomic status, each year of living in a high social deprivation neighborhood increased the risk for drug abuse by 2%. Using objective registry data, the authors found that drug abuse is highly heritable. A substantial proportion of the shared environmental effect on drug abuse comes from community-wide rather than household-level influences. Genetic effects demonstrated in twin studies have led to molecular analyses to elucidate biological pathways. In a parallel manner, environmental effects can be followed up by
Putnam, Frank W.
The issues raised by Jonker and Jonker-Bakker and Young et al (EC 601 187-188) illustrate a major controversy dividing the child abuse community, the alleged existence of a conspiracy of satanic, ritual, sexual abuse of children. No evidence is found to support claims that large numbers of babies and children are being sacrificed or abused in…
... incidence of both forcible and non-forcible sexual abuse. 3 “Sexual abuse is associated with changes in the metabolism of ... Molnar, B., Berkman, L., & Buka, S. (2001). Psychopathology, childhood sexual abuse, and other childhood adversities: Relative links to subsequent ...
Scorzelli, James F.
This report examines the incidence of drug abuse and the methods of treatment and prevention of drug abuse used in Southeast Asia. Countries studied include Malaysia, Singapore, Thailand, Indonesia, and the Philippines. Because of Malaysia's intensive effort to eliminate its drug abuse problem, emphasis is placed on this country's treatment and…
Haapasalo, Jaana; Aaltonen, Terhi
Compares mothers whose children had been under supervision of Child Protective Services (CPS) with comparison mothers for child abuse potential using Millner's Child Abuse Potential Inventory. CPS mothers scored significantly higher than the comparison mothers, indicating their persistent elevated child abuse potential; there was no significant…
Oversight Hearing on Drug Abuse Education Programs. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Elementary, Secondary, and Vocational Education of the Committee on Education and Labor. House of Representatives, 101st Congress, 2nd Session (Vancouver, Washington, September 6, 1990).
Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Education and Labor.
The text of an oversight hearing on Drug Abuse Resistance Education (DARE) programs is presented in this document. Introductory statements by Representatives Jolene Unsoeld and Dale E. Kildee are presented. Testimony by these witnesses is included: (1) Roy Bondurant, student, and Roy "Skip" Bondurant, parent, Tenino, Washington; (2) Paul…
Reijneveld, S.A.; Wal, M.F.V.D.; Brugman, E.; Sing, R.A.H.; Verloove-Vanhorick, S.P.
Child abuse and neglect are important causes of child morbidity and death. We assessed potentially detrimental parental actions induced by infant crying in 3259 infants aged 1-6 months, in the Netherlands. In infants aged 6 months, 5·6% (95% CI 4·2-7·0) of parents reported having smothered, slapped,
Rech, Megan A; Donahey, Elisabeth; Cappiello Dziedzic, Jacqueline M; Oh, Laura; Greenhalgh, Elizabeth
Drug abuse is a common problem and growing concern in the United States, and over the past decade, novel or atypical drugs have emerged and have become increasingly popular. Recognition and treatment of new drugs of abuse pose many challenges for health care providers due to lack of quantitative reporting and routine surveillance, and the difficulty of detection in routine blood and urine analyses. Furthermore, street manufacturers are able to rapidly adapt and develop new synthetic isolates of older drugs as soon as law enforcement agencies render them illegal. In this article, we describe the clinical and adverse effects and purported pharmacology of several new classes of drugs of abuse including synthetic cannabinoids, synthetic cathinones, salvia, desomorphine, and kratom. Because many of these substances can have severe or life-threatening adverse effects, knowledge of general toxicology is key in recognizing acute intoxication and overdose; however, typical toxidromes (e.g., cholinergic, sympathomimetic, opioid, etc.) are not precipitated by many of these agents. Medical management of patients who abuse or overdose on these drugs largely consists of supportive care, although naloxone may be used as an antidote for desomorphine overdose. Symptoms of aggression and psychosis may be treated with sedation (benzodiazepines, propofol) and antipsychotics (haloperidol or atypical agents such as quetiapine or ziprasidone). Other facets of management to consider include treatment for withdrawal or addiction, nutrition support, and potential for transmission of infectious diseases. © 2014 Pharmacotherapy Publications, Inc.
... Basic Facts & Information What does “Drug and Substance Abuse” mean? Most drugs and other chemical substances are helpful when used ... medications, and pain medications. Some older adults also abuse illegal drugs, including marijuana, cocaine, hallucinogens, and injected narcotics. Some ...
sexually abused children are anxiety disorders, depression, increased aggression and disturbance in sexual behaviour and gender roles. An American study found significantly higher rates .... counterparts with post-admission disclosure, this difference was not ... sense of psychic loneliness and internal crisis which follows.
Full Text Available Yuan-Yuan Lu,1 Chieh-Hsin Lin,2,3 Hsien-Yuan Lane1,2,4 1Department of Psychiatry, China Medical University Hospital, 2Graduate Institute of Clinical Medical Science, China Medical University, Taichung, 3Department of Psychiatry, Kaohsiung Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Kaohsiung, 4Center for Drug Abuse and Addiction, China Medical University Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan Abstract: Ketamine, a noncompetitive antagonist of the N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA receptor, has multiple clinical uses. On the other hand, ketamine abuse or recreational use has been gaining increasing attention. Induction of mania and psychotic symptoms has been reported in a patient receiving IV ketamine therapy for reflex sympathetic dystrophy. We here report a 26 year-old man who abused ketamine by inhalation for 12 months and developed manic-like symptoms after ketamine use. This case suggests a possible relationship between manic symptoms and ketamine abuse. To the best of our knowledge, this may be the first report regarding mania after recreational use of ketamine. Keywords: ketamine, mania, antidepressant, bipolar
Tatiana dos Reis Nunes
Full Text Available The authors report the case of a pregnant woman admitted to cocaine overdose and discuss maternal and fetal complications of cocaine abuse in pregnancy. Considering the increased frequency of users in the female population, the obstetric team should be able to make the patient's care and your baby.
Full Text Available Claudia L Reardon, Shane Creado Department of Psychiatry, University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health, Madison, WI, USA Abstract: Drug abuse occurs in all sports and at most levels of competition. Athletic life may lead to drug abuse for a number of reasons, including for performance enhancement, to self-treat otherwise untreated mental illness, and to deal with stressors, such as pressure to perform, injuries, physical pain, and retirement from sport. This review examines the history of doping in athletes, the effects of different classes of substances used for doping, side effects of doping, the role of anti-doping organizations, and treatment of affected athletes. Doping goes back to ancient times, prior to the development of organized sports. Performance-enhancing drugs have continued to evolve, with “advances” in doping strategies driven by improved drug testing detection methods and advances in scientific research that can lead to the discovery and use of substances that may later be banned. Many sports organizations have come to ban the use of performance-enhancing drugs and have very strict consequences for people caught using them. There is variable evidence for the performance-enhancing effects and side effects of the various substances that are used for doping. Drug abuse in athletes should be addressed with preventive measures, education, motivational interviewing, and, when indicated, pharmacologic interventions. Keywords: doping, athletes, steroids, drug abuse, mental illness
Peterson, Jamie J.; Sesma, Arturo, Jr.
The American Psychological Association Board of Educational Affairs Working Group (APA) recommends providing some research experience to undergraduate students in the introductory psychology course. This nationwide survey of introductory psychology instructors explored the frequency of integrated research opportunities in introductory courses,…
Background: Child sexual abuse with significant impact on victim's physical, mental and social health has now been recognized as existing on an appreciable scale worldwide. Diversity of opinions exist about the concept, types, prevalence and repercussions along with a paucity of systematic and scientific work in the developing world including Pakistan. Objective: This paper aims at reviewing the literature for clarification of concept, update of estimates and correlates, and to identify lines for future research. Data sources: The literature was search through BMJ-Medline for international data, supplemented by local data through CPSP-MEDLIP service. The search term child sexual abuse with associated sub-heads were used. No constraint of time period, publication type or source applied except english Language version Comparative findings: Wide variations identified in conceptual boundaries with consequent impact on prevalence estimates. Agreement found for its existence as an international problem with rates ranging from 7% - 36% for women and 3% - 29% for men. Female abused 1.5-3 times more than male with exponential high rates in age group 3-6 years and 8-11 years. In 2/3 cases the perpetrator identified belonged to nuclear or extended family. Significant association exists with early onset of psychiatric ailments like substance abuse, eating disorders, personality disorders, dissociative disorders and depression. Conclusion and Suggestion: The need for extensive research studies in immense in developing countries like Pakistan where environmental circumstances suggest its presence at rates higher than the identified elsewhere. In addition to facilitate awareness and perhaps to clarify the concept as well as the prevalence of child sexual abuse researchers need to select methodologies and instruments with international comparison in mind. (author)
Christensen, Mette Krogh; O'Neill, Lotte; Hansen, Dorthe Høgh
Background The majority of studies on prevalence and characteristics of residents in difficulty have been conducted in English-speaking countries and the existing literature may not reflect the prevalence and characteristics of residents in difficulty in other parts of the world such as the Scand......Background The majority of studies on prevalence and characteristics of residents in difficulty have been conducted in English-speaking countries and the existing literature may not reflect the prevalence and characteristics of residents in difficulty in other parts of the world...... such as the Scandinavian countries, where healthcare systems are slightly different. The aim of this study was to examine prevalence and characteristics of residents in difficulty in one out of three postgraduate medical training regions in Denmark, and to produce both a quantifiable overview and in-depth understanding...... of the topic. Methods We performed a mixed methods study. All regional residency program directors (N = 157) were invited to participate in an e-survey about residents in difficulty. Survey data were combined with database data on demographical characteristics of the background population (N = 2399...
Becker, Jill B; Hu, Ming
Sex differences are present for all of the phases of drug abuse (initiation, escalation of use, addiction, and relapse following abstinence). While there are some differences among specific classes of abused drugs, the general pattern of sex differences is the same for all drugs of abuse. Females begin regularly self-administering licit and illicit drugs of abuse at lower doses than do males, use escalates more rapidly to addiction, and females are at greater risk for relapse following abstinence. In this review, sex differences in drug abuse are discussed for humans and in animal models. The possible neuroendocrine mechanisms mediating these sex differences are discussed.
Full Text Available Animal abuse is important social issue, which includes a wide range of behaviors of humans that are harmful to animals, starting from unintentional neglect to intentional cruelty. Types of animal abuse are different and they can include physical, sexual, emotional abuse or neglect. Training dogs for fights and dog fighting are considered to be neglection of animals. Forensic veterinarians are called for testifining more often now for presenting the evidence that can lead to making a case regarding animal abuse. This study will include an explanation of forensic vet's role and different types of animal abuse.
Tan, Lin Mei; Laswad, Fawzi
This study examines the impact of learning styles on academic performance using major assessment methods (examinations and assignments including multiple-choice and constructed response questions (CRQs)) in an introductory accounting course. Students' learning styles were assessed using Kolb's Learning Style Inventory Version 3.1. The results…
Chiang, Bea; Nouri, Hossein; Samanta, Subarna
The purpose of the research is to examine the effect of the two different teaching approaches in the first accounting course on student performance in a subsequent finance course. The study compares 128 accounting and finance students who took introductory financial accounting by either a user approach or a traditional preparer approach to examine…
Lukes, Laura A.; McConnell, David A.
There is a need to understand why some students succeed and persist in STEM fields and others do not. While numerous studies have focused on the positive results of using empirically validated teaching methods in introductory science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) courses, little data has been collected about the student experience in…
Griggs, Richard A.
Zimbardo's 1971 Stanford Prison Experiment (SPE), one of the most famous studies in psychology, is discussed in most introductory textbooks. The present study is concerned with the nature of this coverage, given that there have been myriad criticisms, especially recently, of the SPE. These criticisms concern both Zimbardo's situationist…
Miettinen, R.; Samra-Fredericks, D.; Yanow, D.
The study of practices has a long theoretical history and draws on a wide range of methods. This introductory essay sets the stage for the five articles presented in this Special Issue by explaining its background and providing one narrative of the theoretical background on which both its editors
Mohanty, Soumya D.; Cantu, Sergio
Commercial video games are increasingly using sophisticated physics simulations to create a more immersive experience for players. This also makes them a powerful tool for engaging students in learning physics. We provide some examples to show how commercial off-the-shelf games can be used to teach specific topics in introductory undergraduate…
McGuinness, Michael J.
An international business simulation game designed for an introductory International Business course. The simulation game allows for student decision making and allows for the ready introduction of many topics which are covered in an International Business course. The simulation game has continued to be improved with student suggestions and has…
Dees, Jonathan; Momsen, Jennifer L.; Niemi, Jarad; Montplaisir, Lisa
Phylogenetic trees are widely used visual representations in the biological sciences and the most important visual representations in evolutionary biology. Therefore, phylogenetic trees have also become an important component of biology education. We sought to characterize reasoning used by introductory biology students in interpreting taxa…
Khoon, Koh Aik; Jalal, Azman; Daud, Abdul Razak; Abd-Shukor, Roslan; Samat, Supian; Talib, Ibrahim Abu; Othman, Mazlan; Yatim, Baharudin
Among the many changes that have taken place in physics education in recent years is the fact that physics introductory texts have undergone some drastic changes in layout, content, approach and presentation. It is a total breath of fresh air compared with the drab physics texts of yesteryear. This paper takes a closer look on the changes that…
Woods, David M.
Cloud computing is a rapidly emerging topic, but should it be included in an introductory IT course? The magnitude of cloud computing use, especially cloud infrastructure, along with students' limited knowledge of the topic support adding cloud content to the IT curriculum. There are several arguments that support including cloud computing in an…
Ward, Roger A.; Grasha, Anthony F.
Provides a classroom demonstration designed to test an astrological hypothesis and help teach introductory psychology students about research design and data interpretation. Illustrates differences between science and nonscience, the role of theory in developing and testing hypotheses, making comparisons among groups, probability and statistical…
McIver, Keith; Whitaker, Kathryn; De Delva, Vladimir; Farrell, Stephanie; Savelski, Mariano J.; Slater, C. Stewart
Textbook style problems including detailed solutions introducing pharmaceutical topics at the level of an introductory chemical engineering course have been created. The problems illustrate and teach subjects which students would learn if they were to pursue a career in pharmaceutical engineering, including the unique terminology of the field,…
Williamson, Kathryn E.; Willoughby, Shannon
Twenty-four free-response questions were developed to explore introductory college astronomy students' understanding of gravity in a variety of contexts, including in and around Earth, throughout the solar system, and in hypothetical situations. Questions were separated into three questionnaires, each of which was given to a section of…
Teixeira, Cláudia; Gomes, Delfina; Borges, Janete
The focus of this paper is an investigation into the approaches to studying of Portuguese students of introductory accounting using the short version of the ASSIST instrument. In doing so, it also examined the impact upon the strategy adopted of the discipline area of students and gender. The results validate the use of the inventory with students…
Griggs, Richard A.; Jackson, Sherri L.; Christopher, Andrew N.; Marek, Pam
Explores changes in the introductory psychology textbook market through an analysis of edition, author, length, and content coverage of the volumes that comprise the current market. Finds a higher edition average, a decrease in the number of authors, an increase in text pages, and a focus on developmental psychology and sensation/perception. (CMK)
California Univ., Los Angeles. Center for Mental Health Schools.
This introductory packet is designed to help those with an interest in preventing teen pregnancy. It opens with "A Brief Introduction to Teen Pregnancy Prevention and Support," an essay by the Center for Mental Health in Schools of the University of California, Los Angeles, that outlines the dimensions of the problem. "A Quick Overview of Some…
Doehler, Kirsten; Taylor, Laura
This article is based on the experiences of two statistics professors who have taught students to write and effectively utilize code-based software in a college-level introductory statistics course. Advantages of using software and code-based software in this context are discussed. Suggestions are made on how to ease students into using code with…
Piccioni, R. G.
Too often, students in introductory courses are left with the impression that Einstein's special theory of relativity comes into play only when the relative speed of two objects is an appreciable fraction of the speed of light ("c"). In fact, relativistic length contraction, along with Coulomb's law, accounts quantitatively for the force on a…
Lusk, Danielle L.; Jones, Brett D.
Because of the importance of students' and teachers' implicit beliefs about intelligence, we designed a study to determine: (a) How is intelligence defined--as a malleable or fixed entity--in introductory educational psychology textbooks? and (b) To what extent are classroom applications of intelligence topics included in the textbooks? We…
Budd, D. A.; van der Hoeven Kraft, K. J.; McConnell, D. A.; Vislova, T.
Most research about reformed teaching practices in the college science classroom is based on instructor self-report. This research describes what is happening in some introductory geology courses at multiple institutions across the country using external observers. These observations are quantified using the Reformed Teaching Observation Protocol…
Goldsmith, David W.
For the past 5 years I have been teaching my introductory geology class using a case-based method that promotes student engagement and inquiry. This article presents an explanation of how a case-based curriculum differs from a more traditional approach to the material. It also presents a statistical analysis of several years' worth of student…
Grose, Elaine C.; Simpson, Ronald D.
Thurstone's Scale No. 30, Form A was used to survey attitudes of introductory college biology students (N=120) toward evolution. Results indicate the majority of these students believe in the theory of evolution. In addition, two demographic variables, sex and church influence, produced a significant correlation with the attitude scores.…
Whitehead, George I., III; Smith, Stephanie H.; Losonczy-Marshall, Marta
The purpose of the present study was to identify the core references in introductory textbooks in two sub-disciplines of psychology: social psychology and developmental psychology. One research question was the extent to which the common references in these textbooks present the trends in contemporary research in each sub-discipline. An analysis…
Describes use of Nigerian author, Chinua Achebe's novel, "Things Fall Apart," in an introductory geography course at the secondary school or college level. Provides a summary of the book's story, which deals with the impact of colonialism and Christianity on the culture of eastern Nigeria. Includes recommended instructional strategies…
Shulman, Joel I.
Many of the principles of organic polymer chemistry are direct extensions of the information contained in the standard introductory organic chemistry course. Often, however, the discussion of macromolecules is relegated to a chapter at the end of the organic chemistry text and is covered briefly, if at all. Connecting the organic-chemical…
Stewart, John; Ballard, Shawn
This study examined the written work of students in the introductory calculus-based electricity and magnetism course at the University of Arkansas. The students' solutions to hourly exams were divided into a small set of countable features organized into three major categories, mathematics, language, and graphics. Each category was further divided…
Haley, M. Ryan; Johnson, Marianne F.; Kuennen, Eric W.
Studies have yielded highly mixed results as to differences in male and female student performance in statistics courses; the role that professors play in these differences is even less clear. In this paper, we consider the impact of professor and student gender on student performance in an introductory business statistics course taught by…
This study examines the effect of the translation of traditional scientific vocabulary into plain English, a process referred to as Anglicization, on student learning in the context of introductory microbiology instruction. Data from Anglicized and Classical-vocabulary lab sections were collected. Data included exam scores as well as pre and…
Towner, Terri L.
Research on the influence of class size on student academic achievement is important for university instructors, administrators, and students. The article examines the influence of class size--a small section versus a large section--in introductory political science courses on student grades in two comparable semesters. It is expected that…
Focuses on the uses of science fiction to teach sociology and develop critical and creative thinking. Maintains that in the last 20 years science fiction has become concerned increasingly with social themes. Concludes with a detailed description of the use of "The Handmaid's Tale" in an introductory sociology course. (MJP)
The limit concept is a fundamental mathematical notion both for its practical applications and its importance as a prerequisite for later calculus topics. Past research suggests that limit conceptualizations promoted in introductory calculus are far removed from the formal epsilon-delta definition of limit. In this article, I provide an overview…
Duffus, Dwight; Olifer, Andrei
We describe two sets of courses designed to enhance the mathematical, statistical, and computational training of life science undergraduates at Emory College. The first course is an introductory sequence in differential and integral calculus, modeling with differential equations, probability, and inferential statistics. The second is an…
Ford, Marilyn; Venema, Sven
With universities having difficulty attracting students to study information technology (IT), the scores needed for entry into IT degrees have dropped markedly. IT schools are thus having to cope by adjusting their introductory courses to ensure that students will still learn what is expected but without negatively impacting on pass rates. This…
This pre-test post-test non randomized experimental study investigated the effects of team teaching on students' performance in Introductory Technology. A total 316 Junior Secondary School Two students were randomly selected from four schools in Akwa Ibom State for the study. Data for the study was collected using ...
Travis, Lisa L.; Hudson, Nathan W.; Henricks-Lepp, Genevieve M.; Street, Whitney S.; Weidenbenner, Jennifer
This study investigated the influence of team-based learning (TBL) methods on exam performance and student satisfaction in an introductory psychology class. Fifteen instructors teaching 29 sections (with a combined enrollment of approximately 1,130 students) were randomly assigned to use TBL for 7 of 12 major topics or to use lecture. All students…
Electronic portfolios (EP) are an academic version of online social media (e.g., Facebook) that archive student work and support integrated learning. Despite limited theory, advocates believe EP enhances the reflective process. Thirty-six students in introductory psychology at Pace University were invited to create EP and complete optional EP…
Data from nine introductory microeconomics classes was used to test the effect of student learning style on academic performance. The Kolb Learning Style Inventory was used to assess individual student learning styles. The results indicate that student learning style has no significant effect on performance, undermining the claims of those who…
The author examines the effects of different introductory microeconomics textbooks on student performance in subsequent economics courses (specifically, Intermediate Microeconomics I and Money and Banking). In some cases, the effects are significant and sizeable. There is also evidence of other variables affecting student performance in later…
These introductory remarks deal with the reasons why the EPPO is perceived by some as a controversial body. These reasons are mirrored with the problem identification and the causes thereof. The size of EU fraud and related corruption and money laundering, both at the income and expenditure side, is
Riniolo, Todd C.; Schmidt, Louis A.
Describes a classroom demonstration called the Gambler's Fallacy where students in an introductory psychology statistics class participate in simulated gambling using weekly results from professional football game outcomes over a 10 week period. Explains that the demonstration illustrates that random processes do not self-correct and statistical…
Södervik, Ilona; Virtanen, Viivi; Mikkilä-Erdmann, Mirjamaija
University students' understanding of photosynthesis was examined in a large introductory biosciences class. The focus of this study was to first examine the conceptions of photosynthesis among students in class and then to investigate how a certain type of text could enhance students' understanding of photosynthesis. The study was based on pre-…
Abstract: Monolingual and bilingual dictionaries for learners of English as foreign language differ from each other in many aspects. Among the differences are the types of information a dic- tionary provides outside the A–Z word list, especially in its introductory matter. Yet, dictionary in- troductions have been referred to ...
Cotner, Sehoya; Gallup, Gordon G., Jr.
The typical introductory biology curriculum includes the nature of science, evolution and genetics. Laboratory activities are designed to engage students in typical subject areas ranging from cell biology and physiology, to ecology and evolution. There are few, if any, laboratory classes exploring the biology and evolution of human sexual…
Ali, Azad; Smith, David
A department of computer science (CS) has faced a peculiar situation regarding their selection of introductory programming course. This course is a required course for the students enrolled in the CS program and is a prerequisite to their other advanced programming courses. At the same time, the course can be considered a general education course…
Brown, S. J.; White, S.; Power, N.
Using an educational data mining approach, first-year academic achievement of undergraduate nursing students, which included two compulsory courses in introductory human anatomy and physiology, was compared with achievement in a final semester course that transitioned students into the workplace. We hypothesized that students could be grouped…
Patton, Michael Quinn
The problem in teaching introductory sociology is to determine what can be extracted from the sociological tradition and the current crisis in sociology that will help students lead more meaningful lives. The answer lies in kindling the sociological imagination by the development of a sociology curriculum based upon the study of contemporary youth…
Marcketti, Sara B.; Wang, Xinxin; Greder, Kate
At Iowa State University, the introductory textile science course is a required 4-credit class for all undergraduate students enrolled in the Apparel, Merchandising, and Design Program. Frustrated by a perceived gap between students who easily comprehended course material and those who complained and struggled, the instructor implemented an…
Griggs, Richard A.
Inaccuracies, especially concerning the stimulus generalization findings, in textbook descriptions of the Little Albert study have been well documented since the 1970s. However, there has not been a systematic examination of introductory psychology textbooks since the 1980s to determine whether such inaccuracies still persist. This study filled…
Stalder, Daniel R.; Stec, Deborah A.
Using forced-choice and continuous measures, introductory psychology students reported highest interest for the topical areas of clinical and social psychology (over biological, cognitive, and developmental) and for the applied areas of education and health (over business, environment, and law) at both the beginning and end of semesters. Among…
Claycomb, J. R.
Activity-based collisional analysis is developed for introductory physics and astronomy laboratory experiments. Crushable floral foam is used to investigate the physics of projectiles undergoing completely inelastic collisions with a low-density solid forming impact craters. Simple drop experiments enable determination of the average acceleration,…
Pool, Richard F.; Turner, Gregory D.; Böttger, S. Anne
In recent years the need for ecological literacy and problem solving has increased, but there is no evidence that this need is reflected by increased ecology coverage at institutions of higher education (IHE) across the United States. Because introductory biology courses may serve to direct student interest toward particular biological categories…
Childers, Adam F.
Facebook provides businesses and organizations with copious data that describe how users are interacting with their page. This data affords an excellent opportunity to turn introductory statistics students into consultants to analyze the Facebook data using descriptive and inferential statistics. This paper details a semester-long project that…
This paper analyses introductory statistics students' verbal and gestural expressions as they interacted with a dynamic sketch (DS) designed using "Sketchpad" software. The DS involved numeric data points built on the number line whose values changed as the points were dragged along the number line. The study is framed on aggregate…
MUHAMMAD SHUMAIL NAVEED
Full Text Available Programming is the core of computer science and due to this momentousness a special care is taken in designing the curriculum of programming courses. A substantial work has been conducted on the definition of programming courses, yet the introductory programming courses are still facing high attrition, low retention and lack of motivation. This paper introduced a tiny pre-programming language called LPL (Learners Programming Language as a ZPL (Zeroth Programming Language to illuminate novice students about elementary concepts of introductory programming before introducing the first imperative programming course. The overall objective and design philosophy of LPL is based on a hypothesis that the soft introduction of a simple and paradigm specific textual programming can increase the motivation level of novice students and reduce the congenital complexities and hardness of the first programming course and eventually improve the retention rate and may be fruitful in reducing the dropout/failure level. LPL also generates the equivalent high level programs from user source program and eventually very fruitful in understanding the syntax of introductory programming languages. To overcome the inherent complexities of unusual and rigid syntax of introductory programming languages, the LPL provide elementary programming concepts in the form of algorithmic and plain natural language based computational statements. The initial results obtained after the introduction of LPL are very encouraging in motivating novice students and improving the retention rate.
Taagepera, Mare; Arasasingham, Ramesh D.; King, Susan; Potter, Frank; Martorell, Ingrid; Ford, David; Wu, Jason; Kearney, Aaron M.
We report a comparative study using "knowledge space theory" (KAT) to assess the impact of a hands-on laboratory exercise that used molecular model kits to emphasize the connections between a plane of symmetry, Charity, and isomerism in an introductory organic chemistry course. The experimental design compared three groups of…
Broeckelman-Post, Melissa A.; Pyle, Andrew S.
The purpose of this study was to compare student growth in public speaking and hybrid introductory communication skills courses on four outcomes: public speaking anxiety, self-perceived communication competence, intercultural effectiveness, and connected classroom climate. This study also sought to find out whether there were differences in the…
This paper empirically enlists Python plagiarism attacks that have been found on Introductory Programming course assignments for undergraduate students. According to our observation toward 400 plagiarism-suspected cases, there are 35 plagiarism attacks that have been conducted by students. It starts with comment & whitespace modification as…
Belfi, Lily M; Bartolotta, Roger J; Giambrone, Ashley E; Davi, Caryn; Min, Robert J
Among methods of "blended learning" (ie, combining online modules with in-class instruction), the "flipped classroom" involves student preclass review of material while reserving class time for interactive knowledge application. We integrated blended learning methodology in a "flipped" introductory clerkship in radiology, and assessed the impact of this approach on the student educational experience (performance and perception). In preparation for the "flipped clerkship," radiology faculty and residents created e-learning modules that were uploaded to an open-source website. The clerkship's 101 rising third-year medical students were exposed to different teaching methods during the course, such as blended learning, traditional lecture learning, and independent learning. Students completed precourse and postcourse knowledge assessments and surveys. Student knowledge improved overall as a result of taking the course. Blended learning achieved greater pretest to post-test improvement of high statistical significance (P value, .0060) compared to lecture learning alone. Blended learning also achieved greater pretest to post-test improvement of borderline statistical significance (P value, .0855) in comparison to independent learning alone. The difference in effectiveness of independent learning versus lecture learning was not statistically significant (P value, .2730). Student perceptions of the online modules used in blended learning portions of the course were very positive. They specifically enjoyed the self-paced interactivity and the ability to return to the modules in the future. Blended learning can be successfully applied to the introductory clerkship in radiology. This teaching method offers educators an innovative and efficient approach to medical student education in radiology. Copyright © 2015 AUR. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Discusses the necessity for incorporating current technology in today's college residence halls to meet the more diverse and continued activities of its students. Technology addressed covers data networking and telecommunications, heating and cooling systems, and fire-safety systems. (GR)
Fogle, Thomas Ty
Research on introductory STEM course performance has indicated that student characteristics (age, ethnicity and gender) and Grade Point Average (G.P.A.) can be predictive of student performance, and by implication, a correlation among these factors can help determine course design interventions to help certain types of students perform well in introductory STEM courses. The basis of this study was a community college Visual Basic programming course taught in both online and hybrid format. Beginning students in this course represented a diverse population residing in a large, mid-western, city and surrounding communities. Many of these students were defined as "at-Risk" or "non-traditional, which generally means any combination of socio-economic, cultural, family and employment factors that indicate a student is non-traditional. Research has shown these students struggle academically in technologically dense STEM courses, and may require student services and support to achieve their individual performance goals. The overall number in the study range was 392 distance students and 287 blended course students. The main question of this research was to determine to what extent student characteristics in a community college context, and previous success, as measured in overall G.P.A., were related to course performance in an introductory Visual Basic programming (STEM) course; and, whether or not a combination of these factors and course modality was predictive of success. The study employed a quantitative, quasi-experimental design to assess whether students' course performance was linked to course modality, student characteristics and overall G.P.A. The results indicated that the only predictor of student performance was overall G.P.A. Despite the research analyzed in Chapter 2, there was no statistically significant relationship to modality, age, ethnicity, or gender to performance in the course. Cognitive load is significant in a computer programming course and it
Lee, Carol K; Lathrop, Sarah L
We retrospectively reviewed autopsy records at a statewide medical examiner's office in order to identify and characterize deaths due to child abuse. In a 6-year period in New Mexico, the medical examiner investigated 45 deaths determined to be child abuse-related. Decedents were predominantly male (68.9%), Hispanic White (53.3%), and all were 5 years of age or younger, with a median age of 1 year. Head injuries were the most common cause of death (44.4%), followed by battered baby syndrome (15.6%). Relatives were involved as alleged perpetrators in 80% of the cases, with the father most often implicated (36.1% of cases), and 88.9% of child abuse injuries resulting in death occurred in the family's residence. Toxicology was positive in 26.7% of cases, but only two cases had substances of abuse present. Information on risk factors such as prematurity, parental age, and history of abuse was also collected.
Paden, John N.; Soja, Edward W.
In response to demands for more and better teaching about Africa in American higher education, the US Office of Education requested that the Program of African Studies at Northwestern University generate a set of teaching materials which could be used in introductory undergraduate courses. Included in these volumes, these materials provide…
Orendorff, Christopher J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Nagasubramanian, Ganesan [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Fenton, Kyle R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Allcorn, Eric [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)
As lithium-ion battery technologies mature, the size and energy of these systems continues to increase (> 50 kWh for EVs); making safety and reliability of these high energy systems increasingly important. While most material advances for lithium-ion chemistries are directed toward improving cell performance (capacity, energy, cycle life, etc.), there are a variety of materials advancements that can be made to improve lithium-ion battery safety. Issues including energetic thermal runaway, electrolyte decomposition and flammability, anode SEI stability, and cell-level abuse tolerance continue to be critical safety concerns. This report highlights work with our collaborators to develop advanced materials to improve lithium-ion battery safety and abuse tolerance and to perform cell-level characterization of new materials.
VanDenBerg, C; Murphy, J E
The level of work satisfaction among pharmacists in ASHP-accredited residencies was studied. In March 1996 a questionnaire designed to measure residency satisfaction was mailed to 697 individuals in ASHP-accredited pharmacy practice and specialty practice residencies. Subjects responded to 16 statements relating to intrinsic and extrinsic determinants of work satisfaction on a scale of 1 to 5, where 1 = strongly disagree and 5 = strongly agree. Questionnaires were returned by 413 (59%) of the residents. The respondents were predominantly women (76%), and most (86%) had at least a Pharm. D. degree. Hospitals were the primary work setting (88%). Of the 413 residents, 305 were in pharmacy practice residencies and 108 were in specialized residencies. None of the mean scores indicated disagreement (scores 3) with the negatively worded statements. The median and mode were equal to 2 (disagree) for the three negatively worded items and 4 (agree) for all but three positively worded items. Only 8% of the residents indicated that they would not accept the residency again if given the chance. Specialized residents tended to rate positively worded statements higher and negatively worded statements lower than pharmacy practice residents. Female residents indicated greater satisfaction than male residents. Pay and benefits were rated slightly better than neutral. Pharmacy residents appeared generally satisfied with their residencies. Specialized pharmacy residents were more satisfied than pharmacy practice residents, and women were more satisfied than men.
Boyer, Edward; Burns,Jarrett
Jarrett M Burns, Edward W Boyer Division of Medical Toxicology, Department of Emergency Medicine, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, MA, USA Abstract: Abuse of antitussive preparations is a continuing problem in the United States and throughout the world. Illicit, exploratory, or recreational use of dextromethorphan and codeine/promethazine cough syrups is widely described. This review describes the pharmacology, clinical effects, and management of toxicity from commonly ...
Ortiz-León, Silvia; Jaimes-Medrano, Aurora Leonila; Tafoya-Ramos, Silvia Aracely; Mujica-Amaya, María Luisa; Olmedo-Canchola, Víctor Hugo; Carrasco-Rojas, José Antonio
Harassment and abuse are forms of persistent intimidating behavior against a person and in medical practice those are accepted and justified at all levels of education and are considered specific to the hospital culture. To identify the frequency of harassment and some factors related to its existence on residents of medical specialties in Mexico City. A linear study was carried out in which a total of 260 interns pertaining to the following medical specialties: surgery, internal medicine, gynecology and obstetrics, and pediatrics participated. The study took place in three general hospitals in Mexico City. Two evaluations with Leymann Inventory of Psychological-Terrorization (LIPT-60) with 6 months between assessments were performed. Comparison between the first and second evaluations did not show differences in any of the harassment measurements obtained. Of all residents, 265 (98.5%) claimed to have experienced some type of harassing behavior against them at least once during the previous 6 months, with a 1.4 (±0.5) average intensity, showing no difference between men and women. Women received a higher grade than men on the communication block scale. Harassing behaviors that obtained the highest average values were evident intimidation and occupational discredit. Among all harassment measurements, the specialty of gynecology and obstetrics showed the highest grade. The hospital influenced the reported harassment. The most common harassing behaviors were occupational discredit, verbal threats, shouting, and mockery. The high frequency of harassment that medical residents experience during their hospital training deserves our attention.
Full Text Available In Bangladesh, a large number of children are deprived of their basic human rights due to unacceptable health, nutrition, education as well as social conditions. In addition, children are exposed to severe forms of sexual, physical and mental abuses at home, in the work place, in institutions and other public places. The nature and extent of violence against children irrespective of age, sex and class has been increasing day by day. These include physical torture, rape, homicide and sometimes heinous attacks with acid. Children are also victims of child labor and trafficking, both of which are treated as the most severe form of child exploitation and child abuse in the world today. This review article is aimed to focus on the present situation of various forms of child abuses in our country. Data collection is based on secondary sources of information from Dhaka Medical College Hospital, One Stop Crisis Center (OCC,UNICEF, Ministry of Home Affairs, Ministry of Women and Children Affairs, several Dhaka based organizations and news paper clipping. Ibrahim Med. Coll. J. 2015; 9(1: 18-21
Urbano, Francisco J; Bisagno, Verónica; Garcia-Rill, Edgar
The reticular activating system (RAS) is not an amorphous region but distinct nuclei with specific membrane properties that dictate their firing during waking and sleep. The locus coeruleus and raphe nucleus fire during waking and slow wave sleep, with the pedunculopontine nucleus (PPN) firing during both waking and REM sleep, the states manifesting arousal-related EEG activity. Two important discoveries in the PPN in the last 10 years are, 1) that some PPN cells are electrically coupled, and 2) every PPN cell manifests high threshold calcium channels that allow them to oscillate at beta/gamma band frequencies. The role of arousal in drug abuse is considered here in terms of the effects of drugs of abuse on these two mechanisms. Drug abuse and the perception of withdrawal/relapse are mediated by neurobiological processes that occur only when we are awake, not when we are asleep. These relationships focus on the potential role of arousal, more specifically of RAS electrical coupling and gamma band activity, in the addictive process as well as the relapse to drug use. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Miriam Rubio Acuña
Full Text Available El maltrato institucional se refiere a cualquier forma de abuso que ocurre en servicios dirigidos a los ancianos. Esta revisión bibliográfica muestra que el maltrato se presenta con mayor frecuencia en residencias de larga estadía y el tipo más frecuente es la negligencia. Los factores asociados son los que tienen relación con el residente y con el ambiente. Las principales estrategias son invertir recursos sociosanitarios, sensibilizar a la población respecto al maltrato de los ancianos, considerar las necesidades de estos, fortalecer la formación de pregrado de los profesionales de salud en este ámbito y realizar educación continua. El maltrato es un problema social que debe ser abordado de manera integral.Institutional abuse refers to any form of abuse that occurs in services for the elderly. This literature review indicates that abuse occurs more frequently in nursing homes and the most frequent type of neglect. The factors that may relate to the relationship with the resident and the environment. The main strategies relate to social and health invest resources, raising awareness about the abuse of the elderly, consider their needs, strengthen undergraduate education of health professionals in this field and make continuing education. Abuse is a social problem so this must be addressed holistically.
Turgut, Namigar; Karacalar, Serap; Polat, Cengiz; Kıran, Özlem; Gültop, Fethi; Kalyon, Seray Türkmen; Sinoğlu, Betül; Zincirci, Mehmet; Kaya, Ender
The aim of this study is identified the degree of Burnout Syndrome (BOS) and find out its correlation with years of recidency and sociodemograpfic chareacteristics, training, sleeping habits, such as smoking and alcohol consumption. After approval from the Hospital Ethics Committee and obtaining informed consent, First, second, third, fourth and fifth year of recidency staff (n=127) working in our hospital were involved in this study. The standardized Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI) was used in this study. Fifty six male (44.1%) and seventy one female (55.9%) residents were enroled in this study (Coranbach Alfa(α)=0.873). 57% of the first year residents smokes cigaret and 54% of them use alcohol. 2% of them gets one day off after hospital night shift, 61% of them suffers from disturbed sleep. 60% of them had been stated that they willingly selected their profession. 61% of them prefers talking to friends and 32% of them prefers shopping to overcome stress. There were statistical difference acording to years of recidency in MBI, Emotional Burnout (EB) and desensitisation scale (DS) points. EB scale points of the second year of residency group was statisticaly higher than fourth year of residency group. DS points of second year of residency group was also statisticaly higher than the third and fourth year of residency group. There was no statistical difference between any groups in Personal Success. BOS is a frequent problem during residency in anaesthesia. Appropriate definition and awareness are the first important steps to prevent this syndrome. Further administrative approaches should be evaluated with regard to their effects.
Aich, Tapas Kumar; Dhungana, Manoj; Khanal, Roshija
Background: Although buprenorphine abusers are a common clinical entity, literature on them is rare in Nepal. Aim: To assess whether injectable opioid abusers are any different a subgroup vis-a-vis brown sugar abusers in relation to their demographic and clinical profiles. Materials and Methods: Seventy-six opioid abusers, who were admitted over a period of one year, in our de-addiction center, were included in the present study. They were divided into two groups based on the history of the p...
Yamamoto, Satoshi; Tanaka, Pedro; Madsen, Matias Vested
Our goal in this study was to examine Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education case logs for Stanford anesthesia residents graduating in 2013 (25 residents) and 2014 (26 residents). The resident with the fewest recorded patients in 2013 had 43% the number of patients compared with the...
Ng, Victor K; Burke, Clarissa A; Narula, Archna
To examine Canadian family medicine residents' perspectives surrounding teaching opportunities and mentorship in teaching. A 16-question online survey. Canadian family medicine residency programs. Between May and June 2011, all first- and second-year family medicine residents registered in 1 of the 17 Canadian residency programs as of September 2010 were invited to participate. A total of 568 of 2266 residents responded. Demographic characteristics, teaching opportunities during residency, and resident perceptions about teaching. A total of 77.7% of family medicine residents indicated that they were either interested or highly interested in teaching as part of their future careers, and 78.9% of family medicine residents had had opportunities to teach in various settings. However, only 60.1% of respondents were aware of programs within residency intended to support residents as teachers, and 33.0% of residents had been observed during teaching encounters. It appears that most Canadian family medicine residents have the opportunity to teach during their residency training. Many are interested in integrating teaching as part of their future career goals. Family medicine residencies should strongly consider programs to support and further develop resident teaching skills.
Results also showed that old abused women scored significantly lower on depression than young abused women, F(1,337)=P<.01. Likewise, high education abused women self-reported significantly higher on depression than low education abused women, t(2,337)= 5.44. On self-esteem, old abused women were ...
Ahmad Saifan; Intima A Alrimawi; Ibrahim Bashaireh
Background: Despite the efforts to protect children around the world, child abuse and neglect remain serious and global problems. In Palestine, child abuse is hidden under the community culture, does not appear in the Ministry of Health official reports, and little is known about nurses’ perceptions towards this phenomenon. Objectives: To identify nurses’ perceptions about child abuse definition, whether they faced such cases during their work, and how they managed them. Methods: Data...
Aleksić Jelena; Jović Slavoljub
Animal abuse is important social issue, which includes a wide range of behaviors of humans that are harmful to animals, starting from unintentional neglect to intentional cruelty. Types of animal abuse are different and they can include physical, sexual, emotional abuse or neglect. Training dogs for fights and dog fighting are considered to be neglection of animals. Forensic veterinarians are called for testifining more often now for presenting the evidence that can lead to making a case rega...
Oguma, Eiji; Aihara, Toshinori [Saitama Children' s Medical Center, Iwatsuki (Japan)
The major role of imaging in cases of suspected child abuse is to identify the physical injuries and to confirm the occurrence of abuse. In severely abused infants, the imaging findings may be the only evidence for a diagnosis of inflicted injury. Imaging may be the first clue to abuse in children seen with apparent other conditions and lead to appropriate measures to protect them from the risk of more serious injury. The radiologist must be familiar with imaging findings of inflicted injuries to fulfill these roles. (author)
This book provides a description for all the known radiological alterations occurring in child abuse. This allows for precise interpretation of findings by radiologists. It also helps eliminate the confusion among both clinicians and non-medical personnel involved in the diagnosis, management, and legal issues related to child abuse. CONTENTS: Introduction; Skeletal trauma: general considerations; Extremity trauma; Bony thoracic trauma; Spinal trauma; Dating fractures; Visceral trauma; Head trauma; Miscellaneous forms of abuse and neglect; The postmortem examination; Differential diagnosis of child abuse; Legal considerations; Psychosocial considerations; Technical considerations and dosimetry.
Collins, James L.; Hamlin, Willie T.; Minor, Marie A.; Knasel, Ann Lowe
Child sexual abuse was examined nationally and in the Washington, DC and Howard University Hospital area. In an attempt to describe this widespread problem, two case histories are presented which reflect some of the typical characteristics of child sexual abuse cases seen at Howard University Hospital. Pertinent literature is reviewed citing the prevalence rates and the personality and environmental factors which may contribute to the sexual abuse of children in this country. Finally, the role of the physician in identifying and treating the physical and emotional effects of child abuse are discussed. PMID:7120485
Oguma, Eiji; Aihara, Toshinori
The major role of imaging in cases of suspected child abuse is to identify the physical injuries and to confirm the occurrence of abuse. In severely abused infants, the imaging findings may be the only evidence for a diagnosis of inflicted injury. Imaging may be the first clue to abuse in children seen with apparent other conditions and lead to appropriate measures to protect them from the risk of more serious injury. The radiologist must be familiar with imaging findings of inflicted injuries to fulfill these roles. (author)
This book provides a description for all the known radiological alterations occurring in child abuse. This allows for precise interpretation of findings by radiologists. It also helps eliminate the confusion among both clinicians and non-medical personnel involved in the diagnosis, management, and legal issues related to child abuse. CONTENTS: Introduction; Skeletal trauma: general considerations; Extremity trauma; Bony thoracic trauma; Spinal trauma; Dating fractures; Visceral trauma; Head trauma; Miscellaneous forms of abuse and neglect; The postmortem examination; Differential diagnosis of child abuse; Legal considerations; Psychosocial considerations; Technical considerations and dosimetry
Gibbs, Deborah A
...: spouse abuse child abuse and substance abuse. By supporting the development of improved responses to troubled families findings from this study can potentially reduce mortality and morbidity among military personal and their family members...
Kohl, Patrick B.; Kuo, H. Vincent
Prior work has characterized the gender gaps present in college-level introductory physics courses. Such work has also shown that research-based interactive engagement techniques can reduce or eliminate these gender gaps. In this paper, we study the gender gaps (and lack thereof) in the introductory calculus-based electricity and magnetism course at the Colorado School of Mines. We present eight semesters' worth of data, totaling 2577 students, with four semesters preceding a transition to Studio physics, and four following. We examine gender gaps in course grades, DFW (D grade, fail, or withdrawal) rates, and normalized gains on the Conceptual Survey of Electricity and Magnetism (CSEM), and consider factors such as student ACT scores and grades in prior math classes. We find little or no gap in male/female course grades and DFW rates, but substantial gaps in CSEM gains that are reduced somewhat by the transition to Studio physics.
Poduska, Ervin L.; Lunetta, Vincent N.
To what extent should technology and applied physics be included in introductory physics courses? What is the proper balance between pure and applied physics? Should physics teachers devote precious time to socially relevant issues like nuclear power and alternative sources of energy? How much time should be spent, if any, on applications that are more relevant to the student's world like cars, music, television and refrigeration? Does including applications reduce or enhance student understanding of important classical topics? A response to these questions must be based on goals for physics teaching, on knowledge of how students learn and on the nature of the physics discipline. Since there is not enough time to teach everything in an introductory course, priorities must be determined.
Planinsic, Gorazd; Lindell, Anssi; Remskar, Maja
We present three experimental themes and one discussion theme that proved to be suitable for introducing nanoscience through topics that can be integrated into the existing introductory physics or teacher training courses. The experimental themes include two teaching models of an atomic force microscope (AFM) and an experiment with an elastic optical grating. They are all based on simple experiments that give also quantitative results and can be explained using basic physics theory.
OKUR , Prof.Dr. Mehmet C.
Teaching object oriented programming has become a rapidly expanding preference at various educational environments. However, teachers usually experience problems when introducing object oriented concepts and programming to beginners. How to teach the fundamentals of object oriented programming at an introductory level course is still a common subject for debate. In this paper, an evaluation of these problems is presented and some possible approaches for improving the quality and success of su...
Jayal, A; Lauria, S; Tucker, A; Swift, S
This paper compares two different approaches of teaching introductory programming by quantitatively analysing the student assessments in a real classroom. The first approach is to emphasise the principles of object-oriented programming and design using Java from the very beginning. The second approach is to first teach the basic programming concepts (loops, branch, and use of libraries) using Python and then move on to oriented programming using Java. Each approach was adopted for one academi...
Gary Gladding; Tim Stelzer; Michael Scott
The reliability and validity of professionally written multiple-choice exams have been extensively studied for exams such as the SAT, graduate record examination, and the force concept inventory. Much of the success of these multiple-choice exams is attributed to the careful construction of each question, as well as each response. In this study, the reliability and validity of scores from multiple-choice exams written for and administered in the large introductory physics courses at the Unive...
The ability of static friction to accelerate systems does not usually get the attention it deserves in introductory physics. Everyday human contexts abound in our grasp of objects to move them, in our being moved as passengers, and in our own locomotion. Student laboratory, classroom and homework activities have been developed which enable students to explore the vital role of static friction in various biomechanical contexts. Examples will be demonstrated.
Tikhomirov, Yu V.
A method of computerized assessment of students' ability to replicate basic physical facts and procedural sequences is presented. The method is based on the construction of physical definitions, laws, formulae, phenomena, etc, from logical (symbolic or graphical) elements. Such testing is characterized by high reliability and releases both teachers' and students' time for the creative educational process. Experimental data on the developed method based on introductory physics teaching at a technical university are presented.
Duffus, Dwight; Olifer, Andrei
We describe two sets of courses designed to enhance the mathematical, statistical, and computational training of life science undergraduates at Emory College. The first course is an introductory sequence in differential and integral calculus, modeling with differential equations, probability, and inferential statistics. The second is an upper-division course in computational neuroscience. We provide a description of each course, detailed syllabi, examples of content, and a brief discussion of...
Barsoum, Mark J.; Sellers, Patrick J.; Campbell, A. Malcolm; Heyer, Laurie J.; Paradise, Christopher J.
We redesigned the undergraduate introductory biology course by writing a new textbook (Integrating Concepts in Biology [ICB]) that follows first principles of learning. Our approach emphasizes primary data interpretation and the utility of mathematics in biology, while de-emphasizing memorization. This redesign divides biology into five big ideas (information, evolution, cells, emergent properties, homeostasis), addressing each at five levels of organization (molecules, cells, organisms, popu...
Furrer, A. [ed.
These proceedings enclose ten papers presented at the 1. European Conference on Neutron scattering (ECNS `96). The aim of the Introductory Course was fourfold: - to learn the basic principles of neutron scattering, - to get introduced into the most important classes of neutron scattering instruments, -to learn concepts and their transformation into neutron scattering experiments in various fields of condensed matter research, - to recognize the limitations of the neutron scattering technique as well as to the complementarity of other methods. figs., tabs., refs.
These proceedings enclose ten papers presented at the 1. European Conference on Neutron scattering (ECNS '96). The aim of the Introductory Course was fourfold: - to learn the basic principles of neutron scattering, - to get introduced into the most important classes of neutron scattering instruments, -to learn concepts and their transformation into neutron scattering experiments in various fields of condensed matter research, - to recognize the limitations of the neutron scattering technique as well as to the complementarity of other methods. figs., tabs., refs
Relative contributions of parent substance use and childhood maltreatment to chronic homelessness, depression, and substance abuse problems among homeless women: mediating roles of self-esteem and abuse in adulthood.
Stein, Judith A; Leslie, Michelle Burden; Nyamathi, Adeline
This study, using latent variable methodology, explores simultaneously the relative effects of childhood abuse and early parental substance abuse on later chronic homelessness, depression, and substance abuse problems in a sample of homeless women. We also examine whether self-esteem and recent violence can serve as mediators between the childhood predictors and the dysfunctional outcomes. The sample consists of 581 homeless women residing in shelters or sober living centers in Los Angeles (54% African-American, 23% Latina, 22% White, mean age=33.5 years). Multiple-indicator latent variables served as predictors and outcomes in structural models. Childhood abuse was indicated by sexual, physical, and verbal abuse. Childhood abuse directly predicted later physical abuse, chronic homelessness, depression, and less self-esteem. Parent substance use directly predicted later substance use problems among the women. Recent physical abuse predicted chronic homelessness, depression, and substance use problems. Greater self-esteem predicted less depression and fewer substance use problems. Childhood abuse also had significant indirect effects on depression, chronic homelessness, and drug and alcohol problems mediated through later physical abuse and self-esteem. Although there was a strong relationship between childhood abuse and parent drug use, childhood abuse was the more pervasive and devastating predictor of dysfunctional outcomes. Childhood abuse predicted a wider range of problems including lower self-esteem, more victimization, more depression, and chronic homelessness, and indirectly predicted drug and alcohol problems. The mediating roles of recent physical abuse and self-esteem suggest salient leverage points for change through empowerment training and self-esteem enhancement in homeless women.
Vanesa Galego Carrillo
Full Text Available Emotional regulation through cognitions is directly linked to human life and help people to maintain control on their emotions, both during and after experimenting an stressful event. Exposition to gender violence cause serious health problems related to stress that need the activation of cognitive and behavioral processes to cope with it. WHOWorld Health Organization states that women in maltreatment situation have limitations on self-autonomy (autonomy and independent behavior. For this reason, self-regulation, understood as a mechanic of self-management through cognitions, emotions, mood, impulsive control and executive task may be affected. The main objective of this research is, to know the impact that gender-based violence may result in the use of cognitive emotion regulation strategies. It was an observational cross-over design of two non-equivalent women's groups/samples. A total of 116 women completed adapted versions to Spanish of "Cognitive Emotion Regulation Questionnaire (CERQ”. Of these, 51 were in a situation of abuse. Results show that the greatest differences between being affected or not by abuse reside in “Rumination”, “Acceptance”, “Catastrophizing and blaming others”. These findings contribute to the empirical evidence in the field of gender-based violence and provide key elements for intervention.
Cecília Danielle Bezerra Oliveira
Full Text Available Objectives: To investigate the abusive consumption of alcohol in the elderly in the municipality of Santa Cruz - PB. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional, descriptive study, with quantitative approach with a sample of 170 elderly. To perform the study, three instruments were used: the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE, a sociodemographic questionnaire and the Michigan Alcoholism Screening Test - Geriatric Version (MAST-G. The data were analyzed in the program Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS - version 21. Results: 14.7% of the elderly were classified by the MAST-G score as elderly individuals presenting problems related to alcohol abuse, the majority of whom were male, single, with education above 05 years, who reside alone, and present some pathology and make use of medications. Conclusion: the research points out the need for multiprofessional work in health in Primary Care, in order to develop health actions that include the prevention of alcohol consumption and minimize the deleterious effects of consumption, in order to reduce the number of undesirable events arising from the use of that substance. Keywords: Primary health care; Alcohol; Old man.
Dara B. Duncan
Full Text Available Attrition of undergraduates from Biology majors is a long-standing problem. Introductory courses that fail to engage students or spark their curiosity by emphasizing the open-ended and creative nature of biological investigation and discovery could contribute to student detachment from the field. Our hypothesis was that introductory biology books devote relatively few figures to illustration of the design and interpretation of experiments or field studies, thereby de-emphasizing the scientific process.To investigate this possibility, we examined figures in six Introductory Biology textbooks published in 2008. On average, multistep scientific investigations were presented in fewer than 5% of the hundreds of figures in each book. Devoting such a small percentage of figures to the processes by which discoveries are made discourages an emphasis on scientific thinking. We suggest that by increasing significantly the illustration of scientific investigations, textbooks could support undergraduates’ early interest in biology, stimulate the development of design and analytical skills, and inspire some students to participate in investigations of their own.
Blissitt, Andrea Marie
Currently, many undergraduate nursing courses use blended-learning course formats with success; however, little evidence exists that supports the use of blended formats in introductory pathophysiology courses. The purpose of this study was to compare the scores on pre- and posttests and course satisfaction between traditional and blended course formats in an introductory nursing pathophysiology course. This study used a quantitative, quasi-experimental, nonrandomized control group, pretest-posttest design. Analysis of covariance compared pre- and posttest scores, and a t test for independent samples compared students' reported course satisfaction of the traditional and blended course formats. Results indicated that the differences in posttest scores were not statistically significant between groups. Students in the traditional group reported statistically significantly higher satisfaction ratings than students in the blended group. The results of this study support the need for further research of using blended learning in introductory pathophysiology courses in undergraduate baccalaureate nursing programs. Further investigation into how satisfaction is affected by course formats is needed. Copyright 2016, SLACK Incorporated.
Zhang, Jie; Hardy, Peter A; DiSantis, David J; Oates, M Elizabeth
The American Board of Radiology Core Examination integrates assessment of physics knowledge into its overall testing of clinical radiology, with an emphasis on understanding image quality and artifacts, radiation dose, and patient safety for each modality or subspecialty organ system. Accordingly, achieving a holistic approach to physics education of radiology residents is a huge challenge. The traditional teaching of radiological physics-simply through didactic lectures-was not designed for such a holistic approach. Admittedly, time constraints and clinical demands can make incorporation of physics teaching into clinical practice problematic. We created and implemented a week-long, intensive physics rotation for fledgling radiology residents and evaluated its effectiveness. The dedicated physics rotation is held for 1 week during the first month of radiology residency. It comprises three components: introductory lectures, hands-on practical clinical physics operations, and observation of clinical image production. A brief introduction of the physics pertinent to each modality is given at the beginning of each session. Hands-on experimental demonstrations are emphasized, receiving the greatest allotment of time. The residents perform experiments such as measuring radiation dose, studying the relationship between patient dose and clinical practice (eg, fluoroscopy technique), investigating the influence of acquisition parameters (kV, mAs) on radiographs, and evaluating image quality using computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, ultrasound, and gamma camera/single-photon emission computed tomography/positron emission tomography phantoms. Quantitative assessment of the effectiveness of the rotation is based on an examination that tests the residents' grasp of basic medical physics concepts along with written course evaluations provided by each resident. The pre- and post-rotation tests show that after the physics rotation, the average correct score of 25
type uncertain' and no abuse. Training of other health personnel in child abuse ... abused children, registered nurses, social workers and psychologists. The patients and accompanying adults, usually parents, are interviewed by the sQQial ...
Nida, Andrew M; Googe, Benjamin J; Lewis, Andrea F; May, Warren L
Resident fatigue has become a point of emphasis in medical education and its effects on otolaryngology residents and their patients require further study. The purpose of our study was to evaluate the prevalence and nature of fatigue in otolaryngology residents, evaluate various quality of life measures, and investigate associations of increased fatigue with resident safety. Anonymous survey. Internet based. United States allopathic otolaryngology residents. None. The survey topics included demographics, residency structure, sleep habits and perceived stress. Responses were correlated with a concurrent Epworth Sleep Scale questionnaire to evaluate effects of fatigue on resident training and quality of life. 190 residents responded to the survey with 178 completing the Epworth Sleep Scale questionnaire. Results revealed a mean Epworth Sleep Scale score of 9.9±5.1 with a median of 10.0 indicating a significant number of otolaryngology residents are excessively sleepy. Statistically significant correlations between Epworth Sleep Scale and sex, region, hours of sleep, and work hours were found. Residents taking in-house call had significantly fewer hours of sleep compared to home call (p=0.01). Residents on "head and neck" (typically consisting of a large proportion of head and neck oncologic surgery) rotations tended to have higher Epworth Sleep Scale and had significantly fewer hours of sleep (p=.003) and greater work hours (potolaryngology residents are excessively sleepy. Our data suggest that the effects of fatigue play a role in resident well-being and resident safety. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Jennifer M. Wenner
Full Text Available We present the case for introductory geoscience courses as model venues for increasing the quantitative literacy (QL of large numbers of the college-educated population. The geosciences provide meaningful context for a number of fundamental mathematical concepts that are revisited several times in a single course. Using some best practices from the mathematics education community surrounding problem solving, calculus reform, pre-college mathematics and five geoscience/math workshops, geoscience and mathematics faculty have identified five pedagogical ideas to increase the QL of the students who populate introductory geoscience courses. These five ideas include techniques such as: place mathematical concepts in context, use multiple representations, use technology appropriately, work in groups, and do multiple-day, in-depth problems that place quantitative skills in multiple contexts. We discuss the pedagogical underpinnings of these five ideas and illustrate some ways that the geosciences represent ideal places to use these techniques. However, the inclusion of QL in introductory courses is often met with resistance at all levels. Faculty who wish to include quantitative content must use creative means to break down barriers of public perception of geoscience as qualitative, administrative worry that enrollments will drop and faculty resistance to change. Novel ways to infuse QL into geoscience classrooms include use of web-based resources, shadow courses, setting clear expectations, and promoting quantitative geoscience to the general public. In order to help faculty increase the QL of geoscience students, a community-built faculty-centered web resource (Teaching Quantitative Skills in the Geosciences houses multiple examples that implement the five best practices of QL throughout the geoscience curriculum. We direct faculty to three portions of the web resource: Teaching Quantitative Literacy, QL activities, and the 2006 workshop website
Mesa Ríos, Francisco Javier; Muñoz, Maria Del Carmen Lara
Various rates of alcoholism, drug abuse, mental illness, and suicide among physician have been reported, generally higher than those in the general population. Psychiatry residents, as other specializing physicians, seem to be prone to suffering them. The prevalence of psychological symptoms among psychiatry residents has not been formally studied. The authors studied the presence, frequency, and severity of psychological symptoms among psychiatry residents from a public psychiatric hospital in Mexico City, Mexico. The SLC-90 was answered by 92 residents; data were analyzed by SAS software, and gender differences were established. Results were compared with data from a previous study realized in the general Mexican population. Interpersonal sensitivity, depression, obsessive-compulsive, and somatic worries were seen more frequently or more severely than other categories. Female residents reported symptoms more frequently. A significant portion of psychiatry residents reported psychological symptoms, although they described them as less frequent and less severe than found in the general Mexican population. In spite of this, interpersonal sensitivity was shown as the most severe symptomatic dimension in our sample, unlike findings in the general population.
Cronholm, Peter F; Singh, Vijay; Fogarty, Colleen T; Ambuel, Bruce
Violence is a significant public health issue with far-reaching implications for the health of individuals and their communities. Our objective was to describe trends in violence-related training in family medicine residency programs since the last national survey was conducted in 1997. Surveys were sent to 337 US family medicine residency programs with the program director having active Society of Teachers of Family Medicine (STFM) membership. Measures included residency setting and characteristics, violence-related curricular content, teaching techniques and personnel, timing of content, and impact of changes in Residency Review Committee (RRC) and Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) requirements. Descriptive statistics and bivariate analyses comparing measures across time were used. A total of 201 (60%) surveys were completed. The most common violence curricula was child (83%) and elder abuse (76%), and the most common teachers of violence-related content were family physicians, psychologists, and social workers. The most common teaching methods were clinical precepting (94%), lectures (90%), case vignettes (71%), and intimate partner violence (IPV) shelter experiences (67%). ACGME and RRC changes were not reflected in self-reported measures of curricular emphasis or time. Violence curricular content and number of hours has been constant in family medicine residencies over time. An increase in the reported use of active learning strategies was identified as a trend across surveys. Next steps for violence curricula involve assessment of residents' competency to identify and intervene in violence.
Through working with a woman abused as a child, a teacher concluded that the violence of sexual, physical, and psychological abuse is common among many adults who read and write poorly. Their experiences should be acknowledged in literacy programs that encourage people to develop skills with which to tell their stories. (SK)
... with a child (by an adult or another child) is sexual abuse. It causes physical and emotional pain. It has long-term effects ... a watchful eye on any form of childhood abuse. These physical and behavioral signs should raise concern: When your child tells you he or she has been touched ...
Inger Plaisier; Mirjam de Klerk
Original title: Ouderenmishandeling in Nederland It is twenty years since the last study was carried out on the number of older persons in the Netherlands who are deliberate or accidental victims of abuse in the form of verbal, physical or sexual violence, financial abuse and/or neglect by
Shaffer, Howard J.
Applies a philosophy of science perspective to substance abuse theory to clarify these theories in general and peer cluster theory in particular. Examines the natural history of an illicit drug from a macroscopic level of analysis to illuminate some of the social-psychological factors that influence drug use and abuse patterns. (Author/KS)
... Federal and national organizations and State contacts that work to prevent child abuse. Promoting child & family well-being Information on ... awareness & creating supportive communities Tools for sharing a child abuse ... research on what works, information on the role of related professionals, and ...
The essay discusses the growth of drug abuse in the Army, actions that have been taken to control the problem, and planned or proposed actions to...and supervisory personnel of the Drug Abuse Control Division in the Office of the Deputy Chief of Staff for Personnel, Headquarters, Department of
Dyer, Carmel B; Heisler, Candace J; Hill, Carrie A; Kim, Lucia C
Collaboration of professionals from diverse disciplines is required to address the multiple, complex issues and needs of community-dwelling elders who are abused or neglected. Reporting suspected elder abuse or neglect cases to Adult Protective Service (APS) agencies provides access to services that address the social, medical, and legal needs of elderly persons. A geriatric interdisciplinary team can provide a comprehensive medical, functional, and social assessment. Based on the findings from the assessment and in collaboration with the APS team, the intervention plan can be formulated. Some cases of elder abuse or neglect may require intervention from the criminal justice or the civil justice system for serious legal issues such as sexual assault, financial exploitation, or guardianship. Other resources, such as Area Agencies on Aging, local women's shelters, and The National Center for Elder Abuse, are available to help manage elder abuse and neglect cases in the community.
Full Text Available According to the International Olympic Committee, the abuse of anabolic androgenic steroids (AASS is found in over 50% of positive doping tests. AASS abuse is not restricted to the organized sports andwidespread use. It remains as an unsolved public-health problem.Lower black market price, easier access to AASS, bodybuilding clubs and internet advertising are factors of this increasingly misuse. There is not real data about the prevalence of AASS abuse in various populations or countries, because most of athletes or students, due to their prohibition or ethical aspects do not admit to AASS abuse. Often they are aware of the risks of their choice and yet, are eager to put themselves at risk without deeper consideration. The abusers use them to improve their physical fitness and appearance.Present article has been collected to elucidate the risks and adverse effects of AASS and explanation of mechanisms of these events.
Full Text Available ABSTRACT:Drug abuse is the willful misuse of either licit or illicit drugs for the purpose of recreation, perceived necessity or convenience. Drug abuse is a more intense and often willful misuse of drugs often to the point of addiction. In the eastern world the incidence shows a decline or a static pattern but the number of drug addicts is still enormous.. The major drug of abuse are heroin and marijuana but designer drugs are shown to be on the increase. The aim of the study is to determine the ratio of the drug abuse in student. For this purpose we selected different institutions including “the university of Lahore”, “Forman Christian college”(private sector and Punjab university(Govt sector and conducted survey in 500 student. High proportion of students was found abusing drugs. From this study, we came across multiple factors which are the main cause of drug abuse in medical student including depression, anxiety, schizophrenia, as well as personality disorder like antisocial personality disorder. The most commonly abused drugs include stimulants, opioids, and benzodiazepines, antihistamines. Although survey have indicated high rate of illicit and prescription drugs misuse among college students, few have assessed the negative consequences, personel concerns, or interest in intervention for drugs use. Drug abuse although regarded as a personality disorder, may also be seen as worldwide epidemic with evolutionary genetic, physiology and environmental influences Controlling and affecting human behavior. Globally, the use has reached all time high. The study showed males are more drug abusers as compared to females. The drug abuse ratio in students of private sector is more as compared to Govt sector.
GIL, DAVID G.; NOBLE, JOHN H.
THE KNOWLEDGE, ATTITUDES, AND OPINIONS OF THE GENERAL PUBLIC ON CHILD ABUSE AND RELATED ISSUES WERE INVESTIGATED WITH A STANDARD, MULTI-STAGE AREA PROBABILITY SAMPLE OF NON-INSTITUTIONAL UNITED STATES RESIDENTS 21 OR OLDER (1520 RESPONDENTS), IN A SURVEY DESIGNED BY BRANDEIS UNIVERSITY AND CONDUCTED BY THE NATIONAL OPINION RESEARCH CENTER. A…
Workowski, Eric J.
This study examined the relationship between criminal violence and type of substance abuse among 184 current and former residents of an inpatient non-hospital drug and alcohol treatment facility. The criminal justice system functioned as the source of referral into the program for 89% of the subjects studied while only 11% came to treatment…
The special circumstances in which girl-children (i.e. child labour and residency in overcrowded housing units) find themselves in urban Nigeria expose them to possible risks of physical, psychological and sexual abuse, which in turn increase their vulnerability to early pregnancy, sexually transmitted diseases and AIDS.
THESIS ANNOTATION Title: The Impact of Baby Swimming on Introductory and Elementary Swimming Training Aim: To assess the impact of 'baby swimming' on the successfulness in introductory and partly in elementary swimming training, and to find out whether also other circumstances (for example the length of attendance at 'baby swimming') have some influence on introductory swimming training. Methods: We used a questionnaire method for the parents of children who had attended 'baby swimming' and f...
Bent, John P; Fried, Marvin P; Smith, Richard V; Hsueh, Wayne; Choi, Karen
Although residency training offers numerous leadership opportunities, most residents are not exposed to scripted leadership instruction. To explore one program's attitudes about leadership training, a group of otolaryngology faculty (n = 14) and residents (n = 17) was polled about their attitudes. In terms of self-perception, more faculty (10 of 14, 71.4%) than residents (9 of 17, 52.9%; P = .461) considered themselves good leaders. The majority of faculty and residents (27 of 31) thought that adults could be taught leadership ability. Given attitudes about leadership ability and the potential for improvement through instruction, consideration should be given to including such training in otolaryngology residency.
Rodrigues, Rosalina Aparecida Partezani; Monteiro, Edilene Araújo; Santos, Ana Maria Ribeiro Dos; Pontes, Maria de Lourdes de Farias; Fhon, Jack Roberto Silva; Bolina, Alisson Fernandes; Seredynskyj, Fernanda Laporti; Almeida, Vanessa Costa; Giacomini, Suelen Borelli Lima; Defina, Giovanna Partezani Cardoso; Silva, Luipa Michele
To analyze the police reports filed by older adults who suffered abuse in order to identify the socio-demographic characteristics of victims and aggressors, type of violence, location, as well as to compare rates in three Brazilian cities in the period from 2009 to 2013. Ecological study, in which 2,612 police reports registered in Police Stations were analyzed. An instrument was used to obtain data from the victim, the aggressor and the type of violence. Psychological abuse predominated and most cases occurred in the older adults own home. In the cities of Ribeirão Preto and João Pessoa, the older adults presented similar rates for both gender. Regarding the standardized rates, in João Pessoa, there was a rise of this type of abuse in the two first years, and later there was a certain stability. In the city of Teresina, there was an increase, also observed in the city of Ribeirão Preto in the three first years, followed by a decrease. Older adults abuse is a cultural phenomenon difficult to be reported by them, since it occurs in the family context. Analisar os boletins de ocorrência registrados por idosos que sofreram violência, a fim de identificar características sociodemográficas das vítimas e dos agressores, tipo de violência, local, bem como comparar as taxas em três municípios brasileiros no período de 2009 a 2013. Estudo ecológico, em que foram analisados 2.612 boletins de ocorrência registrados em Delegacias do Idoso. Utilizou-se um instrumento para obter dados da vítima, do agressor e tipo de violência. Predominou a violência psicológica, na maioria dos casos na própria residência do idoso. Em Ribeirão Preto e João Pessoa, os idosos mais jovens apresentaram taxas semelhantes entre ambos os sexos. Na comparação das taxas padronizadas, em João Pessoa, houve ascensão deste tipo de violência nos dois primeiros anos, e, posteriormente, certa estabilidade. Em Teresina, houve ascensão, também observada em Ribeirão Preto nos tr
Full Text Available Introduction: stroke in recreational substance users can be an indirect complication, like endocarditis and cardio embolism in parenteral drug users. With some drug like cocaine, stroke appear to be the result of a direct effect. In young subjects without other risk factors provide persuasive evidence for causality . OPIATES: Heroine is the most abused opiate drug, which is administered by injection, by snorting or by smoking. Stroke affects heroin users by diverse mechanisms,. Injectors are at risk of infections endocarditis, which carries risk for both ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke. Cerebral or subarachnoid hemorrhage usually occurs after rupture of a septic (mycotic aneurysm. Heroine users can are also at risk for hemorrhagic stroke secondary to liver failure with deranged clotting and to heroin nephropathy with uremia or malignant hypertension. In some heroin users the drug it self is directly causal due to vasculitis, hypersensitivity and immunologic changes. Embolization of foreign material to brain due to mixed of heroine with quinine can cause cerebral embolism. AMPHETAMINE AND other psychostimulants: In abuser of amphetamine hemorrhagic stroke can occur, oral, intravenous, nasal, and inhalational routes of administration have been reported. Most were chronic user, but in several patients, stroke followed a first exposure. Some of amphetamine induced intracranial hemorrhages are secondary to acute hypertension, some to cerebral vacuities, and some to a combination of two. Decongestants and diet pills: Phenylpropanolamine (PPA, an amphetamine – like drug, in decongestants and diet pills, induce acute hypertension, sever headache, psychiatric symptoms, seizures and hemorrhagic stroke. Ephedrine and pseudo ephedrine are present in decongestants and bronchodilators and induce headache, tachyarrhythmia, hypertensive emergency, and hemorrhagic and occlusive stroke. Ecstasy, 3,4 Methylenedioxymethamphetamin (MDMA with amphetamine like can
Bich Ha, Nguyen
Having grown rapidly during the last two decades, and successfully synthesized the achievements of physics, chemistry, life science as well as information and computational science and technology, nanoscience and nanotechnology have emerged as interdisciplinary fields of modern science and technology with various prospective applications towards environmental protection and the sustainable development of industry, agriculture, public health etc. At the present time, there exist many textbooks, monographs and encyclopedias on nanoscience and nanotechnology. They present to readers the whole process of development from the emergence of new scientific ideas to comprehensive studies of concrete subjects. They are useful for experienced scientists in nanoscience and nanotechnology as well as related scientific disciplines. However, there are very few textbooks on nanoscience and nanotechnology for beginners—senior undergraduate and junior graduate students. Published by Garland Science in August 2011, Introductory Nanoscience: Physical and Chemical Concepts by Masaru Kuno is one of these rare textbooks. The purpose of this book is twofold. In a pedagogical manner the author presents the basic physical and chemical concepts of nanoscience and nanotechnology. Students with a background knowledge in general chemistry and semiclassical quantum physics can easily understand these concepts. On the other hand, by carefully studying the content of this textbook, readers can learn how to derive a large number of formulae and expressions which they will often use in their study as well as in their future research work. A distinguishing feature of the book is the inclusion of a large number of thought problems at the end of each chapter for demonstrating how to calculate the numerical values of almost all physical quantities involved in the theoretical and experimental studies of all subjects of nanoscience and nanotechnology. The author has successfully achieved both of the
Andri M.T. Lubis
Full Text Available Child abuse is a pervasive social and medical problem that remains a major cause of disability and death among children. The annual incidence of abuse is estimated to be 15 to 42 cases per 1,000 children and appears to be increasing. Fractures are the second most common presentation of physical abuse after skin lesions, and approximately one third of abused children will eventually be seen by an orthopedic surgeon. We report a 7-month-old boy who was suspected to be abused. Our diagnosis was based on findings of multiple fractures, delay in seeking medical treatment and discrepancy between the history of illness and the clinical findings. He sustained multiple fractures in variety of healing, namely fractures on left supracondylar humeri, left radius and ulna, right radius and ulna, both femora, right tibia, and left tibia and fibula. Radiological examination was an important modality in revealing the possibility of abuse on this child. He had received medical treatment, protection, consultation team for the parents and an underway police investigation. (Med J Indones 2004; 13: 59-65 Keywords: child, abuse
Litman, Ronald S; Pagán, Olivia H; Cicero, Theodore J
Abuse-deterrent opioid formulations have been suggested as one way to decrease the abuse, addiction, and overdose of orally prescribed opioids. Ten oral opioid formulations have received abuse-deterrent labeling by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Their properties consist of physical and/or chemical means by which the pills resist manipulation and create a barrier to unintended administration, such as chewing, nasal snorting, smoking, and intravenous injection. In this review, we describe the mechanisms of abuse-deterrent technology, the types of premarketing studies required for FDA approval, the pharmacology of the currently approved abuse-deterrent opioid formulations, and the evidence for and against their influence on opioid abuse. We conclude that there is currently insufficient evidence to indicate that the availability of abuse-deterrent opioid formulations has altered the trajectory of opioid overdose and addiction; however, postmarketing studies are in their infancy, and novel deterrent formulations are continually being developed and submitted for marketing approval.
Department of Homeland Security — A lawful permanent resident (LPR) or 'green card' recipient is defined by immigration law as a person who has been granted lawful permanent residence in the United...
Campbell, Andrew M; Thompson, Shannon L; Harris, Tara L; Wiehe, Sarah E
The risk of harm/injury in homes where intimate partner violence (IPV) occurs is not limited to humans; animals reside in as many as 80% of these homes and may be at substantial risk of suffering severe or fatal injury. Gaining a better understanding of IPV-pet abuse overlap is imperative in more accurately identifying the risks of harm for all individuals and animals residing in these homes. The objectives of this study were to utilize law enforcement officers' observations and IPV victim reports from the scene of the incident to (a) determine the prevalence of pet abuse perpetration among suspects involved in IPV incidents, (b) compare characteristics of IPV incidents and the home environments in which they occur when the suspect has a history of pet abuse with incidents involving suspects with no reported history of pet abuse, and (c) compare IPV incident outcomes involving suspects with a history of pet abuse with those involving suspects with no reported history of pet abuse. IPV victims residing in homes with a suspect who has a history of pet abuse often describe "extremely high-risk" environments. With nearly 80% reporting concern that they will eventually be killed by the suspect, victims in these environments should be considered at significant risk of suffering serious injury or death. In addition, IPV victims involved in incidents with a suspect that has a history of pet abuse were significantly more likely to have had at least one prior unreported IPV incident with the suspect (80%) and to have ever been strangled (76%) or forced to have sex with the suspect (26%). Effective prevention/detection/intervention strategies are likely to require multidisciplinary collaboration and safety plans that address the susbstantial risk of harm/injury for all adults, children, and animals residing in the home.
a “Trauma Coding Manual” developed for this study, trauma types were identified in interview transcripts. In both men and women with Iraqi and Palestinian-Lebanese backgrounds, high levels of trauma complexity and high rates of childhood maltreatment were found (63%, n = 27). A number of concepts...... and categories emerged in the domains childhood physical abuse (CPA), childhood emotional abuse (CEA), and neglect. Participants articulated wide personal impacts of child abuse in emotional, relational, and behavioral domains in their adult lives. These narratives contribute valuable clinical information...
Full Text Available Methamphetamine abuse is spreading its roots in India due to its widespread appeal, ease of manufacture and low cost compared with other stimulant drugs. Methamphetamine-induced caries is a characteristic finding among methamphetamine abusers. Thus, it is important to understand the typical clinical manifestations inclusive of cervical and proximal caries, elicit proper case history and develop a comprehensive treatment plan to help patients in a complete rehabilitation. We present a series of cases of "meth" abuser for dental professionals to help ensure successful treatment and prevention of disease progression.
Muhammad Zaman; Sobia Razzaq; Rabia Hassan; Junaid Qureshi; Hira Ijaz; Muhammad Hanif; Fazal Rahman Chughtai
ABSTRACT:Drug abuse is the willful misuse of either licit or illicit drugs for the purpose of recreation, perceived necessity or convenience. Drug abuse is a more intense and often willful misuse of drugs often to the point of addiction. In the eastern world the incidence shows a decline or a static pattern but the number of drug addicts is still enormous.. The major drug of abuse are heroin and marijuana but designer drugs are shown to be on the increase. The aim of the study is to determine...
Doria Martínez, Ana Milena; Instituto Nacional de Medicina Legal y Ciencias Forenses, Regional Noroccidente. Medellín, Colombia; Navarro Chong, Melissa Ivette; Instituto de Medicina Legal y Ciencias Forenses, Panamá.
Abstract. Background: Child abuse was first described in 1868 by pathologist Ambrosio Tardieu, but it was until the last century when the role of the dentist became relevant to early diagnose this syndrome. Several studies have shown that close to 50 % of head and face trauma is caused by physical abuse of which lips are the most commonly injured site (54 %), followed by oral mucosa, teeth, gums, and tongue. Complications of certain oral pathologies may be related to abuse for negligence. Bit...
Burgess, Ann Wolbert; Ramsey-Klawsnik, Holly; Gregorian, Sarah B
An exploratory study of 284 cases of alleged elder sexual abuse revealed fairly equal numbers of reports to the criminal justice system (CJS) and to Adult Protective Services (APS). Comparison of these two routes of reporting indicated the following: Suspected victims reported to APS were more likely to reside in their own homes, not receive rape exams, and have cognitive disabilities. Their alleged offenders were typically spouse/partners or family members age 40 or older. Victims reported to CJS were more frequently abused in institutions, received rape exams, and were victimized by offenders under age 40 who also committed nonsexual crimes. In cases reported to the CJS, alleged offenders were less likely than those in the APS cases to be identified, but once identified, were more likely to be arrested, referred for prosecution, and convicted, or to plea bargain their case.
Amos, Nathaniel R.
This dissertation presents a series of studies pertaining to introductory physics students' abilities to derive physical meaning from symbolic integrals (e.g., the integral of vdt) and their components, namely differentials and differential products (e.g., dt and vdt, respectively). Our studies focus on physical meaning in the form of interpretations (e.g., "the total displacement of an object") and units (e.g., "meters"). Our first pair of studies independently attempted to identify introductory-level mechanics students' common conceptual difficulties with and unproductive interpretations of physics integrals and their components, as well as to estimate the frequencies of these difficulties. Our results confirmed some previously-observed incorrect interpretations, such as the notion that differentials are physically meaningless; however, we also uncovered two new conceptualizations of differentials, the "rate" (differentials are "rates" or "derivatives") and "instantaneous value" (differentials are values of physical variables "at an instant") interpretations, which were exhibited by more than half of our participants at least once. Our next study used linear regression analysis to estimate the strengths of the inter-connections between the abilities to derive physical meaning from each of differentials, differential products, and integrals in both first- and second-semester, calculus-based introductory physics. As part of this study, we also developed a highly reliable, multiple choice assessment designed to measure students' abilities to connect symbolic differentials, differential products, and integrals with their physical interpretations and units. Findings from this study were consistent with statistical mediation via differential products. In particular, students' abilities to extract physical meaning from differentials were seen to be strongly related to their abilities to derive physical meaning from differential products, and similarly differential
For advanced undergraduate and beginning graduate students in atmospheric, oceanic, and climate science, Atmosphere, Ocean and Climate Dynamics is an introductory textbook on the circulations of the atmosphere and ocean and their interaction, with an emphasis on global scales. It will give students a good grasp of what the atmosphere and oceans look like on the large-scale and why they look that way. The role of the oceans in climate and paleoclimate is also discussed. The combination of observations, theory and accompanying illustrative laboratory experiments sets this text apart by making i
This report presents an introductory review of the potential effects of earthquakes on groundwater systems with respect to the performance of underground repositories for radioactive waste in Britain. An approach to modelling these effects within the scope of general environmental simulation codes is presented. The relevant literature is reviewed and it is concluded that, although pertinent information exists, no clear relationship between seismic intensity and the degree of fracturing has been established. Recommendations are made for further work on fracture development to complement existing research into the effects of long-term changes on the integrity of radioactive waste disposal facilities. (author)
Kost-Smith, Lauren Elizabeth
The underrepresentation and underperformance of females in physics has been well documented and has long concerned policy-makers, educators, and the physics community. In this thesis, we focus on gender disparities in the first- and second-semester introductory, calculus-based physics courses at the University of Colorado. Success in these courses is critical for future study and careers in physics (and other sciences). Using data gathered from roughly 10,000 undergraduate students, we identify and model gender differences in the introductory physics courses in three areas: student performance, retention, and psychological factors. We observe gender differences on several measures in the introductory physics courses: females are less likely to take a high school physics course than males and have lower standardized mathematics test scores; males outscore females on both pre- and post-course conceptual physics surveys and in-class exams; and males have more expert-like attitudes and beliefs about physics than females. These background differences of males and females account for 60% to 70% of the gender gap that we observe on a post-course survey of conceptual physics understanding. In analyzing underlying psychological factors of learning, we find that female students report lower self-confidence related to succeeding in the introductory courses (self-efficacy) and are less likely to report seeing themselves as a "physics person". Students' self-efficacy beliefs are significant predictors of their performance, even when measures of physics and mathematics background are controlled, and account for an additional 10% of the gender gap. Informed by results from these studies, we implemented and tested a psychological, self-affirmation intervention aimed at enhancing female students' performance in Physics 1. Self-affirmation reduced the gender gap in performance on both in-class exams and the post-course conceptual physics survey. Further, the benefit of the self
Harris, D J; Hammond, P
The Physical Basis of Electronics: An Introductory Course, Second Edition is an 11-chapter text that discusses the physical concepts of electronic devices. This edition deals with the considerable advances in electronic techniques, from the introduction of field effect transistors to the development of integrated circuits. The opening chapters discuss the fundamentals of vacuum electronics and solid-state electronics. The subsequent chapters deal with the other components of electronic devices and their functions, including semiconductor diode and transistor as an amplifier and a switch. The d
Full Text Available The aim of this article is to support a positive campaign against gender violence, or violence against women, by offering an introductory account of its symbolism. First, I set out the case for taking gender and masculinity to be the keys to understanding the symbolism of violence in the conetxt of gender relations. I then use that analysis to bring into focus those cases of violence which are otherwise hidden or unrecognised. Lastly, I offer suggestions as to how the debate may be continued.
Pedrick-Cornell, Claire; Gelles, Richard J.
Discusses problems of definition of elderly abuse. Examines data and research on the rates of elderly abuse and factors found related to elderly abuse. Critiques theories developed to explain the abuse of the elderly. Presents recommendations for research and practice. (RC)
Chambliss, Catherine; And Others
This study sought to identify personality differences in abused versus non-abused women. Abused women (N=25) were from several centers for abused women and non-abused women (N=39) were students in evening psychology classes. All subjects completed Rubin's Love Scale, the abbreviated Dominance and Romanticism Scale, Rosenberg's Self-Esteem Scale,…
Fedoroff, J. Paul; Pinkus, Shari
This study tested three versions of the "abuse-to-abuser" hypothesis by comparing men with personal histories of sexual abuse and men without sexual abuse histories. There was a statistically non-significant trend for assaulted offenders to be more likely as adults to commit genital assaults on children. Implications for the abuse-to-abuser…
... that may be emotionally abused. They may have: Problems in school Eating disorders, leading to weight loss or poor weight gain Emotional issues such as low self-esteem, depression, and anxiety Extreme behavior such as acting ...
Kumar, Suresh; Malhotra, Anil
Brief interventions in substance abuse refer to a group of cost-effective and time efficient strategies that aim at reduction of substance use and/or harm related to substance use. They are grounded in the scientific principles of harm reduction stage of change, motivational interviewing and feasibility of community-level delivery. This review discusses the characteristics, elements, and techniques of brief interventions for abuse of alcohol, tobacco and other drugs. The available evidence fo...
Ling, W; Wesson, D R
Treating opiate-dependent patients can be difficult for many physicians because the patients' life-styles, values, and beliefs differ from those of the physicians. Primary care physicians, however, are often involved in the treatment of the medical complications of opiate abuse, and physicians must often manage a patient's opiate dependence until appropriate referral to a drug abuse treatment program can be arranged. Treatment is guided by an understanding of the patient's addictive disease, ...
Full Text Available Objective: There are many traumatic events (including natural disasters, physical, psychological and sexual abuse that may befall children and there is clear evidence that such experiences can produce a plethora of negative psychological effects. Children’s exposure to such traumas has been associated with a wide variety of negative mental health outcomes, including anxiety and depression, post-traumatic stress and dissociation and anger and aggression. It seems that the impacts of traumatic events are significantly related to type and intensity of trauma. Materials & Method: Through a systematized clustral sampling 3042 male and female students from junior high school who were participated in a survey study for investigating point prevalence of child abuse, completed Trauma Symptoms Checklist for Children-Alternate Version (TSCC-A and Child Abuse Self-report Scale (CASRS. After recognition of abused children, they were compared based on trauma symptoms. TSCC-A is a self-report measure of post-traumatic distress and related psychological symptomatology in male and female children aged 8-16 years. It is useful in the evaluation of children who have experienced traumatic events, including physical and sexual assault, victimization by peers, major losses, the witnessing of violence done to others and natural disasters. TSCC-A makes no reference to sexual issues. CASRS is a self-report scale to assess child abuse and neglect with 38 items and four subscales (psychological abuse, neglect, physical and sexual abuse. Results: Considering the type of traumatic experiences, the results showed that abused children significantly received higher scores in scales and subscales of TSCC-A than nonabused group. They specially reported more symptoms (depression, anxiety, post-traumatic stress, anger and dissociation comparing normal children. Conclusion: It is concluded that the type and rate of traumatic event is related to intensity of symptomatology.
Barsoum, Mark J.; Sellers, Patrick J.; Campbell, A. Malcolm; Heyer, Laurie J.; Paradise, Christopher J.
We redesigned the undergraduate introductory biology course by writing a new textbook (Integrating Concepts in Biology [ICB]) that follows first principles of learning. Our approach emphasizes primary data interpretation and the utility of mathematics in biology, while de-emphasizing memorization. This redesign divides biology into five big ideas (information, evolution, cells, emergent properties, homeostasis), addressing each at five levels of organization (molecules, cells, organisms, populations, ecological systems). We compared our course outcomes with two sections that used a traditional textbook and were taught by different instructors. On data interpretation assessments administered periodically during the semester, our students performed better than students in the traditional sections (p = 0.046) and exhibited greater improvement over the course of the semester (p = 0.015). On factual content assessments, our students performed similarly to students in the other sections (p = 0.737). Pre- and postsemester assessment of disciplinary perceptions and self-appraisal indicate that our students acquired a more accurate perception of biology as a discipline and may have developed a more realistic evaluation of their scientific abilities than did the control students (p < 0.05). We conclude that ICB improves critical thinking, metacognition, and disciplinary perceptions without compromising content knowledge in introductory biology. PMID:23463233
Huberth, Madeline; Chen, Patricia; Tritz, Jared; McKay, Timothy A
Large introductory courses are at a disadvantage in providing personalized guidance and advice for students during the semester. We introduce E2Coach (an Expert Electronic Coaching system), which allows instructors to personalize their communication with thousands of students. We describe the E2Coach system, the nature of the personalized support it provides, and the features of the students who did (and did not) opt-in to using it during the first three terms of its use in four introductory physics courses at the University of Michigan. Defining a 'better-than-expected' measure of performance, we compare outcomes for students who used E2Coach to those who did not. We found that moderate and high E2Coach usage was associated with improved performance. This performance boost was prominent among high users, who improved by 0.18 letter grades on average when compared to nonusers with similar incoming GPAs. This improvement in performance was comparable across both genders. E2Coach represents one way to use technology to personalize education at scale, contributing to the move towards individualized learning that is becoming more attainable in the 21st century.
Full Text Available We report on seven years of attitudinal data using the Colorado Learning Attitudes about Science Survey from University Modeling Instruction (UMI sections of introductory physics at Florida International University. University Modeling Instruction is a curricular and pedagogical transformation of introductory university physics that engages students in building and testing conceptual models in an integrated lab and lecture learning environment. This work expands upon previous studies that reported consistently positive attitude shifts in UMI courses; here, we disaggregate the data by gender and ethnicity to look for any disparities in the pattern of favorable shifts. We find that women and students from statistically underrepresented ethnic groups have gains that are comparable to those of men and students from well-represented ethnic groups on this attitudinal measure, and that this result holds even when interaction effects of gender and ethnicity are included. We conclude with suggestions for future work in UMI courses and for attitudinal equity investigations generally. We encourage researchers to expand their scope beyond simple performance gaps when considering equity concerns, and to avoid relying on a single measure to evaluate student success. Finally, we conjecture that students’ social and academic networks are one means by which attitudinal and efficacy beliefs about the course are propagated.
Full Text Available Large introductory courses are at a disadvantage in providing personalized guidance and advice for students during the semester. We introduce E2Coach (an Expert Electronic Coaching system, which allows instructors to personalize their communication with thousands of students. We describe the E2Coach system, the nature of the personalized support it provides, and the features of the students who did (and did not opt-in to using it during the first three terms of its use in four introductory physics courses at the University of Michigan. Defining a 'better-than-expected' measure of performance, we compare outcomes for students who used E2Coach to those who did not. We found that moderate and high E2Coach usage was associated with improved performance. This performance boost was prominent among high users, who improved by 0.18 letter grades on average when compared to nonusers with similar incoming GPAs. This improvement in performance was comparable across both genders. E2Coach represents one way to use technology to personalize education at scale, contributing to the move towards individualized learning that is becoming more attainable in the 21st century.
Huberth, Madeline; Chen, Patricia; Tritz, Jared; McKay, Timothy A.
Large introductory courses are at a disadvantage in providing personalized guidance and advice for students during the semester. We introduce E2Coach (an Expert Electronic Coaching system), which allows instructors to personalize their communication with thousands of students. We describe the E2Coach system, the nature of the personalized support it provides, and the features of the students who did (and did not) opt-in to using it during the first three terms of its use in four introductory physics courses at the University of Michigan. Defining a ‘better-than-expected’ measure of performance, we compare outcomes for students who used E2Coach to those who did not. We found that moderate and high E2Coach usage was associated with improved performance. This performance boost was prominent among high users, who improved by 0.18 letter grades on average when compared to nonusers with similar incoming GPAs. This improvement in performance was comparable across both genders. E2Coach represents one way to use technology to personalize education at scale, contributing to the move towards individualized learning that is becoming more attainable in the 21st century. PMID:26352403
Evrard, August E.; Mills, Michael; Winn, David; Jones, Kathryn; Tritz, Jared; McKay, Timothy A.
We introduce Problem Roulette (PR), a web-based study service at the University of Michigan that offers random-within-topic access to a large library of past exam problems in introductory physics courses. Built on public-private cloud infrastructure, PR served nearly 1000 students during Fall 2012 term, delivering more than 60,000 problem pages. The service complements that of commercial publishing houses by offering problems authored by local professors and by explicitly aligning topics with exam content. We describe the service architecture, including reporting and analytical capabilities, and present an initial evaluation of the impact of its use. Among roughly 500 students studying electromagnetism, we find that the 229 students who worked fifty or more problems over the term outperformed their complement by 0.40 grade points (on a 4.0 scale). This improvement partly reflects a selection bias that academically stronger students used the service more frequently. Adjusting for this selection bias, we find a grade point improvement of 0.22, significantly above the random noise level of 0.04. The simple message to students is that working five or more additional problems per week can lead to a quarter-letter grade improvement in introductory physics. Student comments emphasize the importance of randomness in helping them to synthesize concepts. The PR source code is publicly available.
Traxler, Adrienne; Brewe, Eric
We report on seven years of attitudinal data using the Colorado Learning Attitudes about Science Survey from University Modeling Instruction (UMI) sections of introductory physics at Florida International University. University Modeling Instruction is a curricular and pedagogical transformation of introductory university physics that engages students in building and testing conceptual models in an integrated lab and lecture learning environment. This work expands upon previous studies that reported consistently positive attitude shifts in UMI courses; here, we disaggregate the data by gender and ethnicity to look for any disparities in the pattern of favorable shifts. We find that women and students from statistically underrepresented ethnic groups have gains that are comparable to those of men and students from well-represented ethnic groups on this attitudinal measure, and that this result holds even when interaction effects of gender and ethnicity are included. We conclude with suggestions for future work in UMI courses and for attitudinal equity investigations generally. We encourage researchers to expand their scope beyond simple performance gaps when considering equity concerns, and to avoid relying on a single measure to evaluate student success. Finally, we conjecture that students' social and academic networks are one means by which attitudinal and efficacy beliefs about the course are propagated.
Students in introductory programming classes often articulate their questions and information needs incompletely. Consequently, the automatic classification of student questions to provide automated tutorial responses is a challenging problem. This dissertation analyzes 411 questions from an introductory Java programming course by reducing the…
Logtenberg, A.; van Boxtel, C.; van Hout-Wolters, B.
This study investigates questions students ask related to an introductory text about a new topic in the history classroom. The effects of a narrative, problematizing, and expository introductory text on the situational interest of students and the number and type of student-generated questions, are
Homa, Natalie; Hackathorn, Jana; Brown, Carrie M.; Garczynski, Amy; Solomon, Erin D.; Tennial, Rachel; Sanborn, Ursula A.; Gurung, Regan A. R.
Introductory psychology is one of the most popular undergraduate courses and often serves as the gateway to choosing psychology as an academic major. However, little research has examined the typical structure of introductory psychology courses. The current study examined student learning objectives (SLOs) and course content in introductory…
Hopper, K. Megan; Huxford, John
This study explores how introductory news writing textbooks address issues surrounding emotional labor and its consequences, both for journalists and for those they interview. Eighteen of the highest-selling introductory news-writing textbooks were selected for qualitative analysis. Results showed the term and concept of emotional labor--the…
Teodorescu, Raluca E.; Bennhold, Cornelius; Feldman, Gerald; Medsker, Larry
This paper describes research on a classification of physics problems in the context of introductory physics courses. This classification, called the Taxonomy of Introductory Physics Problems (TIPP), relates physics problems to the cognitive processes required to solve them. TIPP was created in order to design educational objectives, to develop…
Rajpaul, Vinesh; Allie, Saalih; Blyth, Sarah-Louise
We report on research carried out to improve teaching and student engagement in the introductory astronomy course at the University of Cape Town. This course is taken by a diverse range of students, including many from educationally disadvantaged backgrounds. We describe the development of an instrument, the Introductory Astronomy Questionnaire…
Waller, William H.; Slater, Timothy F.
Over the past 15 years, professional astronomers, their societies, and associated funding agencies have collaborated to improve astronomy teaching and learning at the introductory undergraduate level. Many nonscience majors and preservice teachers enroll in these introductory astronomy courses, thus meriting the focused attention. In this review…
Hoisch, Thomas D.; Bowie, James I.
In order to guide the formulation of strategies for recruiting undergraduates into the geology program at Northern Arizona University, we surveyed 783 students in introductory geology classes and 23 geology majors in their junior and senior years. Our analysis shows that ~7% of students in the introductory classes are possible candidates for…
Moss, Elizabeth; Cervato, Cinzia
As part of a campus-wide effort to transform introductory science courses to be more engaging and more accurately convey the excitement of discovery in science, the curriculum of an introductory physical geology lab course was redesigned. What had been a series of ''cookbook'' lab activities was transformed into a sequence of activities based on…
Whaley, Arthur L.; Clay, William A. L.; Broussard, Dominique
The present study describes a culturally relevant approach to introductory psychology textbook selection for students attending a historically Black college/university (HBCU). The following multistage procedure was used: (1) a survey of HBCU psychology departments was conducted to ascertain how they selected their introductory psychology…
Christensen, Jolene; Warnick, Brian K.; Spielmaker, Debra; Tarpley, Rudy S.; Straquadine, Gary S.
This study identified and prioritized the agricultural in-service needs of introductory level career and technical education teachers in Utah. The Utah State Board of Education requires that all seventh grade students complete an introductory career and technical education course as their first formal career exploration experience. One component…
Nikula, Uolevi; Sajaniemi, Jorma; Tedre, Matti; Wray, Stuart
Students often find that learning to program is hard. Introductory programming courses have high drop-out rates and students do not learn to program well. This paper presents experiences from three educational institutions where introductory programming courses were improved by adopting Python as the first programming language and roles of…
Marshman, Emily; Sayer, Ryan; Henderson, Charles; Singh, Chandralekha
At large research universities, physics graduate teaching assistants (TAs) are often responsible for grading in courses at all levels. However, few studies have focused on TAs' grading practices in introductory and advanced physics courses. This study was designed to investigate whether physics graduate TAs grade students in introductory physics…
Kizilcik, Hasan Sahin; Yavas, Pervin Ünlü
The aim of this study is to identify the opinions of pre-service physics teachers about the difficulties in introductory quantum physics topics. In this study conducted with twenty-five pre-service physics teachers, the case study method was used. The participants were interviewed about introductory quantum physics topics. The interviews were…
Amstelveen, Raoul H.
The purpose of this study was to design and implement a Classroom Response System, also known as a "clicker," to increase attendance in introductory statistics courses at an undergraduate university. Since 2010, non-attendance had been prevalent in introductory statistics courses. Moreover, non-attendance created undesirable classrooms…
Debb, Scott M.; Debb, Sharon M.
Enrolling in an introductory course in psychology is a staple of many community college students' core curriculum. For those students who plan to pursue social science and humanities-related majors in particular, introductory psychology helps provide a solid base upon which future coursework at all academic levels will be built. The goal of any…
Srougi, Melissa C.; Miller, Heather B.
Math skills vary greatly among students enrolled in introductory chemistry courses. Students with weak math skills (algebra and below) tend to perform poorly in introductory chemistry courses, which is correlated with increased attrition rates. Previous research has shown that retention of main ideas in a peer learning environment is greater when…
Al Odhayani, Abdulaziz; Watson, William J.; Watson, Lindsay
Abstract Objective To discuss the consequences of abuse on childhood behavioural development, to highlight some behavioural clues that might alert physicians to ongoing child abuse, and to explore the specific role of the family physician in this clinical situation. Sources of information A systematic search was used to review relevant research, clinical review articles, and child protection agency websites. Main message A child’s behaviour is an outward manifestation of inner stability and security. It is a lens through which the family physician can observe the development of the child throughout his or her life. All types of abuse are damaging to children—physically, emotionally, and psychologically—and can cause long-term difficulties with behaviour and mental health development. Family physicians need to be aware of and alert to the indicators of child abuse and neglect so that appropriate interventions can be provided to improve outcomes for those children. Conclusion Child abuse might cause disordered psychological development and behaviour problems. Family physicians have an important role in recognizing behaviour clues that suggest child abuse and in providing help to protect children. PMID:23946022
El Rasheed, Amany Haroun
Alexithymia is thought of as a trait that predisposes to drug abuse. Moreover, it is suggested to be related to type of the substance abused, with the worst-case scenario including a worse prognosis as well as tendency to relapse or even not to seek treatment at all. To address this important subject in Egyptian patients, a sample of 200 Egyptian substance abusers was randomly selected from inpatients in the Institute of Psychiatry, Ain Shams University, Egypt. The study also included 200 group-matched controls. DSM-IV criteria were used for assessment of substance use disorders, and toxicologic urine analysis was used to confirm the substances of abuse. Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS)-Arabic version was used for assessment of alexithymia. It was found that alexithymia was significantly more prevalent in the substance use disorders group as compared to healthy controls. It was also found that among the substance use disorders group, alexithymics reported more polysubstance abuse, more opiate use (other than heroin IV), lower numbers of hospitalizations, lower numbers of reported relapses, and a lower tendency to relapse as a result of internal cues compared to patients without alexithymia. Statistically significant associations were also found between alexithymia and more benzodiazepine abuse and nonpersistence in treatment. The results suggest that alexithymia should be targeted in a treatment setting for substance use disorders.
Schjerning, Ole; Rosenzweig, Mary; Pottegård, Anton; Damkier, Per; Nielsen, Jimmi
Several case reports and epidemiological studies have raised concern about the abuse potential of pregabalin, the use of which has increased substantially over the last decade. Pregabalin is, in some cases, used for recreational purposes and it has incurred attention among drug abusers for causing euphoric and dissociative effects when taken in doses exceeding normal therapeutic dosages or used by alternative routes of administration, such as nasal insufflation or venous injection. The magnitude of the abuse potential and the mechanism behind it are not fully known. The aim of this study was to present a systematic review of the data concerning the abuse potential of pregabalin. We performed a systematic literature search and reviewed the preclinical, clinical and epidemiological data on the abuse potential of pregabalin. We included preclinical (n = 17), clinical (n = 19) and epidemiological (n = 13) studies addressing the abuse potential of pregabalin. We also reviewed case reports (n = 9) concerning abuse of pregabalin. The preclinical studies indicated that pregabalin possesses modulatory effects on the GABA and glutamate systems, leaving room for an abuse potential. Further, clinical studies reported euphoria as a frequent side effect in patients treated with pregabalin. The majority of case reports concerning abuse of pregabalin involved patients with a history of substance abuse and, similarly, epidemiological studies found evidence of abuse, especially among opiate abusers. Overall, the available literature suggests an important clinical abuse potential of pregabalin and prescribers should pay attention to signs of abuse, especially in patients with a history of substance abuse.
Gateway, 2008). Forms of Child Abuse. Child abuse can be broadly categorized into five perspectives namely physical abuse, emotional abuse, sexual abuse, neglect and child exploitation (child labour). Physical Abuse: Physical abuse may be seen as the inflicting of a non-accidental bodily injury on a child. The injury may ...
Full Text Available This study investigated secondary school pupils’ views on strategies that can be used to prevent child sexual abuse (CSA. A survey design was adopted as the operational framework for data gathering. Data were collected from three secondary schools, all in the Gweru district of Zimbabwe. The sample comprised 268 secondary pupils (50% female; M age = 15.42, SD = 1.376. Each participant was asked to write down three main strategies that can be used to fight CSA on a given questionnaire. The responses were then analyzed using the thematic content analysis technique. The study revealed that most pupils believed that CSA can be prevented through teaching them about it and also reporting to the police. Another significant finding was that pupils’ responses tended to vary with gender and level of education. Whereas female respondents suggested that CSA can be fought by avoiding strangers, saying no to sexual advances, and having reliable friends, their male counterparts suggested teaching the community about CSA, forming new clubs, and enacting life imprisonment for perpetrators, among other suggestions. In terms of level of education, Form 2 participants suggested avoiding strangers, staying home at night, whereas their Form 4 counterparts suggested lessons for Guidance and Counseling, saying no to sexual advances, and having reliable friends. These findings unequivocally demonstrate the need to vigorously engage secondary school pupils in activities aimed at fighting CSA to safeguard their inalienable human rights.
Bondi, M W; Drake, A I; Grant, I
To define the combined effects of drug and alcohol abuse on verbal learning and memory, 70 alcoholic and 80 polysubstance abuse (PSA) individuals with concurrent alcohol abuse were compared on a list learning task, the California Verbal Learning Test (CVLT). Despite demonstrating similar learning strategies, response styles, and error patterns, the PSA group nontheless exhibited significantly greater recall deficits than the alcoholic group on the CVLT. These deficits were particularly evident in those who were heaviest abusers of cocaine. PSA participants did not, however, evidence greater recognition memory deficits. This pattern of greater deficits on recall than on recognition memory, as well as poor consolidation, is consistent with the initiation-retrieval difficulties of patient groups with subcortical dysfunction. It is concluded that the combined use of alcohol and drugs, cocaine in particular, may compound memory difficulties beyond what is typically observed in alcoholic individuals.
Sano-Asahito, T; Suzuki, A; Matsuyama, J; Mitomi, T; Kinoshita-Kawano, S; Hayashi-Sakai, S; Asahito, T
Abused children have been reported to have low self-esteem. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of dental intervention on self-esteem, oral condition, and concern for oral health in abused children admitted to a child protection service facility. We examined the oral condition of 65 children (34 boys, 31 girls; aged 2-15 years), instructed them in tooth-brushing. Self-esteem was examined using Pope's five-scale test for children. Before discharge, the children completed questionnaires on concern about their oral health. The findings revealed the reasons for admission were child abuse and neglect (n=45), domestic violence against the mother (n= 20), special needs (n=11), delinquency (n=7), school refusal (n=2), and other reasons (n=3). Thirty-five of the 65 residents (54%) needed treatment for caries. Of these, 24 (69%) were abused children and 11 (31%) were admitted due to other reasons. Mean self-esteem score differed significantly between the resident children (n=43) and an outpatient control group (n=102) (59.16±14.54 vs 73.92±16.81, respectively; plow self-esteem, after dental intervention, positive answers regarding oral health were obtained. The findings suggest that dental interventions might be effective for helping to improve the self-esteem of abused children.
Jeffrey, T B; Jeffrey, L K
This paper reviews psychologic aspects of sexual abuse in female adolescents. It documents that sexual abuse is widespread, occurring at an alarming rate at all socioeconomic levels of society. It is perpetrated principally by adult men in the victim's family. Often its effects are tragic. Adolescent female sexual abuse victims are at high risk for subsequent acting out behavior, sexual promiscuity, physical and sexual abuse, anxiety, depression, low self-esteem, alcohol and drug abuse or dependence, chronic sleep disturbance, dissociative disorders, eating disorders, emotional numbing, dissociation, guilt, shame, hyperalertness, suicidal ideation, and multiple associated psychiatric disorders. Although it may appear at a surface level that sexual abuse victims recover from such abuse, follow-up studies suggest that many remain disabled long after the abuse has ended. Health care professionals should be especially cognizant of the magnitude of the impact of sexual abuse on adolescent girls and recognize the need of these patients for psychologic and medical services.
Scott, Ann; Ryan, Assumpta; James, Ian; Mitchell, Elizabeth A
This paper presents a critical review of the literature related to the violence staff in care homes experience from people with dementia. It attempts to identify the psychological consequences abuse has on care workers and the implications this has for practice. Abuse in the form of violence or aggression against healthcare professionals is not new. However, when this is from residents with dementia in care homes it is considered to be part of the job. Consequently it is largely underreported and ignored which masks its true extent. The magnitude of violence in care homes crosses cultural boundaries. Fear of being blamed, job insecurity and resignation that abuse should be accepted as part of the job is unique to this care setting. The cumulative effect of psychological abuse leads to emotional exhaustion and depersonalisation which results in care workers emotionally and physically withdrawing from residents. Being subjected to abuse, feeling undervalued, unsupported and lacking essential skills may compromise a workforces' ability to provide person-centred care. A rising ageing population and prevalence of dementia will place demands on commissioners and providers to deliver high quality care. Consistent recording and reporting procedures, dementia specific training and infrastructures to support staff is therefore crucial. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Mason, Andrew J.
Reflection is essential in order to learn from problem solving. This thesis explores issues related to how reflective students are and how we can improve their capacity for reflection on problem solving. We investigate how students naturally reflect in their physics courses about problem solving and evaluate strategies that may teach them reflection as an integral component of problem-solving. Problem categorization based upon similarity of solution is a strategy to help them reflect about the deep features of the problems related to the physics principles involved. We find that there is a large overlap between the introductory and graduate students in their ability to categorize. Moreover, introductory students in the calculus-based courses performed better categorization than those in the algebra-based courses even though the categorization task is conceptual. Other investigations involved exploring if reflection could be taught as a skill on individual and group levels. Explicit self-diagnosis in recitation investigated how effectively students could diagnose their own errors on difficult problems, how much scaffolding was necessary for this purpose, and how effective transfer was to other problems employing similar principles. Difficulty in applying physical principles and difference between the self-diagnosed and transfer problems affected performance. We concluded that a sustained intervention is required to learn effective problem-solving strategies. Another study involving reflection on problem solving with peers suggests that those who reflected with peers drew more diagrams and had a larger gain from the midterm to final exam. Another study in quantum mechanics involved giving common problems in midterm and final exams and suggested that advanced students do not automatically reflect on their mistakes. Interviews revealed that even advanced students often focus mostly on exams rather than learning and building a robust knowledge structure. A survey was
Lee, Albert H.
Many educators understand that lectures are cost effective but not learning efficient, so continue to search for ways to increase active student participation in this traditionally passive learning environment. In-class polling systems, or "clickers", are inexpensive and reliable tools allowing students to actively participate in lectures by answering multiple-choice questions. Students assess their learning in real time by observing instant polling summaries displayed in front of them. This in turn motivates additional discussions which increase the opportunity for active learning. We wanted to develop a comprehensive clicker methodology that creates an active lecture environment for a broad spectrum of students taking introductory physics courses. We wanted our methodology to incorporate many findings of contemporary learning science. It is recognized that learning requires active construction; students need to be actively involved in their own learning process. Learning also depends on preexisting knowledge; students construct new knowledge and understandings based on what they already know and believe. Learning is context dependent; students who have learned to apply a concept in one context may not be able to recognize and apply the same concept in a different context, even when both contexts are considered to be isomorphic by experts. On this basis, we developed question sequences, each involving the same concept but having different contexts. Answer choices are designed to address students preexisting knowledge. These sequences are used with the clickers to promote active discussions and multiple assessments. We have created, validated, and evaluated sequences sufficient in number to populate all of introductory physics courses. Our research has found that using clickers with our question sequences significantly improved student conceptual understanding. Our research has also found how to best measure student conceptual gain using research-based instruments
Mayans, David; Schneider, Logan; Adams, Nellie; Khawaja, Ayaz M.; Engstrom, John
Objective: To survey US-trained graduating neurology residents who are American Academy of Neurology members, in an effort to trend perceived quality and completeness of graduate neurology education. Methods: An electronic survey was sent to all American Academy of Neurology members graduating from US neurology residency programs in the Spring of 2014. Results: Of 805 eligible respondents, 24% completed the survey. Ninety-three percent of adult neurology residents and 56% of child neurology residents reported plans to pursue fellowship training after residency. Respondents reported a desire for additional training in neurocritical care, neuro-oncology, neuromuscular diseases, botulinum toxin injection, and nerve blocks. There remains a clear deficit in business training of neurology residents, although there was notable improvement in knowledge of coding and office management compared to previous surveys. Discussion: Although there are still areas of perceived weakness in neurology training, graduating neurology residents feel generally well prepared for their chosen careers. However, most still pursue fellowship training for reasons that are little understood. In addition to certain subspecialties and procedures, practice management remains deficient in neurology training and is a point of future insecurity for most residents. Future curriculum changes should consider resident-reported gaps in knowledge, with careful consideration of improving business training. PMID:26976522
Starr, Julian; Sobczak, Robert; Iqbal, Zohaib; Ochoa, Romulo
The Wii, a video game console by Nintendo, utilizes several different controllers, such as the Wii remote (Wiimote) and the balance board, for game-playing. The balance board was introduced in early 2008. It contains four strain gauges and has Bluetooth connectivity at a relatively low price. Thanks to available open source code, such as GlovePie, any PC with Bluetooth capability can detect the information sent out by the balance board. Based on the ease with which the forces measured by each strain gauge can be obtained, we have designed several experiments for introductory physics courses that make use of this device. We present experiments to measure the forces generated when students lift their arms with and without added weights, distribution of forces on an extended object when weights are repositioned, and other normal forces cases. The results of our experiments are compared with those predicted by Newtonian mechanics. )
Grennell, Drew; Boudreaux, Andrew
In the Western Washington University physics department, a project is underway to develop research-based laboratory curriculum for the introductory calculus-based course. Instructional goals not only include supporting students' conceptual understanding and reasoning ability, but also providing students with opportunities to engage in metacognition. For the latter, our approach has been to scaffold reflective thinking with guided questions. Specific instructional strategies include analysis of alternate reasoning presented in fictitious dialogues and comparison of students' initial ideas with their lab group's final, consensus understanding. Assessment of student metacognition includes pre- and post- course data from selected questions on the CLASS survey, analysis of written lab worksheets, and student opinion surveys. CLASS results are similar to a traditional physics course and analysis of lab sheets show that students struggle to engage in a metacognitive process. Future directions include video studies, as well as use of additional written assessments adapted from educational psychology.
This book introduces readers to fundamental concepts in fuzzy logic. It describes the necessary theoretical background and a number of basic mathematical models. Moreover, it makes them familiar with fuzzy control, an important topic in the engineering field. The book offers an unconventional introductory textbook on fuzzy logic, presenting theory together with examples and not always following the typical mathematical style of theorem-corollaries. Primarily intended to support engineers during their university studies, and to spark their curiosity about fuzzy logic and its applications, the book is also suitable for self-study, providing a valuable resource for engineers and professionals who deal with imprecision and non-random uncertainty in real-world applications.
Hardegree-Ullman, K. K.; Impey, C. D.; Patikkal, A.; Austin, C. L.
This year we implemented Teach Astronomy as a free online resource to be used as a teaching tool for non-science major astronomy courses and for a general audience interested in the subject. The comprehensive astronomy content of the website includes: an introductory text book, encyclopedia articles, images, two to three minute topical video clips, podcasts, and news articles. Teach Astronomy utilizes a novel technology to cluster, display, and navigate search results, called a Wikimap. We will present an overview of how Teach Astronomy works and how instructors can use it as an effective teaching tool in the classroom. Additionally, we will gather feedback from science instructors on how to improve the features and functionality of the website, as well as develop new assignment ideas using Teach Astronomy.
Wisniewski, John P.; Larson, A.
While exoplanet research has witnessed explosive growth over the past decade with over 350 exoplanets identified to date (http://exoplanet.eu), few education and public outreach tools capable of bringing the techniques and results of exoplanet science into the classroom have been developed. To help reduce this shortcoming, we have been developing and implementing a series of exoplanet-related active-learning exercises to be used in non-astronomy major introductory settings, including think-pair-share questions and peer-learning activities. We discuss some of these activities which we have field tested in undergraduate classes at the University of Washington. We also discuss our efforts to engage students in these classes in obtaining and analyzing astronomical observations of exoplanet host stars to identify and characterize exoplanet transit events. JPW acknowledges support from NSF Astronomy & Astrophysics Postdoctoral Fellowship AST 08-02230.
Full Text Available This study examined the written work of students in the introductory calculus-based electricity and magnetism course at the University of Arkansas. The students’ solutions to hourly exams were divided into a small set of countable features organized into three major categories, mathematics, language, and graphics. Each category was further divided into subfeatures. The total number of features alone explained more than 30% of the variance in exam scores and from 9% to 15% of the variance in conceptual posttest scores. If all features and subfeatures are used, between 44% and 49% of the variance in exam scores is explained and between 22% and 28% of the variance in conceptual posttest scores. The use of language is consistently positively correlated with both exam performance and conceptual understanding.
Henderson, Rachel; DeVore, Seth; Michaluk, Lynnette; Stewart, John
Within the general university environment, students' perceived self-efficacy has been widely studied and findings suggest it plays a role in student success. The current research adapted a self-efficacy survey, from the ``Self-Efficacy for Learning Performance'' subscale of the Motivated Learning Strategies Questionnaire and administered it to the introductory, calculus-based physics classes (N=1005) over the fall 2015 and spring 2016 semesters. This assessment measured students' self-efficacy in domains including the physics class, other science and mathematics classes, and their intended future career. The effect of gender was explored with the only significant gender difference (p self-efficacy, measured by their math and science self-efficacy, acts as a mediator for the effect of test average on self-efficacy towards the physics class domain. This mediation effect was significant for both female (p < . 01) and male students (p < . 001) however, it was more pronounced for male students.
Coletta, Vincent; Wikholm, Colin; Pascoe, Daniel
Most physics instructors believe that adequate sleep is important in order for students to perform well on problem solving, and many instructors advise students to get plenty of sleep the night before an exam. After years of giving such advice to students at Loyola Marymount University (LMU), one of us decided to find out how many hours students actually do sleep the night before an exam, and how that would relate to their performance. The effect of inadequate sleep on exam performance was explored in a second-semester introductory physics course. At the end of the final exam, students reported the number of hours they slept the night before. Sleep deprivation corresponded to lower final exam scores. The main purpose of this study is to provide evidence that instructors can provide to their students to convince them that their time is better spent sleeping rather than studying all night before an exam.
Shiau, Stephanie; Kahn, Linda G; Platt, Jonathan; Li, Chihua; Guzman, Jason T; Kornhauser, Zachary G; Keyes, Katherine M; Martins, Silvia S
Although the flipped classroom model has been widely adopted in medical education, reports on its use in graduate-level public health programs are limited. This study describes the design, implementation, and evaluation of a flipped classroom redesign of an introductory epidemiology course and compares it to a traditional model. One hundred fifty Masters-level students enrolled in an introductory epidemiology course with a traditional format (in-person lecture and discussion section, at-home assignment; 2015, N = 72) and a flipped classroom format (at-home lecture, in-person discussion section and assignment; 2016, N = 78). Using mixed methods, we compared student characteristics, examination scores, and end-of-course evaluations of the 2016 flipped classroom format and the 2015 traditional format. Data on the flipped classroom format, including pre- and post-course surveys, open-ended questions, self-reports of section leader teaching practices, and classroom observations, were evaluated. There were no statistically significant differences in examination scores or students' assessment of the course between 2015 (traditional) and 2016 (flipped). In 2016, 57.1% (36) of respondents to the end-of-course evaluation found watching video lectures at home to have a positive impact on their time management. Open-ended survey responses indicated a number of strengths of the flipped classroom approach, including the freedom to watch pre-recorded lectures at any time and the ability of section leaders to clarify targeted concepts. Suggestions for improvement focused on ways to increase regular interaction with lecturers. There was no significant difference in students' performance on quantitative assessments comparing the traditional format to the flipped classroom format. The flipped format did allow for greater flexibility and applied learning opportunities at home and during discussion sections.
The integrative nature of Earth System Science courses provides extensive opportunities to introduce students to geoethical inquiry focused on globally significant societal issues. Geoscience education has traditionally lagged in its efforts to increase student awareness of the significance of geologic knowledge to understanding and responsibly confronting causes and possible solutions for emergent, newly emerging, and future problems of anthropogenic cause and consequence. Developing an understanding of the human impact on the earth system requires early (lower division) and for geoscience majors, repeated (upper division) curricular emphasis on the interactions of the lithosphere, hydrosphere, atmosphere, biosphere, and pedosphere across space and through time. Capturing the interest of university students in globally relevant earth system issues and their ethical dimensions while first learning about the earth system is an important initial step in bringing geoethical deliberation and awareness to the next generation of geoscientists. Development of a new introductory Earth System Science course replacing a traditional introductory Physical Geology course at Montana State University has involved abandonment of concept-based content organization in favor of a place-based approach incorporating examination of the complex interactions of earth system components and emergent issues and dilemmas deriving from the unique component interactions that characterize each locale. Thirteen different place-based week-long modules (using web- and classroom-based instruction) were developed to ensure cumulative broad coverage across the earth geographically and earth system components conceptually. Each place-based instructional module contains content of societal relevance requiring synthesis, critical evaluation, and reflection by students. Examples include making linkages between deforestation driven by economics and increased seismicity in Haiti, agriculture and development
Over the past 30 years, physics education research has guided the development of instructional strategies that can significantly enhance students' functional understanding of concepts in introductory physics. Recently, attention has shifted to instructional goals that, while widely shared by teachers of physics, are often more implicit than explicit in our courses. These goals involve the expectations and attitudes that students have about what it means to learn and understand physics, together with the behaviors and actions students think they should engage in to accomplish this learning. Research has shown that these ``hidden'' elements of the curriculum are remarkably resistant to instruction. In fact, traditional physics courses tend to produce movement away from expert-like behaviors. At Western Washington University, we are exploring ways of promoting metacognition, an aspect of the hidden curriculum that involves the conscious monitoring of one's own thinking and learning. We have found that making this reflective thinking an explicit part of the course may not be enough: adequate framing and scaffolding may be necessary for students to meaningfully engage in metacognition. We have thus taken the basic approach of developing metacognition, like conceptual understanding, through guided inquiry. During our teaching experiments, we have collected written and video data, with twin goals of guiding iterative modifications to the instruction as well as contributing to the knowledge base about student metacognition in introductory physics. This talk will provide examples of metacognition activities from course assignments and labs, and will present written data to assess the effectiveness of instruction and to illustrate specific modes of students' reflective thinking.
Bernet, W; Chang, D K
Because psychiatrists do not have a consistent way to classify and define the forms of child abuse that may be mistaken for ritual abuse, the objective of this paper is to create a comprehensive differential diagnosis of allegations of ritual abuse. The authors reviewed 60 articles, chapters, and books that contained allegations of ritual abuse or behaviors that might be mistaken for ritual abuse, that were made by patients or caretakers. This paper clarifies the behaviors that represent or may be mistaken for ritual abuse: Cult-based ritual abuse, pseudoritualistic abuse, activities by organized satanic groups, repetitive psychopathological abuse, sexual abuse by pedophiles, child pornography portraying ritual abuse, distorted memory, false memory, false report due to a severe mental disorder, pseudologia phantastica, adolescent behavior simulating ritual abuse, epidemic hysteria, deliberate lying, and hoaxes. The differential diagnosis of allegations of ritual abuse is important in both clinical and forensic psychiatry. In some cases, it will not be possible to tell whether a particular allegation is factual or what the underlying mental processes are. It is important to separate the role of the mental health professional as therapist from the role as an expert witness in court.
Wojnarwsky, Pandora Keala Lee; Wang, Yan; Shah, Kumar; Koka, Sreenivas
The decision by prosthodontic residency program directors to employ the Match process highlights the need to understand applicant priorities that influence their choice of which programs to rank highly. The purpose of this study is to determine the factors that were most important to residents when choosing from among nonmilitary based prosthodontics dental residency programs in the United States. Following completion of a pilot study, all currently enrolled prosthodontic residents at nonmilitary residency programs were invited to participate via the internet. The study consisted of a survey instrument asking residents to rank 26 possible factors that might impact an applicant's choice of residency program. In addition, the instrument collected other possible influencing variables including gender and debt load. Mean rank scores were compared to determine the most and least important factors. Kruskal-Wallis test was used to compare specific factors between the possible influencing variables. Two hundred and thirty residents completed the survey instrument, representing a 54.1% response rate of possible participants. With regard to factors influencing program choice, reputation of the residency program was the factor ranked the highest by participants, followed in descending order by the program director's personality, curriculum content, access to use of the latest digital technology, and opportunities for dental implant placement. Quality of schools for children, community outreach opportunities, and the ability to moonlight were ranked as the least important factors. Male and female residents ranked factors such as tuition/stipend, curriculum content, and community outreach opportunities significantly differently. Depending on debt load, residents ranked the factors tuition/stipend, ability to moonlight, curriculum content, and safety of the area where the program is differently. Current prosthodontic residents valued the reputation of the program as the most
Kumar, S; Malhotra, A
Brief interventions in substance abuse refer to a group of cost-effective and time efficient strategies that aim at reduction of substance use and/or harm related to substance use. They are grounded in the scientific principles of harm reduction stage of change, motivational interviewing and feasibility of community-level delivery. This review discusses the characteristics, elements, and techniques of brief interventions for abuse of alcohol, tobacco and other drugs. The available evidence for effectiveness of these strategies vis-a-vis no treatment or extended treatment is also reviewed, which clearly supports these interventions to be effective, especially for alcohol abuse but also for others It is argued that India presents a fertile ground for application of these strategies and that Indian research in this area should be a top priority.
Patients who drink too much have more complications after surgery. The aim of this thesis was to evaluate the evidence, possible mechanisms, and prevention of the increased postoperative morbidity in alcohol abusers, defined by a consumption of at least five drinks per day. The literature could...... be criticised for several methodological flaws. Nevertheless, the results are in agreement showing moderate to strong evidence of increased postoperative morbidity after surgical procedures on alcohol abusers. There is weak to moderate evidence of increased postoperative mortality, hospital stay, and re......-operation. The personal and economic consequences are tremendous. The incidence of alcohol abusers undergoing surgery was 7% to 49%, according to gender and diagnosis. They have been identified by a self-reported alcohol intake, which implies the possibility of underestimation. Alcohol markers could be used for a more...
Tønnesen, H; Møller, Henrik; Andersen, J R
Data on the association between alcohol abuse and cancer morbidity are scarce in large cohorts of non-hospitalised alcoholic men and women. Of 18,368 alcohol abusers who entered an outpatient clinic in Copenhagen during 1954-87, 18,307 were followed and their cancer incidence was compared...... colonic (RR = 1.0; 95% CI 0.8-1.3) or rectal cancer (RR = 1.0; CI 0.7-1.3) than expected. The risk of breast cancer in women was slightly increased (RR = 1.3; 95% CI 0.9-1.7), but not statistically significant. Thus, the associations between alcohol and cancer of the upper digestive and respiratory tract...... and the liver are confirmed. In addition, this study indicates an increased occurrence of cancer of the prostate gland, pleura and uterine cervix in alcohol abusers....
Full Text Available Globally 320 million young people between ages 15-29 years are dying from alcohol related causes. Child line foundation survey report showed that 13.1% of the people involved in drug and substance abuse in India, are adolescents. India’s 1.2 billion populations contain the largest number of street children of the world who are at risk of substance abuse. But there is a gap in reliable data of adolescent substance abuse patterns in Assam as well as in India. Substance abuse pattern in the slums need more research. It was a community based cross sectional study. Study period was three months, from 15th July to 15th October 2012. Six slums of Guwahati city were selected purposively. Both male and female adolescents between the ages of 10-19 years with past or present history of any substance abuse, permanent residents of these slums, with guardian and self-consents given to take part in this study were included in the study. Each study subject was interviewed by personal interview method using a predesigned pretested Performa. Total 60 respondents, 20 from each of the selected slums were interviewed in detail. Male: Female ratio was 4:1, 93.3% were current abusers, maximum (46.7% in the age group of 14-16 years. 58% were students and living with families (93% though 30% of the respondents had single parenting. 25% of the respondents were illiterate and 93.3% were from lower socioeconomic status. 78.3% had history of drug abuse in their families and more than 2/3rd got information about the different substances from their peers and friends. Influence of friends/ peers (80% and enjoyment or curiosity(73.4% were prime reasons of starting the abuse. Majority (95% adolescents obtained abusive substance from their peers /friends. Biddi (85%, gutkha( 88.3%, khaini (51.7% and cheap branded alcohol(50% were predominantly used. Chewing (90% and smoking and inhalation (85% were found to be the dominant routes of abuse. Substance abuse was rampant amongst
Karcher, Donald S.; Harrison, James H.; Sinard, John H.; Riben, Michael W.; Boyer, Philip J.; Plath, Sue; Thompson, Arlene; Pantanowitz, Liron
Context: Recognition of the importance of informatics to the practice of pathology has surged. Training residents in pathology informatics has been a daunting task for most residency programs in the United States because faculty often lacks experience and training resources. Nevertheless, developing resident competence in informatics is essential for the future of pathology as a specialty. Objective: To develop and deliver a pathology informatics curriculum and instructional framework that guides pathology residency programs in training residents in critical pathology informatics knowledge and skills, and meets Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education Informatics Milestones. Design: The College of American Pathologists, Association of Pathology Chairs, and Association for Pathology Informatics formed a partnership and expert work group to identify critical pathology informatics training outcomes and to create a highly adaptable curriculum and instructional approach, supported by a multiyear change management strategy. Results: Pathology Informatics Essentials for Residents (PIER) is a rigorous approach for educating all pathology residents in important pathology informatics knowledge and skills. PIER includes an instructional resource guide and toolkit for incorporating informatics training into residency programs that vary in needs, size, settings, and resources. PIER is available at http://www.apcprods.org/PIER (accessed April 6, 2016). Conclusions: PIER is an important contribution to informatics training in pathology residency programs. PIER introduces pathology trainees to broadly useful informatics concepts and tools that are relevant to practice. PIER provides residency program directors with a means to implement a standardized informatics training curriculum, to adapt the approach to local program needs, and to evaluate resident performance and progress over time. PMID:28725772
Walter H. Henricks MD
Full Text Available Context: Recognition of the importance of informatics to the practice of pathology has surged. Training residents in pathology informatics has been a daunting task for most residency programs in the United States because faculty often lacks experience and training resources. Nevertheless, developing resident competence in informatics is essential for the future of pathology as a specialty. Objective: To develop and deliver a pathology informatics curriculum and instructional framework that guides pathology residency programs in training residents in critical pathology informatics knowledge and skills, and meets Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education Informatics Milestones. Design: The College of American Pathologists, Association of Pathology Chairs, and Association for Pathology Informatics formed a partnership and expert work group to identify critical pathology informatics training outcomes and to create a highly adaptable curriculum and instructional approach, supported by a multiyear change management strategy. Results: Pathology Informatics Essentials for Residents (PIER is a rigorous approach for educating all pathology residents in important pathology informatics knowledge and skills. PIER includes an instructional resource guide and toolkit for incorporating informatics training into residency programs that vary in needs, size, settings, and resources. PIER is available at http://www.apcprods.org/PIER (accessed April 6, 2016. Conclusions: PIER is an important contribution to informatics training in pathology residency programs. PIER introduces pathology trainees to broadly useful informatics concepts and tools that are relevant to practice. PIER provides residency program directors with a means to implement a standardized informatics training curriculum, to adapt the approach to local program needs, and to evaluate resident performance and progress over time.
Wagner, Richard F; Raimer, Sharon S; Kelly, Brent C
Programmatic changes for the dermatology residency program at The University of Texas Medical Branch were first introduced in 2005, with the faculty goal incorporating formal dermatology research projects into the 3-year postgraduate training period. This curriculum initially developed as a recommendation for voluntary scholarly project activity by residents, but it evolved into a program requirement for all residents in 2009. Departmental support for this activity includes assignment of a faculty mentor with similar interest about the research topic, financial support from the department for needed supplies, materials, and statistical consultation with the Office of Biostatistics for study design and data analysis, a 2-week elective that provides protected time from clinical activities for the purpose of preparing research for publication and submission to a peer-reviewed medical journal, and a departmental award in recognition for the best resident scholarly project each year. Since the inception of this program, five classes have graduated a total of 16 residents. Ten residents submitted their research studies for peer review and published their scholarly projects in seven dermatology journals through the current academic year. These articles included three prospective investigations, three surveys, one article related to dermatology education, one retrospective chart review, one case series, and one article about dermatopathology. An additional article from a 2012 graduate about dermatology education has also been submitted to a journal. This new program for residents was adapted from our historically successful Dermatology Honors Research Program for medical students at The University of Texas Medical Branch. Our experience with this academic initiative to promote dermatology research by residents is outlined. It is recommended that additional residency programs should consider adopting similar research programs to enrich resident education. PMID:23901305
Messman-Moore, Terri L.; Long, Patricia J.
Assesses child sexual abuse (CSA) and adult sexual, physical, and psychological abuse with a sample of 633 college women. Survivors of CSA experienced more instances of physical abuse and psychological maltreatment than nonvictims. They were more likely to report unwanted sexual intercourse both by acquaintances due to force, and by acquaintances…
Sadler, Michelle; Mario, Santos; Ruiz Buron, Dolores
During recent decades, a growing and preoccupying excess of medical interventions during childbirth, even in physiological and uncomplicated births, together with a concerning spread of abusive and disrespectful practices towards women during childbirth across the world, have been reported. Despite...... of obstetric violence, as it is being used in Latin American childbirth activism and legal documents, might prove to be a useful tool for addressing structural violence in maternity care such as high intervention rates, non-consented care, disrespect and other abusive practices...
Full Text Available Methadone maintenance is one of the well-known harm reduction strategies for public health intervention in heroin addiction. The significance of methadone treatment in preventing needle sharing, which in turn reduces the risk of HIV and HCV transmission among injectors, has been demonstrated. Methadone maintenance is also considered gathering site where heroin addicts can effectively acquire knowledge on harm reduction and drug rehabilitation. We report a case of a 34-years-old patient with a history of heroin abuse. Therapy with methadone was essential for an adequate management of the case. The article describe difficulties and complexities of heroin abuse management and the therapeutic role of methadone.
Harnof, Sagi; Hadani, Moshe; Ziv, Amitai; Berkenstadt, Haim
Communication skills are an important component of the neurosurgery residency training program. We developed a simulation-based training module for neurosurgery residents in which medical, communication and ethical dilemmas are presented by role-playing actors. To assess the first national simulation-based communication skills training for neurosurgical residents. Eight scenarios covering different aspects of neurosurgery were developed by our team: (1) obtaining informed consent for an elective surgery, (2) discharge of a patient following elective surgery, (3) dealing with an unsatisfied patient, (4) delivering news of intraoperative complications, (5) delivering news of a brain tumor to parents of a 5 year old boy, (6) delivering news of brain death to a family member, (7) obtaining informed consent for urgent surgery from the grandfather of a 7 year old boy with an epidural hematoma, and (8) dealing with a case of child abuse. Fifteen neurosurgery residents from all major medical centers in Israel participated in the training. The session was recorded on video and was followed by videotaped debriefing by a senior neurosurgeon and communication expert and by feedback questionnaires. All trainees participated in two scenarios and observed another two. Participants largely agreed that the actors simulating patients represented real patients and family members and that the videotaped debriefing contributed to the teaching of professional skills. Simulation-based communication skill training is effective, and together with thorough debriefing is an excellent learning and practical method for imparting communication skills to neurosurgery residents. Such simulation-based training will ultimately be part of the national residency program.
Ponzetti,James J. Jr.; And Others
Presents an integrative review of the literature on spousal violence as it relates to the abusive male. Suggests various issues that need to be addressed before effective intervention with abusive males can proceed. (Author)
Basu, Debasish; Singh, Jaspreet
Epidemiology, definitions, concepts and various other relevant aspects including management of drug and alcohol abuse are reviewed. The role of general/primary care physicians has been highlited in the persepctive of substance-abuse disorders.
Orr, Donald P.; Downes, Maureen C.
To assess the self-concept and psychological profile associated with sexual abuse, 20 young female victims evaluated in a sexual abuse clinic completed the Offer Self-Image Questionnaire. (Author/LMO)
Sørensen, Karsten Engsig
The article analyses the case law of the ECJ on abuse of rights with the aim to determine the extent to which EU law allows Member States and others to take measures to prevent abuse of Community rights...
... Email Facebook Twitter Family Checkup: Positive Parenting Prevents Drug Abuse Could your kids be at risk for substance ... drugs. Research supported by the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) has shown the important role that parents ...
... Abuse and Addiction Signs of Alcohol Abuse and Addiction Listen ©istock.com/ KatarzynaBialasiewicz People who drink too ... Ysbrand Cosijn Peter is recovering from an alcohol addiction. The addiction grew slowly over many years. Read ...
Conclusion: This study presented a novel and noninvasive method based on neural correlates to discriminate healthy individuals from methamphetamine drug abusers. This method can be employed in treatment and monitoring of the methamphetamine abuse.
Gellen, Murray I.; And Others
Compared abused women (N=10) with nonabused women (N=10) by using the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory. Results showed that when compared to a matched group of nonabused women, a significantly greater proportion of abused women evidenced pathological conditions. (LLL)
Prins, J.T.; Hoekstra-Weebers, J.E.; Van De Wiel, H.B.; Gazendam-Donofrio, S.M.; Sprangers, F.; Jaspers, F.C.; van der Heijden, F.M.
We examined levels of burnout and relationships between burnout, gender, age, years in training, and medical specialty in 158 medical residents working at the University Medical Center Groningen, the Netherlands. Thirteen percent of the residents met the criteria for burnout, with the highest
'To sleep: perchance to dream', is the frequent mantra of the surgical resident. However, unlike. Hamlet, there is no ensuing speculation as to what dreams may come as there are seldom any!! Surgical residency has been both vilified and immortalized, but the fact remains that it is one of the most challenging, provocative ...
Stutey, Diane; Clemens, Elysia V.
Sibling abuse is a serious phenomenon in our society that often goes unaddressed. Victims of sibling abuse experience psychological effects similar to those of child abuse (Caspi, 2012; Wiehe, 2002). The purpose of this article is to provide school counselors with a definition of sibling abuse and a five-step model to recognize and respond. A…
Sussman, Steve; Stacy, Alan W; Johnson, C Anderson; Pentz, Mary Ann; Robertson, Elizabeth
This article introduces the scope of the Special Issue. A variety of scientific disciplines are brought together to establish theoretical integration of the arenas of drug use, misuse, "abuse," and drug misuse prevention. Transdisciplinary scientific collaboration (TDSC) is utilized as a process of integration. Introductory comments regarding the strengths and limitations of TDSC are presented. Then, the relevance of genetics to substance misuse and substance misuse prevention is presented. Next, the relevance of cognition for prevention is discussed. Specifically, neurologically plausible distinctions in cognition and implicit cognition and their relevance for prevention are discussed. At a relatively molar social-level of analysis, social network theory, systems dynamic models, geographic information systems models, cultural psychology, and political science approaches to drug misuse and its prevention are introduced. The uses of both quantitative and qualitative statistical approaches to prevention are mentioned next. Finally, targeted prevention, bridging the efficacy-effectiveness gap, and a statement on overcoming disbalance round out the Special Issue. The bridges created will serve to propel drug misuse "prevention science" forward in the years to come. Advances in understanding etiological issues, translation to programs, and ecological fit of programming are desired results.
Fajar As'ari; Ridwan Sanjaya; Ridwan Sanjaya; Hendra Prasetya; Hendra Prasetya
Sexual child abuse are direct or indirect action from people who is older than children are. People whose close and known by children 90% of them are being sexual child abuse offenders. Sexual child abuse preventive measure delivered through sexual education by media such as pictures, comic, and video. Create this media as a tool to guide parents to teach their children to keep them safe from child sexual abuse. Parents could choose video that provide animation with stories detailing and ...
Miller, F T; Abrams, T; Dulit, R; Fyer, M
The impact of substance abuse on patients with borderline personality disorder was investigated. Substance abuse was common. Female patients preferred alcohol and sedatives. Male patients preferred stimulants. Substance abuse was associated with poor school performance, unemployment, and promiscuity. Depersonalization-derealization was common in nonsubstance using and alcohol-sedative using patients, but was rarely found in stimulant users. Substance abuse appears to be a devastating complication in the patient with borderline personality disorder.
Kansagra, Akash P
The revised ABR board certification process has updated the method by which diagnostic radiology residents are evaluated for competency in clinical radiologic physics. In this work, the author reports the successful design and implementation of a resident-taught physics course consisting of 5 weekly, hour-long lectures intended for incoming first-year radiology residents in their first month of training. To the author's knowledge, this is the first description of a course designed to provide a very early framework for ongoing physics education throughout residency without increasing the didactic burden on faculty members. Twenty-six first-year residents spanning 2 academic years took the course and reported subjective improvement in their knowledge (90%) and interest (75%) in imaging physics and a high level of satisfaction with the use of senior residents as physics educators. Based on the success of this course and the minimal resources required for implementation, this work may serve as a blueprint for other radiology residency programs seeking to develop revised physics curricula. Copyright © 2014 American College of Radiology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Brandman, David M; Haji, Faizal A; Matte, Marie C; Clarke, David B
Residents must develop a diverse range of skills in order to practice neurosurgery safely and effectively. The purpose of this study was to identify the foundational skills required for neurosurgical trainees as they transition from medical school to residency. Based on the CanMEDS competency framework, a web-based survey was distributed to all Canadian academic neurosurgical centers, targeting incoming and current PGY-1 neurosurgical residents as well as program directors. Using Likert scale and free-text responses, respondents rated the importance of various cognitive (e.g. management of raised intracranial pressure), technical (e.g. performing a lumbar puncture) and behavioral skills (e.g. obtaining informed consent) required for a PGY-1 neurosurgical resident. Of 52 individuals contacted, 38 responses were received. Of these, 10 were from program directors (71%), 11 from current PGY-1 residents (58%) and 17 from incoming PGY-1 residents (89%). Respondents emphasized operative skills such as proper sterile technique and patient positioning; clinical skills such as lesion localization and interpreting neuro-imaging; management skills for common scenarios such as raised intracranial pressure and status epilepticus; and technical skills such as lumbar puncture and external ventricular drain placement. Free text answers were concordant with the Likert scale results. We surveyed Canadian neurosurgical program directors and PGY-1 residents to identify areas perceived as foundational to neurosurgical residency education and training. This information is valuable for evaluating the appropriateness of a training program's goals and objectives, as well as for generating a national educational curriculum for incoming PGY-1 residents.
Logistic regression showed that the presence of suicidal symptoms and alcohol use are to some extent independently associated with sexual abuse. Conclusion. The problem of sexual abuse among South. African youth is confirrried by this study. The association between sexual abuse and depresSIon, suicidal symptoms.
When the sexual abuse of children is revealed, it is often found that other nonabusing adults were aware of the abuse but failed to act. During the past twenty years or so, the concealment of child sexual abuse (CSA) within organizations has emerged as a key challenge for child protection work. Recent events at Pennsylvania State University (PSU)…
US Department of Health and Human Services, 2006
Each State provides its own definitions of child abuse and neglect based on minimum standards set by Federal law. This fact sheet provides the answers to the following questions: (1) How is child abuse and neglect defined in Federal law?; and (2) What are the major types of child abuse and neglect? Additional resources are listed. (Contains 2…
Burrell, Brenda; And Others
This study examined whether stress, family resources, and social support are correlates of the child abuse potential of mothers. Stress in family functioning appeared to be an important predictor of child abuse potential. Mothers of children with disabilities may be more inclined than other mothers to have elevated child abuse potential.…
The phenomenon of child sexual abuse (CSA) remains topical in. Zimbabwe. Statistics, literature and debate reflect not only increased scientific interest in child sexual abuse and its potential effects but also growing public concern about this form of child maltreatment. The sexual abuse of children crosses cultural and.
Friedrich, W N; Einbender, A J; McCarty, P
Exner's scoring (1990) was used on the responses by 46 sexually abused girls (6 to 14 years old) and 46 nonsexually abused girls (6 to 14 years old). Subjects were matched for age, race, family income, and family constellation. Sexually abused children exhibited significantly more unusual content, e.g., sex and blood, in their protocols as well as more frequent coping deficits.
Mogaddam, Meaad; Kamal, Iman; Merdad, Leena; Alamoudi, Najlaa
A large proportion of child physical abuse cases go undocumented and unreported. Dentists can play an important role in identifying and reporting these cases, but little has been reported about this issue in Saudi Arabia. The aims of the study were to (1) assess dentists' knowledge of child physical abuse, (2) assess dentists' attitudes towards child physical abuse, and (3) assess the behaviors of dentists in identifying and reporting child physical abuse. A cross-sectional survey of pediatric dentists, pediatric dentistry residents, and dental interns practicing at all of the dental schools in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia was conducted using an anonymous, self-administered questionnaire. The participants in current study demonstrated insufficient knowledge of the signs and symptoms of child physical abuse, actions that should be taken in suspected cases, circumstances in which to report such cases, and the legal authorities to which they should be reported. The attitudes of participants towards detecting and reporting cases were generally positive. Only 11% of the participants had suspected a case of child abuse, and only 3% of them reported it. Lack of knowledge about referral procedures and fear of anger from family members were the main causes of underreporting. In conclusion, this study showed that dentists have insufficient knowledge about child physical abuse but positive attitudes towards their role in detecting and reporting it. This topic should be covered and emphasized in dental schools' curricula, and healthcare and academic institutes must have a clear protocol to be followed if a case of abuse is suspected. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
Sloat, Robert S.
Discussed from a teacher's perspective are the legal and cultural ramifications of drug abuse. The importance of teachers' examining their own values concerning drug use is emphasized. Also reviewed are the history of drug use and of narcotics legislation. Recommendations concerning legislative reform are discussed. (CL)
Dhawan, Anju; Balhara, Yatan Pal Singh; Natasha, M. Phil.
Adolescent substance abuse is a major public health concern. It is associated with an increased incidence of various psychiatric disorders like depressive disorders, anxiety disorders, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, and conduct disorders and the relationship between mental and behavioral disorders and the substance use problems seems…
beings on the other hand, are irrational. Thus, in light of the above incidences of child sexual abuse, what is being put to question is the rationality / irrationality perceptions which distinguish human beings from non –human beings. Questions which beg answers in view of. African Journal of Social Work, 4(1), June 2014. 29 ...
Johnson, Deborah G.
Discusses computer ethics and the use of computer networks. Topics addressed include computer hackers; software piracy; computer viruses and worms; intentional and unintentional abuse; intellectual property rights versus freedom of thought; the role of information in a democratic society; individual privacy; legislation; social attitudes; and the…
Romero-Martínez, A; Figueiredo, B; Moya-Albiol, L
It has been suggested that being physically abused leads to someone becoming a perpetrator of abuse which could be associated to parents' gender, timing of the physical abuse and specific socio-demographic variables. This study aims to investigate the role the parents' gender, timing of childhood abuse and socio-demographic variables on the relationship between parents' history of childhood physical abuse and current risk for children. The sample consisted of 920 parents (414 fathers, 506 mothers) from the Portuguese National Representative Study of Psychosocial Context of Child Abuse and Neglect who completed the Childhood History Questionnaire and the Child Abuse Potential Inventory. The results showed that fathers had lower current potential risk of becoming physical abuse perpetrators with their children than mothers although they did not differed in their physical victimization history. Moreover, the risk was higher in parents (both genders) with continuous history of victimization than in parents without victimization. Prediction models showed that for fathers and mothers separately similar socio-demographic variables (family income, number of children at home, employment status and marital status) predicted the potential risk of becoming physical abuses perpetrators. Nevertheless, the timing of victimization was different for fathers (before 13 years old) and mothers (after 13 years old). Then our study targets specific variables (timing of physical abuse, parents' gender and specific socio-demographic variables), which may enable professionals to select groups of parents at greater need of participating in abuse prevention programs. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Alaggia, Ramona; Turton, Jennifer V.
Although the co-occurrence of woman abuse and child sexual abuse is high little research exists exploring the impact of woman abuse on maternal response to child sexual abuse (CSA). Findings from two qualitative studies indicate the form of woman abuse to have differential impact on maternal response. Mothers who were abused in non-physical ways,…
This report presents materials that can be used as the basis for a module on signalized intersections in the introductory : course in transportation engineering. The materials were developed based on studies of the work of students who took : this in...
Brown, G. C.; And Others
Describes a self-paced, mastery-oriented introductory physics course offered at Cornell University which incorporates aspects of audio-tutorial instruction and the Personalized System of Instruction (PSI). (SL)
Switzer, Paul V.; Fritz, Ann H.
Presents a hands-on, investigative lab activity for use in an introductory zoology course. Tests the behavioral hypothesis that substrate texture affects earthworm locomotor ability. Provides background information on earthworm locomotion followed by details of the lab exercise. (NB)
Vernoy, Mark W.
Describes a method of teaching classical conditioning to an introductory psychology class which involves demonstrating the conditioned response that occurs when a needle pierces, but does not pop, a balloon. (GEA)
"This is a great book for social science students. Clearly written, with many examples, Garner certainly makes learning and teaching introductory statistics a joy!" - Nikolaos Liodakis, Wilfrid Laurier University.
Introductory physics labs are widely used and expensive. They have a wide variety of potential learning goals, but these are seldom specified and less often measured if they are achieved. We cover three different research projects on introductory labs: 1) We have done cognitive task analyses of both experimental research in physics and instructional labs. The striking differences explain much of the unhappiness expressed by students with labs: 2) We have measured the effectiveness of two introductory physics lab courses specifically intended to teach the physics content covered in standard introductory courses on mechanics and E & M. As measured by course exams, the benefit is 0 +/-2% for both. 3) We show how it is possible to use lab courses to teach students to correctly evaluate physical models with uncertain data. Such quantitative critical thinking is an important skill that is not learned in typical lab courses, but is well learned by our modified lab instruction.
Morley, Katherine I; Ferris, Jason A; Winstock, Adam R; Lynskey, Michael T
Increasing mortality and morbidity associated with opioid analgesics has led to concerns about their misuse and abuse, even when obtained through a prescription. These concerns have been most pronounced in the United States, but limited data make it difficult to determine whether it is a problem in other countries. We investigated opioid analgesic misuse and abuse in participants from the Global Drug Survey 2015 resident in the United States (N = 1334), United Kingdom (N = 1199), France (N = 1258), Germany (N = 866), and Australia (N = 1013) who had used at least 1 prescription opioid analgesic medication in the past year. We also investigated the relationship with polysubstance use, one of the most consistent predictors of problematic opioid analgesic use. Data included misuse and abuse of codeine, hydrocodone, oxycodone, and tramadol; ability to obtain a prescription; different sources for obtaining drugs; and past-year use of benzodiazepines and illicit drugs. In multilevel models, country of residence accounted for less than 3% of the variance in opioid analgesic misuse or abuse. Adjusting for country of residence and sociodemographic factors, use of illicit drugs and benzodiazepines was associated with 4-fold greater odds of misuse (odds ratio 4.36, 95% confidence interval 3.29-5.93) and 6-fold greater odds of abuse compared with not using either drug (odds ratio 6.49, 95% confidence interval 4.0-10.48), although the strength of the association with abuse varied by country. Misuse and abuse by those prescribed opioid analgesics seem to be a problem that is not limited to the United States and warrant attention on an international scale.
Bloom, Tina L; Glass, Nancy E; Case, James; Wright, Courtney; Nolte, Kimberly; Parsons, Lindsay
Intimate partner violence (IPV) in pregnancy is common and harmful to maternal-child health. Safety planning is the gold standard for intervention, but most abused women never access safety planning. Pregnant women may face increased barriers to safety planning and risk of severe IPV, particularly if they are also rural residents. Internet-based safety planning interventions may be useful, but no such interventions specific to the needs of pregnant women have been developed. The aim was to evaluate feasibility (usability, safety, and acceptability) of Internet-based safety planning for rural and urban abused pregnant women and practicality of recruitment procedures for future trials. An existing Internet-based safety decision aid for pregnant and postpartum women was adapted; initial content validity was established with survivors of IPV, advocates, and national IPV experts; and a convenience sample of community-dwelling abused pregnant women was recruited and randomized into two groups to test the decision aid. Fifty-nine participants were enrolled; 46 completed the baseline session, 41% of whom (n = 19) resided in nonmetropolitan counties. Participants' average gestational age was 20.2 weeks, and 28.3% resided with the abusive partner. Participants reported severe IPV at baseline (mean Danger Assessment score of 16.1), but all were able to identify a safe computer, and 73.9% completed the baseline session in less than 1 week, with no adverse events reported. These findings provide preliminary evidence for the feasibility, acceptability, and safety of an Internet-based safety decision aid for urban and rural abused pregnant women.
Smith, Michael R.
I have taught algebra-based introductory physics for six years to liberal arts students. It was primarily a service course for students majoring in Athletic Training, Physical Therapy, Geology, Biology, and Pre-Med. The typical student was characterized by having a minimal math and problem-solving proficiency. There also was a pattern of students being predisposed to memorizing facts and formulas, and attempting to solve problems by finding the correct formula and "plugging in" numbers to get an answer. The students seemed to have a minimal ability in deductive reasoning and problem solving, starting from basic principles. It is no wonder that they entered the introductory physics service course with extreme trepidation, based upon a strongly perceived physics phobia. A standard lecture format was used for the class size of approximately 25-30 students; and an attempt was always made to engage the students through the Socratic approach, by asking leading questions during the course of the lecture. The students were relatively unprepared and couldn't participate in the class, and often responded antagonistically. They indicated they didn't want to be asked to think about an issue, but would rather just be told the facts so they could take specific notes for subsequent memorization. It was clear from the results of the open book exams given during the semester that the majority of students could not approach problem solving using deductive reasoning based on basic principles, but relied on attempting to force-fit the problem into a worked example in the text (often out of context, with illogical results). The absentee rate in the classroom was usually around 30-40%. The academic administration of my liberal arts university has the policy of formal course evaluations by the students at the end of each semester. The evaluation questionnaire appears to be primarily a measurement of the stress level of the student during the course, and the evaluation score I received
Nissen, Jayson M.; Shemwell, Jonathan T.
[This paper is part of the Focused Collection on Gender in Physics.] There is growing evidence of persistent gender achievement gaps in university physics instruction, not only for learning physics content, but also for developing productive attitudes and beliefs about learning physics. These gaps occur in both traditional and interactive-engagement (IE) styles of physics instruction. We investigated one gender gap in the area of attitudes and beliefs. This was men's and women's physics self-efficacy, which comprises students' thoughts and feelings about their capabilities to succeed as learners in physics. According to extant research using pre- and post-course surveys, the self-efficacy of both men and women tends to be reduced after taking traditional and IE physics courses. Moreover, self-efficacy is reduced further for women than for men. However, it remains unclear from these studies whether this gender difference is caused by physics instruction. It may be, for instance, that the greater reduction of women's self-efficacy in physics merely reflects a broader trend in university education that has little to do with physics per se. We investigated this and other alternative causes, using an in-the-moment measurement technique called the Experience Sampling Method (ESM). We used ESM to collect multiple samples of university students' feelings of self-efficacy during four types of activity for two one-week periods: (i) an introductory IE physics course, (ii) students' other introductory STEM courses, (iii) their non-STEM courses, and (iv) their activities outside of school. We found that women experienced the IE physics course with lower self-efficacy than men, but for the other three activity types, women's self-efficacy was not reliably different from men's. We therefore concluded that the experience of physics instruction in the IE physics course depressed women's self-efficacy. Using complementary measures showing the IE physics course to be similar to
Manduca, C. A.; MacDonald, R. H.; Merritts, D.; Savina, M.
Introductory courses are one of the most challenging teaching environments for geoscience faculty. Courses are often large, students have a wide variety of background and skills, and student motivation can include completing a geoscience major, preparing for a career as teacher, fulfilling a distribution requirement, and general interest. The Starting Point site (http://serc.carleton.edu/introgeo/index.html) provides help for faculty teaching introductory courses by linking together examples of different teaching methods that have been used in entry-level courses with information about how to use the methods and relevant references from the geoscience and education literature. Examples span the content of geoscience courses including the atmosphere, biosphere, climate, Earth surface, energy/material cycles, human dimensions/resources, hydrosphere/cryosphere, ocean, solar system, solid earth and geologic time/earth history. Methods include interactive lecture (e.g think-pair-share, concepTests, and in-class activities and problems), investigative cases, peer review, role playing, Socratic questioning, games, and field labs. A special section of the site devoted to using an Earth System approach provides resources with content information about the various aspects of the Earth system linked to examples of teaching this content. Examples of courses incorporating Earth systems content, and strategies for designing an Earth system course are also included. A similar section on Teaching with an Earth History approach explores geologic history as a vehicle for teaching geoscience concepts and as a framework for course design. The Starting Point site has been authored and reviewed by faculty around the country. Evaluation indicates that faculty find the examples particularly helpful both for direct implementation in their classes and for sparking ideas. The help provided for using different teaching methods makes the examples particularly useful. Examples are chosen from
Robert, G.; Merriman, J. D.; Ceylan, G. M.
As an expansion of universal design for learning, IDL provides a framework for opening up and adapting classroom interaction systems, minimizing barriers through promoting perception, engagement, expression, and accommodation for diverse learners. We implemented an introductory-level laboratory for communicating the concept of magma viscosity using the guidelines and principles of IDL. We developed the lab as a mini-implementation project for an IDL course offered by the University of Missouri (MU) Graduate School. The laboratory was subsequently taught during the summer session of Principles of Geology in our Department of Geological Sciences. Traditional geology laboratories rely heavily on visual aids, either physical (rocks and minerals) or representative (idealized cartoons of processes, videos), with very few alternative representations and descriptions made available to the students. Our main focus for this new lab was to diversify the means of representation available to the students (and instructor) to make the lab as equitable and flexible as possible. We considered potential barriers to learning arising from the physical lab environment, from the means of representation, engagement and expression, and tried to minimize them upfront. We centred the laboratory on the link between volcano shape and viscosity as an applied way to convey that viscosity is the resistance to flow. The learning goal was to have the students observe that more viscous eruptives resulted in steeper-sided volcanoes through experimentation. Students built their own volcanoes by erupting lava (foods of various viscosities) onto the Earth's surface (a piece of sturdy cardboard with a hole for the 'vent') through a conduit (pastry bag). Such a hands on lab exercise allows students to gain a tactile and visual, i.e., physical representation of an abstract concept. This specific exercise was supported by other, more traditional, means of representation (e.g., lecture, videos, cartoons, 3D
Jayson M. Nissen
Full Text Available [This paper is part of the Focused Collection on Gender in Physics.] There is growing evidence of persistent gender achievement gaps in university physics instruction, not only for learning physics content, but also for developing productive attitudes and beliefs about learning physics. These gaps occur in both traditional and interactive-engagement (IE styles of physics instruction. We investigated one gender gap in the area of attitudes and beliefs. This was men’s and women’s physics self-efficacy, which comprises students’ thoughts and feelings about their capabilities to succeed as learners in physics. According to extant research using pre- and post-course surveys, the self-efficacy of both men and women tends to be reduced after taking traditional and IE physics courses. Moreover, self-efficacy is reduced further for women than for men. However, it remains unclear from these studies whether this gender difference is caused by physics instruction. It may be, for instance, that the greater reduction of women’s self-efficacy in physics merely reflects a broader trend in university education that has little to do with physics per se. We investigated this and other alternative causes, using an in-the-moment measurement technique called the Experience Sampling Method (ESM. We used ESM to collect multiple samples of university students’ feelings of self-efficacy during four types of activity for two one-week periods: (i an introductory IE physics course, (ii students’ other introductory STEM courses, (iii their non-STEM courses, and (iv their activities outside of school. We found that women experienced the IE physics course with lower self-efficacy than men, but for the other three activity types, women’s self-efficacy was not reliably different from men’s. We therefore concluded that the experience of physics instruction in the IE physics course depressed women’s self-efficacy. Using complementary measures showing the IE
Excerpts are given from the Introductory Statement to the Board of Governors by the IAEA Director General Dr. Mohamed ElBaradei. Major topics covered in his introductory remarks include: protection against terrorism, nuclear technology, water resource management, application of sterile insect technique, human health, nuclear power, radioactive waste management, management of nuclear knowledge, nuclear safety, safety of radioactive sources, safeguards agreements and additional protocols, conceptual framework for integrated safeguards, Democratic People's Republic of Korea, and Iraq
As for substance-related disorders, there were several differences between ICD-10 and DSM-IV, however, the concept of "dependence" had been essential for both criteria. DSM-5 published in 2013 had erased dependence. This confuses us. It is important to recognize dependence again. "Abuse" is the self-intake behavior of drug against the social norms. Repeated abuse results in dependence. Dependence is a state of loss of control against drug use due to craving. Abuse can produce "acute intoxication", and repeated abuse under dependence can produce "chronic intoxication". It is important to understand abuse, dependence and "intoxication" based on their relationship from the point of time course.
Full Text Available Ireland has been overwhelmed in the past two decades by what the Catholic Church itself has called ‘a tsunami’ of revelations of clerical child abuse – physical as well as sexual – of the meticulous concealment of abuse and abusers and of a long-established, and almost universal policy of protecting the assets and reputation of the Church, in preference to exposing the abusers.Between 2006 and 2009 Judge Yvonne Murphy chaired a Commission of Inquiry into the child sex abuse scandal in the Catholic Archdiocese of Dublin.
The case of a 14-year old girl who was abused right from infancy through childhood, pregnancy labour and immediate post-partum period, and management of both the child mother and her baby is presented. Information was obtained both retrospectively and prospectively. Tender loving care to the child mother and her ...
sexual abuse of children happens not only in the church or in pastoral relationships, but also within families where ..... Feminist theology opposes the dualistic thinking of the body and soul and the objectification of the ... of the Christian tradition can generate a positive view of the body (Dillen. 2007:159). Such reflections of a ...
Buri, Hilary M; Daly, Jeanette M; Jogerst, Gerald J
(a) To identify reliable and valid questions that identify elder abuse, (b) to assess the reliability and validity of extant self-reported elder abuse screens in a high-risk elderly population, and (c) to describe difficulties of completing and interpreting screens in a high-need elderly population. All elders referred to research-trained social workers in a community service agency were asked to participate. Of the 70 elders asked, 49 participated, 44 completed the first questionnaire, and 32 completed the duplicate second questionnaire. A research assistant administered the telephone questionnaires. Twenty-nine (42%) persons were judged abused, 12 (17%) had abuse reported, and 4 (6%) had abuse substantiated. The elder abuse screen instruments were not found to be predictive of assessed abuse or as predictors of reported abuse; the measures tended toward being inversely predictive. Two questions regarding harm and taking of belongings were significantly different for the assessed abused group. In this small group of high-need community-dwelling elders, the screens were not effective in discriminating between abused and nonabused groups. Better instruments are needed to assess for elder abuse.
Mursaleen, Leah R; Stamford, Jonathan A
The term "drug of abuse" is highly contextual. What constitutes a drug of abuse for one population of patients does not for another. It is therefore important to examine the needs of the patient population to properly assess the status of drugs of abuse. The focus of this article is on the bidirectional relationship between patients and drug abuse. In this paper we will introduce the dopaminergic systems of the brain in Parkinson's and the influence of antiparkinsonian drugs upon them before discussing this synergy of condition and medication as fertile ground for drug abuse. We will then examine the relationship between drugs of abuse and Parkinson's, both beneficial and deleterious. In summary we will draw the different strands together and speculate on the future merit of current drugs of abuse as treatments for Parkinson's disease. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Are laboring and birthing women treated abusively in the hospital? Although seldom recognized as abuse or violence against women, bullying and medical treatments under false pretenses, even in a hospital, constitute abuse and a basic human rights issue that needs attention. Naming the problem is a first step. The power of medical authority, the lack of accountability in the hospital hierarchical system, policies and protocols, and expectations of compliancy all make an environment ripe for abuse and present obstacles for both women and staff to recognize or stop abuse. Learning to recognize abuse and take effective action, and understanding the legal requirements for "informed consent" can help, but ending abuse will require systemic change.
Strøbæk, Pernille Solveig; Korczynski, Marek
We analyse a case study of workers’ experience of client abuse in a Danish public welfare organisation. We make an original contribution by putting forward two different theoretical expectations of the case. One expectation is that the case follows a pattern of customer abuse processes in a social...... market economy – in which workers are accorded power and resources, in which workers tend to frame the abuse as the outcome of a co-citizen caught in system failure and in which workers demonstrate some resilience to abuse. Another expectation is that New Public Management reforms push the case to follow...... patterns of customer abuse associated with a liberal market economy – in which the customer is treated as sovereign against the relatively powerless worker, and in which workers bear heavy emotional costs of abuse. Our findings show a greater match to the social processes of abuse within a social market...
Child abuse, child maltreatment, non-accidental injury and child homicide: all terms that are hard to believe exist in the 21st civilised century, but non-accidental injury of children is a major problem, crossing all socioeconomic, ethnic and educational groups, and is happening all over the world. Available statistics on child abuse and deaths related to abuse are frightening, and as many cases are not reported, actual numbers are likely to be much higher. This paper aims to increase understanding of child abuse issues and encourage the dental team to be alert to the possibility of abuse, recognise the physical injuries and make referrals to the appropriate agency if necessary. In child abuse cases physical injuries to the head and facial area are common while other types of abuse are less visible but are damaging to a vulnerable child in other ways. Keeping children safe is a shared responsibility and a top priority for all of us.
Gröber, Sebastian; Klein, Pascal; Kuhn, Jochen
Introductory mechanics physics courses at the transition from school to university are a challenge for students. They are faced with an abrupt and necessary increase of theoretical content and requirements on their conceptual understanding of phyiscs. In order to support this transition we replaced part of the mandatory weekly theory-based paper-and-pencil problems with video analysis problems of equal content and level of difficulty. Video-based problems (VBP) are a new problem format for teaching physics from a linked sequence of theoretical and video-based experimental tasks. Experimental tasks are related to the well-known concept of video motion analysis. This introduction of an experimental part in recitations allows the establishment of theory–experiment interplay as well as connections between physical content and context fields such as nature, technique, everyday life and applied physics by conducting model-and context-related experiments. Furthermore, laws and formulas as predominantly representative forms are extended by the use of diagrams and vectors. In this paper we give general reasons for this approach, describe the structure and added values of VBP, and show that they cover a relevant part of mechanics courses at university. Emphasis is put on theory–experiment interplay as a structural added value of VBP to promote students' construction of knowledge and conceptual understanding. (paper)
Full Text Available The reliability and validity of professionally written multiple-choice exams have been extensively studied for exams such as the SAT, graduate record examination, and the force concept inventory. Much of the success of these multiple-choice exams is attributed to the careful construction of each question, as well as each response. In this study, the reliability and validity of scores from multiple-choice exams written for and administered in the large introductory physics courses at the University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign were investigated. The reliability of exam scores over the course of a semester results in approximately a 3% uncertainty in students’ total semester exam score. This semester test score uncertainty yields an uncertainty in the students’ assigned letter grade that is less than 1 / 3 of a letter grade. To study the validity of exam scores, a subset of students were ranked independently based on their multiple-choice score, graded explanations, and student interviews. The ranking of these students based on their multiple-choice score was found to be consistent with the ranking assigned by physics instructors based on the students’ written explanations ( r>0.94 at the 95% confidence level and oral interviews (r=0.94−0.09+0.06 .
Orr, Rebecca; Foster, Shellene
Students often complain about their perceived disconnect between the time and effort spent studying and their subsequent performance on exams. Robert Bjork's research asserts that retrieval of stored information acts as a memory modifier, and that using tests as learning events creates "desirable difficulties that enhance learning." To determine the effect of utilizing testing as a learning event in the introductory (majors) biology classroom, we used an online homework platform to give required quizzes throughout the course. Analysis of exam grades earned by those taking 100% of pre-exam quizzes indicates that not only does this group have a significantly higher exam average than the group of students who took 0% of the pre-exam quizzes, but they also have a significantly higher exam average than the class average. Through detailed, statistical analysis, the benefit of quizzing is demonstrated to be significant for students of diverse academic abilities. Pre-exam quizzing using an online homework platform is an effective way to increase student performance on exams and allows class time to be utilized for teaching activities.
The might of science is in its power to predict. Yet, students rarely are exposed to anything but others' stories concerning how nature behaves. Students do not experience the frustration and elation that discovery brings. For ten years, our introductory astronomy course has used observational journals as a key component in the learning process. Every night, as the planets, stars, and moon dance by, astronomy students use the opportunity to collect and analyze their own data describing heavenly motions. For most, finding the patterns in original data provides an opportunity to fashion and test their own predictive models for the first time in their lives. Such efforts provide an alternative to lecture and laboratory for mastering key scientific concepts and modifying student misconceptions. Students have learned how to represent visual information through a variety of graphs, built and improved their own measurement instruments, and drawn on artistic and writing skills. We will examine the steps required to make observational journals a productive learning activity: careful recordkeeping, classroom discussion, instructor feedback, and reflective writing. I will show examples of how students' work progress through increasing levels of cognitive sophistication that match well with learning theories.
Holstein, Sarah E; Mickley Steinmetz, Katherine R; Miles, John D
One challenge that many neuroscience instructors face is how to teach students to communicate within the field. The goal of this project was to improve students' scientific writing in an introductory psychology laboratory course that serves as a feeder course into the neuroscience curriculum. This course included a scaffolded approach - breaking assignments into different sections that build upon each other to allow for more direction and feedback on each section. Students were also provided with examples of scientific writing, given direction on finding and reading journal articles, and were taught how to effectively peer review a paper. Research papers were assessed before (Year 1) and after (Year 2) this scaffolded approach was instituted. The assessment included measures of "Genre Knowledge" for each section of a research paper (abstract, introduction, method, results, discussion) as well as measures of "Writing Elements" (grammar, formatting, clarity, transitions, building to the hypothesis, using evidence). The results indicated that there was an improvement for Genre Knowledge scores when comparing Year 1 to Year 2. However, there was no systematic improvement in Writing Elements. This suggests that this teaching technique was most effective in improving students' ability to write within the scientific genre. The logistics of implementing such an approach are discussed.