WorldWideScience

Sample records for residence scheme set

  1. Community healthcare financing scheme: findings among residents ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... none were active participants as 2(0.6%) were indifferent. There was a statistically significant relationship, Fischers <0.0001 between sex and the scheme's knowledge. Conclusion: Knowledge of the scheme was poor among majority of the respondents and none were active participants. Bribery and corruption was the ...

  2. News Competition: Physics Olympiad hits Thailand Report: Institute carries out survey into maths in physics at university Event: A day for everyone teaching physics Conference: Welsh conference celebrates birthday Schools: Researchers in Residence scheme set to close Teachers: A day for new physics teachers Social: Network combines fun and physics Forthcoming events

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    Competition: Physics Olympiad hits Thailand Report: Institute carries out survey into maths in physics at university Event: A day for everyone teaching physics Conference: Welsh conference celebrates birthday Schools: Researchers in Residence scheme set to close Teachers: A day for new physics teachers Social: Network combines fun and physics Forthcoming events

  3. Minimum Data Set Active Resident Information Report

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The MDS Active Resident Report summarizes information for residents currently in nursing homes. The source of these counts is the residents MDS assessment record....

  4. Discretisation Schemes for Level Sets of Planar Gaussian Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beliaev, D.; Muirhead, S.

    2018-01-01

    Smooth random Gaussian functions play an important role in mathematical physics, a main example being the random plane wave model conjectured by Berry to give a universal description of high-energy eigenfunctions of the Laplacian on generic compact manifolds. Our work is motivated by questions about the geometry of such random functions, in particular relating to the structure of their nodal and level sets. We study four discretisation schemes that extract information about level sets of planar Gaussian fields. Each scheme recovers information up to a different level of precision, and each requires a maximum mesh-size in order to be valid with high probability. The first two schemes are generalisations and enhancements of similar schemes that have appeared in the literature (Beffara and Gayet in Publ Math IHES, 2017. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10240-017-0093-0; Mischaikow and Wanner in Ann Appl Probab 17:980-1018, 2007); these give complete topological information about the level sets on either a local or global scale. As an application, we improve the results in Beffara and Gayet (2017) on Russo-Seymour-Welsh estimates for the nodal set of positively-correlated planar Gaussian fields. The third and fourth schemes are, to the best of our knowledge, completely new. The third scheme is specific to the nodal set of the random plane wave, and provides global topological information about the nodal set up to `visible ambiguities'. The fourth scheme gives a way to approximate the mean number of excursion domains of planar Gaussian fields.

  5. Contribution of promoting the green residence assessment scheme to energy saving

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Zhiyu; Yuan, Hongping; Shen, Liyin

    2012-01-01

    Green residence development has been one of the important strategies for promoting sustainable urban development. Governments throughout the world have been encouraging property developers to deliver green properties. In line with this development, governments have been implementing various assessment programs to certify green residential buildings with the aim of contributing to sustainable urban development. With reference to the Chinese construction practice, this paper examines the effectiveness of the green residence assessment scheme toward its defined aim through investigating the contents and procedures of the green residence assessment scheme by referring to the practices of Chongqing city in western China. Based on the results of five case studies and five semi-structured interviews, this study reveals the significant contribution from implementing the green residence assessment scheme particularly to energy saving in residential buildings. Further, the green residence assessment scheme promotes the application of green building materials and green construction technologies in the entire process of delivering and operating residential buildings. The findings provide valuable references for further investigating alternative methods to achieve better energy saving in developing residential buildings. - Highlights: ► Energy saving in residence development is important for sustainable urban development. ► Green residence assessment scheme contributes significantly to energy saving in residences. ► Green residence assessment promotes application of environmentally friendly building materials and technologies

  6. The Benefits of Partnership Schemes to Schools and Research Students: A Case Study of the Researchers in Residence Scheme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barley, Helen; Karim, Muhammed; Gilchrist, Myra; Gillies, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    To meet the needs of a modern Scottish society, a "Curriculum for Excellence" enables teachers to deliver a more coherent and skills-based curriculum, involving partnerships with external agencies. This article analyses the work of one host school/researcher team through the Researchers in Residence scheme in an Edinburgh secondary…

  7. Resident Assessment Instrument/Minimum Data Set (RAI/MDS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — The Resident Assessment Instrument/Minimum Data Set (RAI/MDS) is a comprehensive assessment and care planning process used by the nursing home industry since 1990 as...

  8. Setting aside transactions from pyramid schemes as impeachable ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    These schemes, which are often referred to as pyramid or Ponzi schemes, are unsustainable operations and give rise to problems in the law of insolvency. Investors in these schemes are often left empty-handed upon the scheme's eventual collapse and insolvency. Investors who received pay-outs from the scheme find ...

  9. A behavior setting assessment for community programs and residences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, D V; Baker, F

    1991-10-01

    Using the concept of person-environment fit to determine the effectiveness of residential and program placements for chronic psychiatric clients requires systematic and concrete information about these community environments in addition to information about the clients themselves. The conceptual and empirical development of the Behavior Setting Assessment (BSA), a measure based on Barker's behavior setting theory, is described. Use of the BSA with 28 residences (117 settings) and 11 programs (176 settings) from two community support systems demonstrated that all 293 settings assessed could be described and analyzed in terms of differences in their demands for self-care skills, food preparation and consumption, verbal/cognitive responses, and solitary or group activities. The BSA is an efficient measure for obtaining specific, concrete information about the behavioral demands of important community environments.

  10. Estimating the CCSD basis-set limit energy from small basis sets: basis-set extrapolations vs additivity schemes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spackman, Peter R.; Karton, Amir

    2015-01-01

    Coupled cluster calculations with all single and double excitations (CCSD) converge exceedingly slowly with the size of the one-particle basis set. We assess the performance of a number of approaches for obtaining CCSD correlation energies close to the complete basis-set limit in conjunction with relatively small DZ and TZ basis sets. These include global and system-dependent extrapolations based on the A + B/L α two-point extrapolation formula, and the well-known additivity approach that uses an MP2-based basis-set-correction term. We show that the basis set convergence rate can change dramatically between different systems(e.g.it is slower for molecules with polar bonds and/or second-row elements). The system-dependent basis-set extrapolation scheme, in which unique basis-set extrapolation exponents for each system are obtained from lower-cost MP2 calculations, significantly accelerates the basis-set convergence relative to the global extrapolations. Nevertheless, we find that the simple MP2-based basis-set additivity scheme outperforms the extrapolation approaches. For example, the following root-mean-squared deviations are obtained for the 140 basis-set limit CCSD atomization energies in the W4-11 database: 9.1 (global extrapolation), 3.7 (system-dependent extrapolation), and 2.4 (additivity scheme) kJ mol –1 . The CCSD energy in these approximations is obtained from basis sets of up to TZ quality and the latter two approaches require additional MP2 calculations with basis sets of up to QZ quality. We also assess the performance of the basis-set extrapolations and additivity schemes for a set of 20 basis-set limit CCSD atomization energies of larger molecules including amino acids, DNA/RNA bases, aromatic compounds, and platonic hydrocarbon cages. We obtain the following RMSDs for the above methods: 10.2 (global extrapolation), 5.7 (system-dependent extrapolation), and 2.9 (additivity scheme) kJ mol –1

  11. Estimating the CCSD basis-set limit energy from small basis sets: basis-set extrapolations vs additivity schemes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spackman, Peter R.; Karton, Amir, E-mail: amir.karton@uwa.edu.au [School of Chemistry and Biochemistry, The University of Western Australia, Perth, WA 6009 (Australia)

    2015-05-15

    Coupled cluster calculations with all single and double excitations (CCSD) converge exceedingly slowly with the size of the one-particle basis set. We assess the performance of a number of approaches for obtaining CCSD correlation energies close to the complete basis-set limit in conjunction with relatively small DZ and TZ basis sets. These include global and system-dependent extrapolations based on the A + B/L{sup α} two-point extrapolation formula, and the well-known additivity approach that uses an MP2-based basis-set-correction term. We show that the basis set convergence rate can change dramatically between different systems(e.g.it is slower for molecules with polar bonds and/or second-row elements). The system-dependent basis-set extrapolation scheme, in which unique basis-set extrapolation exponents for each system are obtained from lower-cost MP2 calculations, significantly accelerates the basis-set convergence relative to the global extrapolations. Nevertheless, we find that the simple MP2-based basis-set additivity scheme outperforms the extrapolation approaches. For example, the following root-mean-squared deviations are obtained for the 140 basis-set limit CCSD atomization energies in the W4-11 database: 9.1 (global extrapolation), 3.7 (system-dependent extrapolation), and 2.4 (additivity scheme) kJ mol{sup –1}. The CCSD energy in these approximations is obtained from basis sets of up to TZ quality and the latter two approaches require additional MP2 calculations with basis sets of up to QZ quality. We also assess the performance of the basis-set extrapolations and additivity schemes for a set of 20 basis-set limit CCSD atomization energies of larger molecules including amino acids, DNA/RNA bases, aromatic compounds, and platonic hydrocarbon cages. We obtain the following RMSDs for the above methods: 10.2 (global extrapolation), 5.7 (system-dependent extrapolation), and 2.9 (additivity scheme) kJ mol{sup –1}.

  12. A set of principles, developed by residents, to guide Canadian residency education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maniate, Jerry M; Karimuddin, Ahmer

    2009-11-01

    With so much invested in the clinical competency of physicians, adequate and appropriate mechanisms are needed to ensure that educational systems provide the highest-quality training possible and are responsive both to the changing demands of the patient population and to changing technologies and research. After a literature review, the authors concluded that there are no established criteria or principles, from a learners' perspective, that set out goals for the delivery and evaluation in Canada of quality postgraduate medical education. The authors initiated the process of developing a set of principles of medical education based on residents' perspectives by compiling a list of issues and concepts that were felt to be important to creating the "ideal" postgraduate medical education system. This list of issues was divided into broad categories before presentation by the authors for Canada-wide discussion, reflection, and further refinement of concepts and issues across a nine-month period. The process eventually resulted in the final consensus-driven and iterative development of the main categories and the final principles that were adopted by the Canadian Association of Internes and Residents (CAIR). The authors present this set of principles and propose that they be used as a template to guide postgraduate medical education and against which changes to the system can be evaluated. CAIR will use these principles in a number of ways, including evaluation, education, and quality assurance.

  13. A scheme to set preferred magnitudes in the ISC Bulletin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Giacomo, Domenico; Storchak, Dmitry A.

    2016-04-01

    One of the main purposes of the International Seismological Centre (ISC) is to collect, integrate and reprocess seismic bulletins provided by agencies around the world in order to produce the ISC Bulletin. This is regarded as the most comprehensive bulletin of the Earth's seismicity, and its production is based on a unique cooperation in the seismological community that allows the ISC to complement the work of seismological agencies operating at global and/or local-regional scale. In addition, by using the seismic wave measurements provided by reporting agencies, the ISC computes, where possible, its own event locations and magnitudes such as short-period body wave m b and surface wave M S . Therefore, the ISC Bulletin contains the results of the reporting agencies as well as the ISC own solutions. Among the most used seismic event parameters listed in seismological bulletins, the event magnitude is of particular importance for characterizing a seismic event. The selection of a magnitude value (or multiple ones) for various research purposes or practical applications is not always a straightforward task for users of the ISC Bulletin and related products since a multitude of magnitude types is currently computed by seismological agencies (sometimes using different standards for the same magnitude type). Here, we describe a scheme that we intend to implement in routine ISC operations to mark the preferred magnitudes in order to help ISC users in the selection of events with magnitudes of their interest.

  14. Optimized Basis Sets for the Environment in the Domain-Specific Basis Set Approach of the Incremental Scheme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anacker, Tony; Hill, J Grant; Friedrich, Joachim

    2016-04-21

    Minimal basis sets, denoted DSBSenv, based on the segmented basis sets of Ahlrichs and co-workers have been developed for use as environmental basis sets for the domain-specific basis set (DSBS) incremental scheme with the aim of decreasing the CPU requirements of the incremental scheme. The use of these minimal basis sets within explicitly correlated (F12) methods has been enabled by the optimization of matching auxiliary basis sets for use in density fitting of two-electron integrals and resolution of the identity. The accuracy of these auxiliary sets has been validated by calculations on a test set containing small- to medium-sized molecules. The errors due to density fitting are about 2-4 orders of magnitude smaller than the basis set incompleteness error of the DSBSenv orbital basis sets. Additional reductions in computational cost have been tested with the reduced DSBSenv basis sets, in which the highest angular momentum functions of the DSBSenv auxiliary basis sets have been removed. The optimized and reduced basis sets are used in the framework of the domain-specific basis set of the incremental scheme to decrease the computation time without significant loss of accuracy. The computation times and accuracy of the previously used environmental basis and that optimized in this work have been validated with a test set of medium- to large-sized systems. The optimized and reduced DSBSenv basis sets decrease the CPU time by about 15.4% and 19.4% compared with the old environmental basis and retain the accuracy in the absolute energy with standard deviations of 0.99 and 1.06 kJ/mol, respectively.

  15. Residents' perceived needs in communication skills training across in- and outpatient clinical settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junod Perron, Noelle; Sommer, Johanna; Hudelson, Patricia; Demaurex, Florence; Luthy, Christophe; Louis-Simonet, Martine; Nendaz, Mathieu; De Grave, Willem; Dolmans, Diana; Van der Vleuten, Cees

    2009-05-01

    Residents' perceived needs in communication skills training are important to identify before designing context-specific training programmes, since learrners' perceived needs can influence the effectiveness of training. To explore residents' perceptions of their training needs and training experiences around communication skills, and whether these differ between residents training in inpatient and outpatient clinical settings. Four focus groups (FG) and a self-administered questionnaire were conducted with residents working in in- and outpatient medical service settings at a Swiss University Hospital. Focus groups explored residents' perceptions of their communication needs, their past training experiences and suggestions for future training programmes in communication skills. Transcripts were analysed in a thematic way using qualitative analytic approaches. All residents from both settings were asked to complete a questionnaire that queried their sociodemographics and amount of prior training in communication skills. In focus groups, outpatient residents felt that communication skills were especially useful in addressing chronic diseases and social issues. In contrast, inpatient residents emphasized the importance of good communication skills for dealing with family conflicts and end-of-life issues. Felt needs reflected residents' differing service priorities: outpatient residents saw the need for skills to structure the consultation and explore patients' perspectives in order to build therapeutic alliances, whereas inpatient residents wanted techniques to help them break bad news, provide information and increase their own well-being. The survey's overall response rate was 56%. Its data showed that outpatient residents received more training in communication skills and more of them than inpatient residents considered communication skills training to be useful (100% vs 74%). Outpatient residents' perceived needs in communication skills were more patient

  16. A broadcast-based key agreement scheme using set reconciliation for wireless body area networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Aftab; Khan, Farrukh Aslam

    2014-05-01

    Information and communication technologies have thrived over the last few years. Healthcare systems have also benefited from this progression. A wireless body area network (WBAN) consists of small, low-power sensors used to monitor human physiological values remotely, which enables physicians to remotely monitor the health of patients. Communication security in WBANs is essential because it involves human physiological data. Key agreement and authentication are the primary issues in the security of WBANs. To agree upon a common key, the nodes exchange information with each other using wireless communication. This information exchange process must be secure enough or the information exchange should be minimized to a certain level so that if information leak occurs, it does not affect the overall system. Most of the existing solutions for this problem exchange too much information for the sake of key agreement; getting this information is sufficient for an attacker to reproduce the key. Set reconciliation is a technique used to reconcile two similar sets held by two different hosts with minimal communication complexity. This paper presents a broadcast-based key agreement scheme using set reconciliation for secure communication in WBANs. The proposed scheme allows the neighboring nodes to agree upon a common key with the personal server (PS), generated from the electrocardiogram (EKG) feature set of the host body. Minimal information is exchanged in a broadcast manner, and even if every node is missing a different subset, by reconciling these feature sets, the whole network will still agree upon a single common key. Because of the limited information exchange, if an attacker gets the information in any way, he/she will not be able to reproduce the key. The proposed scheme mitigates replay, selective forwarding, and denial of service attacks using a challenge-response authentication mechanism. The simulation results show that the proposed scheme has a great deal of

  17. Recognition and assessment of resident' deterioration in the nursing home setting: a critical ethnography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laging, Bridget; Kenny, Amanda; Bauer, Michael; Nay, Rhonda

    2018-02-03

    To explore the recognition and assessment of resident deterioration in the nursing home setting. There is a dearth of research exploring how nurses and personal-care-assistants manage a deteriorating nursing home resident. Critical ethnography. Observation and semi-structured interviews with 66 participants (residents, family, nurses, personal-care-assistants and general practitioners) in two Australian nursing homes. The study has been reported in accordance with the Consolidated Criteria for Reporting Qualitative Research guidelines. The value of nursing assessment is poorly recognized in the nursing home setting. A lack of clarity regarding the importance of nursing assessments associated with resident care has contributed to a decreasing presence of registered nurses and an increasing reliance on personal-care-assistants who had inadequate skills and knowledge to recognize signs of deterioration. Registered nurses experienced limited organizational support for autonomous decision-making and were often expected to undertake protocol-driven decisions that contributed to potentially avoidable hospital transfers. Nurses need to demonstrate the importance of assessment, in association with day-to-day resident care, and demand standardized, regulated, educational preparation of an appropriate workforce who are competent in undertaking this role. Workforce structures that enhance familiarity between nursing home staff and residents could result in improved resident outcomes. The value of nursing assessment, in guiding decisions at the point of resident deterioration, warrants further consideration. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  18. Set of difference spitting schemes for solving the Navier-Stokes incompressible equations in natural variables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koleshko, S.B.

    1989-01-01

    A three-parametric set of difference schemes is suggested to solve Navier-Stokes equations with the use of the relaxation form of the continuity equation. The initial equations are stated for time increments. Use is made of splitting the operator into one-dimensional forms that reduce calculations to scalar factorizations. Calculated results for steady- and unsteady-state flows in a cavity are presented

  19. Voltage protection scheme for MG sets used to drive inductive energy storage systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campen, G.L.; Easter, R.B.

    1977-01-01

    A recent tokamak proposal at ORNL called for MG (motor-generator) sets to drive the ohmic heating (OH] coil, which was to be subjected to 20 kV immediately after coil charge-up to initiate the experiment. Since most rotating machinery is inherently low voltage, including the machines available at ORNL, a mechanism was necessary to isolate the generators from the high voltage portions of the circuit before the appearance of this voltage. It is not the expected 20 kV at the coil that causes difficulty, because the main interrupting switch handles this. The voltage induced in the armature due to di/dt and the possibility of faults are the greatest causes for concern and are responsible for the complexity of the voltage protection scheme, which must accommodate any possible combination of fault time and location. Such a protection scheme is presented in this paper

  20. SCMC: An Efficient Scheme for Minimizing Energy in WSNs Using a Set Cover Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Redha Mahlous

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Energy-efficient clustering and routing are well known optimization problems in the study of Wireless Sensor Network (WSN lifetime extension. In this paper, we propose an intelligent hybrid optimization algorithm based on a Set Cover approach to create clusters, and min-cost max-flow for routing (SCMC to increase the lifetime of WSNs. In our method we used linear programming (LP to model the WSN optimization problem. This model considers minimizing the energy for all nodes in each set cover (cluster, and then minimizing the routing energy between the nodes and the base station through intermediate nodes, namely cluster heads. To evaluate the performance of our scheme, extensive simulations were conducted with different scenarios. The results show that the set cover approach combined with the min-cost max-flow algorithm reduces energy consumption and increases the network’s lifetime and throughput.

  1. An Adaptive Window-setting Scheme for Segmentation of Bladder Tumor Surface via MR Cystography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Chaijie; Liu, Fanghua; Xiao, Ping; Lv, Guoqing

    2012-01-01

    This paper proposes an adaptive window-setting scheme for non-invasive detection and segmentation of bladder tumor surface in T1-weighted magnetic resonance (MR) images. The inner border of the bladder wall is firstly covered by a group of ball-shaped detecting windows with different radii. By extracting the candidate tumor windows and excluding the false positive (FP) candidates, the entire bladder tumor surface is detected and segmented by the remaining windows. Different from previous bladder tumor detection methods which are mostly focusing on the existence of a tumor, this paper emphasizes segmenting the entire tumor surface in addition to detecting the presence of the tumor. The presented scheme was validated by 10 clinical T1-weighted MR image datasets (5 volunteers and 5 patients). The bladder tumor surfaces and the normal bladder wall inner borders in the ten datasets were covered by 223 and 10491 windows, respectively. Such large number of the detecting windows makes the validation statistically meaningful. In the FP reduction step, the best feature combination was obtained by using receiver operating characteristics or ROC analysis. The validation results demonstrated the potential of this presented scheme in segmenting the entire tumor surface with high sensitivity and low FP rate. This work inherits our previous results of automatic segmentation of the bladder wall and will be an important element in our MR-based virtual cystoscopy or MR cystography system. PMID:22645274

  2. Use of 360-degree assessment of residents in internal medicine in a Danish setting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Allerup, Peter

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the study was to explore the feasibility of 360 degree assessment in early specialist training in a Danish setting. Present Danish postgraduate training requires assessment of specific learning objectives. Residency in Internal Medicine was chosen for the study. It has 65 learning...

  3. How medical residents perceive the quality of supervision provided by attending doctors in the clinical setting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Busari, Jamiu O.; Weggelaar, Nielske M.; Knottnerus, Andrieke C.; Greidanus, Petra-Marie; Scherpbier, Albert J. J. A.

    2005-01-01

    The supervision of medical residents is a key responsibility of attending doctors in the clinical setting. Most attending doctors, however, are unfamiliar with the principles of effective supervision. Although inconsistent, supervision has been shown to be both important and effective for the

  4. Medical abortion and family physicians. Survey of residents and practitioners in two Ontario settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raymond, Elin; Kaczorowski, Janusz; Smith, Pat; Sellors, John; Walsh, Allyn

    2002-03-01

    To determine the knowledge, attitudes, and interest in providing medical abortion reported by family physicians and residents in rural and urban settings. A self-administered mailed survey using the modified Dillman method. Hamilton and Thunder Bay County in Ontario. Family medicine residents (n = 93) and physicians (n = 234) in predominantly urban (Hamilton) and rural (Thunder Bay) settings. All faculty family physicians at McMaster University practising general family medicine and all family physicians in Thunder Bay County were surveyed. Knowledge of, attitudes toward, and interest in providing medical abortion. Overall response rate to the survey was 62.7% (n = 327); 74.2% (69/93) of residents responded; 58.1% (136/234) of physicians responded. Physicians and residents rated their knowledge about medical abortion as poor, but most were interested in receiving more information and training in this area. Many (83.1%, 157/189) reported that medical abortion was an acceptable procedure for family physicians to perform, and 52.0% (64/123) of the physicians would consider providing medical abortions for their patients. Residents training in the more rural Thunder Bay program were less likely to support first-trimester abortions for both medical and nonmedical reasons than those training in Hamilton (P abortion for nonmedical reasons and were less likely to consider providing medical abortions for their patients (P information about and training in medical abortion.

  5. The benefits of international rotations to resource-limited settings for U.S. surgery residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Jaymie A; Groen, Reinou S; Price, Raymond R; Nwomeh, Benedict C; Kingham, T Peter; Hardy, Mark A; Kushner, Adam L

    2013-04-01

    U.S. surgery residents increasingly are interested in international experiences. Recently, the Residency Review Committee approved international surgery rotations for credit toward graduation. Despite this growing interest, few U.S. surgery residency programs offer formal international rotations. We aimed to present the benefits of international surgery rotations and how these rotations contribute to the attainment of the 6 Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) competencies. An e-mail-based survey was sent in November 2011 to the 188 members of Surgeons OverSeas, a group of surgeons, residents, fellows, and medical students with experience working in resource-limited settings. They were asked to list 5 benefits of international rotations for surgery residents. The frequency of benefits was qualitatively grouped into 4 major categories: educational, personal, benefits to the foreign institution/Global Surgery, and benefits to the home institution. The themes were correlated with the 6 ACGME competencies. The 58 respondents (31% response rate) provided a total of 295 responses. Fifty themes were identified. Top benefits included learning to optimally function with limited resources, exposure to a wide variety of operative pathology, exposure to a foreign culture, and forming relationships with local counterparts. All ACGME competencies were covered by the themes. International surgery rotations to locations in which resources are constrained, operative diseases vary, and patient diversity abound provide unique opportunities for surgery residents to attain the 6 ACGME competencies. General surgery residency programs should be encouraged to establish formal international rotations as part of surgery training to promote resident education and assist with necessary oversight. Copyright © 2013 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Healthy incentive scheme in the Irish full-day-care pre-school setting.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Molloy, C Johnston

    2013-12-16

    A pre-school offering a full-day-care service provides for children aged 0-5 years for more than 4 h\\/d. Researchers have called for studies that will provide an understanding of nutrition and physical activity practices in this setting. Obesity prevention in pre-schools, through the development of healthy associations with food and health-related practices, has been advocated. While guidelines for the promotion of best nutrition and health-related practice in the early years\\' setting exist in a number of jurisdictions, associated regulations have been noted to be poor, with the environment of the child-care facility mainly evaluated for safety. Much cross-sectional research outlines poor nutrition and physical activity practice in this setting. However, there are few published environmental and policy-level interventions targeting the child-care provider with, to our knowledge, no evidence of such interventions in Ireland. The aim of the present paper is to review international guidelines and recommendations relating to health promotion best practice in the pre-school setting: service and resource provision; food service and food availability; and the role and involvement of parents in pre-schools. Intervention programmes and assessment tools available to measure such practice are outlined; and insight is provided into an intervention scheme, formulated from available best practice, that was introduced into the Irish full-day-care pre-school setting.

  7. The role of residence time in diagnostic models of global carbon storage capacity: model decomposition based on a traceable scheme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yizhao, Chen; Jianyang, Xia; Zhengguo, Sun; Jianlong, Li; Yiqi, Luo; Chengcheng, Gang; Zhaoqi, Wang

    2015-11-06

    As a key factor that determines carbon storage capacity, residence time (τE) is not well constrained in terrestrial biosphere models. This factor is recognized as an important source of model uncertainty. In this study, to understand how τE influences terrestrial carbon storage prediction in diagnostic models, we introduced a model decomposition scheme in the Boreal Ecosystem Productivity Simulator (BEPS) and then compared it with a prognostic model. The result showed that τE ranged from 32.7 to 158.2 years. The baseline residence time (τ'E) was stable for each biome, ranging from 12 to 53.7 years for forest biomes and 4.2 to 5.3 years for non-forest biomes. The spatiotemporal variations in τE were mainly determined by the environmental scalar (ξ). By comparing models, we found that the BEPS uses a more detailed pool construction but rougher parameterization for carbon allocation and decomposition. With respect to ξ comparison, the global difference in the temperature scalar (ξt) averaged 0.045, whereas the moisture scalar (ξw) had a much larger variation, with an average of 0.312. We propose that further evaluations and improvements in τ'E and ξw predictions are essential to reduce the uncertainties in predicting carbon storage by the BEPS and similar diagnostic models.

  8. The role of residence time in diagnostic models of global carbon storage capacity: model decomposition based on a traceable scheme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yizhao, Chen; Jianyang, Xia; Zhengguo, Sun; Jianlong, Li; Yiqi, Luo; Chengcheng, Gang; Zhaoqi, Wang

    2015-01-01

    As a key factor that determines carbon storage capacity, residence time (τE) is not well constrained in terrestrial biosphere models. This factor is recognized as an important source of model uncertainty. In this study, to understand how τE influences terrestrial carbon storage prediction in diagnostic models, we introduced a model decomposition scheme in the Boreal Ecosystem Productivity Simulator (BEPS) and then compared it with a prognostic model. The result showed that τE ranged from 32.7 to 158.2 years. The baseline residence time (τ′E) was stable for each biome, ranging from 12 to 53.7 years for forest biomes and 4.2 to 5.3 years for non-forest biomes. The spatiotemporal variations in τE were mainly determined by the environmental scalar (ξ). By comparing models, we found that the BEPS uses a more detailed pool construction but rougher parameterization for carbon allocation and decomposition. With respect to ξ comparison, the global difference in the temperature scalar (ξt) averaged 0.045, whereas the moisture scalar (ξw) had a much larger variation, with an average of 0.312. We propose that further evaluations and improvements in τ′E and ξw predictions are essential to reduce the uncertainties in predicting carbon storage by the BEPS and similar diagnostic models. PMID:26541245

  9. Setting aside Transactions from Pyramid Schemes as Impeachable Dispositions under South African Insolvency Legislation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zingapi Mabe

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available South African courts have experienced a rise in the number of cases involving schemes that promise a return on investment with interest rates which are considerably above the maximum amount allowed by law, or schemes which promise compensation from the active recruitment of participants. These schemes, which are often referred to as pyramid or Ponzi schemes, are unsustainable operations and give rise to problems in the law of insolvency. Investors in these schemes are often left empty-handed upon the scheme’s eventual collapse and insolvency. Investors who received pay-outs from the scheme find themselves in the defence against the trustee’s claims for the return of the pay-outs to the insolvent estate. As the schemes are illegal and the pay-outs are often in terms of void agreements, the question arises whether they can be returned to the insolvent estate. A similar situation arose in Griffiths v Janse van Rensburg 2015 ZASCA 158 (26 October 2015. The point of contention in this case was whether the illegality of the business of the scheme was a relevant consideration in determining whether the pay-outs were made in the ordinary course of business of the scheme. This paper discusses pyramid schemes in the context of impeachable dispositions in terms of the Insolvency Act 24 of 1936.

  10. Demand for voluntary basic medical insurance in urban China: panel evidence from the Urban Resident Basic Medical Insurance scheme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Gang; Yan, Xiao

    2012-12-01

    This paper investigates the key factors associated with the demand for Urban Resident Basic Medical Insurance (URBMI), which was established in 2007 and aims to cover all Chinese urban residents. Two waves of longitudinal household survey data are used, and a three-level random-intercept logit model is used for the analysis. Two different sets of explanatory variables were identified for adults and children, separately. Results suggest for both the adult and the child samples that income, health status, age and health risk behaviours are key influencing factors for basic medical insurance demand. The household head's characteristics are also significantly related to other household members' medical insurance demands. Specifically, household heads who are more educated or retired are more likely to purchase medical insurance for their children. These findings suggest that an expansion of the special subsidy to the poor or, probably more important, a risk-adjusted benefit package may be needed for voluntary basic medical insurance in China. In addition, adverse selection consistently exists and is a major challenge for the sustainability of medical insurance financing. To expand insurance coverage for children, especially those under school age, special efforts (possibly through health education or health promotion) should be focused on the household head, particularly those engaging in risky health behaviours.

  11. Validation of a simple evaporation-transpiration scheme (SETS) to estimate evaporation using micro-lysimeter measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghazanfari, Sadegh; Pande, Saket; Savenije, Hubert

    2014-05-01

    Several methods exist to estimate E and T. The Penman-Montieth or Priestly-Taylor methods along with the Jarvis scheme for estimating vegetation resistance are commonly used to estimate these fluxes as a function of land cover, atmospheric forcing and soil moisture content. In this study, a simple evaporation transpiration method is developed based on MOSAIC Land Surface Model that explicitly accounts for soil moisture. Soil evaporation and transpiration estimated by SETS is validated on a single column of soil profile with measured evaporation data from three micro-lysimeters located at Ferdowsi University of Mashhad synoptic station, Iran, for the year 2005. SETS is run using both implicit and explicit computational schemes. Results show that the implicit scheme estimates the vapor flux close to that by the explicit scheme. The mean difference between the implicit and explicit scheme is -0.03 mm/day. The paired T-test of mean difference (p-Value = 0.042 and t-Value = 2.04) shows that there is no significant difference between the two methods. The sum of soil evaporation and transpiration from SETS is also compared with P-M equation and micro-lysimeters measurements. The SETS predicts the actual evaporation with a lower bias (= 1.24mm/day) than P-M (= 1.82 mm/day) and with R2 value of 0.82.

  12. Elderly dental care. Needs and costs in three different resident settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandelman, D; Gagnon, G; Hurley, R; Ruel, D

    1990-04-01

    Although the real dental treatment needs of the elderly has been established, the costs for these needs has not been determined. This report compares dental services and costs required for older adults living in three different resident settings. Dental needs and costs have been evaluated from a sample of 305 aged persons living in nursing homes (N = 156), low-cost housing facilities (N = 79) or dependent on home care services (N = 70). This study indicates that the homebound or institutionalized elderly population presents with poor dental and periodontal conditions, a high rate of edentulousness, and inadequate dentures. Dental needs are essentially characterized by the repair or replacement of prosthesis, the screening and treatment of mucosal lesions of prosthetic origin, and scaling/curettage of remaining teeth. The average rehabilitative dental costs was Can. $720 and there was no difference between the three types of residence. Important differences in cost, however, were observed between the dentate and edentulous population. The F-test (P less than .05) and chi-square were used to analyze differences in dental treatment needs and costs between different residences. Maintenance care corresponds to Can. $80/year/person.

  13. Dentist skill and setting to address dental treatment needs of care home residents in Wales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Maria Z; Johnson, Ilona G; Hitchings, Esther; Monaghan, Nigel P; Karki, Anup J

    2016-12-01

    To explore the relationship between treatment plans, complexity anticipated in delivering those plans, and the special care dental skills and settings identified as appropriate. In older adults, many factors may complicate dental treatment including health and disability problems. Assessment of dental treatment needs amongst care home residents provides information about clinical care required and clinical experience needed for this population. Analysis of dental data collected in a 2010 Welsh survey. Data analysed included treatment plan information, complexity assessment and dental expertise and settings required to deliver the treatment plans. The majority of participating residents needed simple dentistry, that is examinations, oral hygiene instruction, scaling of teeth, fillings, new dentures and fluoride application. Additional time was the commonest complexity factor. A large proportion of participants required dental treatment within a domiciliary setting. A similar proportion required care within a primary care setting (typically with care from a general dental practitioner) or a special care clinic (typically with care from a dentist with special care experience). Treatment plans involving specialists were more likely to be associated with poor general health, higher levels of interventional treatment and greater complexity. Most treatment need in care homes is basic restorative, periodontal and preventive care. Half of this could be managed by general dentists, some on a domiciliary basis and the rest in primary care dental clinics. The commonest complexity was additional time. More complex treatments were associated with care in clinics, skills in special care dentistry and multidisciplinary care. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S and The Gerodontology Association. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Resident Documentation of Social Determinants of Health: Effects of a Teaching Tool in the Outpatient Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Milani; Bathory, Eleanor; Scholnick, Jenna; White-Davis, Tanya; Choi, Jaeun; Braganza, Sandra

    2018-04-01

    Social determinants of health (SDH) significantly affect the health of children and thus, screening is important in pediatric primary care. We assessed the use of a formal social history taking tool after a 2-phase intervention. The first phase (P1) was a teaching module describing SDH and community resources and the second phase (P2) consisted of visual reminders to use the tool. Patient charts (n = 322) were reviewed pre- and postintervention. Residents had higher documentation rates of Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) program use and housing subsidies at post-P1 and at post-P(1 + 2) (WIC, P = .01 and P = .03, respectively; housing, P = .02 and P = .04, respectively), and higher documentation rates of food stamp utilization at post-P(1 + 2) ( P = .04), as compared with baseline. Implementation of a simple teaching tool in the outpatient setting enabled residents to document income benefits and housing. Further studies should be done to evaluate effective teaching methods to elicit other important SDH.

  15. Evaluation of European air quality modelled by CAMx including the volatility basis set scheme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Ciarelli

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Four periods of EMEP (European Monitoring and Evaluation Programme intensive measurement campaigns (June 2006, January 2007, September–October 2008 and February–March 2009 were modelled using the regional air quality model CAMx with VBS (volatility basis set approach for the first time in Europe within the framework of the EURODELTA-III model intercomparison exercise. More detailed analysis and sensitivity tests were performed for the period of February–March 2009 and June 2006 to investigate the uncertainties in emissions as well as to improve the modelling of organic aerosol (OA. Model performance for selected gas phase species and PM2.5 was evaluated using the European air quality database AirBase. Sulfur dioxide (SO2 and ozone (O3 were found to be overestimated for all the four periods, with O3 having the largest mean bias during June 2006 and January–February 2007 periods (8.9 pbb and 12.3 ppb mean biases respectively. In contrast, nitrogen dioxide (NO2 and carbon monoxide (CO were found to be underestimated for all the four periods. CAMx reproduced both total concentrations and monthly variations of PM2.5 for all the four periods with average biases ranging from −2.1 to 1.0 µg m−3. Comparisons with AMS (aerosol mass spectrometer measurements at different sites in Europe during February–March 2009 showed that in general the model overpredicts the inorganic aerosol fraction and underpredicts the organic one, such that the good agreement for PM2.5 is partly due to compensation of errors. The effect of the choice of VBS scheme on OA was investigated as well. Two sensitivity tests with volatility distributions based on previous chamber and ambient measurements data were performed. For February–March 2009 the chamber case reduced the total OA concentrations by about 42 % on average. In contrast, a test based on ambient measurement data increased OA concentrations by about 42 % for the same period bringing

  16. The Resident Assessment Instrument-Minimum Data Set 2.0 quality indicators: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Squires Janet E

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Resident Assessment Instrument-Minimum Data Set (RAI-MDS 2.0 is designed to collect the minimum amount of data to guide care planning and monitoring for residents in long-term care settings. These data have been used to compute indicators of care quality. Use of the quality indicators to inform quality improvement initiatives is contingent upon the validity and reliability of the indicators. The purpose of this review was to systematically examine published and grey research reports in order to assess the state of the science regarding the validity and reliability of the RAI-MDS 2.0 Quality Indicators (QIs. Methods We systematically reviewed the evidence for the validity and reliability of the RAI-MDS 2.0 QIs. A comprehensive literature search identified relevant original research published, in English, prior to December 2008. Fourteen articles and one report examining the validity and/or reliability of the RAI-MDS 2.0 QIs were included. Results The studies fell into two broad categories, those that examined individual quality indicators and those that examined multiple indicators. All studies were conducted in the United States and included from one to a total of 209 facilities. The number of residents included in the studies ranged from 109 to 5758. One study conducted under research conditions examined 38 chronic care QIs, of which strong evidence for the validity of 12 of the QIs was found. In response to these findings, the 12 QIs were recommended for public reporting purposes. However, a number of observational studies (n = 13, conducted in "real world" conditions, have tested the validity and/or reliability of individual QIs, with mixed results. Ten QIs have been studied in this manner, including falls, depression, depression without treatment, urinary incontinence, urinary tract infections, weight loss, bedfast, restraint, pressure ulcer, and pain. These studies have revealed the potential for systematic bias in

  17. Multi-domain, higher order level set scheme for 3D image segmentation on the GPU

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sharma, Ojaswa; Zhang, Qin; Anton, François

    2010-01-01

    Level set method based segmentation provides an efficient tool for topological and geometrical shape handling. Conventional level set surfaces are only $C^0$ continuous since the level set evolution involves linear interpolation to compute derivatives. Bajaj et al. present a higher order method t...... solver is efficient in memory usage....

  18. Set up an Arc Welding Code with Enthalpy Method in Upwind Scheme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Je-Ee.

    2010-05-01

    In this study, a numerical code with enthalpy method in upwind scheme is proposed to estimate the distribution of thermal stress in the molten pool, which is primarily determined by the type of the input power and travel speed of heating source. To predict the cracker deficit inside the workpiece, a simulated program satisfying the diagonal domination and Scarborough criterion provides a stable iteration. Meantime, an experimental performance, operated by robot arm "DR-400" to provide a steady and continuous arc welding, was also conducted to verify the simulated result. By surveying the consistence of molten pool bounded by contrast shade and simulated melting contour on the surface of workpiece, the validity of model proposed to predict the thermal cracker has been successfully identified.

  19. Use of 360-degree assessment of residents in internal medicine in a Danish setting: a feasibility study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Allerup, P; Aspegren, K; Ejlersen, E

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The aim of the study was to explore the feasibility of 360 degree assessment in early specialist training in a Danish setting. Present Danish postgraduate training requires assessment of specific learning objectives. Residency in Internal Medicine was chosen for the study. It has 65...

  20. Secondhand Smoke Exposure and Smoke-Free Policy Support Among Public Housing Authority Residents in Rural and Tribal Settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Lisa M; Reidmohr, Alison A; Helgerson, Steven D; Harwell, Todd S

    2016-12-01

    Previous research has shown that multi-unit housing (MUH) residents are at risk of secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure, which can transfer between units. The purpose of this study was to determine SHS exposure and examine attitudes towards smoking policies among public housing authority (PHA) residents in rural and tribal settings. A self-administered questionnaire was completed by 895 adult tenants (41 % response rate) living in PHA multiunit buildings in Montana in 2013. Our primary outcome was tenant support of smoke-free policies; our secondary outcome was exacerbation of child asthma symptoms due to SHS exposure. In 2014, we used multiple logistic regression models to test associations between independent variables and outcomes of interest. The majority (80.6 %) of respondents supported having a smoke-free policy in their building, with support being significantly higher among nonsmokers [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 4.2, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.5-11.6] and among residents living with children (aOR 2.9, 95 % CI 1.3-6.2). Tribal residents were as likely to support smoke-free policies as non-tribal residents (aOR 1.4; 95 % CI 0.5-4.0). Over half (56.5 %) of respondents reported SHS exposure in their home; residents in a building with no smoke-free policy in place were significantly more likely to report exposure (aOR 3.5, 95 % CI 2.2-5.5). SHS exposure was not significantly associated with asthma symptoms. There is a significant reduction in exposure to SHS in facilities with smoke-free policies and there is strong support for such policies by both tribal and non-tribal MUH residents. Opportunities exist for smoke-free policy initiatives in rural and tribal settings.

  1. The Colorado Humanitarian Surgical Skills Workshop: A Cadaver-Based Workshop to Prepare Residents for Surgery in Austere Settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yihan; Mukhopadhyay, Swagoto; Meguid, Robert A; Kuwayama, David P

    2017-08-29

    Interest in humanitarian surgery is high among surgical and obstetric residents. The Colorado Humanitarian Surgical Skills Workshop is an annual 2-day course exposing senior residents to surgical techniques essential in low- and middle-income countries but not traditionally taught in US residencies. We evaluated the course's ability to foster resident comfort, knowledge, and competence in these skills. The cohort of course participants was studied prospectively. Participants attended didactic sessions followed by skills sessions using cadavers. Sample areas of focus included general surgery (mesh-free hernia repair), orthopedics (powerless external fixation), and neurosurgery (powerless craniotomy). Before and after the course, participants answered a questionnaire assessing confidence with taught skills; took a knowledge-based test composed of multiple choice and open-ended questions; and participated in a manual skills test of tibial external fixation. The Center for Surgical Innovation, University of Colorado School of Medicine. A total of 12 residents (11 general surgical and 1 obstetric) from ten US institutions. After the course, participants perceived increased confidence in performing all 27 taught procedures and ability to practice in low- and middle-income countries. In knowledge-based testing, 10 of 12 residents demonstrated improvement on multiple choice questioning and 9 of 12 residents demonstrated improvement on open-ended questioning with structured scoring. In manual skills testing, all external fixator constructs demonstrated objective improvement on structured scoring and subjective improvement on stability assessment. For senior residents interested in humanitarian surgery, a combination of skills-focused teaching and manual practice led to self-perceived and objective improvement in relevant surgical knowledge and skills. The Colorado Humanitarian Surgical Skills Workshop represents an effective model for transmitting essential surgical

  2. Littering dynamics in a coastal industrial setting: the influence of non-resident populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Marnie L; Paterson de Heer, Chloe; Kinslow, Amber

    2014-03-15

    We examined if there is truth to the preconceptions that non-resident workers (including FIFO/DIDO's) detract from communities. We used marine debris to test this, specifically focussing on littering behaviour and evidence of awareness of local environmental programs that focus on marine debris. Littering was most common at recreational areas, then beaches and whilst boating. Twenty-five percent of respondents that admit to littering, reported no associated guilt with their actions. Younger respondents litter more frequently. Thus, non-resident workers litter at the same rate as permanent residents, visitors and tourists in this region, within this study. Few respondents are aware of the environmental programs that operate in their local region. Awareness was influenced by a respondent's residency (non-residents are less aware), age, and level of education. To address this failure we recommend that industries, that use non-resident workers, should develop inductions that expose new workers to the environmental programs in their region. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Poroelastic measurement schemes resulting in complete data sets for granular and other anisotropic porous media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berryman, J.G.

    2009-11-20

    Poroelastic analysis usually progresses from assumed knowledge of dry or drained porous media to the predicted behavior of fluid-saturated and undrained porous media. Unfortunately, the experimental situation is often incompatible with these assumptions, especially when field data (from hydrological or oil/gas reservoirs) are involved. The present work considers several different experimental scenarios typified by one in which a set of undrained poroelastic (stiffness) constants has been measured using either ultrasound or seismic wave analysis, while some or all of the dry or drained constants are normally unknown. Drained constants for such a poroelastic system can be deduced for isotropic systems from available data if a complete set of undrained compliance data for the principal stresses are available - together with a few other commonly measured quantities such as porosity, fluid bulk modulus, and grain bulk modulus. Similar results are also developed here for anisotropic systems having up to orthotropic symmetry if the system is granular (i.e., composed of solid grains assembled into a solid matrix, either by a cementation process or by applied stress) and the grains are known to be elastically homogeneous. Finally, the analysis is also fully developed for anisotropic systems with nonhomogeneous (more than one mineral type), but still isotropic, grains - as well as for uniform collections of anisotropic grains as long as their axes of symmetry are either perfectly aligned or perfectly random.

  4. Predictors of psychosocial adaptation among elderly residents in long-term care settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Shu-Yuan; Lan, Yii-Hwei; Tso, Hsiu-Ching; Chung, Chao-Ming; Neim, Yum-Mei; Clark, Mary Jo

    2008-06-01

    This cross-sectional descriptive study explored psychosocial adaptation and its determinants among elderly residents of long-term care facilities. A convenience sample of 165 elderly residents was recruited from two nursing homes and two assisted living institutions in the Taichung area. All residents who met the criteria for this study were interviewed individually from April through June 2006. A structured questionnaire was used to collect data on participant demographic characteristics, admission conditions, functional status, perceived family support, life attitudes, and psychosocial adaptation. The adaptation inventory incorporated three aspects of adaptation, including (1) sense of self-value, (2) sense of belonging and (3) sense of continuity. Findings, in general, did not indicate participants had achieved a high level of overall adaptation or significant adaptation in any of the three aspects targeted. Most participants were female. More than half were widowed and unable to fully finance their own institutional care. Nearly one-third was not admitted voluntarily. Having adequate funding for admission, voluntary admission, and number of roommates were the three most influential factors affecting overall adaptation, explaining 54% of variance. Study findings reflect the importance to residents' adaptation of self-determination, autonomy, and pre-institutionalization preparation and are intended to provide guidance for nursing intervention and social welfare policy making.

  5. Legislative Agenda Setting for In-State Resident Tuition Policies: Immigration, Representation, and Educational Access

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLendon, Michael K.; Mokher, Christine G.; Flores, Stella M.

    2011-01-01

    Few recent issues in higher education have been as contentious as that of legislation extending in-state college tuition benefits to undocumented students, initiatives now known as in-state resident tuition (ISRT) policies. Building on several strands of literature in political science and higher education studies, we analyze the effects of…

  6. Validation of the visitor and resident framework in an e-book setting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engelsmann, Hazel C.; Greifeneder, Elke Susanne; Lauridsen, Nikoline D.

    2014-01-01

    -structured interviews were conducted with users of the Social Science Faculty Library, at the University of Copenhagen. Analysis. The empirical data were discussed on the basis of a modified e-book visitor and resident framework. Conclusion. The results showed that the framework can be applied to an e-book context...

  7. REFERQUAL: a pilot study of a new service quality assessment instrument in the GP exercise referral scheme setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cock, Don; Adams, Iain C; Ibbetson, Adrian B; Baugh, Phil

    2006-01-01

    Background The development of an instrument accurately assessing service quality in the GP Exercise Referral Scheme (ERS) industry could potentially inform scheme organisers of the factors that affect adherence rates leading to the implementation of strategic interventions aimed at reducing client drop-out. Methods A modified version of the SERVQUAL instrument was designed for use in the ERS setting and subsequently piloted amongst 27 ERS clients. Results Test re-test correlations were calculated via Pearson's 'r' or Spearman's 'rho', depending on whether the variables were Normally Distributed, to show a significant (mean r = 0.957, SD = 0.02, p < 0.05; mean rho = 0.934, SD = 0.03, p < 0.05) relationship between all items within the questionnaire. In addition, satisfactory internal consistency was demonstrated via Cronbach's 'α'. Furthermore, clients responded favourably towards the usability, wording and applicability of the instrument's items. Conclusion REFERQUAL is considered to represent promise as a suitable tool for future evaluation of service quality within the ERS community. Future research should further assess the validity and reliability of this instrument through the use of a confirmatory factor analysis to scrutinise the proposed dimensional structure. PMID:16725021

  8. Performance of internal medicine residents in the primary interpretation of musculoskeletal radiographs in an ambulatory care setting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mann, F.A.; Stewart, N.R.; Terrell, C.B.

    1990-01-01

    This paper determines the characteristics of misinterpretations of musculoskeletal radiographs by internal medicine residents (IMRs) in an ambulatory care setting. Discordances between IMRs and staff radiologists were prospectively identified and retrospectively reviewed to assess type of error and patient outcome. The setting was an acute ambulatory care clinic at a large university hospital staffed by board-certified emergency medicine faculty and IMRs. Of 541 patients radiographed, 321 (59%) had adequate follow-up to establish outcome. Error characteristics examined included nature and site, type (false negative ([F-] or false positive [F+]), clinical significance, interpreter responsible, and level of interpreter training

  9. Comparing the information seeking strategies of residents, nurse practitioners, and physician assistants in critical care settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kannampallil, Thomas G; Jones, Laura K; Patel, Vimla L; Buchman, Timothy G; Franklin, Amy

    2014-10-01

    Critical care environments are information-intensive environments where effective decisions are predicated on successfully finding and using the 'right information at the right time'. We characterize the differences in processes and strategies of information seeking between residents, nurse practitioners (NPs), and physician assistants (PAs). We conducted an exploratory study in the cardiothoracic intensive care units of two large academic hospitals within the same healthcare system. Clinicians (residents (n=5), NPs (n=5), and PAs (n=5)) were shadowed as they gathered information on patients in preparation for clinical rounds. Information seeking activities on 96 patients were collected over a period of 3 months (NRes=37, NNP=24, NPA=35 patients). The sources of information and time spent gathering the information at each source were recorded. Exploratory data analysis using probabilistic sequential approaches was used to analyze the data. Residents predominantly used a patient-based information seeking strategy in which all relevant information was aggregated for one patient at a time. In contrast, NPs and PAs primarily utilized a source-based information seeking strategy in which similar (or equivalent) information was aggregated for multiple patients at a time (eg, X-rays for all patients). The differences in the information seeking strategies are potentially a result of the differences in clinical training, strategies of managing cognitive load, and the nature of the use of available health IT tools. Further research is needed to investigate the effects of these differences on clinical and process outcomes. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  10. [Food behavior in student residence halls: a setting for health promotion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Hayda Josiane; Boog, Maria Cristina Faber

    2007-04-01

    To qualitatively describe food practices of students living in a residence hall. A quantitative and qualitative study was carried out in a drawn sample of 100 university students living in a residence hall in the city of Campinas, Southeastern Brazil, in 2004. Students were interviewed using a questionnaire to collect 24-hour food recall information including open questions on shopping and intake practices. Criteria were established for the analysis of meal quality. The Chi-square and the exact Fisher test were used at a 5% significance level. Representations based on Moscivici's theory of social representations were obtained in the interviews and analyzed. Assessment of 24-hour food recall: breakfast--30% of the students skipped it, 13% had full, 37% had standard and 20% had partial meal; lunch--5% skipped, 72% had full, and 23% had partial meal; dinner--1% skipped, 36% had full, and 63% had partial meal. Lunch was the best quality meal and of those who had lunch, 63% had it at the university cafeteria. Of all respondents, 48% had no fruit and 39% had no milk. Most (69%) showed an individual food behavior and 43% thought that having meals together had a positive impact on their food behavior. The experience of becoming the provider of their own food changes the students' food behaviors and representations. Diet quality, patterns of commensality and social representations of food provide input for developing healthy diet care and health promotion.

  11. Chinese Gini Coefficient from 2005 to 2012, Based on 20 Grouped Income Data Sets of Urban and Rural Residents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiandong Chen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Data insufficiency has become the primary factor affecting research on income disparity in China. To resolve this issue, this paper explores Chinese income distribution and income inequality using distribution functions. First, it examines 20 sets of grouped data on family income between 2005 and 2012 by the China Yearbook of Household Surveys, 2013, and compares the fitting effects of eight distribution functions. The results show that the generalized beta distribution of the second kind has a high fitting to the income distribution of urban and rural residents in China. Next, these results are used to calculate the Chinese Gini ratio, which is then compared with the findings of relevant studies. Finally, this paper discusses the influence of urbanization on income inequality in China and suggests that accelerating urbanization can play an important role in narrowing the income gap of Chinese residents.

  12. Evaluating the effectiveness of self-administration of medication (SAM) schemes in the hospital setting: a systematic review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Suzanna J; Brooks, Hannah L; Bramley, George; Coleman, Jamie J

    2014-01-01

    Self-administration of medicines is believed to increase patients' understanding about their medication and to promote their independence and autonomy in the hospital setting. The effect of inpatient self-administration of medication (SAM) schemes on patients, staff and institutions is currently unclear. To systematically review the literature relating to the effect of SAM schemes on the following outcomes: patient knowledge, patient compliance/medication errors, success in self-administration, patient satisfaction, staff satisfaction, staff workload, and costs. Keyword and text word searches of online databases were performed between January and March 2013. Included articles described and evaluated inpatient SAM schemes. Case studies and anecdotal studies were excluded. 43 papers were included for final analysis. Due to the heterogeneity of results and unclear findings it was not possible to perform a quantitative synthesis of results. Participation in SAM schemes often led to increased knowledge about drugs and drug regimens, but not side effects. However, the effect of SAM schemes on patient compliance/medication errors was inconclusive. Patients and staff were highly satisfied with their involvement in SAM schemes. SAM schemes appear to provide some benefits (e.g. increased patient knowledge), but their effect on other outcomes (e.g. compliance) is unclear. Few studies of high methodological quality using validated outcome measures exist. Inconsistencies in both measuring and reporting outcomes across studies make it challenging to compare results and draw substantive conclusions about the effectiveness of SAM schemes.

  13. The prison setting as a place of enforced residence, its mental health effects, and the mental healthcare implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Melanie

    2011-09-01

    The subject of place is salient certainly when deliberating the health of prisoners as a social group. This paper provides an overview and assessment of health and place in relation to mental health and the prison locale. Particular attention is devoted to prison culture, both staff and inmate. The incarceration experience (i.e. the nature of enforced residence in the prison environment) can affect negatively prisoners' mental health. The mental health of the prison population is poor, and mental health services in the prison setting have need of further improvement. However, the provision of mental healthcare and the pursuit of good mental health in the prison milieu are challenging. The prison-based-exceedingly complex-three-way relationship between culture-mental and health-mental healthcare is debated. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Quality of life of residents with dementia in traditional versus small-scale long-term care settings: a quasi-experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Rooij, Alida H P M; Luijkx, Katrien G; Schaafsma, Juliette; Declercq, Anja G; Emmerink, Peggy M J; Schols, Jos M G A

    2012-08-01

    The number of people living with dementia worldwide is increasing, resulting in a need for more residential care. In response to criticism of the traditional medical approach to residential dementia care, many large nursing homes are transforming their traditional care facilities into more home-like small-scale living facilities. This study examined the assumed benefits of small-scale living for residents with dementia, compared to traditional long-term care in the Netherlands and Belgium. The primary outcome was quality of life, divided into nine different domains. The study had a longitudinal design within a one-year time interval. Five long-term care settings in the Netherlands and Belgium containing four traditional and twelve small-scale living units participated in the study. Data were obtained from 179 residents with dementia (age>65 years) (Dutch small-scale N=51, traditional N=51, Belgian small-scale N=47, traditional N=30). Nurses and nursing assistants were trained to fill in the questionnaires. In the Dutch sample, residents in small-scale settings had higher mean scores on 'social relations', 'positive affect', and 'having something to do' than residents in traditional settings. Moreover, mean scores on 'caregiver relation' and 'negative affect' remained stable over time among residents in small-scale settings, but decreased in traditional settings. These differences could not be explained by differences in behavioural characteristics, behavioural interventions, or social interaction. In the Belgian sample, fewer differences were found between traditional and small-scale settings. Nevertheless, residents in small-scale settings were reported to experience less 'negative affect' than those in traditional settings, which could be explained by differences in depression. Over time, however, residents 'felt more at home' in traditional settings, whereas no such increase was found for small-scale settings. Moreover, the mean quality of life scores on

  15. Riemann-problem and level-set approaches for two-fluid flow computations I. Linearized Godunov scheme

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B. Koren (Barry); M.R. Lewis; E.H. van Brummelen (Einar); B. van Leer

    2001-01-01

    textabstractA finite-volume method is presented for the computation of compressible flows of two immiscible fluids at very different densities. The novel ingredient in the method is a two-fluid linearized Godunov scheme, allowing for flux computations in case of different fluids (e.g., water and

  16. Family caregiver perspectives on social relations of elderly residents with dementia in small-scale versus traditional long-term care settings in the Netherlands and Belgium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Rooij, Alida H P M; Luijkx, Katrien G; Spruytte, Nele; Emmerink, Peggy M J; Schols, Jos M G A; Declercq, Anja G

    2012-11-01

    To provide insight into family caregiver perspectives on social relations within the 'caregiving triangle' between family caregiver, professional caregiver and elderly resident with dementia. Results were compared between traditional versus small-scale long-term care settings in the Netherlands and Belgium. Residential dementia care is shifting towards a more holistic and person-centred approach. Until now, little is known about family caregiver perspectives. A quasi-experimental longitudinal design. This study was part of a larger research project focusing on the quality of life of residents with dementia in traditional and small-scale settings (n = 179). This study focused on family caregivers related to these residents (n = 64). They filled in a questionnaire containing 25 items (baseline and after 12 months) related to their perspectives on the interaction within the 'caregiving triangle'. Analyses were performed using mixed models and logistic regression. Compared to traditional settings, family caregivers of relatives with dementia living in small-scale settings had more contact with the professional caregivers, were more satisfied with this contact and felt that staff paid more attention to their feelings as family members. They also reported that staff showed better listening skills towards the residents. Furthermore, compared to those in Belgium, family caregivers in the Netherlands perceived staff to be less hurried and more accepting of help from family and felt that staff more often takes the resident seriously. In the move towards more person-centred care for residents with dementia, this study finds preliminary evidence for the importance of integrating the family perspective. Gaining more insight into the perspectives of family caregivers on the social relations within the 'caregiving triangle' may provide knowledge about the importance of the social system surrounding elderly residents with dementia and can provide pointers for future research.

  17. Effectiveness of setting numerical targets in the surgical training of residents: a trial to achieve an optimal balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komiya, Kiyoshi; Saito, Momoko; Sakurai, Yuika; Kojima, Hiromi; Takase, Kozo

    2014-01-17

    During the past 10 years, residency training in otorhinolaryngology-head and neck surgery (ORL-HNS) in Japan, especially at university hospitals, has emphasized subspecialization, resulting in insufficiencies in basic surgical techniques with an extreme bias toward acquiring subspecialty surgical case experience. To address this problem, we developed a target-oriented program intended to achieve a more balanced approach to surgical training and performed a 1-year trial of the program at the Jikei University School of Medicine. Fourteen residents with 1 to 4 years of ORL-HNS experience completed the trial. Each resident's competencies in six basic surgical procedures were assessed on the basis of the number of cases handled by the resident, and each resident's case selection bias after implementation of the target-oriented training was examined. The case selection bias in the trial group residents was reduced and their balance in case experience was shown to be improved in comparison with that in control group residents who were trained in the conventional way. In addition, opinion surveys of the participants and supervising otorhinolaryngologists (trainers) indicated that they felt that the new training system had been effective in improving the balance in case experience and improving motivation, and creating greater awareness of training goals and progress.

  18. Postural stability and quality of life after guided and self-training among older adults residing in an institutional setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuunainen E

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Eeva Tuunainen,1 Jyrki Rasku,1 Pirkko Jäntti,2 Päivi Moisio-Vilenius,3 Erja Mäkinen,3 Esko Toppila,4 Ilmari Pyykkö1 1Department of Otolaryngology, Section of Hearing and Balance Research Unit, University of Tampere and University Hospital of Tampere, Finland; 2Department of Geriatric Medicine, Hatanpää City Hospital, Tampere, Finland; 3Koukkuniemi Residential Home, Tampere, Finland; 4Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, Helsinki, Finland Purpose: To evaluate whether rehabilitation of muscle force or balance improves postural stability and quality of life (QoL, and whether self-administered training is comparable with guided training among older adults residing in an institutional setting. Patients and methods: A randomized, prospective intervention study was undertaken among 55 elderly patients. Three intervention groups were evaluated: a muscle force training group; a balance and muscle force training group; and a self-administered training group. Each group underwent 1-hour-long training sessions, twice a week, for 3 months. Postural stability was measured at onset, after 3 months, and after 6 months. Time-domain-dependent body sway variables were calculated. The fall rate was evaluated for 3 years. General health related quality of life (HRQoL was measured with a 15D instrument. Postural stability was used as a primary outcome, with QoL and falls used as secondary outcomes. Results: Muscle force trainees were able to undertake training, progressing towards more strenuous exercises. In posturography, the number of spiky oscillations was reduced after training, and stationary fields of torque moments of the ankle increased, providing better postural stability in all groups; in particular, the zero crossing rate of weight signal and the number of low variability episodes in the stabilogram were improved after training. While no difference was found between different training groups in posturography outcomes, a reduction of fall rate

  19. Newborn well-child visits in the home setting: a pilot study in a family medicine residency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakin, Ashley; Sutter, Mary Beth; Magee, Susanna

    2015-03-01

    The purpose of our study was to pilot a home visit program targeting neonates conducted by family medicine residents. While the literature shows that home visit programs are successful at preventing adverse outcomes for young children, such as improving parenting practices and promoting breastfeeding, no data exist about newborn home visits conducted by resident physicians. Residents conducted newborn home visits precepted by a family medicine faculty member from June 2012--May 2013. Subjects were recruited from the residency continuity practice and randomized to receive two home visits (which replaced two office visits) or routine office-based newborn care. All participants were surveyed using the validated WHOQOL-BREF quality of life scale and a patient satisfaction instrument. Metrics were also obtained from the electronic medical record. Mothers and resident physicians completed an open-ended questionnaire about their experience. All patients, whether receiving office-based or home-based care, rated their care highly. Significant differences were seen in usage of acute care in the first 6 months of life, and mothers in the home visit group trended toward initiating breastfeeding at a higher rate. The home visit group ranked their quality of life higher across all domains when compared to the control group, approaching statistical significance in two domains. Residents providing home visits reported increased connectedness to patients and improved confidence in anticipatory guidance delivery. Home visits are valuable for families with newborns, in terms of minimizing acute care service usage, breastfeeding promotion, and perhaps increasing maternal perceptions of well-being. A home visit program has the potential to enhance resident education and the doctor-patient relationship.

  20. The perceptions and experiences of people injured in motor vehicle crashes in a compensation scheme setting: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murgatroyd, Darnel; Lockwood, Keri; Garth, Belinda; Cameron, Ian D

    2015-04-25

    The evidence that compensation related factors are associated with poor recovery is substantial but these measures are generic and do not consider the complexity of scheme design. The objectives of this study were to understand people's perceptions and experiences of the claims process after sustaining a compensable injury in a motor vehicle crash (including why people seek legal representation); and to explore ways to assist people following a compensable injury and improve their experience with the claims process. A qualitative study in a Compulsory Third Party (CTP) personal injury scheme covering the state of New South Wales (NSW), Australia. A series of five focus groups, with a total of 32 participants who had sustained mild to moderate injuries in a motor vehicle crash, were conducted from May to June 2011 with four to eight attendees in each group. These were audio-recorded and transcribed. The methodology was based on a grounded theory approach using thematic analysis and constant comparison to generate coding categories for themes. Data saturation was reached. Analyst triangulation was used to ensure credibility of the results. Five primary themes were identified: complexity of the claims process; requirement of legal representation; injury recovery expectations; importance of timely healthcare decision making; and improvements for injury recovery. Some participants struggled, finding the claims process stressful and subsequently sought legal advice; whilst others reported a straight forward recovery, helpful insurer interactions and no legal representation. Most participants were influenced by injury recovery expectations, and timely healthcare decision making. To assist with injury recovery, access to objective information about the claims process using online technology and social media was considered paramount. Participants had contrasting injury recovery experiences and their perceptions of the claims process differed and were influenced by injury

  1. [Evaluation of new technologies by residents and staff in an institutional setting. Findings of the BETAGT project].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Classen, K; Oswald, F; Wahl, H-W; Heusel, C; Antfang, P; Becker, C

    2010-08-01

    The aim of the substudy that was conducted as part of the project "Bewertung neuer Technologien durch Bewohner und Personal im Altenzentrum Grafenau der Paul Wilhelm von Keppler-Stiftung und Prüfung des Transfers ins häusliche Wohnen" (BETAGT) was to have residents and staff members in nursing homes with limited technological equipment complete a questionnaire about their life-long technological experiences and their general technological attitude. Furthermore, specific technological devices and systems were evaluated in terms of their potential with respect to safety, privacy, or help in decreasing burden. Data were collected using a newly developed brief questionnaire. A total of 84 residents and 109 staff members sampled from 11 different institutions were asked about their life-long technology experiences, general attitudes towards technology as well as attitudes towards specific technological devices. Residents' opinions were assessed via brief structured interviews; a structured questionnaire was given to the staff members to complete. The technological devices to be evaluated were introduced via pictured descriptions. Residents and staff members showed a positive attitude towards technology. With regard to the potential of new technologies, residents and staff members expect different effects on several dimensions of quality of life. Both groups rated the potential of the dimension of safety to be highest. Contrary to widely held opinion, older adults living in institutions do not, in general, seem to be too critical about new technology. From the staff members' point of view, modern technology can be integrated into daily care routines of a nursing home, but the potentials of new technologies are considered in a very differential manner.

  2. Higher Rate of Tuberculosis in Second Generation Migrants Compared to Native Residents in a Metropolitan Setting in Western Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marx, Florian M.; Fiebig, Lena; Hauer, Barbara; Brodhun, Bonita; Glaser-Paschke, Gisela; Haas, Walter

    2015-01-01

    Background In Western Europe, migrants constitute an important risk group for tuberculosis, but little is known about successive generations of migrants. We aimed to characterize migration among tuberculosis cases in Berlin and to estimate annual rates of tuberculosis in two subsequent migrant generations. We hypothesized that second generation migrants born in Germany are at higher risk of tuberculosis compared to native (non-migrant) residents. Methods A prospective cross-sectional study was conducted. All tuberculosis cases reported to health authorities in Berlin between 11/2010 and 10/2011 were eligible. Interviews were conducted using a structured questionnaire including demographic data, migration history of patients and their parents, and language use. Tuberculosis rates were estimated using 2011 census data. Results Of 314 tuberculosis cases reported, 154 (49.0%) participated. Of these, 81 (52.6%) were first-, 14 (9.1%) were second generation migrants, and 59 (38.3%) were native residents. The tuberculosis rate per 100,000 individuals was 28.3 (95CI: 24.0–32.6) in first-, 10.2 (95%CI: 6.1–16.6) in second generation migrants, and 4.6 (95%CI: 3.7–5.6) in native residents. When combining information from the standard notification variables country of birth and citizenship, the sensitivity to detect second generation migration was 28.6%. Conclusions There is a higher rate of tuberculosis among second generation migrants compared to native residents in Berlin. This may be explained by presumably frequent contact and transmission within migrant populations. Second generation migration is insufficiently captured by the surveillance variables country of birth and citizenship. Surveillance systems in Western Europe should allow for quantifying the tuberculosis burden in this important risk group. PMID:26061733

  3. Comparative Evaluation of Cash Benefit Scheme of Janani Suraksha Yojana for Beneficiary Mothers from Different Health Care Settings of Rewa District, Madhya Pradesh, India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trivedi R

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: For better outcomes in mother and child health, Government of India launched the National Rural Health Mission (NRHM in 2005 with a major objective of providing accessible, affordable and quality health care to the rural population; especially the vulnerable. Reduction in MMR to 100/100,000 is one of its goals and the Janani Suraksha Yojana (JSY is the key strategy of NRHM to achieve this reduction. The JSY, as a safe motherhood intervention and modified alternative of the National Maternity Benefit Scheme (NMBS, has been implemented in all states and Union territories with special focus on low performing states. The main objective and vision of JSY is to reduce maternal, neo-natal mortality and promote institutional delivery among the poor pregnant women of rural and urban areas. This scheme is 100% centrally sponsored and has an integrated delivery and post delivery care with the help of a key person i.e. ASHA (Accredited Social Health Activist, followed by cash monetary help to the women. Objectives: 1To evaluate cash benefit service provided under JSY at different health care settings. 2 To know the perception and elicit suggestions of beneficiaries on quality of cash benefit scheme of JSY. Methodology: This is a health care institute based observational cross sectional study including randomly selected 200 JSY beneficiary mothers from the different health care settings i.e., Primary Health Centres, Community Health Centres, District Hospital and Medical College Hospital of Rewa District of Madhya Pradesh state. Data was collected with the help of set pro forma and then analysed with Epi Info 2000. Chi square test was applied appropriately. Results: 60% and 80% beneficiaries from PHC and CHC received cash within 1 week after discharge whereas 100% beneficiaries of District Hospital and Medical College Hospital received cash at the time of discharge; the overall distribution of time of cash disbursement among beneficiaries of

  4. Oral/dental items in the resident assessment instrument - minimum Data Set 2.0 lack validity: results of a retrospective, longitudinal validation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoben, Matthias; Poss, Jeffrey W; Norton, Peter G; Estabrooks, Carole A

    2016-01-01

    Oral health in nursing home residents is poor. Robust, mandated assessment tools such as the Resident Assessment Instrument - Minimum Data Set (RAI-MDS) 2.0 are key to monitoring and improving quality of oral health care in nursing homes. However, psychometric properties of RAI-MDS 2.0 oral/dental items have been challenged and criterion validity of these items has never been assessed. We used 73,829 RAI-MDS 2.0 records (13,118 residents), collected in a stratified random sample of 30 urban nursing homes in Western Canada (2007-2012). We derived a subsample of all residents ( n  = 2,711) with an admission and two or more subsequent annual assessments. Using Generalized Estimating Equations, adjusted for known covariates of nursing home residents' oral health, we assessed the association of oral/dental problems with time, dentate status, dementia, debris, and daily cleaning. Prevalence of oral/dental problems fluctuated (4.8 %-5.6 %) with no significant differences across time. This range of prevalence is substantially smaller than the ones reported by studies using clinical assessments by dental professionals. Denture wearers were less likely than dentate residents to have oral/dental problems (adjusted odds ratio [OR] = 0.458, 95 % confidence interval [CI]: 0.308, 0.680). Residents lacking teeth and not wearing dentures had higher odds than dentate residents of oral/dental problems (adjusted OR = 2.718, 95 % CI: 1.845, 4.003). Oral/dental problems were more prevalent in persons with debris (OR = 2.187, 95 % CI: 1.565, 3.057). Of the other variables assessed, only age at assessment was significantly associated with oral/dental problems. Robust, reliable RAI-MDS 2.0 oral health indicators are vital to monitoring and improving oral health related quality and safety in nursing homes. However, severe underdetection of oral/dental problems and lack of association of well-known oral health predictors with oral/dental problems suggest validity

  5. Numerical simulations of natural or mixed convection in vertical channels: comparisons of level-set numerical schemes for the modeling of immiscible incompressible fluid flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, R.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this research dissertation is at studying natural and mixed convections of fluid flows, and to develop and validate numerical schemes for interface tracking in order to treat incompressible and immiscible fluid flows, later. In a first step, an original numerical method, based on Finite Volume discretizations, is developed for modeling low Mach number flows with large temperature gaps. Three physical applications on air flowing through vertical heated parallel plates were investigated. We showed that the optimum spacing corresponding to the peak heat flux transferred from an array of isothermal parallel plates cooled by mixed convection is smaller than those for natural or forced convections when the pressure drop at the outlet keeps constant. We also proved that mixed convection flows resulting from an imposed flow rate may exhibit unexpected physical solutions; alternative model based on prescribed total pressure at inlet and fixed pressure at outlet sections gives more realistic results. For channels heated by heat flux on one wall only, surface radiation tends to suppress the onset of re-circulations at the outlet and to unify the walls temperature. In a second step, the mathematical model coupling the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations and the Level-Set method for interface tracking is derived. Improvements in fluid volume conservation by using high order discretization (ENO-WENO) schemes for the transport equation and variants of the signed distance equation are discussed. (author)

  6. Oral/dental items in the resident assessment instrument – minimum Data Set 2.0 lack validity: results of a retrospective, longitudinal validation study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Hoben

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Oral health in nursing home residents is poor. Robust, mandated assessment tools such as the Resident Assessment Instrument – Minimum Data Set (RAI-MDS 2.0 are key to monitoring and improving quality of oral health care in nursing homes. However, psychometric properties of RAI-MDS 2.0 oral/dental items have been challenged and criterion validity of these items has never been assessed. Methods We used 73,829 RAI-MDS 2.0 records (13,118 residents, collected in a stratified random sample of 30 urban nursing homes in Western Canada (2007–2012. We derived a subsample of all residents (n = 2,711 with an admission and two or more subsequent annual assessments. Using Generalized Estimating Equations, adjusted for known covariates of nursing home residents’ oral health, we assessed the association of oral/dental problems with time, dentate status, dementia, debris, and daily cleaning. Results Prevalence of oral/dental problems fluctuated (4.8 %–5.6 % with no significant differences across time. This range of prevalence is substantially smaller than the ones reported by studies using clinical assessments by dental professionals. Denture wearers were less likely than dentate residents to have oral/dental problems (adjusted odds ratio [OR] = 0.458, 95 % confidence interval [CI]: 0.308, 0.680. Residents lacking teeth and not wearing dentures had higher odds than dentate residents of oral/dental problems (adjusted OR = 2.718, 95 % CI: 1.845, 4.003. Oral/dental problems were more prevalent in persons with debris (OR = 2.187, 95 % CI: 1.565, 3.057. Of the other variables assessed, only age at assessment was significantly associated with oral/dental problems. Conclusions Robust, reliable RAI-MDS 2.0 oral health indicators are vital to monitoring and improving oral health related quality and safety in nursing homes. However, severe underdetection of oral/dental problems and lack of association of well-known oral

  7. Predictors of Caregiver Distress in the Community Setting Using the Home Care Version of the Resident Assessment Instrument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauley, Tim; Chang, Byung Wook; Wojtak, Anne; Seddon, Gayle; Hirdes, John

    The purpose of this study was to identify factors predictive of new onset and improved caregiver distress among informal caregivers providing assistance for clients receiving home care. Home care. The sample included 323,409 clients receiving home care from a Community Care Access Centre between March 2002 and March 2015 for whom data were available from two subsequent Resident Assessment Instrument-Home Care (RAI-HC) assessments. Separate multivariate logistic regression models were created for onset of and improvement in caregiver distress. Variables that increase the odds in onset of caregiver distress included primary caregiver is not satisfied with support received from family and friends; client lives with primary caregiver; 65 years and older; has Alzheimer and other related dementia; has condition or disease that makes cognition, activities of daily living, mood, or behavior patterns unstable; took sedatives in the last 7 days; Method for Assigning Priority Levels (MAPLe) score 4 or more; demonstrates persistent anger; has difficulty using the telephone; is married; requires 20 hr or more of informal help weekly; and Clinical Risk Scale score 4 or more. Variables that increased the odds of improved caregiver distress include client now lives with other persons (as compared with 90 days ago); demonstrates good prospects for recovery; treatment changes in last 30 days; surgical wound; female; one or more hospital visits in last 90 days; greater number of months between RAI-HC assessments; and two or more hours of physical activities in the last 3 days. Variables that decreased the odds of improved caregiver distress (i.e., persistent distress) include MAPLe score 4 or more; persistent anger; difficulty using telephone; Alzheimer, related dementia; requires interpreter; and lives with primary caregiver. Informal caregivers provide essential support for home care clients. Factors predictive of new onset and improved caregiver distress can be used by case

  8. Permanent resident

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John F. Fisher

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The training of physicians in the past century was based primarily on responsibility and the chain-of-command. Those with the bulk of that responsibility in the fields of pediatrics and internal medicine were residents. Residents trained the medical students and supervised them carefully in caring for patients. Most attending physicians supervised their teams at arm's length, primarily serving as teachers of the finer points of diagnosis and treatment during set periods of the day or week with a perfunctory signature on write-ups or progress notes. Residents endeavored to protect the attending physician from being heavily involved unless they were unsure about a clinical problem. Before contacting the attending physician, a more senior resident would be called. Responsibility was the ultimate teacher. The introduction of diagnosis-related groups by the federal government dramatically changed the health care delivery system, placing greater emphasis on attending physician visibility in the medical record, ultimately resulting in more attending physician involvement in day-to-day care of patients in academic institutions. Without specified content in attending notes, hospital revenues would decline. Although always in charge technically, attending physicians increasingly have assumed the role once dominated by the resident. Using biographical experiences of more than 40 years, the author acknowledges and praises the educational role of responsibility in his own training and laments its declining role in today's students and house staff.

  9. Permanent resident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, John F

    2016-01-01

    The training of physicians in the past century was based primarily on responsibility and the chain-of-command. Those with the bulk of that responsibility in the fields of pediatrics and internal medicine were residents. Residents trained the medical students and supervised them carefully in caring for patients. Most attending physicians supervised their teams at arm's length, primarily serving as teachers of the finer points of diagnosis and treatment during set periods of the day or week with a perfunctory signature on write-ups or progress notes. Residents endeavored to protect the attending physician from being heavily involved unless they were unsure about a clinical problem. Before contacting the attending physician, a more senior resident would be called. Responsibility was the ultimate teacher. The introduction of diagnosis-related groups by the federal government dramatically changed the health care delivery system, placing greater emphasis on attending physician visibility in the medical record, ultimately resulting in more attending physician involvement in day-to-day care of patients in academic institutions. Without specified content in attending notes, hospital revenues would decline. Although always in charge technically, attending physicians increasingly have assumed the role once dominated by the resident. Using biographical experiences of more than 40 years, the author acknowledges and praises the educational role of responsibility in his own training and laments its declining role in today's students and house staff.

  10. Different sets of ER-resident J-proteins regulate distinct polar nuclear-membrane fusion events in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruyama, Daisuke; Yamamoto, Masaya; Endo, Toshiya; Nishikawa, Shuh-ichi

    2014-11-01

    Angiosperm female gametophytes contain a central cell with two polar nuclei. In many species, including Arabidopsis thaliana, the polar nuclei fuse during female gametogenesis. We previously showed that BiP, an Hsp70 in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), was essential for membrane fusion during female gametogenesis. Hsp70 function requires partner proteins for full activity. J-domain containing proteins (J-proteins) are the major Hsp70 functional partners. A. thaliana ER contains three soluble J-proteins, AtERdj3A, AtERdj3B, and AtP58(IPK). Here, we analyzed mutants of these proteins and determined that double-mutant ovules lacking AtP58(IPK) and AtERdj3A or AtERdj3B were defective in polar nuclear fusion. Electron microscopy analysis identified that polar nuclei were in close contact, but no membrane fusion occurred in mutant ovules lacking AtP58(IPK) and AtERdj3A. The polar nuclear outer membrane appeared to be connected via the ER remaining at the inner unfused membrane in mutant ovules lacking AtP58(IPK) and AtERdj3B. These results indicate that ER-resident J-proteins, AtP58(IPK)/AtERdj3A and AtP58(IPK)/AtERdj3B, function at distinct steps of polar nuclear-membrane fusion. Similar to the bip1 bip2 double mutant female gametophytes, the aterdj3a atp58(ipk) double mutant female gametophytes defective in fusion of the outer polar nuclear membrane displayed aberrant endosperm proliferation after fertilization with wild-type pollen. However, endosperm proliferated normally after fertilization of the aterdj3b atp58(ipk) double mutant female gametophytes defective in fusion of the inner membrane. Our results indicate that the polar nuclear fusion defect itself does not cause an endosperm proliferation defect. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Attitudes towards help-seeking for sexual and gender-based violence in humanitarian settings: the case of Rwamwanja refugee settlement scheme in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odwe, George; Undie, Chi-Chi; Obare, Francis

    2018-03-12

    Sexual and gender-based violence (SGBV) remains a silent epidemic in many humanitarian settings with many survivors concealing their experiences. Attitudes towards help-seeking for SGBV is an important determinant of SGBV service use. This paper examined the association between attitudes towards seeking care and knowledge and perceptions about SGBV among men and women in a humanitarian setting in Uganda. A cross-sectional survey was conducted from May to June 2015 among 601 heads of refugee households (261 females and 340 males) in Rwamwanja Refugees Settlement Scheme, South West Uganda. Analysis entails cross-tabulation with chi-square test and estimation of a multivariate logistic regression model. Results showed increased odds of having a favorable attitude toward seeking help for SGBV among women with progressive attitudes towards SGBV (OR = 2.78, 95% CI: 1.56-4.95); who felt that SBGV was not tolerated in the community (OR = 2.03, 95% CI: 1.03-4.00); those who had not experienced violence (OR = 2.08, 95% CI: 1.06-4.07); and those who were aware of the timing for post-exposure prophylaxis (OR = 3.08, 95% CI: 1.57-6.04). In contrast, results for men sample showed lack of variations in attitude toward seeking help for SGBV for all independent variables except timing for PEP (OR = 2.57, 95% CI: 1.30-5.10). Among individuals who had experienced SGBV, the odds of seeking help was more likely among those with favorable attitude towards seeking help (OR = 4.22, 95% CI: 1.47-12.06) than among those with unfavorable help-seeking attitudes. The findings of the paper suggest that targeted interventions aimed at promoting awareness and progressive attitudes towards SGBV are likely to encourage positive help-seeking attitudes and behaviors in humanitarian contexts.

  12. Implementing a Multifaceted Quality-Improvement Curriculum in an Obstetrics-Gynecology Resident Continuity-Clinic Setting: A 4-Year Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepulveda, Debra; Varaklis, Kalli

    2012-01-01

    Background Although many residency programs are instituting quality improvement (QI) curricula in response to both institutional and external mandates, there are few reports of successful integration of resident initiated projects into these QI curricula with documented impact on health care processes and measures. Intervention We introduced a multifaceted curriculum into an Obstetrics-Gynecology continuity clinic. Following a needs assessment, we developed a didactic session to introduce residents to QI tools and the how to of a mentored resident-initiated project. Resident projects were presented to peers and faculty and were evaluated. A postgraduation survey assessed residents' satisfaction with the curriculum and preparedness for involvement in QI initiatives after residency. We also assessed whether this resulted in sustained improvement in health care measures. Results The curriculum was presented to 7 classes of residents (n  =  25) and 17 resident initiated projects have been completed. Twenty-one residents (84%) completed the preintervention survey and 12 of 17 (71%) residents who completed the entire curriculum completed the postintervention survey. Sustained change in surrogate health measures was documented for 4 projects focused on improving clinical measures, and improvement in clinical systems was sustained in 9 of the remaining 13 projects (69%). Most of the respondents (75%, n  =  9) agreed or strongly agreed that the projects done in residency provided a helpful foundation to their current QI efforts. Conclusion This project successfully demonstrates that a multifaceted program in QI education can be implemented in a busy Obstetrics-Gynecology residency program, resulting in sustained improvement in surrogate health measures and in clinical systems. A longitudinal model for resident projects results in an opportunity for reflection, project revision, and a maintenance plan for continued clinical impact. PMID:23730448

  13. Religious Affiliation, Religiosity, and Spirituality in Pediatric Residents: Effects on Communication and Self-Efficacy with Adolescents in a Clinical Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Jennifer L; Hensel, Devon J

    2017-10-20

    Religion and spirituality are known influences on medical providers' care of patients, but no studies have assessed resident beliefs related to patient perception of clinical care. The main objective of our study was to assess resident religious affiliation, religiosity, and spirituality in relation to self-efficacy and communication with patients during adolescent clinic visits. We found that religious affiliation and religiosity appear to affect patient perception of communication with residents during adolescent visits; spirituality had little noted effect. Further research is warranted, especially regarding resident and patient gender correlations and differences in religious affiliation effects on patient perception of care.

  14. Locus of health control as a predictor of diet in pregnant women residing in a small town and rural setting in Małopolska district.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gacek, Maria

    2013-01-01

    The locus of health control is one of the individual characteristics determining the diet of an individual. The aim of this study was to analyse the consumption frequency of selected food products depending on the locus of health control in a group of pregnant women residing in a small town and rural setting in Małopolska district. The study was conducted in a group of 300 pregnant women from Małopolska region, who were between 20 and 40 years of age (29.02 +/- 6.33). The consumption frequency of food products was examined with a prepared questionnaire, in a 7-item scale (from 7 points--several times a day to 1 point--never). The locus of health control was determined with the MHLC scale developed by K.A. Wallston et al., and adapted by Z. Juczyński. The relationship between the MHLC scale and the frequency of consumption of various products was estimated on the basis of Spearman's coefficients of rank correlation and the Mann-Whitney U test, using Statistica 10.0 software. Higher level of internal control (MHLC-I) was associated with significant increase in the consumption frequency of orange and red vegetables (p locus of health control (MHLC-C) was associated with significantly reduced frequency of consuming whole grains (p control made more rational nutritional choices significantly more frequently than those with the external control.

  15. Colour schemes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Leeuwen, Theo

    2013-01-01

    This chapter presents a framework for analysing colour schemes based on a parametric approach that includes not only hue, value and saturation, but also purity, transparency, luminosity, luminescence, lustre, modulation and differentiation.......This chapter presents a framework for analysing colour schemes based on a parametric approach that includes not only hue, value and saturation, but also purity, transparency, luminosity, luminescence, lustre, modulation and differentiation....

  16. Evaluation of a knowledge transfer scheme to improve policy making and practices in health promotion and disease prevention setting in French regions: a realist study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cambon, Linda; Petit, Audrey; Ridde, Valery; Dagenais, Christian; Porcherie, Marion; Pommier, Jeanine; Ferron, Chrisine; Minary, Laetitia; Alla, François

    2017-06-29

    Evidence-based decision-making and practice are pivotal in public health. However, barriers do persist and they relate to evidence properties, organisations and contexts. To address these major knowledge transfer (KT) issues, we need to rethink how knowledge is produced and used, to enhance our understanding of decision-making processes, logics and mechanisms and to examine the ability of public health services to integrate research findings into their decisions and operations. This article presents a realist evaluation protocol to assess a KT scheme in prevention policy and practice at local level in France. This study is a comparative multiple case study, using a realist approach, to assess a KT scheme in regional health agencies (ARS) and regional non-profit organisations for health education and promotion (IREPS), by analysing the configurations contexts/mechanisms/outcomes of it. The KT scheme assessed is designed for the use of six reviews of systematic reviews concerning the following themes: nutrition, alcohol, tobacco smoking, physical activity, emotional and sexual life and psychosocial skills. It combines the following activities: supporting the access to and the adaptation of scientific and usable evidences; strengthening professionals' skills to analyse, adopt and use the evidences in the course of their practices and their decision-making process; facilitating the use of evidence in the organisations and processes. RAMESE II reporting standards for realist evaluations was used. The aims of this study are to experiment and characterise the factors related to the scheme's ability to enable public health stakeholders to address the challenges of KT and to integrate scientific knowledge into policy and practice. We will use the realist approach in order to document the parameters of successful KT strategies in the specific contexts of preventive health services in France, while seeking to determine the transferability of such strategies.

  17. Tabled Execution in Scheme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willcock, J J; Lumsdaine, A; Quinlan, D J

    2008-08-19

    Tabled execution is a generalization of memorization developed by the logic programming community. It not only saves results from tabled predicates, but also stores the set of currently active calls to them; tabled execution can thus provide meaningful semantics for programs that seemingly contain infinite recursions with the same arguments. In logic programming, tabled execution is used for many purposes, both for improving the efficiency of programs, and making tasks simpler and more direct to express than with normal logic programs. However, tabled execution is only infrequently applied in mainstream functional languages such as Scheme. We demonstrate an elegant implementation of tabled execution in Scheme, using a mix of continuation-passing style and mutable data. We also show the use of tabled execution in Scheme for a problem in formal language and automata theory, demonstrating that tabled execution can be a valuable tool for Scheme users.

  18. Abolition of set-aside schemes, associated impacts on habitat structure and modelling of potential effects of cross-farm regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Levin, G.; Jepsen, Martin Rudbeck

    2010-01-01

    In intensively farmed regions, habitat fragmentation represents a major pressure on biodiversity. Depending on its spatial setting, set-aside land can increase size and connectivity of habitats and thus counteract fragmentation. In 2008, the EU-wide set-aside obligation was suspended and a large...... proportion of set-aside land was re-cultivated. With Denmark as case we apply an indicator to measure the effect of set-aside land on spatial structure of semi-natural habitats in term of habitat size and connectivity. Furthermore, we model effects of a hypothetical spatial regulation, where set-aside land...... with the greatest benefit for habitat structure is retained as uncultivated, while set-aside land with the least effect is re-cultivated. The model is applied to individual farms and to farm agglomerations of increasing sizes, enabling us to explore potential effects of cross-farm regulation. The novelty of our...

  19. The struggle to belong. Dealing with diversity in 21st century urban settings. Views of gentrification from below: how Rotterdam local residents experience gentrification?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. Snel (Erik); S.G.C. Aussen (Salome); F. Berkhof (Fense); Q. Renlo (Quirine)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractAbstract The paper starts with the observation that gentrification literature gives different accounts of the social consequences of gentrification. Whereas some observers underline the negative consequences of gentrification for indigenous residents or even equate gentrification with

  20. The National Health Insurance Scheme in Ghana's Upper West Region: a gendered perspective of insurance acquisition in a resource-poor setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, Jenna; Luginaah, Isaac; Mkandawire, Paul

    2014-12-01

    Ghana's National Health Insurance Scheme (NHIS) was designed as a pro-poor strategy to create wider access to health care. While recent studies have shown that wealth is an important factor in enrolment in the scheme, there is little understanding of its interlinkages with the geographical divisions and deep-seated deprivation in the northern region. In response to the nexus of poverty, gender and access to health care, this research took place in Ghana's Upper West Region (UWR), one of the poorest regions and yet paradoxically touting the highest enrolment rates. Using data from a population survey (n = 2119) collected between May to December 2011, we used multinomial regression to examine factors that influence enrolment, controlling for theoretically relevant covariates. Findings reveal that although wealth and desire for health insurance are contributing factors, education was the primary determinant in both never enrolling and in dropping out, and that these factors impact men and women differently. The study also shows that Muslims were less likely to enrol and also women living in non-nuclear households were far more likely to dropout. Our results demonstrate clear gendered divisions in accessing the NHIS, and raised serious equity concerns in the UWR. By focussing on the context of the UWR, we show the importance of understanding intra-household bargaining and resource allocation via the gender dynamics related to health insurance procurement and maintenance, and discuss associated policy implications. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Quality of life of residents with dementia in long-term care settings in the Netherlands and Belgium: design of a longitudinal comparative study in traditional nursing homes and small-scale living facilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luijkx Katrien G

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The increase in the number of people with dementia will lead to greater demand for residential care. Currently, large nursing homes are trying to transform their traditional care for residents with dementia to a more home-like approach, by developing small-scale living facilities. It is often assumed that small-scale living will improve the quality of life of residents with dementia. However, little scientific evidence is currently available to test this. The following research question is addressed in this study: Which (combination of changes in elements affects (different dimensions of the quality of life of elderly residents with dementia in long-term care settings over the course of one year? Methods/design A longitudinal comparative study in traditional and small-scale long-term care settings, which follows a quasi-experimental design, will be carried out in Belgium and the Netherlands. To answer the research question, a model has been developed which incorporates relevant elements influencing quality of life in long-term care settings. Validated instruments will be used to evaluate the role of these elements, divided into environmental characteristics (country, type of ward, group size and nursing staff; basic personal characteristics (age, sex, cognitive decline, weight and activities of daily living; behavioural characteristics (behavioural problems and depression; behavioural interventions (use of restraints and use of psychotropic medication; and social interaction (social engagement and visiting frequency of relatives. The main outcome measure for residents in the model is quality of life. Data are collected at baseline, after six and twelve months, from residents living in either small-scale or traditional care settings. Discussion The results of this study will provide an insight into the determinants of quality of life for people with dementia living in traditional and small-scale long-term care settings in

  2. Tradable schemes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.K. Hoogland (Jiri); C.D.D. Neumann

    2000-01-01

    textabstractIn this article we present a new approach to the numerical valuation of derivative securities. The method is based on our previous work where we formulated the theory of pricing in terms of tradables. The basic idea is to fit a finite difference scheme to exact solutions of the pricing

  3. Satisfaction among residents in ASHP-accredited pharmacy residency programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanDenBerg, C; Murphy, J E

    1997-07-01

    The level of work satisfaction among pharmacists in ASHP-accredited residencies was studied. In March 1996 a questionnaire designed to measure residency satisfaction was mailed to 697 individuals in ASHP-accredited pharmacy practice and specialty practice residencies. Subjects responded to 16 statements relating to intrinsic and extrinsic determinants of work satisfaction on a scale of 1 to 5, where 1 = strongly disagree and 5 = strongly agree. Questionnaires were returned by 413 (59%) of the residents. The respondents were predominantly women (76%), and most (86%) had at least a Pharm. D. degree. Hospitals were the primary work setting (88%). Of the 413 residents, 305 were in pharmacy practice residencies and 108 were in specialized residencies. None of the mean scores indicated disagreement (scores 3) with the negatively worded statements. The median and mode were equal to 2 (disagree) for the three negatively worded items and 4 (agree) for all but three positively worded items. Only 8% of the residents indicated that they would not accept the residency again if given the chance. Specialized residents tended to rate positively worded statements higher and negatively worded statements lower than pharmacy practice residents. Female residents indicated greater satisfaction than male residents. Pay and benefits were rated slightly better than neutral. Pharmacy residents appeared generally satisfied with their residencies. Specialized pharmacy residents were more satisfied than pharmacy practice residents, and women were more satisfied than men.

  4. Link Monotonic Allocation Schemes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slikker, M.

    1999-01-01

    A network is a graph where the nodes represent players and the links represent bilateral interaction between the players. A reward game assigns a value to every network on a fixed set of players. An allocation scheme specifies how to distribute the worth of every network among the players. This

  5. Residents as teachers: survey of Canadian family medicine residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Victor K; Burke, Clarissa A; Narula, Archna

    2013-09-01

    To examine Canadian family medicine residents' perspectives surrounding teaching opportunities and mentorship in teaching. A 16-question online survey. Canadian family medicine residency programs. Between May and June 2011, all first- and second-year family medicine residents registered in 1 of the 17 Canadian residency programs as of September 2010 were invited to participate. A total of 568 of 2266 residents responded. Demographic characteristics, teaching opportunities during residency, and resident perceptions about teaching. A total of 77.7% of family medicine residents indicated that they were either interested or highly interested in teaching as part of their future careers, and 78.9% of family medicine residents had had opportunities to teach in various settings. However, only 60.1% of respondents were aware of programs within residency intended to support residents as teachers, and 33.0% of residents had been observed during teaching encounters. It appears that most Canadian family medicine residents have the opportunity to teach during their residency training. Many are interested in integrating teaching as part of their future career goals. Family medicine residencies should strongly consider programs to support and further develop resident teaching skills.

  6. Resident resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, J L; Cleary, B

    1999-01-01

    Clearly, faculty must work hard with residents to explore the nature of their resistance to a program's learning and growth opportunities. Initial steps to a deeper, more effective, and longer-lasting change process must be pursued. If resident resistance is mishandled or misunderstood, then learning and professional growth may be sidetracked and the purposes of residency training defeated. Listening to the whole person of the resident and avoiding the trap of getting caught up in merely responding to select resident behaviors that irritate us is critical. Every faculty member in the family practice residency program must recognize resistance as a form of defense that cannot immediately be torn down or taken away. Resident defenses have important purposes to play in stress reduction even if they are not always healthy. Residents, especially interns, use resistance to avoid a deeper and more truthful look at themselves as physicians. A family practice residency program that sees whole persons in their residents and that respects resident defenses will effectively manage the stress and disharmony inherent to the resistant resident.

  7. Trainee resident participation in health research in a resource-constrained setting in south-eastern Nigeria: perspectives, issues and challenges. A cross-sectional survey of three residency training centres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eze Boniface

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The participation of trainers and trainees in health research is critical to advance medical science. Overcoming barriers and enhancing incentives are essential to sustain a research culture and extend the frontiers of medical education. In this study, we investigated the roles of individual and system factors influencing trainee resident participation in health research in Enugu, south-eastern Nigeria. Methods This cross-sectional survey of trainee residents was conducted across three residency training centres in Enugu, Nigeria, between February and March, 2010. The number and speciality distribution of trainee residents were determined from personnel records at each centre. A 19-item questionnaire was used to record demographic characteristics, research training/experience, and attitudes toward and perceived barriers to health research. Data were analysed to yield frequencies, percentages and proportions. Values of p  Results The response rate was 93.2%. The respondents (n = 136 comprised 109 males and 27 females. Their mean ± standard deviation age was 35.8 ± 5.6 years (range: 25–53 years. Participation in research was significantly associated with previous research training [odds ratio (OR: 2.90; 95% confidence interval (CI: 1.35–6.25, p = 0.003, β = 22.57], previous research participation (OR: 2.21; 95% CI: 0.94–5.29, p = 0.047, β = 22.53 and research publication (OR: 2.63; 95% CI: 1.00–7.06, p = 0.03, β = 22.57. Attitude towards research was significantly influenced by perceived usefulness of research in patient care (OR: 7.10; 95% CI: 3.33–15.13, p = 0.001, job promotion (OR: 8.97; 95% CI: 4.12–19.53, p = 0.001 and better understanding of disease (OR: 21.37; 95% CI: 8.71–54.44, p = 0.001. Time constraints (OR: 0.06; 95% CI = 0.025–0.14, p = 0.001, funding (OR: 0.028; 95% CI: 0.008–0.10, p = 0.001 and mentorship (OR: 0.086; 95% CI

  8. Endurance Enhancement and High Speed Set/Reset of 50 nm Generation HfO2 Based Resistive Random Access Memory Cell by Intelligent Set/Reset Pulse Shape Optimization and Verify Scheme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higuchi, Kazuhide; Miyaji, Kousuke; Johguchi, Koh; Takeuchi, Ken

    2012-02-01

    This paper proposes a verify-programming method for the resistive random access memory (ReRAM) cell which achieves a 50-times higher endurance and a fast set and reset compared with the conventional method. The proposed verify-programming method uses the incremental pulse width with turnback (IPWWT) for the reset and the incremental voltage with turnback (IVWT) for the set. With the combination of IPWWT reset and IVWT set, the endurance-cycle increases from 48 ×103 to 2444 ×103 cycles. Furthermore, the measured data retention-time after 20 ×103 set/reset cycles is estimated to be 10 years. Additionally, the filamentary based physical model is proposed to explain the set/reset failure mechanism with various set/reset pulse shapes. The reset pulse width and set voltage correspond to the width and length of the conductive-filament, respectively. Consequently, since the proposed IPWWT and IVWT recover set and reset failures of ReRAM cells, the endurance-cycles are improved.

  9. Abolition of set-aside schemes, associated impacts on habitat structure and modelling of potential effects of cross-farm regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Levin, G.; Jepsen, Martin Rudbeck

    2010-01-01

    with the greatest benefit for habitat structure is retained as uncultivated, while set-aside land with the least effect is re-cultivated. The model is applied to individual farms and to farm agglomerations of increasing sizes, enabling us to explore potential effects of cross-farm regulation. The novelty of our...... reduces impacts. Effects increase with increasing size of farm agglomerations. However, marginal benefits become negligible at agglomeration sizes over 36 km(2). (C) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved...

  10. A segmentation and classification scheme for single tooth in MicroCT images based on 3D level set and k-means+.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Liansheng; Li, Shusheng; Chen, Rongzhen; Liu, Sze-Yu; Chen, Jyh-Cheng

    2017-04-01

    Accurate classification of different anatomical structures of teeth from medical images provides crucial information for the stress analysis in dentistry. Usually, the anatomical structures of teeth are manually labeled by experienced clinical doctors, which is time consuming. However, automatic segmentation and classification is a challenging task because the anatomical structures and surroundings of the tooth in medical images are rather complex. Therefore, in this paper, we propose an effective framework which is designed to segment the tooth with a Selective Binary and Gaussian Filtering Regularized Level Set (GFRLS) method improved by fully utilizing 3 dimensional (3D) information, and classify the tooth by employing unsupervised learning i.e., k-means++ method. In order to evaluate the proposed method, the experiments are conducted on the sufficient and extensive datasets of mandibular molars. The experimental results show that our method can achieve higher accuracy and robustness compared to other three clustering methods. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Scheme Program Documentation Tools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørmark, Kurt

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes and discusses two different Scheme documentation tools. The first is SchemeDoc, which is intended for documentation of the interfaces of Scheme libraries (APIs). The second is the Scheme Elucidator, which is for internal documentation of Scheme programs. Although the tools...... as named functions in Scheme. Finally, the Scheme Elucidator is able to integrate SchemeDoc resources as part of an internal documentation resource....

  12. Beyond Scheme F

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliott, C.J.; Fisher, H.; Pepin, J. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Gillmann, R. [Federal Highway Administration, Washington, DC (United States)

    1996-07-01

    Traffic classification techniques were evaluated using data from a 1993 investigation of the traffic flow patterns on I-20 in Georgia. First we improved the data by sifting through the data base, checking against the original video for questionable events and removing and/or repairing questionable events. We used this data base to critique the performance quantitatively of a classification method known as Scheme F. As a context for improving the approach, we show in this paper that scheme F can be represented as a McCullogh-Pitts neural network, oar as an equivalent decomposition of the plane. We found that Scheme F, among other things, severely misrepresents the number of vehicles in Class 3 by labeling them as Class 2. After discussing the basic classification problem in terms of what is measured, and what is the desired prediction goal, we set forth desirable characteristics of the classification scheme and describe a recurrent neural network system that partitions the high dimensional space up into bins for each axle separation. the collection of bin numbers, one for each of the axle separations, specifies a region in the axle space called a hyper-bin. All the vehicles counted that have the same set of in numbers are in the same hyper-bin. The probability of the occurrence of a particular class in that hyper- bin is the relative frequency with which that class occurs in that set of bin numbers. This type of algorithm produces classification results that are much more balanced and uniform with respect to Classes 2 and 3 and Class 10. In particular, the cancellation of errors of classification that occurs is for many applications the ideal classification scenario. The neural network results are presented in the form of a primary classification network and a reclassification network, the performance matrices for which are presented.

  13. Additive operator-difference schemes splitting schemes

    CERN Document Server

    Vabishchevich, Petr N

    2013-01-01

    Applied mathematical modeling isconcerned with solving unsteady problems. This bookshows how toconstruct additive difference schemes to solve approximately unsteady multi-dimensional problems for PDEs. Two classes of schemes are highlighted: methods of splitting with respect to spatial variables (alternating direction methods) and schemes of splitting into physical processes. Also regionally additive schemes (domain decomposition methods)and unconditionally stable additive schemes of multi-component splitting are considered for evolutionary equations of first and second order as well as for sy

  14. Integration of current identity-based district-varied health insurance schemes in China: implications and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hai-Qiang; Liu, Zhi-Heng; Zhang, Yong-Zhao; Luo, Zhuo-Jing

    2012-03-01

    With China's great efforts to improve public health insurance, clear progress has been achieved toward the ambitious full health insurance coverage strategy for all. The current health insurance schemes in China fall into three categories: urban employee basic health insurance scheme, urban resident scheme, and new rural cooperative medical system. Despite their phasic success, these substantially identity-based, district-varied health insurance schemes have separate operation mechanisms, various administrative institutions, and consequently poor connections. On the other hand, the establishment and implementation of various health insurance schemes provide the preconditioning of more sophisticated social health insurance schemes, the increase in the income of urban and rural people, and the great importance attached by the government. Moreover, the reform of the "Hukou" (household register) system provides economical, official, and institutional bases. Therefore, the establishment of an urban-rural integrated, citizen-based, and nationwide-universal health insurance scheme by the government is critically important to attain equality and national connection. Accordingly, the differences between urban and rural areas should be minimized. In addition, the current schemes, administrative institutions, and networks should be integrated and interconnected. Moreover, more expenditure on health insurance might be essential for the integration despite the settings of global financial crisis. Regardless of the possible challenges in implementation, the proposed new scheme is promising and may be applied in the near future for the benefit of the Chinese people and global health.

  15. Analysis of residents' willingness to pay to reduce air pollution to improve children's health in community and hospital settings in Shanghai, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Keran; Wu, Jinyi; Wang, Rui; Yang, Yingying; Chen, Renjie; Maddock, Jay E; Lu, Yuanan

    2015-11-15

    Shanghai, along with many major cities in China, faces deterioration of air quality and increases in air pollution-related respiratory diseases (RDs) in children due to rapid industrialization and urbanization. The Contingent Valuation Method (CVM) was used to qualitatively and quantitatively measure the willingness to pay (WTP) for reducing children's RDs through air quality improvement. Between April and May, 2014, 975 face-to-face interviews were collected from parents in a community-based and a hospital-setting in Shanghai. Multiple imputation and the Probit model were used to determine the relationship between the WTP and the related environmental factors, child health factors and the socio-economic status. Most respondents reported being willing to make a financial contribution to improve air quality in both the community (52.6%) and hospital (70.2%) samples. Those in the hospital setting were willing to pay significantly more ¥504 (USD$80.7) compared to the community sample ¥428 ($68.5) as expected. Reasons for those not being willing to pay included lack of disposable income and believing that responsibility of the air quality was a community issue. These did not differ by sample. Annual household income and education were related to WTP. This study indicated that parents in Shanghai would be willing to pay for improved air quality. Children's health can be the incentive for the citizens' participation and support in the air quality improvement, therefore, hospital settings may present unique places to improve education about air quality and enhance advocacy efforts. This study also suggested that future environmental policies be addressed more rigorously for targeted populations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. One-qubit fingerprinting schemes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beaudrap, J. Niel de

    2004-01-01

    Fingerprinting is a technique in communication complexity in which two parties (Alice and Bob) with large data sets send short messages to a third party (a referee), who attempts to compute some function of the larger data sets. For the equality function, the referee attempts to determine whether Alice's data and Bob's data are the same. In this paper, we consider the extreme scenario of performing fingerprinting where Alice and Bob both send either one bit (classically) or one qubit (in the quantum regime) messages to the referee for the equality problem. Restrictive bounds are demonstrated for the error probability of one-bit fingerprinting schemes, and show that it is easy to construct one-qubit fingerprinting schemes which can outperform any one-bit fingerprinting scheme. The author hopes that this analysis will provide results useful for performing physical experiments, which may help to advance implementations for more general quantum communication protocols

  17. Constraining a hybrid volatility basis-set model for aging of wood-burning emissions using smog chamber experiments: a box-model study based on the VBS scheme of the CAMx model (v5.40)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciarelli, Giancarlo; El Haddad, Imad; Bruns, Emily; Aksoyoglu, Sebnem; Möhler, Ottmar; Baltensperger, Urs; Prévôt, André S. H.

    2017-06-01

    In this study, novel wood combustion aging experiments performed at different temperatures (263 and 288 K) in a ˜ 7 m3 smog chamber were modelled using a hybrid volatility basis set (VBS) box model, representing the emission partitioning and their oxidation against OH. We combine aerosol-chemistry box-model simulations with unprecedented measurements of non-traditional volatile organic compounds (NTVOCs) from a high-resolution proton transfer reaction mass spectrometer (PTR-MS) and with organic aerosol measurements from an aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS). Due to this, we are able to observationally constrain the amounts of different NTVOC aerosol precursors (in the model) relative to low volatility and semi-volatile primary organic material (OMsv), which is partitioned based on current published volatility distribution data. By comparing the NTVOC / OMsv ratios at different temperatures, we determine the enthalpies of vaporization of primary biomass-burning organic aerosols. Further, the developed model allows for evaluating the evolution of oxidation products of the semi-volatile and volatile precursors with aging. More than 30 000 box-model simulations were performed to retrieve the combination of parameters that best fit the observed organic aerosol mass and O : C ratios. The parameters investigated include the NTVOC reaction rates and yields as well as enthalpies of vaporization and the O : C of secondary organic aerosol surrogates. Our results suggest an average ratio of NTVOCs to the sum of non-volatile and semi-volatile organic compounds of ˜ 4.75. The mass yields of these compounds determined for a wide range of atmospherically relevant temperatures and organic aerosol (OA) concentrations were predicted to vary between 8 and 30 % after 5 h of continuous aging. Based on the reaction scheme used, reaction rates of the NTVOC mixture range from 3.0 × 10-11 to 4. 0 × 10-11 cm3 molec-1 s-1. The average enthalpy of vaporization of secondary organic aerosol

  18. Efficient adaptive fuzzy control scheme

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Papp, Z.; Driessen, B.J.F.

    1995-01-01

    The paper presents an adaptive nonlinear (state-) feedback control structure, where the nonlinearities are implemented as smooth fuzzy mappings defined as rule sets. The fine tuning and adaption of the controller is realized by an indirect adaptive scheme, which modifies the parameters of the fuzzy

  19. ESCAP mobile training scheme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasas, F M

    1977-01-01

    In response to a United Nations resolution, the Mobile Training Scheme (MTS) was set up to provide training to the trainers of national cadres engaged in frontline and supervisory tasks in social welfare and rural development. The training is innovative in its being based on an analysis of field realities. The MTS team consisted of a leader, an expert on teaching methods and materials, and an expert on action research and evaluation. The country's trainers from different departments were sent to villages to work for a short period and to report their problems in fulfilling their roles. From these grass roots experiences, they made an analysis of the job, determining what knowledge, attitude and skills it required. Analysis of daily incidents and problems were used to produce indigenous teaching materials drawn from actual field practice. How to consider the problems encountered through government structures for policy making and decisions was also learned. Tasks of the students were to identify the skills needed for role performance by job analysis, daily diaries and project histories; to analyze the particular community by village profiles; to produce indigenous teaching materials; and to practice the role skills by actual role performance. The MTS scheme was tried in Nepal in 1974-75; 3 training programs trained 25 trainers and 51 frontline workers; indigenous teaching materials were created; technical papers written; and consultations were provided. In Afghanistan the scheme was used in 1975-76; 45 participants completed the training; seminars were held; and an ongoing Council was created. It is hoped that the training program will be expanded to other countries.

  20. Residency training program: Perceptions of residents

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. Background: There is a phobia among doctors for the residency training program, since the establishment of ... Materials and Methods: Structured questionnaires were administered to residents at 3 training institutions in Nigeria. Results: ... Keywords: Decentralization, motivation, perception, remuneration, residents.

  1. Numerical schemes for explosion hazards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Therme, Nicolas

    2015-01-01

    In nuclear facilities, internal or external explosions can cause confinement breaches and radioactive materials release in the environment. Hence, modeling such phenomena is crucial for safety matters. Blast waves resulting from explosions are modeled by the system of Euler equations for compressible flows, whereas Navier-Stokes equations with reactive source terms and level set techniques are used to simulate the propagation of flame front during the deflagration phase. The purpose of this thesis is to contribute to the creation of efficient numerical schemes to solve these complex models. The work presented here focuses on two major aspects: first, the development of consistent schemes for the Euler equations, then the buildup of reliable schemes for the front propagation. In both cases, explicit in time schemes are used, but we also introduce a pressure correction scheme for the Euler equations. Staggered discretization is used in space. It is based on the internal energy formulation of the Euler system, which insures its positivity and avoids tedious discretization of the total energy over staggered grids. A discrete kinetic energy balance is derived from the scheme and a source term is added in the discrete internal energy balance equation to preserve the exact total energy balance at the limit. High order methods of MUSCL type are used in the discrete convective operators, based solely on material velocity. They lead to positivity of density and internal energy under CFL conditions. This ensures that the total energy cannot grow and we can furthermore derive a discrete entropy inequality. Under stability assumptions of the discrete L8 and BV norms of the scheme's solutions one can prove that a sequence of converging discrete solutions necessarily converges towards the weak solution of the Euler system. Besides it satisfies a weak entropy inequality at the limit. Concerning the front propagation, we transform the flame front evolution equation (the so

  2. Comparing Security Notions of Secret Sharing Schemes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Songsong Dai

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Different security notions of secret sharing schemes have been proposed by different information measures. Entropies, such as Shannon entropy and min entropy, are frequently used in the setting security notions for secret sharing schemes. Different to the entropies, Kolmogorov complexity was also defined and used in study the security of individual instances for secret sharing schemes. This paper is concerned with these security notions for secret sharing schemes defined by the variational measures, including Shannon entropy, guessing probability, min entropy and Kolmogorov complexity.

  3. Pathology Informatics Essentials for Residents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karcher, Donald S.; Harrison, James H.; Sinard, John H.; Riben, Michael W.; Boyer, Philip J.; Plath, Sue; Thompson, Arlene; Pantanowitz, Liron

    2016-01-01

    Context: Recognition of the importance of informatics to the practice of pathology has surged. Training residents in pathology informatics has been a daunting task for most residency programs in the United States because faculty often lacks experience and training resources. Nevertheless, developing resident competence in informatics is essential for the future of pathology as a specialty. Objective: To develop and deliver a pathology informatics curriculum and instructional framework that guides pathology residency programs in training residents in critical pathology informatics knowledge and skills, and meets Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education Informatics Milestones. Design: The College of American Pathologists, Association of Pathology Chairs, and Association for Pathology Informatics formed a partnership and expert work group to identify critical pathology informatics training outcomes and to create a highly adaptable curriculum and instructional approach, supported by a multiyear change management strategy. Results: Pathology Informatics Essentials for Residents (PIER) is a rigorous approach for educating all pathology residents in important pathology informatics knowledge and skills. PIER includes an instructional resource guide and toolkit for incorporating informatics training into residency programs that vary in needs, size, settings, and resources. PIER is available at http://www.apcprods.org/PIER (accessed April 6, 2016). Conclusions: PIER is an important contribution to informatics training in pathology residency programs. PIER introduces pathology trainees to broadly useful informatics concepts and tools that are relevant to practice. PIER provides residency program directors with a means to implement a standardized informatics training curriculum, to adapt the approach to local program needs, and to evaluate resident performance and progress over time. PMID:28725772

  4. Pathology Informatics Essentials for Residents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter H. Henricks MD

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Context: Recognition of the importance of informatics to the practice of pathology has surged. Training residents in pathology informatics has been a daunting task for most residency programs in the United States because faculty often lacks experience and training resources. Nevertheless, developing resident competence in informatics is essential for the future of pathology as a specialty. Objective: To develop and deliver a pathology informatics curriculum and instructional framework that guides pathology residency programs in training residents in critical pathology informatics knowledge and skills, and meets Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education Informatics Milestones. Design: The College of American Pathologists, Association of Pathology Chairs, and Association for Pathology Informatics formed a partnership and expert work group to identify critical pathology informatics training outcomes and to create a highly adaptable curriculum and instructional approach, supported by a multiyear change management strategy. Results: Pathology Informatics Essentials for Residents (PIER is a rigorous approach for educating all pathology residents in important pathology informatics knowledge and skills. PIER includes an instructional resource guide and toolkit for incorporating informatics training into residency programs that vary in needs, size, settings, and resources. PIER is available at http://www.apcprods.org/PIER (accessed April 6, 2016. Conclusions: PIER is an important contribution to informatics training in pathology residency programs. PIER introduces pathology trainees to broadly useful informatics concepts and tools that are relevant to practice. PIER provides residency program directors with a means to implement a standardized informatics training curriculum, to adapt the approach to local program needs, and to evaluate resident performance and progress over time.

  5. The Mawala irrigation scheme

    OpenAIRE

    de Bont, Chris

    2018-01-01

    This booklet was written to share research results with farmers and practitioners in Tanzania. It gives a summary of the empirical material collected during three months of field work in the Mawala irrigation scheme (Kilimanjaro Region), and includes maps, tables and photos. It describes the history of the irrigation scheme, as well current irrigation and farming practices. It especially focuses on the different kinds of infrastructural improvement in the scheme (by farmers and the government...

  6. Succesful labelling schemes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juhl, Hans Jørn; Stacey, Julia

    2001-01-01

    to carry out a campaign targeted at this segment. The awareness percentage is already 92 % and 67% of the respondents believe they know the meaning of the scheme. But it stands to reason to study whether the respondents actually know what the labelling scheme stands for or if they just think they do...

  7. Adaptive protection scheme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Sitharthan

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at modelling an electronically coupled distributed energy resource with an adaptive protection scheme. The electronically coupled distributed energy resource is a microgrid framework formed by coupling the renewable energy source electronically. Further, the proposed adaptive protection scheme provides a suitable protection to the microgrid for various fault conditions irrespective of the operating mode of the microgrid: namely, grid connected mode and islanded mode. The outstanding aspect of the developed adaptive protection scheme is that it monitors the microgrid and instantly updates relay fault current according to the variations that occur in the system. The proposed adaptive protection scheme also employs auto reclosures, through which the proposed adaptive protection scheme recovers faster from the fault and thereby increases the consistency of the microgrid. The effectiveness of the proposed adaptive protection is studied through the time domain simulations carried out in the PSCAD⧹EMTDC software environment.

  8. Numerical schemes for solving the Euler equations of gas dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dervieux, A.; Vijayasundaram, G.

    1985-01-01

    The first-order upwind schemes of Godunov-Van Leer, Steger-Warming, Godunov, Roe, Osher and Glimm; Godunov type scheme I; the second-order upwind schemes of Van Leer, Fromm-Van Leer, Hancock-Van Leer, and Moretti; and the second-order centered schemes of Richtmyer, Mac Cormack, Lerat-Peyrat, and Jameson are described. Their performances for the shock-tube problem proposed by Sod are compared. The schemes of Godunov-Van Leer, Glimm, Fromm-Van Leer, and Hancock-Van Leer produced the best results. All the First-order upwind schemes, the Glimm scheme, the Jameson scheme, and the Hancock-Van Leer scheme can be extended to two dimensions in the finite element setting. 30 references

  9. Residency Allocation Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — The Residency Allocation Database is used to determine allocation of funds for residency programs offered by Veterans Affairs Medical Centers (VAMCs). Information...

  10. The challenges of residents teaching neurology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Samuel A; Józefowicz, Ralph F

    2004-07-01

    Teaching is integrated into the daily practice of residents, and it is a skill necessary for practice as well as academics. The settings in which teaching and learning take place are ubiquitous but include classrooms, small groups, bedside rounds, and grand rounds. Given the learning environment of residency, neurology residents should have working knowledge of basic principles of effective teaching to make learning successful. Teaching also reinforces knowledge, and residents will likely be better practitioners if some basic skills of teaching are practiced. Neurology teaching techniques for residents are rarely addressed in the medical literature. Although information regarding teaching principles in medicine exists, there is little information regarding how residents teach. We examine and review some of the more effective methods and appreciated qualities in teachers, with a particular emphasis for the neurology resident. We also review whom neurologists need to teach and the various settings in which teaching may take place. Neurology residents encounter a variety of audiences in a variety of settings that require diverse teaching skills to effectively convey information to other providers as well as patients. The majority of these skills should be learned in residency to establish a foundation for teaching, regardless of future practice settings.

  11. Vector domain decomposition schemes for parabolic equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vabishchevich, P. N.

    2017-09-01

    A new class of domain decomposition schemes for finding approximate solutions of timedependent problems for partial differential equations is proposed and studied. A boundary value problem for a second-order parabolic equation is used as a model problem. The general approach to the construction of domain decomposition schemes is based on partition of unity. Specifically, a vector problem is set up for solving problems in individual subdomains. Stability conditions for vector regionally additive schemes of first- and second-order accuracy are obtained.

  12. Case-Logging Practices in Otolaryngology Residency Training: National Survey of Residents and Program Directors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dermody, Sarah M; Gao, William; McGinn, Johnathan D; Malekzadeh, Sonya

    2017-06-01

    Objective (1) Evaluate the consistency and manner in which otolaryngology residents log surgical cases. (2) Assess the extent of instruction and guidance provided by program directors on case-logging practices. Study Design Cross-sectional national survey. Setting Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education otolaryngology residency programs in the United States. Subjects and Methods US otolaryngology residents, postgraduate year 2 through graduating chiefs as of July 2016, were recruited to respond to an anonymous questionnaire designed to characterize surgical case-logging practices. Program directors of US otolaryngology residency programs were recruited to respond to an anonymous questionnaire to elucidate how residents are instructed to log cases. Results A total of 272 residents and 53 program directors completed the survey, yielding response rates of 40.6% and 49.5%, respectively. Perceived accuracy of case logs is low among residents and program directors. Nearly 40% of residents purposely choose not to log certain cases, and 65.1% of residents underreport cases performed. More than 80% of program directors advise residents to log procedures performed outside the operating room, yet only 16% of residents consistently log such cases. Conclusion Variability in surgical case-logging behaviors and differences in provided instruction highlight the need for methods to improve consistency of logging practices. It is imperative to standardize practices across otolaryngology residency programs for case logs to serve as an accurate measure of surgical competency. This study provides a foundation for reform efforts within residency programs and for the Resident Case Log System.

  13. Threshold Signature Schemes Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasiya Victorovna Beresneva

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This work is devoted to an investigation of threshold signature schemes. The systematization of the threshold signature schemes was done, cryptographic constructions based on interpolation Lagrange polynomial, elliptic curves and bilinear pairings were examined. Different methods of generation and verification of threshold signatures were explored, the availability of practical usage of threshold schemes in mobile agents, Internet banking and e-currency was shown. The topics of further investigation were given and it could reduce a level of counterfeit electronic documents signed by a group of users.

  14. Scheme of energy utilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-04-01

    This scheme defines the objectives relative to the renewable energies and the rational use of the energy in the framework of the national energy policy. It evaluates the needs and the potentialities of the regions and preconizes the actions between the government and the territorial organizations. The document is presented in four parts: the situation, the stakes and forecasts; the possible actions for new measures; the scheme management and the regional contributions analysis. (A.L.B.)

  15. Adaptive Optics Metrics & QC Scheme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girard, Julien H.

    2017-09-01

    "There are many Adaptive Optics (AO) fed instruments on Paranal and more to come. To monitor their performances and assess the quality of the scientific data, we have developed a scheme and a set of tools and metrics adapted to each flavour of AO and each data product. Our decisions to repeat observations or not depends heavily on this immediate quality control "zero" (QC0). Atmospheric parameters monitoring can also help predict performances . At the end of the chain, the user must be able to find the data that correspond to his/her needs. In Particular, we address the special case of SPHERE."

  16. 42 CFR 435.403 - State residence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... set forth in § 431.52 of this chapter. (b) Definition. For purposes of this section—Institution has... intent, the State of residence is the State where the individual is living with the intention to remain...), the State of residence is the State where the individual is— (i) Living with the intention to remain...

  17. Certificateless Key-Insulated Generalized Signcryption Scheme without Bilinear Pairings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caixue Zhou

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Generalized signcryption (GSC can be applied as an encryption scheme, a signature scheme, or a signcryption scheme with only one algorithm and one key pair. A key-insulated mechanism can resolve the private key exposure problem. To ensure the security of cloud storage, we introduce the key-insulated mechanism into GSC and propose a concrete scheme without bilinear pairings in the certificateless cryptosystem setting. We provide a formal definition and a security model of certificateless key-insulated GSC. Then, we prove that our scheme is confidential under the computational Diffie-Hellman (CDH assumption and unforgeable under the elliptic curve discrete logarithm (EC-DL assumption. Our scheme also supports both random-access key update and secure key update. Finally, we evaluate the efficiency of our scheme and demonstrate that it is highly efficient. Thus, our scheme is more suitable for users who communicate with the cloud using mobile devices.

  18. Association Between the Nursing Home Minimum Data Set for Vision and Vision-Targeted Health-Related Quality of Life in Nursing Home Residents as Assessed by Certified Nursing Assistants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark W. Swanson

    2009-01-01

    Conclusions: Ratings by CNAs on the vision-targeted quality of life of nursing home residents under their care is in general agreement with the MDS category assigned by the nurse coordinator. However, CNA ratings are largely homogeneous in the adequate vision to moderately impaired categories.

  19. Residency training program: Perceptions of residents

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was carried out to ascertain the perception of the residency ... the time of the study. Analysis of the respondents showed similar findings for both senior and junior levels of training. Discussion. The introduction of the residency training program .... Overseas training/ attachment should be re-introduced. 12. (10.1).

  20. Compact Spreader Schemes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Placidi, M.; Jung, J. -Y.; Ratti, A.; Sun, C.

    2014-07-25

    This paper describes beam distribution schemes adopting a novel implementation based on low amplitude vertical deflections combined with horizontal ones generated by Lambertson-type septum magnets. This scheme offers substantial compactness in the longitudinal layouts of the beam lines and increased flexibility for beam delivery of multiple beam lines on a shot-to-shot basis. Fast kickers (FK) or transverse electric field RF Deflectors (RFD) provide the low amplitude deflections. Initially proposed at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) as tools for beam diagnostics and more recently adopted for multiline beam pattern schemes, RFDs offer repetition capabilities and a likely better amplitude reproducibility when compared to FKs, which, in turn, offer more modest financial involvements both in construction and operation. Both solutions represent an ideal approach for the design of compact beam distribution systems resulting in space and cost savings while preserving flexibility and beam quality.

  1. Compact spreader schemes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Placidi, M.; Jung, J.-Y.; Ratti, A.; Sun, C., E-mail: csun@lbl.gov

    2014-12-21

    This paper describes beam distribution schemes adopting a novel implementation based on low amplitude vertical deflections combined with horizontal ones generated by Lambertson-type septum magnets. This scheme offers substantial compactness in the longitudinal layouts of the beam lines and increased flexibility for beam delivery of multiple beam lines on a shot-to-shot basis. Fast kickers (FK) or transverse electric field RF Deflectors (RFD) provide the low amplitude deflections. Initially proposed at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) as tools for beam diagnostics and more recently adopted for multiline beam pattern schemes, RFDs offer repetition capabilities and a likely better amplitude reproducibility when compared to FKs, which, in turn, offer more modest financial involvements both in construction and operation. Both solutions represent an ideal approach for the design of compact beam distribution systems resulting in space and cost savings while preserving flexibility and beam quality.

  2. Resident Characteristics Report

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — The Resident Characteristics Report summarizes general information about households who reside in Public Housing, or who receive Section 8 assistance. The report...

  3. 4. Payment Schemes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 6; Issue 2. Electronic Commerce - Payment Schemes. V Rajaraman. Series Article Volume 6 Issue 2 February 2001 pp 6-13. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: https://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/006/02/0006-0013 ...

  4. Alternative health insurance schemes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keiding, Hans; Hansen, Bodil O.

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, we present a simple model of health insurance with asymmetric information, where we compare two alternative ways of organizing the insurance market. Either as a competitive insurance market, where some risks remain uninsured, or as a compulsory scheme, where however, the level...... competitive insurance; this situation turns out to be at least as good as either of the alternatives...

  5. 4. Payment Schemes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 6; Issue 2. Electronic Commerce - Payment Schemes. V Rajaraman. Series Article Volume 6 Issue 2 February 2001 pp 6-13 ... Author Affiliations. V Rajaraman1. IBM Professor of Information Technology JNCASR Bangalore 560 064, India.

  6. CSR schemes in agribusiness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pötz, Katharina Anna; Haas, Rainer; Balzarova, Michaela

    2013-01-01

    of schemes that can be categorized on focus areas, scales, mechanisms, origins, types and commitment levels. Research limitations/implications – The findings contribute to conceptual and empirical research on existing models to compare and analyse CSR standards. Sampling technique and depth of analysis limit...

  7. Simple monotonic interpolation scheme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greene, N.M.

    1980-01-01

    A procedure for presenting tabular data, such as are contained in the ENDF/B files, that is simpler, more general, and potentially much more compact than the present schemes used with ENDF/B is presented. The method has been successfully used for Bondarenko interpolation in a module of the AMPX system. 1 figure, 1 table

  8. The Partners in Flight species prioritization scheme

    Science.gov (United States)

    William C. Hunter; Michael F. Carter; David N. Pashley; Keith Barker

    1993-01-01

    The prioritization scheme identifies those birds at any locality on several geographic scales most in need of conservation action. Further, it suggests some of those actions that ought to be taken. Ranking criteria used to set priorities for Neotropical migratory landbirds measure characteristics of species that make them vulnerable to local and global extinction....

  9. Canonical, stable, general mapping using context schemes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novak, Adam M; Rosen, Yohei; Haussler, David; Paten, Benedict

    2015-11-15

    Sequence mapping is the cornerstone of modern genomics. However, most existing sequence mapping algorithms are insufficiently general. We introduce context schemes: a method that allows the unambiguous recognition of a reference base in a query sequence by testing the query for substrings from an algorithmically defined set. Context schemes only map when there is a unique best mapping, and define this criterion uniformly for all reference bases. Mappings under context schemes can also be made stable, so that extension of the query string (e.g. by increasing read length) will not alter the mapping of previously mapped positions. Context schemes are general in several senses. They natively support the detection of arbitrary complex, novel rearrangements relative to the reference. They can scale over orders of magnitude in query sequence length. Finally, they are trivially extensible to more complex reference structures, such as graphs, that incorporate additional variation. We demonstrate empirically the existence of high-performance context schemes, and present efficient context scheme mapping algorithms. The software test framework created for this study is available from https://registry.hub.docker.com/u/adamnovak/sequence-graphs/. anovak@soe.ucsc.edu Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. A numerical scheme for the generalized Burgers–Huxley equation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brajesh K. Singh

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In this article, a numerical solution of generalized Burgers–Huxley (gBH equation is approximated by using a new scheme: modified cubic B-spline differential quadrature method (MCB-DQM. The scheme is based on differential quadrature method in which the weighting coefficients are obtained by using modified cubic B-splines as a set of basis functions. This scheme reduces the equation into a system of first-order ordinary differential equation (ODE which is solved by adopting SSP-RK43 scheme. Further, it is shown that the proposed scheme is stable. The efficiency of the proposed method is illustrated by four numerical experiments, which confirm that obtained results are in good agreement with earlier studies. This scheme is an easy, economical and efficient technique for finding numerical solutions for various kinds of (nonlinear physical models as compared to the earlier schemes.

  11. Resident Transitions to Assisted Living: A Role for Social Workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fields, Noelle LeCrone; Koenig, Terry; Dabelko-Schoeny, Holly

    2012-01-01

    This study explored key aspects of resident transitions to assisted living (AL), including the frequency and importance of preadmission resident education and the potential role of social workers in this setting. To examine the factors that may help or hinder resident transitions to AL, a written survey was administered to a statewide,…

  12. A repeat-until-success quantum computing scheme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beige, A [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT (United Kingdom); Lim, Y L [DSO National Laboratories, 20 Science Park Drive, Singapore 118230, Singapore (Singapore); Kwek, L C [Department of Physics, National University of Singapore, 2 Science Drive 3, Singapore 117542, Singapore (Singapore)

    2007-06-15

    Recently we proposed a hybrid architecture for quantum computing based on stationary and flying qubits: the repeat-until-success (RUS) quantum computing scheme. The scheme is largely implementation independent. Despite the incompleteness theorem for optical Bell-state measurements in any linear optics set-up, it allows for the implementation of a deterministic entangling gate between distant qubits. Here we review this distributed quantum computation scheme, which is ideally suited for integrated quantum computation and communication purposes.

  13. A repeat-until-success quantum computing scheme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beige, A; Lim, Y L; Kwek, L C

    2007-01-01

    Recently we proposed a hybrid architecture for quantum computing based on stationary and flying qubits: the repeat-until-success (RUS) quantum computing scheme. The scheme is largely implementation independent. Despite the incompleteness theorem for optical Bell-state measurements in any linear optics set-up, it allows for the implementation of a deterministic entangling gate between distant qubits. Here we review this distributed quantum computation scheme, which is ideally suited for integrated quantum computation and communication purposes

  14. On Converting Secret Sharing Scheme to Visual Secret Sharing Scheme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Daoshun

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Traditional Secret Sharing (SS schemes reconstruct secret exactly the same as the original one but involve complex computation. Visual Secret Sharing (VSS schemes decode the secret without computation, but each share is m times as big as the original and the quality of the reconstructed secret image is reduced. Probabilistic visual secret sharing (Prob.VSS schemes for a binary image use only one subpixel to share the secret image; however the probability of white pixels in a white area is higher than that in a black area in the reconstructed secret image. SS schemes, VSS schemes, and Prob. VSS schemes have various construction methods and advantages. This paper first presents an approach to convert (transform a -SS scheme to a -VSS scheme for greyscale images. The generation of the shadow images (shares is based on Boolean XOR operation. The secret image can be reconstructed directly by performing Boolean OR operation, as in most conventional VSS schemes. Its pixel expansion is significantly smaller than that of VSS schemes. The quality of the reconstructed images, measured by average contrast, is the same as VSS schemes. Then a novel matrix-concatenation approach is used to extend the greyscale -SS scheme to a more general case of greyscale -VSS scheme.

  15. Scalable Nonlinear Compact Schemes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghosh, Debojyoti [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Constantinescu, Emil M. [Univ. of Chicago, IL (United States); Brown, Jed [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States)

    2014-04-01

    In this work, we focus on compact schemes resulting in tridiagonal systems of equations, specifically the fifth-order CRWENO scheme. We propose a scalable implementation of the nonlinear compact schemes by implementing a parallel tridiagonal solver based on the partitioning/substructuring approach. We use an iterative solver for the reduced system of equations; however, we solve this system to machine zero accuracy to ensure that no parallelization errors are introduced. It is possible to achieve machine-zero convergence with few iterations because of the diagonal dominance of the system. The number of iterations is specified a priori instead of a norm-based exit criterion, and collective communications are avoided. The overall algorithm thus involves only point-to-point communication between neighboring processors. Our implementation of the tridiagonal solver differs from and avoids the drawbacks of past efforts in the following ways: it introduces no parallelization-related approximations (multiprocessor solutions are exactly identical to uniprocessor ones), it involves minimal communication, the mathematical complexity is similar to that of the Thomas algorithm on a single processor, and it does not require any communication and computation scheduling.

  16. Quantum identification schemes with entanglements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mihara, Takashi

    2002-01-01

    We need secure identification schemes because many situations exist in which a person must be identified. In this paper, we propose three quantum identification schemes with entanglements. First, we propose a quantum one-time pad password scheme. In this scheme, entanglements play the role of a one-time pad password. Next, we propose a quantum identification scheme that requires a trusted authority. Finally, we propose a quantum message authentication scheme that is constructed by combining a different quantum cryptosystem with an ordinary authentication tag

  17. [Burnout in nursing residents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, Gianfábio Pimentel; de Barros, Alba Lúcia Bottura Leite; Nogueira-Martins, Luiz Antônio; Zeitoun, Sandra Salloum

    2011-03-01

    Nursing residents may experience physical and emotional exhaustion from the daily life of attending the Program. The aim of this study was to determine the Burnout incidence among Nursing Residents. An investigative, descriptive, analytical, longitudinal-prospective study was conducted with 16 Residents over two years. The Maslach Burnout Inventory was used, translated and validated for Brazil, as well as a sociodemographic/occupational data tool. Of all residents, 17.2% showed high rates in Emotional Exhaustion and Depersonalization; 18.8% showed impaired commitment in Personal Accomplishment, 75% of which belonged to specialty areas, such as Emergency Nursing, Adult and Pediatric Intensive Care. Age and specialty area were positively correlated with Personal Accomplishment. One of the Residents was identified with changes in three subscales of the Maslach Burnout Inventory, thus characterized as a Burnout Syndrome patient. Nursing Residents have profiles of disease. Knowing these factors can minimize health risks of these workers.

  18. The political economy of International Emissions Trading Scheme Choice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boom, J.T.; Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

    2000-01-01

    The Kyoto Protocol allows emission trade between the Annex B countries. We consider three schemes of emissions trading: government trading, permit trading and credit trading. The schemes are compared in a public choice setting focusing on group size and rent-seeking from interest groups. We find ...

  19. A FRACTAL-BASED STOCHASTIC INTERPOLATION SCHEME IN SUBSURFACE HYDROLOGY

    Science.gov (United States)

    The need for a realistic and rational method for interpolating sparse data sets is widespread. Real porosity and hydraulic conductivity data do not vary smoothly over space, so an interpolation scheme that preserves irregularity is desirable. Such a scheme based on the properties...

  20. Evolution of the Pathology Residency Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Suzanne Z.; Black-Schaffer, W. Stephen

    2016-01-01

    The required medical knowledge and skill set for the pathologist of 2020 are different than in 2005. Pathology residency training curriculum must accordingly change to fulfill the needs of these ever-changing requirements. In order to make rational curricular adjustments, it is important for us to know the current trajectory of resident training in pathology—where we have been, what our actual current training curriculum is now—to understand how that might change in anticipation of meeting the needs of a changing patient and provider population and to fit within the evolving future biomedical and socioeconomic health-care setting. In 2013, there were 143 Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education-accredited pathology residency training programs in the United States, with approximately 2400 residents. There is diversity among residency training programs not only with respect to the number of residents but also in training venue(s). To characterize this diversity among pathology residency training programs, a curriculum survey was conducted of pathology residency program directors in 2013 and compared with a similar survey taken almost 9 years previously in 2005 to identify trends in pathology residency curriculum. Clinical pathology has not changed significantly in the number of rotations over 9 years; however, anatomic pathology has changed dramatically, with an increase in the number of surgical pathology rotations coupled with a decline in stand-alone autopsy rotations. With ever-expanding medical knowledge that the graduating pathology resident must know, it is necessary to (1) reflect upon what are the critical need subjects, (2) identify areas that have become of lesser importance, and then (3) prioritize training accordingly. PMID:28725779

  1. Resident-Assisted Montessori Programming (RAMP): use of a small group reading activity run by persons with dementia in adult day health care and long-term care settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skrajner, Michael J; Camp, Cameron J

    2007-01-01

    Six persons in the early to middle stages of dementia ("leaders") were trained in Resident-Assisted Montessori Programming (RAMP) to lead a reading activity for 22 persons with more advanced dementia ("participants") in an adult day health center (ADHC) and a special care unit (SCU) in a skilled nursing facility. Researchers assessed the leaders' abilities to learn and follow the procedures of leading a group, as well as their satisfaction with their roles. In addition, participants' engagement and affect were measured, both during standard activities programming and during client-led activities. Results of this study suggest that persons with dementia can indeed successfully lead small group activities, if several important prerequisites are met. Furthermore, the engagement and affect of participants was more positive in client-led activities than in standard activities programming.

  2. 38 CFR 51.110 - Resident assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Medicaid Services (CMS) Resident Assessment Instrument Minimum Data Set, Version 2.0; and (ii) Describing... Set, Version 2.0 must be submitted electronically to VA at the IP address provided by VA to the State... information collection requirements in this section under control number 2900-0160) [65 FR 968, Jan. 6, 2000...

  3. Comparison of Emergency Medicine Malpractice Cases Involving Residents to Non-Resident Cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurley, Kiersten L; Grossman, Shamai A; Janes, Margaret; Yu-Moe, C Winnie; Song, Ellen; Tibbles, Carrie D; Shapiro, Nathan I; Rosen, Carlo L

    2018-04-17

    Data are lacking on how emergency medicine (EM) malpractice cases with resident involvement differs from cases that do not name a resident. To compare malpractice case characteristics in cases where a resident is involved (resident case) to cases that do not involve a resident (non-resident case) and to determine factors that contribute to malpractice cases utilizing EM as a model for malpractice claims across other medical specialties. We used data from the Controlled Risk Insurance Company (CRICO) Strategies' division Comparative Benchmarking System (CBS) to analyze open and closed EM cases asserted from 2009-2013. The CBS database is a national repository that contains professional liability data on > 400 hospitals and > 165,000 physicians, representing over 30% of all malpractice cases in the U.S (> 350,000 claims). We compared cases naming residents (either alone or in combination with an attending) to those that did not involve a resident (non-resident cohort). We reported the case statistics, allegation categories, severity scores, procedural data, final diagnoses and contributing factors. Fisher's exact test or t-test was used for comparisons (alpha set at 0.05). Eight hundred and forty-five EM cases were identified of which 732 (87%) did not name a resident (non-resident cases), while 113 (13%) included a resident (resident cases) (Figure 1). There were higher total incurred losses for non-resident cases (Table 1). The most frequent allegation categories in both cohorts were "Failure or Delay in Diagnosis/Misdiagnosis" and "Medical Treatment" (non-surgical procedures or treatment regimens i.e. central line placement). Allegation categories of Safety and Security, Patient Monitoring, Hospital Policy and Procedure and Breach of Confidentiality were found in the non-resident cases. Resident cases incurred lower payments on average ($51,163 vs. $156,212 per case). Sixty six percent (75) of resident vs 57% (415) of non-resident cases were high severity claims

  4. Bonus Schemes and Trading Activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pikulina, E.S.; Renneboog, L.D.R.; Ter Horst, J.R.; Tobler, P.N.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract: Little is known about how different bonus schemes affect traders’ propensity to trade and which bonus schemes improve traders’ performance. We study the effects of linear versus threshold (convex) bonus schemes on traders’ behavior. Traders purchase and sell shares in an experimental stock

  5. Scheme of stepmotor control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grashilin, V.A.; Karyshev, Yu.Ya.

    1982-01-01

    A 6-cycle scheme of step motor is described. The block-diagram and the basic circuit of the step motor control are presented. The step motor control comprises a pulse shaper, electronic commutator and power amplifiers. The step motor supply from 6-cycle electronic commutator provides for higher reliability and accuracy than from 3-cycle commutator. The control of step motor work is realised by the program given by the external source of control signals. Time-dependent diagrams for step motor control are presented. The specifications of the step-motor is given

  6. Comparing the effects of China's three basic health insurance schemes on the equity of health-related quality of life: using the method of coarsened exact matching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Min; Zhou, Zhongliang; Si, Yafei; Wei, Xiaolin; Xu, Yongjian; Fan, Xiaojing; Chen, Gang

    2018-03-07

    China has three basic health insurance schemes: Urban Employee Basic Medical Insurance (UEBMI), Urban Resident Basic Medical Insurance (URBMI) and New Rural Cooperative Medical Scheme (NRCMS). This study aimed to compare the equity of health-related quality of life (HRQoL) of residents under any two of the schemes. Using data from the 5th National Health Services Survey of Shaanxi Province, China, coarsened exact matching method was employed to control confounding factors. We included a matched sample of 6802 respondents between UEBMI and URBMI, 34,169 respondents between UEBMI and NRCMS, and 36,928 respondents between URBMI and NRCMS. HRQoL was measured by EQ-5D-3L based on the Chinese-specific value set. Concentration index was adopted to assess health inequality and was decomposed into its contributing factors to explain health inequality. After matching, the horizontal inequity indexes were 0.0036 and 0.0045 in UEBMI and URBMI, 0.0035 and 0.0058 in UEBMI and NRCMS, and 0.0053 and 0.0052 in URBMI and NRCMS respectively, which were mainly explained by age, educational and economic statuses. The findings demonstrated the pro-rich health inequity was much higher for the rural scheme than that for the urban ones. This study highlights the need to consolidate all three schemes by administrating uniformly, merging funds pooling and benefit packages. Based on the contributing factors, strategies aim to facilitate health conditions of the elderly, narrow economic gap, and reduce educational inequity, are essential. This study will provide evidence-based strategies on consolidating the fragmented health schemes towards reducing health inequity in both China and other developing countries.

  7. Facility Focus: Residence Halls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    College Planning & Management, 2003

    2003-01-01

    Describes four examples of residence hall design, one renovation and three new residence halls, that exemplify design principles that meet student and institutional requirements. The examples are at (1) the University of Illinois at Chicago; (2) Bowdoin College; (3) Muhlenberg College; and (4) Spring Arbor University. (SLD)

  8. Rain Forest Dance Residency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Dawn

    1997-01-01

    Outlines the author's experience as a dancer and choreographer artist-in-residence with third graders at a public elementary school, providing a cultural arts experience to tie in with a theme study of the rain forest. Details the residency and the insights she gained working with students, teachers, and theme. (SR)

  9. Black Box Traceable Ciphertext Policy Attribute-Based Encryption Scheme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xingbing Fu

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In the existing attribute-based encryption (ABE scheme, the authority (i.e., private key generator (PKG is able to calculate and issue any user’s private key, which makes it completely trusted, which severely influences the applications of the ABE scheme. To mitigate this problem, we propose the black box traceable ciphertext policy attribute-based encryption (T-CP-ABE scheme in which if the PKG re-distributes the users’ private keys for malicious uses, it might be caught and sued. We provide a construction to realize the T-CP-ABE scheme in a black box model. Our scheme is based on the decisional bilinear Diffie-Hellman (DBDH assumption in the standard model. In our scheme, we employ a pair (ID, S to identify a user, where ID denotes the identity of a user and S denotes the attribute set associated with her.

  10. Packet reversed packet combining scheme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhunia, C.T.

    2006-07-01

    The packet combining scheme is a well defined simple error correction scheme with erroneous copies at the receiver. It offers higher throughput combined with ARQ protocols in networks than that of basic ARQ protocols. But packet combining scheme fails to correct errors when the errors occur in the same bit locations of two erroneous copies. In the present work, we propose a scheme that will correct error if the errors occur at the same bit location of the erroneous copies. The proposed scheme when combined with ARQ protocol will offer higher throughput. (author)

  11. Psychologic effects of residency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reuben, D B

    1983-03-01

    The intense situational and physiologic stresses that accompany postgraduate training may have serious psychosocial ramifications. Although only a small proportion of residents have overt psychiatric illness, virtually all display some psychologic impairment. Contributing factors include life-changes, stresses associated with providing patient care, loss of social support, long working hours, sleep deprivation, and underlying personality traits of residents. The manifestations of this impairment are variable and may be subtle. In response to these problems, residency programs have taken steps to provide psychosocial support. Unfortunately, most programs do not offer formal support groups or seminars to discuss difficulties that accompany residency. Further definition of the psychosocial effects of residency may prompt changes that make the training of physicians a more humane process.

  12. A progressive diagonalization scheme for the Rabi Hamiltonian

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan, Feng; Guan, Xin; Wang, Yin; Draayer, J P

    2010-01-01

    A diagonalization scheme for the Rabi Hamiltonian, which describes a qubit interacting with a single-mode radiation field via a dipole interaction, is proposed. It is shown that the Rabi Hamiltonian can be solved almost exactly using a progressive scheme that involves a finite set of one variable polynomial equations. The scheme is especially efficient for the lower part of the spectrum. Some low-lying energy levels of the model with several sets of parameters are calculated and compared to those provided by the recently proposed generalized rotating-wave approximation and a full matrix diagonalization.

  13. A hybrid Lagrangian Voronoi-SPH scheme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Gutierrez, D.; Souto-Iglesias, A.; Zohdi, T. I.

    2017-11-01

    A hybrid Lagrangian Voronoi-SPH scheme, with an explicit weakly compressible formulation for both the Voronoi and SPH sub-domains, has been developed. The SPH discretization is substituted by Voronoi elements close to solid boundaries, where SPH consistency and boundary conditions implementation become problematic. A buffer zone to couple the dynamics of both sub-domains is used. This zone is formed by a set of particles where fields are interpolated taking into account SPH particles and Voronoi elements. A particle may move in or out of the buffer zone depending on its proximity to a solid boundary. The accuracy of the coupled scheme is discussed by means of a set of well-known verification benchmarks.

  14. Residents in difficulty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Mette Krogh; O'Neill, Lotte; Hansen, Dorthe Høgh

    2016-01-01

    Background The majority of studies on prevalence and characteristics of residents in difficulty have been conducted in English-speaking countries and the existing literature may not reflect the prevalence and characteristics of residents in difficulty in other parts of the world such as the Scand......Background The majority of studies on prevalence and characteristics of residents in difficulty have been conducted in English-speaking countries and the existing literature may not reflect the prevalence and characteristics of residents in difficulty in other parts of the world...... such as the Scandinavian countries, where healthcare systems are slightly different. The aim of this study was to examine prevalence and characteristics of residents in difficulty in one out of three postgraduate medical training regions in Denmark, and to produce both a quantifiable overview and in-depth understanding...... of the topic. Methods We performed a mixed methods study. All regional residency program directors (N = 157) were invited to participate in an e-survey about residents in difficulty. Survey data were combined with database data on demographical characteristics of the background population (N = 2399...

  15. Comportamento alimentar em moradia estudantil: um espaço para promoção da saúde Food behavior in student residence halls: a setting for health promotion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayda Josiane Alves

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Descrever qualitativamente o comportamento alimentar de estudantes residentes em moradia universitária. MÉTODOS: Estudo quanti-qualitativo realizado com uma amostra sorteada de cem estudantes universitários, residentes em moradia estudantil no município de Campinas, SP, em 2004. Foram feitas entrevistas utilizando-se formulário para colher o recordatório alimentar nas últimas 24 horas, incluindo questões abertas relativas ao sistema de compras e práticas de consumo. Foram criados critérios para análise da qualidade das refeições. Foram utilizados os testes qui-quadrado e o exato de Fisher, ao nível de significância de 5%. Nas entrevistas foram obtidos e analisados dados de natureza representacional, com base na teoria das representações sociais de Moscivici. RESULTADOS: Avaliação do recordatório 24 horas: desjejum, 30% não consumiram, 13% foram completos, 37% padrão e 20% incompletos; almoço, 5% não consumiram, 72% consumiram refeição completa e 23% incompleta; jantar, 1% não consumiu, 36% foram completos e 63% incompletos. A refeição de melhor qualidade foi o almoço, e dos estudantes que almoçaram, 63% o fizeram no restaurante universitário. Dos entrevistados, 48% não ingeriram nenhuma fruta e 39% não ingeriram leite no dia. A maioria (69% apresentou comportamento alimentar individual e 43% consideraram que o fato de comer em companhia alterava positivamente sua alimentação. A experiência de passar a prover a própria alimentação modifica comportamentos e representações entre os estudantes acerca do ato alimentar. CONCLUSÕES: A qualidade da alimentação, os padrões de comensalidade e as representações sociais do ato alimentar oferecem subsídios para o desenvolvimento de práticas de cuidado com a alimentação e promoção à saúde.OBJECTIVE: To qualitatively describe food practices of students living in a residence hall. METHODS: A quantitative and qualitative study was carried out in a

  16. Elective time during dermatology residency: A survey of residents and program directors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uppal, Pushpinder; Shantharam, Rohini; Kaufmann, Tara Lynn

    2017-12-15

    Elective time during residency training provides residents with exposure to different subspecialties. This opportunity gives residents the chance tonurture growth in particular areas of interest and broaden their knowledge base in certain topics in dermatology by having the chance to work withexperts in the field. The purpose of this study was to assess the views of residency program directors and dermatology residents on the value of elective time through a cross sectional survey. An eight-questionIRB exempt survey was sent out to 113 residency program directors via email through the American Professors of Dermatology (APD) program director listserv. Program directors were asked to forward a separate set of 9 questions to their residents. The majority of programs that responded allowed for some elective time within their schedule, often duringthe PGY 4 (3rd year of dermatology training), but the amount of time allowed widely varied among many residency programs. Overall, residents and program directors agree that elective is important in residencytraining, but no standardization is established across programs.

  17. Teaching strategies used by internal medicine residents on the wards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Dustin T; Kohlwes, R Jeffrey

    2011-01-01

    Residents serve as teachers to interns and students in most internal medicine residency programs. The purpose of our study is to explore what internal medicine residents perceive as effective teaching strategies in the inpatient setting and to formulate a guideline for preparing residents to lead their ward teams. Housestaff identified as excellent teaching residents were recruited from a large internal medicine residency program. Focus groups were formed and interviews were conducted using open-ended questions. Transcripts of the interviews were reviewed, analyzed, and compared for accuracy by two investigators. The transcripts were then coded to categorize data into similar subjects from which recurrent themes in resident teaching were identified. Twenty-two residents participated in four focus group interviews held in 2008. We identified five principal themes for effective teaching by residents: (T)aking advantage of teaching opportunities, (E)mpowering learners, (A)ssuming the role of leader, (C)reating a learning environment, and (H)abituating the practice of teaching. Strategies for effective teaching by residents exist. The TEACH mnemonic is a resident-identified method of instruction. Use of this tool could enable residency programs to create instructional curricula to prepare their residents and interns to take on the roles of team leaders and teachers.

  18. Transmission usage cost allocation schemes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abou El Ela, A.A.; El-Sehiemy, R.A.

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents different suggested transmission usage cost allocation (TCA) schemes to the system individuals. Different independent system operator (ISO) visions are presented using the proportional rata and flow-based TCA methods. There are two proposed flow-based TCA schemes (FTCA). The first FTCA scheme generalizes the equivalent bilateral exchanges (EBE) concepts for lossy networks through two-stage procedure. The second FTCA scheme is based on the modified sensitivity factors (MSF). These factors are developed from the actual measurements of power flows in transmission lines and the power injections at different buses. The proposed schemes exhibit desirable apportioning properties and are easy to implement and understand. Case studies for different loading conditions are carried out to show the capability of the proposed schemes for solving the TCA problem. (author)

  19. Technology in Residence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Jordan

    1999-01-01

    Discusses the necessity for incorporating current technology in today's college residence halls to meet the more diverse and continued activities of its students. Technology addressed covers data networking and telecommunications, heating and cooling systems, and fire-safety systems. (GR)

  20. Two notes about Ponzi schemes

    OpenAIRE

    Patrick Honohan

    1987-01-01

    A Ponzi scheme is an arrangement whereby a promoter offers an investment opportunity with attractive dividends, but where the only basis for the dividends is the future receipts from new investors. The first of these two notes explores some of the analytical properties of a Ponzi scheme, addressing in particular the question whether it is possible for a Ponzi scheme to exist if all the participants are rational. The second note briefly examines the collapse of the PMPA insurance company whos...

  1. Entropy conservative finite element schemes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadmor, E.

    1986-01-01

    The question of entropy stability for discrete approximations to hyperbolic systems of conservation laws is studied. The amount of numerical viscosity present in such schemes is quantified and related to their entropy stability by means of comparison. To this end, two main ingredients are used: entropy variables and the construction of certain entropy conservative schemes in terms of piecewise-linear finite element approximations. It is then shown that conservative schemes are entropy stable, if and (for three-point schemes) only if, they contain more numerical viscosity than the abovementioned entropy conservation ones.

  2. New Ideas on Labeling Schemes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rotbart, Noy Galil

    in a distributed fashion increases. Second, attempting to answer queries on vertices of a graph stored in a distributed fashion can be significantly more complicated. In order to lay theoretical foundations to the first penalty mentioned a large body of work concentrated on labeling schemes. A labeling scheme...... evaluation of fully dynamic labeling schemes. Due to a connection between adjacency labeling schemes and the graph theoretical study of induced universal graphs, we study these in depth and show novel results for bounded degree graphs and power-law graphs. We also survey and make progress on the related...

  3. hybrid modulation scheme fo rid modulation scheme fo dulation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    This work proposes a switching technique for ca proposes a switching technique for ca. (SCSPWM) scheme is employed in the generation circulation schemes are presented for this concepts, it is now possible to generate equal ave pts, it is now possible to generate equal ave semiconductor switches. This results in equal ...

  4. Generalized quantization scheme for two-person non-zero sum games

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nawaz, Ahmad; Toor, A H

    2004-01-01

    We proposed a generalized quantization scheme for non-zero sum games which can be reduced to the two existing quantization schemes under an appropriate set of parameters. Some other important situations are identified which are not apparent in the two existing quantization schemes

  5. Burnout Syndrome During Residency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turgut, Namigar; Karacalar, Serap; Polat, Cengiz; Kıran, Özlem; Gültop, Fethi; Kalyon, Seray Türkmen; Sinoğlu, Betül; Zincirci, Mehmet; Kaya, Ender

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study is identified the degree of Burnout Syndrome (BOS) and find out its correlation with years of recidency and sociodemograpfic chareacteristics, training, sleeping habits, such as smoking and alcohol consumption. After approval from the Hospital Ethics Committee and obtaining informed consent, First, second, third, fourth and fifth year of recidency staff (n=127) working in our hospital were involved in this study. The standardized Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI) was used in this study. Fifty six male (44.1%) and seventy one female (55.9%) residents were enroled in this study (Coranbach Alfa(α)=0.873). 57% of the first year residents smokes cigaret and 54% of them use alcohol. 2% of them gets one day off after hospital night shift, 61% of them suffers from disturbed sleep. 60% of them had been stated that they willingly selected their profession. 61% of them prefers talking to friends and 32% of them prefers shopping to overcome stress. There were statistical difference acording to years of recidency in MBI, Emotional Burnout (EB) and desensitisation scale (DS) points. EB scale points of the second year of residency group was statisticaly higher than fourth year of residency group. DS points of second year of residency group was also statisticaly higher than the third and fourth year of residency group. There was no statistical difference between any groups in Personal Success. BOS is a frequent problem during residency in anaesthesia. Appropriate definition and awareness are the first important steps to prevent this syndrome. Further administrative approaches should be evaluated with regard to their effects.

  6. Exploring the role of voluntary disease schemes on UK farmer bio-security behaviours: Findings from the Norfolk-Suffolk Bovine Viral Diarrhoea control scheme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azbel-Jackson, Lena; Heffernan, Claire; Gunn, George; Brownlie, Joe

    2018-01-01

    The article describes the influence of a disease control scheme (the Norfolk-Suffolk Bovine Viral Diarrhoea Disease (BVD) Eradication scheme) on farmers' bio-security attitudes and behaviours. In 2010, a survey of 100 cattle farmers (53 scheme members vs. 47 out of scheme farmers) was undertaken among cattle farmers residing in Norfolk and Suffolk counties in the UK. A cross-sectional independent measures design was employed. The main analytical tool was content analysis. The following variables at the farmer-level were explored: the specific BVD control measures adopted, livestock disease priorities, motivation for scheme membership, wider knowledge acquisition, biosecurity behaviours employed and training course attendance. The findings suggest that participation in the BVD scheme improved farmers' perception of the scheme benefits and participation in training courses. However, no association was found between the taking part in the BVD scheme and livestock disease priorities or motivation for scheme participation, or knowledge about BVD bio-security measures employed. Equally importantly, scheme membership did appear to influence the importance accorded specific bio-security measures. Yet such ranking did not appear to reflect the actual behaviours undertaken. As such, disease control efforts alone while necessary, are insufficient. Rather, to enhance farmer bio-security behaviours significant effort must be made to address underlying attitudes to the specific disease threat involved.

  7. Resident Career Planning Needs in Internal Medicine: A Qualitative Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Rina L.; Windish, Donna M.; Rosenbaum, Julie R.

    2010-01-01

    Background Few residency programs have centralized resources for career planning. As a consequence, little is known about residents' informational needs regarding career planning. Objective To examine career preparation stressors, practical needs, and information that residents wished they were privy to when applying. Methods In 2007 and 2008, we surveyed 163 recent graduates or graduating residents from 10 Yale-based and Yale-affiliated hospitals' internal medicine programs regarding their experiences with applying for positions after residency. We included questions about demographics, mentorship, stress of finding a job or fellowship, and open-ended questions to assess barriers and frustrations. Qualitative data were coded independently and a classification scheme was negotiated by consensus. Results A total of 89 residents or recent graduates responded, and 75% of them found career planning during residency training at least somewhat stressful. Themes regarding the application process included (1) knowledge about the process, (2) knowledge about career paths and opportunities, (3) time factors, (4) importance of adequate personal guidance and mentorship, and (5) self-knowledge regarding priorities and the desired outcome. Residents identified the following advice as most important: (1) start the process as early as possible and with a clear knowledge of the process timeline, (2) be clear about personal goals and priorities, and (3) be well-informed about a prospective employer and what that employer is looking for. Most residents felt career planning should be structured into the curriculum and should occur in the first year or throughout residency. Conclusions This study highlights residents' desire for structured dissemination of information and counseling with regard to career planning during residency. Our data suggest that exposure to such resources may be beneficial as early as the first year of training. PMID:22132271

  8. Resident career planning needs in internal medicine: a qualitative assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Rina L; Windish, Donna M; Rosenbaum, Julie R

    2010-12-01

    Few residency programs have centralized resources for career planning. As a consequence, little is known about residents' informational needs regarding career planning. To examine career preparation stressors, practical needs, and information that residents wished they were privy to when applying. In 2007 and 2008, we surveyed 163 recent graduates or graduating residents from 10 Yale-based and Yale-affiliated hospitals' internal medicine programs regarding their experiences with applying for positions after residency. We included questions about demographics, mentorship, stress of finding a job or fellowship, and open-ended questions to assess barriers and frustrations. Qualitative data were coded independently and a classification scheme was negotiated by consensus. A total of 89 residents or recent graduates responded, and 75% of them found career planning during residency training at least somewhat stressful. Themes regarding the application process included (1) knowledge about the process, (2) knowledge about career paths and opportunities, (3) time factors, (4) importance of adequate personal guidance and mentorship, and (5) self-knowledge regarding priorities and the desired outcome. Residents identified the following advice as most important: (1) start the process as early as possible and with a clear knowledge of the process timeline, (2) be clear about personal goals and priorities, and (3) be well-informed about a prospective employer and what that employer is looking for. Most residents felt career planning should be structured into the curriculum and should occur in the first year or throughout residency. This study highlights residents' desire for structured dissemination of information and counseling with regard to career planning during residency. Our data suggest that exposure to such resources may be beneficial as early as the first year of training.

  9. An efficient certificateless blind signature scheme without bilinear pairing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GUOFAGN DONG

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Recently, the certificateless public key cryptography (CLPKC has been studied widely since it could solve both of the certificate management problem in traditional public key cryptography (TPKC and the key escrow problem in the identity-based public key cryptography (ID-based PKC. To satisfy requirements of different applications, many certificateless blind signature (CLBS schemes using bilinear pairing for the CLPKC setting have been proposed. However, the bilinear pairing operation is very complicated. Therefore, the performance of those CLBS schemes is not very satisfactory. To solve the problem, we propose an efficient CLBS scheme without bilinear pairing. Performance analysis shows that the proposed scheme could reduce costs of computation and storage. Security analysis shows the proposed scheme is provably secure against both of two types of adversaries.

  10. Analysis of Resident Case Logs in an Anesthesiology Residency Program

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yamamoto, Satoshi; Tanaka, Pedro; Madsen, Matias Vested

    2016-01-01

    Our goal in this study was to examine Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education case logs for Stanford anesthesia residents graduating in 2013 (25 residents) and 2014 (26 residents). The resident with the fewest recorded patients in 2013 had 43% the number of patients compared with the...

  11. CANONICAL BACKWARD DIFFERENTIATION SCHEMES FOR ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The schemes are based on rational interpolation obtained from canonical polynomials. They are A-stable. The test problems show that they give better results than Euler backward method and trapezoidal method near a singular point. KEY WORDS: backward differentiation scheme, collocation, initial value problems.

  12. On numerical schemes for solving the Euler equations of gas dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dervieux, A.; Vijayasundaram, G.

    The first-order upwind schemes of Godunov-Van Leer, Steger-Warming, Godunov, Roe, Osher and Glimm; Godunov type scheme I; the second-order upwind schemes of Van Leer, Fromm-Van Leer, Hancock-Van Leer, and Moretti; and the second-order centered schemes of Richtmyer, Mac Cormack, Lerat-Peyrat, and Jameson are described. Their performances for the shock-tube problem proposed by Sod are compared. The schemes of Godunov-Van Leer, Glimm, Fromm-Van Leer, and Hancock-Van Leer produced the best results. All the First-order upwind schemes, the Glimm scheme, the Jameson scheme, and the Hancock-Van Leer scheme can be extended to two dimensions in the finite element setting.

  13. Developing a curriculum for emergency medicine residency orientation programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Raymond; Choudhri, Tina; Roche, Colleen; Ranniger, Claudia; Greenberg, Larrie

    2014-05-01

    New residents enter emergency medicine (EM) residency programs with varying EM experiences, which makes residency orientation programs challenging to design. There is a paucity of literature to support best practices. We report on a curriculum development project for EM residency orientation using the Kern Model. Components of the revised curriculum include administrative inculcation into the program; delivering skills and knowledge training to ensure an entering level of competence; setting expectations for learning in the overall residency curriculum; performing an introductory performance evaluation; and socialization into the program. Post-implementation resident surveys found the new curriculum to be helpful in preparing them for the first year of training. The Kern Model was a relevant and useful method for redesigning a new-resident orientation curriculum. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Improving Health Care for Assisted Living Residents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Robert L.; Mach, John R., Jr.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this article is to explore how medical care is delivered to older people in assisted living (AL) settings and to suggest ways for improving it. Design and Methods: We present a review of the limited research available on health care for older AL residents and on building testable models of better ways to organize primary…

  15. A numerical relativity scheme for cosmological simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daverio, David; Dirian, Yves; Mitsou, Ermis

    2017-12-01

    Cosmological simulations involving the fully covariant gravitational dynamics may prove relevant in understanding relativistic/non-linear features and, therefore, in taking better advantage of the upcoming large scale structure survey data. We propose a new 3  +  1 integration scheme for general relativity in the case where the matter sector contains a minimally-coupled perfect fluid field. The original feature is that we completely eliminate the fluid components through the constraint equations, thus remaining with a set of unconstrained evolution equations for the rest of the fields. This procedure does not constrain the lapse function and shift vector, so it holds in arbitrary gauge and also works for arbitrary equation of state. An important advantage of this scheme is that it allows one to define and pass an adaptation of the robustness test to the cosmological context, at least in the case of pressureless perfect fluid matter, which is the relevant one for late-time cosmology.

  16. The river routing scheme in Organising Carbon and Hydrology in Dynamic Ecosystems (ORCHIDEE) using high resolution data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen-Quang, Trung; Polcher, Jan; Ducharne, Agnès; Arsouze, Thomas

    2017-04-01

    This study presents an improved version of river routing scheme in the Organising Carbon and Hydrology in Dynamic Ecosystems (ORCHIDEE) land surface model. The routing scheme in ORCHIDEE is designed to be resolution independent. This is achieved by routing water through sub-grid hydrological transfer units. An approach which also allows to use refined residence times in each transfer unit which also depend on the nature of the water to be routed. In the proposed evolution, the Hydrological data and maps based on SHuttle Elevation Derivatives at multiple Scales (HydroSHEDS) is used to enhance both these aspects. As a seamless near-global hydrological data set, HydroSHEDS is a suitable database for improving the water transfer scheme in ORCHIDEE. The approximately 1 km resolution HydroSHEDS data enables the construction of more adequate transfer units in each LSM grid box. In addition, the slope factor of each transfer unit, which is calculated with new averaging algorithm, improves the time constant of the reservoirs. Moreover, the new routing scheme is designed to function on generalized grids to make it applicable in modern regional and global climate models. We will present an analysis of the optimal transfer unit size which ensures that the results of the routing scheme are independent of the grid at which ORCHIDEE operates. It is found that with transfer units of 10km2 the model results are optimal and numerically stable. For the validation of this enhanced version of the routing scheme, 35-year simulations (1979-2013) were carried out forced by three atmospheric datasets on horizontal resolution of 0.5o and 0.25o. These datasets are: the Watch Forcing ERA-Interim dataset with bias-corrected precipitation using the (1) CRU station based product; (2) GPCCv5 satellite based estimates and (3) the higher resolution version E2OFD. Investigating on monthly and daily timescale at 22 stations of 12 rivers which contribute freshwater to Mediterranean sea shows that the

  17. Ambulatory Care Skills: Do Residents Feel Prepared?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Bonds

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine resident comfort and skill in performing ambulatory care skills. Methods: Descriptive survey of common ambulatory care skills administered to internal medicine faculty and residents at one academic medical center. Respondents were asked to rate their ability to perform 12 physical exam skills and 6 procedures, and their comfort in performing 7 types of counseling, and obtaining 6 types of patient history (4 point Likert scale for each. Self-rated ability or comfort was compared by gender, status (year of residency, faculty, and future predicted frequency of use of the skill. Results: Residents reported high ability levels for physical exam skills common to both the ambulatory and hospital setting. Fewer felt able to perform musculoskeletal, neurologic or eye exams easily alone. Procedures generally received low ability ratings. Similarly, residents’ comfort in performing common outpatient counseling was also low. More residents reported feeling very comfortable in obtaining history from patients. We found little variation by gender, year of training, or predicted frequency of use. Conclusion: Self-reported ability and comfort for many common ambulatory care skills is low. Further evaluation of this finding in other training programs is warranted.

  18. Educating residents in behavioral health care and collaboration: integrated clinical training of pediatric residents and psychology fellows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisani, Anthony R; leRoux, Pieter; Siegel, David M

    2011-02-01

    Pediatric residency practices face the challenge of providing both behavioral health (BH) training for pediatricians and psychosocial care for children. The University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry and Rochester General Hospital developed a joint training program and continuity clinic infrastructure in which pediatric residents and postdoctoral psychology fellows train and practice together. The integrated program provides children access to BH care in a primary care setting and gives trainees the opportunity to integrate collaborative BH care into their regular practice routines. During 1998-2008, 48 pediatric residents and 8 psychology fellows trained in this integrated clinical environment. The program's accomplishments include longevity, faculty and fiscal stability, sustained support from pediatric leadership and community payers, the development in residents and faculty of greater comfort in addressing BH problems and collaborating with BH specialists, and replication of the model in two other primary care settings. In addition to quantitative program outcomes data, the authors present a case example that illustrates how the integrated program works and achieves its goals. They propose that educating residents and psychology trainees side by side in collaborative BH care is clinically and educationally valuable and potentially applicable to other settings. A companion report published in this issue provides results from a study comparing the perceptions of pediatric residents whose primary care continuity clinic took place in this integrated setting with those of residents from the same pediatric residency who had their continuity clinic training in a nonintegrated setting.

  19. AUS - the Australian modular scheme for reactor neutronics computations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, G.S.

    1975-12-01

    A general description is given of the AUS modular scheme for reactor neutronics calculations. The scheme currently includes modules which provide the capacity for lattice calculations, 1D transport calculations, 1 and 2D diffusion calculations (with feedback-free kinetics), and burnup calculations. Details are provided of all system aspects of AUS, but individual modules are only outlined. A complete specification is given of that part of user input which controls the calculation sequence. The report also provides sufficient details of the supervisor program and of the interface data sets to enable additional modules to be incorporated in the scheme. (author)

  20. Residents as teachers: psychiatry and family medicine residents' self-assessment of teaching knowledge, skills, and attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Michael W; Ekambaram, Vijayabharathi; Tucker, Phebe; Aggarwal, Ruchi

    2013-09-01

    Residents are one of the prime sources of information and education for medical students. As an initial step in supporting residents as teachers, a baseline self-assessment of residents' knowledge, skills, attitudes, and values related to teaching was conducted among psychiatry and family medicine residents to compare and improve their confidence and skills as teachers. Psychiatry residents (N=12) and family medicine residents (N=23) completed self-assessments of their knowledge, skills, attitudes, and values related to teaching. Residents also were asked to list steps used in the One-Minute Preceptor process and estimate the time each spent in teaching. Descriptive summary statistics were used for four main areas related to teaching; t-test and chi-square analyses were conducted to ascertain whether there was a significant difference in resident groups. In the current study, the perceived amount of time spent for teaching patients was significantly higher among family practice residents, whereas no group differences were found for time teaching medical students, peers, community members, non-physicians, or others. However, family medicine residents rated themselves higher than psychiatry residents in their understanding of their roles in teaching medical students and teaching patients. Also, family medicine residents' self-reported teaching skills were more advanced (82.4%) than psychiatry residents' (54.2%). They most likely applied at least two different teaching methods in inpatient and outpatient settings, as compared with psychiatry residents. No significant group differences were found in the other 15 items assessing teaching knowledge, skills, attitudes, and values. Results indicate that residents' knowledge, skills, attitudes, and values regarding teaching varies across institutions and training programs. The psychiatry residents in this study do not clearly understand their role as educators with patients and medical students; they have a less clear

  1. Learning environment: assessing resident experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byszewski, Anna; Lochnan, Heather; Johnston, Donna; Seabrook, Christine; Wood, Timothy

    2017-06-01

    Given their essential role in developing professional identity, academic institutions now require formal assessment of the learning environment (LE). We describe the experience of introducing a novel and practical tool in postgraduate programmes. The Learning Environment for Professionalism (LEP) survey, validated in the undergraduate setting, is relatively short, with 11 questions balanced for positive and negative professionalism behaviours. LEP is anonymous and focused on rotation setting, not an individual, and can be used on an iterative basis. We describe how we implemented the LEP, preliminary results, challenges encountered and suggestions for future application. Academic institutions now require formal assessment of the learning environment METHODS: The study was designed to test the feasibility of introducing the LEP in the postgraduate setting, and to establish the validity and the reliability of the survey. Residents in four programmes completed 187 ratings using LEP at the end of one of 11 rotations. The resident response rate was 87 per cent. Programme and rotation ratings were similar but not identical. All items rated positively (favourably), but displays of altruism tended to have lower ratings (meaning less desirable behaviour was witnessed), as were ratings for derogatory comments (again meaning that less desirable behaviour was witnessed). We have shown that the LEP is a feasible and valid tool that can be implemented on an iterative basis to examine the LE. Two LEP questions in particular, regarding derogatory remarks and demonstrating altruism, recorded the lowest scores, and these areas deserve attention at our institution. Implementation in diverse programmes is planned at our teaching hospitals to further assess reliability. This work may influence other postgraduate programmes to introduce this assessment tool. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd and The Association for the Study of Medical Education.

  2. Spectral scheme for spacetime physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seriu, Masafumi

    2002-01-01

    Based on the spectral representation of spatial geometry, we construct an analysis scheme for spacetime physics and cosmology, which enables us to compare two or more universes with each other. In this scheme the spectral distance plays a central role, which is the measure of closeness between two geometries defined in terms of the spectra. We apply this scheme for analyzing the averaging problem in cosmology; we explicitly investigate the time evolution of the spectra, distance between two nearby spatial geometries, simulating the relation between the real Universe and its model. We then formulate the criteria for a model to be a suitable one

  3. Coordinated renewable energy support schemes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morthorst, P.E.; Jensen, S.G.

    2006-01-01

    This paper illustrates the effect that can be observed when support schemes for renewable energy are regionalised. Two theoretical examples are used to explain interactive effects on, e.g., the price of power, conditions for conventional power producers, and changes in import and export of power...... RES-E support schemes already has a common liberalised power market. In this case the introduction of a common support scheme for renewable technologies will lead to more efficient sitings of renewable plants, improving economic and environmental performance of the total power system...

  4. Resident fatigue in otolaryngology residents: a Web based survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nida, Andrew M; Googe, Benjamin J; Lewis, Andrea F; May, Warren L

    2016-01-01

    Resident fatigue has become a point of emphasis in medical education and its effects on otolaryngology residents and their patients require further study. The purpose of our study was to evaluate the prevalence and nature of fatigue in otolaryngology residents, evaluate various quality of life measures, and investigate associations of increased fatigue with resident safety. Anonymous survey. Internet based. United States allopathic otolaryngology residents. None. The survey topics included demographics, residency structure, sleep habits and perceived stress. Responses were correlated with a concurrent Epworth Sleep Scale questionnaire to evaluate effects of fatigue on resident training and quality of life. 190 residents responded to the survey with 178 completing the Epworth Sleep Scale questionnaire. Results revealed a mean Epworth Sleep Scale score of 9.9±5.1 with a median of 10.0 indicating a significant number of otolaryngology residents are excessively sleepy. Statistically significant correlations between Epworth Sleep Scale and sex, region, hours of sleep, and work hours were found. Residents taking in-house call had significantly fewer hours of sleep compared to home call (p=0.01). Residents on "head and neck" (typically consisting of a large proportion of head and neck oncologic surgery) rotations tended to have higher Epworth Sleep Scale and had significantly fewer hours of sleep (p=.003) and greater work hours (potolaryngology residents are excessively sleepy. Our data suggest that the effects of fatigue play a role in resident well-being and resident safety. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Effects of a Short Video-Based Resident-as-Teacher Training Toolkit on Resident Teaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricciotti, Hope A; Freret, Taylor S; Aluko, Ashley; McKeon, Bri Anne; Haviland, Miriam J; Newman, Lori R

    2017-10-01

    To pilot a short video-based resident-as-teacher training toolkit and assess its effect on resident teaching skills in clinical settings. A video-based resident-as-teacher training toolkit was previously developed by educational experts at Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School. Residents were recruited from two academic hospitals, watched two videos from the toolkit ("Clinical Teaching Skills" and "Effective Clinical Supervision"), and completed an accompanying self-study guide. A novel assessment instrument for evaluating the effect of the toolkit on teaching was created through a modified Delphi process. Before and after the intervention, residents were observed leading a clinical teaching encounter and scored using the 15-item assessment instrument. The primary outcome of interest was the change in number of skills exhibited, which was assessed using the Wilcoxon signed-rank test. Twenty-eight residents from two academic hospitals were enrolled, and 20 (71%) completed all phases of the study. More than one third of residents who volunteered to participate reported no prior formal teacher training. After completing two training modules, residents demonstrated a significant increase in the median number of teaching skills exhibited in a clinical teaching encounter, from 7.5 (interquartile range 6.5-9.5) to 10.0 (interquartile range 9.0-11.5; Pteaching skills assessed, there were significant improvements in asking for the learner's perspective (P=.01), providing feedback (P=.005), and encouraging questions (P=.046). Using a resident-as-teacher video-based toolkit was associated with improvements in teaching skills in residents from multiple specialties.

  6. Training Pediatric Residents to Provide Smoking Cessation Counseling to Parents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca L. Collins

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective was to assess the effectiveness of a smoking cessation educational program on pediatric residents' counseling. Residents were randomly selected to receive the intervention. Residents who were trained were compared to untrained residents. Self-reported surveys and patient chart reviews were used. Measures included changes in self-reported knowledge, attitudes and behaviors of residents, and differences in chart documentation and caretaker-reported physician counseling behaviors. The intervention was multidimensional including a didactic presentation, a problem-solving session, clinic reminders, and provision of patient education materials. Results showed that residents who were trained were more likely to ask about tobacco use in their patients' households. They were also more likely to advise caretakers to cut down on or to quit smoking, to help set a quit date, and to follow up on the advice given at a subsequent visit. Trained residents were more likely to record a history of passive tobacco exposure in the medical record. These residents also reported improved confidence in their counseling skills and documented that they had done such counseling more often than did untrained residents. Caretakers of pediatric patients who smoke seen by intervention residents were more likely to report that they had received tobacco counseling. Following this intervention, pediatric residents significantly improved their behaviors, attitudes, and confidence in providing smoking cessation counseling to parents of their pediatric patients.

  7. Relaxation schemes for Chebyshev spectral multigrid methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Yimin; Fulton, Scott R.

    1993-01-01

    Two relaxation schemes for Chebyshev spectral multigrid methods are presented for elliptic equations with Dirichlet boundary conditions. The first scheme is a pointwise-preconditioned Richardson relaxation scheme and the second is a line relaxation scheme. The line relaxation scheme provides an efficient and relatively simple approach for solving two-dimensional spectral equations. Numerical examples and comparisons with other methods are given.

  8. Struggling to be self-directed: residents' paradoxical beliefs about learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nothnagle, Melissa; Anandarajah, Gowri; Goldman, Roberta E; Reis, Shmuel

    2011-12-01

    Self-directed learning (SDL) skills serve as the basis for physician lifelong learning; however, residency training does not typically emphasize SDL skills. To understand residents' needs regarding SDL curricula, the authors used qualitative methods to examine the residency learning culture and residents' views of SDL. The authors conducted individual, in-depth, semistructured interviews with all 13 final-year residents at the Brown University Family Medicine Residency Program. Interviews were audio taped and transcribed verbatim. Using an iterative individual and group process, four researchers conducted a qualitative analysis of the transcripts, identifying major themes and higher-order interpretations. Major themes included resident beliefs about learning, the learning culture in residency, and developmental progress in learning. Four paradoxes emerged in the analysis: (1) Residents understand and value the concept of SDL, but they engage in limited goal setting and reflection and report lack of skills to manage their own learning, particularly in the clinical setting. (2) Despite being immersed in what aims to be a learner-centered culture, many residents still value traditional, teacher-centered approaches. (3) Residents recognize patient care as the most powerful stimulus for SDL, but they often perceive patient care and learning as competing priorities. (4) Residents desire external guidance for SDL. Graduating residents lacked confidence in their SDL skills and their ability to manage their learning, especially in clinical settings. Fostering SDL skills during residency will likely require training and guidance for SDL as well as changes in the structure and culture of residency.

  9. Good governance for pension schemes

    CERN Document Server

    Thornton, Paul

    2011-01-01

    Regulatory and market developments have transformed the way in which UK private sector pension schemes operate. This has increased demands on trustees and advisors and the trusteeship governance model must evolve in order to remain fit for purpose. This volume brings together leading practitioners to provide an overview of what today constitutes good governance for pension schemes, from both a legal and a practical perspective. It provides the reader with an appreciation of the distinctive characteristics of UK occupational pension schemes, how they sit within the capital markets and their social and fiduciary responsibilities. Providing a holistic analysis of pension risk, both from the trustee and the corporate perspective, the essays cover the crucial role of the employer covenant, financing and investment risk, developments in longevity risk hedging and insurance de-risking, and best practice scheme administration.

  10. A Novel Iris Segmentation Scheme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen-Chung Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the key steps in the iris recognition system is the accurate iris segmentation from its surrounding noises including pupil, sclera, eyelashes, and eyebrows of a captured eye-image. This paper presents a novel iris segmentation scheme which utilizes the orientation matching transform to outline the outer and inner iris boundaries initially. It then employs Delogne-Kåsa circle fitting (instead of the traditional Hough transform to further eliminate the outlier points to extract a more precise iris area from an eye-image. In the extracted iris region, the proposed scheme further utilizes the differences in the intensity and positional characteristics of the iris, eyelid, and eyelashes to detect and delete these noises. The scheme is then applied on iris image database, UBIRIS.v1. The experimental results show that the presented scheme provides a more effective and efficient iris segmentation than other conventional methods.

  11. Breeding schemes in reindeer husbandry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lars Rönnegård

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the paper was to investigate annual genetic gain from selection (G, and the influence of selection on the inbreeding effective population size (Ne, for different possible breeding schemes within a reindeer herding district. The breeding schemes were analysed for different proportions of the population within a herding district included in the selection programme. Two different breeding schemes were analysed: an open nucleus scheme where males mix and mate between owner flocks, and a closed nucleus scheme where the males in non-selected owner flocks are culled to maximise G in the whole population. The theory of expected long-term genetic contributions was used and maternal effects were included in the analyses. Realistic parameter values were used for the population, modelled with 5000 reindeer in the population and a sex ratio of 14 adult females per male. The standard deviation of calf weights was 4.1 kg. Four different situations were explored and the results showed: 1. When the population was randomly culled, Ne equalled 2400. 2. When the whole population was selected on calf weights, Ne equalled 1700 and the total annual genetic gain (direct + maternal in calf weight was 0.42 kg. 3. For the open nucleus scheme, G increased monotonically from 0 to 0.42 kg as the proportion of the population included in the selection programme increased from 0 to 1.0, and Ne decreased correspondingly from 2400 to 1700. 4. In the closed nucleus scheme the lowest value of Ne was 1300. For a given proportion of the population included in the selection programme, the difference in G between a closed nucleus scheme and an open one was up to 0.13 kg. We conclude that for mass selection based on calf weights in herding districts with 2000 animals or more, there are no risks of inbreeding effects caused by selection.

  12. Small-scale classification schemes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertzum, Morten

    2004-01-01

    . While coordination mechanisms focus on how classification schemes enable cooperation among people pursuing a common goal, boundary objects embrace the implicit consequences of classification schemes in situations involving conflicting goals. Moreover, the requirements specification focused on functional...... requirements and provided little information about why these requirements were considered relevant. This stands in contrast to the discussions at the project meetings where the software engineers made frequent use of both abstract goal descriptions and concrete examples to make sense of the requirements...

  13. Resident-to-resident relational aggression and subjective well-being in assisted living facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trompetter, Hester; Scholte, Ron; Westerhof, Gerben

    2011-01-01

    Research in settings similar to assisted living facilities suggests that relational aggression, an indirect and mature form of aggression, might occur in assisted living facilities. This empirical study investigates the existence of relational aggression in a sample of residents and the relationship between relational aggression and resident's subjective well-being. 121 residents from six assisted living facilities completed questionnaires assessing personal experiences as victims of relational aggression and subjective well-being. Also nurses reported on victimization of relational aggression for every participant. Linear regression models were used to examine the association between both reports of relational aggression and subjective well-being. Relational aggression was shown to exist in assisted living facilities according to both residents (prevalence: 19%) and nurses (prevalence: 41%). Chi-square testing revealed no association between ratings by nurses and residents. Self-reports of victimization of relational aggression were related to depression, anxiety, satisfaction with life and social loneliness, but not to emotional loneliness. Nurse-reports of victimization of relational aggression were not related to subjective well-being. Self-reports of relational aggression seem to be better predictors of resident's well-being than nurse-reports of relational aggression. Awareness of these findings and the discrepancy between nurse-reports and self-reports are important for practice and for future research regarding social dynamics and living arrangements in elderly care settings.

  14. Scheme for Quantum Computing Immune to Decoherence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Colin; Vatan, Farrokh

    2008-01-01

    that the derivation provides explicit constructions for finding the exchange couplings in the physical basis needed to implement any arbitrary 1-qubit gate. These constructions lead to spintronic encodings of quantum logic that are more efficient than those of a previously published scheme that utilizes a universal but fixed set of gates.

  15. Adaptive PCA based fault diagnosis scheme in imperial smelting process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Zhikun; Chen, Zhiwen; Gui, Weihua; Jiang, Bin

    2014-09-01

    In this paper, an adaptive fault detection scheme based on a recursive principal component analysis (PCA) is proposed to deal with the problem of false alarm due to normal process changes in real process. Our further study is also dedicated to develop a fault isolation approach based on Generalized Likelihood Ratio (GLR) test and Singular Value Decomposition (SVD) which is one of general techniques of PCA, on which the off-set and scaling fault can be easily isolated with explicit off-set fault direction and scaling fault classification. The identification of off-set and scaling fault is also applied. The complete scheme of PCA-based fault diagnosis procedure is proposed. The proposed scheme is first applied to Imperial Smelting Process, and the results show that the proposed strategies can be able to mitigate false alarms and isolate faults efficiently. Copyright © 2013 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Leadership Training in Otolaryngology Residency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bent, John P; Fried, Marvin P; Smith, Richard V; Hsueh, Wayne; Choi, Karen

    2017-06-01

    Although residency training offers numerous leadership opportunities, most residents are not exposed to scripted leadership instruction. To explore one program's attitudes about leadership training, a group of otolaryngology faculty (n = 14) and residents (n = 17) was polled about their attitudes. In terms of self-perception, more faculty (10 of 14, 71.4%) than residents (9 of 17, 52.9%; P = .461) considered themselves good leaders. The majority of faculty and residents (27 of 31) thought that adults could be taught leadership ability. Given attitudes about leadership ability and the potential for improvement through instruction, consideration should be given to including such training in otolaryngology residency.

  17. MDS 2.0 Public Quality Indicator and Resident Reports

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Minimum Data Set (MDS) is part of the federally mandated process for clinical assessment of all residents in Medicare or Medicaid certified nursing homes. This...

  18. A classification scheme for risk assessment methods.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stamp, Jason Edwin; Campbell, Philip LaRoche

    2004-08-01

    This report presents a classification scheme for risk assessment methods. This scheme, like all classification schemes, provides meaning by imposing a structure that identifies relationships. Our scheme is based on two orthogonal aspects--level of detail, and approach. The resulting structure is shown in Table 1 and is explained in the body of the report. Each cell in the Table represent a different arrangement of strengths and weaknesses. Those arrangements shift gradually as one moves through the table, each cell optimal for a particular situation. The intention of this report is to enable informed use of the methods so that a method chosen is optimal for a situation given. This report imposes structure on the set of risk assessment methods in order to reveal their relationships and thus optimize their usage.We present a two-dimensional structure in the form of a matrix, using three abstraction levels for the rows and three approaches for the columns. For each of the nine cells in the matrix we identify the method type by name and example. The matrix helps the user understand: (1) what to expect from a given method, (2) how it relates to other methods, and (3) how best to use it. Each cell in the matrix represent a different arrangement of strengths and weaknesses. Those arrangements shift gradually as one moves through the table, each cell optimal for a particular situation. The intention of this report is to enable informed use of the methods so that a method chosen is optimal for a situation given. The matrix, with type names in the cells, is introduced in Table 2 on page 13 below. Unless otherwise stated we use the word 'method' in this report to refer to a 'risk assessment method', though often times we use the full phrase. The use of the terms 'risk assessment' and 'risk management' are close enough that we do not attempt to distinguish them in this report. The remainder of this report is organized as follows. In

  19. An Objective Structured Clinical Examination to Assess Pharmacy Resident Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimberly A.B. Cauthon

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The objective was to utilize an Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE for assessment of pharmacy residents. Innovation: Post-graduate year 1 (PGY1 and post-graduate year 2 (PGY2 pharmacy residents completing multiple, local residency programs were invited to participate in an OSCE. A total of eight PGY1 residents and one PGY2 resident completed the OSCE. American Society of Health-System Pharmacists (ASHP residency program goals were aligned for each case, which were originally developed for a fourth-year pharmacy student OSCE. Station design included outpatient and inpatient settings with patient and physician interactions. Median communication and clinical skills scores were evaluated. Critical Analysis: The OSCE allows for assessment of all residents on common scenarios. Pharmacy residents met competency requirements and demonstrated excellent communication skills. The OSCE was able to evaluate both physician-pharmacist communication and patient-pharmacist communication. Baseline performance related to the ASHP goals and objectives was not completed; however, the OSCE could highlight resident strengths and weaknesses in communication and clinical skills. The OSCE could simulate independent practice, may reduce bias, and could provide an evaluation of the resident by a patient. However, the OSCE incurs higher resource utilization, specifically monetary and time, than other assessment methods. Next Steps: The pilot study results provide a beginning for further study of OSCEs for pharmacy residents. Further study should include surveying the residency directors about use of the OSCE, a comparison of performance between the OSCE and preceptor evaluations of residents on ASHP goals and objectives, and an evaluation of OSCE implementation at different time points within the residency. Conflict of Interest We declare no conflicts of interest or financial interests that the authors or members of their immediate families have in

  20. Analysis of a Resident Aesthetic Clinic: Process for Rhinoplasty, Resident Experience, and Patient Satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandel, Michael G; DʼSouza, Gehaan F; Reid, Christopher M; Dobke, Marek K; Gosman, Amanda A

    2017-05-01

    Plastic surgery residents often desire additional training in rhinoplasty than what is provided by their residency program. The goal of this study was to define and evaluate a specific process used to structure preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative protocols for rhinoplasty patients in the resident aesthetic clinic (RAC) to enhance qualitative and quantitative experience. Complication rates and patient/resident satisfaction scores were also examined. Resident clinic rhinoplasty patients underwent a well-defined and established process that included patient education and informed consent, preoperative planning in a conference-based session, specific adherence to established surgical techniques, and structured postoperative management and follow-up. This process also included supervision criteria for residents in the operating room and clinical setting. Patient and resident satisfaction at the RAC was evaluated by a Web-based survey. A database of procedural complications and methods was compiled and evaluated. Between June 2012 and June 2015, 146 aesthetic resident cases were completed through the University of California, San Diego Residency Aesthetic Surgery Program. Of these cases, 34 (17%) were rhinoplasty procedures. Residents at our institution assisted on an average of 55 rhinoplasty procedures with the faculty and performed an average of 12 rhinoplasty procedures as primary surgeons. The residents surveyed felt that they had a good autonomous experience (P < 0.001), and 90% reported confidence with rhinoplasty. Postoperative complications were recorded and included asymmetry (n = 4, 10.5%), septal perforation (n = 1, 2.6%), and difficulty in breathing (n = 6, 15.8%). There were no patients who experienced infections, and the complication rate requiring revision in the operating room was 0%. Optimizing protocols in rhinoplasty in an RAC has allowed for the RAC to flourish in the breadth and complexity of rhinoplasty operations. This has enabled

  1. Neuroscience and humanistic psychiatry: a residency curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, James L

    2014-04-01

    Psychiatry residencies with a commitment to humanism commonly prioritize training in psychotherapy, cultural psychiatry, mental health policy, promotion of human rights, and similar areas reliant upon dialogue and collaborative therapeutic relationships. The advent of neuroscience as a defining paradigm for psychiatry has challenged residencies with a humanistic focus due to common perceptions that it would entail constriction of psychiatric practice to diagnostic and psychopharmacology roles. The author describes a neuroscience curriculum that has taught psychopharmacology effectively, while also advancing effectiveness of language-based and relationship-based therapeutics. In 2000, the George Washington University psychiatry residency initiated a neuroscience curriculum consisting of (1) a foundational postgraduate year 2 seminar teaching cognitive and social neuroscience and its integration into clinical psychopharmacology, (2) advanced seminars that utilized a neuroscience perspective in teaching specific psychotherapeutic skill sets, and (3) case-based teaching in outpatient clinical supervisions that incorporated a neuroscience perspective into traditional psychotherapy supervisions. Curricular assessment was conducted by (1) RRC reaccreditation site visit feedback, (2) examining career trajectories of residency graduates, (3) comparing PRITE exam Somatic Treatments subscale scores for 2010-2012 residents with pre-implementation residents, and (4) postresidency survey assessment by 2010-2012 graduates. The 2011 RRC site visit report recommended a "notable practice" citation for "innovative neurosciences curriculum." Three of twenty 2010-2012 graduates entered neuroscience research fellowships, as compared to none before the new curriculum. PRITE Somatic Treatments subscale scores improved from the 23rd percentile to the 62nd percentile in pre- to post-implementation of curriculum (p neuroscience curriculum for a residency committed to humanistic psychiatry

  2. Classifying terrestrial surface water systems using integrated residence time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Allan; Hodges, Ben; McClelland, James; Hardison, Amber; Moffett, Kevan

    2017-04-01

    Linkages between ecology and hydrology in terrestrial surface water often invoke a discussion of lentic (reservoir) vs. lotic (riverine) system behaviors. However, the literature shows a wide range of thresholds separating lentic/lotic regimes and little agreement on a quantitative, repeatable classification metric that can be broadly and reliably applied across a range of systems hosting various flow regimes and suspended/benthic taxa. We propose an integrated Residence Time (iTR) metric as part of a new Freshwater Continuum Classification (FCC) to address this issue. The iTR is computed as the transit time of a water parcel across a system given observed temporal variations in discharge and volume, which creates a temporally-varying metric applicable across a defined system length. This approach avoids problems associated with instantaneous residence times or average residence times that can lead to misleading characterizations in seasonally- or episodically-dynamic systems. The iTR can be directly related to critical flow thresholds and timescales of ecology (e.g., zooplankton growth). The FCC approach considers lentic and lotic to be opposing end-members of a classification continuum and also defines intermediate regimes that blur the line between the two ends of the spectrum due to more complex hydrological system dynamics. We also discover the potential for "oscillic" behavior, where a system switches between lentic and lotic classifications either episodically or regularly (e.g., seasonally). Oscillic behavior is difficult to diagnose with prior lentic/lotic classification schemes, but can be readily identified using iTR. The FCC approach was used to analyze 15 tidally-influenced river segments along the Texas (USA) coast of the Gulf of Mexico. The results agreed with lentic/lotic designations using prior approaches, but also identified more nuanced intermediate and oscillic regimes. Within this set of systems, the oscillic nature of some of the river

  3. Design of an extensive information representation scheme for clinical narratives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deléger, Louise; Campillos, Leonardo; Ligozat, Anne-Laure; Névéol, Aurélie

    2017-09-11

    Knowledge representation frameworks are essential to the understanding of complex biomedical processes, and to the analysis of biomedical texts that describe them. Combined with natural language processing (NLP), they have the potential to contribute to retrospective studies by unlocking important phenotyping information contained in the narrative content of electronic health records (EHRs). This work aims to develop an extensive information representation scheme for clinical information contained in EHR narratives, and to support secondary use of EHR narrative data to answer clinical questions. We review recent work that proposed information representation schemes and applied them to the analysis of clinical narratives. We then propose a unifying scheme that supports the extraction of information to address a large variety of clinical questions. We devised a new information representation scheme for clinical narratives that comprises 13 entities, 11 attributes and 37 relations. The associated annotation guidelines can be used to consistently apply the scheme to clinical narratives and are https://cabernet.limsi.fr/annotation_guide_for_the_merlot_french_clinical_corpus-Sept2016.pdf . The information scheme includes many elements of the major schemes described in the clinical natural language processing literature, as well as a uniquely detailed set of relations.

  4. Medical residency: factors relating to "difficulty in helping" in the resident physician-patient relationship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Alfredo De Marco

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Previous studies have attempted to understand what leads physicians to label patients as 'difficult'. Understanding this process is particularly important for resident physicians, who are developing attitudes that may have long-term impact on their interactions with patients. The aim of this study was to distinguish between patients' self-rated emotional state (anxiety and depression and residents' perceptions of that state as a predictor of patients being considered difficult. DESIGN AND SETTING: Cross-sectional survey conducted in the hospital of Universidade Federal de São Paulo (Unifesp. METHODS: The residents completed a sociodemographic questionnaire and rated their patients using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS and Difficulty in Helping the Patient Questionnaire (DTH. The patients completed HADS independently and were rated using the Karnofsky Performance Status scale. RESULTS: On average, the residents rated the patients as presenting little difficulty. The residents' ratings of difficulty presented an association with their ratings for patient depression (r = 0.35, P = 0.03 and anxiety (r = 0.46, P = 0.02, but not with patients' self-ratings for depression and anxiety. Residents from distant cities were more likely to rate patients as difficult to help than were residents from the city of the hospital (mean score of 1.93 versus 1.07; P = 0.04. CONCLUSIONS: Understanding what leads residents to label patients as having depression and anxiety problems may be a productive approach towards reducing perceived difficulty. Residents from distant cities may be more likely to find their patients difficult

  5. Results of the 2013-2015 Association of Residents in Radiation Oncology Survey of Chief Residents in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabavizadeh, Nima; Burt, Lindsay M; Mancini, Brandon R; Morris, Zachary S; Walker, Amanda J; Miller, Seth M; Bhavsar, Shripal; Mohindra, Pranshu; Kim, Miranda B; Kharofa, Jordan

    2016-02-01

    The purpose of this project was to survey radiation oncology chief residents to define their residency experience and readiness for independent practice. During the academic years 2013 to 2014 and 2014 to 2015, the Association of Residents in Radiation Oncology (ARRO) conducted an electronic survey of post-graduate year-5 radiation oncology residents in the United States during the final 3 months of training. Descriptive statistics are reported. Sixty-six chief residents completed the survey in 2013 to 2014 (53% response rate), and 69 completed the survey in 2014 to 2015 (64% response rate). Forty to 85% percent of residents reported inadequate exposure to high-dose rate and low-dose rate brachytherapy. Nearly all residents in both years (>90%) reported adequate clinical experience for the following disease sites: breast, central nervous system, gastrointestinal, genitourinary, head and neck, and lung. However, as few as 56% reported adequate experience in lymphoma or pediatric malignancies. More than 90% of residents had participated in retrospective research projects, with 20% conducting resident-led prospective clinical trials and 50% conducting basic science or translational projects. Most chief residents reported working 60 or fewer hours per week in the clinical/hospital setting and performing fewer than 15 hours per week tasks that were considered to have little or no educational value. There was more than 80% compliance with Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) work hour limits. Fifty-five percent of graduating residents intended to join an established private practice group, compared to 25% who headed for academia. Residents perceive the job market to be more competitive than previous years. This first update of the ARRO chief resident survey since the 2007 to 2008 academic year documents US radiation oncology residents' experiences and conditions over a 2-year period. This analysis may serve as a valuable tool for those seeking to

  6. Extremes in Otolaryngology Resident Surgical Case Numbers: An Update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baugh, Tiffany P; Franzese, Christine B

    2017-06-01

    Objectives The purpose of this study is to examine the effect of minimum case numbers on otolaryngology resident case log data and understand differences in minimum, mean, and maximum among certain procedures as a follow-up to a prior study. Study Design Cross-sectional survey using a national database. Setting Academic otolaryngology residency programs. Subjects and Methods Review of otolaryngology resident national data reports from the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) resident case log system performed from 2004 to 2015. Minimum, mean, standard deviation, and maximum values for total number of supervisor and resident surgeon cases and for specific surgical procedures were compared. Results The mean total number of resident surgeon cases for residents graduating from 2011 to 2015 ranged from 1833.3 ± 484 in 2011 to 2072.3 ± 548 in 2014. The minimum total number of cases ranged from 826 in 2014 to 1004 in 2015. The maximum total number of cases increased from 3545 in 2011 to 4580 in 2015. Multiple key indicator procedures had less than the required minimum reported in 2015. Conclusion Despite the ACGME instituting required minimum numbers for key indicator procedures, residents have graduated without meeting these minimums. Furthermore, there continues to be large variations in the minimum, mean, and maximum numbers for many procedures. Variation among resident case numbers is likely multifactorial. Ensuring proper instruction on coding and case role as well as emphasizing frequent logging by residents will ensure programs have the most accurate data to evaluate their case volume.

  7. Burnout, engagement and resident physicians' self-reported errors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prins, J T; van der Heijden, F M M A; Hoekstra-Weebers, J E H M; Bakker, A B; van de Wiel, H B M; Jacobs, B; Gazendam-Donofrio, S M

    2009-12-01

    Burnout is a work-related syndrome that may negatively affect more than just the resident physician. On the other hand, engagement has been shown to protect employees; it may also positively affect the patient care that the residents provide. Little is known about the relationship between residents' self-reported errors and burnout and engagement. In our national study that included all residents and physicians in The Netherlands, 2115 questionnaires were returned (response rate 41.1%). The residents reported on burnout (Maslach Burnout Inventory-Health and Social Services), engagement (Utrecht Work Engagement Scale) and self-assessed patient care practices (six items, two factors: errors in action/judgment, errors due to lack of time). Ninety-four percent of the residents reported making one or more mistake without negative consequences for the patient during their training. Seventy-one percent reported performing procedures for which they did not feel properly trained. More than half (56%) of the residents stated they had made a mistake with a negative consequence. Seventy-six percent felt they had fallen short in the quality of care they provided on at least one occasion. Men reported more errors in action/judgment than women. Significant effects of specialty and clinical setting were found on both types of errors. Residents with burnout reported significantly more errors (p engaged residents reported fewer errors (p burnout and to keep residents engaged in their work.

  8. Lawful Permanent Residents - Annual Report

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — A lawful permanent resident (LPR) or 'green card' recipient is defined by immigration law as a person who has been granted lawful permanent residence in the United...

  9. Foundations of Grothendieck duality for diagrams of schemes

    CERN Document Server

    Lipman, Joseph

    2009-01-01

    The first part written by Joseph Lipman, accessible to mid-level graduate students, is a full exposition of the abstract foundations of Grothendieck duality theory for schemes (twisted inverse image, tor-independent base change,...), in part without noetherian hypotheses, and with some refinements for maps of finite tor-dimension. The ground is prepared by a lengthy treatment of the rich formalism of relations among the derived functors, for unbounded complexes over ringed spaces, of the sheaf functors tensor, hom, direct and inverse image. Included are enhancements, for quasi-compact quasi-separated schemes, of classical results such as the projection and Künneth isomorphisms. In the second part, written independently by Mitsuyasu Hashimoto, the theory is extended to the context of diagrams of schemes. This includes, as a special case, an equivariant theory for schemes with group actions. In particular, after various basic operations on sheaves such as (derived) direct images and inverse images are set up, ...

  10. Multiuser switched diversity scheduling schemes

    KAUST Repository

    Shaqfeh, Mohammad

    2012-09-01

    Multiuser switched-diversity scheduling schemes were recently proposed in order to overcome the heavy feedback requirements of conventional opportunistic scheduling schemes by applying a threshold-based, distributed, and ordered scheduling mechanism. The main idea behind these schemes is that slight reduction in the prospected multiuser diversity gains is an acceptable trade-off for great savings in terms of required channel-state-information feedback messages. In this work, we characterize the achievable rate region of multiuser switched diversity systems and compare it with the rate region of full feedback multiuser diversity systems. We propose also a novel proportional fair multiuser switched-based scheduling scheme and we demonstrate that it can be optimized using a practical and distributed method to obtain the feedback thresholds. We finally demonstrate by numerical examples that switched-diversity scheduling schemes operate within 0.3 bits/sec/Hz from the ultimate network capacity of full feedback systems in Rayleigh fading conditions. © 2012 IEEE.

  11. Accuracy of spectral and finite difference schemes in 2D advection problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Naulin, V.; Nielsen, A.H.

    2003-01-01

    In this paper we investigate the accuracy of two numerical procedures commonly used to solve 2D advection problems: spectral and finite difference (FD) schemes. These schemes are widely used, simulating, e.g., neutral and plasma flows. FD schemes have long been considered fast, relatively easy...... that the accuracy of FD schemes can be significantly improved if one is careful in choosing an appropriate FD scheme that reflects conservation properties of the nonlinear terms and in setting up the grid in accordance with the problem....

  12. Comparison of radiology residency programs in ten countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willatt, J.M.G.; Mason, A.C.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of our study was to compare various aspects of radiology training schemes in ten countries. A questionnaire was sent to senior residents in the UK, USA, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, Italy, Egypt, India, Malaysia and Greece. The questions concerned length of training, required pre-training experience, the organization of the training scheme, teaching, resources, stages at which residents can independently perform and report examinations, fellowships, and progression to jobs. A wide variety of training, ranging from highly scheduled programs with detailed aims and objectives, to self-learning occurs across the world. Examinations and assessments are also variable. There are lessons to be learned from varying practices; more exchanges of ideas should be encouraged. In view of the ''internationalization'' of radiology services and the variation in training styles an international qualification for quality assurance purposes may be desirable. (orig.)

  13. Blended Learning in Obstetrics and Gynecology Resident Education: Impact on Resident Clinical Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghareeb, Allen; Han, Heeyoung; Delfino, Kristin; Taylor, Funminiyi

    2016-01-01

    Effects of residents' blended learning on their clinical performance have rarely been reported. A blended learning pilot program was instituted at Southern Illinois University School of Medicine's Obstetrics and Gynecology program. One of the modules was chronic hypertension in pregnancy. We sought to evaluate if the resident blended learning was transferred to their clinical performance six months after the module. A review of patient charts demonstrated inadequate documentation of history, evaluation, and counseling of patients with chronic hypertension at the first prenatal visit by Obstetrics and Gynecology (OB/GYN) residents. A blended learning module on chronic hypertension in pregnancy was then provided to the residents. A retrospective chart review was then performed to assess behavioral changes in the OB/GYN residents. This intervention was carried out at the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Southern Illinois University. All 16 OB/GYN residents were enrolled in this module as part of their educational curriculum. A query of all prenatal patients diagnosed with chronic hypertension presenting to the OB/GYN resident clinics four months prior to the implementation of the blended learning module (March 2015-June 2015) and six months after (July 20, 2015-February 2016) was performed. Data were collected from outpatient charts utilizing the electronic medical record. Data were abstracted from resident documentation at the first prenatal visit. The residents thought that the blended learning module was applicable to performance improvement in the real-world setting. Patients evaluated before ( n = 10) and after ( n = 7) the intervention were compared. After the intervention, there was an increase in assessment of baseline liver enzymes, referral for electrocardiogram, and early assessment for diabetes in the obese patients. More patients were provided a blood pressure cuff after the module (71.4% vs. 20%). Data were provided to the residents in an

  14. Understanding the challenges to facilitating active learning in the resident conferences: a qualitative study of internal medicine faculty and resident perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawatsky, Adam P; Zickmund, Susan L; Berlacher, Kathryn; Lesky, Dan; Granieri, Rosanne

    2015-01-01

    In the Next Accreditation System, the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education outlines milestones for medical knowledge and requires regular didactic sessions in residency training. There are many challenges to facilitating active learning in resident conferences, and we need to better understand resident learning preferences and faculty perspectives on facilitating active learning. The goal of this study was to identify challenges to facilitating active learning in resident conferences, both through identifying specific implementation barriers and identifying differences in perspective between faculty and residents on effective teaching and learning strategies. The investigators invited core residency faculty to participate in focus groups. The investigators used a semistructured guide to facilitate discussion about learning preferences and teaching perspectives in the conference setting and used an 'editing approach' within a grounded theory framework to qualitative analysis to code the transcripts and analyze the results. Data were compared to previously collected data from seven resident focus groups. Three focus groups with 20 core faculty were conducted. We identified three domains pertaining to facilitating active learning in resident conferences: barriers to facilitating active learning formats, similarities and differences in faculty and resident learning preferences, and divergence between faculty and resident opinions about effective teaching strategies. Faculty identified several setting, faculty, and resident barriers to facilitating active learning in resident conferences. When compared to residents, faculty expressed similar learning preferences; the main differences were in motivations for conference attendance and type of content. Resident preferences and faculty perspectives differed on the amount of information appropriate for lecture and the role of active participation in resident conferences. This study highlights several

  15. Understanding the challenges to facilitating active learning in the resident conferences: a qualitative study of internal medicine faculty and resident perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawatsky, Adam P.; Zickmund, Susan L.; Berlacher, Kathryn; Lesky, Dan; Granieri, Rosanne

    2015-01-01

    Background In the Next Accreditation System, the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education outlines milestones for medical knowledge and requires regular didactic sessions in residency training. There are many challenges to facilitating active learning in resident conferences, and we need to better understand resident learning preferences and faculty perspectives on facilitating active learning. The goal of this study was to identify challenges to facilitating active learning in resident conferences, both through identifying specific implementation barriers and identifying differences in perspective between faculty and residents on effective teaching and learning strategies. Methods The investigators invited core residency faculty to participate in focus groups. The investigators used a semistructured guide to facilitate discussion about learning preferences and teaching perspectives in the conference setting and used an ‘editing approach’ within a grounded theory framework to qualitative analysis to code the transcripts and analyze the results. Data were compared to previously collected data from seven resident focus groups. Results Three focus groups with 20 core faculty were conducted. We identified three domains pertaining to facilitating active learning in resident conferences: barriers to facilitating active learning formats, similarities and differences in faculty and resident learning preferences, and divergence between faculty and resident opinions about effective teaching strategies. Faculty identified several setting, faculty, and resident barriers to facilitating active learning in resident conferences. When compared to residents, faculty expressed similar learning preferences; the main differences were in motivations for conference attendance and type of content. Resident preferences and faculty perspectives differed on the amount of information appropriate for lecture and the role of active participation in resident conferences

  16. Life satisfaction of people with intellectual disability living in community residences: perceptions of the residents, their parents and staff members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, C; Rabinovitz, S

    2003-02-01

    Within the literature on quality of life (QoL), life satisfaction (LS) has emerged as a key variable by which to measure perceived well-being, which is referred to as subjective QoL. The LS self-reports of 93 residents with intellectual disability (ID) living in community-based residences were compared with reports about their LS completed by their staff and parents. The residents were interviewed on their LS by social workers who did not belong to the staff of the interviewee's residence. The instrument used was the Life Satisfaction Scale (LSS). Staff and parents completed the short version of the LSS. Residents and staff's LS reports were positively correlated. However, significant differences were found between these two groups of informants when the residents were characterized as high functioning, had a low score in challenging behaviour, worked in an integrative employment setting and lived in an apartment. As opposed to staff/resident discrepancies, no differences were found between parents' and residents' LS reports. If residents cannot to be interviewed about their LS, then the parent is the preferred person to respond on behalf of the resident. The current study highlights the importance of including both objective measures (e.g. functional assessment characteristics) and subjective measures (e.g. LS) in order to get a better understanding of the QoL of people with ID.

  17. Optimum penstocks for low head microhydro schemes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alexander, K.V. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Canterbury, Christchurch, P.O. Box 4800, Christchurch (New Zealand); Giddens, E.P. [Formally of Department of Civil Engineering, University of Canterbury, 81 Grange Street, Opawa, Christchurch (New Zealand)

    2008-03-15

    This paper presents an analysis for penstock optimization, for low head microhydro schemes. The intent of the optimization is to minimize capital cost per kilowatt rather than maximize the energy from the site. It is shown that site slope is an important consideration that affects the economics. While this work stands alone it has been generated as part of a research program that is in the final stages of developing a modular set of cost-effective low-head microhydro schemes for site heads below those currently serviced by Pelton Wheels. The rationale for the work has been that there is a multitude of viable low-head sites in isolated areas where microhydro is a realistic energy option, and where conventional economics are not appropriate. This is especially the case in third world countries. The goals of this paper have been to illustrate the issues and show how to decide on the most cost-effective penstock solutions that systematically cover the 0.2-20 kW supply. The paper presents the results as a matrix of the most cost-effective penstocks, and in the larger project it matches them to a modular set of turbines. It shows how to find the relative cost-effectiveness of alternative penstocks, and concludes with examples illustrating the results. (author)

  18. An Improved Overloading Scheme for Downlink CDMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Moeneclaey

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available An improved overloading scheme is presented for single-user detection in the downlink of multiple-access systems based on OCDMA/OCDMA (O/O. By displacing in time the orthogonal signatures of the two user sets that make up the overloaded system, the cross-correlation between the users of the two sets is reduced. For random O/O with square-root cosine rolloff chip pulses, the multiuser interference can be decreased by up to 50% (depending on the chip pulse bandwidth as compared to quasiorthogonal sequences (QOS that are presently part of the downlink standard of Cdma2000. This reduction of the multiuser interference gives rise to an increase of the achievable signal-to-interference-plus-noise ratio for a particular channel load.

  19. An intelligent robotics control scheme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlando, N. E.

    1984-01-01

    The problem of robot control is viewed at the level of communicating high-level commands produced by intelligent algorithms to the actuator/sensor controllers. Four topics are considered in the design of an integrated control and communications scheme for an intelligent robotic system: the use of abstraction spaces, hierarchical versus heterarchical control, distributed processing, and the interleaving of the steps of plan creation and plan execution. A scheme is presented for an n-level distributed hierarchical/heterarchical control system that effectively interleaves intelligent planning, execution, and sensory feedback. A three-level version of this scheme has been successfully implemented in the Intelligent Systems Research Lab at NASA Langley Research Center. This implementation forms the control structure for DAISIE (Distributed Artificially Intelligent System for Interacting with the Environment), a testbed system integrating AI software with robotics hardware.

  20. Modulation Schemes for Wireless Access

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Vejrazka

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Four modulation schemes, namely minimum shift keying (MSK, Gaussianminimum shift keying (GMSK, multiamplitude minimum shift keying(MAMSK and π/4 differential quadrature phase shift keying (π/4-QPSKare described and their applicability to wireless access is discussedin the paper. Low complexity receiver structures based on differentialdetection are analysed to estimate the performance of the modulationschemes in the additive Gaussian noise and the Rayleigh and Riceenvelope fast fading channel. The bandwidth efficiency is calculated toevaluate the modulation schemes. The results show that the MAMSK schemegives the greatest bandwidth efficiency, but its performance in theRayleigh channel is rather poor. In contrast, the MSK scheme is lessbandwidth efficient, but it is more resistant to Rayleigh fading. Theperformance of π/4-QPSK signal is considerably improved by appropriateprefiltering.

  1. Electrical injection schemes for nanolasers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lupi, Alexandra; Chung, Il-Sug; Yvind, Kresten

    2013-01-01

    injection schemes have been compared: vertical pi- n junction through a current post structure as in1 and lateral p-i-n junction with either uniform material as in2 or with a buried heterostructure (BH) as in3. To allow a direct comparison of the three schemes the same active material composition consisting......The performance of injection schemes among recently demonstrated electrically pumped photonic crystal nanolasers has been investigated numerically. The computation has been carried out at room temperature using a commercial semiconductor simulation software. For the simulations two electrical...... threshold current has been achieved with the lateral electrical injection through the BH; while the lowest resistance has been obtained from the current post structure even though this model shows a higher current threshold because of the lack of carrier confinement. Final scope of the simulations...

  2. Simple scheme for gauge mediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murayama, Hitoshi; Nomura, Yasunori

    2007-01-01

    We present a simple scheme for constructing models that achieve successful gauge mediation of supersymmetry breaking. In addition to our previous work [H. Murayama and Y. Nomura, Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 151803 (2007)] that proposed drastically simplified models using metastable vacua of supersymmetry breaking in vectorlike theories, we show there are many other successful models using various types of supersymmetry-breaking mechanisms that rely on enhanced low-energy U(1) R symmetries. In models where supersymmetry is broken by elementary singlets, one needs to assume U(1) R violating effects are accidentally small, while in models where composite fields break supersymmetry, emergence of approximate low-energy U(1) R symmetries can be understood simply on dimensional grounds. Even though the scheme still requires somewhat small parameters to sufficiently suppress gravity mediation, we discuss their possible origins due to dimensional transmutation. The scheme accommodates a wide range of the gravitino mass to avoid cosmological problems

  3. Abortion training in Canadian obstetrics and gynecology residency programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liauw, J; Dineley, B; Gerster, K; Hill, N; Costescu, D

    2016-11-01

    To evaluate the current state of abortion training in Canadian Obstetrics and Gynecology residency programs. Surveys were distributed to all Canadian Obstetrics and Gynecology residents and program directors. Data were collected on inclusion of abortion training in the curriculum, structure of the training and expected competency of residents in various abortion procedures. We distributed and collected surveys between November 2014 and May 2015. In total, 301 residents and 15 program directors responded, giving response rates of 55% and 94%, respectively. Based on responses by program directors, half of the programs had "opt-in" abortion training, and half of the programs had "opt-out" abortion training. Upon completion of residency, 66% of residents expected to be competent in providing first-trimester surgical abortion in an ambulatory setting, and 35% expected to be competent in second-trimester surgical abortion. Overall, 15% of residents reported that they were not aware of or did not have access to abortion training within their program, and 69% desired more abortion training during residency. Abortion training in Canadian Obstetrics and Gynecology residency programs is inconsistent, and residents desire more training in abortion. This suggests an ongoing unmet need for training in this area. Policies mandating standardized abortion training in obstetrics and gynecology residency programs are necessary to improve delivery of family planning services to Canadian women. Abortion training in Canadian Obstetrics and Gynecology residency programs is inconsistent, does not meet resident demand and is unlikely to fulfill the Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Canada objectives of training in the specialty. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Resident-to-resident relational aggression and subjective well-being in assisted living facilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trompetter, H.R.; Trompetter, Hester; Scholte, Ron; Westerhof, Gerben Johan

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Research in settings similar to assisted living facilities suggests that relational aggression, an indirect and mature form of aggression, might occur in assisted living facilities. This empirical study investigates the existence of relational aggression in a sample of residents and the

  5. Electrical Injection Schemes for Nanolasers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lupi, Alexandra; Chung, Il-Sug; Yvind, Kresten

    2014-01-01

    Three electrical injection schemes based on recently demonstrated electrically pumped photonic crystal nanolasers have been numerically investigated: 1) a vertical p-i-n junction through a post structure; 2) a lateral p-i-n junction with a homostructure; and 3) a lateral p-i-n junction....... For this analysis, the properties of different schemes, i.e., electrical resistance, threshold voltage, threshold current, and internal efficiency as energy requirements for optical interconnects are compared and the physics behind the differences is discussed....

  6. Implementation of a web-based, interactive polytrauma tutorial in computed tomography for radiology residents: How we do it

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlorhaufer, C.; Behrends, M.; Diekhaus, G.; Keberle, M.; Weidemann, J.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Due to the time factor in polytraumatized patients all relevant pathologies in a polytrauma computed tomography (CT) scan have to be read and communicated very quickly. During radiology residency acquisition of effective reading schemes based on typical polytrauma pathologies is very important. Thus, an online tutorial for the structured diagnosis of polytrauma CT was developed. Materials and methods: Based on current multimedia theories like the cognitive load theory a didactic concept was developed. As a web-environment the learning management system ILIAS was chosen. CT data sets were converted into online scrollable QuickTime movies. Audiovisual tutorial movies with guided image analyses by a consultant radiologist were recorded. Results: The polytrauma tutorial consists of chapterized text content and embedded interactive scrollable CT data sets. Selected trauma pathologies are demonstrated to the user by guiding tutor movies. Basic reading schemes are communicated with the help of detailed commented movies of normal data sets. Common and important pathologies could be explored in a self-directed manner. Conclusions: Ambitious didactic concepts can be supported by a web based application on the basis of cognitive load theory and currently available software tools.

  7. New practicable Siberian Snake schemes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steffen, K.

    1983-07-01

    Siberian Snake schemes can be inserted in ring accelerators for making the spin tune almost independent of energy. Two such schemes are here suggested which lend particularly well to practical application over a wide energy range. Being composed of horizontal and vertical bending magnets, the proposed snakes are designed to have a small maximum beam excursion in one plane. By applying in this plane a bending correction that varies with energy, they can be operated at fixed geometry in the other plane where most of the bending occurs, thus avoiding complicated magnet motion or excessively large magnet apertures that would otherwise be needed for large energy variations. The first of the proposed schemes employs a pair of standard-type Siberian Snakes, i.e. of the usual 1st and 2nd kind which rotate the spin about the longitudinal and the transverse horizontal axis, respectively. The second scheme employs a pair of novel-type snakes which rotate the spin about either one of the horizontal axes that are at 45 0 to the beam direction. In obvious reference to these axes, they are called left-pointed and right-pointed snakes. (orig.)

  8. Homogenization scheme for acoustic metamaterials

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Min

    2014-02-26

    We present a homogenization scheme for acoustic metamaterials that is based on reproducing the lowest orders of scattering amplitudes from a finite volume of metamaterials. This approach is noted to differ significantly from that of coherent potential approximation, which is based on adjusting the effective-medium parameters to minimize scatterings in the long-wavelength limit. With the aid of metamaterials’ eigenstates, the effective parameters, such as mass density and elastic modulus can be obtained by matching the surface responses of a metamaterial\\'s structural unit cell with a piece of homogenized material. From the Green\\'s theorem applied to the exterior domain problem, matching the surface responses is noted to be the same as reproducing the scattering amplitudes. We verify our scheme by applying it to three different examples: a layered lattice, a two-dimensional hexagonal lattice, and a decorated-membrane system. It is shown that the predicted characteristics and wave fields agree almost exactly with numerical simulations and experiments and the scheme\\'s validity is constrained by the number of dominant surface multipoles instead of the usual long-wavelength assumption. In particular, the validity extends to the full band in one dimension and to regimes near the boundaries of the Brillouin zone in two dimensions.

  9. Blended Learning in Obstetrics and Gynecology Resident Education: Impact on Resident Clinical Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allen Ghareeb

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem Effects of residents’ blended learning on their clinical performance have rarely been reported. A blended learning pilot program was instituted at Southern Illinois University School of Medicine's Obstetrics and Gynecology program. One of the modules was chronic hypertension in pregnancy. We sought to evaluate if the resident blended learning was transferred to their clinical performance six months after the module. Intervention A review of patient charts demonstrated inadequate documentation of history, evaluation, and counseling of patients with chronic hypertension at the first prenatal visit by Obstetrics and Gynecology (OB/GYN residents. A blended learning module on chronic hypertension in pregnancy was then provided to the residents. A retrospective chart review was then performed to assess behavioral changes in the OB/GYN residents. Context This intervention was carried out at the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Southern Illinois University. All 16 OB/GYN residents were enrolled in this module as part of their educational curriculum. A query of all prenatal patients diagnosed with chronic hypertension presenting to the OB/GYN resident clinics four months prior to the implementation of the blended learning module (March 2015–June 2015 and six months after (July 20, 2015–February 2016 was performed. Data were collected from outpatient charts utilizing the electronic medical record. Data were abstracted from resident documentation at the first prenatal visit. Outcome The residents thought that the blended learning module was applicable to performance improvement in the real-world setting. Patients evaluated before ( n = 10 and after ( n = 7 the intervention were compared. After the intervention, there was an increase in assessment of baseline liver enzymes, referral for electrocardiogram, and early assessment for diabetes in the obese patients. More patients were provided a blood pressure cuff after the module (71

  10. Electrocardiographic interpretation skills of cardiology residents: are they competent?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibbald, Matthew; Davies, Edward G; Dorian, Paul; Yu, Eric H C

    2014-12-01

    Achieving competency at electrocardiogram (ECG) interpretation among cardiology subspecialty residents has traditionally focused on interpreting a target number of ECGs during training. However, there is little evidence to support this approach. Further, there are no data documenting the competency of ECG interpretation skills among cardiology residents, who become de facto the gold standard in their practice communities. We tested 29 Cardiology residents from all 3 years in a large training program using a set of 20 ECGs collected from a community cardiology practice over a 1-month period. Residents interpreted half of the ECGs using a standard analytic framework, and half using their own approach. Residents were scored on the number of correct and incorrect diagnoses listed. Overall diagnostic accuracy was 58%. Of 6 potentially life-threatening diagnoses, residents missed 36% (123 of 348) including hyperkalemia (81%), long QT (52%), complete heart block (35%), and ventricular tachycardia (19%). Residents provided additional inappropriate diagnoses on 238 ECGs (41%). Diagnostic accuracy was similar between ECGs interpreted using an analytic framework vs ECGs interpreted without an analytic framework (59% vs 58%; F(1,1333) = 0.26; P = 0.61). Cardiology resident proficiency at ECG interpretation is suboptimal. Despite the use of an analytic framework, there remain significant deficiencies in ECG interpretation among Cardiology residents. A more systematic method of addressing these important learning gaps is urgently needed. Copyright © 2014 Canadian Cardiovascular Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Variability of physics education in radiation oncology medical residency programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Indra J; Moskvin, Vadim

    2012-11-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the quality of medical physics education for radiation oncology medical residents. An independent survey regarding physics education was carried out using e-mail. The survey contained 12 questions addressing the duration, length, and quality of education. Responses were tabulated and compared with the recommended educational scheme. Nearly 56% of institutions participated in this survey. Educational patterns were found to be significantly variable among institutions. Some have minimum physics education (10 lectures), and some have 90 lectures per year. In general, two-thirds of the institutions require residents to attend classes up to the third year. Significant variability of physics education for radiation oncology medical residents was observed, contrary to the national recommendations. With advanced treatment techniques, physics education should be given more importance, and the number of lectures should be increased to accommodate every aspect of radiation oncology practice. Copyright © 2012 American College of Radiology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. PI controller scheme for charge balance in implantable electrical ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Another approach, the offset regulation scheme [2], moni- tors the residual voltage and uses a discrete set of current sources to incrementally change the anodic phase ..... It can be seen from the graph of figure 14, that a trade-off exists amongst the overshoot, settling time, steady state out- put error and values of Kp and Ki.

  13. Decentralized Economic Dispatch Scheme With Online Power Reserve for Microgrids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nutkani, I. U.; Loh, Poh Chiang; Wang, P.

    2017-01-01

    costs, their power ratings, and other necessary constraints, before deciding the DG dispatch priorities and droop characteristics. The proposed scheme also allows online power reserve to be set and regulated within the microgrid. This, together with the generation cost saved, has been verified...

  14. Market-based support schemes for renewable energy sources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fagiani, R.

    2014-01-01

    The European Union set ambitious goals regarding the production of electricity from renewable energy sources and the majority of European governments have implemented policies stimulating investments in such technologies. Support schemes differ in many aspects, not only in their effectivity and

  15. A Stereo Music Preprocessing Scheme for Cochlear Implant Users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buyens, Wim; van Dijk, Bas; Wouters, Jan; Moonen, Marc

    2015-10-01

    Listening to music is still one of the more challenging aspects of using a cochlear implant (CI) for most users. Simple musical structures, a clear rhythm/beat, and lyrics that are easy to follow are among the top factors contributing to music appreciation for CI users. Modifying the audio mix of complex music potentially improves music enjoyment in CI users. A stereo music preprocessing scheme is described in which vocals, drums, and bass are emphasized based on the representation of the harmonic and the percussive components in the input spectrogram, combined with the spatial allocation of instruments in typical stereo recordings. The scheme is assessed with postlingually deafened CI subjects (N = 7) using pop/rock music excerpts with different complexity levels. The scheme is capable of modifying relative instrument level settings, with the aim of improving music appreciation in CI users, and allows individual preference adjustments. The assessment with CI subjects confirms the preference for more emphasis on vocals, drums, and bass as offered by the preprocessing scheme, especially for songs with higher complexity. The stereo music preprocessing scheme has the potential to improve music enjoyment in CI users by modifying the audio mix in widespread (stereo) music recordings. Since music enjoyment in CI users is generally poor, this scheme can assist the music listening experience of CI users as a training or rehabilitation tool.

  16. A class of difference schemes with flexible local approximation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsukerman, Igor

    2006-01-01

    Solutions of many physical problems have salient local features that are qualitatively known a priori (for example, singularities at point sources, edge and corners; boundary layers; derivative jumps at material interfaces; strong dipole field components near polarized spherical particles; cusps of electronic wavefunctions at the nuclei; electrostatic double layers around colloidal particles, etc.) The known methods capable of providing flexible local approximation of such features include the generalized finite element - partition of unity method, special variational-difference schemes in broken Sobolev spaces, and a few other specialized techniques. In the proposed new class of Flexible Local Approximation MEthods (FLAME), a desirable set of local approximating functions (such as cylindrical or spherical harmonics, plane waves, harmonic polynomials, etc.) defines a finite difference scheme on a chosen grid stencil. One motivation is to minimize the notorious 'staircase' effect at curved and slanted interface boundaries. However, the new approach has much broader applications. As illustrative examples, the paper presents arbitrarily high order 3-point schemes for the 1D Schroedinger equation and a 1D singular equation, schemes for electrostatic interactions of colloidal particles, electromagnetic wave propagation and scattering, plasmon resonances. Moreover, many classical finite difference schemes, including the Collatz 'Mehrstellen' schemes, are direct particular cases of FLAME

  17. Identity-based key-insulated aggregate signature scheme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Vasudeva Reddy

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Private key exposure can be the most devastating attack on cryptographic schemes; as such exposure leads to the breakage of security of the scheme as a whole. In the real world scenario, this problem is perhaps the biggest threat to cryptography. The threat is increasing with users operating on low computational devices (e.g. mobile devices which hold the corresponding private key for generating signatures. To reduce the damage caused by the key exposure problem in aggregate signatures and preserve the benefits of identity-based (ID-based cryptography, we hereby propose the first key-insulated aggregate signature scheme in ID-based setting. In this scheme the leakage of temporary private keys will not compromise the security of all the remaining time periods. The security of our scheme is proven secure in the random oracle paradigm with the assumption that the Computational Diffie–Hellman (CDH problem is intractable. The proposed scheme allows an efficient verification with constant signature size, independent of the number of signers.

  18. Mammography image assessment; validity and reliability of current scheme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, C.; Robinson, L.

    2015-01-01

    Mammographers currently score their own images according to criteria set out by Regional Quality Assurance. The criteria used are based on the ‘Perfect, Good, Moderate, Inadequate’ (PGMI) marking criteria established by the National Health Service Breast Screening Programme (NHSBSP) in their Quality Assurance Guidelines of 2006 1 . This document discusses the validity and reliability of the current mammography image assessment scheme. Commencing with a critical review of the literature this document sets out to highlight problems with the national approach to the use of marking schemes. The findings suggest that ‘PGMI’ scheme is flawed in terms of reliability and validity and is not universally applied across the UK. There also appear to be differences in schemes used by trainees and qualified mammographers. Initial recommendations are to be made in collaboration with colleagues within the National Health Service Breast Screening Programme (NHSBSP), Higher Education Centres, College of Radiographers and the Royal College of Radiologists in order to identify a mammography image appraisal scheme that is fit for purpose. - Highlights: • Currently no robust evidence based marking tools in use for the assessment of images in mammography. • Is current system valid, reliable and robust? • How can the current image assessment tool be improved? • Should students and qualified mammographers use the same tool? • What marking criteria are available for image assessment?

  19. Adaptive protection coordination scheme for distribution network with distributed generation using ABC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.M. Ibrahim

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an adaptive protection coordination scheme for optimal coordination of DOCRs in interconnected power networks with the impact of DG, the used coordination technique is the Artificial Bee Colony (ABC. The scheme adapts to system changes; new relays settings are obtained as generation-level or system-topology changes. The developed adaptive scheme is applied on the IEEE 30-bus test system for both single- and multi-DG existence where results are shown and discussed.

  20. 2005 Resident Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    City and County of Durham, North Carolina — The purpose of the annual City/County survey: To objectively assess citizen satisfaction with the delivery of City/County servicesTo set a baseline for future...

  1. 2009 Resident Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    City and County of Durham, North Carolina — The purpose of the annual City/County survey: To objectively assess citizen satisfaction with the delivery of City/County servicesTo set a baseline for future...

  2. 2013 Resident Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    City and County of Durham, North Carolina — The purpose of the annual City/County survey: To objectively assess citizen satisfaction with the delivery of City/County servicesTo set a baseline for future...

  3. 2011 Resident Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    City and County of Durham, North Carolina — The purpose of the annual City/County survey: To objectively assess citizen satisfaction with the delivery of City/County servicesTo set a baseline for future...

  4. 2007 Resident Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    City and County of Durham, North Carolina — The purpose of the annual City/County survey: To objectively assess citizen satisfaction with the delivery of City/County servicesTo set a baseline for future...

  5. Automatic sets and Delone sets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbe, A; Haeseler, F von

    2004-01-01

    Automatic sets D part of Z m are characterized by having a finite number of decimations. They are equivalently generated by fixed points of certain substitution systems, or by certain finite automata. As examples, two-dimensional versions of the Thue-Morse, Baum-Sweet, Rudin-Shapiro and paperfolding sequences are presented. We give a necessary and sufficient condition for an automatic set D part of Z m to be a Delone set in R m . The result is then extended to automatic sets that are defined as fixed points of certain substitutions. The morphology of automatic sets is discussed by means of examples

  6. The role of simulation training in anesthesiology resident education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yunoki, Kazuma; Sakai, Tetsuro

    2018-03-09

    An increasing number of reports indicate the efficacy of simulation training in anesthesiology resident education. Simulation education helps learners to acquire clinical skills in a safe learning environment without putting real patients at risk. This useful tool allows anesthesiology residents to obtain medical knowledge and both technical and non-technical skills. For faculty members, simulation-based settings provide the valuable opportunity to evaluate residents' performance in scenarios including airway management and regional, cardiac, and obstetric anesthesiology. However, it is still unclear what types of simulators should be used or how to incorporate simulation education effectively into education curriculums. Whether simulation training improves patient outcomes has not been fully determined. The goal of this review is to provide an overview of the status of simulation in anesthesiology resident education, encourage more anesthesiologists to get involved in simulation education to propagate its influence, and stimulate future research directed toward improving resident education and patient outcomes.

  7. Multiplexing schemes for quantum repeater networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aparicio, Luciano; Van Meter, Rodney

    2011-08-01

    When built, quantum repeaters will allow the distribution of entangled quantum states across large distances, playing a vital part in many proposed quantum technologies. Enabling multiple users to connect through the same network will be key to their real-world deployment. Previous work on repeater technologies has focussed only on simple entanglment production, without considering the issues of resource scarcity and competition that necessarily arise in a network setting. In this paper we simulated a thirteen-node network with up to five flows sharing different parts of the network, measuring the total throughput and fairness for each case. Our results suggest that the Internet-like approach of statistical multiplexing use of a congested link gives the highest aggregate throughput. Time division multiplexing and buffer space multiplexing were slightly less effective, but all three schemes allow the sum of multiple flows to substantially exceed that of any one flow, improving over circuit switching by taking advantage of resources that are forced to remain idle in circuit switching. All three schemes proved to have excellent fairness. The high performance, fairness and simplicity of implementation support a recommendation of statistical multiplexing for shared quantum repeater networks.

  8. Project financing renewable energy schemes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandler, A.

    1993-01-01

    The viability of many Renewable Energy projects is critically dependent upon the ability of these projects to secure the necessary financing on acceptable terms. The principal objective of the study was to provide an overview to project developers of project financing techniques and the conditions under which project finance for Renewable Energy schemes could be raised, focussing on the potential sources of finance, the typical project financing structures that could be utilised for Renewable Energy schemes and the risk/return and security requirements of lenders, investors and other potential sources of financing. A second objective is to describe the appropriate strategy and tactics for developers to adopt in approaching the financing markets for such projects. (author)

  9. Finite volume schemes for Vlasov

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crouseilles Nicolas

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We present finite volume schemes for the numerical approximation of the one-dimensional Vlasov-Poisson equation (FOV CEMRACS 2011 project. Stability analysis is performed for the linear advection and links with semi-Lagrangian schemes are made. Finally, numerical results enable to compare the different methods using classical plasma test cases. Des schémas de type volumes finis sont étudiés ici pour l’approximation de l’équation de Vlasov-Poisson (projet FOV, CEMRACS 2011. Une analyse de stabilité est effectuée dans le cas de l’advection linéaire et plusieurs liens sont faits entre les méthodes volumes finis et semi-Lagrangiennes. Enfin, les méthodes sont comparées sur des cas tests académiques de la physique des plasmas.

  10. Distance labeling schemes for trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alstrup, Stephen; Gørtz, Inge Li; Bistrup Halvorsen, Esben

    2016-01-01

    We consider distance labeling schemes for trees: given a tree with n nodes, label the nodes with binary strings such that, given the labels of any two nodes, one can determine, by looking only at the labels, the distance in the tree between the two nodes. A lower bound by Gavoille et al. [Gavoille...... variants such as, for example, small distances in trees [Alstrup et al., SODA, 2003]. We improve the known upper and lower bounds of exact distance labeling by showing that 1/4 log2(n) bits are needed and that 1/2 log2(n) bits are sufficient. We also give (1 + ε)-stretch labeling schemes using Theta...

  11. Scheme-Independent Predictions in QCD: Commensurate Scale Relations and Physical Renormalization Schemes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brodsky, Stanley J.

    1998-01-01

    Commensurate scale relations are perturbative QCD predictions which relate observable to observable at fixed relative scale, such as the ''generalized Crewther relation'', which connects the Bjorken and Gross-Llewellyn Smith deep inelastic scattering sum rules to measurements of the e + e - annihilation cross section. All non-conformal effects are absorbed by fixing the ratio of the respective momentum transfer and energy scales. In the case of fixed-point theories, commensurate scale relations relate both the ratio of couplings and the ratio of scales as the fixed point is approached. The relations between the observables are independent of the choice of intermediate renormalization scheme or other theoretical conventions. Commensurate scale relations also provide an extension of the standard minimal subtraction scheme, which is analytic in the quark masses, has non-ambiguous scale-setting properties, and inherits the physical properties of the effective charge α V (Q 2 ) defined from the heavy quark potential. The application of the analytic scheme to the calculation of quark-mass-dependent QCD corrections to the Z width is also reviewed

  12. Education Research: Neurology resident education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayans, David; Schneider, Logan; Adams, Nellie; Khawaja, Ayaz M.; Engstrom, John

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To survey US-trained graduating neurology residents who are American Academy of Neurology members, in an effort to trend perceived quality and completeness of graduate neurology education. Methods: An electronic survey was sent to all American Academy of Neurology members graduating from US neurology residency programs in the Spring of 2014. Results: Of 805 eligible respondents, 24% completed the survey. Ninety-three percent of adult neurology residents and 56% of child neurology residents reported plans to pursue fellowship training after residency. Respondents reported a desire for additional training in neurocritical care, neuro-oncology, neuromuscular diseases, botulinum toxin injection, and nerve blocks. There remains a clear deficit in business training of neurology residents, although there was notable improvement in knowledge of coding and office management compared to previous surveys. Discussion: Although there are still areas of perceived weakness in neurology training, graduating neurology residents feel generally well prepared for their chosen careers. However, most still pursue fellowship training for reasons that are little understood. In addition to certain subspecialties and procedures, practice management remains deficient in neurology training and is a point of future insecurity for most residents. Future curriculum changes should consider resident-reported gaps in knowledge, with careful consideration of improving business training. PMID:26976522

  13. New schemes for particle accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishida, Y.

    1985-01-01

    In the present paper, the authors propose new schemes for realizing the v/sub p/xB accelerator, by using no plasma system for producing the strong longitudinal waves. The first method is to use a grating for obtaining extended interaction of an electron beam moving along the grating surface with light beam incident also along the surface. Here, the light beam propagates obliquely to the grating grooves for producing strong electric field, and the electron beam propagates in parallel to the light beam. The static magnetic field is applied perpendicularly to the grating surface. In the present system, the beam interacts synchronously with the p-polarized wave which has the electric field be parallel to the grating surface. Another conventional scheme is to use a delay circuit. Here, the light beam propagates obliquely between a pair of array of conductor fins or slots. The phase velocity of the spatial harmonics in the y-direction (right angle to the array of slots) is slower than the speed of light. With the aid of powerful laser light or microwave source, it should be possible to miniaturise linacs by using the v/sub p/xB effect and schemes proposed here

  14. An Arbitrated Quantum Signature Scheme without Entanglement"*

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Hui-Ran; Luo Ming-Xing; Peng Dai-Yuan; Wang Xiao-Jun

    2017-01-01

    Several quantum signature schemes are recently proposed to realize secure signatures of quantum or classical messages. Arbitrated quantum signature as one nontrivial scheme has attracted great interests because of its usefulness and efficiency. Unfortunately, previous schemes cannot against Trojan horse attack and DoS attack and lack of the unforgeability and the non-repudiation. In this paper, we propose an improved arbitrated quantum signature to address these secure issues with the honesty arbitrator. Our scheme takes use of qubit states not entanglements. More importantly, the qubit scheme can achieve the unforgeability and the non-repudiation. Our scheme is also secure for other known quantum attacks . (paper)

  15. An Arbitrated Quantum Signature Scheme without Entanglement*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hui-Ran; Luo, Ming-Xing; Peng, Dai-Yuan; Wang, Xiao-Jun

    2017-09-01

    Several quantum signature schemes are recently proposed to realize secure signatures of quantum or classical messages. Arbitrated quantum signature as one nontrivial scheme has attracted great interests because of its usefulness and efficiency. Unfortunately, previous schemes cannot against Trojan horse attack and DoS attack and lack of the unforgeability and the non-repudiation. In this paper, we propose an improved arbitrated quantum signature to address these secure issues with the honesty arbitrator. Our scheme takes use of qubit states not entanglements. More importantly, the qubit scheme can achieve the unforgeability and the non-repudiation. Our scheme is also secure for other known quantum attacks.

  16. Analogical Argument Schemes and Complex Argument Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andre Juthe

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses several issues in argumentation theory. The over-arching goal is to discuss how a theory of analogical argument schemes fits the pragma-dialectical theory of argument schemes and argument structures, and how one should properly reconstruct both single and complex argumentation by analogy. I also propose a unified model that explains how formal valid deductive argumentation relates to argument schemes in general and to analogical argument schemes in particular. The model suggests “scheme-specific-validity” i.e. that there are contrasting species of validity for each type of argument scheme that derive from one generic conception of validity.

  17. Comorbidity and 1-year mortality risks in nursing home residents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dijk, P.T.; Mehr, D.R.; Ooms, M.E.; Madsen, R.W.; Petroski, G.; Frijters, D.H.M.; Pot, A.M.; Ribbe, M.W.

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To investigate the effect of chronic diseases and disease combinations on 1-year mortality in nursing home residents. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study using electronically submitted Minimum Data Set (MDS) information and Missouri death certificate data. SETTING: Five hundred twenty-two

  18. Fourier analysis of finite element preconditioned collocation schemes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deville, Michel O.; Mund, Ernest H.

    1990-01-01

    The spectrum of the iteration operator of some finite element preconditioned Fourier collocation schemes is investigated. The first part of the paper analyses one-dimensional elliptic and hyperbolic model problems and the advection-diffusion equation. Analytical expressions of the eigenvalues are obtained with use of symbolic computation. The second part of the paper considers the set of one-dimensional differential equations resulting from Fourier analysis (in the tranverse direction) of the 2-D Stokes problem. All results agree with previous conclusions on the numerical efficiency of finite element preconditioning schemes.

  19. Sellafield Site (including Drigg) emergency scheme manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-02-01

    This Scheme defines the organisation and procedures available should there be an accident at the Sellafield Site which results in, or may result in, the release of radioactive material, or the generation of a high radiation field, which might present a hazard to employees and/or the general public. Several categories of emergencies on the Sellafield Site are mentioned; a building emergency which is confined to one building, a Site emergency standby when the effects of a building emergency go outside that building, a Site emergency alert (District Emergency Standby) when a release of activity affects Site operations and could have serious Site effects and a District Emergency Alert when a radioactivity release may interfere with the normal activity of the General Public. A Drigg Emergency Standby situation would operate similarly at the Drigg Site. The detailed arrangements and responsibilities of appointed personnel are set out in this manual. (UK)

  20. Third Order Reconstruction of the KP Scheme for Model of River Tinnelva

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susantha Dissanayake

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The Saint-Venant equation/Shallow Water Equation is used to simulate flow of river, flow of liquid in an open channel, tsunami etc. The Kurganov-Petrova (KP scheme which was developed based on the local speed of discontinuity propagation, can be used to solve hyperbolic type partial differential equations (PDEs, hence can be used to solve the Saint-Venant equation. The KP scheme is semi discrete: PDEs are discretized in the spatial domain, resulting in a set of Ordinary Differential Equations (ODEs. In this study, the common 2nd order KP scheme is extended into 3rd order scheme while following the Weighted Essentially Non-Oscillatory (WENO and Central WENO (CWENO reconstruction steps. Both the 2nd order and 3rd order schemes have been used in simulation in order to check the suitability of the KP schemes to solve hyperbolic type PDEs. The simulation results indicated that the 3rd order KP scheme shows some better stability compared to the 2nd order scheme. Computational time for the 3rd order KP scheme for variable step-length ode solvers in MATLAB is less compared to the computational time of the 2nd order KP scheme. In addition, it was confirmed that the order of the time integrators essentially should be lower compared to the order of the spatial discretization. However, for computation of abrupt step changes, the 2nd order KP scheme shows a more accurate solution.

  1. Factors Influencing Resident Choice of Prosthodontic Residency Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojnarwsky, Pandora Keala Lee; Wang, Yan; Shah, Kumar; Koka, Sreenivas

    2017-06-01

    The decision by prosthodontic residency program directors to employ the Match process highlights the need to understand applicant priorities that influence their choice of which programs to rank highly. The purpose of this study is to determine the factors that were most important to residents when choosing from among nonmilitary based prosthodontics dental residency programs in the United States. Following completion of a pilot study, all currently enrolled prosthodontic residents at nonmilitary residency programs were invited to participate via the internet. The study consisted of a survey instrument asking residents to rank 26 possible factors that might impact an applicant's choice of residency program. In addition, the instrument collected other possible influencing variables including gender and debt load. Mean rank scores were compared to determine the most and least important factors. Kruskal-Wallis test was used to compare specific factors between the possible influencing variables. Two hundred and thirty residents completed the survey instrument, representing a 54.1% response rate of possible participants. With regard to factors influencing program choice, reputation of the residency program was the factor ranked the highest by participants, followed in descending order by the program director's personality, curriculum content, access to use of the latest digital technology, and opportunities for dental implant placement. Quality of schools for children, community outreach opportunities, and the ability to moonlight were ranked as the least important factors. Male and female residents ranked factors such as tuition/stipend, curriculum content, and community outreach opportunities significantly differently. Depending on debt load, residents ranked the factors tuition/stipend, ability to moonlight, curriculum content, and safety of the area where the program is differently. Current prosthodontic residents valued the reputation of the program as the most

  2. The neighborhood health exchange: developing a community partnership in residency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tartaglia, Kimberly M; Press, Valerie G; Freed, Benjamin H; Baker, Timothy; Tang, Joyce W; Cohen, Julie C; Laiteerapong, Neda; Alvarez, Kimberly; Schwartz, Mindy; Arora, Vineet M

    2010-09-01

    The current system of residency training focuses on the hospital setting, and resident exposure to the surrounding community is often limited. However, community interaction can play an important role in ambulatory training and in learning systems-based practice, a residency core competency. The goal of the Neighborhood Health Exchange was to develop a community partnership to provide internal medicine residents with an opportunity to interface with community members through a mutually beneficial educational experience. Internal medicine residents received training during their ambulatory block and participated in a voluntary field practicum designed to engage community members in discussions about their health. Community members participated in education sessions led by resident volunteers. Resident volunteers completed a survey on their experiences. All residents stated that the opportunity to lead an exchange was very useful to their overall residency training. Eight exchanges were held with a total of 61 community participants, who completed a 3-question survey following the session. This survey asked about the level of material, the helpfulness of the exchanges, and opportunities for improvement. We received 46 completed surveys from community members: 91% stated that the material was presented "at the right level" and 93% stated that the presentations were somewhat or very helpful. Eighty percent gave positive and encouraging comments about the exchange. Effective community partnerships involve assessing needs of the stakeholders, anticipating leadership turnover, and adapting the Neighborhood Health Exchange model to different groups. Community outreach can also enhance internal medicine ambulatory training experience, provide residents with patient counseling opportunities, and offer a novel method to enhance resident understanding of systems-based practice, especially within the larger community in which their patients live.

  3. Incorporating resident research into the dermatology residency program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Richard F; Raimer, Sharon S; Kelly, Brent C

    2013-01-01

    Programmatic changes for the dermatology residency program at The University of Texas Medical Branch were first introduced in 2005, with the faculty goal incorporating formal dermatology research projects into the 3-year postgraduate training period. This curriculum initially developed as a recommendation for voluntary scholarly project activity by residents, but it evolved into a program requirement for all residents in 2009. Departmental support for this activity includes assignment of a faculty mentor with similar interest about the research topic, financial support from the department for needed supplies, materials, and statistical consultation with the Office of Biostatistics for study design and data analysis, a 2-week elective that provides protected time from clinical activities for the purpose of preparing research for publication and submission to a peer-reviewed medical journal, and a departmental award in recognition for the best resident scholarly project each year. Since the inception of this program, five classes have graduated a total of 16 residents. Ten residents submitted their research studies for peer review and published their scholarly projects in seven dermatology journals through the current academic year. These articles included three prospective investigations, three surveys, one article related to dermatology education, one retrospective chart review, one case series, and one article about dermatopathology. An additional article from a 2012 graduate about dermatology education has also been submitted to a journal. This new program for residents was adapted from our historically successful Dermatology Honors Research Program for medical students at The University of Texas Medical Branch. Our experience with this academic initiative to promote dermatology research by residents is outlined. It is recommended that additional residency programs should consider adopting similar research programs to enrich resident education. PMID:23901305

  4. Residence time distribution studies on water-softening reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baranyai, L.

    1989-01-01

    Based on radiotracer techniques residence time distribution (RTD) studies were carried out on a water-softening reactor consisting of three physically separated units in order to characterize its hydrodynamical behaviour. The measured RTD curves and the actual mean residence times were compared with the theoretical values set up by modelling the reactor as a hydrodynamical system. Neither mixing nor sedimentation reaches ideal flow. The flow type in the settling cylinder is far of that what is expected. (author)

  5. The Multiple Insertion Pyramid: A Fast Parameter-Less Population Scheme.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    den Besten, Willem; Thierens, D.; Bosman, P.A.N.

    2016-01-01

    The Parameter-less Population Pyramid (P3) uses a novel population scheme, called the population pyramid. This population scheme does not require a fixed population size, instead it keeps adding new solutions to an ever growing set of layered populations. P3 is very efficient in terms of number of

  6. The multiple insertion pyramid: a fast parameter-less population scheme

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    den Besten, W. (Willem); D. Thierens (Dirk); P.A.N. Bosman (Peter)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractThe Parameter-less Population Pyramid (P3) uses a novel population scheme, called the population pyramid. This population scheme does not require a fixed population size, instead it keeps adding new solutions to an ever growing set of layered populations. P3 is very efficient in terms of

  7. Quality of care reported by proxies - Does resident cognition count?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahanpää, Anja; Noro, Anja; Perälä, Marja-Leena

    2018-01-01

    Resident self-reports are considered the primary source of quality of care information, but proxy reports by family or staff can also be used to supplement or substitute resident reports. This study analyses how the results of proxy reports vary according to residents' cognition level. The data set used covers proxy reports of family ( n = 558) and staff ( n = 801), divided by the availability of resident self-reports (family yes n = 289, no n = 269; staff yes 393, no = 408). Family and staff proxies assessed residents' quality of care as better when resident self-reports were also available, and quality of care tended to be assessed as poorer among those with higher cognitive decline. The results of this methodological study indicate the importance of using several proxy evaluations; however, these can only supplement resident self-reports, not replace them. The interpretation rules acknowledging dependency between residents' cognition and proxy assessments could be used as a basis for future comparisons of quality improvement in long-term care and for painting a more comprehensive picture of service quality.

  8. Practical Interventions to Enhance Resident Ownership of Patient Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soeprono, Thomas; Markman, Jesse; Grodesky, Michael; Cowley, Deborah

    2017-06-19

    In the modern training environment, some question whether trainees have the opportunity to develop ownership of patient care, which includes concepts such as advocacy, autonomy, commitment, communication, follow-through, knowledge about the patient, responsibility, and teamwork. Despite descriptions of what ownership is, there is little discussion of how to foster ownership during residency. The objective of this study was to solicit psychiatry resident and faculty perspectives on ways to enhance resident ownership in training. Twenty-nine of 74 (39.2%) residents and 31 of 68 (45.6%) faculty members surveyed provided narrative responses to a voluntary, anonymous, electronic survey asking two structured, open-ended questions about what factors make it more or less likely that a resident will take "ownership" of patient care. The coding process produced four overarching categories of themes (attending, resident, educational program, and environment) that reflect domains for possible interventions to increase ownership, with conceptual guidance from the Theory of Planned Behavior. From these factors, the authors propose a number of practical yet theory-based interventions which include setting expectations, modeling, promoting autonomy, countertransference supervision, changing residency culture, and longer rotations. These interventions address subjective norms, attitudes, perceived ability and control, environment, and actual resident abilities, all of which, according to the Theory of Planned Behavior, would be likely to influence patient care ownership. Future studies could develop curricula and examine the effectiveness of the interventions proposed here in reinforcing or developing ownership in physicians.

  9. Coleadership Among Chief Residents: Exploration of Experiences Across Specialties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettit, Jeffrey E

    2015-06-01

    Many departments have multiple chief residents. How these coleaders relate to each other could affect their performance, the residency program, and the department. This article reports on how co-chiefs work together during the chief year, and what may allow them to be more effective coleaders. A phenomenological research design was used to investigate experiences of outgoing chief residents from 13 specialties at the University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics over a 2-year period from 2012 through 2013. Thematic analysis of semistructured interviews was conducted to investigate commonalities and recommendations. Face-to-face interviews with 19 chief residents from 13 different specialties identified experiences that helped co-chiefs work effectively with each other in orienting new co-chiefs, setting goals and expectations, making decisions, managing interpersonal conflict, leadership styles, communicating, working with program directors, and providing evaluations and feedback. Although the interviewed chief residents received guidance on how to be an effective chief resident, none had been given advice on how to effectively work with a co-chief, and 26% (5 of 19) of the respondents reported having an ineffective working relationship with their co-chief. Chief residents often colead in carrying out their multiple functions. To successfully function in a multichief environment, chief residents may benefit from a formal co-orientation in which they discuss goals and expectations, agree on a decision-making process, understand each other's leadership style, and receive feedback on their efficacy as leaders.

  10. Coleadership Among Chief Residents: Exploration of Experiences Across Specialties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettit, Jeffrey E.

    2015-01-01

    Background Many departments have multiple chief residents. How these coleaders relate to each other could affect their performance, the residency program, and the department. Objective This article reports on how co-chiefs work together during the chief year, and what may allow them to be more effective coleaders. Methods A phenomenological research design was used to investigate experiences of outgoing chief residents from 13 specialties at the University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics over a 2-year period from 2012 through 2013. Thematic analysis of semistructured interviews was conducted to investigate commonalities and recommendations. Results Face-to-face interviews with 19 chief residents from 13 different specialties identified experiences that helped co-chiefs work effectively with each other in orienting new co-chiefs, setting goals and expectations, making decisions, managing interpersonal conflict, leadership styles, communicating, working with program directors, and providing evaluations and feedback. Although the interviewed chief residents received guidance on how to be an effective chief resident, none had been given advice on how to effectively work with a co-chief, and 26% (5 of 19) of the respondents reported having an ineffective working relationship with their co-chief. Conclusions Chief residents often colead in carrying out their multiple functions. To successfully function in a multichief environment, chief residents may benefit from a formal co-orientation in which they discuss goals and expectations, agree on a decision-making process, understand each other's leadership style, and receive feedback on their efficacy as leaders. PMID:26221435

  11. Therapeutic kitchens for residents with dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsden, J P; Meehan, R A; Calkins, M P

    2001-01-01

    Long-term care facilities are increasingly incorporating some sort of kitchen, often referred to as a therapeutic kitchen, for resident, staff, and family use through remodeling efforts or new construction. A study, consisting of five site visits and a questionnaire mailed to 631 facilities providing dementia care, was conducted to identify physical features that are typically included in therapeutic kitchen design and to explore how these features support daily use in relation to activities programming and food service systems. Findings indicate that universal design features should be incorporated to a greater extent and certain features are more common, reinforce homelike imagery, or enhance safety. Results also suggest that a higher number of residents participate in more recreational activities, such as baking, than they do in household chores, such as meal set-up, and therapeutic kitchens are not always linked to food service systems.

  12. Decoupling schemes for the SSC Collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai, Y.; Bourianoff, G.; Cole, B.; Meinke, R.; Peterson, J.; Pilat, F.; Stampke, S.; Syphers, M.; Talman, R.

    1993-05-01

    A decoupling system is designed for the SSC Collider. This system can accommodate three decoupling schemes by using 44 skew quadrupoles in the different configurations. Several decoupling schemes are studied and compared in this paper

  13. Decoupling schemes for the SCC Collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai, Y.; Bourianoff, G.; Cole, B.; Meinke, R.; Peterson, J.; Pilat, F.; Stampke, S.; Syphers, M.; Talman, R.

    1993-01-01

    A decoupling system is designed for the SSC Collider. This system can accommodate three decoupling schemes by using 44 skew quadrupoles in the different configurations. Several decoupling schemes are studied and compared in this paper

  14. TVD schemes for open channel flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delis, A. I.; Skeels, C. P.

    1998-04-01

    The Saint Venant equations for modelling flow in open channels are solved in this paper, using a variety of total variation diminishing (TVD) schemes. The performance of second- and third-order-accurate TVD schemes is investigated for the computation of free-surface flows, in predicting dam-breaks and extreme flow conditions created by the river bed topography. Convergence of the schemes is quantified by comparing error norms between subsequent iterations. Automatically calculated time steps and entropy corrections allow high CFL numbers and smooth transition between different conditions. In order to compare different approaches with TVD schemes, the most accurate of each type was chosen. All four schemes chosen proved acceptably accurate. However, there are important differences between the schemes in the occurrence of clipping, overshooting and oscillating behaviour and in the highest CFL numbers allowed by a scheme. These variations in behaviour stem from the different orders and inherent properties of the four schemes.

  15. Algebraic K-theory of generalized schemes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anevski, Stella Victoria Desiree

    Nikolai Durov has developed a generalization of conventional scheme theory in which commutative algebraic monads replace commutative unital rings as the basic algebraic objects. The resulting geometry is expressive enough to encompass conventional scheme theory, tropical algebraic geometry and ge...

  16. Algebraic K-theory of generalized schemes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anevski, Stella Victoria Desiree

    Nikolai Durov has developed a generalization of conventional scheme theory in which commutative algebraic monads replace commutative unital rings as the basic algebraic objects. The resulting geometry is expressive enough to encompass conventional scheme theory, tropical algebraic geometry...

  17. Burnout among Dutch medical residents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prins, J.T.; Hoekstra-Weebers, J.E.; Van De Wiel, H.B.; Gazendam-Donofrio, S.M.; Sprangers, F.; Jaspers, F.C.; van der Heijden, F.M.

    2007-01-01

    We examined levels of burnout and relationships between burnout, gender, age, years in training, and medical specialty in 158 medical residents working at the University Medical Center Groningen, the Netherlands. Thirteen percent of the residents met the criteria for burnout, with the highest

  18. Surgical residency: A tenant's view

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    'To sleep: perchance to dream', is the frequent mantra of the surgical resident. However, unlike. Hamlet, there is no ensuing speculation as to what dreams may come as there are seldom any!! Surgical residency has been both vilified and immortalized, but the fact remains that it is one of the most challenging, provocative ...

  19. Economic Droop Scheme for Decentralized Power Management in DC Microgrids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Alizadeh

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes an autonomous and economic droop control scheme for DC microgrid application. In this method, a cost-effective power sharing technique among various types of DG units is properly adopted. The droop settings are determined based on an algorithm to individually manage the power management without any complicated optimization methods commonly applied in the centralized control method. In the proposed scheme, the system retains all the advantages of the traditional droop method while minimizes the generation costs of the DC microgrid. In the proposed method, all DGs are classified in a sorting rule based on their total generation cost and the reference voltage of their droop equations is then determined. The proposed scheme is applied to a typical DC microgrid consisting of four different types of DGs and a controllable load. The simulation results are presented to verify the effectiveness of the proposed method using MATLAB/SIMULINK software.

  20. MIRD radionuclide data and decay schemes

    CERN Document Server

    Eckerman, Keith F

    2007-01-01

    For all physicians, scientists, and physicists working in the nuclear medicine field, the MIRD: Radionuclide Data and Decay Schemes updated edition is an essential sourcebook for radiation dosimetry and understanding the properties of radionuclides. Includes CD Table of Contents Decay schemes listed by atomic number Radioactive decay processes Serial decay schemes Decay schemes and decay tables This essential reference for nuclear medicine physicians, scientists and physicists also includes a CD with tabulations of the radionuclide data necessary for dosimetry calculations.

  1. Secret Sharing Schemes and Advanced Encryption Standard

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    Secret Sharing Scheme, they have only been better under certain parameters; there is always a trade -off with some parameter of the scheme. xiv...NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY, CALIFORNIA THESIS SECRET SHARING SCHEMES AND ADVANCED ENCRYPTION STANDARD by Bing Yong Lim September 2015 Thesis...AND SUBTITLE SECRET SHARING SCHEMES AND ADVANCED ENCRYPTION STANDARD 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 6. AUTHOR(S) Lim, Bin Yong 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S

  2. Tightly Secure Signatures From Lossy Identification Schemes

    OpenAIRE

    Abdalla , Michel; Fouque , Pierre-Alain; Lyubashevsky , Vadim; Tibouchi , Mehdi

    2015-01-01

    International audience; In this paper, we present three digital signature schemes with tight security reductions in the random oracle model. Our first signature scheme is a particularly efficient version of the short exponent discrete log-based scheme of Girault et al. (J Cryptol 19(4):463–487, 2006). Our scheme has a tight reduction to the decisional short discrete logarithm problem, while still maintaining the non-tight reduction to the computational version of the problem upon which the or...

  3. A psychological profile of surgeons and surgical residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Kevin N; Neidert, Gregory P M; Brubaker-Rimmer, Ruth; Artalejo, Diana; Caruso, Daniel M

    2010-01-01

    Approximately 20 percent of general surgery residents never complete their original residency programs. The psychological, programmatic, and financial costs for this attrition are substantial for both the residents, who spend valuable time and money pursuing incompatible career paths, and the residency programs, which also lose valuable time and money invested in these residents. There is a large amount of information in the field about the performance dimensions and skill sets of surgeons and surgical residents. To date, however, no research has been conducted on important process and content dimensions, which are critical in determining good person-job fit. A research team from the Department of Psychology at Arizona State University and Maricopa Medical Center conducted descriptive research to determine the work-related personality and interest variables of attending surgeons and surgical residents. Sixty-three surgical residents and 27 attending/teaching surgeons completed 2 sections (interests and personality scales) of the World of Work Inventory Online (WOWI Online). This multidimensional assessment was offered to all attending/teaching surgeons and surgical residents at Maricopa Medical Center. All members of the Department of Surgery participated in the trial. Based on the attending/teaching and high-performing resident profiles, a stable interest and personality profile emerged, which highlights the unique characteristics necessary to identify those who would be most satisfied with and suitable for work as surgeons. The profiles of the attending/teaching surgeons and the high-performing residents were similar. This contrasted with the interest and personality profiles of low-performing residents. The differences in the 2 groups' profiles provide insight into low performance and possible incompatibility with surgical residency, and possibly with general surgery as a profession choice. The WOWI Online assessment tool provides a stable profile of successful

  4. Early resident-to-resident physics education in diagnostic radiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kansagra, Akash P

    2014-01-01

    The revised ABR board certification process has updated the method by which diagnostic radiology residents are evaluated for competency in clinical radiologic physics. In this work, the author reports the successful design and implementation of a resident-taught physics course consisting of 5 weekly, hour-long lectures intended for incoming first-year radiology residents in their first month of training. To the author's knowledge, this is the first description of a course designed to provide a very early framework for ongoing physics education throughout residency without increasing the didactic burden on faculty members. Twenty-six first-year residents spanning 2 academic years took the course and reported subjective improvement in their knowledge (90%) and interest (75%) in imaging physics and a high level of satisfaction with the use of senior residents as physics educators. Based on the success of this course and the minimal resources required for implementation, this work may serve as a blueprint for other radiology residency programs seeking to develop revised physics curricula. Copyright © 2014 American College of Radiology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Design and simulation of advanced fault tolerant flight control schemes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gururajan, Srikanth

    This research effort describes the design and simulation of a distributed Neural Network (NN) based fault tolerant flight control scheme and the interface of the scheme within a simulation/visualization environment. The goal of the fault tolerant flight control scheme is to recover an aircraft from failures to its sensors or actuators. A commercially available simulation package, Aviator Visual Design Simulator (AVDS), was used for the purpose of simulation and visualization of the aircraft dynamics and the performance of the control schemes. For the purpose of the sensor failure detection, identification and accommodation (SFDIA) task, it is assumed that the pitch, roll and yaw rate gyros onboard are without physical redundancy. The task is accomplished through the use of a Main Neural Network (MNN) and a set of three De-Centralized Neural Networks (DNNs), providing analytical redundancy for the pitch, roll and yaw gyros. The purpose of the MNN is to detect a sensor failure while the purpose of the DNNs is to identify the failed sensor and then to provide failure accommodation. The actuator failure detection, identification and accommodation (AFDIA) scheme also features the MNN, for detection of actuator failures, along with three Neural Network Controllers (NNCs) for providing the compensating control surface deflections to neutralize the failure induced pitching, rolling and yawing moments. All NNs continue to train on-line, in addition to an offline trained baseline network structure, using the Extended Back-Propagation Algorithm (EBPA), with the flight data provided by the AVDS simulation package. The above mentioned adaptive flight control schemes have been traditionally implemented sequentially on a single computer. This research addresses the implementation of these fault tolerant flight control schemes on parallel and distributed computer architectures, using Berkeley Software Distribution (BSD) sockets and Message Passing Interface (MPI) for inter

  6. THROUGHPUT ANALYSIS OF EXTENDED ARQ SCHEMES

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PUBLICATIONS1

    and Wait (SW), Selective Repeat (SR), Stutter. (ST) and Go-Back-N (GBN) (Lin and Costello,. 2003). Combinations of these schemes lead to mixed mode schemes which include the SR-. GBN, SR-ST1 and SR-ST2. In the mixed mode schemes, when a prescribed number of failures occur in the SR mode, the GBN or ST ...

  7. Needs Assessment for Incoming PGY-1 Residents in Neurosurgical Residency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandman, David M; Haji, Faizal A; Matte, Marie C; Clarke, David B

    2015-01-01

    Residents must develop a diverse range of skills in order to practice neurosurgery safely and effectively. The purpose of this study was to identify the foundational skills required for neurosurgical trainees as they transition from medical school to residency. Based on the CanMEDS competency framework, a web-based survey was distributed to all Canadian academic neurosurgical centers, targeting incoming and current PGY-1 neurosurgical residents as well as program directors. Using Likert scale and free-text responses, respondents rated the importance of various cognitive (e.g. management of raised intracranial pressure), technical (e.g. performing a lumbar puncture) and behavioral skills (e.g. obtaining informed consent) required for a PGY-1 neurosurgical resident. Of 52 individuals contacted, 38 responses were received. Of these, 10 were from program directors (71%), 11 from current PGY-1 residents (58%) and 17 from incoming PGY-1 residents (89%). Respondents emphasized operative skills such as proper sterile technique and patient positioning; clinical skills such as lesion localization and interpreting neuro-imaging; management skills for common scenarios such as raised intracranial pressure and status epilepticus; and technical skills such as lumbar puncture and external ventricular drain placement. Free text answers were concordant with the Likert scale results. We surveyed Canadian neurosurgical program directors and PGY-1 residents to identify areas perceived as foundational to neurosurgical residency education and training. This information is valuable for evaluating the appropriateness of a training program's goals and objectives, as well as for generating a national educational curriculum for incoming PGY-1 residents.

  8. The Original Management Incentive Schemes

    OpenAIRE

    Richard T. Holden

    2005-01-01

    During the 1990s, the structure of pay for top corporate executives shifted markedly as the use of stock options greatly expanded. By the early 2000s, as the dot-com boom ended and the Nasdaq stock index melted down, these modern executive incentive schemes were being sharply questioned on many grounds—for encouraging excessive risk-taking and a short-run orientation, for being an overly costly and inefficient method of providing incentives, and even for tempting managers of firms like Enron,...

  9. The mathematics of Ponzi schemes

    OpenAIRE

    Artzrouni, Marc

    2009-01-01

    A first order linear differential equation is used to describe the dynamics of an investment fund that promises more than it can deliver, also known as a Ponzi scheme. The model is based on a promised, unrealistic interest rate; on the actual, realized nominal interest rate; on the rate at which new deposits are accumulated and on the withdrawal rate. Conditions on these parameters are given for the fund to be solvent or to collapse. The model is fitted to data available on Charles...

  10. Network Regulation and Support Schemes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ropenus, Stephanie; Schröder, Sascha Thorsten; Jacobsen, Henrik

    2009-01-01

    At present, there exists no explicit European policy framework on distributed generation. Various Directives encompass distributed generation; inherently, their implementation is to the discretion of the Member States. The latter have adopted different kinds of support schemes, ranging from feed-in...... tariffs to market-based quota systems, and network regulation approaches, comprising rate-of-return and incentive regulation. National regulation and the vertical structure of the electricity sector shape the incentives of market agents, notably of distributed generators and network operators...

  11. Efficient Integration, Validation and Troubleshooting in Multimodal Distributed Diagnostic Schemes Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Qualtech Systems Inc. (QSI) proposes to develop a well defined process for integration of distributed diagnostic schemes. The process includes a set of guidelines to...

  12. REMINDER: Saved Leave Scheme (SLS)

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    Transfer of leave to saved leave accounts Under the provisions of the voluntary saved leave scheme (SLS), a maximum total of 10 days'* annual and compensatory leave (excluding saved leave accumulated in accordance with the provisions of Administrative Circular No 22B) can be transferred to the saved leave account at the end of the leave year (30 September). We remind you that unused leave of all those taking part in the saved leave scheme at the closure of the leave year accounts is transferred automatically to the saved leave account on that date. Therefore, staff members have no administrative steps to take. In addition, the transfer, which eliminates the risk of omitting to request leave transfers and rules out calculation errors in transfer requests, will be clearly shown in the list of leave transactions that can be consulted in EDH from October 2003 onwards. Furthermore, this automatic leave transfer optimizes staff members' chances of benefiting from a saved leave bonus provided that they ar...

  13. On usage of CABARET scheme for tracer transport in INM ocean model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diansky, Nikolay; Kostrykin, Sergey; Gusev, Anatoly; Salnikov, Nikolay

    2010-01-01

    The contemporary state of ocean numerical modelling sets some requirements for the numerical advection schemes used in ocean general circulation models (OGCMs). The most important requirements are conservation, monotonicity and numerical efficiency including good parallelization properties. Investigation of some advection schemes shows that one of the best schemes satisfying the criteria is CABARET scheme. 3D-modification of the CABARET scheme was used to develop a new transport module (for temperature and salinity) for the Institute of Numerical Mathematics ocean model (INMOM). Testing of this module on some common benchmarks shows a high accuracy in comparison with the second-order advection scheme used in the INMOM. This new module was incorporated in the INMOM and experiments with the modified model showed a better simulation of oceanic circulation than its previous version.

  14. Arbitrated quantum signature scheme using Bell states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Qin; Chan, W. H.; Long Dongyang

    2009-01-01

    In an arbitrated quantum signature scheme, the signatory signs the message and the receiver verifies the signature's validity with the assistance of the arbitrator. We present an arbitrated quantum signature scheme using two-particle entangled Bell states similar to the previous scheme using three-particle entangled Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger states [G. H. Zeng and C. H. Keitel, Phys. Rev. A 65, 042312 (2002)]. The proposed scheme can preserve the merits in the original scheme while providing a higher efficiency in transmission and reducing the complexity of implementation.

  15. Use of dialectical behavior therapy in borderline personality disorder: a view from residency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Binali; Dunlop, Boadie W; Ninan, Philip T; Bradley, Rebekah

    2007-01-01

    The authors describe the use of dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) in treating borderline personality disorder during psychiatry residency, and assess the status of DBT education within psychiatry residencies in the United States. The authors present a patient with borderline personality disorder treated by a resident using DBT, along with perspectives from the resident's supervisors. Additionally, self-report surveys inquiring about the attitudes and experiences of residency directors and PGY-4 residents regarding DBT were sent to program directors with available e-mail addresses on FREIDA online. The DBT method employed by the resident had to be modified to fit the constraints of a residency program. The patient in therapy had a tumultuous course, ultimately resulting in the discontinuation of treatment. Survey results suggested an underemphasis on the education and use of DBT during residency, though the strength of this conclusion is limited by the small proportion of surveys returned. Achieving the efficacy of DBT-based treatment of borderline personality disorder reported in the literature in the setting of a residency program is challenging. Greater exposure to DBT during residency may increase residents' skills in using the technique and the likelihood that they will use it after residency.

  16. Clouds of different colors: A prospective look at head and neck surgical resident call experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melzer, Jonathan

    2017-12-01

    Graduate medical education programs typically set up call under the assumption that residents will have similar experiences. The terms black cloud and white cloud have frequently been used to describe residents with more difficult (black) or less difficult (white) call experiences. This study followed residents in the department of head and neck surgery during call to determine whether certain residents have a significantly different call experience than the norm. It is a prospective observational study conducted over 16 months in a tertiary care center with a resident training program in otolaryngology. Resident call data on total pages, consults, and operative interventions were examined, as well as subjective survey data about sleep and perceived difficulty of resident call. Analysis showed no significant difference in call activity (pages, consults, operative interventions) among residents. However, data from the resident call surveys revealed perceived disparities in call difficulty that were significant. Two residents were clearly labeled as black clouds compared to the rest. These residents did not have the highest average number of pages, consults, or operative interventions. This study suggests that factors affecting call perception are outside the objective, absolute workload. These results may be used to improve resident education on sleep training and nighttime patient management in the field of otolaryngology and may influence otolaryngology residency programs.

  17. Simulation-based education with mastery learning improves residents' lumbar puncture skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Elaine R.; Caprio, Timothy; McGaghie, William C.; Simuni, Tanya; Wayne, Diane B.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the effect of simulation-based mastery learning (SBML) on internal medicine residents' lumbar puncture (LP) skills, assess neurology residents' acquired LP skills from traditional clinical education, and compare the results of SBML to traditional clinical education. Methods: This study was a pretest-posttest design with a comparison group. Fifty-eight postgraduate year (PGY) 1 internal medicine residents received an SBML intervention in LP. Residents completed a baseline skill assessment (pretest) using a 21-item LP checklist. After a 3-hour session featuring deliberate practice and feedback, residents completed a posttest and were expected to meet or exceed a minimum passing score (MPS) set by an expert panel. Simulator-trained residents' pretest and posttest scores were compared to assess the impact of the intervention. Thirty-six PGY2, 3, and 4 neurology residents from 3 medical centers completed the same simulated LP assessment without SBML. SBML posttest scores were compared to neurology residents' baseline scores. Results: PGY1 internal medicine residents improved from a mean of 46.3% to 95.7% after SBML (p < 0.001) and all met the MPS at final posttest. The performance of traditionally trained neurology residents was significantly lower than simulator-trained residents (mean 65.4%, p < 0.001) and only 6% met the MPS. Conclusions: Residents who completed SBML showed significant improvement in LP procedural skills. Few neurology residents were competent to perform a simulated LP despite clinical experience with the procedure. PMID:22675080

  18. Living in institutional care: residents' experiences and coping strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timonen, Virpi; O'Dwyer, Ciara

    2009-01-01

    Insights into daily living in residential care settings are rare. This article draws on a qualitative dataset (semi-structured interviews and recordings of residents' council meetings) that gives a glimpse of the experiences and coping strategies of (older) people living in residential care. The data highlight the range of unmet needs of the residents, similar to the categories of physiological, safety, love, esteem, and self-actualization needs in Maslow's hierarchy of needs theory. Our analysis indicates that "higher" and "lower" needs are closely intertwined and mutually reinforcing and should therefore be accorded equal emphasis by professionals (including social workers) employed within residential care settings.

  19. Cooperative learning as applied to resident instruction in radiology reporting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Donald; Georges, Alexandra; Vaslow, Dale

    2007-12-01

    The study is designed to evaluate the effectiveness of an active form of resident instruction, cooperative learning, and the residents' response to that form of instruction. The residents dictated three sets of reports both before and after instruction in radiology reporting using the cooperative learning method. The reports were evaluated for word count, Flesch-Kincaid grade level, advancement on clinical spectrum, clarity, and comparison to prior reports. The reports were evaluated for changes in performance characteristics between the pre- and postinstruction dictations. The residents' response to this form of instruction was evaluated by means of a questionnaire. The instruction was effective in changing the resident dictations. The results became shorter (Pcooperative learning activities. The least positive responses related to the amount of time devoted to the project. Sixty-three percent of respondents stated that the time devoted to the project was appropriate. Cooperative learning can be an effective tool in the setting of the radiology residency. Instructional time requirements must be strongly considered in designing a cooperative learning program.

  20. Incorporating population medicine into primary care residency training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dysinger, Wayne S; King, Valerie; Foster, Tina C; Geffken, Dominic

    2011-01-01

    Expanded competencies in population health and systems-based medicine have been identified as a need for primary care physicians. Incorporating formal training in preventive medicine is one method of accomplishing this objective. We identified three family medicine residencies that have developed formal integrated pathways for residents to also complete preventive medicine residency requirements during their training period. Although there are differences, each pathway incorporates a structured approach to dual residency training and includes formal curriculum that expands resident competencies in population health and systems-based medicine. A total of 26 graduates have completed the formally combined family and preventive medicine residencies. All are board certified in family medicine, and 22 are board certified in preventive medicine. Graduates work in a variety of academic, quality improvement, community, and international settings utilizing their clinical skills as well as their population medicine competencies. Dual training has been beneficial in job acquisition and satisfaction. Incorporation of formal preventive medicine training into family medicine education is a viable way to use a structured format to expand competencies in population medicine for primary care physicians. This type of training, or modifications of it, should be part of the debate in primary care residency redesign.

  1. Helping Residents Protect Water Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Building on the successful early engagement of the Plain Sect agricultural community, the Eastern Lancaster County Source Water Protection Collaborative is expanding its efforts to involve local residents in the work of protecting drinking water sources.

  2. Scheme of thinking quantum systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yukalov, V I; Sornette, D

    2009-01-01

    A general approach describing quantum decision procedures is developed. The approach can be applied to quantum information processing, quantum computing, creation of artificial quantum intelligence, as well as to analyzing decision processes of human decision makers. Our basic point is to consider an active quantum system possessing its own strategic state. Processing information by such a system is analogous to the cognitive processes associated to decision making by humans. The algebra of probability operators, associated with the possible options available to the decision maker, plays the role of the algebra of observables in quantum theory of measurements. A scheme is advanced for a practical realization of decision procedures by thinking quantum systems. Such thinking quantum systems can be realized by using spin lattices, systems of magnetic molecules, cold atoms trapped in optical lattices, ensembles of quantum dots, or multilevel atomic systems interacting with electromagnetic field

  3. Support Schemes and Ownership Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ropenus, Stephanie; Schröder, Sascha Thorsten; Costa, Ana

    of the ongoing fuel cell based micro‐combined heat and power (mCHP) demonstration projects by addressing the socio‐economic and systems analyses perspectives of a large‐scale promotion scheme of fuel cells. This document constitutes the deliverable of Work Package 1 of the FC4Home project and provides......In recent years, fuel cell based micro‐combined heat and power has received increasing attention due to its potential contribution to energy savings, efficiency gains, customer proximity and flexibility in operation and capacity size. The FC4Home project assesses technical and economic aspects...... previous findings and provides a short “preview” of the quantitative analyses in subsequent Work Packages by giving some food for thought on the way....

  4. the contribution of resident physicians

    OpenAIRE

    Trusch, Klaus

    2011-01-01

    A telephone survey of resident physicians to the basic conditions in which they work has been conducted in 14 of the 16 federal states. In the center of the survey stood the general medicine within the prisons. This limitation was necessary in order to achieve comparability to primary medical care outside of correctional services. There are 140 salaried and tenured resident pysicians and 97 contract doctors in the general medical care of approx. 70000 prisoners in 185 independent prisons ...

  5. Taking it Global: Structuring Global Health Education in Residency Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, Gitanjli; Ripp, Jonathan; Evert, Jessica; Rabin, Tracy; Tupesis, Janis P; Hudspeth, James

    2017-05-01

    To meet the demand by residents and to provide knowledge and skills important to the developing physician, global health (GH) training opportunities are increasingly being developed by United States (U.S.) residency training programs. However, many residency programs face common challenges of developing GH curricula, offering safe and mentored international rotations, and creating GH experiences that are of service to resource-limiting settings. Academic GH partnerships allow for the opportunity to collaborate on education and research and improve health care and health systems, but must ensure mutual benefit to U.S. and international partners. This article provides guidance for incorporating GH education into U.S. residency programs in an ethically sound and sustainable manner, and gives examples and solutions for common challenges encountered when developing GH education programs.

  6. Factors associated with the satisfaction of millennial generation dental residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Hwai-Tai C; O'Toole, Terry G; Arola, Patricia E; Kashner, T Michael; Chang, Barbara K

    2012-11-01

    Data from the 2010 Learners' Perceptions Survey (LPS) administered through the Office of Academic Affiliations, Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) were analyzed to identify factors associated with dental residents' satisfaction with the VA as a clinical training environment. Satisfaction scores were linked to clinic workloads, dental procedure complexity levels, staffing patterns, and facility infrastructure data to explore conditions that may improve residents' satisfaction. Findings supported the construct validity of the LPS survey data and underscored the importance of maintaining optimal ratios of attending dentists, dental assistants, and administrative staff to residents so that each trainee will have opportunities to perform an adequate level of dental workload. As programs strive to improve the quality of graduate dental education, findings from this study are vital for setting curriculum design guidelines and for providing infrastructure support for dental resident education.

  7. Sleep Quality Among Psychiatry Residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho Aguiar Melo, Matias; das Chagas Medeiros, Francisco; Meireles Sales de Bruin, Veralice; Pinheiro Santana, José Abraão; Bastos Lima, Alexandre; De Francesco Daher, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    Medical residency programs are traditionally known for long working hours, which can be associated with a poor quality of sleep and daytime sleepiness. However, few studies have focused on this theme. Our objective was to investigate sleep quality, daytime sleepiness, and their relation with anxiety, social phobia, and depressive symptoms. This cross-sectional observational study involved 59 psychiatry residents. The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) were used to measure the quality of sleep and excessive daytime sleepiness ([EDS] and ESS > 10), respectively. Among the 59 psychiatry residents, 59.3% had poor sleep quality (PSQI > 5) and 28.8% had EDS. Poor sleep quality was associated with higher EDS (P = 0.03) and the year of residency program (P = 0.03). Only 20% of residents with poor sleep had consulted at least once for sleep problems; 54.2% had used medications for sleep; and 16.9% were using medications at the time of interview. Only 30% obtained medication during medical consultations. Poor sleep was associated with irregular sleep hours (P = 0.001) and long periods lying down without sleep (P = 0.03). Poor sleep quality was also associated with high scores of anxiety symptoms (P Psychiatry residents frequently have poor sleep quality and EDS. Considering that sleep disorders can affect quality of life, predispose to metabolic syndrome, and be associated with worse performance at work, attention to this clinical problem is needed. © The Author(s) 2016.

  8. Selection criteria of residents for residency programs in Kuwait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marwan, Yousef; Ayed, Adel

    2013-01-19

    In Kuwait, 21 residency training programs were offered in the year 2011; however, no data is available regarding the criteria of selecting residents for these programs. This study aims to provide information about the importance of these criteria. A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect data from members (e.g. chairmen, directors, assistants …etc.) of residency programs in Kuwait. A total of 108 members were invited to participate. They were asked to rate the importance level (scale from 1 to 5) of criteria that may affect the acceptance of an applicant to their residency programs. Average scores were calculated for each criterion. Of the 108 members invited to participate, only 12 (11.1%) declined to participate. Interview performance was ranked as the most important criteria for selecting residents (average score: 4.63/5.00), followed by grade point average (average score: 3.78/5.00) and honors during medical school (average score: 3.67/5.00). On the other hand, receiving disciplinary action during medical school and failure in a required clerkship were considered as the most concerning among other criteria used to reject applicants (average scores: 3.83/5.00 and 3.54/5.00 respectively). Minor differences regarding the importance level of each criterion were noted across different programs. This study provided general information about the criteria that are used to accept/reject applicants to residency programs in Kuwait. Future studies should be conducted to investigate each criterion individually, and to assess if these criteria are related to residents' success during their training.

  9. Godunov-Type Schemes Applied to Detonation Flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-04-01

    states on either side of the interface as input data. Recall that the Riemann problem for any set of conservation laws arises, if initial data are...computational grid. Consequently, little or no dissipation is provided by Roe’s scheme, in a direction parallel to the stein, to control the kinking. (;enerally...Figure ,5 shows a particularly insidious failing that can occur when a strong shock is aligned with the gridl . Here we have plotted a single snapshot

  10. Heterogeneous performance evaluation of sophisticated versions of CFAR detection schemes

    OpenAIRE

    El Mashade, Mohamed Bakry

    2016-01-01

    The detection of radar targets in a background, the statistical parameters of which are unknown and may not be stationary, can be effectively achieved through CFAR processors. The CA-CFAR scheme performs optimally for homogeneous and exponentially distributed clutter observations. However, it exhibits severe performance degradation in the presence of outlying target returns in the reference set or in regions of abrupt change in the background clutter power. The OS-CFAR processor has been prop...

  11. A Modified Halpern's Iterative Scheme for Solving Split Feasibility Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jitsupa Deepho

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to introduce and study a modified Halpern’s iterative scheme for solving the split feasibility problem (SFP in the setting of infinite-dimensional Hilbert spaces. Under suitable conditions a strong convergence theorem is established. The main result presented in this paper improves and extends some recent results done by Xu (Iterative methods for the split feasibility problem in infinite-dimensional Hilbert space, Inverse Problem 26 (2010 105018 and some others.

  12. Change in residents' perceptions of teaching: following a one day "Residents as Teachers" (RasT) workshop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aiyer, Meenakshy; Woods, Gordon; Lombard, Gwen; Meyer, Lynne; Vanka, Anita

    2008-05-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the perceptions and attitudes of resident physicians toward teaching before and after participation in a mandatory "Residents as Teachers" (RasT) workshop in four domains: (1) setting goals and expectations, (2) use of clinical microskills in teaching, (3) evaluation and feedback, and (4) enthusiasm and preparedness toward teaching. Pre- and postintervention questionnaires were utilized. Data were analyzed for all respondents. Subgroup analyses were performed for each academic year and for primary care versus nonprimary care specialties. Over a 5-year period, 15 RasT workshops were presented to 276 residents from 10 different residency programs. Eighty-six percent completed the questionnaire before participation in the workshop, and 88% completed the questionnaire immediately after participation. The difference between the mean post-RasT and pre-RasT ratings on each item was used to measure the change in that item resulting from participation in the workshop. Overall, residents' self-assessed ratings of their attitudes toward teaching were positively impacted by participation in a RasT workshop. Further subanalysis showed that residents in primary care specialties showed a significantly greater increase in their ratings than residents in nonprimary care specialties.

  13. Seasonal predictions using a simple ocean initialization scheme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jieshun; Kumar, Arun; Lee, Hyun-Chul; Wang, Hui

    2017-12-01

    In this study, a simple ocean data assimilation scheme was applied to initialize a set of seasonal hindcasts, which started from each January, April, July and October during 1982-2010 with six ensemble members. In the scheme, sea surface temperature (SST) was the only observed information used to estimate the ocean initial states. Predictions of SST, 2-m temperature (T2m) and precipitation (Prate) over land were assessed and compared with hindcasts from the North American Multimodel Ensemble (NMME) project which were all based on sophisticated ocean initialization schemes with subsurface observations assimilated. The skill comparison indicated that, for all variables evaluated, the prediction skill by the simple ocean initialization procedure was well within the range of skills from individual NMME models. The result suggests that even though sophisticated initialization schemes have the potential to best capture the seasonal climate predictability, most present-day capabilities of seasonal predictions can also be accomplished by utilizing SST only. Further, significant seasonal dependence of prediction skill was also identified in hindcasts by the simple initialization scheme. Specifically, the ENSO SST predictions were featured by the significant "spring barrier" problem. It is argued that the ENSO prediction skill seasonality could be due to "double dip" contribution from the seasonality of climatic feedbacks in the tropical Pacific. In particular, these feedbacks not only play a role during the forecast leading to the largest errors in spring, but also cause the largest errors in the SST-derived ocean initial conditions in spring. Complementary aspects of seasonal forecasts based on simple initialization scheme, and use of low-resolution models are also discussed.

  14. Internal Medicine Residents' Perceptions of Cross-Cultural Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Elyse R; Betancourt, Joseph R; Miller, Elizabeth; Nathan, Michael; MacDonald, Ellie; Ananeh-Firempong, Owusu; Stone, Valerie E

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND Physicians increasingly face the challenge of managing clinical encounters with patients from a range of cultural backgrounds. Despite widespread interest in cross-cultural care, little is known about resident physicians' perceptions of what will best enable them to provide quality care to diverse patient populations. OBJECTIVES To assess medicine residents' (1) perceptions of cross-cultural care, (2) barriers to care, and (3) training experiences and recommendations. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PATIENTS Qualitative individual interviews were conducted with 26 third-year medicine residents at Massachusetts General Hospital in Boston (response rate = 87%). Interviews were recorded, transcribed, and analyzed. RESULTS Despite significant interest in cross-cultural care, almost all of the residents reported very little training during residency. Most had gained cross-cultural skills through informal learning. A few were skeptical about formal training, and some expressed concern that it is impossible to understand every culture. Challenges to the delivery of cross-cultural care included managing patients with limited English proficiency, who involve family in critical decision making, and who have beliefs about disease that vary from the biomedical model. Residents cited many implications to these barriers, ranging from negatively impacting the patient-physician relationship to compromised care. Training recommendations included making changes to the educational climate and informal and formal training mechanisms. CONCLUSIONS If cross-cultural education is to be successful, it must take into account residents' perspectives and be focused on overcoming residents' cited barriers. It is important to convey that cross-cultural education is a set of skills that can be taught and applied, in a time-efficient manner, rather than requiring an insurmountable knowledge base. PMID:16704391

  15. Rethinking Resident Supervision to Improve Safety: From Hierarchical to Interprofessional Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamuz, Michal; Giardina, Traber Davis; Thomas, Eric J.; Menon, Shailaja; Singh, Hardeep

    2011-01-01

    Background Inadequate supervision is a significant contributing factor to medical errors involving trainees but supervision in high-risk settings such as the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) is not well studied. Objective We explored how residents in the ICU experienced supervision related to medication safety not only from supervising physicians but also from other professionals. Design, Setting, Measurements Using qualitative methods, we examined in-depth interviews with 17 residents working in ICUs of three tertiary-care hospitals. We analyzed residents' perspectives on receiving and initiating supervision from physicians within the traditional medical hierarchy and from other professionals, including nurses, staff pharmacists and clinical pharmacists (“interprofessional supervision”). Results While initiating their own supervision within the traditional hierarchy, residents believed in seeking assistance from fellows and attendings and articulated rules of thumb for doing so; however, they also experienced difficulties. Some residents were concerned that their questions would reflect poorly on them; others were embarrassed by their mistaken decisions. Conversely, residents described receiving interprofessional supervision from nurses and pharmacists, who proactively monitored, intervened in, and guided residents' decisions. Residents relied on nurses and pharmacists for non-judgmental answers to their queries, especially after-hours. To enhance both types of supervision, residents emphasized the importance of improving interpersonal communication skills. Conclusions Residents depended on interprofessional supervision when making decisions regarding medications in the ICU. Improving interprofessional supervision, which thus far has been under-recognized and underemphasized in graduate medical education, can potentially improve medication safety in high-risk settings. PMID:21990173

  16. Applying Expectancy Theory to residency training: proposing opportunities to understand resident motivation and enhance residency training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shweiki E

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Ehyal Shweiki,1 Niels D Martin,2 Alec C Beekley,1 Jay S Jenoff,1 George J Koenig,1 Kris R Kaulback,1 Gary A Lindenbaum,1 Pankaj H Patel,1 Matthew M Rosen,1 Michael S Weinstein,1 Muhammad H Zubair,2 Murray J Cohen1 1Department of Surgery, Thomas Jefferson University Hospital, Philadelphia, PA, USA; 2Department of Surgery, Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, USA Abstract: Medical resident education in the United States has been a matter of national priority for decades, exemplified initially through the Liaison Committee for Graduate Medical Education and then superseded by the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education. A recent Special Report in the New England Journal of Medicine, however, has described resident educational programs to date as prescriptive, noting an absence of innovation in education. Current aims of contemporary medical resident education are thus being directed at ensuring quality in learning as well as in patient care. Achievement and work-motivation theories attempt to explain people's choice, performance, and persistence in tasks. Expectancy Theory as one such theory was reviewed in detail, appearing particularly applicable to surgical residency training. Correlations between Expectancy Theory as a work-motivation theory and residency education were explored. Understanding achievement and work-motivation theories affords an opportunity to gain insight into resident motivation in training. The application of Expectancy Theory in particular provides an innovative perspective into residency education. Afforded are opportunities to promote the development of programmatic methods facilitating surgical resident motivation in education. Keywords: learning, education, achievement

  17. On Optimal Designs of Some Censoring Schemes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Adnan Mohammad Awad

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this paper  is to explore suitability of some entropy-information measures for introducing a new optimality censoring criterion and to apply it to some censoring schemes from some underlying life-time models.  In addition, the  paper investigates four related issues namely; the  effect of the parameter of parent distribution on optimal scheme, equivalence of schemes based on Shannon and Awad sup-entropy measures, the conjecture that the optimal scheme is one stage scheme, and  a conjecture by Cramer and Bagh (2011 about Shannon minimum and maximum schemes when parent distribution is reflected power. Guidelines for designing an optimal censoring plane are reported together with theoretical and numerical results and illustrations.

  18. Tissue engineering scheming by artificial intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, J; Ge, H; Zhou, X; Yang, D

    2005-01-01

    Tissue engineers are often confused when seeking the most effective, economical and secure scheme for tissue engineering. The aim of this study is to generate tissue engineering schemes with artificial intelligence instead of human intelligence. The experimental data of tissue engineered cartilage were integrated and standardized with a centralized database, and a scheme engine was developed using artificial intelligent methods (artificial neural networks and decision trees). The scheme engine was trained with existing cases in the database, and then was used to generate tissue engineering schemes for new experimental animals. Following the schemes generated by the artificial intelligent system, we cured 18 of the 20 experimental animals. In conclusion, artificial intelligence is a powerful method for decision making in the tissue engineering realm.

  19. How can conceptual schemes change teaching?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickman, Per-Olof

    2012-03-01

    Lundqvist, Almqvist and Östman describe a teacher's manner of teaching and the possible consequences it may have for students' meaning making. In doing this the article examines a teacher's classroom practice by systematizing the teacher's transactions with the students in terms of certain conceptual schemes, namely the epistemological moves, educational philosophies and the selective traditions of this practice. In connection to their study one may ask how conceptual schemes could change teaching. This article examines how the relationship of the conceptual schemes produced by educational researchers to educational praxis has developed from the middle of the last century to today. The relationship is described as having been transformed in three steps: (1) teacher deficit and social engineering, where conceptual schemes are little acknowledged, (2) reflecting practitioners, where conceptual schemes are mangled through teacher practice to aid the choices of already knowledgeable teachers, and (3) the mangling of the conceptual schemes by researchers through practice with the purpose of revising theory.

  20. Resonance ionization scheme development for europium

    CERN Document Server

    Chrysalidis, K; Fedosseev, V N; Marsh, B A; Naubereit, P; Rothe, S; Seiffert, C; Kron, T; Wendt, K

    2017-01-01

    Odd-parity autoionizing states of europium have been investigated by resonance ionization spectroscopy via two-step, two-resonance excitations. The aim of this work was to establish ionization schemes specifically suited for europium ion beam production using the ISOLDE Resonance Ionization Laser Ion Source (RILIS). 13 new RILIS-compatible ionization schemes are proposed. The scheme development was the first application of the Photo Ionization Spectroscopy Apparatus (PISA) which has recently been integrated into the RILIS setup.

  1. Alternative schemes for the inertial fusion energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tikhonchuk, V.T. [Centre Lasers Intenses et Applications, University Bordeaux 1-CNRS-CEA, 33405, Talence (France); Mima, K., E-mail: tikhonchuk@celia.u-bordeaux1.fr [Institute of Laser Engineering, Osaka University, Osaka (Japan)

    2011-10-15

    The advanced target designs are requiring a lower laser energy for ignition and promising higher energy gains. Two approaches are under development within the European inertial fusion energy project HiPER: the fast ignition scheme with energetic electrons and the shock ignition scheme. The fundamental physical issues and major experimental works related to the alternative ignition schemes as well as the reactor designs are discussed.

  2. Resonance ionization scheme development for europium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chrysalidis, K., E-mail: katerina.chrysalidis@cern.ch; Goodacre, T. Day; Fedosseev, V. N.; Marsh, B. A. [CERN (Switzerland); Naubereit, P. [Johannes Gutenberg-Universität, Institiut für Physik (Germany); Rothe, S.; Seiffert, C. [CERN (Switzerland); Kron, T.; Wendt, K. [Johannes Gutenberg-Universität, Institiut für Physik (Germany)

    2017-11-15

    Odd-parity autoionizing states of europium have been investigated by resonance ionization spectroscopy via two-step, two-resonance excitations. The aim of this work was to establish ionization schemes specifically suited for europium ion beam production using the ISOLDE Resonance Ionization Laser Ion Source (RILIS). 13 new RILIS-compatible ionization schemes are proposed. The scheme development was the first application of the Photo Ionization Spectroscopy Apparatus (PISA) which has recently been integrated into the RILIS setup.

  3. Data mining for detecting Bitcoin Ponzi schemes

    OpenAIRE

    Bartoletti, Massimo; Pes, Barbara; Serusi, Sergio

    2018-01-01

    Soon after its introduction in 2009, Bitcoin has been adopted by cyber-criminals, which rely on its pseudonymity to implement virtually untraceable scams. One of the typical scams that operate on Bitcoin are the so-called Ponzi schemes. These are fraudulent investments which repay users with the funds invested by new users that join the scheme, and implode when it is no longer possible to find new investments. Despite being illegal in many countries, Ponzi schemes are now proliferating on Bit...

  4. The Impact of Resident Training on Communication with Families in the Intensive Care Unit. Resident and Family Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Amy M; Rock, Laura K; Gadmer, Nina M; Norwich, Diana E; Schwartzstein, Richard M

    2016-04-01

    In high-acuity settings such as intensive care units (ICUs), the quality of communication with patients' families is a particularly important component of care. Evidence shows that ICU communication is often inadequate and can negatively impact family outcomes. To assess the impact of a communication training program on resident skills in communicating with families in an ICU and on family outcomes. We conducted a prospective, single-site educational intervention study. The intervention featured a weekly required communication training program (4 h total) during the ICU rotation, which included interactive discussion, and role play with immediate feedback from simulated family members. All internal medicine residents on ICU rotation between July 2012 and July 2014 were invited to participate in the study. Family members who had a meeting with an enrolled resident were approached for a survey or interview. The primary outcome was family ratings of how well residents met their informational and emotional needs. The response rate for the resident baseline survey was 93% (n = 149 of 160), and it was 90% at postcourse and 84% at 3-month follow-up. Of 303 family members approached, 237 were enrolled. Enrolled family members who had a confirmed meeting with a resident were eligible to complete a survey or interview. The completion rate was 86% (n = 82 of 95). Family members were more likely to describe residents as having "fully met" (average rating of 10/10 on 0-10 scale) their informational and emotional needs when the resident had completed two or three course sessions (84% of family members said conversation with these residents "fully met" their needs), as compared with residents who had taken one session or no sessions (25% of family members said needs were "fully met") (P training program designed for integration into medical residency programs was associated with strongly positive family member outcomes and significant improvements in residents' perceived skills

  5. Determinants of resident autonomy in assisted living facilities: a review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikorska-Simmons, Elzbieta; Wright, James D

    2007-01-01

    Assisted living (AL) stresses the importance of resident autonomy in the provision of good quality care. Resident autonomy has been linked to better resident well-being, less reliance on supportive services, and greater participation in social activities. Little is known, however, about factors that foster resident autonomy in AL. This article reviews what is currently known about organizational determinants of resident autonomy in AL. The open-natural systems approach to organizational effectiveness, which views organizations in relation to their environment, provides a broad conceptual framework for this analysis. Factors that influence resident autonomy in AL are classified into two categories: (a) external environmental conditions (e.g., ownership status, chain membership, regulatory environment) and (b) internal organizational structures and processes (e.g., facility size, residents' functional ability, resident social resources, and staff work environment). Environmental conditions represent the most antecedent set of factors that influence resident autonomy, indirectly through their effects on internal organizational structures and processes. Internal organizational factors influence resident autonomy through their impact on policies that enable resident choice and control in the facility. More research is needed to better understand the complex mechanism(s) through which organizational factors influence resident autonomy.

  6. Understanding the exercise habits of residents and attending physicians: a mixed methodology study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Amy S; Williams, Casey D; Cronk, Nikole J; Kruse, Robin L; Ringdahl, Erika N; Koopman, Richelle J

    2015-02-01

    Although the benefits of exercise are well known, rates of exercise among residents are much lower than those of attendings or medical students. Little is known about the barriers that prevent residents from exercising regularly. This mixed methodology study identifies and compares these barriers for resident and attending physicians practicing in the same setting. We conducted three focus groups with first-year and senior residents and attending physicians in the University of Missouri Department of Family and Community Medicine from April to August 2013. We also administered a survey inquiring about exercise rates and habits to 110 resident and attending physicians in the same department using both paper and electronic versions. During both inpatient and non-inpatient rotations, residents reported exercising less than attending physicians. No residents exercised more than 150 minutes/week during inpatient rotations compared to 18.42% of attendings. Only 6.9% of residents exercised more than 150 minutes/week during non-inpatient rotations, compared to 25% of attendings. Residents and attendings reported different barriers to regular exercise. Residents reported lack of time for a traditional structured workout as a major barrier, which leads to an adversarial relationship between work and exercise. Residency programs can help residents overcome exercise barriers by reframing exercise expectations to include more frequent but brief periods of exercise during the workday and by developing a supportive exercise culture. Changing worksite environments to support physician exercise may improve physician wellness.

  7. Use of Team-Based Learning Pedagogy for Internal Medicine Ambulatory Resident Teaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balwan, Sandy; Fornari, Alice; DiMarzio, Paola; Verbsky, Jennifer; Pekmezaris, Renee; Stein, Joanna; Chaudhry, Saima

    2015-12-01

    Team-based learning (TBL) is used in undergraduate medical education to facilitate higher-order content learning, promote learner engagement and collaboration, and foster positive learner attitudes. There is a paucity of data on the use of TBL in graduate medical education. Our aim was to assess resident engagement, learning, and faculty/resident satisfaction with TBL in internal medicine residency ambulatory education. Survey and nominal group technique methodologies were used to assess learner engagement and faculty/resident satisfaction. We assessed medical learning using individual (IRAT) and group (GRAT) readiness assurance tests. Residents (N = 111) involved in TBL sessions reported contributing to group discussions and actively discussing the subject material with other residents. Faculty echoed similar responses, and residents and faculty reported a preference for future teaching sessions to be offered using the TBL pedagogy. The average GRAT score was significantly higher than the average IRAT score by 22%. Feedback from our nominal group technique rank ordered the following TBL strengths by both residents and faculty: (1) interactive format, (2) content of sessions, and (3) competitive nature of sessions. We successfully implemented TBL pedagogy in the internal medicine ambulatory residency curriculum, with learning focused on the care of patients in the ambulatory setting. TBL resulted in active resident engagement, facilitated group learning, and increased satisfaction by residents and faculty. To our knowledge this is the first study that implemented a TBL program in an internal medicine residency curriculum.

  8. The Canadian general surgery resident: defining current challenges for surgical leadership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomlinson, Corey; Labossière, Joseph; Rommens, Kenton; Birch, Daniel W

    2012-08-01

    Surgery training programs in Canada and the United States have recognized the need to modify current models of training and education. The shifting demographic of surgery trainees, lifestyle issues and an increased trend toward subspecialization are the major influences. To guide these important educational initiatives, a contemporary profile of Canadian general surgery residents and their impressions of training in Canada is required. We developed and distributed a questionnaire to residents in each Canadian general surgery training program, and residents responded during dedicated teaching time. In all, 186 surveys were returned for analysis (62% response rate). The average age of Canadian general surgery residents is 30 years, 38% are women, 41% are married, 18% have dependants younger than 18 years and 41% plan to add to or start a family during residency. Most (87%) residents plan to pursue postgraduate education. On completion of training, 74% of residents plan to stay in Canada and 49% want to practice in an academic setting. Almost half (42%) of residents identify a poor balance between work and personal life during residency. Forty-seven percent of respondents have appropriate access to mentorship, whereas 37% describe suitable access to career guidance and 40% identify the availability of appropriate social supports. Just over half (54%) believe the stress level during residency is manageable. This survey provides a profile of contemporary Canadian general surgery residents. Important challenges within the residency system are identified. Program directors and chairs of surgery are encouraged to recognize these challenges and intervene where appropriate.

  9. Quantum signature scheme for known quantum messages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Taewan; Lee, Hyang-Sook

    2015-01-01

    When we want to sign a quantum message that we create, we can use arbitrated quantum signature schemes which are possible to sign for not only known quantum messages but also unknown quantum messages. However, since the arbitrated quantum signature schemes need the help of a trusted arbitrator in each verification of the signature, it is known that the schemes are not convenient in practical use. If we consider only known quantum messages such as the above situation, there can exist a quantum signature scheme with more efficient structure. In this paper, we present a new quantum signature scheme for known quantum messages without the help of an arbitrator. Differing from arbitrated quantum signature schemes based on the quantum one-time pad with the symmetric key, since our scheme is based on quantum public-key cryptosystems, the validity of the signature can be verified by a receiver without the help of an arbitrator. Moreover, we show that our scheme provides the functions of quantum message integrity, user authentication and non-repudiation of the origin as in digital signature schemes. (paper)

  10. A Spatial Domain Quantum Watermarking Scheme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei Zhan-Hong; Chen Xiu-Bo; Niu Xin-Xin; Yang Yi-Xian; Xu Shu-Jiang

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a spatial domain quantum watermarking scheme. For a quantum watermarking scheme, a feasible quantum circuit is a key to achieve it. This paper gives a feasible quantum circuit for the presented scheme. In order to give the quantum circuit, a new quantum multi-control rotation gate, which can be achieved with quantum basic gates, is designed. With this quantum circuit, our scheme can arbitrarily control the embedding position of watermark images on carrier images with the aid of auxiliary qubits. Besides reversely acting the given quantum circuit, the paper gives another watermark extracting algorithm based on quantum measurements. Moreover, this paper also gives a new quantum image scrambling method and its quantum circuit. Differ from other quantum watermarking schemes, all given quantum circuits can be implemented with basic quantum gates. Moreover, the scheme is a spatial domain watermarking scheme, and is not based on any transform algorithm on quantum images. Meanwhile, it can make sure the watermark be secure even though the watermark has been found. With the given quantum circuit, this paper implements simulation experiments for the presented scheme. The experimental result shows that the scheme does well in the visual quality and the embedding capacity. (paper)

  11. Improved Load Shedding Scheme considering Distributed Generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Das, Kaushik; Nitsas, Antonios; Altin, Müfit

    2017-01-01

    . These schemes utilize directional relays, power flow through feeders, wind and PV measurements to optimally select the feeders to be disconnected during load shedding such that DG disconnection is minimized while disconnecting required amount of consumption. These different UFLS schemes are compared in terms......With high penetration of distributed generation (DG), the conventional under-frequency load shedding (UFLS) face many challenges and may not perform as expected. This article proposes new UFLS schemes, which are designed to overcome the shortcomings of traditional load shedding scheme...... of frequency response, amount of consumption and DG disconnected during load shedding....

  12. A cohomological stability result for projective schemes over surfaces

    OpenAIRE

    Brodmann, M

    2007-01-01

    Let π : X → X 0 be a projective morphism of schemes such that X 0 is noetherian and essentially of finite type over a field K. Let i ∈ ℕ0, let ℱ be a coherent sheaf of -modules and let ℒ be an ample invertible sheaf over X. We show that the set of associated points of the higher direct image sheaf ultimately becomes constant if n tends to −∞, provided X 0 has dimensione ≦ 2. If , this stability result need not hold any more. To prove this, we show that the set of associated primes of the n-th...

  13. Evaluating Dermatology Residency Program Websites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashack, Kurt A; Burton, Kyle A; Soh, Jonathan M; Lanoue, Julien; Boyd, Anne H; Milford, Emily E; Dunnick, Cory; Dellavalle, Robert P

    2016-03-16

    Internet resources play an important role in how medical students access information related to residency programs.Evaluating program websites is necessary in order to provide accurate information for applicants and provide information regarding areas of website improvement for programs. To date, dermatology residency websites (D  WS) have not been evaluated.This paper evaluates dermatology residency websites based on availability of predefined measures. Using the FREIDA (Fellowship and Residency Electronic Interactive Database) Online database, authors searched forall accredited dermatology program websites. Eligible programs were identified through the FREIDA Online database and had a functioning website. Two authors independently extracted data with consensus or third researcher resolution of differences. This data was accessed and archived from July 15th to July 17th, 2015.Primary outcomes measured were presence of content on education, resident and faculty information, program environment, applicant recruitment, schedule, salary, and website quality evaluated using an online tool (WooRank.com). Out of 117 accredited dermatology residencies, 115 had functioning webpages. Of these, 76.5% (75) had direct links found on the FRIEDA Online database. Most programs contained information on education, faculty, program environment, and applicant recruitment. However, website quality and marketing effectiveness were highly variable; most programs were deemed to need improvements in the functioning of their webpages. Also, additional information on current residents and about potential away rotations were lacking from most websites with only 52.2% (60) and 41.7% (48) of programs providing this content, respectively. A majority of dermatology residency websites contained adequate information on many of the factors we evaluated. However, many were lacking in areas that matter to applicants. We hope this report will encourage dermatology residencyprograms

  14. Joint multiuser switched diversity and adaptive modulation schemes for spectrum sharing systems

    KAUST Repository

    Qaraqe, Marwa

    2012-12-01

    In this paper, we develop multiuser access schemes for spectrum sharing systems whereby secondary users are allowed to share the spectrum with primary users under the condition that the interference observed at the primary receiver is below a predetermined threshold. In particular, we devise two schemes for selecting a user among those that satisfy the interference constraint and achieve an acceptable signal-to-noise ratio level. The first scheme selects the user that reports the best channel quality. In order to alleviate the high feedback load associated with the first scheme, we develop a second scheme based on the concept of switched diversity where the base station scans the users in a sequential manner until an acceptable user is found. In addition to these two selection schemes, we consider two power adaptive settings at the secondary users based on the amount of interference available at the secondary transmitter. In the On/Off power setting, users are allowed to transmit based on whether the interference constraint is met or not, while in the full power adaptive setting, the users are allowed to vary their transmission power to satisfy the interference constraint. Finally, we present numerical results for our proposed algorithms where we show the trade-off between the average spectral efficiency and average feedback load for both schemes. © 2012 IEEE.

  15. Total variation superiorization schemes in proton computed tomography image reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penfold, S N; Schulte, R W; Censor, Y; Rosenfeld, A B

    2010-11-01

    Iterative projection reconstruction algorithms are currently the preferred reconstruction method in proton computed tomography (pCT). However, due to inconsistencies in the measured data arising from proton energy straggling and multiple Coulomb scattering, the noise in the reconstructed image increases with successive iterations. In the current work, the authors investigated the use of total variation superiorization (TVS) schemes that can be applied as an algorithmic add-on to perturbation-resilient iterative projection algorithms for pCT image reconstruction. The block-iterative diagonally relaxed orthogonal projections (DROP) algorithm was used for reconstructing GEANT4 Monte Carlo simulated pCT data sets. Two TVS schemes added on to DROP were investigated; the first carried out the superiorization steps once per cycle and the second once per block. Simplifications of these schemes, involving the elimination of the computationally expensive feasibility proximity checking step of the TVS framework, were also investigated. The modulation transfer function and contrast discrimination function were used to quantify spatial and density resolution, respectively. With both TVS schemes, superior spatial and density resolution was achieved compared to the standard DROP algorithm. Eliminating the feasibility proximity check improved the image quality, in particular image noise, in the once-per-block superiorization, while also halving image reconstruction time. Overall, the greatest image quality was observed when carrying out the superiorization once per block and eliminating the feasibility proximity check. The low-contrast imaging made possible with TVS holds a promise for its incorporation into future pCT studies.

  16. Community Health Workers and Family Medicine Resident Education: Addressing the Social Determinants of Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCalmont, Kate; Norris, Jeffrey; Garzon, Agustina; Cisneros, Raquel; Greene, Heather; Regino, Lidia; Sandoval, Virginia; Gomez, Roberto; Page-Reeves, Janet; Kaufman, Arthur

    2016-04-01

    Neither the health care system nor the training of medical residents focus sufficiently on social determinants of health. Community health workers (CHWs) are a growing presence in health care settings. Culturally and linguistically competent, typically they are from underserved communities and spend more time addressing social determinants of health than others on the health care team. However, CHWs are an infrequent presence in resident clinical training environments. The University of New Mexico Family Medicine Residency placed family medicine residents at a community clinic in Albuquerque managed by CHWs, recognizing that CHWs' collaboration with residents would enhance resident competency in multiple domains. Residents gained skills from CHWs in inter-professional teamwork, cultural proficiency in patient care, effective communication, provision of cost-conscious care, and advocating for both individual and community health. Our model recognizes the value of CHW skills and knowledge and creates a powerful rationale for greater recognition of CHW expertise and integration of CHWs as members of the care team.

  17. Supervisor leadership in relation to resident job satisfaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wal, van der Martha; Schonrock-Adema, Johanna; Scheele, Fedde; Schripsema, Nienke R.; Jaarsma, A. Debbie C.; Cohen-Schotanus, Janke

    2016-01-01

    Background: Research from outside the medical field shows that leadership behaviours influence job satisfaction. Whether the same is true for the medical training setting needs to be explored. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of residents' overall appreciation of their

  18. [Occlusal schemes of complete dentures--a review of the literature].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarazi, E; Ticotsky-Zadok, N

    2007-01-01

    Occlusal scheme is defined as the form and the arrangement of the occlusal contacts in natural and artificial dentition. The choice of an occlusal scheme will determine the pattern of occlusal contacts between opposing teeth during centric relation and functional movement of the mandible. With dentures, the quantity and the intensity of these contacts determine the amount and the direction of the forces that are transmitted through the bases of the denture to the residual ridges. That is why the occlusal scheme is an important factor in the design of complete dentures. Three occlusal schemes are viewed in this review: bilateral balanced occlusion, monplane occlusion, and linear occlusion scheme. Each scheme represents a different concept of occlusion. Comparisons between these schemes are also reviewed and analyzed. The reasoning underlying the bilateral balanced occlusion scheme is that stability of the dentures is attained when bilateral contacts exist throughout all dynamic and static states of the denture during function. Anatomic teeth are used: the upper anterior teeth are set to satisfy aesthetics, and the posterior teeth are arranged in a compensatory curve and a medial curve. This scheme is adequate for well developed residual ridges, with skeletal class I relation. With highly resorbed residual ridges, the vectors of force that are transmitted through anatomic cusps will dislodge the lower denture and thus impair the comfort and efficiency of mastication experienced by the patient. In order to accommodate to the special needs posed by highly resorbed residual ridges and skeletal relations that are not class I, the monoplane scheme of occlusion was designed. This scheme consists of non anatomic (cuspless) teeth, which are set so that the anterior teeth provide the aesthetics, the premolars and the first molars are used for chewing, and the second molars do not occlude (although sometimes they are specifically used to establish bilateral contacts in lateral

  19. Simulation Activity in Otolaryngology Residencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deutsch, Ellen S; Wiet, Gregory J; Seidman, Michael; Hussey, Heather M; Malekzadeh, Sonya; Fried, Marvin P

    2015-08-01

    Simulation has become a valuable tool in medical education, and several specialties accept or require simulation as a resource for resident training or assessment as well as for board certification or maintenance of certification. This study investigates current simulation resources and activities in US otolaryngology residency programs and examines interest in advancing simulation training and assessment within the specialty. Web-based survey. US otolaryngology residency training programs. An electronic web-based survey was disseminated to all US otolaryngology program directors to determine their respective institutional and departmental simulation resources, existing simulation activities, and interest in further simulation initiatives. Descriptive results are reported. Responses were received from 43 of 104 (43%) residency programs. Simulation capabilities and resources are available in most respondents' institutions (78.6% report onsite resources; 73.8% report availability of models, manikins, and devices). Most respondents (61%) report limited simulation activity within otolaryngology. Areas of simulation are broad, addressing technical and nontechnical skills related to clinical training (94%). Simulation is infrequently used for research, credentialing, or systems improvement. The majority of respondents (83.8%) expressed interest in participating in multicenter trials of simulation initiatives. Most respondents from otolaryngology residency programs have incorporated some simulation into their curriculum. Interest among program directors to participate in future multicenter trials appears high. Future research efforts in this area should aim to determine optimal simulators and simulation activities for training and assessment as well as how to best incorporate simulation into otolaryngology residency training programs. © American Academy of Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery Foundation 2015.

  20. Plagiarism in residency application essays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segal, Scott; Gelfand, Brian J; Hurwitz, Shelley; Berkowitz, Lori; Ashley, Stanley W; Nadel, Eric S; Katz, Joel T

    2010-07-20

    Anecdotal reports suggest that some residency application essays contain plagiarized content. To determine the prevalence of plagiarism in a large cohort of residency application essays. Retrospective cohort study. 4975 application essays submitted to residency programs at a single large academic medical center between 1 September 2005 and 22 March 2007. Specialized software was used to compare residency application essays with a database of Internet pages, published works, and previously submitted essays and the percentage of the submission matching another source was calculated. A match of more than 10% to an existing work was defined as evidence of plagiarism. Evidence of plagiarism was found in 5.2% (95% CI, 4.6% to 5.9%) of essays. The essays of non-U.S. citizens were more likely to demonstrate evidence of plagiarism. Other characteristics associated with the prevalence of plagiarism included medical school location outside the United States and Canada; previous residency or fellowship; lack of research experience, volunteer experience, or publications; a low United States Medical Licensing Examination Step 1 score; and non-membership in the Alpha Omega Alpha Honor Medical Society. The software database is probably incomplete, the 10%-match threshold for defining plagiarism has not been statistically validated, and the study was confined to applicants to 1 institution. Evidence of matching content in an essay cannot be used to infer the applicant's intent and is not sensitive to variations in the cultural context of copying in some societies. Evidence of plagiarism in residency application essays is more common in international applicants but was found in those by applicants to all specialty programs, from all medical school types, and even among applicants with significant academic honors. No external funding.

  1. Addressing the mandate for hand-off education: a focused review and recommendations for anesthesia resident curriculum development and evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane-Fall, Meghan B; Brooks, Amber K; Wilkins, Sara A; Davis, Joshua J; Riesenberg, Lee Ann

    2014-01-01

    The Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education requires that residency programs teach residents about handoffs and ensure their competence in this communication skill. Development of hand-off curricula for anesthesia residency programs is hindered by the paucity of evidence regarding how to conduct, teach, and evaluate handoffs in the various settings where anesthesia practitioners work. This narrative review draws from literature in anesthesia and other disciplines to provide recommendations for anesthesia resident hand-off curriculum development and evaluation.

  2. 38 CFR 51.70 - Resident rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... FOR NURSING HOME CARE OF VETERANS IN STATE HOMES Standards § 51.70 Resident rights. The resident has a... legal representative. (5) Conveyance upon death. Upon the death of a resident with a personal fund...; (iii) Physicians of the resident's choice (to provide care in the nursing home, physicians must meet...

  3. Mentorship in orthopaedic and trauma residency training ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Mentorship is important in residency training as it is necessary for personal and professional development of the resident trainees. Objectives: This study documents mentorship in orthopaedic residency training programme in Nigeria by assessing the awareness of orthopaedic residents on the role of a mentor, ...

  4. Surgery resident learning styles and academic achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contessa, Jack; Ciardiello, Kenneth A; Perlman, Stacie

    2005-01-01

    To determine if surgical residents share a preferred learning style as measured by Kolb's Learning Style Inventory (LSI) and if a relationship exists between resident learning style and achievement as measured by a standardized examination (AME). Also, core faculty learning styles were assessed to determine if faculty and residents share a preferred learning style. Kolb's LSI, Version 3, was administered to 16 surgical residents and the residency program's core faculty of 6 attending physicians. To measure academic achievement, the American Medical Education (AME) examination was administered to residents. The Hospital of Saint Raphael, General Surgery Residency Program, New Haven, Connecticut. Both instruments were administered to residents during protected core curriculum time. Core faculty were administered the LSI on an individual basis. Surgical residents of the Hospital of Saint Raphael's General Surgery Residency Program and 6 core faculty members Analysis of resident learning style preference revealed Converging as the most commonly occurring style for residents (7) followed by Accommodating (5), Assimilating (3), and Diverging (1). The predominant learning style for core faculty was also Converging (4) with 2 Divergers. The average score for the Convergers on the AME was 62.6 compared with 42 for the next most frequently occurring learning style, Accommodators. In this surgical residency program, a preferred learning style for residents seems to exist (Converging), which confirms what previous studies have found. Additionally, residents with this learning style attained a higher average achievement score as measured by the AME. Also, core faculty share the same preferential learning style as this subset of residents.

  5. The resident's view of residency training in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fish, D G

    1966-04-09

    In the view of residents in their last year of specialty training, the Fellowship is now becoming the operative standard for obtaining hospital privileges in urban centres and they felt that this implied that the two standards, the Certificate and the Fellowship of the Royal College, were not achieving the purpose for which they were designed. Although 80% of the residents intended to write the Fellowship, few viewed a year in a basic science department or in research as of intrinsic value in terms of their future practice.The examinations of the Royal College were the subject of criticism, most residents feeling that the examinations did not test the knowledge and ability gained in training. Most expressed a desire for ongoing evaluation during the training period.Service responsibilities were generally regarded as too heavy.Despite the criticism of both training and examination, most residents felt that their training had provided them with the experience and background they needed to practise as specialists.

  6. Trends in violence education in family medicine residency curricula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cronholm, Peter F; Singh, Vijay; Fogarty, Colleen T; Ambuel, Bruce

    2014-09-01

    Violence is a significant public health issue with far-reaching implications for the health of individuals and their communities. Our objective was to describe trends in violence-related training in family medicine residency programs since the last national survey was conducted in 1997. Surveys were sent to 337 US family medicine residency programs with the program director having active Society of Teachers of Family Medicine (STFM) membership. Measures included residency setting and characteristics, violence-related curricular content, teaching techniques and personnel, timing of content, and impact of changes in Residency Review Committee (RRC) and Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) requirements. Descriptive statistics and bivariate analyses comparing measures across time were used. A total of 201 (60%) surveys were completed. The most common violence curricula was child (83%) and elder abuse (76%), and the most common teachers of violence-related content were family physicians, psychologists, and social workers. The most common teaching methods were clinical precepting (94%), lectures (90%), case vignettes (71%), and intimate partner violence (IPV) shelter experiences (67%). ACGME and RRC changes were not reflected in self-reported measures of curricular emphasis or time. Violence curricular content and number of hours has been constant in family medicine residencies over time. An increase in the reported use of active learning strategies was identified as a trend across surveys. Next steps for violence curricula involve assessment of residents' competency to identify and intervene in violence.

  7. Enhancing outpatient nephrology experience for internal medicine residents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jhaveri, Kenar D.; Shah, Hitesh H.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Interest in nephrology careers continues to remain low in the USA. Educational innovations that enhance interest in nephrology among medical trainees are being actively studied. While internal medicine (IM) residency programs commonly offer the inpatient nephrology elective to the resident, outpatient nephrology experience is lacking. Understanding the provision of care in outpatient and home dialysis and management of patients with glomerular diseases, chronic kidney disease and kidney transplantation are vital components of an outpatient nephrology rotation. In this review article, we share our experiences in incorporating outpatient nephrology to the IM resident’s elective time. We also present the structure of the nephrology rotations at our programs and suggest several learning opportunities in outpatient nephrology that the training community can provide to medical residents. Strategies to effectively set up an outpatient nephrology rotation are also described. While more educational research on the impact of outpatient nephrology on resident learning and career choices are needed, we encourage a collaborative effort between faculty members in nephrology and the medicine residency programs to provide this unique learning opportunity to IM residents. PMID:29479427

  8. Conversations with Holocaust survivor residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirst, Sandra P; LeNavenec, Carole Lynne; Aldiabat, Khaldoun

    2011-03-01

    Traumatic events in one's younger years can have an impact on how an individual copes with later life. One traumatic experience for Jewish individuals was the Holocaust. Some of these people are moving into long-term care facilities. It was within this context that the research question emerged: What are Holocaust survivor residents' perceptions of a life lived as they move into a long-term care facility? For this qualitative study, Holocaust survivors were individually interviewed. Findings emphasize that nursing care needs to ensure that Holocaust survivor residents participate in activities, receive timely health care, and receive recognition of their life experiences. Copyright 2011, SLACK Incorporated.

  9. Gradual and Cumulative Improvements to the Classical Differential Evolution Scheme through Experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anescu George

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the experimental results of some tests conducted with the purpose to gradually and cumulatively improve the classical DE scheme in both efficiency and success rate. The modifications consisted in the randomization of the scaling factor (a simple jitter scheme, a more efficient Random Greedy Selection scheme, an adaptive scheme for the crossover probability and a resetting mechanism for the agents. After each modification step, experiments have been conducted on a set of 11 scalable, multimodal, continuous optimization functions in order to analyze the improvements and decide the new improvement direction. Finally, only the initial classical scheme and the constructed Fast Self-Adaptive DE (FSA-DE variant were compared with the purpose of testing their performance degradation with the increase of the search space dimension. The experimental results demonstrated the superiority of the proposed FSA-DE variant.

  10. A light weight secure image encryption scheme based on chaos & DNA computing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhaskar Mondal

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposed a new light weight secure cryptographic scheme for secure image communication. In this scheme the plain image is permuted first using a sequence of pseudo random number (PRN and encrypted by DeoxyriboNucleic Acid (DNA computation. Two PRN sequences are generated by a Pseudo Random Number Generator (PRNG based on cross coupled chaotic logistic map using two sets of keys. The first PRN sequence is used for permuting the plain image whereas the second PRN sequence is used for generating random DNA sequence. The number of rounds of permutation and encryption may be variable to increase security. The scheme is proposed for gray label images but the scheme may be extended for color images and text data. Simulation results exhibit that the proposed scheme can defy any kind of attack.

  11. Mobile Machine for E-payment Scheme

    OpenAIRE

    Sattar J Aboud

    2010-01-01

    In this article e-payment scheme by mobile machine is considered. The requirements for a mobile machine in e-payment are presented, particularly when merchant employing accounts for payments and when using advertising. In the proposed scheme we will use the public key infrastructure and certificate for authenticate purchaser and merchant and to secure the communication between them.

  12. Sampling scheme optimization from hyperspectral data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Debba, P.

    2006-01-01

    This thesis presents statistical sampling scheme optimization for geo-environ-menta] purposes on the basis of hyperspectral data. It integrates derived products of the hyperspectral remote sensing data into individual sampling schemes. Five different issues are being dealt with.First, the optimized

  13. A generalized scheme for designing multistable continuous ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this paper, a generalized scheme is proposed for designing multistable continuous dynamical systems. The scheme is based on the concept of partial synchronization of states and the concept of constants of motion. The most important observation is that by coupling two mdimensional dynamical systems, multistable ...

  14. Hybrid scheme for Brownian semistationary processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennedsen, Mikkel; Lunde, Asger; Pakkanen, Mikko S.

    We introduce a simulation scheme for Brownian semistationary processes, which is based on discretizing the stochastic integral representation of the process in the time domain. We assume that the kernel function of the process is regularly varying at zero. The novel feature of the scheme is to ap...

  15. Consolidation of the health insurance scheme

    CERN Multimedia

    Association du personnel

    2009-01-01

    In the last issue of Echo, we highlighted CERN’s obligation to guarantee a social security scheme for all employees, pensioners and their families. In that issue we talked about the first component: pensions. This time we shall discuss the other component: the CERN Health Insurance Scheme (CHIS).

  16. A hierarchical classification scheme of psoriasis images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maletti, Gabriela Mariel; Ersbøll, Bjarne Kjær

    2003-01-01

    A two-stage hierarchical classification scheme of psoriasis lesion images is proposed. These images are basically composed of three classes: normal skin, lesion and background. The scheme combines conventional tools to separate the skin from the background in the first stage, and the lesion from...

  17. A generalized scheme for designing multistable continuous ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. In this paper, a generalized scheme is proposed for designing multistable continuous dynamical systems. The scheme is based on the concept of partial synchronization of states and the concept of constants of motion. The most important observation is that by coupling two m- dimensional dynamical systems ...

  18. Use of mobile learning by resident physicians in Botswana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Aileen Y; Ghose, Sankalpo; Littman-Quinn, Ryan; Anolik, Rachel B; Kyer, Andrea; Mazhani, Loeto; Seymour, Anne K; Kovarik, Carrie L

    2012-01-01

    With the growth of mobile health in recent years, learning through the use of mobile devices (mobile learning [mLearning]) has gained recognition as a potential method for increasing healthcare providers' access to medical information and resources in resource-limited settings. In partnership with the University of Botswana School of Medicine (SOM), we have been exploring the role of smartphone-based mLearning with resident (physicians in specialty training) education. The SOM, which admitted its first class of medical students and residents in 2009, is committed to providing high-level on-site educational resources for resident physicians, even when practicing in remote locations. Seven residents were trained to use an Android-based myTouch 3G smartphone equipped with data-enabled subscriber identity module (SIM) cards and built-in camera. Phones contained locally loaded point-of-care and drug information applications, a telemedicine application that allows for the submission of cases to local mentors, and e-mail/Web access. Surveys were administered at 4 weeks and 8 weeks following distribution of phones. We found that smartphones loaded with point-of-care tools are effectively utilized by resident physicians in resource-limited settings, both for accessing point-of-care medical information at the bedside and engaging in self-directed learning at home.

  19. Breastfeeding Education and Support Services Provided to Family Medicine and Obstetrics-Gynecology Residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez Lien, Elizabeth; Shattuck, Karen

    2017-11-01

    Breastfeeding education is known to be insufficient in pediatric (PEDS) training and is, in part, responsible for suboptimal rates of breastfeeding. No recent studies about the level of education provided to family medicine (FM) and obstetrics-gynecology (OB) residency trainees are available. This study was conducted to investigate breastfeeding education and support services provided to FM and OB residents in the United States. The results were compared with a 2011 study of PEDS residents. A cross-sectional study was conducted using a web-based survey emailed to program directors (PDs) of FM and OB residency programs in the United States. Eighteen percent of PDs (95 of 515) completed the survey. Of these, 88% answered questions regarding education and support services provided. A median of 23 hours of breastfeeding education is provided to OB residents (4-year program) and 8 hours provided to FM residents (3-year program). In comparison, PEDS programs reported a median of 9 hours. The most commonly used settings included lectures with faculty and lactation consultants, similar to the PEDS study. Approximately 75% of respondents cited barriers to educating residents, with limited resident time being the most common. Eighty-one percent of respondents identified breastfeeding rooms as the service most frequently provided to residents who breastfeed. FM and PEDS residents are provided similar amounts of breastfeeding education, while OB programs provide more education, but in different settings. Reported barriers to this education are similar in all specialties. Support services are more commonly provided in PEDS programs.

  20. Labelling schemes: From a consumer perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juhl, Hans Jørn; Stacey, Julia

    2000-01-01

    Labelling of food products attracts a lot of political attention these days. As a result of a number of food scandals, most European countries have acknowledged the need for more information and better protection of consumers. Labelling schemes are one way of informing and guiding consumers....... However, initiatives in relation to labelling schemes seldom take their point of departure in consumers' needs and expectations; and in many cases, the schemes are defined by the institutions guaranteeing the label. It is therefore interesting to study how consumers actually value labelling schemes....... A recent MAPP study has investigated the value consumers attach the Government-controlled labels 'Ø-mærket' and 'Den Blå Lup' and the private supermarket label 'Mesterhakket' when they purchase minced meat. The results reveal four consumer segments that use labelling schemes for food products very...

  1. Use of fall risk increasing drugs in residents of retirement villages: a pilot study of long term care and retirement home residents in Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas-Fernandez, Carlos; Dadfar, Farzan; Wong, Andrea; Brown, Susan G

    2015-10-14

    Falls continue to be a problem for older people in long-term care (LTC) and retirement home (RH) settings and are associated with significant morbidity and health care use. Fall-risk increasing drugs (FRIDs) are known to increase fall risk and represent modifiable risk factors. There are limited data regarding the use of FRIDs in contemporary LTC and RH settings, and it has not been well documented to what extent medication regimens are reviewed and modified for those who have sustained falls. The objective of this study is to characterize medication related fall risk factors in LTC and RH residents and on-going use of medications known to increase fall risk. Retrospective chart review of residents aged >65 who sustained one or more falls living in LTC or RH settings. 105 residents who fell one or more times during 2009-2010 were identified with a mean age of 89 years, a mean of nine scheduled medications and seven diagnoses, and 83% were women. Residents in LTC were ostensibly at higher risk for falls relative to those in RH settings as suggested by higher proportion of residents with multiple falls, multiple comorbidities, comorbidities that increase fall risk and visual impairment. Post fall injuries were sustained by 42% of residents, and residents in RH sustained more injuries relative to LTC residents (47 vs 34%). Use of FRIDs such as benzodiazepines, antipsychotic, antidepressant and various antihypertensive drugs was common in the present sample. No medication regimen changes were noted in the 6-month post fall period. The present study documented common use FRIDs by LTC and RH residents with multiple falls. These potentially modifiable falls risk factors are not being adequately addressed in contemporary practice, demonstrating that there is much room for improvement with regards to the safe and appropriate use of medications in LTC and RH residents.

  2. Health status of UK care home residents: a cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Adam Lee; Franklin, Matthew; Bradshaw, Lucy; Logan, Pip; Elliott, Rachel; Gladman, John R F

    2014-01-01

    UK care home residents are often poorly served by existing healthcare arrangements. Published descriptions of residents' health status have been limited by lack of detail and use of data derived from surveys drawn from social, rather than health, care records. to describe in detail the health status and healthcare resource use of UK care home residents a 180-day longitudinal cohort study of 227 residents across 11 UK care homes, 5 nursing and 6 residential, selected to be representative for nursing/residential status and dementia registration. Barthel index (BI), Mini-mental state examination (MMSE), Neuropsychiatric index (NPI), Mini-nutritional index (MNA), EuroQoL-5D (EQ-5D), 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12), diagnoses and medications were recorded at baseline and BI, NPI, GHQ-12 and EQ-5D at follow-up after 180 days. National Health Service (NHS) resource use data were collected from databases of local healthcare providers. out of a total of 323, 227 residents were recruited. The median BI was 9 (IQR: 2.5-15.5), MMSE 13 (4-22) and number of medications 8 (5.5-10.5). The mean number of diagnoses per resident was 6.2 (SD: 4). Thirty per cent were malnourished, 66% had evidence of behavioural disturbance. Residents had contact with the NHS on average once per month. residents from both residential and nursing settings are dependent, cognitively impaired, have mild frequent behavioural symptoms, multimorbidity, polypharmacy and frequently use NHS resources. Effective care for such a cohort requires broad expertise from multiple disciplines delivered in a co-ordinated and managed way.

  3. Thoughts of Quitting General Surgery Residency: Factors in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginther, David Nathan; Dattani, Sheev; Miller, Sarah; Hayes, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Attrition rates in general surgery training are higher than other surgical disciplines. We sought to determine the prevalence with which Canadian general surgery residents consider leaving their training and the contributing factors. An anonymous survey was administered to all general surgery residents in Canada. Responses from residents who considered leaving their training were assessed for importance of contributing factors. The study was conducted at the Royal University Hospital, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada, a tertiary academic center. The response rate was approximately 34.0%. A minority (32.0%) reported very seriously or somewhat seriously considering leaving their training, whereas 35.2% casually considered doing so. Poor work-life balance in residency (38.9%) was the single-most important factor, whereas concern about future unemployment (16.7%) and poor future quality of life (15.7%) were next. Enjoyment of work (41.7%) was the most frequent mitigating factor. Harassment and intimidation were reported factors in 16.7%. On analysis, only intention to practice in a nonacademic setting approached significant association with thoughts of leaving (odds ratio = 1.92, CI = 0.99-3.74, p = 0.052). There was no association with sex, program, postgraduate year, relationship status, or subspecialty interest. There was a nonsignificant trend toward more thoughts of leaving with older age. Canadian general surgery residents appear less likely to seriously consider quitting than their American counterparts. Poor work-life balance in residency, fear of future unemployment, and anticipated poor future quality of life are significant contributors to thoughts of quitting. Efforts to educate prospective residents about the reality of the surgical lifestyle, and to assist residents in securing employment, may improve completion rates. Copyright © 2016 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Selecting registration schemes in case of interstitial lung disease follow-up in CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vlachopoulos, Georgios; Korfiatis, Panayiotis; Skiadopoulos, Spyros; Kazantzi, Alexandra; Kalogeropoulou, Christina; Pratikakis, Ioannis; Costaridou, Lena

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Primary goal of this study is to select optimal registration schemes in the framework of interstitial lung disease (ILD) follow-up analysis in CT. Methods: A set of 128 multiresolution schemes composed of multiresolution nonrigid and combinations of rigid and nonrigid registration schemes are evaluated, utilizing ten artificially warped ILD follow-up volumes, originating from ten clinical volumetric CT scans of ILD affected patients, to select candidate optimal schemes. Specifically, all combinations of four transformation models (three rigid: rigid, similarity, affine and one nonrigid: third order B-spline), four cost functions (sum-of-square distances, normalized correlation coefficient, mutual information, and normalized mutual information), four gradient descent optimizers (standard, regular step, adaptive stochastic, and finite difference), and two types of pyramids (recursive and Gaussian-smoothing) were considered. The selection process involves two stages. The first stage involves identification of schemes with deformation field singularities, according to the determinant of the Jacobian matrix. In the second stage, evaluation methodology is based on distance between corresponding landmark points in both normal lung parenchyma (NLP) and ILD affected regions. Statistical analysis was performed in order to select near optimal registration schemes per evaluation metric. Performance of the candidate registration schemes was verified on a case sample of ten clinical follow-up CT scans to obtain the selected registration schemes. Results: By considering near optimal schemes common to all ranking lists, 16 out of 128 registration schemes were initially selected. These schemes obtained submillimeter registration accuracies in terms of average distance errors 0.18 ± 0.01 mm for NLP and 0.20 ± 0.01 mm for ILD, in case of artificially generated follow-up data. Registration accuracy in terms of average distance error in clinical follow-up data was in the

  5. Selecting registration schemes in case of interstitial lung disease follow-up in CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vlachopoulos, Georgios; Korfiatis, Panayiotis; Skiadopoulos, Spyros; Kazantzi, Alexandra [Department of Medical Physics, School of Medicine,University of Patras, Patras 26504 (Greece); Kalogeropoulou, Christina [Department of Radiology, School of Medicine, University of Patras, Patras 26504 (Greece); Pratikakis, Ioannis [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Democritus University of Thrace, Xanthi 67100 (Greece); Costaridou, Lena, E-mail: costarid@upatras.gr [Department of Medical Physics, School of Medicine, University of Patras, Patras 26504 (Greece)

    2015-08-15

    Purpose: Primary goal of this study is to select optimal registration schemes in the framework of interstitial lung disease (ILD) follow-up analysis in CT. Methods: A set of 128 multiresolution schemes composed of multiresolution nonrigid and combinations of rigid and nonrigid registration schemes are evaluated, utilizing ten artificially warped ILD follow-up volumes, originating from ten clinical volumetric CT scans of ILD affected patients, to select candidate optimal schemes. Specifically, all combinations of four transformation models (three rigid: rigid, similarity, affine and one nonrigid: third order B-spline), four cost functions (sum-of-square distances, normalized correlation coefficient, mutual information, and normalized mutual information), four gradient descent optimizers (standard, regular step, adaptive stochastic, and finite difference), and two types of pyramids (recursive and Gaussian-smoothing) were considered. The selection process involves two stages. The first stage involves identification of schemes with deformation field singularities, according to the determinant of the Jacobian matrix. In the second stage, evaluation methodology is based on distance between corresponding landmark points in both normal lung parenchyma (NLP) and ILD affected regions. Statistical analysis was performed in order to select near optimal registration schemes per evaluation metric. Performance of the candidate registration schemes was verified on a case sample of ten clinical follow-up CT scans to obtain the selected registration schemes. Results: By considering near optimal schemes common to all ranking lists, 16 out of 128 registration schemes were initially selected. These schemes obtained submillimeter registration accuracies in terms of average distance errors 0.18 ± 0.01 mm for NLP and 0.20 ± 0.01 mm for ILD, in case of artificially generated follow-up data. Registration accuracy in terms of average distance error in clinical follow-up data was in the

  6. Exact analysis of Packet Reversed Packet Combining Scheme and Modified Packet Combining Scheme; and a combined scheme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhunia, C.T.

    2007-07-01

    Packet combining scheme is a well defined simple error correction scheme for the detection and correction of errors at the receiver. Although it permits a higher throughput when compared to other basic ARQ protocols, packet combining (PC) scheme fails to correct errors when errors occur in the same bit locations of copies. In a previous work, a scheme known as Packet Reversed Packet Combining (PRPC) Scheme that will correct errors which occur at the same bit location of erroneous copies, was studied however PRPC does not handle a situation where a packet has more than 1 error bit. The Modified Packet Combining (MPC) Scheme that can correct double or higher bit errors was studied elsewhere. Both PRPC and MPC schemes are believed to offer higher throughput in previous studies, however neither adequate investigation nor exact analysis was done to substantiate this claim of higher throughput. In this work, an exact analysis of both PRPC and MPC is carried out and the results reported. A combined protocol (PRPC and MPC) is proposed and the analysis shows that it is capable of offering even higher throughput and better error correction capability at high bit error rate (BER) and larger packet size. (author)

  7. Reassessment of MLST schemes for Leptospira spp. typing worldwide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varni, Vanina; Ruybal, Paula; Lauthier, Juan José; Tomasini, Nicolás; Brihuega, Bibiana; Koval, Ariel; Caimi, Karina

    2014-03-01

    Leptospirosis is a neglected zoonosis of global importance. Several multilocus sequence typing (MLST) methods have been developed for Leptospira spp., the causative agent of leptospirosis. In this study we reassessed the most commonly used MLST schemes in a set of worldwide isolates, in order to select the loci that achieve the maximum power of discrimination for typing Leptospira spp. Global eBURST algorithm was used to detect clonal complexes among STs and phylogenetic relationships among concatenated and individual sequences were inferred through maximum likelihood (ML) analysis. The evaluation of 12 loci combined to type a subset of strains rendered 57 different STs. Seven of these loci were selected into a final scheme upon studying the number of alleles and polymorphisms, the typing efficiency, the discriminatory power and the ratio dN/dS per nucleotide site for each locus. This new 7-locus scheme was applied to a wider collection of worldwide strains. The ML tree constructed from concatenated sequences of the 7 loci identified 6 major clusters corresponding to 6 Leptospira species. Global eBURST established 8 CCs, which showed that genotypes were clearly related by geographic origin and host. ST52 and ST47, represented mostly by Argentinian isolates, grouped the higher number of isolates. These isolates were serotyped as serogroups Pomona and Icterohaemorrhagiae, showing a unidirectional correlation in which the isolates with the same ST belong to the same serogroup. In summary, this scheme combines the best loci from the most widely used MLST schemes for Leptospira spp. and supports worldwide strains classification. The Argentinian isolates exhibited congruence between allelic profile and serogroup, providing an alternative to serological methods. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. The flipped classroom: a modality for mixed asynchronous and synchronous learning in a residency program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Timothy P; Bailey, Caleb J; Guptill, Mindi; Thorp, Andrea W; Thomas, Tamara L

    2014-11-01

    A "flipped classroom" educational model exchanges the traditional format of a classroom lecture and homework problem set. We piloted two flipped classroom sessions in our emergency medicine (EM) residency didactic schedule. We aimed to learn about resident and faculty impressions of the sessions, in order to develop them as a regular component of our residency curriculum. We evaluated residents' impression of the asynchronous video component and synchronous classroom component using four Likert items. We used open-ended questions to inquire about resident and faculty impressions of the advantages and disadvantages of the format. For the Likert items evaluating the video lectures, 33/35 residents (94%, 95% CI 80%-99%) responded that the video lecture added to their knowledge about the topic, and 33/35 residents felt that watching the video was a valuable use of their time. For items evaluating the flipped classroom format, 36/38 residents (95%, 95% CI 82%-99%) preferred the format to a traditional lecture on the topic, and 38/38 residents (100%, 95% CI 89%-100%) felt that the small group session was effective in helping them learn about the topic. Most residents preferred to see the format monthly in our curriculum and chose an ideal group size of 5.5 (first session) and 7 (second session). Residents cited the interactivity of the sessions and access to experts as advantages of the format. Faculty felt the ability to assess residents' understanding of concepts and provide feedback were advantages. Our flipped classroom model was positively received by EM residents. Residents preferred a small group size and favored frequent use of the format in our curriculum. The flipped classroom represents one modality that programs may use to incorporate a mixture of asynchronous and interactive synchronous learning and provide additional opportunities to evaluate residents.

  9. Loss aversion and duration of residence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip S. Morrison

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Studies of internal migration ask who moves, why they move, and what are the consequences - to themselves, their origin, and their destination. By contrast, studies of those who stay for very long durations are less common, despite the fact that most people move relatively infrequently. Objective: We argue that staying is the dominant, preferred state and that moving is simply an adjustment toward a desired state of stability (or equilibrium. The core of our argument, already recognized in the literature, is that migration is risky. However, we extend the argument to loss aversion as developed within prospect theory. Prospect theory posits that existing possessions, including the dwelling and existing commodities, are attributed a value well beyond their purchase price and that this extends the average period of staying among the loss-averse. Methods: Applying prospect theory has several challenges, including measurement of the reference point and potential degrees of gain and loss households face in deciding to change residence, as well as their own degree of loss aversion. The growing number of large panel sets should make it possible to estimate the degree to which endowment effects are likely to extend durations of residence as predicted by prospect theory. Conclusions: Rational expectations models of mobility focus on the changes in the level of consumption of residential services. By contrast, prospect theory focuses on potential gains and losses relative to the existing dwelling - the reference point. As we confront increasing durations of residence in contemporary society, an application of prospect theory is likely to yield important advantages over existing models of mobility and staying.

  10. Model Legislation on Student Residency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higher Education in the States, 1971

    1971-01-01

    Because of the radical variance in residency requirements from state to state and sometimes from institution to institution, and because of several court cases involving this issue, the Education Commission of the States appointed a Committee to develop (1) a statement of principles for consideration in drafting legislation in connection with…

  11. From Residency to Lifelong Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Keith

    2015-11-01

    The residency training experience is the perfect environment for learning. The university/institution patient population provides a never-ending supply of patients with unique management challenges. Resources abound that allow the discovery of knowledge about similar situations. Senior teachers provide counseling and help direct appropriate care. Periodic testing and evaluations identify deficiencies, which can be corrected with future study. What happens, however, when the resident graduates? Do they possess all the knowledge they'll need for the rest of their career? Will medical discovery stand still limiting the need for future study? If initial certification establishes that the physician has the skills and knowledge to function as an independent physician and surgeon, how do we assure the public that plastic surgeons will practice lifelong learning and remain safe throughout their career? Enter Maintenance of Certification (MOC). In an ideal world, MOC would provide many of the same tools as residency training: identification of gaps in knowledge, resources to correct those deficiencies, overall assessment of knowledge, feedback about communication skills and professionalism, and methods to evaluate and improve one's practice. This article discusses the need; for education and self-assessment that extends beyond residency training and a commitment to lifelong learning. The American Board of Plastic Surgery MOC program is described to demonstrate how it helps the diplomate reach the goal of continuous practice improvement.

  12. That which goes unsaid: Experiences of everyday life in residential care for residents with limited communication ability. A collective case study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    MSc Donna Frost

    2008-01-01

    Background The experiences of residents who have communication difficulties such as dysphasia are largely absent from the literature. Aim To illuminate the everyday experiences of four residents with severe communication difficulties living in a residential care setting in the Netherlands.

  13. Sanitizing sensitive association rules using fuzzy correlation scheme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hameed, S.; Shahzad, F.; Asghar, S.

    2013-01-01

    Data mining is used to extract useful information hidden in the data. Sometimes this extraction of information leads to revealing sensitive information. Privacy preservation in Data Mining is a process of sanitizing sensitive information. This research focuses on sanitizing sensitive rules discovered in quantitative data. The proposed scheme, Privacy Preserving in Fuzzy Association Rules (PPFAR) is based on fuzzy correlation analysis. In this work, fuzzy set concept is integrated with fuzzy correlation analysis and Apriori algorithm to mark interesting fuzzy association rules. The identified rules are called sensitive. For sanitization, we use modification technique where we substitute maximum value of fuzzy items with zero, which occurs most frequently. Experiments demonstrate that PPFAR method hides sensitive rules with minimum modifications. The technique also maintains the modified data's quality. The PPFAR scheme has applications in various domains e.g. temperature control, medical analysis, travel time prediction, genetic behavior prediction etc. We have validated the results on medical dataset. (author)

  14. Adaptive nonseparable vector lifting scheme for digital holographic data compression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Yafei; Kaaniche, Mounir; Pesquet-Popescu, Béatrice; Dufaux, Frédéric

    2015-01-01

    Holographic data play a crucial role in recent three-dimensional imaging as well as microscopic applications. As a result, huge amounts of storage capacity will be involved for this kind of data. Therefore, it becomes necessary to develop efficient hologram compression schemes for storage and transmission purposes. In this paper, we focus on the shifted distance information, obtained by the phase-shifting algorithm, where two sets of difference data need to be encoded. More precisely, a nonseparable vector lifting scheme is investigated in order to exploit the two-dimensional characteristics of the holographic contents. Simulations performed on different digital holograms have shown the effectiveness of the proposed method in terms of bitrate saving and quality of object reconstruction.

  15. A skinning prediction scheme for dynamic 3D mesh compression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamou, Khaled; Zaharia, Titus; Prêteux, Françoise

    2006-08-01

    This paper presents a new prediction-based compression technique for dynamic 3D meshes with constant connectivity and time-varying geometry. The core of the proposed algorithm is a skinning model used for motion compensation. The mesh is first partitioned within vertex clusters that can be described by a single affine motion model. The proposed segmentation technique automatically determines the number of clusters and relays on a decimation strategy privileging the simplification of vertices exhibiting the same affine motion over the whole animation sequence. The residual prediction errors are finally compressed using a temporal-DCT representation. The performances of our encoder are objectively evaluated on a data set of eight animation sequences with various sizes, geometries and topologies, and exhibiting both rigid and elastic motions. The experimental evaluation shows that the proposed compression scheme outperforms state of the art techniques such as MPEG-4/AFX, Dynapack, RT, GV, MCGV, TDCT, PCA and RT compression schemes.

  16. Enhancing Community Detection By Affinity-based Edge Weighting Scheme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoo, Andy [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Sanders, Geoffrey [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Henson, Van [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Vassilevski, Panayot [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-10-05

    Community detection refers to an important graph analytics problem of finding a set of densely-connected subgraphs in a graph and has gained a great deal of interest recently. The performance of current community detection algorithms is limited by an inherent constraint of unweighted graphs that offer very little information on their internal community structures. In this paper, we propose a new scheme to address this issue that weights the edges in a given graph based on recently proposed vertex affinity. The vertex affinity quantifies the proximity between two vertices in terms of their clustering strength, and therefore, it is ideal for graph analytics applications such as community detection. We also demonstrate that the affinity-based edge weighting scheme can improve the performance of community detection algorithms significantly.

  17. Role of Pharmacy Residency Training in Career Planning: A Student's Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McElhaney, Ashley; Weber, Robert J

    2014-12-01

    Pharmacy students typically become more focused on career planning and assessment in the final year of their PharmD training. Weighing career options in the advanced pharmacy practice experience year can be both exciting and stressful. The goal of this article is to provide a primer on how pharmacy students can assess how a residency can fit into career planning. This article will describe the various career paths available to graduating students, highlight ways in which a residency can complement career choices, review the current state of the job market for pharmacists, discuss the current and future plans for residency programs, and present thoughts from some current and former residents on why they chose to complete a residency. Most career paths require some additional training, and a residency provides appropriate experience very quickly compared to on-the-job training. Alternative plans to residency training must also be considered, as there are not enough residency positions for candidates. Directors of pharmacy must consider several factors when giving career advice on pharmacy residency training to pharmacy students; they should provide the students with an honest assessment of their work skills and their abilities to successfully complete a residency. This assessment will help the students to set a plan for improvement and give them a better chance at being matched to a pharmacy residency.

  18. Exposure in emergency general surgery in a time-based residency ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: This paper aimed to characterize the resident exposure to acute general surgical conditions during a three-months rotation in a general surgical unit. Setting: The Department of Surgery, University of Nairobi and Kenyatta National Referral and Teaching Hospital in Nairobi. MethodS: Four residents (in their first to ...

  19. Organizational and Individual Conditions Associated with Depressive Symptoms among Nursing Home Residents over Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassie, Kimberly M.; Cassie, William E.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To examine the effect of organizational culture and climate on depressive symptoms among nursing home residents. Design and Methods: Using a pooled cross-sectional design, this study examines a sample of 23 nursing homes, 1,114 employees, and 5,497 residents. Depressive symptoms were measured using the Minimum Data Set, Depression Rating…

  20. The resident-intruder paradigm : a standardized test for aggression, violence and social stress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koolhaas, Jacob; Coppens, Caroline M.; de Boer, Sietse F.; Buwalda, Bauke; Meerlo, Peter; Timmermans, Paul J. A.

    2013-01-01

    This video publication explains in detail the experimental protocol of the resident-intruder paradigm in rats. This test is a standardized method to measure offensive aggression and defensive behavior in a semi natural setting. The most important behavioral elements performed by the resident and the

  1. B-express: A new bounded extremum-preserving strategy for convective schemes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darwish, M.; Moukalled, F.

    2000-03-01

    The indiscriminate application of the convective boundedness criterion (CBC) in all flow regions results in a new and subtle error that leads to a significant reduction in accuracy at locations where physical extrema (maxima or minima) with steep profiles are present. In this article, a new Bounded EXtremum-PREServing Strategy (B-EXPRESS) that addresses this issue is presented. The B-EXPRESS is a two-stage procedure in which an extremum recognition algorithm (ERA) is first applied to a solution converged to a set level to flag locations at which enforcing the CBC leads to extrema attenuation. Then, in the second stage, an unbounded scheme is used at the flagged locations, while a bounded scheme is used elsewhere. The new strategy is applied to the SMART (a third-order-bounded scheme) and BSEVENTH (a seventh-order-bounded scheme) schemes to yield two new schemes denoted by B-EXPRESS-3 and B-EXPRESS-7, respectively. These schemes are tested by solving four problems of pure convection in an oblique velocity field of sinusoidal, elliptic, triangular, and box profiles. Results obtained reveal that the B-EXPRESS-3 greatly reduces the rate of attenuation in the levels of the profiles and is as accurate as the BSEVENTH scheme, which, on average, requires 540% more CPU time than the B-EXPRESS-3 scheme. Moreover, the B-EXPRESS-7 scheme computations do not show any observable attenuation in the levels of the profiles while marginally increasing the CPU effort (3.43% on average) over the BSEVENTH scheme.

  2. Student Expenses in Residency Interviewing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walling, Anne; Nilsen, Kari; Callaway, Paul; Grothusen, Jill; Gillenwater, Cole; King, Samantha; Unruh, Gregory

    2017-08-01

    The student costs of residency interviewing are of increasing concern but limited current information is available. Updated, more detailed information would assist students and residency programs in decisions about residency selection. The study objective was to measure the expenses and time spent in residency interviewing by the 2016 graduating class of the University of Kansas School of Medicine and assess the impact of gender, regional campus location, and primary care application. All 195 students who participated in the 2016 National Residency Matching Program (NRMP) received a 33 item questionnaire addressing interviewing activity, expenses incurred, time invested and related factors. Main measures were self-reported estimates of expenses and time spent interviewing. Descriptive analyses were applied to participant characteristics and responses. Multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) and chi-square tests compared students by gender, campus (main/regional), and primary care/other specialties. Analyses of variance (ANOVA) on the dependent variables provided follow-up tests on significant MANOVA results. A total of 163 students (84%) completed the survey. The average student reported 38 (1-124) applications, 16 (1-54) invitations, 11 (1-28) completed interviews, and spent $3,500 ($20-$12,000) and 26 (1-90) days interviewing. No significant differences were found by gender. After MANOVA and ANOVA analyses, non-primary care applicants reported significantly more applications, interviews, and expenditures, but less program financial support. Regional campus students reported significantly fewer invitations, interviews, and days interviewing, but equivalent costs when controlled for primary care application. Cost was a limiting factor in accepting interviews for 63% and time for 53% of study respondents. Students reported investing significant time and money in interviewing. After controlling for other variables, primary care was associated with significantly

  3. Energy Efficient MAC Scheme for Wireless Sensor Networks with High-Dimensional Data Aggregate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seokhoon Kim

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel and sustainable medium access control (MAC scheme for wireless sensor network (WSN systems that process high-dimensional aggregated data. Based on a preamble signal and buffer threshold analysis, it maximizes the energy efficiency of the wireless sensor devices which have limited energy resources. The proposed group management MAC (GM-MAC approach not only sets the buffer threshold value of a sensor device to be reciprocal to the preamble signal but also sets a transmittable group value to each sensor device by using the preamble signal of the sink node. The primary difference between the previous and the proposed approach is that existing state-of-the-art schemes use duty cycle and sleep mode to save energy consumption of individual sensor devices, whereas the proposed scheme employs the group management MAC scheme for sensor devices to maximize the overall energy efficiency of the whole WSN systems by minimizing the energy consumption of sensor devices located near the sink node. Performance evaluations show that the proposed scheme outperforms the previous schemes in terms of active time of sensor devices, transmission delay, control overhead, and energy consumption. Therefore, the proposed scheme is suitable for sensor devices in a variety of wireless sensor networking environments with high-dimensional data aggregate.

  4. Parameters of the CLIC Transfer Structure for the Multi-Drive Beam Generation Scheme

    CERN Document Server

    Millich, Antonio

    1997-01-01

    Three versions of the CLIC Transfer Structure (CTS) have been studied by means of simulations using the MAFIA set of codes. Of these the high impedance version has been built as a prototype and tested in the CTF (CLIC Test Facility). The other two versions were designed with the aim of suiting the requirements of the two Drive Beam Generation schemes presently being pursued for the CLIC scheme. Here we report the simulation results for th CTS to be used in the multi-drive beam generation scheme.

  5. The same number of optimized parameters scheme for determining intermolecular interaction energies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Kasper; Ettenhuber, Patrick; Eriksen, Janus Juul

    2015-01-01

    We propose the Same Number Of Optimized Parameters (SNOOP) scheme as an alternative to the counterpoise method for treating basis set superposition errors in calculations of intermolecular interaction energies. The key point of the SNOOP scheme is to enforce that the number of optimized wave...... as numerically. Numerical results for second-order Møller-Plesset perturbation theory (MP2) and coupled-cluster with single, double, and approximate triple excitations (CCSD(T)) show that the SNOOP scheme in general outperforms the uncorrected and counterpoise approaches. Furthermore, we show that SNOOP...

  6. A Temporal Domain Decomposition Algorithmic Scheme for Large-Scale Dynamic Traffic Assignment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric J. Nava

    2012-03-01

    This paper presents a temporal decomposition scheme for large spatial- and temporal-scale dynamic traffic assignment, in which the entire analysis period is divided into Epochs. Vehicle assignment is performed sequentially in each Epoch, thus improving the model scalability and confining the peak run-time memory requirement regardless of the total analysis period. A proposed self-turning scheme adaptively searches for the run-time-optimal Epoch setting during iterations regardless of the characteristics of the modeled network. Extensive numerical experiments confirm the promising performance of the proposed algorithmic schemes.

  7. The General Surgery Chief Resident Operative Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, Frederick Thurston; Horvath, Karen D.; Goldin, Adam B.; Gow, Kenneth W.

    2014-01-01

    IMPORTANCE The chief resident (CR) year is a pivotal experience in surgical training. Changes in case volume and diversity may impact the educational quality of this important year. OBJECTIVE To evaluate changes in operative experience for general surgery CRs. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS Review of Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education case logs from 1989–1990 through 2011–2012 divided into 5 periods. Graduates in period 3 were the last to train with unrestricted work hours; those in period 4 were part of a transition period and trained under both systems; and those in period 5 trained fully under the 80-hour work week. Diversity of cases was assessed based on Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education defined categories. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Total cases and defined categories were evaluated for changes over time. RESULTS The average total CR case numbers have fallen (271 in period 1 vs 242 in period 5, P general surgery training may be jeopardized by reduced case diversity. Chief resident cases are crucial in surgical training and educators should consider these findings as surgical training evolves. PMID:23864049

  8. Residence time and physical processes in lakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicoletta SALA

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available The residence time of a lake is highly dependent on internal physical processes in the water mass conditioning its hydrodynamics; early attempts to evaluate this physical parameter emphasize the complexity of the problem, which depends on very different natural phenomena with widespread synergies. The aim of this study is to analyse the agents involved in these processes and arrive at a more realistic definition of water residence time which takes account of these agents, and how they influence internal hydrodynamics. With particular reference to temperate lakes, the following characteristics are analysed: 1 the set of the lake's caloric components which, along with summer heating, determine the stabilizing effect of the surface layers, and the consequent thermal stratification, as well as the winter destabilizing effect; 2 the wind force, which transfers part of its momentum to the water mass, generating a complex of movements (turbulence, waves, currents with the production of active kinetic energy; 3 the water flowing into the lake from the tributaries, and flowing out through the outflow, from the standpoint of hydrology and of the kinetic effect generated by the introduction of these water masses into the lake. These factors were studied in the context of the general geographical properties of the lake basin and the watershed (latitude, longitude, morphology, also taking account of the local and regional climatic situation. Also analysed is the impact of ongoing climatic change on the renewal of the lake water, which is currently changing the equilibrium between lake and atmosphere, river and lake, and relationships

  9. Convergence of nonlinear finite volume schemes for heterogeneous anisotropic diffusion on general meshes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Martin; Agélas, Léo; Enchéry, Guillaume; Flemisch, Bernd

    2017-12-01

    In the present work, we deal with the convergence of cell-centered nonlinear finite volume schemes for anisotropic and heterogeneous diffusion operators. A general framework for the convergence study of finite volume methods is provided and used to establish the convergence of the new methods. Thorough assessment on a set of anisotropic heterogeneous problems as well as a comparison with linear finite volume schemes is provided.

  10. Are external quality assurance (EQA) slide schemes a valid tool for the performance assessment of histopathologists?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parham, D M

    2005-01-01

    Quality assurance plays a vital role in the healthcare profession and histopathologists play a central role in the diagnosis and treatment of disease. In the past these specialists have worked in isolation and quality assurance of their work has been difficult. In recent years this has changed with the introduction of External Quality Assurance slide schemes. This paper discusses how these schemes have evolved, the problems of standard setting and their validity as a measure of pathologists performance.

  11. Ponzi scheme diffusion in complex networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Anding; Fu, Peihua; Zhang, Qinghe; Chen, Zhenyue

    2017-08-01

    Ponzi schemes taking the form of Internet-based financial schemes have been negatively affecting China's economy for the last two years. Because there is currently a lack of modeling research on Ponzi scheme diffusion within social networks yet, we develop a potential-investor-divestor (PID) model to investigate the diffusion dynamics of Ponzi scheme in both homogeneous and inhomogeneous networks. Our simulation study of artificial and real Facebook social networks shows that the structure of investor networks does indeed affect the characteristics of dynamics. Both the average degree of distribution and the power-law degree of distribution will reduce the spreading critical threshold and will speed up the rate of diffusion. A high speed of diffusion is the key to alleviating the interest burden and improving the financial outcomes for the Ponzi scheme operator. The zero-crossing point of fund flux function we introduce proves to be a feasible index for reflecting the fast-worsening situation of fiscal instability and predicting the forthcoming collapse. The faster the scheme diffuses, the higher a peak it will reach and the sooner it will collapse. We should keep a vigilant eye on the harm of Ponzi scheme diffusion through modern social networks.

  12. Optimal Face-Iris Multimodal Fusion Scheme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omid Sharifi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Multimodal biometric systems are considered a way to minimize the limitations raised by single traits. This paper proposes new schemes based on score level, feature level and decision level fusion to efficiently fuse face and iris modalities. Log-Gabor transformation is applied as the feature extraction method on face and iris modalities. At each level of fusion, different schemes are proposed to improve the recognition performance and, finally, a combination of schemes at different fusion levels constructs an optimized and robust scheme. In this study, CASIA Iris Distance database is used to examine the robustness of all unimodal and multimodal schemes. In addition, Backtracking Search Algorithm (BSA, a novel population-based iterative evolutionary algorithm, is applied to improve the recognition accuracy of schemes by reducing the number of features and selecting the optimized weights for feature level and score level fusion, respectively. Experimental results on verification rates demonstrate a significant improvement of proposed fusion schemes over unimodal and multimodal fusion methods.

  13. Evaluation of HALO Deconvolution Schemes

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-07-01

    to a function g(v) 1 2 defined on the entire real axis. Because B is a bounded set, g(v) is analytic by the Paley- Wiener theorem [6]; consequently a...unknown G(w) will tend to alleviate this problem. Work in continuing along these lines. 1-27 TABLE 1. DISTRIBUTION OF SINGULAR VALUES OF PCP AND...be written as R(w)Tiw = ---7 (4.9) According to a theorem in matrix theory [7,10] < T(w) < (4.1o) ++ where i+ is the largest positive eigenvalue of C

  14. Adaptive Packet Combining Scheme in Three State Channel Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saring, Yang; Bulo, Yaka; Bhunia, Chandan Tilak

    2018-01-01

    The two popular techniques of packet combining based error correction schemes are: Packet Combining (PC) scheme and Aggressive Packet Combining (APC) scheme. PC scheme and APC scheme have their own merits and demerits; PC scheme has better throughput than APC scheme, but suffers from higher packet error rate than APC scheme. The wireless channel state changes all the time. Because of this random and time varying nature of wireless channel, individual application of SR ARQ scheme, PC scheme and APC scheme can't give desired levels of throughput. Better throughput can be achieved if appropriate transmission scheme is used based on the condition of channel. Based on this approach, adaptive packet combining scheme has been proposed to achieve better throughput. The proposed scheme adapts to the channel condition to carry out transmission using PC scheme, APC scheme and SR ARQ scheme to achieve better throughput. Experimentally, it was observed that the error correction capability and throughput of the proposed scheme was significantly better than that of SR ARQ scheme, PC scheme and APC scheme.

  15. Deitmar schemes, graphs and zeta functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mérida-Angulo, Manuel; Thas, Koen

    2017-07-01

    In Thas (2014) it was explained how one can naturally associate a Deitmar scheme (which is a scheme defined over the field with one element, F1) to a so-called "loose graph" (which is a generalization of a graph). Several properties of the Deitmar scheme can be proven easily from the combinatorics of the (loose) graph, and known realizations of objects over F1 such as combinatorial F1-projective and F1-affine spaces exactly depict the loose graph which corresponds to the associated Deitmar scheme. In this paper, we first modify the construction of loc. cit., and show that Deitmar schemes which are defined by finite trees (with possible end points) are "defined over F1" in Kurokawa's sense; we then derive a precise formula for the Kurokawa zeta function for such schemes (and so also for the counting polynomial of all associated Fq-schemes). As a corollary, we find a zeta function for all such trees which contains information such as the number of inner points and the spectrum of degrees, and which is thus very different than Ihara's zeta function (which is trivial in this case). Using a process called "surgery," we show that one can determine the zeta function of a general loose graph and its associated {Deitmar, Grothendieck}-schemes in a number of steps, eventually reducing the calculation essentially to trees. We study a number of classes of examples of loose graphs, and introduce the Grothendieck ring ofF1-schemes along the way in order to perform the calculations. Finally, we include a computer program for performing more tedious calculations, and compare the new zeta function to Ihara's zeta function for graphs in a number of examples.

  16. Teaching residents to write a research paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleridge, S T

    1993-09-01

    Medical writing and publications are important in developing a scholarly basis for residency programs and in providing a learning experience for both resident and faculty mentors. Residency directors must provide the stimulus and support for both faculty and residents' varied creative activities. This support manifests itself in a commitment to scholarly activity (including a dedicated research person), the procurement of available research materials, the establishment of a process or plan for beginning a research project, and the development of a method for rewarding or recognizing faculty and residents who produce scholarly works. Some osteopathic residency programs may need to train faculty in research skills at the same time that residents are learning to write. Trained faculty are better models and coaches for residents engaged in research. Beginning with a fundamental, but disciplined, writing program, both faculty and residents may learn methods for sharing new knowledge or acquiring those skills necessary to critically analyze the medical literature.

  17. Cognitive radio networks dynamic resource allocation schemes

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Shaowei

    2014-01-01

    This SpringerBrief presents a survey of dynamic resource allocation schemes in Cognitive Radio (CR) Systems, focusing on the spectral-efficiency and energy-efficiency in wireless networks. It also introduces a variety of dynamic resource allocation schemes for CR networks and provides a concise introduction of the landscape of CR technology. The author covers in detail the dynamic resource allocation problem for the motivations and challenges in CR systems. The Spectral- and Energy-Efficient resource allocation schemes are comprehensively investigated, including new insights into the trade-off

  18. Finite-volume scheme for anisotropic diffusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Es, Bram van, E-mail: bramiozo@gmail.com [Centrum Wiskunde & Informatica, P.O. Box 94079, 1090GB Amsterdam (Netherlands); FOM Institute DIFFER, Dutch Institute for Fundamental Energy Research, The Netherlands" 1 (Netherlands); Koren, Barry [Eindhoven University of Technology (Netherlands); Blank, Hugo J. de [FOM Institute DIFFER, Dutch Institute for Fundamental Energy Research, The Netherlands" 1 (Netherlands)

    2016-02-01

    In this paper, we apply a special finite-volume scheme, limited to smooth temperature distributions and Cartesian grids, to test the importance of connectivity of the finite volumes. The area of application is nuclear fusion plasma with field line aligned temperature gradients and extreme anisotropy. We apply the scheme to the anisotropic heat-conduction equation, and compare its results with those of existing finite-volume schemes for anisotropic diffusion. Also, we introduce a general model adaptation of the steady diffusion equation for extremely anisotropic diffusion problems with closed field lines.

  19. Autonomous Droop Scheme With Reduced Generation Cost

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nutkani, Inam Ullah; Loh, Poh Chiang; Wang, Peng

    2014-01-01

    ) of the microgrid. To reduce this TGC without relying on fast communication links, an autonomous droop scheme is proposed here, whose resulting power sharing is decided by the individual DG generation costs. Comparing it with the traditional scheme, the proposed scheme retains its simplicity and it is hence more....... This objective might, however, not suit microgrids well since DGs are usually of different types, unlike synchronous generators. Other factors like cost, efficiency, and emission penalty of each DG at different loading must be considered since they contribute directly to the total generation cost (TGC...

  20. Noticeable Variations in the Educational Exposure During Residency in Danish Orthopedic Departments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brand, Eske; Fridberg, Marie; Knudsen, Ulrik Kragegaard

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to examine the educational exposure during residency in Danish orthopedic departments. DESIGN: Questionnaire-based cross-sectional study. SETTING: Data were gathered from January 1, 2014 to April 30, 2014 through a nationwide web-based questionnaire....... CONCLUSIONS: A large variation in the educational exposure was found among the Danish orthopedic departments. Numbers indicate that Danish residents, compared with their US counterparts, operate considerably less during residency. Most residents work overtime and many of them work for free to participate...

  1. A patient safety curriculum for medical residents based on the perspectives of residents and supervisors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansma, J.D.; Wagner, C.; Bijnen, A.B.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: To develop a patient safety course for medical residents based on the views of medical residents and their supervisors. Methods: In 2007, questionnaires were distributed to investigate residents' and supervisors' perspectives on the current patient safety performance and educational

  2. Funding antiretroviral treatment for HIV-positive temporary residents in Australia prevents transmission and is inexpensive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Richard T; Watson, Jo; Cogle, Aaron J; Smith, Don E; Hoy, Jennifer F; Bastian, Lisa A; Finlayson, Robert; Drummond, Fraser M; Whittaker, Bill; Law, Matthew G; Petoumenos, Kathy

    2018-02-01

    Background The aim of this study is to estimate the reduction in new HIV infections and resultant cost outcomes of providing antiretroviral treatment (ART) through Australia's 'universal access' health scheme to all temporary residents with HIV infection living legally in Australia, but currently deemed ineligible to access subsidised ART via this scheme. A mathematical model to estimate the number of new HIV infections averted and the associated lifetime costs over 5 years if all HIV-positive temporary residents in Australia had access to ART and subsidised medical care was developed. Input data came from a cohort of 180 HIV-positive temporary residents living in Australia who are receiving free ART donated by pharmaceutical companies for up to 4 years. Expanding ART access to an estimated total 450 HIV+ temporary residents in Australia for 5 years could avert 80 new infections. The model estimated the total median discounted (5%) cost for ART and associated care to be A$36million, while the total savings in lifetime-discounted costs for the new infections averted was A$22million. It is estimated that expanded access to ART for all HIV-positive temporary residents in Australia will substantially reduce HIV transmission to their sexual partners at little additional cost. In the context of Australia's National HIV strategy and Australia's endorsement of global goals to provide universal access to ART for all people with HIV, this is an important measure to remove inequities in the provision of HIV-related treatment and care.

  3. Teaching psychodynamic psychotherapy to psychiatric residents: an integrated approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gastelum, Emily; Douglas, Carolyn J; Cabaniss, Deborah L

    2013-03-01

    There is enduring controversy in our field regarding the place for supportive interventions in psychodynamic psychotherapy. This controversy is reflected in the differing ways in which psychodynamic psychotherapy has been conceptualized and taught in psychiatric residency training programs. The authors propose an "integrated" approach for teaching psychodynamic psychotherapy to trainees. In the integrated model, psychodynamic psychotherapy is conceptualized as a form of therapy designed to (a) uncover unconscious elements that influence thoughts, feelings, and behavior, and (b) support weakened psychological function. Using this model, residents learning psychodynamic psychotherapy are taught both uncovering and supporting techniques side by side in one course with specific guidelines for assessing when to use one set of interventions or the other. Teaching psychodynamic psychotherapy to residents in this integrated way prepares them to become skilled clinicians who are able to move fluidly from supporting to uncovering in a pragmatic and flexible manner, matched to the particular moment-to-moment needs of the individual patient.

  4. Using Quality Improvement in Resident Education to Improve Transition Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volertas, Sofija D; Rossi-Foulkes, Rita

    2017-05-01

    The importance of a specific transition process is recognized by many health organizations. Got Transition, a cooperative endeavor aimed at improving the transition from pediatric to adult health care, developed Six Core Elements defining the basic components of health care transition support. In this article, we review the Six Core Elements by presenting a model that combines resident quality improvement and transition care training. In this Internal Medicine-Pediatrics residency program, ambulatory training for residents takes place in a combined adult and pediatric clinic. Aligned with the Six Core Elements, the program has crafted and disseminated a transition policy for the practice, designed a portable health summary template for the electronic medical record (EMR), created EMR tools for assessing transition readiness and setting transition goals, formed a registry of patients, and audited charts. [Pediatr Ann. 2017;46(5):e203-e206.]. Copyright 2017, SLACK Incorporated.

  5. On Integrated Residency in Health with emphasis on Health Surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Andrei Fernandes da; Breier, Anelise; Souza, Bianca de; Almeida, Camila Neves de; Santos, Caroline Mello Dos; Rohloff, Claudia Cristina; Scariot, Estela Lopes; Azambuja, João Vinicius Ribeiro; Cartana, Joaquim Basso; Canal, Natalia; Santos, Niura Massário Dos; Reinher, Simone Gonçalves Menegotto

    2017-10-01

    Taking into account the four underpinning areas of Health Surveillance (environmental, epidemiological, health and worker's health), the performance of professionals in this area requires a broad and complex set of information from many fields of knowledge, including that which is not classified as health. Considering the need to prepare professionals to work in Health Surveillance in the Unified Health System (SUS), integrating the four fields of knowledge, the Public Health School of Rio Grande do Sul (ESP/RS) and the surveillance areas of the municipality of Porto Alegre and Rio Grande do Sul State have established a new emphasis in the traditional residency of ESP/RS. This work uses the experience report descriptive method. It shows the activities of residents in the formation course of the first year, fourth class of this in-service education experience and takes stock of results of residency freshmen.

  6. Advancing resident assessment in graduate medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swing, Susan R; Clyman, Stephen G; Holmboe, Eric S; Williams, Reed G

    2009-12-01

    The Outcome Project requires high-quality assessment approaches to provide reliable and valid judgments of the attainment of competencies deemed important for physician practice. The Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) convened the Advisory Committee on Educational Outcome Assessment in 2007-2008 to identify high-quality assessment methods. The assessments selected by this body would form a core set that could be used by all programs in a specialty to assess resident performance and enable initial steps toward establishing national specialty databases of program performance. The committee identified a small set of methods for provisional use and further evaluation. It also developed frameworks and processes to support the ongoing evaluation of methods and the longer-term enhancement of assessment in graduate medical education. The committee constructed a set of standards, a methodology for applying the standards, and grading rules for their review of assessment method quality. It developed a simple report card for displaying grades on each standard and an overall grade for each method reviewed. It also described an assessment system of factors that influence assessment quality. The committee proposed a coordinated, national-level infrastructure to support enhancements to assessment, including method development and assessor training. It recommended the establishment of a new assessment review group to continue its work of evaluating assessment methods. The committee delivered a report summarizing its activities and 5 related recommendations for implementation to the ACGME Board in September 2008.

  7. A survey of Strong Convergent Schemes for the Simulation of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We considered strong convergent stochastic schemes for the simulation of stochastic differential equations. The stochastic Taylor's expansion, which is the main tool used for the derivation of strong convergent schemes; the Euler Maruyama, Milstein scheme, stochastic multistep schemes, Implicit and Explicit schemes were ...

  8. Living in cold homes after heating improvements: Evidence from Warm-Front, England's Home Energy Efficiency Scheme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Critchley, Roger [Centre for Regional Economic and Social Research, Sheffield Hallam University, City Campus, Howard Street, Sheffield, S1 1WB (United Kingdom); Gilbertson, Jan [Centre for Regional Economic and Social Research, Sheffield Hallam University, City Campus, Howard Street, Sheffield, S1 1WB (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: J.M.Gilbertson@shu.ac.uk; Grimsley, Michael [Centre for Regional Economic and Social Research, Sheffield Hallam University, City Campus, Howard Street, Sheffield, S1 1WB (United Kingdom); Green, Geoff [Centre for Regional Economic and Social Research, Sheffield Hallam University, City Campus, Howard Street, Sheffield, S1 1WB (United Kingdom)

    2007-02-15

    Objective: To investigate explanatory factors for persistent cold temperatures in homes which have received heating improvements. Design: Analysis of data from a national survey of dwellings and households (in England occupied by low-income residents) that had received heating improvements or repairs under the Warm Front Scheme. Methods: Over the winters of 2001-02 and 2002-03, householders recorded living room and main bedroom temperatures in a diary. Entries were examined for 888 households, which had received high level heating interventions. Two hundred and twenty-two households were identified as occupying cold homes, with mean bedroom temperature below 16 deg. C or mean living room temperatures below 18 deg. C. Binary logistic regression was used to model dwelling and household features and then occupants' behaviour and attitudes in the 'cold homes' sub-set compared with the remainder of the high intervention group. Seventy-nine supplementary, structured telephone interviews explored reasons given for lower temperatures. Using graphical and tabular methods, householders preferring cooler homes were distinguished from those who felt constrained in some way. Results: Cold homes predominate in pre-1930 properties where the householder remains dissatisfied with the heating system despite major improvements funded by Warm Front. Residents of cold homes are less likely to have long-standing illness or disability, but more likely to experience anxiety or depression. A small sample of telephone interviews reveals those preferring lower temperatures for health or other reasons, report less anxiety and depression than those with limited control over their home environment. Their 'thermal resistance' to higher temperatures challenges orthodox definitions of comfort and fuel poverty.

  9. Living in cold homes after heating improvements: Evidence from Warm-Front, England's Home Energy Efficiency Scheme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Critchley, Roger; Gilbertson, Jan; Grimsley, Michael; Green, Geoff

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To investigate explanatory factors for persistent cold temperatures in homes which have received heating improvements. Design: Analysis of data from a national survey of dwellings and households (in England occupied by low-income residents) that had received heating improvements or repairs under the Warm Front Scheme. Methods: Over the winters of 2001-02 and 2002-03, householders recorded living room and main bedroom temperatures in a diary. Entries were examined for 888 households, which had received high level heating interventions. Two hundred and twenty-two households were identified as occupying cold homes, with mean bedroom temperature below 16 deg. C or mean living room temperatures below 18 deg. C. Binary logistic regression was used to model dwelling and household features and then occupants' behaviour and attitudes in the 'cold homes' sub-set compared with the remainder of the high intervention group. Seventy-nine supplementary, structured telephone interviews explored reasons given for lower temperatures. Using graphical and tabular methods, householders preferring cooler homes were distinguished from those who felt constrained in some way. Results: Cold homes predominate in pre-1930 properties where the householder remains dissatisfied with the heating system despite major improvements funded by Warm Front. Residents of cold homes are less likely to have long-standing illness or disability, but more likely to experience anxiety or depression. A small sample of telephone interviews reveals those preferring lower temperatures for health or other reasons, report less anxiety and depression than those with limited control over their home environment. Their 'thermal resistance' to higher temperatures challenges orthodox definitions of comfort and fuel poverty

  10. ONU Power Saving Scheme for EPON System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukai, Hiroaki; Tano, Fumihiko; Tanaka, Masaki; Kozaki, Seiji; Yamanaka, Hideaki

    PON (Passive Optical Network) achieves FTTH (Fiber To The Home) economically, by sharing an optical fiber among plural subscribers. Recently, global climate change has been recognized as a serious near term problem. Power saving techniques for electronic devices are important. In PON system, the ONU (Optical Network Unit) power saving scheme has been studied and defined in XG-PON. In this paper, we propose an ONU power saving scheme for EPON. Then, we present an analysis of the power reduction effect and the data transmission delay caused by the ONU power saving scheme. According to the analysis, we propose an efficient provisioning method for the ONU power saving scheme which is applicable to both of XG-PON and EPON.

  11. Designing optimal sampling schemes for field visits

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Debba, Pravesh

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available This is a presentation of a statistical method for deriving optimal spatial sampling schemes. The research focuses on ground verification of minerals derived from hyperspectral data. Spectral angle mapper (SAM) and spectral feature fitting (SFF...

  12. Comparison of refueling schemes for DUPIC core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, H.; Rhee, B.W.; Park, H.

    1995-01-01

    A parametric study has been performed for the various refueling schemes of CANDU 6 reactor loaded with reference DUPIC fuel. The optimum discharge burnup was determined such that the peak bundle power is minimized for the equilibrium core. Based on the results of instantaneous core calculation using patterned random age distributions, it was decided to perform the refueling simulations only for 2-bundle and 4-bundle shift refueling schemes. The 600 FPD simulation has shown that the operational margins of the channel and bundle power to the license limits are 7.9% and 17.1%, respectively, for 2-bundle shift refueling scheme. The 4-bundle shift refueling scheme also satisfies the license limits and the operational margins of the channel and bundle power are 7.1% and 9.8%, respectively. The results of refueling simulation indicate the possibility of using reference DUPIC fuel in current CANDU 6 reactor. (author)

  13. Transition amplitudes within the stochastic quantization scheme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hueffel, H.

    1993-01-01

    Quantum mechanical transition amplitudes are calculated within the stochastic quantization scheme for the free nonrelativistic particle, the harmonic oscillator and the nonrelativistic particle in a constant magnetic field; we close with free Grassmann quantum mechanics. (authors)

  14. Boson expansion theory in the seniority scheme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamura, T.; Li, C.; Pedrocchi, V.G.

    1985-01-01

    A boson expansion formalism in the seniority scheme is presented and its relation with number-conserving quasiparticle calculations is elucidated. Accuracy and convergence are demonstrated numerically. A comparative discussion with other related approaches is given

  15. On the quantitative evaluation of edge detection schemes and their comparison with human performance. [image processing of satellite photographs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fram, J. R.; Deutsch, E. S.

    1975-01-01

    A technique for the quantitative evaluation of edge detection schemes is presented. It is used to assess the performance of three such schemes using a specially-generated set of images containing noise. The ability of human subjects to distinguish the edges in the presence of noise is also measured and compared with that of the edge detection schemes. The edge detection schemes are used on a high-resolution satellite photograph with varying degrees of noise added in order to relate the quantitative comparison to real-life imagery.

  16. Feasibility of an innovative third-year chief resident system: an internal medicine residency leadership study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolade, Victor O; Staton, Lisa J; Jayarajan, Ramesh; Bentley, Nanette K; Huang, Xiangke

    2014-01-01

    The role of the internal medicine chief resident includes various administrative, academic, social, and educational responsibilities, fulfillment of which prepares residents for further leadership tasks. However, the chief resident position has historically only been held by a few residents. As fourth-year chief residents are becoming less common, we considered a new model for rotating third-year residents as the chief resident. Online surveys were given to all 29 internal medicine residents in a single university-based program after implementation of a leadership curriculum and specific job description for the third-year chief resident. Chief residents evaluated themselves on various aspects of leadership. Participation was voluntary. Descriptive statistics were generated using SPSS version 21. Thirteen junior (first- or second-year) resident responses reported that the chief residents elicited input from others (mean rating 6.8), were committed to the team (6.8), resolved conflict (6.7), ensured efficiency, organization and productivity of the team (6.7), participated actively (7.0), and managed resources (6.6). Responses from senior residents averaged 1 point higher for each item; this pattern repeated itself in teaching evaluations. Chief resident self-evaluators were more comfortable running a morning report (8.4) than with being chief resident (5.8). The feasibility of preparing internal medicine residents for leadership roles through a rotating PGY-3 (postgraduate year) chief residency curriculum was explored at a small internal medicine residency, and we suggest extending the study to include other programs.

  17. Otolaryngology Residency Program Research Resources and Scholarly Productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villwock, Jennifer A; Hamill, Chelsea S; Nicholas, Brian D; Ryan, Jesse T

    2017-06-01

    Objective To delineate research resources available to otolaryngology residents and their impact on scholarly productivity. Study Design Survey of current otolaryngology program directors. Setting Otolaryngology residency programs. Subjects and Methods An anonymous web-based survey was sent to 98 allopathic otolaryngology training program directors. Fisher exact tests and nonparametric correlations were used to determine statistically significant differences among various strata of programs. Results Thirty-nine percent (n = 38) of queried programs responded. Fourteen (37%) programs had 11 to 15 full-time, academic faculty associated with the residency program. Twenty (53%) programs have a dedicated research coordinator. Basic science lab space and financial resources for statistical work were present at 22 programs (58%). Funding is uniformly provided for presentation of research at conferences; a minority of programs (13%) only funded podium presentations. Twenty-four (63%) have resident research requirements beyond the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) mandate of preparing a "manuscript suitable for publication" prior to graduation. Twenty-five (67%) programs have residents with 2 to 3 active research projects at any given time. None of the investigated resources were significantly associated with increased scholarly output. There was no uniformity to research curricula. Conclusions Otolaryngology residency programs value research, evidenced by financial support provided and requirements beyond the ACGME minimum. Additional resources were not statistically related to an increase in resident research productivity, although they may contribute positively to the overall research experience during training. Potential future areas to examine include research curricula best practices, how to develop meaningful mentorship and resource allocation that inspires continued research interest, and intellectual stimulation.

  18. A new scheme to calculate isotope effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swiderek, Katarzyna; Dybala-Defratyka, Agnieszka; Rohr, Daniel R

    2011-09-01

    We present a new scheme to calculate isotope effects. Only selected frequencies at the target level of theory are calculated. The frequencies are selected by an analysis of the Hessian from a lower level of theory. We obtain accurate isotope effects without calculating the full Hessian at the target level of theory. The calculated frequencies are very accurate. The scheme converges to the correct isotope effect.

  19. Basis scheme of personnel training system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rerucha, F.; Odehnal, J.

    1998-01-01

    Basic scheme of the training system for NPP personnel of CEZ-EDU personnel training system is described in detail. This includes: specific training both basic and periodic, and professional training meaning specialized and continuous training. The following schemes are shown: licence acquisition and authorisation for PWR-440 Control Room Personnel; upgrade training for job positions of Control Room personnel; maintaining and refresh training; module training for certificate acquisition of servicing shift and operating personnel

  20. Optical Transmission Schemes for GEO Feeder Links

    OpenAIRE

    Cowley, William; Giggenbach, Dirk; Mata Calvo, Ramon

    2014-01-01

    A novel transmission scheme for the forward link of a broadband satellite system that aims to avoid the need for feeder-link RF spectrum is described1. The hybrid scheme uses one or more optical uplinks from a hub station to geostationary satellite, plus one or more Ka band downlinks. The approach aims to retain the advantages of strong channel coding with high spectral efficiency, as used in recent high-speed digital video broadcast satellites, yet minimise on-boar...

  1. Sellafield site (including Drigg) emergency scheme manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-02-01

    This Emergency Scheme defines the organisation and procedures available should there be an accident at the Sellafield Site which results in, or may result in, the release of radioactive material, or the generation of a high radiation field, which might present a hazard to employees and/or the general public. This manual covers the general principles of the total emergency scheme and those detailed procedures which are not specific to any single department. (U.K.)

  2. Simplified Learning Scheme For Analog Neural Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eberhardt, Silvio P.

    1991-01-01

    Synaptic connections adjusted one at a time in small increments. Simplified gradient-descent learning scheme for electronic neural-network processor less efficient than better-known back-propagation scheme, but offers two advantages: easily implemented in circuitry because data-access circuitry separated from learning circuitry; and independence of data-access circuitry makes possible to implement feedforward as well as feedback networks, including those of multiple-attractor type. Important in such applications as recognition of patterns.

  3. Relaxation schemes for the shallow water equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delis, A. I.; Katsaounis, Th.

    2003-03-01

    We present a class of first and second order in space and time relaxation schemes for the shallow water (SW) equations. A new approach of incorporating the geometrical source term in the relaxation model is also presented. The schemes are based on classical relaxation models combined with Runge-Kutta time stepping mechanisms. Numerical results are presented for several benchmark test problems with or without the source term present.

  4. Cryptanalysis of Two Fault Countermeasure Schemes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Banik, Subhadeep; Bogdanov, Andrey

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we look at two fault countermeasure schemes proposed very recently in literature. The first proposed in ACISP 2015 constructs a transformation function using a cellular automata based linear diffusion, and a non-linear layer using a series of bent functions. This countermeasure...... use the internally generated random bits which make these designs vulnerable. We will outline attacks that cryptanalyze the above schemes using 66 and 512 faults respectively....

  5. Cancelable remote quantum fingerprint templates protection scheme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liao Qin; Guo Ying; Huang Duan

    2017-01-01

    With the increasing popularity of fingerprint identification technology, its security and privacy have been paid much attention. Only the security and privacy of biological information are insured, the biological technology can be better accepted and used by the public. In this paper, we propose a novel quantum bit (qbit)-based scheme to solve the security and privacy problem existing in the traditional fingerprint identification system. By exploiting the properties of quantm mechanics, our proposed scheme, cancelable remote quantum fingerprint templates protection scheme, can achieve the unconditional security guaranteed in an information-theoretical sense. Moreover, this novel quantum scheme can invalidate most of the attacks aimed at the fingerprint identification system. In addition, the proposed scheme is applicable to the requirement of remote communication with no need to worry about its security and privacy during the transmission. This is an absolute advantage when comparing with other traditional methods. Security analysis shows that the proposed scheme can effectively ensure the communication security and the privacy of users’ information for the fingerprint identification. (paper)

  6. A Classification Scheme for Literary Characters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Berry

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available There is no established classification scheme for literary characters in narrative theory short of generic categories like protagonist vs. antagonist or round vs. flat. This is so despite the ubiquity of stock characters that recur across media, cultures, and historical time periods. We present here a proposal of a systematic psychological scheme for classifying characters from the literary and dramatic fields based on a modification of the Thomas-Kilmann (TK Conflict Mode Instrument used in applied studies of personality. The TK scheme classifies personality along the two orthogonal dimensions of assertiveness and cooperativeness. To examine the validity of a modified version of this scheme, we had 142 participants provide personality ratings for 40 characters using two of the Big Five personality traits as well as assertiveness and cooperativeness from the TK scheme. The results showed that assertiveness and cooperativeness were orthogonal dimensions, thereby supporting the validity of using a modified version of TK’s two-dimensional scheme for classifying characters.

  7. [Patient safety culture in Family practice residents of Galicia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portela Romero, Manuel; Bugarín González, Rosendo; Rodríguez Calvo, María Sol

    To determine the views held by Family practice (FP) residents on the different dimensions of patient safety, in order to identify potential areas for improvement. A cross-sectional study. Seven FP of Galicia teaching units. 182 FP residents who completed the Medical Office Survey on Patient Safety Culture questionnaire. The Medical Office Survey on Patient Safety Culture questionnaire was chosen because it is translated, validated, and adapted to the Spanish model of Primary Care. The results were grouped into 12 composites assessed by the mentioned questionnaire. The study variables were the socio-demographic dimensions of the questionnaire, as well as occupational/professional variables: age, gender, year of residence, and teaching unit of FP of Galicia. The "Organisational learning" and "Teamwork" items were considered strong areas. However, the "Patient safety and quality issues", "Information exchange with other settings", and "Work pressure and pace" items were considered areas with significant potential for improvement. First-year residents obtained the best results and the fourth-year ones the worst. The results may indicate the need to include basic knowledge on patient safety in the teaching process of FP residents in order to increase and consolidate the fragile patient safety culture described in this study. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  8. What are internal medicine residents missing? A communication needs assessment of outpatient clinical encounters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundberg, Kristina L

    2014-09-01

    In order to guide curricular innovation, we looked at the feasibility and utility of performing a targeted needs assessment of the communication skills of PGY2 internal medicine (IM) residents in their continuity clinic, utilizing faculty direct observation with a validated instrument for communication skills evaluation. A convenience sample of PGY2 residents in the Emory University School of Medicine IM Residency Program was invited to participate. Using the SEGUE Framework, a checklist of medical communication tasks, faculty assessed residents during a clinic encounter. Thirty out of 53 (57%) PGY2 residents were assessed. SEGUE results indicate residents were most likely to "maintain patient's privacy" (100%), "greet patient appropriately" (97%) and "check/clarify information" (100%). Residents were least likely to "acknowledge waiting time" (7%), "explore psychosocial/emotional factors" (27%) and "outline agenda for visit" (33%). The SEGUE Framework is a feasible tool to evaluate the communication skills of IM residents in a clinic setting. Many PGY2 IM residents in a large, urban practice do not elicit important psychosocial information during outpatient clinic visits. More observation and evaluation of residents' communication skills are needed, with emphasis on building skills to "Understand the Patient's Perspective." Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. A Qualitative Analysis of Attending Physicians' Use of Shared Decision-Making: Implications for Resident Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenfeld, Elizabeth M; Goff, Sarah L; Elia, Tala R; Khordipour, Errel R; Poronsky, Kye E; Nault, Kelly A; Lindenauer, Peter K; Mazor, Kathleen M

    2018-02-01

    Physicians need to rapidly and effectively facilitate patient-centered, shared decision-making (SDM) conversations, but little is known about how residents or attending physicians acquire this skill. We explored emergency medicine (EM) attending physicians' use of SDM in the context of their experience as former residents and current educators and assessed the implications of these findings on learning opportunities for residents. We used semistructured interviews with a purposeful sample of EM physicians. Interviews were transcribed verbatim, and 3 research team members performed iterative, open coding of transcripts, building a provisional codebook as work progressed. We analyzed the data with a focus on participants' acquisition and use of skills required for SDM and their use of SDM in the context of resident education. Fifteen EM physicians from academic and community practices were interviewed. All reported using SDM techniques to some degree. Multiple themes noted had negative implications for resident acquisition of this skill: (1) the complex relationships among patients, residents, and attending physicians; (2) residents' skill levels; (3) the setting of busy emergency departments; and (4) individual attending factors. One theme was noted to facilitate resident education: the changing culture-with a cultural shift toward patient-centered care. A constellation of factors may diminish opportunities for residents to acquire and practice SDM skills. Further research should explore residents' perspectives, address the modifiable obstacles identified, and examine whether these issues generalize to other specialties.

  10. Physical renormalization schemes and asymptotic safety in quantum gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falls, Kevin

    2017-12-01

    The methods of the renormalization group and the ɛ -expansion are applied to quantum gravity revealing the existence of an asymptotically safe fixed point in spacetime dimensions higher than two. To facilitate this, physical renormalization schemes are exploited where the renormalization group flow equations take a form which is independent of the parameterisation of the physical degrees of freedom (i.e. the gauge fixing condition and the choice of field variables). Instead the flow equation depends on the anomalous dimensions of reference observables. In the presence of spacetime boundaries we find that the required balance between the Einstein-Hilbert action and Gibbons-Hawking-York boundary term is preserved by the beta functions. Exploiting the ɛ -expansion near two dimensions we consider Einstein gravity coupled to matter. Scheme independence is generically obscured by the loop-expansion due to breaking of two-dimensional Weyl invariance. In schemes which preserve two-dimensional Weyl invariance we avoid the loop expansion and find a unique ultraviolet (UV) fixed point. At this fixed point the anomalous dimensions are large and one must resum all loop orders to obtain the critical exponents. Performing the resummation a set of universal scaling dimensions are found. These scaling dimensions show that only a finite number of matter interactions are relevant. This is a strong indication that quantum gravity is renormalizable.

  11. Cluster synchronization for directed community networks via pinning partial schemes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Cheng; Jiang Haijun

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Cluster synchronization for directed community networks is proposed by pinning partial schemes. ► Each community is considered as a whole. ► Several novel pinning criteria are derived based on the information of communities. ► A numerical example with simulation is provided. - Abstract: In this paper, we focus on driving a class of directed networks to achieve cluster synchronization by pinning schemes. The desired cluster synchronization states are no longer decoupled orbits but a set of un-decoupled trajectories. Each community is considered as a whole and the synchronization criteria are derived based on the information of communities. Several pinning schemes including feedback control and adaptive strategy are proposed to select controlled communities by analyzing the information of each community such as indegrees and outdegrees. In all, this paper answers several challenging problems in pinning control of directed community networks: (1) What communities should be chosen as controlled candidates? (2) How many communities are needed to be controlled? (3) How large should the control gains be used in a given community network to achieve cluster synchronization? Finally, an example with numerical simulations is given to demonstrate the effectiveness of the theoretical results.

  12. Public Goods and Voting on Formal Sanction Schemes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Putterman, Louis; Tyran, Jean-Robert; Kamei, Kenju

    The burgeoning literature on the use of sanctions to support public goods provision has largely neglected the use of formal or centralized sanctions. We let subjects playing a linear public goods game vote on the parameters of a formal sanction scheme capable both of resolving and of exacerbating...... the free-rider problem, depending on parameter settings. Most groups quickly learned to choose parameters inducing efficient outcomes. But despite uniform money payoffs implying common interest in those parameters, voting patterns suggest significant influence of cooperative orientation, political...

  13. Contribution to a neutronic calculation scheme for pressurized water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin Del Campo, C.

    1987-01-01

    This research thesis aims at developing and validating the set of data and codes which build up the neutron computation scheme of pressurized water reactors. More precisely, it focuses on the improvement of the precision of calculation of command clusters (absorbing components which can be inserted into the core to control the reactivity), and on the modelling of reflector representation (material placed around the core and reflecting back the escaping neutrons). For the first case, a precise calculation is performed, based on the transport theory. For the second case, diffusion constants obtained in the previous case and simplified equations are used to reduce the calculation cost

  14. Lawful Permanent Residents Fiscal Year 2011 Country

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Lawful permanet residents (LPRs) are foreign nationals who have been gratned the right to reside permanently in the United States. LPRs are also known as 'permanent...

  15. Lawful Permanent Residents Fiscal Year 2014 Country

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Lawful permanent residents (LPRs) are foreign nationals who have been granted the right to reside permanently in the United States. LPRs are also known as 'permanent...

  16. Lawful Permanent Residents Fiscal Year 2015 State

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Lawful permanent residents (LPRs) are foreign nationals who have been granted the right to reside permanently in the United States. LPRs are also known as 'permanent...

  17. Lawful Permanent Residents Fiscal Year 2014 State

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Lawful permanent residents (LPRs) are foreign nationals who have been granted the right to reside permanently in the United States. LPRs are also known as 'permanent...

  18. Lawful Permanent Residents Fiscal Year 2011 State

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Lawful permanent residents (LPRs) are foreign nationals who have been granted the right to reside permanently in the United States. LPRs are also known as 'permanent...

  19. Lawful Permanent Residents Fiscal Year 2016 State

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Lawful permanent residents (LPRs) are foreign nationals who have been granted the right to reside permanently in the United States. LPRs are also known as 'permanent...

  20. Lawful Permanent Residents Fiscal Year 2015 Country

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Lawful permanent residents (LPRs) are foreign nationals who have been granted the right to reside permanently in the United States. LPRs are also known as 'permanent...

  1. Depression and cognitive impairment among newly admitted nursing home residents in the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulbricht, Christine M; Rothschild, Anthony J; Hunnicutt, Jacob N; Lapane, Kate L

    2017-11-01

    The objective of this study is to describe the prevalence of depression and cognitive impairment among newly admitted nursing home residents in the USA and to describe the treatment of depression by level of cognitive impairment. We identified 1,088,619 newly admitted older residents between 2011 and 2013 with an active diagnosis of depression documented on the Minimum Data Set 3.0. The prevalence of receiving psychiatric treatment was estimated by cognitive impairment status and depression symptoms. Binary logistic regression using generalized estimating equations provided adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for the association between level of cognitive impairment and receipt of psychiatric treatment, adjusted for clustering of residents within nursing homes and resident characteristics. Twenty-six percent of newly admitted residents had depression; 47% of these residents also had cognitive impairment. Of those who had staff assessments of depression, anhedonia, impaired concentration, psychomotor disturbances, and irritability were more commonly experienced by residents with cognitive impairment than residents without cognitive impairment. Forty-eight percent of all residents with depression did not receive any psychiatric treatment. Approximately one-fifth of residents received a combination of treatment. Residents with severe cognitive impairment were less likely than those with intact cognition to receive psychiatric treatment (adjusted odds ratio = 0.95; 95% confidence interval: 0.93-0.98). Many newly admitted residents with an active diagnosis of depression are untreated, potentially missing an important window to improve symptoms. The extent of comorbid cognitive impairment and depression and lack of treatment suggest opportunities for improved quality of care in this increasingly important healthcare setting. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Measuring general surgery residents' communication skills from the patient's perspective using the Communication Assessment Tool (CAT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stausmire, Julie M; Cashen, Constance P; Myerholtz, Linda; Buderer, Nancy

    2015-01-01

    The Communication Assessment Tool (CAT) has been used and validated to assess Family and Emergency Medicine resident communication skills from the patient's perspective. However, it has not been previously reported as an outcome measure for general surgery residents. The purpose of this study is to establish initial benchmarking data for the use of the CAT as an evaluation tool in an osteopathic general surgery residency program. Results are analyzed quarterly and used by the program director to provide meaningful feedback and targeted goal setting for residents to demonstrate progressive achievement of interpersonal and communication skills with patients. The 14-item paper version of the CAT (developed by Makoul et al. for residency programs) asks patients to anonymously rate surgery residents on discrete communication skills using a 5-point rating scale immediately after the clinical encounter. Results are reported as the percentage of items rated as "excellent" (5) by the patient. The setting is a hospital-affiliated ambulatory urban surgery office staffed by the residency program. Participants are representative of adult patients of both sexes across all ages with diverse ethnic backgrounds. They include preoperative and postoperative patients, as well as those needing diagnostic testing and follow-up. Data have been collected on 17 general surgery residents from a single residency program representing 5 postgraduate year levels and 448 patient encounters since March 2012. The reliability (Cronbach α) of the tool for surgery residents was 0.98. The overall mean percentage of items rated as excellent was 70% (standard deviations = 42%), with a median of 100%. The CAT is a useful tool for measuring 1 facet of resident communication skills-the patient's perception of the physician-patient encounter. The tool provides a unique and personalized outcome measure for identifying communication strengths and improvement opportunities, allowing residents to receive

  3. The Chief Resident Role in Emergency Medicine Residency Programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hafner, John W. Jr., MD, MPH

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Study Objectives: Although other specialties have examined the role of the chief resident (CR, the role and training of the emergency medicine (EM CR has largely been undefined.Methods: A survey was mailed to all EM CRs and their respective program directors (PD in 124 EM residency programs. The survey consisted of questions defining demographics, duties of the typical CR, and opinions regarding the level of support and training received. Multiple choice, Likert scale (1 strong agreement, 5 strong disagreement and short-answer responses were used. We analyzed associations between CR and PD responses using Chi-square, Student’s T and Mann-Whitney U tests.Results: Seventy-six percent of CRs and 65% of PDs responded and were similar except for age (31 vs. 42 years; p<0.001. CR respondents were most often male, in year 3 of training and held the position for 12 months. CRs and PDs agreed that the assigned level of responsibility is appropriate (2.63 vs. 2.73, p=0.15; but CRs underestimate their influence in the residency program (1.94 vs. 2.34, p=0.002 and the emergency department (2.61 vs. 3.03, p=0.002. The majority of CRs (70% and PDs (77% report participating in an extramural training program, and those CRs who participated in training felt more prepared for their job duties (2.26 vs. 2.73; p=0.03.Conclusion: EM CRs feel they have appropriate job responsibility but believe they are less influential in program and department administration than PD respondents. Extramural training programs for incoming CRs are widely used and felt to be helpful. [West J Emerg Med. 2010; 11(2:120-125.

  4. Combination of interval set and soft set

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keyun Qin

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Soft set theory and interval set theory are all mathematical tools for dealing with uncertainties. This paper is devoted to the discussion of soft interval set and its application. The notion of soft interval sets is introduced by combining soft set and interval set. Several operations on soft interval sets are presented in a manner parallel to that used in defining operations on soft sets and the lattice structures of soft interval sets are established. In addition, a soft interval set based decision making problem is analyzed.

  5. How Entrustment Is Informed by Holistic Judgments Across Time in a Family Medicine Residency Program: An Ethnographic Nonparticipant Observational Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagasser, Margaretha H; Fluit, Cornelia R M G; van Weel, Chris; van der Vleuten, Cees P M; Kramer, Anneke W M

    2017-06-01

    Entrustment has mainly been conceptualized as delegating discrete professional tasks. Because residents provide most of their patient care independently, not all resident performance is visible to supervisors; the entrustment process involves more than granting discrete tasks. This study explored how supervisors made entrustment decisions based on residents' performance in a long-term family medicine training program. A qualitative nonparticipant observational study was conducted in 2014-2015 at competency-based family medicine residency programs in the Netherlands. Seven supervisor-resident pairs participated. During two days, one researcher observed first-year residents' patient encounters, debriefing sessions, and supervisor-resident educational meetings and interviewed them separately afterwards. Data were collected and analyzed using iterative, phenomenological inductive research methodology. The entrustment process developed over three phases. Supervisors based their initial entrustment on prior knowledge about the resident. In the ensuing two weeks, entrustment decisions regarding independent patient care were derived from residents' observed general competencies necessary for a range of health problems (clinical reasoning, decision making, relating to patients); medical knowledge and skills; and supervisors' intuition. Supervisors provided supervision during and after encounters. Once residents performed independently, supervisors kept reevaluating their decisions, informed by residents' overall growth in competencies rather than by adhering to a predefined set of tasks. Supervisors in family medicine residency training took a holistic approach to trust, based on general competencies, knowledge, skills, and intuition. Entrustment started before training and developed over time. Building trust is a mutual process between supervisor and resident, requiring a good working relationship.

  6. Pediatric Program Leadership's Contribution Toward Resident Wellness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carson, Savanna L; Perkins, Kate; Reilly, Maura R; Sim, Myung-Shin; Li, Su-Ting T

    2018-02-27

    Residency program leaders are required to support resident well-being, but often do not receive training in how to do so. Determine frequency in which program leadership provides support for resident well-being, comfort in supporting resident well-being, and factors associated with need for additional training in supporting resident well-being. National cross-sectional web-based survey of pediatric program directors, associate program directors, and coordinators in June 2015, on their experience supporting resident well-being. Univariate and bivariate descriptive statistics compared responses between groups. Generalized linear modeling, adjusting for program region, size, program leadership role, and number of years in role determined factors associated with need for additional training. 39.3% (322/820) of participants responded. Most respondents strongly agreed that supporting resident well-being is an important part of their role, but few reported supporting resident well-being as part of their job description. Most reported supporting residents' clinical, personal, and health issues at least annually, and in some cases weekly, with 72% spending >10% of their time on resident well-being. Most program leaders desired more training. After adjusting for level of comfort in dealing with resident well-being issues, program leaders more frequently exposed to resident well-being issues were more likely to desire additional training (pProgram leaders spend a significant amount of time supporting resident well-being. While they feel that supporting resident well-being is an important part of their job, opportunities exist for developing program leaders through including resident wellness on job descriptions and training program leaders how to support resident well-being. Copyright © 2018 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. 45 CFR 233.40 - Residence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    .... For purposes of this section: (1) A resident of a State is one: (i) Who is living in the State... resident of the State in which he or she is living other than on a temporary basis. Residence may not depend upon the reason for which the individual entered the State, except insofar as it may bear upon...

  8. Breaking Bad News - Perceptions of Pediatric Residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geeta, M G; Krishnakumar, P

    2017-08-15

    The present study evaluated the perceptions and practice of 92 final year pediatric residents with regard to breaking bad news. Only 16% of residents had received any training in communication skills. Majority (65%) of the residents were not comfortable while breaking bad news.

  9. 8 CFR 325.3 - Residence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Residence. 325.3 Section 325.3 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY NATIONALITY REGULATIONS NATIONALS BUT NOT CITIZENS OF THE UNITED STATES; RESIDENCE WITHIN OUTLYING POSSESSIONS § 325.3 Residence. (a) For purposes of applying the...

  10. Sexual Health Education: A Psychiatric Resident's Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waineo, Eva; Arfken, Cynthia L.; Morreale, Mary K.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: This report discusses psychiatric residents' perceptions of sexual health education and their opinions regarding curricular improvements. Methods: An anonymous, web-based survey was sent to residents in one general psychiatry program (N = 33). The response rate was 69.7%. Results: Residents reported inadequate experience in multiple…

  11. Pioneering partnerships: Resident involvement from multiple perspectives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baur, V.E.; Abma, T.A.; Boelsma, F.; Woelders, S.

    2013-01-01

    Resident involvement in residential care homes is a challenge due to shortcomings of consumerist and formal approaches such as resident councils. The PARTNER approach aims to involve residents through collective action to improve their community life and wellbeing. The purpose of this article is to

  12. 24 CFR 206.39 - Principal residence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Principal residence. 206.39 Section... CONVERSION MORTGAGE INSURANCE Eligibility; Endorsement Eligible Mortgagors § 206.39 Principal residence. The property must be the principal residence of each mortgagor at closing. For purposes of this section, the...

  13. 25 CFR 700.97 - Residence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Residence. 700.97 Section 700.97 Indians THE OFFICE OF NAVAJO AND HOPI INDIAN RELOCATION COMMISSION OPERATIONS AND RELOCATION PROCEDURES General Policies and Instructions Definitions § 700.97 Residence. (a) Residence is established by proving that the head of household...

  14. Suicidal Thoughts Among Medical Residents with Burnout

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Heijden, Frank; Dillingh, Gea; Bakker, Arnold; Prins, Jelle

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: Recent research showed that medical residents have a high risk for developing burnout. The present study investigates the prevalence of burnout and its relationship with suicidal thoughts among medical residents. Methods: All Dutch medical residents (n = 5126) received a self-report

  15. Does Targeted Training Improve Residents' Teaching Skills?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polreis, Sean; D'Eon, Marcel F.; Premkumar, Kalyani; Trinder, Krista; Bonnycastle, Deirdre

    2015-01-01

    Resident doctors have an important and integral responsibility of teaching a number of individuals. The purpose of this study was to measure the effectiveness of the University of Saskatchewan's resident-as-teacher training course--Teaching Improvement Project Systems (TIPS). Residents who attended the TIPS course from January, 2010 through June,…

  16. Negotiations of Acknowledgement among Middle Class Residents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Nina Blom

    2013-01-01

    The article presents an analysis of communication processes between residents, between residents and people in the broader societal context as well as of media coverage of a fireworks disaster in a Danish suburb. It demonstrates how residents (all members of the Danish middle class) were able...

  17. Comparison of actinides and fission products recycling scheme with the normal plutonium recycling scheme in fast reactors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salahuddin Asif

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Multiple recycling of actinides and non-volatile fission products in fast reactors through the dry re-fabrication/reprocessing atomics international reduction oxidation process has been studied as a possible way to reduce the long-term potential hazard of nuclear waste compared to that resulting from reprocessing in a wet PUREX process. Calculations have been made to compare the actinides and fission products recycling scheme with the normal plutonium recycling scheme in a fast reactor. For this purpose, the Karlsruhe version of isotope generation and depletion code, KORIGEN, has been modified accordingly. An entirely novel fission product yields library for fast reactors has been created which has replaced the old KORIGEN fission products library. For the purposes of this study, the standard 26 groups data set, KFKINR, developed at Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, Germany, has been extended by the addition of the cross-sections of 13 important actinides and 68 most important fission products. It has been confirmed that these 68 fission products constitute about 95% of the total fission products yield and about 99.5% of the total absorption due to fission products in fast reactors. The amount of fissile material required to guarantee the criticality of the reactor during recycling schemes has also been investigated. Cumulative high active waste per ton of initial heavy metal is also calculated. Results show that the recycling of actinides and fission products in fast reactors through the atomics international reduction oxidation process results in a reduction of the potential hazard of radioactive waste.

  18. Identifying Gaps and Inconsistencies in Urogynecologic Surgical Training of Obstetrics and Gynecology Residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber LeBrun, Emily E; Asumu, Hazel; Richardson, Anne M; Cooper, LouAnn A; Davis, John D

    This study aims to determine the expectations of Obstetrics and Gynecology (ObGyn) residency and Female Pelvic Medicine & Reconstructive Surgery (FPMRS) fellowship program directors (FPDs) for the independent performance of urogynecologic procedures during residency and to compare these expectations with the Council on Resident Education in Obstetrics and Gynecology (CREOG) educational objectives. Two parallel, anonymous surveys were distributed simultaneously to all directors of accredited ObGyn residency and FPMRS fellowship programs in the United States. Respondents provided their own professional and program demographic information and indicated whether they expected their residents to independently perform 27 selected urogynecologic procedures. Among residency program directors (RPDs) and FPDs, the online survey response rate was 24.8% (n = 59) and 51.9% (n = 27), respectively. More RPDs expected residents to perform prolapse procedures with mesh, including laparoscopic sacrocolpopexy, all apical suspensions, mesh excisions, and cystotomy repairs, than FPDs. In addition, RPDs expected mastery of most urogynecologic procedures by the Post Graduate Year 3 level, whereas most FPDs did not expect independent performance of these procedures during residency at all. There were notable differences between RPDs' expectations and CREOG objectives regarding several surgical procedures. Whereas CREOG recommends independent performance of anterior and posterior repair, vaginal suspension, vaginal hysterectomy, and transobturator slings, a significant number of RPDs did not report expecting mastery of these procedures during residency. Approximately 30% of RPDs expected residents to perform open sacrocolpopexy and vesicovaginal fistula repair, whereas CREOG recommends only the understanding of these, without procedural mastery. Although community needs vary by region and setting, CREOG objectives serve as the standard for resident surgical education. This study highlights

  19. The Flipped Classroom: A Modality for Mixed Asynchronous and Synchronous Learning in a Residency Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy P. Young

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: A “flipped classroom” educational model exchanges the traditional format of a classroom lecture and homework problem set. We piloted two flipped classroom sessions in our emergency medicine (EM residency didactic schedule. We aimed to learn about resident and faculty impressions of the sessions, in order to develop them as a regular component of our residency curriculum. Methods: We evaluated residents’ impression of the asynchronous video component and synchronous classroom component using four Likert items. We used open-ended questions to inquire about resident and faculty impressions of the advantages and disadvantages of the format. Results: For the Likert items evaluating the video lectures, 33/35 residents (94%, 95% CI 80%-99% responded that the video lecture added to their knowledge about the topic, and 33/35 residents felt that watching the video was a valuable use of their time. For items evaluating the flipped classroom format, 36/38 residents (95%, 95% CI 82%-99% preferred the format to a traditional lecture on the topic, and 38/38 residents (100%, 95% CI 89%-100% felt that the small group session was effective in helping them learn about the topic. Most residents preferred to see the format monthly in our curriculum and chose an ideal group size of 5.5 (first session and 7 (second session. Residents cited the interactivity of the sessions and access to experts as advantages of the format. Faculty felt the ability to assess residents’ understanding of concepts and provide feedback were advantages. Conclusion: Our flipped classroom model was positively received by EM residents. Residents preferred a small group size and favored frequent use of the format in our curriculum. The flipped classroom represents one modality that programs may use to incorporate a mixture of asynchronous and interactive synchronous learning and provide additional opportunities to evaluate residents. [West J Emerg Med. 2014;15(7:-0.

  20. Application of a robust and efficient Lagrangian particle scheme to soot transport in turbulent flames

    KAUST Repository

    Attili, Antonio

    2013-09-01

    A Lagrangian particle scheme is applied to the solution of soot dynamics in turbulent nonpremixed flames. Soot particulate is described using a method of moments and the resulting set of continuum advection-reaction equations is solved using the Lagrangian particle scheme. The key property of the approach is the independence between advection, described by the movement of Lagrangian notional particles along pathlines, and internal aerosol processes, evolving on each notional particle via source terms. Consequently, the method overcomes the issues in Eulerian grid-based schemes for the advection of moments: errors in the advective fluxes pollute the moments compromising their realizability and the stiffness of source terms weakens the stability of the method. The proposed scheme exhibits superior properties with respect to conventional Eulerian schemes in terms of stability, accuracy, and grid convergence. Taking into account the quality of the solution, the Lagrangian approach can be computationally more economical than commonly used Eulerian schemes as it allows the resolution requirements dictated by the different physical phenomena to be independently optimized. Finally, the scheme posseses excellent scalability on massively parallel computers. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Performance evaluation of dispersion parameterization schemes in the plume simulation of FFT-07 diffusion experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Gavendra; Sharan, Maithili

    2018-01-01

    Application of atmospheric dispersion models in air quality analysis requires a proper representation of the vertical and horizontal growth of the plume. For this purpose, various schemes for the parameterization of dispersion parameters σ‧s are described in both stable and unstable conditions. These schemes differ on the use of (i) extent of availability of on-site measurements (ii) formulations developed for other sites and (iii) empirical relations. The performance of these schemes is evaluated in an earlier developed IIT (Indian Institute of Technology) dispersion model with the data set in single and multiple releases conducted at Fusion Field Trials, Dugway Proving Ground, Utah 2007. Qualitative and quantitative evaluation of the relative performance of all the schemes is carried out in both stable and unstable conditions in the light of (i) peak/maximum concentrations, and (ii) overall concentration distribution. The blocked bootstrap resampling technique is adopted to investigate the statistical significance of the differences in performances of each of the schemes by computing 95% confidence limits on the parameters FB and NMSE. The various analysis based on some selected statistical measures indicated consistency in the qualitative and quantitative performances of σ schemes. The scheme which is based on standard deviation of wind velocity fluctuations and Lagrangian time scales exhibits a relatively better performance in predicting the peak as well as the lateral spread.

  2. Implementation and analysis of trajectory schemes for informate: a serial link robot manipulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rauf, A.; Ahmed, S.M.; Asif, M.; Ahmad, M.

    1997-01-01

    Trajectory planning schemes generally interpolate or approximate the desired path by a class of polynomial functions and generate a sequence of time based control set points for the control of the manipulator movement from certain initial configuration to final configuration. Schemes for trajectory generation can be implemented in Joint space and in Cartesian space. This paper describes Joint Space trajectory schemes and Cartesian Space trajectory schemes and their implementation for Infomate, a six degrees of freedom serial link robot manipulator. LSPBs and cubic Spline are chosen as interpolating functions of time for each type of schemes. Modules developed have been incorporated in an OLP system for Infomate. Trajectory planning Schemes discussed in this paper incorporate the constraints of velocities and accelerations of the actuators. comparison with respect to computation and motion time is presented for above mentioned trajectory schemes. Algorithms have been developed that enable the end effector to follow a straight line; other paths like circle, ellipse, etc. can be approximated by straight line segments. (author)

  3. Knowledge-Based Trajectory Error Pattern Method Applied to an Active Force Control Scheme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Endra Pitowarno, Musa Mailah, Hishamuddin Jamaluddin

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The active force control (AFC method is known as a robust control scheme that dramatically enhances the performance of a robot arm particularly in compensating the disturbance effects. The main task of the AFC method is to estimate the inertia matrix in the feedback loop to provide the correct (motor torque required to cancel out these disturbances. Several intelligent control schemes have already been introduced to enhance the estimation methods of acquiring the inertia matrix such as those using neural network, iterative learning and fuzzy logic. In this paper, we propose an alternative scheme called Knowledge-Based Trajectory Error Pattern Method (KBTEPM to suppress the trajectory track error of the AFC scheme. The knowledge is developed from the trajectory track error characteristic based on the previous experimental results of the crude approximation method. It produces a unique, new and desirable error pattern when a trajectory command is forced. An experimental study was performed using simulation work on the AFC scheme with KBTEPM applied to a two-planar manipulator in which a set of rule-based algorithm is derived. A number of previous AFC schemes are also reviewed as benchmark. The simulation results show that the AFC-KBTEPM scheme successfully reduces the trajectory track error significantly even in the presence of the introduced disturbances.Key Words:  Active force control, estimated inertia matrix, robot arm, trajectory error pattern, knowledge-based.

  4. Two-level incremental checkpoint recovery scheme for reducing system total overheads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Huixian; Pang, Liaojun; Wang, Zhangquan

    2014-01-01

    Long-running applications are often subject to failures. Once failures occur, it will lead to unacceptable system overheads. The checkpoint technology is used to reduce the losses in the event of a failure. For the two-level checkpoint recovery scheme used in the long-running tasks, it is unavoidable for the system to periodically transfer huge memory context to a remote stable storage. Therefore, the overheads of setting checkpoints and the re-computing time become a critical issue which directly impacts the system total overheads. Motivated by these concerns, this paper presents a new model by introducing i-checkpoints into the existing two-level checkpoint recovery scheme to deal with the more probable failures with the smaller cost and the faster speed. The proposed scheme is independent of the specific failure distribution type and can be applied to different failure distribution types. We respectively make analyses between the two-level incremental and two-level checkpoint recovery schemes with the Weibull distribution and exponential distribution, both of which fit with the actual failure distribution best. The comparison results show that the total overheads of setting checkpoints, the total re-computing time and the system total overheads in the two-level incremental checkpoint recovery scheme are all significantly smaller than those in the two-level checkpoint recovery scheme. At last, limitations of our study are discussed, and at the same time, open questions and possible future work are given.

  5. A generalized form of the Bernoulli Trial collision scheme in DSMC: Derivation and evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roohi, Ehsan; Stefanov, Stefan; Shoja-Sani, Ahmad; Ejraei, Hossein

    2018-02-01

    The impetus of this research is to present a generalized Bernoulli Trial collision scheme in the context of the direct simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) method. Previously, a subsequent of several collision schemes have been put forward, which were mathematically based on the Kac stochastic model. These include Bernoulli Trial (BT), Ballot Box (BB), Simplified Bernoulli Trial (SBT) and Intelligent Simplified Bernoulli Trial (ISBT) schemes. The number of considered pairs for a possible collision in the above-mentioned schemes varies between N (l) (N (l) - 1) / 2 in BT, 1 in BB, and (N (l) - 1) in SBT or ISBT, where N (l) is the instantaneous number of particles in the lth cell. Here, we derive a generalized form of the Bernoulli Trial collision scheme (GBT) where the number of selected pairs is any desired value smaller than (N (l) - 1), i.e., Nsel < (N (l) - 1), keeping the same the collision frequency and accuracy of the solution as the original SBT and BT models. We derive two distinct formulas for the GBT scheme, where both formula recover BB and SBT limits if Nsel is set as 1 and N (l) - 1, respectively, and provide accurate solutions for a wide set of test cases. The present generalization further improves the computational efficiency of the BT-based collision models compared to the standard no time counter (NTC) and nearest neighbor (NN) collision models.

  6. The effects of China's urban basic medical insurance schemes on the equity of health service utilisation: evidence from Shaanxi Province.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zhongliang; Zhu, Liang; Zhou, Zhiying; Li, Zhengya; Gao, Jianmin; Chen, Gang

    2014-03-09

    In order to alleviate the problem of "Kan Bing Nan, Kan Bing Gui" (medical treatment is difficult to access and expensive) and improve the equity of health service utilisation for urban residents in China, the Urban Employee Basic Medical Insurance scheme (UEBMI) and Urban Resident Basic Medical Insurance scheme (URBMI) were established in 1999 and 2007, respectively. This study aims to analyse the effects of UEBMI and URBMI on the equity of outpatient and inpatient utilisation in Shaanxi Province, China. Using the data from the fourth National Health Services Survey in Shaanxi Province, the method of Propensity Score Matching was employed to generate comparable samples between the insured and uninsured residents, through a one-to-one match algorithm. Next, based on the matched data, the method of decomposition of the concentration index was employed to compare the horizontal inequity indexes of health service utilisation between the UEBMI/URBMI insured and the matched uninsured residents. For the UEBMI insured and matched uninsured residents, the horizontal inequity indexes of outpatient visits are 0.1256 and -0.0511 respectively, and the horizontal inequity indexes of inpatient visits are 0.1222 and 0.2746 respectively. Meanwhile, the horizontal inequity indexes of outpatient visits are -0.1593 and 0.0967 for the URBMI insured and matched uninsured residents, and the horizontal inequity indexes of inpatient visits are 0.1931 and 0.3199 respectively. The implementation of UEBMI increased the pro-rich inequity of outpatient utilisation (rich people utilise outpatient facilities more than the poor people) and the implementation of URBMI increased the pro-poor inequity of outpatient utilisation. Both of these two health insurance schemes reduced the pro-rich inequity of inpatient utilisation.

  7. Generalized rough sets hybrid structure and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Mukherjee, Anjan

    2015-01-01

    The book introduces the concept of “generalized interval valued intuitionistic fuzzy soft sets”. It presents the basic properties of these sets and also, investigates an application of generalized interval valued intuitionistic fuzzy soft sets in decision making with respect to interval of degree of preference. The concept of “interval valued intuitionistic fuzzy soft rough sets” is discussed and interval valued intuitionistic fuzzy soft rough set based multi criteria group decision making scheme is presented, which refines the primary evaluation of the whole expert group and enables us to select the optimal object in a most reliable manner. The book also details concept of interval valued intuitionistic fuzzy sets of type 2. It presents the basic properties of these sets. The book also introduces the concept of “interval valued intuitionistic fuzzy soft topological space (IVIFS topological space)” together with intuitionistic fuzzy soft open sets (IVIFS open sets) and intuitionistic fuzzy soft cl...

  8. Nonlinear Differential Equations and Feedback Control Design for the Urban-Rural Resident Pension Insurance in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lijian

    2015-12-01

    Facing many problems of the urban-rural resident pension insurance system in China, one should firstly make sure that this system can be optimized. This paper, based on the modern control theory, sets up differential equations as models to describe the urban-rural resident pension insurance system, and discusses the globally asymptotic stability in the sense of Liapunov for the urban-rural resident pension insurance system in the new equilibrium point. This research sets the stage for our further discussion, and it is theoretically important and convenient for optimizing the urban-rural resident pension insurance system.

  9. Emergency Department Visits by Nursing Home Residents in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Henry E.; Shah, Manish N.; Allman, Richard M.; Kilgore, Meredith

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES The Emergency Department (ED) is an important source of health care for nursing home residents. The objective of this study was to characterize ED use by nursing home residents in the United States (US). DESIGN Analysis of the National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey SETTING US Emergency Departments, 2005-2008 PARTICIPANTS Individuals visiting US EDs, stratified by nursing home and non-nursing home residents. INTERVENTIONS None MEASUREMENTS We identified all ED visits by nursing home residents. We contrasted the demographic and clinical characteristics between nursing home residents and non-nursing home residents. We also compared ED resource utilization, length of stay and outcomes. RESULTS During 2005-2008, nursing home residents accounted for 9,104,735 of 475,077,828 US ED visits (1.9%; 95% CI: 1.8-2.1%). The annualized number of ED visits by nursing home residents was 2,276,184. Most nursing home residents were elderly (mean 76.7 years, 95% CI: 75.8-77.5), female (63.3%), and non-Hispanic White (74.8%). Compared with non-nursing home residents, nursing home residents were more likely have been discharged from the hospital in the prior seven days (adjusted OR 1.4, 95% CI: 1.1-1.9). Nursing home residents were more likely to present with fever (adjusted OR 1.9; 95% CI: 1.5-2.4) or hypotension (systolic blood pressure ≤90 mm Hg, OR 1.8; 95% CI: 1.5-2.2). Nursing home patients were more likely to receive diagnostic test, imaging and procedures in the ED. Almost half of nursing home residents visiting the ED were admitted to the hospital. Compared with non-nursing home residents, nursing home residents were more likely to be admitted to the hospital (adjusted OR 1.8; 95% CI 1.6-2.1) and to die (adjusted OR 2.3; 95% CI 1.6-3.3). CONCLUSIONS Nursing home residents account for over 2.2 million ED visits annually in the US. Compared with other ED patients, nursing home residents have higher medical acuity and complexity. These

  10. Integration of Fault Detection and Isolation with Control Using Neuro-fuzzy Scheme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Asokan

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper an algorithms is developed for fault diagnosis and fault tolerant control strategy for nonlinear systems subjected to an unknown time-varying fault. At first, the design of fault diagnosis scheme is performed using model based fault detection technique. The neuro-fuzzy chi-square scheme is applied for fault detection and isolation. The fault magnitude and time of occurrence of fault is obtained through neuro-fuzzy chi-square scheme. The estimated magnitude of the fault magnitude is normalized and used by the feed-forward control algorithm to make appropriate changes in the manipulated variable to keep the controlled variable near its set value. The feed-forward controller acts along with feed-back controller to control the multivariable system. The performance of the proposed scheme is applied to a three- tank process for various types of fault inputs to show the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

  11. Short-Term Saved Leave Scheme

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    As announced at the meeting of the Standing Concertation Committee (SCC) on 26 June 2007 and in http://Bulletin No. 28/2007, the existing Saved Leave Scheme will be discontinued as of 31 December 2007. Staff participating in the Scheme will shortly receive a contract amendment stipulating the end of financial contributions compensated by save leave. Leave already accumulated on saved leave accounts can continue to be taken in accordance with the rules applicable to the current scheme. A new system of saved leave will enter into force on 1 January 2008 and will be the subject of a new implementation procedure entitled "Short-term saved leave scheme" dated 1 January 2008. At its meeting on 4 December 2007, the SCC agreed to recommend the Director-General to approve this procedure, which can be consulted on the HR Department’s website at the following address: https://cern.ch/hr-services/services-Ben/sls_shortterm.asp All staff wishing to participate in the new scheme a...

  12. Short-Term Saved Leave Scheme

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2007-01-01

    As announced at the meeting of the Standing Concertation Committee (SCC) on 26 June 2007 and in http://Bulletin No. 28/2007, the existing Saved Leave Scheme will be discontinued as of 31 December 2007. Staff participating in the Scheme will shortly receive a contract amendment stipulating the end of financial contributions compensated by save leave. Leave already accumulated on saved leave accounts can continue to be taken in accordance with the rules applicable to the current scheme. A new system of saved leave will enter into force on 1 January 2008 and will be the subject of a new im-plementation procedure entitled "Short-term saved leave scheme" dated 1 January 2008. At its meeting on 4 December 2007, the SCC agreed to recommend the Director-General to approve this procedure, which can be consulted on the HR Department’s website at the following address: https://cern.ch/hr-services/services-Ben/sls_shortterm.asp All staff wishing to participate in the new scheme ...

  13. Financial incentive schemes in primary care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gillam S

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Stephen Gillam Department of Public Health and Primary Care, Institute of Public Health, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK Abstract: Pay-for-performance (P4P schemes have become increasingly common in primary care, and this article reviews their impact. It is based primarily on existing systematic reviews. The evidence suggests that P4P schemes can change health professionals' behavior and improve recorded disease management of those clinical processes that are incentivized. P4P may narrow inequalities in performance comparing deprived with nondeprived areas. However, such schemes have unintended consequences. Whether P4P improves the patient experience, the outcomes of care or population health is less clear. These practical uncertainties mirror the ethical concerns of many clinicians that a reductionist approach to managing markers of chronic disease runs counter to the humanitarian values of family practice. The variation in P4P schemes between countries reflects different historical and organizational contexts. With so much uncertainty regarding the effects of P4P, policy makers are well advised to proceed carefully with the implementation of such schemes until and unless clearer evidence for their cost–benefit emerges. Keywords: financial incentives, pay for performance, quality improvement, primary care

  14. Are Self-study Procedural Teaching Methods Effective? A Pilot Study of a Family Medicine Residency Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deffenbacher, Brandy; Langner, Shannon; Khodaee, Morteza

    2017-11-01

    A family medicine residency is a unique training environment where residents are exposed to care in multiple settings, across all ages. Procedures are an integral part of family medicine practice. Family medicine residency (FMR) programs are tasked with the job of teaching these skills at a level of intensity and frequency that allows a resident to achieve competency of such skills. In an environment that is limited by work hour restrictions, self-study teaching methods are one way to ensure all residents receive the fundamental knowledge of how to perform procedures. We developed and evaluated the efficacy of a self-study procedure teaching method and procedure evaluation checklist. A self-study procedure teaching intervention was created, consisting of instructional articles and videos on three procedures. To assess the efficacy of the intervention, and the competency of the residents, pre- and postintervention procedure performance sessions were completed. These sessions were reviewed and scored using a standardized procedure performance checklist. All 24 residents participated in the study. Overall, the resident procedure knowledge increased on two of the three procedures studied, and ability to perform procedure according to expert-validated checklist improved significantly on all procedures. A self-study intervention is a simple but effective way to increase and improve procedure training in a way that fits the complex scheduling needs of a residency training program. In addition, this study demonstrates that the procedure performance checklists are a simple and reliable way to increase assessment of resident procedure performance skills in a residency setting.

  15. 2003 survey of Canadian radiation oncology residents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yee, Don; Fairchild, Alysa; Keyes, Mira; Butler, Jim; Dundas, George

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: Radiation oncology's popularity as a career in Canada has surged in the past 5 years. Consequently, resident numbers in Canadian radiation oncology residencies are at all-time highs. This study aimed to survey Canadian radiation oncology residents about their opinions of their specialty and training experiences. Methods and Materials: Residents of Canadian radiation oncology residencies that enroll trainees through the Canadian Resident Matching Service were identified from a national database. Residents were mailed an anonymous survey. Results: Eight of 101 (7.9%) potential respondents were foreign funded. Fifty-two of 101 (51.5%) residents responded. A strong record of graduating its residents was the most important factor residents considered when choosing programs. Satisfaction with their program was expressed by 92.3% of respondents, and 94.3% expressed satisfaction with their specialty. Respondents planning to practice in Canada totaled 80.8%, and 76.9% plan to have academic careers. Respondents identified job availability and receiving adequate teaching from preceptors during residency as their most important concerns. Conclusions: Though most respondents are satisfied with their programs and specialty, job availability and adequate teaching are concerns. In the future, limited time and resources and the continued popularity of radiation oncology as a career will magnify the challenge of training competent radiation oncologists in Canada

  16. Operative Landscape at Canadian Neurosurgery Residency Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tso, Michael K; Dakson, Ayoub; Ahmed, Syed Uzair; Bigder, Mark; Elliott, Cameron; Guha, Daipayan; Iorio-Morin, Christian; Kameda-Smith, Michelle; Lavergne, Pascal; Makarenko, Serge; Taccone, Michael S; Wang, Bill; Winkler-Schwartz, Alexander; Sankar, Tejas; Christie, Sean D

    2017-07-01

    Background Currently, the literature lacks reliable data regarding operative case volumes at Canadian neurosurgery residency programs. Our objective was to provide a snapshot of the operative landscape in Canadian neurosurgical training using the trainee-led Canadian Neurosurgery Research Collaborative. Anonymized administrative operative data were gathered from each neurosurgery residency program from January 1, 2014, to December 31, 2014. Procedures were broadly classified into cranial, spine, peripheral nerve, and miscellaneous procedures. A number of prespecified subspecialty procedures were recorded. We defined the resident case index as the ratio of the total number of operations to the total number of neurosurgery residents in that program. Resident number included both Canadian medical and international medical graduates, and included residents on the neurosurgery service, off-service, or on leave for research or other personal reasons. Overall, there was an average of 1845 operative cases per neurosurgery residency program. The mean numbers of cranial, spine, peripheral nerve, and miscellaneous procedures were 725, 466, 48, and 193, respectively. The nationwide mean resident case indices for cranial, spine, peripheral nerve, and total procedures were 90, 58, 5, and 196, respectively. There was some variation in the resident case indices for specific subspecialty procedures, with some training programs not performing carotid endarterectomy or endoscopic transsphenoidal procedures. This study presents the breadth of neurosurgical training within Canadian neurosurgery residency programs. These results may help inform the implementation of neurosurgery training as the Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons residency training transitions to a competence-by-design curriculum.

  17. How to set the bar in competency-based medical education: standard setting after an Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwyer, Tim; Wright, Sarah; Kulasegaram, Kulamakan Mahan; Theodoropoulos, John; Chahal, Jaskarndip; Wasserstein, David; Ringsted, Charlotte; Hodges, Brian; Ogilvie-Harris, Darrell

    2016-01-04

    The goal of the Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE) in Competency-based Medical Education (CBME) is to establish a minimal level of competence. The purpose of this study was to 1) to determine the credibility and acceptability of the modified Angoff method of standard setting in the setting of CBME, using the Borderline Group (BG) method and the Borderline Regression (BLR) method as a reference standard; 2) to determine if it is feasible to set different standards for junior and senior residents, and 3) to determine the desired characteristics of the judges applying the modified Angoff method. The results of a previous OSCE study (21 junior residents, 18 senior residents, and six fellows) were used. Three groups of judges performed the modified Angoff method for both junior and senior residents: 1) sports medicine surgeons, 2) non-sports medicine orthopedic surgeons, and 3) sports fellows. Judges defined a borderline resident as a resident performing at a level between competent and a novice at each station. For each checklist item, the judges answered yes or no for "will the borderline/advanced beginner examinee respond correctly to this item?" The pass mark was calculated by averaging the scores. This pass mark was compared to that created using both the BG and the BLR methods. A paired t-test showed that all examiner groups expected senior residents to get significantly higher percentage of checklist items correct compared to junior residents (all stations p cut scores determined by the modified Angoff method and the BG/BLR method. For junior residents, the cut scores determined by the modified Angoff method were lower than the cut scores determined by the BG/BLR Method (all p marks for senior and junior residents. The use of this method enables both senior and junior residents to sit the same OSCE, preferable in the regular assessment environment of CBME.

  18. Resident-Led Palliative Care Education Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlen, Naomi; Cruz, Brian; Leigh, A E

    2016-04-01

    Despite the growth of palliative medicine, 39% of hospitals do not have palliative care teams for consultation or to provide resident education. We examined the impact of resident-led education in palliative care principles on attitudes toward and comfort with palliative medicine and end-of-life care among internal medicine residents. An educational module designed by the authors was presented to other internal medicine residents in the program. Pre- and post-intervention survey data measuring residents' agreement with various statements regarding palliative medicine and end-of-life care were analyzed. Residents' agreement with various statements regarding palliative medicine and end-of-life care on a 5-point Likert scale was analyzed. Following the intervention, participants reported improved comfort with general knowledge of palliative medicine (p palliative care and end-of-life care (p curriculum in palliative medicine can improve resident comfort within this still-under-represented area of medicine.

  19. Study of Evacuation Behavior of Coastal Gulf of Mexico Residents

    OpenAIRE

    Bhattacharjee, Sanjoy; Petrolia, Daniel R.; Hanson, Terrill R.

    2009-01-01

    In this study, we investigate the link between hurricane characteristics, demographics of the Coastal Gulf of Mexico residents, including their household location, and their respective evacuation behavior. Our study is significantly different from the previously made studies on hurricane evacuation behavior in two ways. At first, the research data is collected through recording responses to a series of hypothetical situations which are quite identical to the set of information that people are...

  20. Sparse Reconstruction Schemes for Nonlinear Electromagnetic Imaging

    KAUST Repository

    Desmal, Abdulla

    2016-03-01

    Electromagnetic imaging is the problem of determining material properties from scattered fields measured away from the domain under investigation. Solving this inverse problem is a challenging task because (i) it is ill-posed due to the presence of (smoothing) integral operators used in the representation of scattered fields in terms of material properties, and scattered fields are obtained at a finite set of points through noisy measurements; and (ii) it is nonlinear simply due the fact that scattered fields are nonlinear functions of the material properties. The work described in this thesis tackles the ill-posedness of the electromagnetic imaging problem using sparsity-based regularization techniques, which assume that the scatterer(s) occupy only a small fraction of the investigation domain. More specifically, four novel imaging methods are formulated and implemented. (i) Sparsity-regularized Born iterative method iteratively linearizes the nonlinear inverse scattering problem and each linear problem is regularized using an improved iterative shrinkage algorithm enforcing the sparsity constraint. (ii) Sparsity-regularized nonlinear inexact Newton method calls for the solution of a linear system involving the Frechet derivative matrix of the forward scattering operator at every iteration step. For faster convergence, the solution of this matrix system is regularized under the sparsity constraint and preconditioned by leveling the matrix singular values. (iii) Sparsity-regularized nonlinear Tikhonov method directly solves the nonlinear minimization problem using Landweber iterations, where a thresholding function is applied at every iteration step to enforce the sparsity constraint. (iv) This last scheme is accelerated using a projected steepest descent method when it is applied to three-dimensional investigation domains. Projection replaces the thresholding operation and enforces the sparsity constraint. Numerical experiments, which are carried out using

  1. Performance goals on simulators boost resident motivation and skills laboratory attendance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanidis, Dimitrios; Acker, Christina E; Greene, Frederick L

    2010-01-01

    To assess the impact of setting simulator training goals on resident motivation and skills laboratory attendance. Residents followed a proficiency-based laparoscopic curriculum on the 5 Fundamentals of Laparoscopic Surgery and 9 virtual reality tasks. Training goals consisted of the average expert performance on each task + 2 SD (mandatory) and best expert performance (optional). Residents rated the impact of the training goals on their motivation on a 20-point visual analog scale. Performance and attendance data were analyzed and correlated (Spearman's). Data are reported as medians (range). General Surgery residency program at a regional referral Academic Medical Center. General surgery residents (n = 15). During the first 5 months of the curriculum, weekly attendance rate was 51% (range, 8-96). After 153 (range, 21-412) repetitions, resident speed improved by 97% (range, 18-230), errors improved by 17% (range, 0-24), and motion efficiency by 59% (range, 26-114) compared with their baseline. Nine (60%) residents achieved proficiency in 7 (range, 3-14) and the best goals in 3.5 (range, 1-9) tasks; the other 6 residents had attendance rates performance goals on their motivation as 15 (range, 1-18) and setting a best goal as 13 (range, 1-18). Motivation ratings correlated positively with attendance rates, number of repetitions, performance improvement, and achievement of proficiency and best goals (r = 0.59-0.75; p attendance. Copyright 2010 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. A Scheme for Evaluating Feral Horse Management Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. L. Eberhardt

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Context. Feral horses are an increasing problem in many countries and are popular with the public, making management difficult. Aims. To develop a scheme useful in planning management strategies. Methods. A model is developed and applied to four different feral horse herds, three of which have been quite accurately counted over the years. Key Results. The selected model has been tested on a variety of data sets, with emphasis on the four sets of feral horse data. An alternative, nonparametric model is used to check the selected parametric approach. Conclusions. A density-dependent response was observed in all 4 herds, even though only 8 observations were available in each case. Consistency in the model fits suggests that small starting herds can be used to test various management techniques. Implications. Management methods can be tested on actual, confined populations.

  3. Quantum Watermarking Scheme Based on INEQR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ri-Gui; Zhou, Yang; Zhu, Changming; Wei, Lai; Zhang, Xiafen; Ian, Hou

    2018-04-01

    Quantum watermarking technology protects copyright by embedding invisible quantum signal in quantum multimedia data. In this paper, a watermarking scheme based on INEQR was presented. Firstly, the watermark image is extended to achieve the requirement of embedding carrier image. Secondly, the swap and XOR operation is used on the processed pixels. Since there is only one bit per pixel, XOR operation can achieve the effect of simple encryption. Thirdly, both the watermark image extraction and embedding operations are described, where the key image, swap operation and LSB algorithm are used. When the embedding is made, the binary image key is changed. It means that the watermark has been embedded. Of course, if the watermark image is extracted, the key's state need detected. When key's state is |1>, this extraction operation is carried out. Finally, for validation of the proposed scheme, both the Signal-to-noise ratio (PSNR) and the security of the scheme are analyzed.

  4. IPCT: A scheme for mobile authentication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vishnu Shankar

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Mobile is becoming a part of everyone's life and as their power of computation and storage is rising and cost is coming down. Most of mobile phone users have a lot of private data which they want to protect from others (La Polla et al., 2013. It means user must be authenticated properly for accessing the mobile resources. Normally user is authenticated using text passwords, PIN, face recognition or patterns etc. All these methods are used but they have some shortcomings. In this paper we have seen various existing methods of mobile authentications and proposed our improved mobile authentication IPCT scheme. We have compared our Image Pass Code with tapping scheme with existing techniques and shown that our scheme is better than existing techniques.

  5. A Traffic Restriction Scheme for Enhancing Carpooling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Ding

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available For the purpose of alleviating traffic congestion, this paper proposes a scheme to encourage travelers to carpool by traffic restriction. By a variational inequity we describe travelers’ mode (solo driving and carpooling and route choice under user equilibrium principle in the context of fixed demand and detect the performance of a simple network with various restriction links, restriction proportions, and carpooling costs. Then the optimal traffic restriction scheme aiming at minimal total travel cost is designed through a bilevel program and applied to a Sioux Fall network example with genetic algorithm. According to various requirements, optimal restriction regions and proportions for restricted automobiles are captured. From the results it is found that traffic restriction scheme is possible to enhance carpooling and alleviate congestion. However, higher carpooling demand is not always helpful to the whole network. The topology of network, OD demand, and carpooling cost are included in the factors influencing the performance of the traffic system.

  6. Optimal Sales Schemes for Network Goods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parakhonyak, Alexei; Vikander, Nick

    to consumers, allowing success to breed success. Failure can also breed failure, but this is made less likely by consumers’ desire to influence one another’s behavior. We show that when consumers differ in the weight they place on the network externality, the firm would like to serve consumers with lower......This paper examines the optimal sequencing of sales in the presence of network externalities. A firm sells a good to a group of consumers whose payoff from buying is increasing in total quantity sold. The firm selects the order to serve consumers so as to maximize expected sales. It can serve all...... consumers simultaneously, serve them all sequentially, or employ any intermediate scheme. We show that the optimal sales scheme is purely sequential, where each consumer observes all previous sales before choosing whether to buy himself. A sequential scheme maximizes the amount of information available...

  7. Tradable white certificate schemes : what can we learn from tradable green certificate schemes?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oikonomou, Vlasis; Mundaca, Luis

    In this paper, we analyze the experiences gained from tradable green certificate (TGC) schemes and extract some policy lessons that can lead to a successful design of a market-based approach for energy efficiency improvement, alias tradable white certificate schemes. We use tradable green

  8. Examining Critical Thinking Skills in Family Medicine Residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, David; Schipper, Shirley; Westbury, Chris; Linh Banh, Hoan; Loeffler, Kim; Allan, G Michael; Ross, Shelley

    2016-02-01

    Our objective was to determine the relationship between critical thinking skills and objective measures of academic success in a family medicine residency program. This prospective observational cohort study was set in a large Canadian family medicine residency program. Intervention was the California Critical Thinking Skills Test (CCTST), administered at three points in residency: upon entry, at mid-point, and at graduation. Results from the CCTST, Canadian Residency Matching Service file, and interview scores were compared to other measures of academic performance (Medical Colleges Admission Test [MCAT] and College of Family Physicians of Canada [CCFP] certification examination results). For participants (n=60), significant positive correlations were found between critical thinking skills and performance on tests of knowledge. For the MCAT, CCTST scores correlated positively with full scores (n=24, r=0.57) as well as with each section score (verbal reasoning: r=0.59; physical sciences: r=0.64; biological sciences: r=0.54). For CCFP examination, CCTST correlated reliably with both sections (n=49, orals: r=0.34; short answer: r=0.47). Additionally, CCTST was a better predictor of performance on the CCFP exam than was the interview score at selection into the residency program (Fisher's r-to-z test, z=2.25). Success on a critical thinking skills exam was found to predict success on family medicine certification examinations. Given that critical thinking skills appear to be stable throughout residency training, including an assessment of critical thinking in the selection process may help identify applicants more likely to be successful on final certification exam.

  9. Carbon trading: Current schemes and future developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perdan, Slobodan; Azapagic, Adisa

    2011-01-01

    This paper looks at the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions trading schemes and examines the prospects of carbon trading. The first part of the paper gives an overview of several mandatory GHG trading schemes around the world. The second part focuses on the future trends in carbon trading. It argues that the emergence of new schemes, a gradual enlargement of the current ones, and willingness to link existing and planned schemes seem to point towards geographical, temporal and sectoral expansion of emissions trading. However, such expansion would need to overcome some considerable technical and non-technical obstacles. Linking of the current and emerging trading schemes requires not only considerable technical fixes and harmonisation of different trading systems, but also necessitates clear regulatory and policy signals, continuing political support and a more stable economic environment. Currently, the latter factors are missing. The global economic turmoil and its repercussions for the carbon market, a lack of the international deal on climate change defining the Post-Kyoto commitments, and unfavourable policy shifts in some countries, cast serious doubts on the expansion of emissions trading and indicate that carbon trading enters an uncertain period. - Highlights: → The paper provides an extensive overview of mandatory emissions trading schemes around the world. → Geographical, temporal and sectoral expansion of emissions trading are identified as future trends. → The expansion requires considerable technical fixes and harmonisation of different trading systems. → Clear policy signals, political support and a stable economic environment are needed for the expansion. → A lack of the post-Kyoto commitments and unfavourable policy shifts indicate an uncertain future for carbon trading.

  10. Very-high-order WENO schemes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerolymos, G. A.; Sénéchal, D.; Vallet, I.

    2009-12-01

    We study WENO(2 r - 1) reconstruction [D.S. Balsara, C.W. Shu, Monotonicity prserving WENO schemes with increasingly high-order of accuracy, J. Comput. Phys. 160 (2000) 405-452], with the mapping ( WENOM) procedure of the nonlinear weights [A.K. Henrick, T.D. Aslam, J.M. Powers, Mapped weighted-essentially-non-oscillatory schemes: achieving optimal order near critical points, J. Comput. Phys. 207 (2005) 542-567], which we extend up to WENO17 (r=9). We find by numerical experiment that these procedures are essentially nonoscillatory without any stringent CFL limitation (CFL∈[0.8,1]), for scalar hyperbolic problems (both linear and scalar conservation laws), provided that the exponent pβ in the definition of the Jiang-Shu [G.S. Jiang, C.W. Shu, Efficient implementation of weighted ENO schemes, J. Comput. Phys. 126 (1996) 202-228] nonlinear weights be taken as pβ=r, as originally proposed by Liu et al. [X.D. Liu, S. Osher, T. Chan, Weighted essentially nonoscillatory schemes, J. Comput. Phys. 115 (1994) 200-212], instead of pβ=2 (this is valid both for WENO and WENOM reconstructions), although the optimal value of the exponent is probably pβ(r)∈[2,r]. Then, we apply the family of very-high-order reconstructions to the Euler equations of gasdynamics, by combining local characteristic decomposition [A. Harten, B. Engquist, S. Osher, S.R. Chakravarthy, Uniformly high-order accurate essentially nonoscillatory schemes III, J. Comput. Phys. 71 (1987) 231-303], with recursive-order-reduction ( ROR) aiming at aleviating the problems induced by the nonlinear interactions of characteristic fields within the stencil. The proposed ROR algorithm, which generalizes the algorithm of Titarev and Toro [V.A. Titarev, E.F. Toro, Finite-volume WENO schemes for 3-D conservation laws, J. Comput. Phys. 201 (2004) 238-260], is free of adjustable parameters, and the corresponding schemes are essentially nonoscillatory, as Δx→0, up to r=9, for all of the test-cases studied. Finally

  11. EPU correction scheme study at the CLS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertwistle, Drew, E-mail: drew.bertwistle@lightsource.ca; Baribeau, C.; Dallin, L.; Chen, S.; Vogt, J.; Wurtz, W. [Canadian Light Source Inc. 44 Innovation Boulevard, Saskatoon, SK S7N 2V3 (Canada)

    2016-07-27

    The Canadian Light Source (CLS) Quantum Materials Spectroscopy Center (QMSC) beamline will employ a novel double period (55 mm, 180 mm) elliptically polarizing undulator (EPU) to produce photons of arbitrary polarization in the soft X-ray regime. The long period and high field of the 180 mm period EPU will have a strong dynamic focusing effect on the storage ring electron beam. We have considered two partial correction schemes, a 4 m long planar array of BESSY-II style current strips, and soft iron L-shims. In this paper we briefly consider the implementation of these correction schemes.

  12. Security problem on arbitrated quantum signature schemes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Jeong Woon [Emerging Technology R and D Center, SK Telecom, Kyunggi 463-784 (Korea, Republic of); Chang, Ku-Young; Hong, Dowon [Cryptography Research Team, Electronics and Telecommunications Research Institute, Daejeon 305-700 (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-12-15

    Many arbitrated quantum signature schemes implemented with the help of a trusted third party have been developed up to now. In order to guarantee unconditional security, most of them take advantage of the optimal quantum one-time encryption based on Pauli operators. However, in this paper we point out that the previous schemes provide security only against a total break attack and show in fact that there exists an existential forgery attack that can validly modify the transmitted pair of message and signature. In addition, we also provide a simple method to recover security against the proposed attack.

  13. Clocking Scheme for Switched-Capacitor Circuits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steensgaard-Madsen, Jesper

    1998-01-01

    A novel clocking scheme for switched-capacitor (SC) circuits is presented. It can enhance the understanding of SC circuits and the errors caused by MOSFET (MOS) switches. Charge errors, and techniques to make SC circuits less sensitive to them are discussed.......A novel clocking scheme for switched-capacitor (SC) circuits is presented. It can enhance the understanding of SC circuits and the errors caused by MOSFET (MOS) switches. Charge errors, and techniques to make SC circuits less sensitive to them are discussed....

  14. Verification of an objective analysis scheme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cats, G.J.; Haan, B.J. de; Hafkenscheid, L.M.

    1987-01-01

    An intermittent data assimilation scheme has been used to produce wind and precipitation fields during the 10 days after the explosion at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant on 25 April 1986. The wind fields are analyses, the precipitation fields have been generated by the forecast model part of the scheme. The precipitation fields are of fair quality. The quality of the wind fields has been monitored by the ensuing trajectories. These were found to describe the arrival times of radioactive air in good agreement with most observational data, taken all over Europe. The wind analyses are therefore considered to be reliable. 25 refs.; 13 figs

  15. Low overhead slipless carrier phase estimation scheme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Haiquan; Li, Yan; Kong, Deming; Zang, Jizhao; Wu, Jian; Lin, Jintong

    2014-08-25

    Two slipless schemes are compared with application to single carrier 30 Gbaud quadrature phase shift keying (QPSK) system. An equivalent linewidth model considering the phase noise induced by both the laser linewidth and fiber nonlinearity is applied in the performance analysis. The simulation results show that it is possible to mitigate cycle slip (CS) using only 0.39% pilot overhead for the proposed blind carrier phase recovery (CPR) + pilot-symbols-aided phase unwrapping (PAPU) scheme within 1 dB signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) penalty limit at the bit error ratio (BER) of 10(-3) with 4 MHz equivalent linewidth.

  16. Why Do Emergency Medicine Residents Experience Burn Out? A qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atefe Kamaloo

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Emergency medicine residents are a high–risk group for burnout syndrome. This was a qualitative study with content analysis on emergency medical residents with 2 aims: evaluating the incidence of occupational burnout syndrome and identifying the points of view and attitudes of emergency medical residents about factors related to occupational burnout syndrome.Method: For this study, 2 sessions of focus group discussions were set up at Imam Khomeini hospital affiliated to Tehran University of Medical Sciences. Each session took 90 minutes, and 20 emergency medicine residents in their first or second year of emergency medicine residency participated in the sessions. Data were coded   by MAXQDA10 software.Results: Data were categorized in 4 themes as follow: (1 the characteristics of emergency medicine; (2 ambiguity in residents’ duties; (3 educational planning; and (4 careers.Data on the proposed solutions by residents were analyzed and coded in 3 groups including (1 changes in personal life; (2 arrangement in shifts; and  (3 educational issues.Conclusion: According to findings of this qualitative study, most of emergency medicine residents have experienced exhaustion sometime during the course of their residency. Psychological supports may help the residents to cope with their career difficulties and probable burn out.

  17. Resident continuity of care experience in a Canadian general surgery training program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidhu, Ravindar S.; Walker, G. Ross

    Objectives To provide baseline data on resident continuity of care experience, to describe the effect of ambulatory centre surgery on continuity of care, to analyse continuity of care by level of resident training and to assess a resident-run preadmission clinic’s effect on continuity of care. Design Data were prospectively collected for 4 weeks. All patients who underwent a general surgical procedure were included if a resident was present at operation. Setting The Division of General Surgery, Queen’s University, Kingston, Ont. Outcome measures Preoperative, operative and inhospital postoperative involvement of each resident with each case was recorded. Results Residents assessed preoperatively (before entering the operating room) 52% of patients overall, 20% of patients at the ambulatory centre and 83% of patients who required emergency surgery. Of patients assessed by the chief resident, 94% were assessed preoperatively compared with 32% of patients assessed by other residents ( p 0.1). Conclusions This study serves as a reference for the continuity of care experience in Canadian surgical programs. Residents assessed only 52% of patients preoperatively, and only 40% of patients had complete continuity of care. Factors such as ambulatory surgery and junior level of training negatively affected continuity experience. Such factors must be taken into account in planning surgical education. PMID:10526519

  18. Continuity of care in dermatology residency programs in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loh, Tiffany; Vazirnia, Aria; Afshar, Maryam; Dorschner, Robert; Paravar, Taraneh

    2017-05-15

    As established by the AccreditationCouncil for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME),dermatology residents in the United States must participate in continuity clinic. This requirement may be achieved through multiple means, allowing for program variation. To better assess continuity clinic's role in resident learning, more data on this component of graduate medical education is needed. An anonymous online survey was distributed via the American Board of Dermatology list serv to all U.S. dermatology residents. Continuity clinic organization, setting, frequency, and patient and preceptor characteristics were assessed; resident satisfaction and learning were compared. Of 231 responses, 7.8% reported continuity clinic daily, 77.1% weekly, 9.1% every other week, 3.0%monthly, 0.4% once every several months, and 2.2%only during certain blocks. Of the clinics reported,80.1% were "resident-run with attending" and 11.3%were attending-run. The rest were "resident-run with no attending" (0.9%), both resident and attending run(3.0%), or "other" (4.8%). Trainees in resident-run clinics (with attendings) reported greater continuity of care than those in attending-run clinics (p<0.001).Residents reported better teaching with attending presence during patient encounters than when attendings were present only if concerns were raised(p<0.01).

  19. The effect of limiting residents' work hours on their surgical training: a Canadian perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanchuk, Ken

    2004-05-01

    Restrictions in residents' work hours have been in place in Canada for roughly a decade, having been negotiated rather than imposed. The changes in residents' schedules that resulted are roughly equivalent to the limitation of 80 duty hours per week in the United States. When work-hours restrictions began, surgery faculty were worried that residents' experience would be compromised. But these fears have not materialized. Why? The author maintains there are many reasons. (1) Most surgical procedures are now faster, and lengthy inpatient care has diminished, all of which saves time. (2) Formerly difficult or risky procedures are now performed more frequently and safely, which increases residents' education about difficult conditions. (3) A variety of resources (e.g., skills-transfer courses, surgical simulators, etc.) are now available for residents to learn and evolve surgical techniques, and residents take advantage of these resources, being highly motivated to learn the best in the time available to them. (4) There have been positive changes in residents' education that have helped them become more efficient learners than before, with improved resources and skills for faster access to information. The author maintains that in his present surgery residency program, the residents still work extremely hard but are more protected from the unending demands for patient care. They have more time for orderly study and greater opportunities to develop skills other than technical ones. They are in a happier work setting, which the author strongly believes facilitates improved patient care.

  20. Instruction in teaching and teaching opportunities for residents in US dermatology programs: Results of a national survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgin, Susan; Homayounfar, Gelareh; Newman, Lori R; Sullivan, Amy

    2017-04-01

    Dermatology residents routinely teach junior co-residents and medical students. Despite the importance of teaching skills for a successful academic career, no formal teaching instruction programs for dermatology residents have been described to our knowledge, and the extent of teaching opportunities for dermatology residents is unknown. We sought to describe the range of teaching opportunities and instruction available to dermatology residents and to assess the need for additional teaching training from the perspective of dermatology residency program directors nationwide. A questionnaire was administered to 113 US dermatology residency program directors or their designees. Descriptive statistics were used to analyze questionnaire item responses. The response rate was 55% (62/113). All program directors reported that their residents teach; 59% (33/56) reported offering trainees teaching instruction; 11% (7/62) of programs offered a short-term series of formal sessions on teaching; and 7% (4/62) offered ongoing, longitudinal training. Most program directors (74%, 40/54) believed that their residents would benefit from more teaching instruction. Response rate and responder bias are potential limitations. Dermatology residents teach in a broad range of settings, over half receive some teaching instruction, and most dermatology residency program directors perceive a need for additional training for residents as teachers. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.