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Sample records for reset general percep-x

  1. First and higher order, heuristically based generalized perturbation theory (HGPT) with optional control reset variable

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gandini, A.

    1996-01-01

    The heuristically based generalized perturbation theory (HGPT), to first and higher order, applied to the neutron field of a reactor system, is discussed in relation to the criticality reset procedure. This procedure is implicit within the GPT methodology, corresponding to the so called filtering of the importance function relevant to the neutron field from the fundamental mode contamination. It is common practice to use the so called ''lambda''-mode filter. In order to account for any possible reset option, a general definition is introduced of an intensive control variable (ρ) entering into the governing equations, and correspondingly a fundamental ρ-mode filtering of the importance function is defined, relevant to the real criticality reset (control) mechanism adopted. A simple example illustrates the need to take into account the correct filtering, so as to avoid significant inaccuracies in the sensitivity calculation results. The extension of this filtering technique to other functions entering into the GPT perturbative formulations at first and higher order is also discussed. (author)

  2. Reset Control Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Baños, Alfonso

    2012-01-01

    Reset Control Systems addresses the analysis for reset control treating both its basic form which requires only that the state of the controller be reinitialized to zero (the reset action) each time the tracking error crosses zero (the reset condition), and some useful variations of the reset action (partial reset with fixed or variable reset percentage) and of the reset condition (fixed or variable reset band and anticipative reset). The issues regarding reset control – concepts and motivation; analysis tools; and the application of design methodologies to real-world examples – are given comprehensive coverage. The text opens with an historical perspective which moves from the seminal work of the Clegg integrator and Horowitz FORE to more recent approaches based on impulsive/hybrid control systems and explains the motivation for reset compensation. Preliminary material dealing with notation, basic definitions and results, and with the definition of the control problem under study is also included. The fo...

  3. Converting the reset

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.K. Hoogland (Jiri); C.D.D. Neumann; D. Bloch

    2001-01-01

    textabstractWe give a simple algorithm to incorporate the effects of resets in convertible bond prices, without having to add an extra factor to take into account the value of the reset. Furthermore we show that the effect of a notice period, and additional make-whole features, can be treated in a

  4. The semaphore codes attached to a Turing machine via resets and their various limits

    OpenAIRE

    Rhodes, John; Schilling, Anne; Silva, Pedro V.

    2016-01-01

    We introduce semaphore codes associated to a Turing machine via resets. Semaphore codes provide an approximation theory for resets. In this paper we generalize the set-up of our previous paper "Random walks on semaphore codes and delay de Bruijn semigroups" to the infinite case by taking the profinite limit of $k$-resets to obtain $(-\\omega)$-resets. We mention how this opens new avenues to attack the P versus NP problem.

  5. Wave Pipelining Using Self Reset Logic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel E. Litvin

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This study presents a novel design approach combining wave pipelining and self reset logic, which provides an elegant solution at high-speed data throughput with significant savings in power and area as compared with other dynamic CMOS logic implementations. To overcome some limitations in SRL art, we employ a new SRL family, namely, dual-rail self reset logic with input disable (DRSRL-ID. These gates depict fairly constant timing parameters, specially the width of the output pulse, for varying fan-out and logic depth, helping accommodate process, supply voltage, and temperature variations (PVT. These properties simplify the implementation of wave pipelined circuits. General timing analysis is provided and compared with previous implementations. Results of circuit implementation are presented together with conclusions and future work.

  6. Self-Service Password Reset

    CERN Multimedia

    IT department

    2011-01-01

    Forgotten your password? Throughout the year, one of the most common requests to the Service Desk concerns password resets.  This is especially the case now that we are at the end of the holiday season and many of us return after a long break. Currently, the only way to have your password reset is to call the Service Desk during the week and within the service hours (07:30 to 18:30). Not anymore!   The IT department is putting up a new service that will allow you to reset the password of your primary CERN account by yourself. Note, that you will still be able to request a password reset by calling the Service Desk as usual and that you will still have to do this if your account has been blocked for any reason.  However, the new service provides you with more flexibility and convenience when your memory has failed you. In order to take advantage of this new service, you must:   • Have a valid, active account   • Register in advance an external...

  7. Reduction rules for reset/inhibitor nets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verbeek, H.M.W.; Wynn, M.T.; Aalst, van der W.M.P.; Hofstede, ter A.H.M.

    2010-01-01

    Reset/inhibitor nets are Petri nets extended with reset arcs and inhibitor arcs. These extensions can be used to model cancellation and blocking. A reset arc allows a transition to remove all tokens from a certain place when the transition fires. An inhibitor arc can stop a transition from being

  8. Acoustic Coordinated Reset Neuromodulation in a Real Life Patient Population with Chronic Tonal Tinnitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauptmann, Christian; Ströbel, Armin; Williams, Mark; Patel, Nitesh; Wurzer, Hannes; von Stackelberg, Tatjana; Brinkmann, Uwe; Langguth, Berthold; Tass, Peter A.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. Primary tinnitus has a severe negative influence on the quality of life of a significant portion of the general population. Acoustic coordinated reset neuromodulation is designed to induce a long-lasting reduction of tinnitus symptoms. To test acoustic coordinated reset neuromodulation as a treatment for chronic, tonal tinnitus under real life conditions, an outpatient study “RESET Real Life” was commissioned by ANM GmbH. Herein we present the results of this study. Methods. In a prospective, open-label, nonrandomized, noncontrolled multicenter clinical study with 200 chronic tinnitus patients, tinnitus questionnaire TBF-12 and Global Clinical Improvement-Impression Scale (CGI-I7) are used to study the safety and efficacy of acoustic coordinated reset neuromodulation. 189 patients completed the last 12-month visit, 11 patients dropped out (8 because of nontreatment related reasons; 2 because tinnitus did not change; and 1 because tinnitus got louder). Results. Acoustic coordinated reset neuromodulation caused a statistically and clinically significant decrease in TBF-12 scores as well as in CGI-I7 after 12 months of therapy under real life conditions. There were no persistent adverse events reported that were related to the therapy. Conclusion. The field study “RESET Real Life” provides evidence for safety and efficacy of acoustic coordinated reset neuromodulation in a prospective, open-label, real life setting. PMID:26568958

  9. Desynchronizing electrical and sensory coordinated reset neuromodulation

    OpenAIRE

    Popovych, Oleksandr V.; Tass, Peter A.

    2012-01-01

    Coordinated reset (CR) stimulation is a desynchronizing stimulation technique based on timely coordinated phase resets of sub-populations of a synchronized neuronal ensemble. It has initially been computationally developed for electrical deep brain stimulation (DBS), to enable an effective desynchronization and unlearning of pathological synchrony and connectivity (anti-kindling). Here we computationally show for ensembles of spiking and bursting model neurons interacting via excitatory and i...

  10. Desynchronizing Electrical and Sensory Coordinated Reset Neuromodulation

    OpenAIRE

    Oleksandr V. Popovych; Peter A. Tass; Peter A. Tass

    2012-01-01

    Coordinated reset (CR) stimulation is a desynchronizing stimulation technique based on timely coordinated phase resets of sub-populations of a synchronized neuronal ensemble. It has initially been computationally developed for electrical deep brain stimulation (DBS),to enable an effective desynchronization and unlearning of pathological synchrony and connectivity (anti-kindling). Here we computationally show for ensembles of spiking and bursting model neurons interacting via excitatory and in...

  11. 39 CFR 501.15 - Computerized Meter Resetting System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Computerized Meter Resetting System. 501.15... AND DISTRIBUTE POSTAGE EVIDENCING SYSTEMS § 501.15 Computerized Meter Resetting System. (a) Description. The Computerized Meter Resetting System (CMRS) permits customers to reset their postage meters at...

  12. FPS camera sync and reset chassis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yates, G.J.

    1980-06-01

    The sync and reset chassis provides all the circuitry required to synchronize an event to be studied, a remote free-running focus projection and scanning (FPS) data-acquisition TV camera, and a video signal recording system. The functions, design, and operation of this chassis are described in detail

  13. Recensie "The Great Reset" : Richard Florida

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roy van Dalm

    2010-01-01

    Like the Great Depression and the Long Depression before it, experts have viewed prolonged economic downturns as crises. In The Great Reset , bestselling author Richard Florida argues that we should instead see the recent recession as an opportunity to create entirely new ways of working and living

  14. Reset Tree-Based Optical Fault Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Howon Kim

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present a new reset tree-based scheme to protect cryptographic hardware against optical fault injection attacks. As one of the most powerful invasive attacks on cryptographic hardware, optical fault attacks cause semiconductors to misbehave by injecting high-energy light into a decapped integrated circuit. The contaminated result from the affected chip is then used to reveal secret information, such as a key, from the cryptographic hardware. Since the advent of such attacks, various countermeasures have been proposed. Although most of these countermeasures are strong, there is still the possibility of attack. In this paper, we present a novel optical fault detection scheme that utilizes the buffers on a circuit’s reset signal tree as a fault detection sensor. To evaluate our proposal, we model radiation-induced currents into circuit components and perform a SPICE simulation. The proposed scheme is expected to be used as a supplemental security tool.

  15. Resetting dynamic behaviour of pipework systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaudin, M.

    1997-01-01

    Resetting models is applied to electricity generating plant pipework systems. A frequency approach to the problem is made in an original way thanks to the use of precise dynamic rigidity matrices. The method assumes two kinds of unknown: the usually processed mechanical characteristics (Young's Modulus, density etc.) and new resetting parameters acting on the dynamic behaviour of unknown connections. As the latter have a very wide range of possible variation, they benefit from a change of variable which allows the assumptions formulated to be complied with. The minimized cost function is based on a error in load. The frequencies required for building it are automatically selected thanks to different tests on measurements. Minimization uses a sensitivity technique linked with a method of least standard squares. The method has been programmed in Fortran 90 within the CIRCUS code and tried out on various examples which were simulated and sound effects cases as well as an actual case. (author)

  16. Desynchronizing electrical and sensory coordinated reset neuromodulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popovych, Oleksandr V; Tass, Peter A

    2012-01-01

    Coordinated reset (CR) stimulation is a desynchronizing stimulation technique based on timely coordinated phase resets of sub-populations of a synchronized neuronal ensemble. It has initially been computationally developed for electrical deep brain stimulation (DBS), to enable an effective desynchronization and unlearning of pathological synchrony and connectivity (anti-kindling). Here we computationally show for ensembles of spiking and bursting model neurons interacting via excitatory and inhibitory adaptive synapses that a phase reset of neuronal populations as well as a desynchronization and an anti-kindling can robustly be achieved by direct electrical stimulation or indirect (synaptically-mediated) excitatory and inhibitory stimulation. Our findings are relevant for DBS as well as for sensory stimulation in neurological disorders characterized by pathological neuronal synchrony. Based on the obtained results, we may expect that the local effects in the vicinity of a depth electrode (realized by direct stimulation of the neurons' somata or stimulation of axon terminals) and the non-local CR effects (realized by stimulation of excitatory or inhibitory efferent fibers) of deep brain CR neuromodulation may be similar or even identical. Furthermore, our results indicate that an effective desynchronization and anti-kindling can even be achieved by non-invasive, sensory CR neuromodulation. We discuss the concept of sensory CR neuromodulation in the context of neurological disorders.

  17. Desynchronizing Electrical and Sensory Coordinated Reset Neuromodulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleksandr V. Popovych

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Coordinated reset (CR stimulation is a desynchronizing stimulation technique based on timely coordinated phase resets of sub-populations of a synchronized neuronal ensemble. It has initially been computationally developed for electrical deep brain stimulation (DBS,to enable an effective desynchronization and unlearning of pathological synchrony and connectivity (anti-kindling. Here we computationally show for ensembles of spiking and bursting model neurons interacting via excitatory and inhibitory adaptive synapses that a phase reset of neuronal populations as well as a desynchronization and an anti-kindling can robustly be achieved by direct electrical stimulation or indirect (synaptically-mediated excitatory and inhibitory stimulation.Our findings are relevant for DBS as well as for sensory stimulation in neurological disorders characterized by pathological neuronalsynchrony. Based on the obtained results, we may expect that the local effects in the vicinity of a depth electrode (realized by direct stimulation of the neurons' somata or stimulation of axon terminals and the non-local CR effects (realized by stimulation of excitatory or inhibitory efferent fibers of deep brain CR neuromodulation may be similar or even identical. Furthermore, ourresults indicate that an effective desynchronization and anti-kindlingcan even be achieved by non-invasive, sensory CR neuromodulation. We discuss the concept of sensory CR neuromodulation in the context of neurological disorders.

  18. Change in the CERN account password reset procedure

    CERN Multimedia

    IT Department

    2008-01-01

    From Since 19 August 19th 2008, the security of the CERN account password reset procedure has been strengthened. As a result, users requesting to have their password reset by the Computing Helpdesk will be asked to provide some private personal information prior to resetting their CERN account password. Please note that all relevant information about the CERN account and password can be found at http://cern.ch/it-dep/AccountsandpasswordsatCERN.htm Thank you in advance for your cooperation. IT Department

  19. Change in the CERN account password reset procedure

    CERN Multimedia

    IT Department

    2008-01-01

    Since 19 August 2008, the security of the CERN account password reset procedure has been strengthened. As a result, users asking to have their password reset by the Computing Helpdesk will be asked to provide some personal information prior to resetting their CERN account password. Please note that all relevant information about CERN accounts and passwords can be found at http://cern.ch/it-dep/AccountsandpasswordsatCERN.htm Thank you in advance for your cooperation. IT Department

  20. Quantum memory Write, read and reset

    CERN Document Server

    Wu Tai Tsun; Wu, Tai Tsun; Yu, Ming Lun

    2002-01-01

    A model is presented for the quantum memory, the content of which is a pure quantum state. In this model, the fundamental operations of writing on, reading, and resetting the memory are performed through scattering from the memory. The requirement that the quantum memory must remain in a pure state after scattering implies that the scattering is of a special type, and only certain incident waves are admissible. An example, based on the Fermi pseudo-potential in one dimension, is used to demonstrate that the requirements on the scattering process are consistent and can be satisfied. This model is compared with the commonly used model for the quantum memory; the most important difference is that the spatial dimensions and interference play a central role in the present model.

  1. Defense Logistics: Army and Marine Corps Cannot Be Assured That Equipment Reset Strategies Will Sustain Equipment Availability While Meeting Ongoing Operational Requirements

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Solis, William M; Schmitt, David A; Brown, Renee; Cristinzio, Frank; Hartig, Luke; Helt, Brent; Rogers, Donna M; Song, Yong; Storts, Maria

    2007-01-01

    .... Because of the potential for equipment reset costs to affect the Department of Defense's (DoD) future budget requirements and related readiness concerns, GAO initiated this review under the Comptroller General's authority...

  2. A study of reset mode in advanced alarm system simulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yenn, T. C.; Hwang, S. L.; Huang, F. H.; Yu, A. C.; Hsu, C. C.; Huang, H. W.

    2006-01-01

    An automation function has been widely applied in main control room of nuclear power plants. That leads to a new issue of human-automation interaction, which considers human operational performance in automated systems. In this research is the automation alarm reset in the advanced alarm system (AAS) of Advanced Nuclear Power Plant in Taiwan. Since alarms are very crucial for the understanding of the status of the plant as well as the reset function of alarm system will be changed from fully manual to fully automatic, it is very important to test and evaluate the performance and the effect of reset modes in AAS. The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the impact of the auto-reset alarm system on the plant performance and on operators' preference and task load. To develop a dynamic simulator as an AAS was conducted to compare manual and automatic reset function of alarm system on task performance and subjective ratings of task workload, comprehension, and preference. The simulation includes PCTRAN model and alarm software processing. The final results revealed that, using the auto-reset mode, participants had lower task load index (TLX) on effort in the first test trial and was more satisfied in multiple tasks condition. In contrast, using manual reset mode, participants were more satisfied on alarm handling, monitoring, and decision making. In other words, either reset mode in the study has unique features to assist operator, but is insufficient. The reset function in AAS therefore should be very flexible. Additionally, the experimental results also pointed out that the user interfaces need to be improved. Those experiences will be helpful for human factors verification and validation in the near future. (authors)

  3. Well-Posedness of Reset Control Systems as State-Dependent Impulsive Dynamical Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfonso Baños

    2012-01-01

    existence and uniqueness of solutions, and in particular to the resetting times to be well defined and distinct. A sufficient condition is developed for a reset system to have well-posed resetting times, which is also a sufficient condition for avoiding Zeno solutions and, thus, for a reset control system to be well-posed.

  4. Continuous-time random walks with reset events. Historical background and new perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montero, Miquel; Masó-Puigdellosas, Axel; Villarroel, Javier

    2017-09-01

    In this paper, we consider a stochastic process that may experience random reset events which relocate the system to its starting position. We focus our attention on a one-dimensional, monotonic continuous-time random walk with a constant drift: the process moves in a fixed direction between the reset events, either by the effect of the random jumps, or by the action of a deterministic bias. However, the orientation of its motion is randomly determined after each restart. As a result of these alternating dynamics, interesting properties do emerge. General formulas for the propagator as well as for two extreme statistics, the survival probability and the mean first-passage time, are also derived. The rigor of these analytical results is verified by numerical estimations, for particular but illuminating examples.

  5. Transistor reset preamplifier for high-rate high-resolution spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landis, D.A.; Cork, C.P.; Madden, N.W.; Goulding, F.S.

    1981-10-01

    Pulsed transistor reset of high resolution charge sensitive preamplifiers used in cooled semiconductor spectrometers can sometimes have an advantage over pulsed light reset systems. Several versions of transistor reset spectrometers using both silicon and germanium detectors have been built. This paper discusses the advantages of the transistor reset system and illustrates several configurations of the packages used for the FET and reset transistor. It also describes the preamplifer circuit and shows the performance of the spectrometer at high rates

  6. Phase resetting reveals network dynamics underlying a bacterial cell cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yihan; Li, Ying; Crosson, Sean; Dinner, Aaron R; Scherer, Norbert F

    2012-01-01

    Genomic and proteomic methods yield networks of biological regulatory interactions but do not provide direct insight into how those interactions are organized into functional modules, or how information flows from one module to another. In this work we introduce an approach that provides this complementary information and apply it to the bacterium Caulobacter crescentus, a paradigm for cell-cycle control. Operationally, we use an inducible promoter to express the essential transcriptional regulatory gene ctrA in a periodic, pulsed fashion. This chemical perturbation causes the population of cells to divide synchronously, and we use the resulting advance or delay of the division times of single cells to construct a phase resetting curve. We find that delay is strongly favored over advance. This finding is surprising since it does not follow from the temporal expression profile of CtrA and, in turn, simulations of existing network models. We propose a phenomenological model that suggests that the cell-cycle network comprises two distinct functional modules that oscillate autonomously and couple in a highly asymmetric fashion. These features collectively provide a new mechanism for tight temporal control of the cell cycle in C. crescentus. We discuss how the procedure can serve as the basis for a general approach for probing network dynamics, which we term chemical perturbation spectroscopy (CPS).

  7. Set–Reset latch logical operation induced by colored noise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Nan; Song, Aiguo

    2014-01-01

    We examine the possibility of obtaining Set–Reset latch logical operation in a symmetric bistable system subjected to OU noise. Three major results are presented. First, we prove the Set–Reset latch logical operation can be obtained driven by OU noise. Second, while increasing the correlation time, the optimal noise band shifts to higher level and becomes wider. Meanwhile, peak performance degrades from 100% accuracy, but the system can still perform reliable logical operation. Third, at fixed noise intensity, the success probability evolves non-monotonically as correlation time increases. The study might provide development of the new paradigm of memory device.

  8. Impact of the duct static pressure reset control strategy on the energy consumption by the HVAC system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walaszczyk Juliusz

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This article addresses different duct static pressure control strategies which could be implemented in variable air volume air-conditioning systems (VAV. Two pressure reset control strategies are compared to the commonly used control solution based on the “Constant static pressure” method. First pressure reset control strategy, known as PID Control, uses signals from VAV boxes controllers to reset duct static pressure in a way that one of the VAV dampers is maintained almost entirely open. Second strategy decreases static pressure setpoint until an adjustable number of pressure requests occur. As a response to the certain amount of requests, static pressure setpoint is increased. This strategy is called Trim & Respond. Both static pressure reset control strategies described in this paper are considered to have more significant potential for energy savings than the “Constant static pressure” method. In order to validate this potential, several simulations for different control strategies were carried out and the obtained results are compared and analysed. The theoretical limit of the energy savings - set of the optimal control actions, was estimated with Nelder-Mead algorithm and also presented in this article. General description of the static pressure control strategies "Constant static pressure", PID Control and Trim & Respond is given.

  9. Defense Logistics. Preliminary Observations on the Army's Implementation of Its Equipment Reset Strategies

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Solis, William M

    2007-01-01

    .... In order to provide effective oversight of the Army's implementation of its equipment reset strategies and to plan for future reset initiatives, the Congress needs to be assured that the funds...

  10. Re-Setting Music Education's "Default Settings"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regelski, Thomas A.

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores the effects and problems of one highly influential default setting of the "normal style template" of music education and proposes some alternatives. These do not require abandoning all traditional templates for school music. But re-setting the default settings does depend on reconsidering the promised function of…

  11. Circadian phase resetting via single and multiple control targets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neda Bagheri

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Circadian entrainment is necessary for rhythmic physiological functions to be appropriately timed over the 24-hour day. Disruption of circadian rhythms has been associated with sleep and neuro-behavioral impairments as well as cancer. To date, light is widely accepted to be the most powerful circadian synchronizer, motivating its use as a key control input for phase resetting. Through sensitivity analysis, we identify additional control targets whose individual and simultaneous manipulation (via a model predictive control algorithm out-perform the open-loop light-based phase recovery dynamics by nearly 3-fold. We further demonstrate the robustness of phase resetting by synchronizing short- and long-period mutant phenotypes to the 24-hour environment; the control algorithm is robust in the presence of model mismatch. These studies prove the efficacy and immediate application of model predictive control in experimental studies and medicine. In particular, maintaining proper circadian regulation may significantly decrease the chance of acquiring chronic illness.

  12. Core reset system design for linear induction accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durga Praveen Kumar, D.; Mitra, S.; Sharma, Archana; Nagesh, K.V.; Chakravarthy, D.P.

    2006-01-01

    A repetitive pulsed power system based Linear Induction Accelerator (LIA-200) is being developed at BARC to get an electron beam of 200keV, 5kA, 50ns, 10-100 Hz. Amorphous core is the heart of these accelerators. It serves various functions in different subsystems viz. pulse power modulator, pulse transformer, magnetic switches and induction cavities. One of the factors that make the magnetic components compact is utilization of the total flux swing available in the core. In the present system, magnetic switches, pulse transformers, and induction cavity are designed to avail the full flux swing available in the core. For achieving this objective, flux density in the core has to be kept at the reverse saturation, before the main pulse is applied. The electrical circuit which makes it possible is called the core reset system. In this paper the details of core reset system designed for LIA-200 are described. (author)

  13. Shape memory alloy resetable spring lift for pedestrian protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Brian M.; Brei, Diann E.; Luntz, Jonathan E.; Strom, Kenneth; Browne, Alan L.; Johnson, Nancy

    2008-03-01

    Pedestrian protection has become an increasingly important aspect of automotive safety with new regulations taking effect around the world. Because it is increasingly difficult to meet these new regulations with traditional passive approaches, active lifts are being explored that increase the "crush zone" between the hood and rigid under-hood components as a means of mitigating the consequences of an impact with a non-occupant. Active lifts, however, are technically challenging because of the simultaneously high forces, stroke and quick timing resulting in most of the current devices being single use. This paper introduces the SMArt (Shape Memory Alloy ReseTable) Spring Lift, an automatically resetable and fully reusable device, which couples conventional standard compression springs to store the energy required for a hood lift, with Shape Memory Alloys actuators to achieve both an ultra high speed release of the spring and automatic reset of the system for multiple uses. Each of the four SMArt Device subsystems, lift, release, lower and reset/dissipate, are individually described. Two identical complete prototypes were fabricated and mounted at the rear corners of the hood, incorporated within a full-scale vehicle testbed at the SMARTT (Smart Material Advanced Research and Technology Transfer) lab at University of Michigan. Full operational cycle testing of a stationary vehicle in a laboratory setting confirms the ultrafast latch release, controlled lift profile, gravity lower to reposition the hood, and spring recompression via the ratchet engine successfully rearming the device for repeat cycles. While this is only a laboratory demonstration and extensive testing and development would be required for transition to a fielded product, this study does indicate that the SMArt Lift has promise as an alternative approach to pedestrian protection.

  14. Effects of the Factory Reset on Mobile Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riqui Schwamm

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Mobile devices usually provide a “factory-reset” tool to erase user-specific data from the main secondary storage. 9 Apple iPhones, 10 Android devices, and 2 BlackBerry devices were tested in the first systematic evaluation of the effectiveness of factory resets. Tests used the Cellebrite UME-36 Pro with the UFED Physical Analyzer, the Bulk Extractor open-source tool, and our own programs for extracting metadata, classifying file paths, and comparing them between images. Two phones were subjected to more detailed analysis. Results showed that many kinds of data were removed by the resets, but much user-specific configuration data was left. Android devices did poorly at removing user documents and media, and occasional surprising user data was left on all devices including photo images, audio, documents, phone numbers, email addresses, geolocation data, configuration data, and keys. A conclusion is that reset devices can still provide some useful information to a forensic investigation.

  15. GHK and DNA: Resetting the Human Genome to Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loren Pickart

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available During human aging there is an increase in the activity of inflammatory, cancer promoting, and tissue destructive genes plus a decrease in the activity of regenerative and reparative genes. The human blood tripeptide GHK possesses many positive effects but declines with age. It improves wound healing and tissue regeneration (skin, hair follicles, stomach and intestinal linings, and boney tissue, increases collagen and glycosaminoglycans, stimulates synthesis of decorin, increases angiogenesis, and nerve outgrowth, possesses antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects, and increases cellular stemness and the secretion of trophic factors by mesenchymal stem cells. Recently, GHK has been found to reset genes of diseased cells from patients with cancer or COPD to a more healthy state. Cancer cells reset their programmed cell death system while COPD patients’ cells shut down tissue destructive genes and stimulate repair and remodeling activities. In this paper, we discuss GHK’s effect on genes that suppress fibrinogen synthesis, the insulin/insulin-like system, and cancer growth plus activation of genes that increase the ubiquitin-proteasome system, DNA repair, antioxidant systems, and healing by the TGF beta superfamily. A variety of methods and dosages to effectively use GHK to reset genes to a healthier state are also discussed.

  16. Resetting in time of recordings in ultra-fast cinematography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leduc, Michel

    In ultra-fast cinematography and photography the treatment and interpretation of the data contained in the recordings demand extremely precise readjustments in time. In the case of whole-image recordings by electro-optical cameras or flash sources the problem is resolved by the use of a chronometric unit taking into account the different events. For naving slit or spectrographic recordings the problem must be detail with differently and marking devices will be used to print resetting pulses on the recording themselves. Different marking devices are described [fr

  17. Effects of pay resets following drug use on attendance and hours worked in a therapeutic workplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holtyn, August F; Silverman, Kenneth

    2016-06-01

    This secondary data analysis examined effects of an abstinence contingency on participation in a therapeutic workplace. Participants exposed to a pay reset after drug use did not differ in overall attendance from participants who were not exposed to a pay reset after drug use; however, they initially worked less after a pay reset than participants who did not receive a pay reset, and their attendance increased as their pay increased. Overall participation was not influenced by the abstinence contingency, but transient decreases in attendance occurred. © 2016 Society for the Experimental Analysis of Behavior.

  18. Path-integral formalism for stochastic resetting: Exactly solved examples and shortcuts to confinement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roldán, Édgar; Gupta, Shamik

    2017-08-01

    We study the dynamics of overdamped Brownian particles diffusing in conservative force fields and undergoing stochastic resetting to a given location at a generic space-dependent rate of resetting. We present a systematic approach involving path integrals and elements of renewal theory that allows us to derive analytical expressions for a variety of statistics of the dynamics such as (i) the propagator prior to first reset, (ii) the distribution of the first-reset time, and (iii) the spatial distribution of the particle at long times. We apply our approach to several representative and hitherto unexplored examples of resetting dynamics. A particularly interesting example for which we find analytical expressions for the statistics of resetting is that of a Brownian particle trapped in a harmonic potential with a rate of resetting that depends on the instantaneous energy of the particle. We find that using energy-dependent resetting processes is more effective in achieving spatial confinement of Brownian particles on a faster time scale than performing quenches of parameters of the harmonic potential.

  19. Pressing reset on Moscow is worth a little Nato anxiety / Jonathan Steele

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Steele, Jonathan

    2009-01-01

    USA president Barack Obama on avaldanud soovi vajutada USA-Vene suhetes reset-nuppu. Eesti president Toomas Hendrik Ilves ütles NATO tippkohtumise eelõhtul kuivalt, et arvutil reset-nuppu vajutades ei kustu mällu salvestatud failid siiski ära. President T. H. Ilvese teravast sõnavõtust president Lennart Meri konverentsi avamisel Tallinnas

  20. Minimum airflow reset of single-duct VAV terminal boxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Young-Hum

    Single duct Variable Air Volume (VAV) systems are currently the most widely used type of HVAC system in the United States. When installing such a system, it is critical to determine the minimum airflow set point of the terminal box, as an optimally selected set point will improve the level of thermal comfort and indoor air quality (IAQ) while at the same time lower overall energy costs. In principle, this minimum rate should be calculated according to the minimum ventilation requirement based on ASHRAE standard 62.1 and maximum heating load of the zone. Several factors must be carefully considered when calculating this minimum rate. Terminal boxes with conventional control sequences may result in occupant discomfort and energy waste. If the minimum rate of airflow is set too high, the AHUs will consume excess fan power, and the terminal boxes may cause significant simultaneous room heating and cooling. At the same time, a rate that is too low will result in poor air circulation and indoor air quality in the air-conditioned space. Currently, many scholars are investigating how to change the algorithm of the advanced VAV terminal box controller without retrofitting. Some of these controllers have been found to effectively improve thermal comfort, indoor air quality, and energy efficiency. However, minimum airflow set points have not yet been identified, nor has controller performance been verified in confirmed studies. In this study, control algorithms were developed that automatically identify and reset terminal box minimum airflow set points, thereby improving indoor air quality and thermal comfort levels, and reducing the overall rate of energy consumption. A theoretical analysis of the optimal minimum airflow and discharge air temperature was performed to identify the potential energy benefits of resetting the terminal box minimum airflow set points. Applicable control algorithms for calculating the ideal values for the minimum airflow reset were developed and

  1. Effects of Linear Falling Ramp Reset Pulse on Addressing Operation in AC PDP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Zujun; Liang Zhihu; Liu Chunliang; Meng Lingguo

    2006-01-01

    The effects of linear falling ramp reset pulse related to addressing operation in an alternating current plasma display panel (AC PDP) were studied. The wall charge waveforms were measured by the electrode balance method in a 12-inch coplanar AC PDP. The wall charge waveforms show the relationship between the slope ratio of the falling ramp reset pulse and the wall charges at the end of the falling ramp reset pulse which influences the addressing stability. Then the effects of the slope ratio of the linear falling ramp reset pulse on the addressing voltage and addressing time were investigated. The experimental results show that the minimum addressing voltage increases with the increase of the slope ratio of the falling ramp reset pulse, and so does the minimum addressing time. Based on the experimental results, the optimization of the addressing time and the slope ratio of the falling ramp pulse is discussed

  2. A self-resetting spiking phase-change neuron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobley, R. A.; Hayat, H.; Wright, C. D.

    2018-05-01

    Neuromorphic, or brain-inspired, computing applications of phase-change devices have to date concentrated primarily on the implementation of phase-change synapses. However, the so-called accumulation mode of operation inherent in phase-change materials and devices can also be used to mimic the integrative properties of a biological neuron. Here we demonstrate, using physical modelling of nanoscale devices and SPICE modelling of associated circuits, that a single phase-change memory cell integrated into a comparator type circuit can deliver a basic hardware mimic of an integrate-and-fire spiking neuron with self-resetting capabilities. Such phase-change neurons, in combination with phase-change synapses, can potentially open a new route for the realisation of all-phase-change neuromorphic computing.

  3. Simulation of static pressure reset control in comfort ventilation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koulani, Chrysanthi Sofia; Prunescu, Remus Mihail; Hviid, Christian Anker

    2014-01-01

    Variable air volume (VAV) ventilation systems reduce fan power consumption compared to constant air volume (CAV) systems because they supply air according to the airflow demand. However VAV ventilation systems do not take fully into account the potential energy savings as the control strategy...... management system. In this way the operation of central plant equipment is adjusted in real time according to the actual pressure demand; this control scheme can be implemented by the static pressure reset (SPR) method. The SPR control method ensures that at least one damper remains fully opened; thus...... of the art is represented by the method of trim and respond based on pressure alarms. This study investigates the operation of the SPR control method of trim and respond based on pressure alarms in a CO2 demand application where large air volumes are provided to three classrooms. The investigation was based...

  4. Type Directed Partial Evaluation for Level-1 Shift and Reset

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danko Ilik

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available We present an implementation in the Coq proof assistant of type directed partial evaluation (TDPE algorithms for call-by-name and call-by-value versions of shift and reset delimited control operators, and in presence of strong sum types. We prove that the algorithm transforms well-typed programs to ones in normal form. These normal forms can not always be arrived at using the so far known equational theories. The typing system does not allow answer-type modification for function types and allows delimiters to be set on at most one atomic type. The semantic domain for evaluation is expressed in Constructive Type Theory as a dependently typed monadic structure combining Kripke models and continuation passing style translations.

  5. A self-resetting spiking phase-change neuron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobley, R A; Hayat, H; Wright, C D

    2018-05-11

    Neuromorphic, or brain-inspired, computing applications of phase-change devices have to date concentrated primarily on the implementation of phase-change synapses. However, the so-called accumulation mode of operation inherent in phase-change materials and devices can also be used to mimic the integrative properties of a biological neuron. Here we demonstrate, using physical modelling of nanoscale devices and SPICE modelling of associated circuits, that a single phase-change memory cell integrated into a comparator type circuit can deliver a basic hardware mimic of an integrate-and-fire spiking neuron with self-resetting capabilities. Such phase-change neurons, in combination with phase-change synapses, can potentially open a new route for the realisation of all-phase-change neuromorphic computing.

  6. Learning of temporal motor patterns: An analysis of continuous vs. reset timing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo eLaje

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Our ability to generate well-timed sequences of movements is critical to an array of behaviors, including the ability to play a musical instrument or a video game. Here we address two questions relating to timing with the goal of better understanding the neural mechanisms underlying temporal processing. First, how does accuracy and variance change over the course of learning of complex spatiotemporal patterns? Second, is the timing of sequential responses most consistent with starting and stopping an internal timer at each interval or with continuous timing?To address these questions we used a psychophysical task in which subjects learned to reproduce a sequence of finger taps in the correct order and at the correct times—much like playing a melody at the piano. This task allowed us to calculate the variance of the responses at different time points using data from the same trials. Our results show that while standard Weber’s law is clearly violated, variance does increase as a function of time squared, as expected according to the generalized form of Weber’s law—which separates the source of variance into time-dependent and time-independent components. Over the course of learning, both the time-independent variance and the coefficient of the time-dependent term decrease. Our analyses also suggest that timing of sequential events does not rely on the resetting of an internal timer at each event.We describe and interpret our results in the context of computer simulations that capture some of our psychophysical findings. Specifically, we show that continuous timing, as opposed to reset timing, is expected from population clock models in which timing emerges from the internal dynamics of recurrent neural networks.

  7. Voice Biometrics as a Way to Self-service Password Reset

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohgräfe, Bernd; Jacobi, Sebastian

    Password resets are time consuming. Especially when urgent jobs need to be done, it is cumbersome to inform the user helpdesk, to identify oneself and then to wait for response. It is easy to enter a wrong password multiple times, which leads to the blocking of the application. Voice biometrics is an easy and secure way for individuals to reset their own password. Read more about how you can ease the burden of your user helpdesk and how voice biometric password resets benefit your expense situation without harming your security.

  8. A parabolic variational inequality arising from the valuation of strike reset options

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhou; Yi, Fahuai; Dai, Min

    A strike reset option is an option that allows its holder to reset the strike price to the prevailing underlying asset price at a moment chosen by the holder. The pricing model of the option can be formulated as a one-dimensional parabolic variational inequality, or equivalently, a free boundary problem, where the free boundary just corresponds to the optimal reset strategy adopted by the holder of the option. This paper is concerned with the theoretical analysis of the model. The existence and uniqueness of the solution are established. Furthermore, we study properties of the free boundary. The monotonicity and C smoothness of the free boundary are proven in some situations.

  9. Rituximab does not reset defective early B cell tolerance checkpoints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamberlain, Nicolas; Massad, Christopher; Oe, Tyler; Cantaert, Tineke; Herold, Kevan C.; Meffre, Eric

    2015-01-01

    Type 1 diabetes (T1D) patients show abnormalities in early B cell tolerance checkpoints, resulting in the accumulation of large numbers of autoreactive B cells in their blood. Treatment with rituximab, an anti-CD20 mAb that depletes B cells, has been shown to preserve β cell function in T1D patients and improve other autoimmune diseases, including rheumatoid arthritis and multiple sclerosis. However, it remains largely unknown how anti–B cell therapy thwarts autoimmunity in these pathologies. Here, we analyzed the reactivity of Abs expressed by single, mature naive B cells from 4 patients with T1D before and 52 weeks after treatment to determine whether rituximab resets early B cell tolerance checkpoints. We found that anti–B cell therapy did not alter the frequencies of autoreactive and polyreactive B cells, which remained elevated in the blood of all patients after rituximab treatment. Moreover, the limited proliferative history of autoreactive B cells after treatment revealed that these clones were newly generated B cells and not self-reactive B cells that had escaped depletion and repopulated the periphery through homeostatic expansion. We conclude that anti–B cell therapy may provide a temporary dampening of autoimmune processes through B cell depletion. However, repletion with autoreactive B cells may explain the relapse that occurs in many autoimmune patients after anti–B cell therapy. PMID:26642366

  10. Optimal number of stimulation contacts for coordinated reset neuromodulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lysyansky, Borys; Popovych, Oleksandr V.; Tass, Peter A.

    2013-01-01

    In this computational study we investigate coordinated reset (CR) neuromodulation designed for an effective control of synchronization by multi-site stimulation of neuronal target populations. This method was suggested to effectively counteract pathological neuronal synchrony characteristic for several neurological disorders. We study how many stimulation sites are required for optimal CR-induced desynchronization. We found that a moderate increase of the number of stimulation sites may significantly prolong the post-stimulation desynchronized transient after the stimulation is completely switched off. This can, in turn, reduce the amount of the administered stimulation current for the intermittent ON–OFF CR stimulation protocol, where time intervals with stimulation ON are recurrently followed by time intervals with stimulation OFF. In addition, we found that the optimal number of stimulation sites essentially depends on how strongly the administered current decays within the neuronal tissue with increasing distance from the stimulation site. In particular, for a broad spatial stimulation profile, i.e., for a weak spatial decay rate of the stimulation current, CR stimulation can optimally be delivered via a small number of stimulation sites. Our findings may contribute to an optimization of therapeutic applications of CR neuromodulation. PMID:23885239

  11. Optimal number of stimulation contacts for coordinated reset neuromodulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borys eLysyansky

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In this computational study we investigatecoordinated reset (CR neuromodulation designed for an effective controlof synchronization by multi-site stimulation of neuronal target populations. This method was suggested to effectively counteract pathological neuronal synchronycharacteristic for several neurological disorders. We studyhow many stimulation sites are required for optimal CR-induced desynchronization. We found that a moderate increase of the number of stimulation sitesmay significantly prolong the post-stimulation desynchronized transientafter the stimulation is completely switched off. This can, in turn,reduce the amount of the administered stimulation current for theintermittent ON-OFF CR stimulation protocol, where time intervalswith stimulation ON are recurrently followed by time intervals withstimulation OFF. In addition, we found that the optimal number ofstimulation sites essentially depends on how strongly the administeredcurrent decays within the neuronal tissue with increasing distancefrom the stimulation site. In particular, for a broad spatial stimulationprofile, i.e., for a weak spatial decay rate of the stimulation current,CR stimulation can optimally be delivered via a small number of stimulationsites. Our findings may contribute to an optimization of therapeutic applications of CR neuromodulation.

  12. Macroscopic phase-resetting curves for spiking neural networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumont, Grégory; Ermentrout, G. Bard; Gutkin, Boris

    2017-10-01

    The study of brain rhythms is an open-ended, and challenging, subject of interest in neuroscience. One of the best tools for the understanding of oscillations at the single neuron level is the phase-resetting curve (PRC). Synchronization in networks of neurons, effects of noise on the rhythms, effects of transient stimuli on the ongoing rhythmic activity, and many other features can be understood by the PRC. However, most macroscopic brain rhythms are generated by large populations of neurons, and so far it has been unclear how the PRC formulation can be extended to these more common rhythms. In this paper, we describe a framework to determine a macroscopic PRC (mPRC) for a network of spiking excitatory and inhibitory neurons that generate a macroscopic rhythm. We take advantage of a thermodynamic approach combined with a reduction method to simplify the network description to a small number of ordinary differential equations. From this simplified but exact reduction, we can compute the mPRC via the standard adjoint method. Our theoretical findings are illustrated with and supported by numerical simulations of the full spiking network. Notably our mPRC framework allows us to predict the difference between effects of transient inputs to the excitatory versus the inhibitory neurons in the network.

  13. LORETA EEG phase reset of the default mode network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thatcher, Robert W; North, Duane M; Biver, Carl J

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore phase reset of 3-dimensional current sources in Brodmann areas located in the human default mode network (DMN) using Low Resolution Electromagnetic Tomography (LORETA) of the human electroencephalogram (EEG). The EEG was recorded from 19 scalp locations from 70 healthy normal subjects ranging in age from 13 to 20 years. A time point by time point computation of LORETA current sources were computed for 14 Brodmann areas comprising the DMN in the delta frequency band. The Hilbert transform of the LORETA time series was used to compute the instantaneous phase differences between all pairs of Brodmann areas. Phase shift and lock durations were calculated based on the 1st and 2nd derivatives of the time series of phase differences. Phase shift duration exhibited three discrete modes at approximately: (1) 25 ms, (2) 50 ms, and (3) 65 ms. Phase lock duration present primarily at: (1) 300-350 ms and (2) 350-450 ms. Phase shift and lock durations were inversely related and exhibited an exponential change with distance between Brodmann areas. The results are explained by local neural packing density of network hubs and an exponential decrease in connections with distance from a hub. The results are consistent with a discrete temporal model of brain function where anatomical hubs behave like a "shutter" that opens and closes at specific durations as nodes of a network giving rise to temporarily phase locked clusters of neurons for specific durations.

  14. Macroscopic phase-resetting curves for spiking neural networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumont, Grégory; Ermentrout, G Bard; Gutkin, Boris

    2017-10-01

    The study of brain rhythms is an open-ended, and challenging, subject of interest in neuroscience. One of the best tools for the understanding of oscillations at the single neuron level is the phase-resetting curve (PRC). Synchronization in networks of neurons, effects of noise on the rhythms, effects of transient stimuli on the ongoing rhythmic activity, and many other features can be understood by the PRC. However, most macroscopic brain rhythms are generated by large populations of neurons, and so far it has been unclear how the PRC formulation can be extended to these more common rhythms. In this paper, we describe a framework to determine a macroscopic PRC (mPRC) for a network of spiking excitatory and inhibitory neurons that generate a macroscopic rhythm. We take advantage of a thermodynamic approach combined with a reduction method to simplify the network description to a small number of ordinary differential equations. From this simplified but exact reduction, we can compute the mPRC via the standard adjoint method. Our theoretical findings are illustrated with and supported by numerical simulations of the full spiking network. Notably our mPRC framework allows us to predict the difference between effects of transient inputs to the excitatory versus the inhibitory neurons in the network.

  15. Assessing the completeness of optical resetting of quartz OSL in the natural environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singarayer, J.S.; Bailey, R.M.; Ward, S.; Stokes, S.

    2005-01-01

    Resetting of previously accumulated optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) signals during transport of sediment is a fundamental requirement for reliable optical dating. The completeness of optical resetting of 46 modern-age quartz samples from a variety of depositional environments was examined. All equivalent dose (D e ) estimates were e from easy-to-bleach through to hard-to-bleach components. For all modern fluvial samples with non-zero D e values, SAR D e (t) analysis and component-resolved linearly modulated OSL (LM OSL) D e estimates showed this to be the case, implying incomplete resetting of previously accumulated charge. LM OSL measurements were also made to investigate the extent of bleaching of the slow components in the natural environment. In aeolian sediments examined, the natural LM OSL was effectively zero (i.e. all components were fully reset). The slow components of modern fluvial samples displayed measurable residual signals up to 15Gy

  16. Augmented brain function by coordinated reset stimulation with slowly varying sequences

    OpenAIRE

    Magteld eZeitler; Peter A. Tass; Peter A. Tass; Peter A. Tass

    2015-01-01

    Several brain disorders are characterized by abnormally strong neuronal synchrony. Coordinated Reset (CR) stimulation was developed to selectively counteract abnormal neuronal synchrony by desynchronization. For this, phase resetting stimuli are delivered to different subpopulations in a timely coordinated way. In neural networks with spike timing-dependent plasticity CR stimulation may eventually lead to an anti-kindling, i.e. an unlearning of abnormal synaptic connectivity and abnormal sync...

  17. Augmented brain function by coordinated reset stimulation with slowly varying sequences

    OpenAIRE

    Zeitler, Magteld; Tass, Peter A.

    2015-01-01

    Several brain disorders are characterized by abnormally strong neuronal synchrony. Coordinated Reset (CR) stimulation was developed to selectively counteract abnormal neuronal synchrony by desynchronization. For this, phase resetting stimuli are delivered to different subpopulations in a timely coordinated way. In neural networks with spike timing-dependent plasticity CR stimulation may eventually lead to an anti-kindling, i.e., an unlearning of abnormal synaptic connectivity and abnormal syn...

  18. EEG PHASE RESET OF THE DEFAULT MODE NETWORK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert W. Thatcher

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The purpose of this study was to explore phase reset of 3-dimensional current sources located in Brodmann areas located in the human default mode network (DMN using Low Resolution Electromagnetic Tomography (LORETA of the human electroencephalogram (EEG. Methods: The EEG was recorded from 19 scalp locations from 70 healthy normal subjects ranging in age from 13 to 20 years. A time point by time point computation of LORETA current sources were computed for 14 Brodman areas comprising the DMN in the delta frequency band. The Hilbert transform of the LORETA time series was used to compute the instantaneous phase differences between all pairs of Brodmann areas. Phase shift and lock durations were calculated based on the 1st & 2nd derivatives of the time series of phase differences. Results: Phase shift duration exhibited three discrete modes at approximately: 1- 30 msec,, 2- 55 msec and, 3- 65 msec. Phase lock duration present primarily at: 1- 300 to 350 msec and, 2- 350 msec to 450 msec. Phase shift and lock durations were inversely related and exhibited an exponential change with distance between Brodmann areas. Conclusions: The results are explained by local neural packing density of network hubs and an exponential decrease in connections with distance from a hub. The results are consistent with a discrete temporal model of brain function where anatomical hubs behave like a ‘shutter’ that opens and closes at specific durations as nodes of a network giving rise to temporarily phase locked clusters of neurons for specific durations.

  19. A thorough investigation of the progressive reset dynamics in HfO{sub 2}-based resistive switching structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lorenzi, P., E-mail: lorenzi@die.uniroma1.it; Rao, R.; Irrera, F. [Dipartimento di Ingegneria dell' Informazione, Elettronica e Telecomunicazioni, Università di Roma “Sapienza,” 00184 Rome (Italy); Suñé, J.; Miranda, E. [Departament d' Enginyeria Electrònica, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra (Spain)

    2015-09-14

    According to previous reports, filamentary electron transport in resistive switching HfO{sub 2}-based metal-insulator-metal structures can be modeled using a diode-like conduction mechanism with a series resistance. Taking the appropriate limits, the model allows simulating the high (HRS) and low (LRS) resistance states of the devices in terms of exponential and linear current-voltage relationships, respectively. In this letter, we show that this simple equivalent circuit approach can be extended to represent the progressive reset transition between the LRS and HRS if a generalized logistic growth model for the pre-exponential diode current factor is considered. In this regard, it is demonstrated here that a Verhulst logistic model does not provide accurate results. The reset dynamics is interpreted as the sequential deactivation of multiple conduction channels spanning the dielectric film. Fitting results for the current-voltage characteristics indicate that the voltage sweep rate only affects the deactivation rate of the filaments without altering the main features of the switching dynamics.

  20. A thorough investigation of the progressive reset dynamics in HfO2-based resistive switching structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lorenzi, P.; Rao, R.; Irrera, F.; Suñé, J.; Miranda, E.

    2015-01-01

    According to previous reports, filamentary electron transport in resistive switching HfO 2 -based metal-insulator-metal structures can be modeled using a diode-like conduction mechanism with a series resistance. Taking the appropriate limits, the model allows simulating the high (HRS) and low (LRS) resistance states of the devices in terms of exponential and linear current-voltage relationships, respectively. In this letter, we show that this simple equivalent circuit approach can be extended to represent the progressive reset transition between the LRS and HRS if a generalized logistic growth model for the pre-exponential diode current factor is considered. In this regard, it is demonstrated here that a Verhulst logistic model does not provide accurate results. The reset dynamics is interpreted as the sequential deactivation of multiple conduction channels spanning the dielectric film. Fitting results for the current-voltage characteristics indicate that the voltage sweep rate only affects the deactivation rate of the filaments without altering the main features of the switching dynamics

  1. Transgenerational inheritance or resetting of stress-induced epigenetic modifications: two sides of the same coin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Penny J Tricker

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The transgenerational inheritance of stress-induced epigenetic modifications is still controversial. Despite several examples of defence ‘priming’ and induced genetic rearrangements, the involvement and persistence of transgenerational epigenetic modifications is not known to be general. Here I argue that non-transmission of epigenetic marks through meiosis may be regarded as an epigenetic modification in itself, and that we should understand the implications for plant evolution in the context of both selection for and selection against transgenerational epigenetic memory. Recent data suggest that both epigenetic inheritance and resetting are mechanistically directed and targeted. Stress-induced epigenetic modifications may buffer against DNA sequence-based evolution to maintain plasticity, or may form part of plasticity’s adaptive potential. To date we have tended to concentrate on the question of whether and for how long epigenetic memory persists. I argue that we should now re-direct our question to investigate the differences between where it persists and where it does not, to understand the higher order evolutionary methods in play and their contribution.

  2. Transgenerational inheritance or resetting of stress-induced epigenetic modifications: two sides of the same coin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tricker, Penny J

    2015-01-01

    The transgenerational inheritance of stress-induced epigenetic modifications is still controversial. Despite several examples of defense "priming" and induced genetic rearrangements, the involvement and persistence of transgenerational epigenetic modifications is not known to be general. Here I argue that non-transmission of epigenetic marks through meiosis may be regarded as an epigenetic modification in itself, and that we should understand the implications for plant evolution in the context of both selection for and selection against transgenerational epigenetic memory. Recent data suggest that both epigenetic inheritance and resetting are mechanistically directed and targeted. Stress-induced epigenetic modifications may buffer against DNA sequence-based evolution to maintain plasticity, or may form part of plasticity's adaptive potential. To date we have tended to concentrate on the question of whether and for how long epigenetic memory persists. I argue that we should now re-direct our question to investigate the differences between where it persists and where it does not, to understand the higher order evolutionary methods in play and their contribution.

  3. Neural and Behavioral Evidence for an Online Resetting Process in Visual Working Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balaban, Halely; Luria, Roy

    2017-02-01

    Visual working memory (VWM) guides behavior by holding a set of active representations and modifying them according to changes in the environment. This updating process relies on a unique mapping between each VWM representation and an actual object in the environment. Here, we destroyed this mapping by either presenting a coherent object but then breaking it into independent parts or presenting an object but then abruptly replacing it with a different object. This allowed us to introduce the neural marker and behavioral consequence of an online resetting process in humans' VWM. Across seven experiments, we demonstrate that this resetting process involves abandoning the old VWM contents because they no longer correspond to the objects in the environment. Then, VWM encodes the novel information and reestablishes the correspondence between the new representations and the objects. The resetting process was marked by a unique neural signature: a sharp drop in the amplitude of the electrophysiological index of VWM contents (the contralateral delay activity), presumably indicating the loss of the existent object-to-representation mappings. This marker was missing when an updating process occurred. Moreover, when tracking moving items, VWM failed to detect salient changes in the object's shape when these changes occurred during the resetting process. This happened despite the object being fully visible, presumably because the mapping between the object and a VWM representation was lost. Importantly, we show that resetting, its neural marker, and the behavioral cost it entails, are specific to situations that involve a destruction of the objects-to-representations correspondence. Visual working memory (VWM) maintains task-relevant information in an online state. Previous studies showed that VWM representations are accessed and modified after changes in the environment. Here, we show that this updating process critically depends on an ongoing mapping between the

  4. Reset charge sensitive amplifier for NaI(Tl) gamma-ray spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeng, Guoqiang; Tan, Chengjun; Li, Qiang; Ge, Liangquan; Liu, Xiyao; Luo, Qun

    2015-01-01

    The time constant of the output signal of the front-end readout circuit of a traditional gamma-ray spectrometer with a NaI(Tl)+PMT structure is affected by temperature, measurement environment and the signal transmission cable, so it is difficult to get a good resolution spectrum, especially at higher counting rates. In this paper, a reset charge sensitive amplifier (RCSA) is designed for the gamma-ray spectrometer with a NaI(Tl)+PMT structure. The designed RCSA outputs a step signal, thus enabling the acquisition of double-exponential signals with a stable time constant by using the next stage of a CR differentiating circuit. The designed RCSA is mainly composed of a basic amplifying circuit, a reset circuit and a dark current compensation circuit. It provides the output step signal through the integration of the PMT output charge signal. When the amplitude of the step signal exceeds a preset voltage threshold, it triggers the reset circuit to generate a reset pulse (about 5 µs pulse width) to reset the output signal. Experimental results demonstrated that the designed RCSA achieves a charge sensitivity of 4.26×10 10 V/C, with a zero capacitance noise of 51.09 fC and a noise slope of 1.98 fC/pF. Supported by the digital shaping algorithm of the digital multi-channel analyzer (DMCA), it can maintain good energy resolution with high counting rates up to 150 kcps and with a temperature range from −19 °C to 50 °C. - Highlights: • A new reset type charge sensitive amplifier for gamma-ray spectrometer based on a photomultiplier tube is proposed. • Reset circuit formed by constant current source output a fixed width pulse to reset charge sensitive amplifier. • Photomultiplier tube dark current compensation circuit could increase the pulse through rate by decreasing reset frequency. • This amplifier outputs a step function signal that could match next stage circuit easily

  5. Routes to Chaos Induced by a Discontinuous Resetting Process in a Hybrid Spiking Neuron Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nobukawa, Sou; Nishimura, Haruhiko; Yamanishi, Teruya

    2018-01-10

    Several hybrid spiking neuron models combining continuous spike generation mechanisms and discontinuous resetting processes following spiking have been proposed. The Izhikevich neuron model, for example, can reproduce many spiking patterns. This model clearly possesses various types of bifurcations and routes to chaos under the effect of a state-dependent jump in the resetting process. In this study, we focus further on the relation between chaotic behaviour and the state-dependent jump, approaching the subject by comparing spiking neuron model versions with and without the resetting process. We first adopt a continuous two-dimensional spiking neuron model in which the orbit in the spiking state does not exhibit divergent behaviour. We then insert the resetting process into the model. An evaluation using the Lyapunov exponent with a saltation matrix and a characteristic multiplier of the Poincar'e map reveals that two types of chaotic behaviour (i.e. bursting chaotic spikes and near-period-two chaotic spikes) are induced by the resetting process. In addition, we confirm that this chaotic bursting state is generated from the periodic spiking state because of the slow- and fast-scale dynamics that arise when jumping to the hyperpolarization and depolarization regions, respectively.

  6. Can glacial shearing of sediment reset the signal used for luminescence dating?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bateman, Mark D.; Swift, Darrel A.; Piotrowski, Jan A.; Rhodes, Edward J.; Damsgaard, Anders

    2018-04-01

    Understanding the geomorphology left by waxing and waning of former glaciers and ice sheets during the late Quaternary has been the focus of much research. This has been hampered by the difficulty in dating such features. Luminescence has the potential to be applied to glacial sediments but requires signal resetting prior to burial in order to provide accurate ages. This paper explores the possibility that, rather than relying on light to reset the luminescence signal, glacial processes underneath ice might cause resetting. Experiments were conducted on a ring-shear machine set up to replicate subglacial conditions and simulate the shearing that can occur within subglacial sediments. Luminescence measurement at the single grain level indicates that a number (albeit small) of zero-dosed grains were produced and that these increased in abundance with distance travelled within the shearing zone. Observed changes in grain shape characteristics with increasing shear distance indicate the presence of localised high pressure grain-to-grain stresses caused by grain bridges. This appears to explain why some grains became zeroed whilst others retained their palaeodose. Based on the observed experimental trend, it is thought that localised grain stress is a viable luminescence resetting mechanism. As such relatively short shearing distances might be sufficient to reset a small proportion of the luminescence signal within subglacial sediments. Dating of previously avoided subglacial sediments may therefore be possible.

  7. Effects of ramp reset pulses on the address discharge in a shadow mask plasma display panel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Lanlan; Tu Yan; Zhang Xiong; Jiang Youyan; Zhang Jian; Wang Baoping

    2007-01-01

    A two-dimensional self-consistent numerical simulation model is used to analyse the effects of the ramp reset pulses on the address discharge in a shadow mask plasma display panel (SM-PDP). Some basic parameters such as the slope of the ramp pulse and the terminal voltage of the ramp reset period are varied to investigate their effects. The simulation results illustrate that the wall voltage is mainly decided by the terminal voltage and the firing voltage at the end of the ramp reset period. Moreover, the variation of the ramp slope will also bring a few modifications to the wall voltage. The priming particles in the beginning of the addressing period are related to the slope of the ramping down voltage pulse. The simulation results can help us optimize the driving scheme of the SM-PDP

  8. Resonator reset in circuit QED by optimal control for large open quantum systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boutin, Samuel; Andersen, Christian Kraglund; Venkatraman, Jayameenakshi; Ferris, Andrew J.; Blais, Alexandre

    2017-10-01

    We study an implementation of the open GRAPE (gradient ascent pulse engineering) algorithm well suited for large open quantum systems. While typical implementations of optimal control algorithms for open quantum systems rely on explicit matrix exponential calculations, our implementation avoids these operations, leading to a polynomial speedup of the open GRAPE algorithm in cases of interest. This speedup, as well as the reduced memory requirements of our implementation, are illustrated by comparison to a standard implementation of open GRAPE. As a practical example, we apply this open-system optimization method to active reset of a readout resonator in circuit QED. In this problem, the shape of a microwave pulse is optimized such as to empty the cavity from measurement photons as fast as possible. Using our open GRAPE implementation, we obtain pulse shapes, leading to a reset time over 4 times faster than passive reset.

  9. Impaired theta phase-resetting underlying auditory N1 suppression in chronic alcoholism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuentemilla, Lluis; Marco-Pallarés, Josep; Gual, Antoni; Escera, Carles; Polo, Maria Dolores; Grau, Carles

    2009-02-18

    It has been suggested that chronic alcoholism may lead to altered neural mechanisms related to inhibitory processes. Here, we studied auditory N1 suppression phenomena (i.e. amplitude reduction with repetitive stimuli) in chronic alcoholic patients as an early-stage information-processing brain function involving inhibition by the analysis of the N1 event-related potential and time-frequency computation (spectral power and phase-resetting). Our results showed enhanced neural theta oscillatory phase-resetting underlying N1 generation in suppressed N1 event-related potential. The present findings suggest that chronic alcoholism alters neural oscillatory synchrony dynamics at very early stages of information processing.

  10. Endurance Enhancement and High Speed Set/Reset of 50 nm Generation HfO2 Based Resistive Random Access Memory Cell by Intelligent Set/Reset Pulse Shape Optimization and Verify Scheme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higuchi, Kazuhide; Miyaji, Kousuke; Johguchi, Koh; Takeuchi, Ken

    2012-02-01

    This paper proposes a verify-programming method for the resistive random access memory (ReRAM) cell which achieves a 50-times higher endurance and a fast set and reset compared with the conventional method. The proposed verify-programming method uses the incremental pulse width with turnback (IPWWT) for the reset and the incremental voltage with turnback (IVWT) for the set. With the combination of IPWWT reset and IVWT set, the endurance-cycle increases from 48 ×103 to 2444 ×103 cycles. Furthermore, the measured data retention-time after 20 ×103 set/reset cycles is estimated to be 10 years. Additionally, the filamentary based physical model is proposed to explain the set/reset failure mechanism with various set/reset pulse shapes. The reset pulse width and set voltage correspond to the width and length of the conductive-filament, respectively. Consequently, since the proposed IPWWT and IVWT recover set and reset failures of ReRAM cells, the endurance-cycles are improved.

  11. Anti-kindling induced by two-stage coordinated reset stimulation with weak onset intensity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magteld eZeitler

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Abnormal neuronal synchrony plays an important role in a number of brain diseases. To specifically counteract abnormal neuronal synchrony by desynchronization, Coordinated Reset (CR stimulation, a spatiotemporally patterned stimulation technique, was designed with computational means. In neuronal networks with spike timing–dependent plasticity CR stimulation causes a decrease of synaptic weights and finally anti-kindling, i.e. unlearning of abnormally strong synaptic connectivity and abnormal neuronal synchrony. Long-lasting desynchronizing aftereffects of CR stimulation have been verified in pre-clinical and clinical proof of concept studies. In general, for different neuromodulation approaches, both invasive and non-invasive, it is desirable to enable effective stimulation at reduced stimulation intensities, thereby avoiding side effects. For the first time, we here present a two-stage CR stimulation protocol, where two qualitatively different types of CR stimulation are delivered one after another, and the first stage comes at a particularly weak stimulation intensity. Numerical simulations show that a two-stage CR stimulation can induce the same degree of anti-kindling as a single-stage CR stimulation with intermediate stimulation intensity. This stimulation approach might be clinically beneficial in patients suffering from brain diseases characterized by abnormal neuronal synchrony where a first treatment stage should be performed at particularly weak stimulation intensities in order to avoid side effects. This might, e.g., be relevant in the context of acoustic CR stimulation in tinnitus patients with hyperacusis or in the case of electrical deep brain CR stimulation with sub-optimally positioned leads or side effects caused by stimulation of the target itself. We discuss how to apply our method in first in man and proof of concept studies.

  12. UVA-induced reset of hydroxyl radical ultradian rhythm improves temporal lipid production in Chlorella vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balan, Ranjini; Suraishkumar, G K

    2014-01-01

    We report for the first time that the endogenous, pseudo-steady-state, specific intracellular levels of the hydroxyl radical (si-OH) oscillate in an ultradian fashion (model system: the microalga, Chlorella vulgaris), and also characterize the various rhythm parameters. The ultradian rhythm in the endogenous levels of the si-OH occurred with an approximately 6 h period in the daily cycle of light and darkness. Further, we expected that the rhythm reset to a shorter period could rapidly switch the cellular redox states that could favor lipid accumulation. We reset the endogenous rhythm through entrainment with UVA radiation, and generated two new ultradian rhythms with periods of approximately 2.97 h and 3.8 h in the light phase and dark phase, respectively. The reset increased the window of maximum lipid accumulation from 6 h to 12 h concomitant with the onset of the ultradian rhythms. Further, the saturated fatty acid content increased approximately to 80% of total lipid content, corresponding to the peak maxima of the hydroxyl radical levels in the reset rhythm. © 2014 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  13. Identification of partial resetting using De as a function of illumination time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bailey, R.M.; Singarayer, J.S.; Ward, S.; Stokes, S.

    2003-01-01

    Modern age samples from various depositional environments were examined for signal resetting. For 19 modern aeolian/beach samples all D e values obtained were e e values were e as a function of illumination (OSL measurement) time (D e (t)) plots were examined for all samples. Based on previous laboratory experiments, increases in D e (t) were expected for partially reset samples, and constant D e (t) for fully reset samples. All aeolian samples, both modern age and additional 'young' samples ( e (t) while all modern, non-zero D e , fluvial/colluvial samples showed increasing D e (t). 'Replacement plots', where a regenerated signal is substituted for the natural, yielded constant (flat) D e (t). These findings support strongly the use of D e (t) as a method of identifying incomplete resetting in fluvial samples. Potential complicating factors, such as illumination (bleaching) spectrum, thermal instability and component composition are discussed and a series of internal checks on the applicability of the D e (t) for each individual aliquot/grain level are outlined

  14. Transient resetting: a novel mechanism for synchrony and its biological examples.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunguang Li

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available The study of synchronization in biological systems is essential for the understanding of the rhythmic phenomena of living organisms at both molecular and cellular levels. In this paper, by using simple dynamical systems theory, we present a novel mechanism, named transient resetting, for the synchronization of uncoupled biological oscillators with stimuli. This mechanism not only can unify and extend many existing results on (deterministic and stochastic stimulus-induced synchrony, but also may actually play an important role in biological rhythms. We argue that transient resetting is a possible mechanism for the synchronization in many biological organisms, which might also be further used in the medical therapy of rhythmic disorders. Examples of the synchronization of neural and circadian oscillators as well as a chaotic neuron model are presented to verify our hypothesis.

  15. Persistent resetting of the cerebral oxygen/glucose uptake ratio by brain activation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, P L; Hasselbalch, S G; Hagemann, L P

    1995-01-01

    fraction of the activation-induced excess glucose uptake. These data confirm earlier reports that brain activation can induce resetting of the cerebral oxygen/glucose consumption ratio, and indicate that the resetting persists for a long period after cerebral activation has been terminated and physiologic......Global cerebral blood flow (CBF), global cerebral metabolic rates for oxygen (CMRO2), and for glucose (CMRglc), and lactate efflux were measured during rest and during cerebral activation induced by the Wisconsin card sorting test. Measurements were performed in healthy volunteers using the Kety......-Schmidt technique. Global CMRO2 was unchanged during cerebral activation, whereas global CBF and global CMRglc both increased by 12%, reducing the molar ratio of oxygen to glucose consumption from 6.0 during baseline conditions to 5.4 during activation. Data obtained in the period following cerebral activation...

  16. Cortical dynamics of feature binding and reset: control of visual persistence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, G; Grossberg, S; Mingolla, E

    1994-04-01

    An analysis of the reset of visual cortical circuits responsible for the binding or segmentation of visual features into coherent visual forms yields a model that explains properties of visual persistence. The reset mechanisms prevent massive smearing of visual percepts in response to rapidly moving images. The model simulates relationships among psychophysical data showing inverse relations of persistence to flash luminance and duration, greater persistence of illusory contours than real contours, a U-shaped temporal function for persistence of illusory contours, a reduction of persistence due to adaptation with a stimulus of like orientation, an increase of persistence with spatial separation of a masking stimulus. The model suggests that a combination of habituative, opponent, and endstopping mechanisms prevent smearing and limit persistence. Earlier work with the model has analyzed data about boundary formation, texture segregation, shape-from-shading, and figure-ground separation. Thus, several types of data support each model mechanism and new predictions are made.

  17. Resetting dynamic behaviour of pipework systems; Recalage du comportement dynamique des reseaux de tuyauteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaudin, M [Electricite de France (EDF), Direction des Etudes et Recherches, 92 - Clamart (France)

    1998-12-31

    Resetting models is applied to electricity generating plant pipework systems. A frequency approach to the problem is made in an original way thanks to the use of precise dynamic rigidity matrices. The method assumes two kinds of unknown: the usually processed mechanical characteristics (Young`s Modulus, density etc.) and new resetting parameters acting on the dynamic behaviour of unknown connections. As the latter have a very wide range of possible variation, they benefit from a change of variable which allows the assumptions formulated to be complied with. The minimized cost function is based on a error in load. The frequencies required for building it are automatically selected thanks to different tests on measurements. Minimization uses a sensitivity technique linked with a method of least standard squares. The method has been programmed in Fortran 90 within the CIRCUS code and tried out on various examples which were simulated and sound effects cases as well as an actual case. (author). 128 refs.

  18. Resetting dynamic behaviour of pipework systems; Recalage du comportement dynamique des reseaux de tuyauteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaudin, M. [Electricite de France (EDF), Direction des Etudes et Recherches, 92 - Clamart (France)

    1997-12-31

    Resetting models is applied to electricity generating plant pipework systems. A frequency approach to the problem is made in an original way thanks to the use of precise dynamic rigidity matrices. The method assumes two kinds of unknown: the usually processed mechanical characteristics (Young`s Modulus, density etc.) and new resetting parameters acting on the dynamic behaviour of unknown connections. As the latter have a very wide range of possible variation, they benefit from a change of variable which allows the assumptions formulated to be complied with. The minimized cost function is based on a error in load. The frequencies required for building it are automatically selected thanks to different tests on measurements. Minimization uses a sensitivity technique linked with a method of least standard squares. The method has been programmed in Fortran 90 within the CIRCUS code and tried out on various examples which were simulated and sound effects cases as well as an actual case. (author). 128 refs.

  19. Optimization of a PCRAM Chip for high-speed read and highly reliable reset operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaoyun; Chen, Houpeng; Li, Xi; Wang, Qian; Fan, Xi; Hu, Jiajun; Lei, Yu; Zhang, Qi; Tian, Zhen; Song, Zhitang

    2016-10-01

    The widely used traditional Flash memory suffers from its performance limits such as its serious crosstalk problems, and increasing complexity of floating gate scaling. Phase change random access memory (PCRAM) becomes one of the most potential nonvolatile memories among the new memory techniques. In this paper, a 1M-bit PCRAM chip is designed based on the SMIC 40nm CMOS technology. Focusing on the read and write performance, two new circuits with high-speed read operation and highly reliable reset operation are proposed. The high-speed read circuit effectively reduces the reading time from 74ns to 40ns. The double-mode reset circuit improves the chip yield. This 1M-bit PCRAM chip has been simulated on cadence. After layout design is completed, the chip will be taped out for post-test.

  20. EEG phase reset due to auditory attention: an inverse time-scale approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Low, Yin Fen; Strauss, Daniel J

    2009-01-01

    We propose a novel tool to evaluate the electroencephalograph (EEG) phase reset due to auditory attention by utilizing an inverse analysis of the instantaneous phase for the first time. EEGs were acquired through auditory attention experiments with a maximum entropy stimulation paradigm. We examined single sweeps of auditory late response (ALR) with the complex continuous wavelet transform. The phase in the frequency band that is associated with auditory attention (6–10 Hz, termed as theta–alpha border) was reset to the mean phase of the averaged EEGs. The inverse transform was applied to reconstruct the phase-modified signal. We found significant enhancement of the N100 wave in the reconstructed signal. Analysis of the phase noise shows the effects of phase jittering on the generation of the N100 wave implying that a preferred phase is necessary to generate the event-related potential (ERP). Power spectrum analysis shows a remarkable increase of evoked power but little change of total power after stabilizing the phase of EEGs. Furthermore, by resetting the phase only at the theta border of no attention data to the mean phase of attention data yields a result that resembles attention data. These results show strong connections between EEGs and ERP, in particular, we suggest that the presentation of an auditory stimulus triggers the phase reset process at the theta–alpha border which leads to the emergence of the N100 wave. It is concluded that our study reinforces other studies on the importance of the EEG in ERP genesis

  1. Nonlinear reset integrator control design: Application to the active suspension control of vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Acho Zuppa, Leonardo

    2014-01-01

    We present an unexampled reset integrator control design based on the Clegg integrator system. Using an appropriate mathematical model of our Clegg integrator controller, stability proof of the closed-loop system applied to the vibration control problem of a second-order system is shown without invoking hybrid system theory. Furthermore, we illustrate the pplicability of our controller, from the numerical experiment point of view, to the suspension vibration control of vehicles.

  2. EEG phase reset due to auditory attention: an inverse time-scale approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low, Yin Fen; Strauss, Daniel J

    2009-08-01

    We propose a novel tool to evaluate the electroencephalograph (EEG) phase reset due to auditory attention by utilizing an inverse analysis of the instantaneous phase for the first time. EEGs were acquired through auditory attention experiments with a maximum entropy stimulation paradigm. We examined single sweeps of auditory late response (ALR) with the complex continuous wavelet transform. The phase in the frequency band that is associated with auditory attention (6-10 Hz, termed as theta-alpha border) was reset to the mean phase of the averaged EEGs. The inverse transform was applied to reconstruct the phase-modified signal. We found significant enhancement of the N100 wave in the reconstructed signal. Analysis of the phase noise shows the effects of phase jittering on the generation of the N100 wave implying that a preferred phase is necessary to generate the event-related potential (ERP). Power spectrum analysis shows a remarkable increase of evoked power but little change of total power after stabilizing the phase of EEGs. Furthermore, by resetting the phase only at the theta border of no attention data to the mean phase of attention data yields a result that resembles attention data. These results show strong connections between EEGs and ERP, in particular, we suggest that the presentation of an auditory stimulus triggers the phase reset process at the theta-alpha border which leads to the emergence of the N100 wave. It is concluded that our study reinforces other studies on the importance of the EEG in ERP genesis.

  3. The Inspection Process of the Army Reset Program for Equipment for Units Returning from Operation Iraqi Freedom

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2008-01-01

    The subject of this report directly applies to the work of DoD civilian and military personnel responsible for the reset of equipment provided to the warfighter deployed in support of Operation Iraqi Freedom...

  4. Morning and Evening Oscillators Cooperate to Reset Circadian Behavior in Response to Light Input

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pallavi Lamba

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Light is a crucial input for circadian clocks. In Drosophila, short light exposure can robustly shift the phase of circadian behavior. The model for this resetting posits that circadian photoreception is cell autonomous: CRYPTOCHROME senses light, binds to TIMELESS (TIM, and promotes its degradation, which is mediated by JETLAG (JET. However, it was recently proposed that interactions between circadian neurons are also required for phase resetting. We identify two groups of neurons critical for circadian photoreception: the morning (M and the evening (E oscillators. These neurons work synergistically to reset rhythmic behavior. JET promotes acute TIM degradation cell autonomously in M and E oscillators but also nonautonomously in E oscillators when expressed in M oscillators. Thus, upon light exposure, the M oscillators communicate with the E oscillators. Because the M oscillators drive circadian behavior, they must also receive inputs from the E oscillators. Hence, although photic TIM degradation is largely cell autonomous, neural cooperation between M and E oscillators is critical for circadian behavioral photoresponses.

  5. Rapid resetting of human peripheral clocks by phototherapy during simulated night shift work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuesta, Marc; Boudreau, Philippe; Cermakian, Nicolas; Boivin, Diane B

    2017-11-24

    A majority of night shift workers have their circadian rhythms misaligned to their atypical schedule. While bright light exposure at night is known to reset the human central circadian clock, the behavior of peripheral clocks under conditions of shift work is more elusive. The aim of the present study was to quantify the resetting effects of bright light exposure on both central (plasma cortisol and melatonin) and peripheral clocks markers (clock gene expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells, PBMCs) in subjects living at night. Eighteen healthy subjects were enrolled to either a control (dim light) or a bright light group. Blood was sampled at baseline and on the 4 th day of simulated night shift. In response to a night-oriented schedule, the phase of PER1 and BMAL1 rhythms in PBMCs was delayed by ~2.5-3 h (P shift was observed for the other clock genes and the central markers. Three cycles of 8-h bright light induced significant phase delays (P night-oriented schedule and a rapid resetting effect of nocturnal bright light exposure on peripheral clocks.

  6. Desynchronization boost by non-uniform coordinated reset stimulation in ensembles of pulse-coupled neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lücken, Leonhard; Yanchuk, Serhiy; Popovych, Oleksandr V.; Tass, Peter A.

    2013-01-01

    Several brain diseases are characterized by abnormal neuronal synchronization. Desynchronization of abnormal neural synchrony is theoretically compelling because of the complex dynamical mechanisms involved. We here present a novel type of coordinated reset (CR) stimulation. CR means to deliver phase resetting stimuli at different neuronal sub-populations sequentially, i.e., at times equidistantly distributed in a stimulation cycle. This uniform timing pattern seems to be intuitive and actually applies to the neural network models used for the study of CR so far. CR resets the population to an unstable cluster state from where it passes through a desynchronized transient, eventually resynchronizing if left unperturbed. In contrast, we show that the optimal stimulation times are non-uniform. Using the model of weakly pulse-coupled neurons with phase response curves, we provide an approach that enables to determine optimal stimulation timing patterns that substantially maximize the desynchronized transient time following the application of CR stimulation. This approach includes an optimization search for clusters in a low-dimensional pulse coupled map. As a consequence, model-specific non-uniformly spaced cluster states cause considerably longer desynchronization transients. Intriguingly, such a desynchronization boost with non-uniform CR stimulation can already be achieved by only slight modifications of the uniform CR timing pattern. Our results suggest that the non-uniformness of the stimulation times can be a medically valuable parameter in the calibration procedure for CR stimulation, where the latter has successfully been used in clinical and pre-clinical studies for the treatment of Parkinson's disease and tinnitus. PMID:23750134

  7. Saccadic reaction times to audiovisual stimuli show effects of oscillatory phase reset.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adele Diederich

    Full Text Available Initiating an eye movement towards a suddenly appearing visual target is faster when an accessory auditory stimulus occurs in close spatiotemporal vicinity. Such facilitation of saccadic reaction time (SRT is well-documented, but the exact neural mechanisms underlying the crossmodal effect remain to be elucidated. From EEG/MEG studies it has been hypothesized that coupled oscillatory activity in primary sensory cortices regulates multisensory processing. Specifically, it is assumed that the phase of an ongoing neural oscillation is shifted due to the occurrence of a sensory stimulus so that, across trials, phase values become highly consistent (phase reset. If one can identify the phase an oscillation is reset to, it is possible to predict when temporal windows of high and low excitability will occur. However, in behavioral experiments the pre-stimulus phase will be different on successive repetitions of the experimental trial, and average performance over many trials will show no signs of the modulation. Here we circumvent this problem by repeatedly presenting an auditory accessory stimulus followed by a visual target stimulus with a temporal delay varied in steps of 2 ms. Performing a discrete time series analysis on SRT as a function of the delay, we provide statistical evidence for the existence of distinct peak spectral components in the power spectrum. These frequencies, although varying across participants, fall within the beta and gamma range (20 to 40 Hz of neural oscillatory activity observed in neurophysiological studies of multisensory integration. Some evidence for high-theta/alpha activity was found as well. Our results are consistent with the phase reset hypothesis and demonstrate that it is amenable to testing by purely psychophysical methods. Thus, any theory of multisensory processes that connects specific brain states with patterns of saccadic responses should be able to account for traces of oscillatory activity in observable

  8. The RESET Mindset Model applied on decreasing antibiotic usage in dairy cattle in the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, T J G M; Jansen, J; Wessels, R J

    2017-01-01

    Prudent use of antibiotics is important to prevent antibiotic resistance in humans and in animals. For this reason politicians demanded a decrease of total antibiotic use and of use of critically important antibiotics in animal husbandry in the Netherlands. In the dairy sector the use of antibiotics almost halved in the years 2009-2015, with a decrease of the use of critically important antibiotics to very low levels. To realize a sustainable decrease in antibiotic usage, the mindset towards the subject was considered crucial. Based on several models from social psychology, the RESET Mindset Model was used. This model contains the most important cues to change human behaviour, being Rules and regulations, Education and information, Social pressure, Economics, and Tools. To change behaviour of groups in order to reach a tipping point, it is of utmost importance to not choose among the different cues, but to use them all. In order to decrease antibiotic usage in dairy cattle in the Netherlands several actions, obliged as well as voluntary, were undertaken. An independent veterinary medicine authority was founded that became active for all animal sectors. In the dairy sector a national database on antibiotic usage called MediRund was developed, which made transparency and benchmarking on antibiotic usage at the national and the herd level possible. Several other activities are described, such as herd health and treatment plans, selective dry cow therapy, and the strong limitation on the use of critically important antibiotics. Antibiotic usage at the herd level, referred to as the 'antibiotic number', became an important and socially accepted herd level parameter. The actions undertaken worked through different cues, all part of the RESET Mindset Model. As such, different types of dairy farmers sensitive to different types of cues were motivated to change their behaviour. Antibiotic usage in dairy cattle in the Netherlands decreased significantly by intense

  9. The Foreign Policy of Modern China: from the Utopia of Nonpolar World to Chinese Reset

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    К И Аксёнова

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The author touches the strategic problem of building China's foreign policy, which in a multipolar world will soon make the country do its significative choice and find an opportunity of modernization. Successful exit strategy from the financial crisis has played a low-down trick with Beijing - the «donor of capital» image raised fears among the leading powers. So, the future of China's foreign policy will depend largely on its ability to transition to a more dynamic and flexible response to rapidly changing trends - the «reset».

  10. Inspiring students through an authentic polar science expedition: the RESEt Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cattadori, Matteo

    2016-04-01

    RESEt (Research and Education Svalbard Experience www.resetsvalbard.it) is an ongoing educational project focusing mainly on polar and climate system topics. It started in 2014 and will end in 2017 with the high school diploma of the 22 students (16 y. o.) making the participant class. This class attend a school (Liceo Filzi, Rovereto, Trento. Italy) with a primary focus on disciplines like philosophy and education, rather then STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics). Nevertheless their science curricula include climate topics that are rather challenging to grasp and, at the same time, crucial for their scientific citizenship. Some questions arise: How to foster their interest in geosciences topics? How to engage them in authentic scientific knowledge? How to increase their interest in scientific university courses during their post-secondary career? RESEt project will attempt to answer these questions through the development of integrated activities distributed over the last three years of their high school cycle. The most important moment will be an educational scientific expedition at the Svalbard, an archipelago located in the Arctic. The expedition be entirely organized, planned, and directed by students. In Svalbard, students will visit the main scientific facilities devoted to climate studies including those of Italian CNR (National Research Council) and they will perform some environmental measurement using data-loggers. Students are even involved in the fundraising process to raise more than ten thousand Euros needed to for travel expenses. This work is aimed mainly at presenting some of the preliminary data collected during the RESEt project, including the fundraising aspects. The management of the RESEt project strongly relies on the experience and network gained by the abstract author during the participation to the Education and Public Outreach (EPO) program of International Polar Year (IPY) 2007-2009 as well as the support of Polar

  11. Augmented brain function by coordinated reset stimulation with slowly varying sequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magteld eZeitler

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Several brain disorders are characterized by abnormally strong neuronal synchrony. Coordinated Reset (CR stimulation was developed to selectively counteract abnormal neuronal synchrony by desynchronization. For this, phase resetting stimuli are delivered to different subpopulations in a timely coordinated way. In neural networks with spike timing-dependent plasticity CR stimulation may eventually lead to an anti-kindling, i.e. an unlearning of abnormal synaptic connectivity and abnormal synchrony. The spatiotemporal sequence by which all stimulation sites are stimulated exactly once is called the stimulation site sequence, or briefly sequence. So far, in simulations, pre-clinical and clinical applications CR was applied either with fixed sequences or rapidly varying sequences (RVS. In this computational study we show that appropriate repetition of the sequence with occasional random switching to the next sequence may significantly improve the anti-kindling effect of CR. To this end, a sequence is applied many times before randomly switching to the next sequence. This new method is called SVS CR stimulation, i.e. CR with slowly varying sequences. In a neuronal network with strong short-range excitatory and weak long-range inhibitory dynamic couplings SVS CR stimulation turns out to be superior to CR stimulation with fixed sequences or RVS.

  12. Augmented brain function by coordinated reset stimulation with slowly varying sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeitler, Magteld; Tass, Peter A

    2015-01-01

    Several brain disorders are characterized by abnormally strong neuronal synchrony. Coordinated Reset (CR) stimulation was developed to selectively counteract abnormal neuronal synchrony by desynchronization. For this, phase resetting stimuli are delivered to different subpopulations in a timely coordinated way. In neural networks with spike timing-dependent plasticity CR stimulation may eventually lead to an anti-kindling, i.e., an unlearning of abnormal synaptic connectivity and abnormal synchrony. The spatiotemporal sequence by which all stimulation sites are stimulated exactly once is called the stimulation site sequence, or briefly sequence. So far, in simulations, pre-clinical and clinical applications CR was applied either with fixed sequences or rapidly varying sequences (RVS). In this computational study we show that appropriate repetition of the sequence with occasional random switching to the next sequence may significantly improve the anti-kindling effect of CR. To this end, a sequence is applied many times before randomly switching to the next sequence. This new method is called SVS CR stimulation, i.e., CR with slowly varying sequences. In a neuronal network with strong short-range excitatory and weak long-range inhibitory dynamic couplings SVS CR stimulation turns out to be superior to CR stimulation with fixed sequences or RVS.

  13. Resetting the evolution of marine reptiles at the Triassic-Jurassic boundary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorne, Philippa M; Ruta, Marcello; Benton, Michael J

    2011-05-17

    Ichthyosaurs were important marine predators in the Early Jurassic, and an abundant and diverse component of Mesozoic marine ecosystems. Despite their ecological importance, however, the Early Jurassic species represent a reduced remnant of their former significance in the Triassic. Ichthyosaurs passed through an evolutionary bottleneck at, or close to, the Triassic-Jurassic boundary, which reduced their diversity to as few as three or four lineages. Diversity bounced back to some extent in the aftermath of the end-Triassic mass extinction, but disparity remained at less than one-tenth of pre-extinction levels, and never recovered. The group remained at low diversity and disparity for its final 100 Myr. The end-Triassic mass extinction had a previously unsuspected profound effect in resetting the evolution of apex marine predators of the Mesozoic.

  14. Long-lasting desynchronization in rat hippocampal slice induced by coordinated reset stimulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tass, P. A.; Barnikol, U. B.; Silchenko, A. N.; Hauptmann, C.; Speckmann, E.-J.

    2009-01-01

    In computational models it has been shown that appropriate stimulation protocols may reshape the connectivity pattern of neural or oscillator networks with synaptic plasticity in a way that the network learns or unlearns strong synchronization. The underlying mechanism is that a network is shifted from one attractor to another, so that long-lasting stimulation effects are caused which persist after the cessation of stimulation. Here we study long-lasting effects of multisite electrical stimulation in a rat hippocampal slice rendered epileptic by magnesium withdrawal. We show that desynchronizing coordinated reset stimulation causes a long-lasting desynchronization between hippocampal neuronal populations together with a widespread decrease in the amplitude of the epileptiform activity. In contrast, periodic stimulation induces a long-lasting increase in both synchronization and amplitude.

  15. Simulation of thermal reset transitions in resistive switching memories including quantum effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villena, M. A.; Jiménez-Molinos, F.; Roldán, J. B. [Departamento de Electrónica y Tecnología de Computadores, Universidad de Granada, Facultad de Ciencias, Avd. Fuentenueva s/n, 18071 Granada (Spain); González, M. B.; Campabadal, F. [Institut de Microelectrònica de Barcelona, IMB-CNM (CSIC), Campus UAB, 08193 Bellaterra (Spain); Suñé, J.; Miranda, E. [Departament d' Enginyeria Electrònica, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Bellaterra Cerdanyola del Vallès 08193 (Spain); Romera, E. [Departamento de Física Atómica, Molecular y Nuclear and Instituto Carlos I de Física Teórica y Computacional, Universidad de Granada, Avd. Fuentenueva s/n, 18071 Granada (Spain)

    2014-06-07

    An in-depth study of reset processes in RRAMs (Resistive Random Access Memories) based on Ni/HfO{sub 2}/Si-n{sup +} structures has been performed. To do so, we have developed a physically based simulator where both ohmic and tunneling based conduction regimes are considered along with the thermal description of the devices. The devices under study have been successfully fabricated and measured. The experimental data are correctly reproduced with the simulator for devices with a single conductive filament as well as for devices including several conductive filaments. The contribution of each conduction regime has been explained as well as the operation regimes where these ohmic and tunneling conduction processes dominate.

  16. l-Serine Enhances Light-Induced Circadian Phase Resetting in Mice and Humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasuo, Shinobu; Iwamoto, Ayaka; Lee, Sang-Il; Ochiai, Shotaro; Hitachi, Rina; Shibata, Satomi; Uotsu, Nobuo; Tarumizu, Chie; Matsuoka, Sayuri; Furuse, Mitsuhiro; Higuchi, Shigekazu

    2017-12-01

    Background: The circadian clock is modulated by the timing of ingestion or food composition, but the effects of specific nutrients are poorly understood. Objective: We aimed to identify the amino acids that modulate the circadian clock and reset the light-induced circadian phase in mice and humans. Methods: Male CBA/N mice were orally administered 1 of 20 l-amino acids, and the circadian and light-induced phase shifts of wheel-running activity were analyzed. Antagonists of several neurotransmitter pathways were injected before l-serine administration, and light-induced phase shifts were analyzed. In addition, the effect of l-serine on the light-induced phase advance was investigated in healthy male students (mean ± SD age 22.2 ± 1.8 y) by using dim-light melatonin onset (DLMO) determined by saliva samples as an index of the circadian phase. Results: l-Serine administration enhanced light-induced phase shifts in mice (1.86-fold; P light-dark cycle by 6 h, l-serine administration slightly accelerated re-entrainment to the shifted cycle. In humans, l-serine ingestion before bedtime induced significantly larger phase advances of DLMO after bright-light exposure during the morning (means ± SEMs-l-serine: 25.9 ± 6.6 min; placebo: 12.1 ± 7.0 min; P light-induced phase resetting in mice and humans, and it may be useful for treating circadian disturbances. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  17. Sensitivity of the human circadian pacemaker to nocturnal light: melatonin phase resetting and suppression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeitzer, J. M.; Dijk, D. J.; Kronauer, R.; Brown, E.; Czeisler, C.

    2000-01-01

    Ocular exposure to early morning room light can significantly advance the timing of the human circadian pacemaker. The resetting response to such light has a non-linear relationship to illuminance. The dose-response relationship of the human circadian pacemaker to late evening light of dim to moderate intensity has not been well established. Twenty-three healthy young male and female volunteers took part in a 9 day protocol in which a single experimental light exposure6.5 h in duration was given in the early biological night. The effects of the light exposure on the endogenous circadian phase of the melatonin rhythm and the acute effects of the light exposure on plasma melatonin concentration were calculated. We demonstrate that humans are highly responsive to the phase-delaying effects of light during the early biological night and that both the phase resetting response to light and the acute suppressive effects of light on plasma melatonin follow a logistic dose-response curve, as do many circadian responses to light in mammals. Contrary to expectations, we found that half of the maximal phase-delaying response achieved in response to a single episode of evening bright light ( approximately 9000 lux (lx)) can be obtained with just over 1 % of this light (dim room light of approximately 100 lx). The same held true for the acute suppressive effects of light on plasma melatonin concentrations. This indicates that even small changes in ordinary light exposure during the late evening hours can significantly affect both plasma melatonin concentrations and the entrained phase of the human circadian pacemaker.

  18. Melanopsin resets circadian rhythms in cells by inducing clock gene Period1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, Shuhei; Uehara, Tomoe; Matsuo, Minako; Kikuchi, Yo; Numano, Rika

    2014-02-01

    The biochemical, physiological and behavioral processes are under the control of internal clocks with the period of approximately 24 hr, circadian rhythms. The expression of clock gene Period1 (Per1) oscillates autonomously in cells and is induced immediately after a light pulse. Per1 is an indispensable member of the central clock system to maintain the autonomous oscillator and synchronize environmental light cycle. Per1 expression could be detected by Per1∷luc and Per1∷GFP plasmid DNA in which firefly luciferase and Green Fluorescence Protein were rhythmically expressed under the control of the mouse Per1 promoter in order to monitor mammalian circadian rhythms. Membrane protein, MELANOPSIN is activated by blue light in the morning on the retina and lead to signals transduction to induce Per1 expression and to reset the phase of circadian rhythms. In this report Per1 induction was measured by reporter signal assay in Per1∷luc and Per1∷GFP fibroblast cell at the input process of circadian rhythms. To the result all process to reset the rhythms by Melanopsin is completed in single cell like in the retina projected to the central clock in the brain. Moreover, the phase of circadian rhythm in Per1∷luc cells is synchronized by photo-activated Melanopsin, because the definite peak of luciferase activity in one dish was found one day after light illumination. That is an available means that physiological circadian rhythms could be real-time monitor as calculable reporter (bioluminescent and fluorescent) chronological signal in both single and groups of cells.

  19. Transcranial magnetic stimulation-induced global propagation of transient phase resetting associated with directional information flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masahiro eKawasaki

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Electroencephalogram (EEG phase synchronization analyses can reveal large-scale communication between distant brain areas. However, it is not possible to identify the directional information flow between distant areas using conventional phase synchronization analyses. In the present study, we applied transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS to the occipital area in subjects who were resting with their eyes closed, and analyzed the spatial propagation of transient TMS-induced phase resetting by using the transfer entropy (TE, to quantify the causal and directional flow of information. The time-frequency EEG analysis indicated that the theta (5 Hz phase locking factor (PLF reached its highest value at the distant area (the motor area in this study, with a time lag that followed the peak of the transient PLF enhancements of the TMS-targeted area at the TMS onset. PPI (phase-preservation index analyses demonstrated significant phase resetting at the TMS-targeted area and distant area. Moreover, the TE from the TMS-targeted area to the distant area increased clearly during the delay that followed TMS onset. Interestingly, the time lags were almost coincident between the PLF and TE results (152 vs. 165 ms, which provides strong evidence that the emergence of the delayed PLF reflects the causal information flow. Such tendencies were observed only in the higher-intensity TMS condition, and not in the lower-intensity or sham TMS conditions. Thus, TMS may manipulate large-scale causal relationships between brain areas in an intensity-dependent manner. We demonstrated that single-pulse TMS modulated global phase dynamics and directional information flow among synchronized brain networks. Therefore, our results suggest that single-pulse TMS can manipulate both incoming and outgoing information in the TMS-targeted area associated with functional changes.

  20. AltitudeOmics: Resetting of cerebrovascular CO2 reactivity following acclimatization to high altitude

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jui-Lin eFan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies reported enhanced cerebrovascular CO2 reactivity upon ascent to high altitude using linear models. However, there is evidence that this response may be sigmoidal in nature. Moreover, it was speculated that these changes at high altitude are mediated by alterations in acid-base buffering. Accordingly, we reanalyzed previously published data to assess middle cerebral blood flow velocity (MCAv responses to modified rebreathing at sea level (SL, upon ascent (ALT1 and following 16 days of acclimatization (ALT16 to 5,260 m in 21 lowlanders. Using sigmoid curve fitting of the MCAv responses to CO2, we found the amplitude (95% vs. 129%, SL vs. ALT1, 95% confidence intervals (CI [77, 112], [111, 145], respectively, P=0.024 and the slope of the sigmoid response (4.5 vs. 7.5 %/mmHg, SL vs. ALT1, 95% CIs [3.1, 5.9], [6.0, 9.0], respectively, P=0.026 to be enhanced at ALT1, which persisted with acclimatization at ALT16 (amplitude: 177%, 95% CI [139, 215], P<0.001; slope: 10.3 %/mmHg, 95% CI [8.2, 12.5], P=0.003 compared to SL. Meanwhile, the sigmoidal response midpoint was unchanged at ALT1 (SL: 36.5 mmHg; ALT1: 35.4 mmHg, 95% CIs [34.0, 39.0], [33.1, 37.7], respectively, P=0.982, while it was reduced by ~7 mmHg at ALT16 (28.6 mmHg, 95% CI [26.4, 30.8], P=0.001 vs. SL, indicating leftward shift of the cerebrovascular CO2 response to a lower arterial partial pressure of CO2 (PaCO2 following acclimatization to altitude. Sigmoid fitting revealed a leftward shift in the midpoint of the cerebrovascular response curve which could not be observed with linear fitting. These findings demonstrate that there is resetting of the cerebrovascular CO2 reactivity operating point to a lower PaCO2 following acclimatization to high altitude. This cerebrovascular resetting is likely the result of an altered acid-base buffer status resulting from prolonged exposure to the severe hypocapnia associated with ventilatory acclimatization to high altitude.

  1. High amplitude phase resetting in rev-erbalpha/per1 double mutant mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corinne Jud

    Full Text Available Over time, organisms developed various strategies to adapt to their environment. Circadian clocks are thought to have evolved to adjust to the predictable rhythms of the light-dark cycle caused by the rotation of the Earth around its own axis. The rhythms these clocks generate persist even in the absence of environmental cues with a period of about 24 hours. To tick in time, they continuously synchronize themselves to the prevailing photoperiod by appropriate phase shifts. In this study, we disrupted two molecular components of the mammalian circadian oscillator, Rev-Erbalpha and Period1 (Per1. We found that mice lacking these genes displayed robust circadian rhythms with significantly shorter periods under constant darkness conditions. Strikingly, they showed high amplitude resetting in response to a brief light pulse at the end of their subjective night phase, which is rare in mammals. Surprisingly, Cry1, a clock component not inducible by light in mammals, became slightly inducible in these mice. Taken together, Rev-Erbalpha and Per1 may be part of a mechanism preventing drastic phase shifts in mammals.

  2. Quantum reversibility is relative, or does a quantum measurement reset initial conditions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zurek, Wojciech H

    2018-07-13

    I compare the role of the information in classical and quantum dynamics by examining the relation between information flows in measurements and the ability of observers to reverse evolutions. I show that in the Newtonian dynamics reversibility is unaffected by the observer's retention of the information about the measurement outcome. By contrast-even though quantum dynamics is unitary, hence, reversible-reversing quantum evolution that led to a measurement becomes, in principle, impossible for an observer who keeps the record of its outcome. Thus, quantum irreversibility can result from the information gain rather than just its loss-rather than just an increase of the (von Neumann) entropy. Recording of the outcome of the measurement resets, in effect, initial conditions within the observer's (branch of) the Universe. Nevertheless, I also show that the observer's friend-an agent who knows what measurement was successfully carried out and can confirm that the observer knows the outcome but resists his curiosity and does not find out the result-can, in principle, undo the measurement. This relativity of quantum reversibility sheds new light on the origin of the arrow of time and elucidates the role of information in classical and quantum physics. Quantum discord appears as a natural measure of the extent to which dissemination of information about the outcome affects the ability to reverse the measurement.This article is part of a discussion meeting issue 'Foundations of quantum mechanics and their impact on contemporary society'. © 2018 The Author(s).

  3. Resetting translational homeostasis restores myelination in Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 1B mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Antonio, Maurizio; Musner, Nicolò; Scapin, Cristina; Ungaro, Daniela; Del Carro, Ubaldo; Ron, David; Feltri, M Laura; Wrabetz, Lawrence

    2013-04-08

    P0 glycoprotein is an abundant product of terminal differentiation in myelinating Schwann cells. The mutant P0S63del causes Charcot-Marie-Tooth 1B neuropathy in humans, and a very similar demyelinating neuropathy in transgenic mice. P0S63del is retained in the endoplasmic reticulum of Schwann cells, where it promotes unfolded protein stress and elicits an unfolded protein response (UPR) associated with translational attenuation. Ablation of Chop, a UPR mediator, from S63del mice completely rescues their motor deficit and reduces active demyelination by half. Here, we show that Gadd34 is a detrimental effector of CHOP that reactivates translation too aggressively in myelinating Schwann cells. Genetic or pharmacological limitation of Gadd34 function moderates translational reactivation, improves myelination in S63del nerves, and reduces accumulation of P0S63del in the ER. Resetting translational homeostasis may provide a therapeutic strategy in tissues impaired by misfolded proteins that are synthesized during terminal differentiation.

  4. Qualitative models and experimental investigation of chaotic NOR gates and set/reset flip-flops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Aminur; Jordan, Ian; Blackmore, Denis

    2018-01-01

    It has been observed through experiments and SPICE simulations that logical circuits based upon Chua's circuit exhibit complex dynamical behaviour. This behaviour can be used to design analogues of more complex logic families and some properties can be exploited for electronics applications. Some of these circuits have been modelled as systems of ordinary differential equations. However, as the number of components in newer circuits increases so does the complexity. This renders continuous dynamical systems models impractical and necessitates new modelling techniques. In recent years, some discrete dynamical models have been developed using various simplifying assumptions. To create a robust modelling framework for chaotic logical circuits, we developed both deterministic and stochastic discrete dynamical models, which exploit the natural recurrence behaviour, for two chaotic NOR gates and a chaotic set/reset flip-flop. This work presents a complete applied mathematical investigation of logical circuits. Experiments on our own designs of the above circuits are modelled and the models are rigorously analysed and simulated showing surprisingly close qualitative agreement with the experiments. Furthermore, the models are designed to accommodate dynamics of similarly designed circuits. This will allow researchers to develop ever more complex chaotic logical circuits with a simple modelling framework.

  5. Coordinated reset stimulation in a large-scale model of the STN-GPe circuit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin eEbert

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Synchronization of populations of neurons is a hallmark of several brain diseases. Coordinated reset (CR stimulation is a model-based stimulation technique which specifically counteracts abnormal synchrony by desynchronization. Electrical CR stimulation, e.g. for the treatment of Parkinson’s disease (PD, is administered via depth electrodes. In order to get a deeper understanding of this technique, we extended the top-down approach of previous studies and constructed a large-scale computational model of the respective brain areas. Furthermore, we took into account the spatial anatomical properties of the simulated brain structures and incor- porated a detailed numerical representation of 2·104 simulated neurons. We simulated the subthalamic nucleus (STN and the globus pallidus externus (GPe. Connections within the STN were governed by spike-timing dependent plasticity (STDP. In this way, we modeled the physiological and pathological activity of the considered brain structures. In particular, we investigated how plasticity could be exploited and how the model could be shifted from strongly synchronized (pathological activity to strongly desynchronized (healthy activity of the neuronal populations via CR stimulation of the STN neurons. Furthermore, we investigated the impact of specific stimulation parameters especially the electrode position on the stimulation outcome. Our model provides a step forward towards a biophysically realistic model of the brain areas relevant to the emergence of pathological neuronal activity in PD. Furthermore, our model constitutes a test bench for the optimization of both stimulation parameters and novel electrode geometries for efficient CR stimulation.

  6. Reverse Engineering the Inflammatory "Clock": From Computational Modeling to Rational Resetting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vodovotz, Yoram

    2016-01-01

    Properly-regulated inflammation is central to homeostasis. Traumatic injury, hemorrhagic shock, septic shock, and other injury-related processes such as wound healing are associated with dysregulated inflammation. Like many biological processes, inflammation is a dynamic, complex system whose function, like that of an analog clock, cannot be discerned simply from a laundry list of its parts (data). The advent of multiplexed platforms for gathering biological data, while providing an unprecedented level of detailed information about the inflammatory response, has paradoxically also proven to be overwhelming. This problem is especially acute when the datasets involve time courses, since typical statistical analyses and data-driven modeling are geared towards single time points. Various groups have addressed this problem using dynamic approaches to data-driven and mechanistic computational modeling. These modeling tools can be thought of as the "gears" and "hands" of the "clock," and have led to insights regarding principal drivers, dynamic networks, feedbacks, and regulatory switches that characterize and perhaps regulate the inflammatory response. In parallel, mechanistic computational models have given an abstracted sense of how the inflammatory "clock" works, leading to in silico models of critically ill individuals and populations. Integrating data-driven and mechanistic modeling may point the way to a rational "resetting" of inflammation via model-driven precision medicine.

  7. Selective Interareal Synchronization through Gamma Frequency Differences and Slower-Rhythm Gamma Phase Reset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burwick, Thomas; Bouras, Alexandros

    2017-03-01

    The communication-through-coherence (CTC) hypothesis states that a sending group of neurons will have a particularly strong effect on a receiving group if both groups oscillate in a phase-locked ("coherent") manner (Fries, 2005 , 2015 ). Here, we consider a situation with two visual stimuli, one in the focus of attention and the other distracting, resulting in two sites of excitation at an early cortical area that project to a common site in a next area. Taking a modeler's perspective, we confirm the workings of a mechanism that was proposed by Bosman et al. ( 2012 ) in the context of providing experimental evidence for the CTC hypothesis: a slightly higher gamma frequency of the attended sending site compared to the distracting site may cause selective interareal synchronization with the receiving site if combined with a slow-rhythm gamma phase reset. We also demonstrate the relevance of a slightly lower intrinsic frequency of the receiving site for this scenario. Moreover, we discuss conditions for a transition from bottom-up to top-down driven phase locking.

  8. Detection efficiency characteristics of free-running InGaAs/InP single photon detector using passive quenching active reset IC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Fu; Wang Chao; Sun Zhi-Bin; Zhai Guang-Jie

    2016-01-01

    InGaAs/InP avalanche photodiodes (APD) are rarely used in a free-running regime for near-infrared single photon detection. In order to overcome the detrimental afterpulsing, we demonstrate a passive quenching active reset integrated circuit. Taking advantage of the inherent fast passive quenching process and active reset to reduce reset time, the integrated circuit is useful for reducing afterpulses and is also area-efficient. We investigate the free-running single photon detector’s afterpulsing effect, de-trapping time, dark count rate, and photon detection efficiency, and also compare with gated regime operation. After correction for deadtime and afterpulse, we find that the passive quenching active reset free-running single photon detector’s performance is consistent with gated operation. (paper)

  9. Compliance-Free, Digital SET and Analog RESET Synaptic Characteristics of Sub-Tantalum Oxide Based Neuromorphic Device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas, Yawar; Jeon, Yu-Rim; Sokolov, Andrey Sergeevich; Kim, Sohyeon; Ku, Boncheol; Choi, Changhwan

    2018-01-19

    A two terminal semiconducting device like a memristor is indispensable to emulate the function of synapse in the working memory. The analog switching characteristics of memristor play a vital role in the emulation of biological synapses. The application of consecutive voltage sweeps or pulses (action potentials) changes the conductivity of the memristor which is considered as the fundamental cause of the synaptic plasticity. In this study, a neuromorphic device using an in-situ growth of sub-tantalum oxide switching layer is fabricated, which exhibits the digital SET and analog RESET switching with an electroforming process without any compliance current (compliance free). The process of electroforming and SET is observed at the positive sweeps of +2.4 V and +0.86 V, respectively, while multilevel RESET is observed with the consecutive negative sweeps in the range of 0 V to -1.2 V. The movement of oxygen vacancies and gradual change in the anatomy of the filament is attributed to digital SET and analog RESET switching characteristics. For the Ti/Ta 2 O 3-x /Pt neuromorphic device, the Ti top and Pt bottom electrodes are considered as counterparts of the pre-synaptic input terminal and a post-synaptic output terminal, respectively.

  10. Exclusion of NFAT5 from mitotic chromatin resets its nucleo-cytoplasmic distribution in interphase.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anaïs Estrada-Gelonch

    signals acting in interphase, resets the cytoplasmic localization of NFAT5 and prevents its nuclear accumulation and association with DNA in the absence of hypertonic stress.

  11. National dental waitlists: what would it take to reset to zero?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudko, Yevgeni; Kruger, Estie; Tennant, Marc

    2016-06-01

    been the subject of debate at the government level and, over the years, has seen an increase in allocation of public funds in an effort to address the policy needs. What does this paper add? This study calculates the actual number of people on the public dental waitlist, provides a detailed analysis of the distribution of the demand for the services and offers a cost model for resetting public dental waitlists across Australia. What are the implications for practitioners? This study carries no implications for individual practitioners at the clinical level. However, at the state and national levels, this model offers direction to a more cost-effective allocation of public funds and human resources.

  12. Validation of a Mobile Device for Acoustic Coordinated Reset Neuromodulation Tinnitus Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauptmann, Christian; Wegener, Alexander; Poppe, Hendrik; Williams, Mark; Popelka, Gerald; Tass, Peter A

    2016-10-01

    Sound-based tinnitus intervention stimuli include broad-band noise signals with subjectively adjusted bandwidths used as maskers delivered by commercial devices or hearing aids, environmental sounds broadly described and delivered by both consumer devices and hearing aids, music recordings specifically modified and delivered in a variety of different ways, and other stimuli. Acoustic coordinated reset neuromodulation therapy for tinnitus reduction has unique and more stringent requirements compared to all other sound-based tinnitus interventions. These include precise characterization of tinnitus pitch and loudness, and effective provision of patient-controlled daily therapy signals at defined frequencies, levels, and durations outside of the clinic. The purpose of this study was to evaluate an approach to accommodate these requirements including evaluation of a mobile device, validation of an automated tinnitus pitch-matching algorithm and assessment of a patient's ability to control stimuli and collect repeated outcome measures. The experimental design involved direct laboratory measurements of the sound delivery capabilities of a mobile device, comparison of an automated, adaptive pitch-matching method to a traditional manual method and measures of a patient's ability to understand and manipulate a mobile device graphic user interface to both deliver the therapy signals and collect the outcome measures. This study consisted of 5 samples of a common mobile device for the laboratory measures and a total of 30 adult participants: 15 randomly selected normal-hearing participants with simulated tinnitus for validation of a tinnitus pitch-matching algorithm and 15 sequentially selected patients already undergoing tinnitus therapy for evaluation of patient usability. No tinnitus intervention(s) were specifically studied as a component of this study. Data collection involved laboratory measures of mobile devices, comparison of manual and automated adaptive tinnitus

  13. Resetting the Abnormal Circadian Cortisol Rhythm in Adrenal Incidentaloma Patients With Mild Autonomous Cortisol Secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debono, Miguel; Harrison, Robert F; Chadarevian, Rita; Gueroult, Carole; Abitbol, Jean-Louis; Newell-Price, John

    2017-09-01

    Adrenal incidentalomas (AIs) are found commonly on axial imaging. Around 30% exhibit autonomous cortisol secretion (ACS) associated with increased cardiovascular events and death. We hypothesized that AI/ACS patients have an abnormal cortisol rhythm that could be reversed by use of carefully timed short-acting cortisol synthesis blockade, with improvement in cardiovascular disease markers. In a phase 1/2a, prospective study (Eudract no. 2012-002586-35), we recruited six patients with AI/ACS and two control groups of six sex-, age-, and body mass index-matched individuals: (1) patients with AI and no ACS (AI/NoACS) and (2) healthy volunteers with no AI [healthy controls (HC)]. Twenty-four-hour circadian cortisol analysis was performed to determine any differences between groups and timing of intervention for cortisol lowering using the 11β-hydroxylase inhibitor metyrapone. Circadian profiles of serum interleukin-6 (IL-6) were assessed. Serum cortisol levels in group AI/ACS were significantly higher than both group AI/NoACS and group HC from 6 pm to 10 pm [area under the curve (AUC) difference: 0.81 nmol/L/h; P = 0.01] and from 10 pm to 2 am (AUC difference: 0.86 nmol/L/h; P cortisol rhythms were reassessed. Postintervention evening serum cortisol was lowered, similar to controls [6 pm to 10 pm (AUC difference: -0.06 nmol/L/h; P = 0.85); 10 pm to 2 am (AUC difference: 0.10 nmol/L/h; P = 0.76)]. Salivary cortisone showed analogous changes. IL-6 levels were elevated before treatment [10 pm to 2 pm (AUC difference: 0.42 pg/mL/h; P = 0.01)] and normalized post treatment. In AI/ACS, the evening and nocturnal cortisol exposure is increased. Use of timed evening doses of metyrapone resets the cortisol rhythm to normal. This unique treatment paradigm is associated with a reduction in the cardiovascular risk marker IL-6. Copyright © 2017 Endocrine Society

  14. Argon-plasma-controlled optical reset in the SiO2/Cu filamentary resistive memory stack

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawashima, T.; Yew, K. S.; Zhou, Y.; Ang, D. S.; Zhang, H. Z.; Kyuno, K.

    2018-05-01

    We show that resistive switching in the SiO2/Cu stack can be modified by a brief exposure of the oxide to an Ar plasma. The set voltage of the SiO2/Cu stack is reduced by 33%, while the breakdown voltage of the SiO2/Si stack (control) is almost unchanged. Besides, the Ar plasma treatment suppresses the negative photoconductivity or optical resistance reset effect, where the electrically formed filamentary conductive path consisting of Cu-ion and oxygen-vacancy clusters is disrupted by the recombination of the oxygen vacancies with nearby light-excited oxygen ions. From the enhanced O-H peak in the Fourier-transform infrared spectrum of the plasma-treated oxide, it is proposed that the Ar plasma has created more oxygen vacancies in the surface region of the oxide. These vacancies in turn adsorb water molecules, which act as counter anions (OH-) promoting the migration of Cu cations into the oxide and forming a more complete Cu filament that is less responsive to light. The finding points to the prospect of a control over the optical resistance reset effect by a simple surface treatment step.

  15. Characterization and modeling of SET/RESET cycling induced read-disturb failure time degradation in a resistive switching memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Po-Cheng; Hsu, Chun-Chi; Du, Sin-I.; Wang, Tahui

    2017-12-01

    Read operation induced disturbance in SET-state in a tungsten oxide resistive switching memory is investigated. We observe that the reduction of oxygen vacancy density during read-disturb follows power-law dependence on cumulative read-disturb time. Our study shows that the SET-state read-disturb immunity progressively degrades by orders of magnitude as SET/RESET cycle number increases. To explore the cause of the read-disturb degradation, we perform a constant voltage stress to emulate high-field stress effects in SET/RESET cycling. We find that the read-disturb failure time degradation is attributed to high-field stress-generated oxide traps. Since the stress-generated traps may substitute for some of oxygen vacancies in forming conductive percolation paths in a switching dielectric, a stressed cell has a reduced oxygen vacancy density in SET-state, which in turn results in a shorter read-disturb failure time. We develop an analytical read-disturb degradation model including both cycling induced oxide trap creation and read-disturb induced oxygen vacancy reduction. Our model can well reproduce the measured read-disturb failure time degradation in a cycled cell without using fitting parameters.

  16. The role of the control variable in the heuristically based generalized perturbation theory (HGPT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gandini, A.

    1995-01-01

    The heuristically based generalized perturbation theory (HGPT) applied to the neutron field of a reactor system is discussed in relation to the criticality reset procedure. This procedure is implicit within the GPT methodology, corresponding to the so called filtering of the importance function relevant to the neutron field from the fundamental mode contamination. It is common practice to use the so called γ-mode filter. In order to account for any possible reset option, a general definition is introduced of an intensive control variable (ρ) entering into the governing equations, and correspondingly a fundamental ρ-mode filtering of the importance function is defined, relevant to the real criticality reset mechanism (control) adopted. A simple example illustrates the need in many circumstances of interest of taking into proper account the correct filtering so to avoid significant inaccuracies in the sensitivity calculation results

  17. Resetting of Quartz OSL (optically stimulated luminescence) Signals by Frictional Heating in Experimentally Sheared Gouges at Seismic Slip Rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, J. H.; Choi, J. H.; Chauhan, N.; Lee, S.; Hirose, T.; Ree, J. H.

    2014-12-01

    Recent studies on natural and experimental seismic faults have revealed that frictional heating plays an important role in earthquake dynamics as well as in producing mineralogical and microstructural signatures of seismic faulting. Here, we report changes in OSL signals in quartz by frictional heating in experimental fault gouges. The gouges (80% of quartz and 20% of bentonite by weight) with a thickness of 1 mm were sheared between sandstone cylinders (diameter: 25 mm) at a normal stress of 1 MPa and slip rate of 1.31 m/s. The quartz grains from a sand dune on the western coast of South Korea were sieved to select size fractions between 90 and 250 μm. The equivalent dose (De) of the undeformed quartz grains was 8.0 ± 0.3 Gy. Upon displacement, the friction abruptly increases to the 1st peak (with friction coefficient μ ≈ 0.75) followed by slip weakening. Then the fault zones show two more peak frictions (μ ≈ 0.53~0.75) and finally reach a steady-state friction (μ ≈ 0.2~0.35). The fault can be divided into three zones based grain size (thus slip rate); slip localization (SLZ), intermediate slip-rate (ISZ) and low slip-rate (LSZ) zones. SLZ develops adjacent to the moving side of the sandstone cylinder with P-foliation and shear band. The size of quartz (Dq) in ISZ and LSZ is 5-30 μm and 50-250 μm, respectively. SEM and TEM analyses indicate that the fault gouge of SLZ consists of subangular quartz clasts (Dq ≈ 3 μm) and matrix of nano-scale quartz, unidentified silicate minerals and amorphous material. The fault zones were sectioned into six layers (~160 µm thick for each layer) parallel to the fault zone boundary for OSL analyses. Quartz grains from all the layers except the one immediately adjacent to the stationary side of the sandstone cylinder show De of 'effectively' 0 Gy indicating a full resetting of OSL signals. The partial resetting of OSL signal in the layer adjacent to the stationary side of the cylinder indicates the temperature (T

  18. Distinction between added-energy and phase-resetting mechanisms in non-invasively detected somatosensory evoked responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedele, T; Scheer, H-J; Burghoff, M; Waterstraat, G; Nikulin, V V; Curio, G

    2013-01-01

    Non-invasively recorded averaged event-related potentials (ERP) represent a convenient opportunity to investigate human brain perceptive and cognitive processes. Nevertheless, generative ERP mechanisms are still debated. Two previous approaches have been contested in the past: the added-energy model in which the response raises independently from the ongoing background activity, and the phase-reset model, based on stimulus-driven synchronization of oscillatory ongoing activity. Many criteria for the distinction of these two models have been proposed, but there is no definitive methodology to disentangle them, owing also to the limited information at the single trial level. Here, we propose a new approach combining low-noise EEG technology and multivariate decomposition techniques. We present theoretical analyses based on simulated data and identify in high-frequency somatosensory evoked responses an optimal target for the distinction between the two mechanisms.

  19. Hybrid Z-Source DC-DC Converter with ZVZCS and Power Transformer Resetting: Design, Modeling, and Fabrication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Torkaman

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces a novel two transistors forward topology employing a z-source to achieve ZVZCS and power transformer resetting for various applications. Comparing with the forward converter, this topology has the advantage of displaying ZCS condition with an added Z-Source and no additional switches when the switches turn on, and that ZVS condition happens when the switches turn off. Duty cycle of the topology can exceed 50 percent. As a result, these converters are suitable for applications with high efficiency. In this paper, structure and properties of the topology will be discussed in details. Then the design principles will be presented. Finally, the benefits aforementioned will be approved in practice through a simple forward converter.

  20. Warfighter Support: Army Has Taken Steps to Improve Reset Process, but More Complete Reporting of Equipment and Future Cost Is Needed

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-01

    asphalt spreaders ), other semi-trucks and trailers, palletized loading systems, and heavy equipment transports. As table 3 shows, the actual reset...Copies of GAO Reports and Testimony Order by Phone Connect with GAO To Report Fraud, Waste, and Abuse in Federal Programs Congressional Relations Public Affairs Please Print on Recycled Paper.

  1. Resetting of Mg isotopes between calcite and dolomite during burial metamorphism: Outlook of Mg isotopes as geothermometer and seawater proxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Zhongya; Hu, Wenxuan; Wang, Xiaomin; Lu, Yizhou; Wang, Lichao; Liao, Zhiwei; Li, Weiqiang

    2017-07-01

    Magnesium isotopes are an emerging tool to study the geological processes recorded in carbonates. Calcite, due to its ubiquitous occurrence and the large Mg isotope fractionation associated with the mineral, has attracted great interests in applications of Mg isotope geochemistry. However, the fidelity of Mg isotopes in geological records of carbonate minerals (e.g., calcite and dolomite) against burial metamorphism remains poorly constrained. Here we report our investigation on the Mg isotope systematics of a dolomitized Middle Triassic Geshan carbonate section in eastern China. Magnesium isotope analysis was complemented by analyses of Sr-C-O isotopic compositions, major and trace element concentrations, and petrographic and mineralogical features. Multiple lines of evidence consistently indicated that post-depositional diagenesis of carbonate minerals occurred to the carbonate rocks. Magnesium isotope compositions of the carbonate rocks closely follow a mixing trend between a high δ26Mg dolomite end member and a low δ26Mg calcite end member, irrespective of sample positions in the section and calcite/dolomite ratio in the samples. By fitting the measured Mg isotope data using a two-end member mixing model, an inter-mineral Δ26Mgdolomite-calcite fractionation of 0.72‰ was obtained. Based on the experimentally derived Mg isotope fractionation factors for dolomite and calcite, a temperature of 150-190 °C was calculated to correspond to the 0.72‰ Δ26Mgdolomite-calcite fractionation. Such temperature range matches with the burial-thermal history of the local strata, making a successful case of Mg isotope geothermometry. Our results indicate that both calcite and dolomite had been re-equilibrated during burial metamorphism, and based on isotope mass balance of Mg, the system was buffered by dolomite in the section. Therefore, burial metamorphism may reset Mg isotope signature of calcite, and Mg isotope compositions in calcite should be dealt with caution in

  2. Medical ethics in an era of bioethics: resetting the medical profession's compass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellegrino, Edmund D

    2012-02-01

    What it means to be a medical professional has been defined by medical ethicists throughout history and remains a contemporary concern addressed by this paper. A medical professional is generally considered to be one who makes a public promise to fulfill the ethical obligations expressed in the Hippocratic Code. This presentation summarizes the history of medical professionalism and refocuses attention on the interpersonal relationship of doctor and patient. This keynote address was delivered at the Founders of Bioethics International Congress (June, 2010).

  3. Concatenated logic circuits based on a three-way DNA junction: a keypad-lock security system with visible readout and an automatic reset function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Junhua; Zhou, Shungui; Wen, Junlin

    2015-01-07

    Concatenated logic circuits operating as a biocomputing keypad-lock security system with an automatic reset function have been successfully constructed on the basis of toehold-mediated strand displacement and three-way-DNA-junction architecture. In comparison with previously reported keypad locks, the distinctive advantage of the proposed security system is that it can be reset and cycled spontaneously a large number of times without an external stimulus, thus making practical applications possible. By the use of a split-G-quadruplex DNAzyme as the signal reporter, the output of the keypad lock can be recognized readily by the naked eye. The "lock" is opened only when the inputs are introduced in an exact order. This requirement provides defense against illegal invasion to protect information at the molecular scale. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Temporal windows in visual processing: "prestimulus brain state" and "poststimulus phase reset" segregate visual transients on different temporal scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wutz, Andreas; Weisz, Nathan; Braun, Christoph; Melcher, David

    2014-01-22

    Dynamic vision requires both stability of the current perceptual representation and sensitivity to the accumulation of sensory evidence over time. Here we study the electrophysiological signatures of this intricate balance between temporal segregation and integration in vision. Within a forward masking paradigm with short and long stimulus onset asynchronies (SOA), we manipulated the temporal overlap of the visual persistence of two successive transients. Human observers enumerated the items presented in the second target display as a measure of the informational capacity read-out from this partly temporally integrated visual percept. We observed higher β-power immediately before mask display onset in incorrect trials, in which enumeration failed due to stronger integration of mask and target visual information. This effect was timescale specific, distinguishing between segregation and integration of visual transients that were distant in time (long SOA). Conversely, for short SOA trials, mask onset evoked a stronger visual response when mask and targets were correctly segregated in time. Examination of the target-related response profile revealed the importance of an evoked α-phase reset for the segregation of those rapid visual transients. Investigating this precise mapping of the temporal relationships of visual signals onto electrophysiological responses highlights how the stream of visual information is carved up into discrete temporal windows that mediate between segregated and integrated percepts. Fragmenting the stream of visual information provides a means to stabilize perceptual events within one instant in time.

  5. Modeling how shark and dolphin skin patterns control transitional wall-turbulence vorticity patterns using spatiotemporal phase reset mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandyopadhyay, Promode R; Hellum, Aren M

    2014-10-23

    Many slow-moving biological systems like seashells and zebrafish that do not contend with wall turbulence have somewhat organized pigmentation patterns flush with their outer surfaces that are formed by underlying autonomous reaction-diffusion (RD) mechanisms. In contrast, sharks and dolphins contend with wall turbulence, are fast swimmers, and have more organized skin patterns that are proud and sometimes vibrate. A nonlinear spatiotemporal analytical model is not available that explains the mechanism underlying control of flow with such proud patterns, despite the fact that shark and dolphin skins are major targets of reverse engineering mechanisms of drag and noise reduction. Comparable to RD, a minimal self-regulation model is given for wall turbulence regeneration in the transitional regime--laterally coupled, diffusively--which, although restricted to pre-breakdown durations and to a plane close and parallel to the wall, correctly reproduces many experimentally observed spatiotemporal organizations of vorticity in both laminar-to-turbulence transitioning and very low Reynolds number but turbulent regions. We further show that the onset of vorticity disorganization is delayed if the skin organization is treated as a spatiotemporal template of olivo-cerebellar phase reset mechanism. The model shows that the adaptation mechanisms of sharks and dolphins to their fluid environment have much in common.

  6. Study protocol for a randomised, double-blinded, placebo-controlled, clinical trial of S-ketamine for pain treatment in patients with chronic pancreatitis (RESET trial).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juel, Jacob; Olesen, Søren Schou; Olesen, Anne Estrup; Poulsen, Jakob Lykke; Dahan, Albert; Wilder-Smith, Oliver; Madzak, Adnan; Frøkjær, Jens Brøndum; Drewes, Asbjørn Mohr

    2015-03-10

    Chronic pancreatitis (CP) is an inflammatory disease that causes irreversible damage to pancreatic tissue. Pain is its most prominent symptom. In the absence of pathology suitable for endoscopic or surgical interventions, pain treatment usually includes opioids. However, opioids often have limited efficacy. Moreover, side effects are common and bothersome. Hence, novel approaches to control pain associated with CP are highly desirable. Sensitisation of the central nervous system is reported to play a key role in pain generation and chronification. Fundamental to the process of central sensitisation is abnormal activation of the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor, which can be antagonised by S-ketamine. The RESET trial is investigating the analgaesic and antihyperalgesic effect of S-ketamine in patients with CP. 40 patients with CP will be enrolled. Patients are randomised to receive 8 h of intravenous S-ketamine followed by oral S-ketamine, or matching placebo, for 4 weeks. To improve blinding, 1 mg of midazolam will be added to active and placebo treatment. The primary end point is clinical pain relief as assessed by a daily pain diary. Secondary end points include changes in patient-reported outcome measures, opioid consumption and rates of side effects. The end points are registered through the 4-week medication period and for an additional follow-up period of 8 weeks to investigate long-term effects. In addition, experimental pain measures also serves as secondary end points, and neurophysiological imaging parameters are collected. Furthermore, experimental baseline recordings are compared to recordings from a group of healthy controls to evaluate general aspects of pain processing in CP. The protocol is approved by the North Denmark Region Committee on Health Research Ethics (N-20130040) and the Danish Health and Medicines Authorities (EudraCT number: 2013-003357-17). The results will be disseminated in peer-reviewed journals and at scientific conferences

  7. Improvement in R{sub off}/R{sub on} ratio and reset current via combining compliance current with multilayer structure in tantalum oxide-based RRAM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Xiaorong; Feng, Jie [Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Key Laboratory for Thin Film and Microfabrication of Ministry of Education, Department of Micro/Nano Electronics, Shanghai (China)

    2015-07-15

    Improvements in the R{sub off}/R{sub on} ratio and reset current are required prior to the practical application of RRAM. To achieve this improvement, tantalum oxide-based RRAM devices with multilayer structure (bi-layer and tri-layer) were fabricated and various compliance currents were adopted. The reset current of 40 μA was observed; the R{sub off}/R{sub on} ratio increased to more than 20 in the tri-layer structure device. Resistance changes in two types of devices under voltage pulses with different pulse width were also conducted. The tri-layer device exhibited lower reset voltage and higher R{sub off}/R{sub on} ratio than the bi-layer device under voltage pulses. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy demonstrated the formation of Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5} via plasma oxidation, and there was an oxygen gradient in the multilayer devices. The results demonstrated that the tri-layer structure with oxygen gradient was an effective method for achieving better device performance. Additionally, it is implied that reasonable control of the proportion of TaO{sub 2} and Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5} and compliance current can improve device performance. (orig.)

  8. Earthquake recurrence models fail when earthquakes fail to reset the stress field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tormann, Thessa; Wiemer, Stefan; Hardebeck, Jeanne L.

    2012-01-01

    Parkfield's regularly occurring M6 mainshocks, about every 25 years, have over two decades stoked seismologists' hopes to successfully predict an earthquake of significant size. However, with the longest known inter-event time of 38 years, the latest M6 in the series (28 Sep 2004) did not conform to any of the applied forecast models, questioning once more the predictability of earthquakes in general. Our study investigates the spatial pattern of b-values along the Parkfield segment through the seismic cycle and documents a stably stressed structure. The forecasted rate of M6 earthquakes based on Parkfield's microseismicity b-values corresponds well to observed rates. We interpret the observed b-value stability in terms of the evolution of the stress field in that area: the M6 Parkfield earthquakes do not fully unload the stress on the fault, explaining why time recurrent models fail. We present the 1989 M6.9 Loma Prieta earthquake as counter example, which did release a significant portion of the stress along its fault segment and yields a substantial change in b-values.

  9. A dual-color luciferase assay system reveals circadian resetting of cultured fibroblasts by co-cultured adrenal glands.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takako Noguchi

    Full Text Available In mammals, circadian rhythms of various organs and tissues are synchronized by pacemaker neurons in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN of the hypothalamus. Glucocorticoids released from the adrenal glands can synchronize circadian rhythms in other tissues. Many hormones show circadian rhythms in their plasma concentrations; however, whether organs outside the SCN can serve as master synchronizers to entrain circadian rhythms in target tissues is not well understood. To further delineate the function of the adrenal glands and the interactions of circadian rhythms in putative master synchronizing organs and their target tissues, here we report a simple co-culture system using a dual-color luciferase assay to monitor circadian rhythms separately in various explanted tissues and fibroblasts. In this system, circadian rhythms of organs and target cells were simultaneously tracked by the green-emitting beetle luciferase from Pyrearinus termitilluminans (ELuc and the red-emitting beetle luciferase from Phrixothrix hirtus (SLR, respectively. We obtained tissues from the adrenal glands, thyroid glands, and lungs of transgenic mice that expressed ELuc under control of the promoter from a canonical clock gene, mBmal1. The tissues were co-cultured with Rat-1 fibroblasts as representative target cells expressing SLR under control of the mBmal1 promoter. Amplitudes of the circadian rhythms of Rat-1 fibroblasts were potentiated when the fibroblasts were co-cultured with adrenal gland tissue, but not when co-cultured with thyroid gland or lung tissue. The phases of Rat-1 fibroblasts were reset by application of adrenal gland tissue, whereas the phases of adrenal gland tissue were not influenced by Rat-1 fibroblasts. Furthermore, the effect of the adrenal gland tissue on the fibroblasts was blocked by application of a glucocorticoid receptor (GR antagonist. These results demonstrate that glucocorticoids are strong circadian synchronizers for fibroblasts and that

  10. Resetting the Growth Engines of the BRICS Countries as a Reaction to the Global Crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iulia Monica Oehler-Șincai

    2013-01-01

    up exports and FDI as engines of economic growth, the administrative bodies at macro and microeconomic levels understood that the internal demand represents a complementary source of growth. In contrast with the most developed countries, which intensely resorted to austerity measures, the BRICS were able to adopt stimulus measures. Such Keynesian moves were possible, as the emerging countries entered the global crisis with strong macroeconomic and financial positions. As a matter of fact, the world financial and economic crisis erupted in a moment considered by the international experts as the “most prosperous” for these countries. The general measures adopted in order to stimulate the economy in the field of fiscal policy and monetary policy were combined with specific, sectoral ones. Such measures managed even to attenuate the negative effects of the global crisis at social level. Infrastructure development though public investment projects is used by the BRICS governments as one of the principal means to stimulate economic growth and jobs creation. Our paper concludes that, for the BRICS countries, the classical engines for economic growth like exports and inward FDI are complemented by additional growth engines: internal demand (spurred by the high level of remittances from abroad, the outward FDI, innovation and infrastructure development.

  11. Sleep Deprivation and Caffeine Treatment Potentiate Photic Resetting of the Master Circadian Clock in a Diurnal Rodent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jha, Pawan Kumar; Bouâouda, Hanan; Gourmelen, Sylviane; Dumont, Stephanie; Fuchs, Fanny; Goumon, Yannick; Bourgin, Patrice; Kalsbeek, Andries; Challet, Etienne

    2017-04-19

    Circadian rhythms in nocturnal and diurnal mammals are primarily synchronized to local time by the light/dark cycle. However, nonphotic factors, such as behavioral arousal and metabolic cues, can also phase shift the master clock in the suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCNs) and/or reduce the synchronizing effects of light in nocturnal rodents. In diurnal rodents, the role of arousal or insufficient sleep in these functions is still poorly understood. In the present study, diurnal Sudanian grass rats, Arvicanthis ansorgei , were aroused at night by sleep deprivation (gentle handling) or caffeine treatment that both prevented sleep. Phase shifts of locomotor activity were analyzed in grass rats transferred from a light/dark cycle to constant darkness and aroused in early night or late night. Early night, but not late night, sleep deprivation induced a significant phase shift. Caffeine on its own induced no phase shifts. Both sleep deprivation and caffeine treatment potentiated light-induced phase delays and phase advances in response to a 30 min light pulse, respectively. Sleep deprivation in early night, but not late night, potentiated light-induced c-Fos expression in the ventral SCN. Caffeine treatment in midnight triggered c-Fos expression in dorsal SCN. Both sleep deprivation and caffeine treatment potentiated light-induced c-Fos expression in calbindin-containing cells of the ventral SCN in early and late night. These findings indicate that, in contrast to nocturnal rodents, behavioral arousal induced either by sleep deprivation or caffeine during the sleeping period potentiates light resetting of the master circadian clock in diurnal rodents, and activation of calbindin-containing suprachiasmatic cells may be involved in this effect. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Arousing stimuli have the ability to regulate circadian rhythms in mammals. Behavioral arousal in the sleeping period phase shifts the master clock in the suprachiasmatic nuclei and/or slows down the photic

  12. Tasimelteon for non-24-hour sleep-wake disorder in totally blind people (SET and RESET): two multicentre, randomised, double-masked, placebo-controlled phase 3 trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockley, Steven W; Dressman, Marlene A; Licamele, Louis; Xiao, Changfu; Fisher, Dennis M; Flynn-Evans, Erin E; Hull, Joseph T; Torres, Rosarelis; Lavedan, Christian; Polymeropoulos, Mihael H

    2015-10-31

    Most totally blind people have non-24-hour sleep-wake disorder (non-24), a rare circadian rhythm disorder caused by an inability of light to reset their circadian pacemaker. In two consecutive placebo-controlled trials (SET and RESET), we assessed safety and efficacy (in terms of circadian entrainment and maintenance) of once-daily tasimelteon, a novel dual-melatonin receptor agonist. We undertook the placebo-controlled, randomised, double-masked trials in 27 US and six German clinical research centres and sleep centres. We screened totally blind adults (18-75 years of age), who were eligible for the randomisation phase of SET if they had a non-24-hour circadian period (τ) of 24·25 h or longer (95% CI greater than 24·0 and up to 24·9 h), as calculated from measurements of urinary 6-sulphatoxymelatonin rhythms. For SET, we used block randomisation to assign patients (1:1) to receive tasimelteon (20 mg) or placebo every 24 h at a fixed clock time 1 h before target bedtime for 26 weeks. Patients who entered the open-label group receiving tasimelteon in SET or who did not meet the SET inclusion criteria but did meet the RESET inclusion criteria were screened for RESET. A subset of the patients who entered the open-label group before the RESET study and who had eligible τ values were screened for RESET after completing the open-label treatment. In RESET, we withdrew tasimelteon in a randomised manner (1:1) in patients who responded (ie, entrained) after a tasimelteon run-in period. Entrainment was defined as having τ of 24·1 h or less and a 95% CI that included 24·0 h. In SET, the primary endpoint was the proportion of entrained patients, assessed in the intention-to-treat population. The planned step-down primary endpoint assessed the proportion of patients who had a clinical response (entrainment at month 1 or month 7 plus clinical improvement, measured by the Non-24 Clinical Response Scale). In RESET, the primary endpoint was the proportion of non

  13. The Restoration of Chronotropic CompEtence in Heart Failure PatientS with Normal Ejection FracTion (RESET) Study: Rationale and Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kass, David A.; Kitzman, Dalane W.; Alvarez, Guy E.

    2009-01-01

    Background Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) is the predominant form of HF among the elderly and in women. However, there are few if any evidence-based therapeutic options for HFpEF. The chief complaint of HFpEF is reduced tolerance to physical exertion. Recent data revealed that one potential mechanism of exertional intolerance in HFpEF patients is inadequate chronotropic response. Although there is considerable evidence demonstrating the benefits of rate-adaptive pacing (RAP) provided from implantable cardiac devices in patients with an impaired chronotropic response, the effect of RAP in HFpEF is unknown. Methods and Results The RESET study is a prospective, multi-center, double-blind, randomized with stratification, study assessing the effect of RAP on peak VO2 and quality of life. RAP therapy will be evaluated in a cross-over paired fashion for each patient within each study stratum. Study strata are based on patient beta-blocker usage at time of enrollment. The study is powered to assess the impact of pacing independently in both strata. Conclusions The RESET study seeks to evaluate the potential benefit of RAP in patients with symptomatic mild to moderate HFpEF and chronotropic impairment. Study enrollment began in July 2008. PMID:20123314

  14. Low-power priority Address-Encoder and Reset-Decoder data-driven readout for Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors for tracker system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, P.; Aglieri, G.; Cavicchioli, C.; Chalmet, P. L.; Chanlek, N.; Collu, A.; Gao, C.; Hillemanns, H.; Junique, A.; Kofarago, M.; Keil, M.; Kugathasan, T.; Kim, D.; Kim, J.; Lattuca, A.; Marin Tobon, C. A.; Marras, D.; Mager, M.; Martinengo, P.; Mazza, G.; Mugnier, H.; Musa, L.; Puggioni, C.; Rousset, J.; Reidt, F.; Riedler, P.; Snoeys, W.; Siddhanta, S.; Usai, G.; van Hoorne, J. W.; Yi, J.

    2015-06-01

    Active Pixel Sensors used in High Energy Particle Physics require low power consumption to reduce the detector material budget, low integration time to reduce the possibilities of pile-up and fast readout to improve the detector data capability. To satisfy these requirements, a novel Address-Encoder and Reset-Decoder (AERD) asynchronous circuit for a fast readout of a pixel matrix has been developed. The AERD data-driven readout architecture operates the address encoding and reset decoding based on an arbitration tree, and allows us to readout only the hit pixels. Compared to the traditional readout structure of the rolling shutter scheme in Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors (MAPS), AERD can achieve a low readout time and a low power consumption especially for low hit occupancies. The readout is controlled at the chip periphery with a signal synchronous with the clock, allows a good digital and analogue signal separation in the matrix and a reduction of the power consumption. The AERD circuit has been implemented in the TowerJazz 180 nm CMOS Imaging Sensor (CIS) process with full complementary CMOS logic in the pixel. It works at 10 MHz with a matrix height of 15 mm. The energy consumed to read out one pixel is around 72 pJ. A scheme to boost the readout speed to 40 MHz is also discussed. The sensor chip equipped with AERD has been produced and characterised. Test results including electrical beam measurement are presented.

  15. Low-power priority Address-Encoder and Reset-Decoder data-driven readout for Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors for tracker system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, P.; Aglieri, G.; Cavicchioli, C.; Chalmet, P.L.; Chanlek, N.; Collu, A.; Gao, C.; Hillemanns, H.; Junique, A.; Kofarago, M.; Keil, M.; Kugathasan, T.; Kim, D.; Kim, J.; Lattuca, A.; Marin Tobon, C.A.; Marras, D.; Mager, M.; Martinengo, P.; Mazza, G.

    2015-01-01

    Active Pixel Sensors used in High Energy Particle Physics require low power consumption to reduce the detector material budget, low integration time to reduce the possibilities of pile-up and fast readout to improve the detector data capability. To satisfy these requirements, a novel Address-Encoder and Reset-Decoder (AERD) asynchronous circuit for a fast readout of a pixel matrix has been developed. The AERD data-driven readout architecture operates the address encoding and reset decoding based on an arbitration tree, and allows us to readout only the hit pixels. Compared to the traditional readout structure of the rolling shutter scheme in Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors (MAPS), AERD can achieve a low readout time and a low power consumption especially for low hit occupancies. The readout is controlled at the chip periphery with a signal synchronous with the clock, allows a good digital and analogue signal separation in the matrix and a reduction of the power consumption. The AERD circuit has been implemented in the TowerJazz 180 nm CMOS Imaging Sensor (CIS) process with full complementary CMOS logic in the pixel. It works at 10 MHz with a matrix height of 15 mm. The energy consumed to read out one pixel is around 72 pJ. A scheme to boost the readout speed to 40 MHz is also discussed. The sensor chip equipped with AERD has been produced and characterised. Test results including electrical beam measurement are presented

  16. Low-power priority Address-Encoder and Reset-Decoder data-driven readout for Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors for tracker system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, P., E-mail: yangping0710@126.com [Central China Normal University, Wuhan (China); Aglieri, G.; Cavicchioli, C. [CERN, 1210 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Chalmet, P.L. [MIND, Archamps (France); Chanlek, N. [Suranaree University of Technology, Nakhon Ratchasima (Thailand); Collu, A. [University of Cagliari, Cagliari (Italy); INFN (Italy); Gao, C. [Central China Normal University, Wuhan (China); Hillemanns, H.; Junique, A. [CERN, 1210 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Kofarago, M. [CERN, 1210 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); University of Utrecht, Utrecht (Netherlands); Keil, M.; Kugathasan, T. [CERN, 1210 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Kim, D. [Dongguk and Yonsei University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, J. [Pusan National University, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Lattuca, A. [University of Torino, Torino (Italy); INFN (Italy); Marin Tobon, C.A. [CERN, 1210 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Marras, D. [University of Cagliari, Cagliari (Italy); INFN (Italy); Mager, M.; Martinengo, P. [CERN, 1210 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Mazza, G. [University of Torino, Torino (Italy); INFN (Italy); and others

    2015-06-11

    Active Pixel Sensors used in High Energy Particle Physics require low power consumption to reduce the detector material budget, low integration time to reduce the possibilities of pile-up and fast readout to improve the detector data capability. To satisfy these requirements, a novel Address-Encoder and Reset-Decoder (AERD) asynchronous circuit for a fast readout of a pixel matrix has been developed. The AERD data-driven readout architecture operates the address encoding and reset decoding based on an arbitration tree, and allows us to readout only the hit pixels. Compared to the traditional readout structure of the rolling shutter scheme in Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors (MAPS), AERD can achieve a low readout time and a low power consumption especially for low hit occupancies. The readout is controlled at the chip periphery with a signal synchronous with the clock, allows a good digital and analogue signal separation in the matrix and a reduction of the power consumption. The AERD circuit has been implemented in the TowerJazz 180 nm CMOS Imaging Sensor (CIS) process with full complementary CMOS logic in the pixel. It works at 10 MHz with a matrix height of 15 mm. The energy consumed to read out one pixel is around 72 pJ. A scheme to boost the readout speed to 40 MHz is also discussed. The sensor chip equipped with AERD has been produced and characterised. Test results including electrical beam measurement are presented.

  17. Implementation of static generalized perturbation theory for LWR design applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byron, R.F.; White, J.R.

    1987-01-01

    A generalized perturbation theory (GPT) formulation is developed for application to light water reactor (LWR) design. The extensions made to standard generalized perturbation theory are the treatment of thermal-hydraulic and fission product poisoning feedbacks, and criticality reset. This formulation has been implemented into a standard LWR design code. The method is verified by comparing direct calculations with GPT calculations. Data are presented showing that feedback effects need to be considered when using GPT for LWR problems. Some specific potential applications of this theory to the field of LWR design are discussed

  18. Changes in the referent body location and configuration may underlie human gait, as confirmed by findings of multi-muscle activity minimizations and phase resetting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Anatol G; Krasovsky, Tal; Baniña, Melanie C; Lamontagne, Anouk; Levin, Mindy F

    2011-04-01

    Locomotion is presumably guided by feed-forward shifts in the referent body location in the desired direction in the environment. We propose that the difference between the actual and the referent body locations is transmitted to neurons that virtually diminish this difference by appropriately changing the referent body configuration, i.e. the body posture at which muscles reach their recruitment thresholds. Muscles are activated depending on the gap between the actual and the referent body configurations resulting in a step being made to minimize this gap. This hypothesis implies that the actual and the referent leg configurations can match each other at certain phases of the gait cycle, resulting in minimization of leg muscle activity. We found several leg configurations at which EMG minima occurred, both during forward and backward gait. It was also found that the set of limb configurations associated with EMG minima can be changed by modifying the pattern of forward and backward gait. Our hypothesis predicts that, in response to perturbations of gait, the rate of shifts in the referent body location can temporarily be changed to avoid falling. The rate influences the phase of rhythmic limb movements during gait. Therefore, following the change in the rate of the referent body location, the whole gait pattern, for all four limbs, will irreversibly be shifted in time (long-lasting and global phase resetting) with only transient changes in the gait speed, swing and stance timing and cycle duration. Aside from transient changes in the duration of the swing and/or stance phase in response to perturbation, few previous studies have documented long-lasting and global phase resetting of human gait in response to perturbation. Such resetting was a robust finding in our study. By confirming the notion that feed-forward changes in the referent body location and configuration underlie human locomotion, this study solves the classical problem in the relationship between

  19. Generalized Superconductivity. Generalized Levitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciobanu, B.; Agop, M.

    2004-01-01

    In the recent papers, the gravitational superconductivity is described. We introduce the concept of generalized superconductivity observing that any nongeodesic motion and, in particular, the motion in an electromagnetic field, can be transformed in a geodesic motion by a suitable choice of the connection. In the present paper, the gravitoelectromagnetic London equations have been obtained from the generalized Helmholtz vortex theorem using the generalized local equivalence principle. In this context, the gravitoelectromagnetic Meissner effect and, implicitly, the gravitoelectromagnetic levitation are given. (authors)

  20. General general game AI

    OpenAIRE

    Togelius, Julian; Yannakakis, Georgios N.; 2016 IEEE Conference on Computational Intelligence and Games (CIG)

    2016-01-01

    Arguably the grand goal of artificial intelligence research is to produce machines with general intelligence: the capacity to solve multiple problems, not just one. Artificial intelligence (AI) has investigated the general intelligence capacity of machines within the domain of games more than any other domain given the ideal properties of games for that purpose: controlled yet interesting and computationally hard problems. This line of research, however, has so far focuse...

  1. Tri-state resistive switching characteristics of MnO/Ta2O5 resistive random access memory device by a controllable reset process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, N. J.; Kang, T. S.; Hu, Q.; Lee, T. S.; Yoon, T.-S.; Lee, H. H.; Yoo, E. J.; Choi, Y. J.; Kang, C. J.

    2018-06-01

    Tri-state resistive switching characteristics of bilayer resistive random access memory devices based on manganese oxide (MnO)/tantalum oxide (Ta2O5) have been studied. The current–voltage (I–V) characteristics of the Ag/MnO/Ta2O5/Pt device show tri-state resistive switching (RS) behavior with a high resistance state (HRS), intermediate resistance state (IRS), and low resistance state (LRS), which are controlled by the reset process. The MnO/Ta2O5 film shows bipolar RS behavior through the formation and rupture of conducting filaments without the forming process. The device shows reproducible and stable RS both from the HRS to the LRS and from the IRS to the LRS. In order to elucidate the tri-state RS mechanism in the Ag/MnO/Ta2O5/Pt device, transmission electron microscope (TEM) images are measured in the LRS, IRS and HRS. White lines like dendrites are observed in the Ta2O5 film in both the LRS and the IRS. Poole–Frenkel conduction, space charge limited conduction, and Ohmic conduction are proposed as the dominant conduction mechanisms for the Ag/MnO/Ta2O5/Pt device based on the obtained I–V characteristics and TEM images.

  2. System Re-set: High LET Radiation or Transient Musculoskeletal Disuse Cause Lasting Changes in Oxidative Defense Pathways Within Bone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Akhilesh; Chatterjee, A.; Alwood, Joshua S.; Dvorochkin, Natalya; Almeida, Eduardo A. C.

    2011-01-01

    Six months post-IR, there were no notable changes in skeletal expression of 84 principal genes in the p53 signaling pathway due to low dose IR (0.5Gy), HU, or both. In contrast, numerous genes relevant to oxidative stress were regulated by the treatments, typically in a direction indicative of increased oxidative stress and impaired defense. IR and HU independently reduced (between 0.46 to 0.88 fold) expression levels of Noxa1, Gpx3, Prdx2, Prdx3, and Zmynd17. Surprisingly, transient HU alone (sham-irradiated) decreased expression of several redox-related genes (Gpx1,Gstk1, Prdx1, Txnrd2), which were not affected significantly by IR alone. Irradiation increased (1.13 fold) expression of a gene responsible for production of superoxides by neutrophils (NCF2). Of interest, only combined treatment with HU and IR led to increased expression levels of Ercc2, (1.19 fold), a DNA excision repair enzyme. Differences in gene expression levels may reflect a change in gene expression on a per cell basis, a shift in the repertoire of specific cell types within the tissue, or both. Serum nitrite/nitrate levels were elevated to comparable levels (1.6-fold) due to IR, HU or both, indicative of elevated systemic nitrosyl stress. CONCLUSIONS The magnitude of changes in skeletal expression of oxidative stress-related genes six months after irradiation and/or transient unloading tended to be relatively modest (0.46-1.15 fold), whereas the p53 pathway was not affected. The finding that many different oxidative stress-related genes differed from controls at this late time point implicates a generalized impairment of oxidative defense within skeletal tissue, which coincides with both profound radiation damage to osteoprogenitors/stem cells in bone marrow and impaired remodeling of mineralized tissue.

  3. Generalized functions

    CERN Document Server

    Gelfand, I M; Graev, M I; Vilenkin, N Y; Pyatetskii-Shapiro, I I

    Volume 1 is devoted to basics of the theory of generalized functions. The first chapter contains main definitions and most important properties of generalized functions as functional on the space of smooth functions with compact support. The second chapter talks about the Fourier transform of generalized functions. In Chapter 3, definitions and properties of some important classes of generalized functions are discussed; in particular, generalized functions supported on submanifolds of lower dimension, generalized functions associated with quadratic forms, and homogeneous generalized functions are studied in detail. Many simple basic examples make this book an excellent place for a novice to get acquainted with the theory of generalized functions. A long appendix presents basics of generalized functions of complex variables.

  4. General Editorial

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education. General Editorial. Articles in Resonance – Journal of Science Education. Volume 19 Issue 1 January 2014 pp 1-2 General Editorial. General Editorial on Publication Ethics · R Ramaswamy · More Details Fulltext PDF. Volume 19 Issue 1 January 2014 pp 3-3 ...

  5. Generalized product

    OpenAIRE

    Greco, Salvatore; Mesiar, Radko; Rindone, Fabio

    2014-01-01

    Aggregation functions on [0,1] with annihilator 0 can be seen as a generalized product on [0,1]. We study the generalized product on the bipolar scale [–1,1], stressing the axiomatic point of view. Based on newly introduced bipolar properties, such as the bipolar increasingness, bipolar unit element, bipolar idempotent element, several kinds of generalized bipolar product are introduced and studied. A special stress is put on bipolar semicopulas, bipolar quasi-copulas and bipolar copulas.

  6. Origin of the current discretization in deep reset states of an Al2O3/Cu-based conductive-bridging memory, and impact on state level and variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belmonte, A.; Degraeve, R.; Fantini, A.; Kim, W.; Houssa, M.; Jurczak, M.; Goux, L.

    2014-06-01

    In this paper, we develop a Quantum-Point-Contact (QPC) model describing the state conduction in a W/Al2O3/TiW/Cu Conductive-Bridging Memory cell (CBRAM). The model allows describing both the voltage- and the temperature-dependence of the conduction. For deep current levels, a resistance component is added in series to the point-contact constriction to account for electron scattering in the residual filament. The fitting of single-particle perturbation also allowed to estimate the number and effective size of the conduction-controlling particles in the QPC constriction. The results clearly point to smaller particles for CBRAM (Cu particles) as compared to oxide-based resistive RAM involving oxygen-vacancy defects, which is discussed as a possible origin of deeper reset level obtained in CBRAM. We also evidence a beneficial impact of this smaller particle size on lower Random-Telegraph-Noise amplitude measured on CBRAM devices.

  7. Circadian control of p75 neurotrophin receptor leads to alternate activation of Nrf2 and c-Rel to reset energy metabolism in astrocytes via brain-derived neurotrophic factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii, Tetsuro; Warabi, Eiji; Mann, Giovanni E

    2018-05-01

    Circadian clock genes regulate energy metabolism partly through neurotrophins in the body. The low affinity neurotrophin receptor p75 NTR is a clock component directly regulated by the transcriptional factor Clock:Bmal1 complex. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is expressed in the brain and plays a key role in coordinating metabolic interactions between neurons and astrocytes. BDNF transduces signals through TrkB and p75 NTR receptors. This review highlights a novel molecular mechanism by which BDNF via circadian control of p75 NTR leads to daily resetting of glucose and glycogen metabolism in brain astrocytes to accommodate their functional interaction with neurons. Astrocytes store glycogen as an energy reservoir to provide active neurons with the glycolytic metabolite lactate. Astrocytes predominantly express the truncated receptor TrkB.T1 which lacks an intracellular receptor tyrosine kinase domain. TrkB.T1 retains the capacity to regulate cell morphology through regulation of Rho GTPases. In contrast, p75 NTR mediates generation of the bioactive lipid ceramide upon stimulation with BDNF and inhibits PKA activation. As ceramide directly activates PKCζ, we discuss the importance of the TrkB.T1-p75 NTR -ceramide-PKCζ signaling axis in the stimulation of glycogen and lipid synthesis and activation of RhoA. Ceramide-PKCζ-casein kinase 2 signaling activates Nrf2 to support oxidative phosphorylation via upregulation of antioxidant enzymes. In the absence of p75 NTR , TrkB.T1 functionally interacts with adenosine A 2A R and dopamine D1R receptors to enhance cAMP-PKA signaling and activate Rac1 and NF-κB c-Rel, favoring glycogen hydrolysis, gluconeogenesis and aerobic glycolysis. Thus, diurnal changes in p75 NTR levels in astrocytes resets energy metabolism via BDNF to accommodate their metabolic interaction with neurons. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. General relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kenyon, I.R.

    1990-01-01

    General relativity is discussed in this book at a level appropriate to undergraduate students of physics and astronomy. It describes concepts and experimental results, and provides a succinct account of the formalism. A brief review of special relativity is followed by a discussion of the equivalence principle and its implications. Other topics covered include the concepts of curvature and the Schwarzschild metric, test of the general theory, black holes and their properties, gravitational radiation and methods for its detection, the impact of general relativity on cosmology, and the continuing search for a quantum theory of gravity. (author)

  9. General problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    This article presents the general problems as natural disasters, consequences of global climate change, public health, the danger of criminal actions, the availability to information about problems of environment

  10. Generalized Recovery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Christian Skov; Lando, David; Pedersen, Lasse Heje

    We characterize when physical probabilities, marginal utilities, and the discount rate can be recovered from observed state prices for several future time periods. Our characterization makes no assumptions of the probability distribution, thus generalizing the time-homogeneous stationary model...

  11. General Conformity

    Science.gov (United States)

    The General Conformity requirements ensure that the actions taken by federal agencies in nonattainment and maintenance areas do not interfere with a state’s plans to meet national standards for air quality.

  12. Generalized polygons

    CERN Document Server

    Van Maldeghem, Hendrik

    1998-01-01

    Generalized Polygons is the first book to cover, in a coherent manner, the theory of polygons from scratch. In particular, it fills elementary gaps in the literature and gives an up-to-date account of current research in this area, including most proofs, which are often unified and streamlined in comparison to the versions generally known. Generalized Polygons will be welcomed both by the student seeking an introduction to the subject as well as the researcher who will value the work as a reference. In particular, it will be of great value for specialists working in the field of generalized polygons (which are, incidentally, the rank 2 Tits-buildings) or in fields directly related to Tits-buildings, incidence geometry and finite geometry. The approach taken in the book is of geometric nature, but algebraic results are included and proven (in a geometric way!). A noteworthy feature is that the book unifies and generalizes notions, definitions and results that exist for quadrangles, hexagons, octagons - in the ...

  13. General conclusions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tubiana, M.

    1993-01-01

    In conclusion, a general consensus of a number of points which the author endeavours to summarize in this article: -doctors are an excellent channel for passing on information to the public -doctors feel that they do not know enough about the subject and a training on radiobiology and radiation protection is a necessity for them -communication between doctors and the general public is poor in this field -research should be encouraged in numerous areas such as: carcinogenic effect of low doses of radiation, pedagogy and risk perception

  14. GENERAL Iarticle

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 8; Issue 2. Supersymmetry. Akshay Kulkarni P Ramadevi. General Article Volume 8 Issue 2 February 2003 pp 28-41 ... Author Affiliations. Akshay Kulkarni1 P Ramadevi1. Physics Department, Indian Institute of Technology, Mumbai 400 076, India.

  15. General indicators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    This document summarizes the main 2002 energy indicators for France. A first table lists the evolution of general indicators between 1973 and 2002: energy bill, price of imported crude oil, energy independence, primary and final energy consumption. The main 2002 results are detailed separately for natural gas, petroleum and coal (consumption, imports, exports, production, stocks, prices). (J.S.)

  16. Generalized Recovery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Christian Skov; Lando, David; Pedersen, Lasse Heje

    We characterize when physical probabilities, marginal utilities, and the discount rate can be recovered from observed state prices for several future time periods. We make no assumptions of the probability distribution, thus generalizing the time-homogeneous stationary model of Ross (2015). Recov...

  17. GENERAL SURGERY

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Department of Surgery, University of Cape Town Health Sciences Faculty, Groote Schuur Hospital, Observatory, Cape Town,. South Africa ... included all district, regional and tertiary hospitals in the nine provinces. Clinics and so-called ..... large contingency of senior general surgeons from countries such as Cuba, who have ...

  18. GENERAL SURGERY

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    effect of fatigue on patient safety, and owing to increasing emphasis on lifestyle issues .... increasing emphasis on an appropriate work-life balance in professional life.10 ... experience, were the most negative about the EWTD in general.3,13 ...

  19. GENERAL SURGERY

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    in the endoscopy room. GENERAL SURGERY. T du Toit, O C Buchel, S J A Smit. Department of Surgery, University of the Free State, Bloemfontein, ... The lack of video instrumentation in developing countries: Redundant fibre-optic instruments (the old. “eye scope”) are still being used. This instrument brings endoscopists ...

  20. General Assembly

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2016-01-01

    5th April, 2016 – Ordinary General Assembly of the Staff Association! In the first semester of each year, the Staff Association (SA) invites its members to attend and participate in the Ordinary General Assembly (OGA). This year the OGA will be held on Tuesday, April 5th 2016 from 11:00 to 12:00 in BE Auditorium, Meyrin (6-2-024). During the Ordinary General Assembly, the activity and financial reports of the SA are presented and submitted for approval to the members. This is the occasion to get a global view on the activities of the SA, its financial management, and an opportunity to express one’s opinion, including taking part in the votes. Other points are listed on the agenda, as proposed by the Staff Council. Who can vote? Only “ordinary” members (MPE) of the SA can vote. Associated members (MPA) of the SA and/or affiliated pensioners have a right to vote on those topics that are of direct interest to them. Who can give his/her opinion? The Ordinary General Asse...

  1. GENERAL SURGERY

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    could cripple the global economy. Greater attention ... Africa and 5.7 general surgeons per 100 000 in the US.12 One of the key ... 100 000 insured population working in the private sector, which is comparable with the United States (US).

  2. Necklaces: Generalizations

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    . A q-ary necklace of length n is an equivalence class of q-coloured strings of length n under rota- tion. In this article, we study various generaliza- tions and derive analytical expressions to count the number of these generalized necklaces.

  3. Generalized Recovery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lando, David; Pedersen, Lasse Heje; Jensen, Christian Skov

    We characterize when physical probabilities, marginal utilities, and the discount rate can be recovered from observed state prices for several future time periods. We make no assumptions of the probability distribution, thus generalizing the time-homogeneous stationary model of Ross (2015...... our model empirically, testing the predictive power of the recovered expected return and other recovered statistics....

  4. General Relativity

    CERN Document Server

    Straumann, Norbert

    2013-01-01

    This book provides a completely revised and expanded version of the previous classic edition ‘General Relativity and Relativistic Astrophysics’. In Part I the foundations of general relativity are thoroughly developed, while Part II is devoted to tests of general relativity and many of its applications. Binary pulsars – our best laboratories for general relativity – are studied in considerable detail. An introduction to gravitational lensing theory is included as well, so as to make the current literature on the subject accessible to readers. Considerable attention is devoted to the study of compact objects, especially to black holes. This includes a detailed derivation of the Kerr solution, Israel’s proof of his uniqueness theorem, and a derivation of the basic laws of black hole physics. Part II ends with Witten’s proof of the positive energy theorem, which is presented in detail, together with the required tools on spin structures and spinor analysis. In Part III, all of the differential geomet...

  5. Generalizing entanglement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Ding

    2017-12-01

    The expected indefinite causal structure in quantum gravity poses a challenge to the notion of entanglement: If two parties are in an indefinite causal relation of being causally connected and not, can they still be entangled? If so, how does one measure the amount of entanglement? We propose to generalize the notions of entanglement and entanglement measure to address these questions. Importantly, the generalization opens the path to study quantum entanglement of states, channels, networks, and processes with definite or indefinite causal structure in a unified fashion, e.g., we show that the entanglement distillation capacity of a state, the quantum communication capacity of a channel, and the entanglement generation capacity of a network or a process are different manifestations of one and the same entanglement measure.

  6. General topology

    CERN Document Server

    Willard, Stephen

    2004-01-01

    Among the best available reference introductions to general topology, this volume is appropriate for advanced undergraduate and beginning graduate students. Its treatment encompasses two broad areas of topology: ""continuous topology,"" represented by sections on convergence, compactness, metrization and complete metric spaces, uniform spaces, and function spaces; and ""geometric topology,"" covered by nine sections on connectivity properties, topological characterization theorems, and homotopy theory. Many standard spaces are introduced in the related problems that accompany each section (340

  7. Generalized polygons

    CERN Document Server

    Maldeghem, Hendrik

    1998-01-01

    This book is intended to be an introduction to the fascinating theory ofgeneralized polygons for both the graduate student and the specialized researcher in the field. It gathers together a lot of basic properties (some of which are usually referred to in research papers as belonging to folklore) and very recent and sometimes deep results. I have chosen a fairly strict geometrical approach, which requires some knowledge of basic projective geometry. Yet, it enables one to prove some typically group-theoretical results such as the determination of the automorphism groups of certain Moufang polygons. As such, some basic group-theoretical knowledge is required of the reader. The notion of a generalized polygon is a relatively recent one. But it is one of the most important concepts in incidence geometry. Generalized polygons are the building bricks of Tits buildings. They are the prototypes and precursors of more general geometries such as partial geometries, partial quadrangles, semi-partial ge­ ometries, near...

  8. General chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, Yeong Sik; Lee, Dong Seop; Ryu, Haung Ryong; Jang, Cheol Hyeon; Choi, Bong Jong; Choi, Sang Won

    1993-07-01

    The book concentrates on the latest general chemistry, which is divided int twenty-three chapters. It deals with basic conception and stoichiometry, nature of gas, structure of atoms, quantum mechanics, symbol and structure of an electron of ion and molecule, chemical thermodynamics, nature of solid, change of state and liquid, properties of solution, chemical equilibrium, solution and acid-base, equilibrium of aqueous solution, electrochemistry, chemical reaction speed, molecule spectroscopy, hydrogen, oxygen and water, metallic atom; 1A, IIA, IIIA, carbon and atom IVA, nonmetal atom and an inert gas, transition metals, lanthanons, and actinoids, nuclear properties and radioactivity, biochemistry and environment chemistry.

  9. General relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gourgoulhon, Eric

    2013-01-01

    The author proposes a course on general relativity. He first presents a geometrical framework by addressing, presenting and discussion the following notions: the relativistic space-time, the metric tensor, Universe lines, observers, principle of equivalence and geodesics. In the next part, he addresses gravitational fields with spherical symmetry: presentation of the Schwarzschild metrics, radial light geodesics, gravitational spectral shift (Einstein effect), orbitals of material objects, photon trajectories. The next parts address the Einstein equation, black holes, gravitational waves, and cosmological solutions. Appendices propose a discussion of the relationship between relativity and GPS, some problems and their solutions, and Sage codes

  10. Generalizing quasinormality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Cossey

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Quasinormal subgroups have been studied for nearly 80 years. In finite groups, questions concerning them invariably reduce to p-groups, and here they have the added interest of being invariant under projectivities, unlike normal subgroups. However, it has been shown recently that certain groups, constructed by Berger and Gross in 1982, of an important universal nature with regard to the existence of core-free quasinormal subgroups gener- ally, have remarkably few such subgroups. Therefore in order to overcome this misfortune, a generalization of the concept of quasi- normality will be defined. It could be the beginning of a lengthy undertaking. But some of the initial findings are encouraging, in particular the fact that this larger class of subgroups also remains invariant under projectivities of finite p-groups, thus connecting group and subgroup lattice structures.

  11. General report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicklisch, F.

    1984-01-01

    Growing complexity of technical matter has meant that technical expertise is called upon in more and more legal proceedings. The technical expert is, in general terms, the mediator between technology and the law, he is also entrusted with the task of pointing up the differences in approach and in the nature of authority in these two areas and thus paving the way for mutual understanding. The evaluation of the technical expert's opinion is one of the cardinal problems bound up with the role of the expert in legal procedure. After the presentation of the expert's opinion, the judge is supposed to possess so much specialised knowledge that he can assess the opinion itself in scientific and technical respects and put his finger on any errors the expert may have made. This problem can only be solved via an assessment opinion. First of all, the opinion can be assessed indirectly via evaluation of the credentials and the neutrality and independence of the expert. In direct terms, the opinion can be subjected to a certain - albeit restricted - scrutiny, whether it is generally convincing, as far as the layman is competent to judge. This interpretation alone makes it possible to classify and integrate legally the technical standards and regulations represent expert statements on the scientific and technical theorems based on the knowledge and experience gained in a given area. They are designed to reflect prevailing opinion among leading representatives of the profession and can thus themselves be regarded as expert opinions. As a rule, these opinions will have such weight that - other than in exceptional cases - they will not be invalidated in procedure by deviating opinions from individual experts. (orig./HSCH) [de

  12. Resetting the bar: Establishing baselines for persistent contaminants after Hurricane Sandy in the coastal environments of New Jersey and New York, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly, Timothy J.; Focazio, Michael J.; Simmons, Dale L.

    2016-01-01

    In the immediate aftermath of natural disasters, public health officials and other first responders engage in many activities to protect the public and ecosystems in the affected area. These activities include critical tasks designed to minimize adverse consequences resulting from chemical and microbial contaminant exposures, such as acute disease incidence and transmission. However, once these urgent priorities have been met and situations requiring immediate attention have been stabilized, questions regarding the potential longer term threats to humans and ecosystems associated with persistent contaminant exposures remain. Research conducted to address these questions is frequently challenged by the lack of available baseline contaminant information collected before the event for comparison and perspective. In addition, deployments of field crews and collection of environmental samples typically occur days, weeks, or months after the event. Consequently, during and in the aftermath of disasters, public health agencies commonly advise the public to disinfect water, avoid contact with disturbed infrastructure (such as sewer lines), and (or) refrain from use of recreational waters, with the general focus on acute health threats; however, the persisting effects of such releases on local recreational waters, fisheries, and other estuarine habitats are often undetermined.

  13. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z General Ultrasound Ultrasound imaging uses sound waves to produce ... the limitations of General Ultrasound Imaging? What is General Ultrasound Imaging? Ultrasound is safe and painless, and ...

  14. General Nuclear Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Resources Professions Site Index A-Z General Nuclear Medicine Nuclear medicine imaging uses small amounts of radioactive ... of General Nuclear Medicine? What is General Nuclear Medicine? Nuclear medicine is a branch of medical imaging ...

  15. Calfornia General Plans

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — We undertook creating the first ever seamless statewide General Plan map for California. All county general plans and many city general plans were integrated into 1...

  16. Generalized Probability Functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Souto Martinez

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available From the integration of nonsymmetrical hyperboles, a one-parameter generalization of the logarithmic function is obtained. Inverting this function, one obtains the generalized exponential function. Motivated by the mathematical curiosity, we show that these generalized functions are suitable to generalize some probability density functions (pdfs. A very reliable rank distribution can be conveniently described by the generalized exponential function. Finally, we turn the attention to the generalization of one- and two-tail stretched exponential functions. We obtain, as particular cases, the generalized error function, the Zipf-Mandelbrot pdf, the generalized Gaussian and Laplace pdf. Their cumulative functions and moments were also obtained analytically.

  17. Generalized Cartan Calculus in general dimension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yi-Nan

    2015-07-01

    We develop the generalized Cartan Calculus for the groups and SO(5 , 5). They are the underlying algebraic structures of d = 9 , 7 , 6 exceptional field theory, respectively. These algebraic identities are needed for the "tensor hierarchy" structure in exceptional field theory. The validity of Poincaré lemmas in this new differential geometry is also discussed. Finally we explore some possible extension of the generalized Cartan calculus beyond the exceptional series.

  18. Generalized convexity, generalized monotonicity recent results

    CERN Document Server

    Martinez-Legaz, Juan-Enrique; Volle, Michel

    1998-01-01

    A function is convex if its epigraph is convex. This geometrical structure has very strong implications in terms of continuity and differentiability. Separation theorems lead to optimality conditions and duality for convex problems. A function is quasiconvex if its lower level sets are convex. Here again, the geo­ metrical structure of the level sets implies some continuity and differentiability properties for quasiconvex functions. Optimality conditions and duality can be derived for optimization problems involving such functions as well. Over a period of about fifty years, quasiconvex and other generalized convex functions have been considered in a variety of fields including economies, man­ agement science, engineering, probability and applied sciences in accordance with the need of particular applications. During the last twenty-five years, an increase of research activities in this field has been witnessed. More recently generalized monotonicity of maps has been studied. It relates to generalized conve...

  19. Generalized symmetry algebras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dragon, N.

    1979-01-01

    The possible use of trilinear algebras as symmetry algebras for para-Fermi fields is investigated. The shortcomings of the examples are argued to be a general feature of such generalized algebras. (author)

  20. Academy of General Dentistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Examine Oral Systemic Health Nov 14, 2017 General Dentistry and American Family Physician Collaborate to Examine Oral ... Oral Health Oct 23, 2017 Academy of General Dentistry Foundation Celebrates 45 Years Raising Awareness for Oral ...

  1. Generalized quantum groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leivo, H.P.

    1992-01-01

    The algebraic approach to quantum groups is generalized to include what may be called an anyonic symmetry, reflecting the appearance of phases more general than ±1 under transposition. (author). 6 refs

  2. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... What are the limitations of General Ultrasound Imaging? What is General Ultrasound Imaging? Ultrasound is safe and ... be heard with every heartbeat. top of page What are some common uses of the procedure? Ultrasound ...

  3. Delphi General Ledger -

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — Delphi general ledger contains the following data elements, but is not limited to the United States Standard General Ledger (USSGL) chart of accounts, stores actual,...

  4. Generalized hypergeometric coherent states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Appl, Thomas; Schiller, Diethard H

    2004-01-01

    We introduce a large class of holomorphic quantum states by choosing their normalization functions to be given by generalized hypergeometric functions. We call them generalized hypergeometric states in general, and generalized hypergeometric coherent states in particular, if they allow a resolution of unity. Depending on the domain of convergence of the generalized hypergeometric functions, we distinguish generalized hypergeometric states on the plane, the open unit disc and the unit circle. All states are eigenstates of suitably defined lowering operators. We then study their photon number statistics and phase properties as revealed by the Husimi and Pegg-Barnett phase distributions. On the basis of the generalized hypergeometric coherent states we introduce new analytic representations of arbitrary quantum states in Bargmann and Hardy spaces as well as generalized hypergeometric Husimi distributions and corresponding phase distributions

  5. Generalized Fourier transforms classes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berntsen, Svend; Møller, Steen

    2002-01-01

    The Fourier class of integral transforms with kernels $B(\\omega r)$ has by definition inverse transforms with kernel $B(-\\omega r)$. The space of such transforms is explicitly constructed. A slightly more general class of generalized Fourier transforms are introduced. From the general theory foll...... follows that integral transform with kernels which are products of a Bessel and a Hankel function or which is of a certain general hypergeometric type have inverse transforms of the same structure....

  6. Generalized Fourier transforms classes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berntsen, Svend; Møller, Steen

    2002-01-01

    The Fourier class of integral transforms with kernels $B(\\omega r)$ has by definition inverse transforms with kernel $B(-\\omega r)$. The space of such transforms is explicitly constructed. A slightly more general class of generalized Fourier transforms are introduced. From the general theory...

  7. Forces in General Relativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridgely, Charles T.

    2010-01-01

    Many textbooks dealing with general relativity do not demonstrate the derivation of forces in enough detail. The analyses presented herein demonstrate straightforward methods for computing forces by way of general relativity. Covariant divergence of the stress-energy-momentum tensor is used to derive a general expression of the force experienced…

  8. Oxygen general saturation after bronchography under general ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Thirty-six patients undergoing bronchography or bronchoscopy under general anaesthesia were continuously monitored by pulse oximetry for 5 hours after these procedures. Significant falls in oxygen saturation were observed in the first hour and were of most clinical relevance in patients with preexisting pulmonary ...

  9. On a Generalized Hankel Type Convolution of Generalized Functions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Generalized Hankel type transformation; Parserval relation; generalized ... The classical generalized Hankel type convolution are defined and extended to a class of generalized functions. ... Proceedings – Mathematical Sciences | News.

  10. Generally covariant gauge theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capovilla, R.

    1992-01-01

    A new class of generally covariant gauge theories in four space-time dimensions is investigated. The field variables are taken to be a Lie algebra valued connection 1-form and a scalar density. Modulo an important degeneracy, complex [euclidean] vacuum general relativity corresponds to a special case in this class. A canonical analysis of the generally covariant gauge theories with the same gauge group as general relativity shows that they describe two degrees of freedom per space point, qualifying therefore as a new set of neighbors of general relativity. The modification of the algebra of the constraints with respect to the general relativity case is computed; this is used in addressing the question of how general relativity stands out from its neighbors. (orig.)

  11. How general are general source conditions?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathé, Peter; Hofmann, Bernd

    2008-01-01

    Error analysis of regularization methods in Hilbert spaces is based on smoothness assumptions in terms of source conditions. In the traditional setup, i.e. when smoothness is in a power scale, we see that not all elements in the underlying Hilbert space possess some smoothness with this scale. Our main result asserts that this can be overcome when turning to general source conditions defined in terms of index functions. We conclude with some consequences

  12. Unsupervised Learning and Generalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lars Kai; Larsen, Jan

    1996-01-01

    The concept of generalization is defined for a general class of unsupervised learning machines. The generalization error is a straightforward extension of the corresponding concept for supervised learning, and may be estimated empirically using a test set or by statistical means-in close analogy ...... with supervised learning. The empirical and analytical estimates are compared for principal component analysis and for K-means clustering based density estimation......The concept of generalization is defined for a general class of unsupervised learning machines. The generalization error is a straightforward extension of the corresponding concept for supervised learning, and may be estimated empirically using a test set or by statistical means-in close analogy...

  13. Generalization of concurrence vectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Changshui; Song Heshan

    2004-01-01

    In this Letter, based on the generalization of concurrence vectors for bipartite pure state with respect to employing tensor product of generators of the corresponding rotation groups, we generalize concurrence vectors to the case of mixed states; a new criterion of separability of multipartite pure states is given out, for which we define a concurrence vector; we generalize the vector to the case of multipartite mixed state and give out a good measure of free entanglement

  14. General quantum variational calculus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artur M. C. Brito da Cruz

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available We develop a new variational calculus based in the general quantum difference operator recently introduced by Hamza et al. In particular, we obtain optimality conditions for generalized variational problems where the Lagrangian may depend on the endpoints conditions and a real parameter, for the basic and isoperimetric problems, with and without fixed boundary conditions. Our results provide a generalization to previous results obtained for the $q$- and Hahn-calculus.

  15. Generalized quantum statistics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chou, C.

    1992-01-01

    In the paper, a non-anyonic generalization of quantum statistics is presented, in which Fermi-Dirac statistics (FDS) and Bose-Einstein statistics (BES) appear as two special cases. The new quantum statistics, which is characterized by the dimension of its single particle Fock space, contains three consistent parts, namely the generalized bilinear quantization, the generalized quantum mechanical description and the corresponding statistical mechanics

  16. Generalized quasi variational inequalities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noor, M.A. [King Saud Univ., Riyadh (Saudi Arabia)

    1996-12-31

    In this paper, we establish the equivalence between the generalized quasi variational inequalities and the generalized implicit Wiener-Hopf equations using essentially the projection technique. This equivalence is used to suggest and analyze a number of new iterative algorithms for solving generalized quasi variational inequalities and the related complementarity problems. The convergence criteria is also considered. The results proved in this paper represent a significant improvement and refinement of the previously known results.

  17. Generalized sampling in Julia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Christian Robert Dahl; Nielsen, Morten; Rasmussen, Morten Grud

    2017-01-01

    Generalized sampling is a numerically stable framework for obtaining reconstructions of signals in different bases and frames from their samples. For example, one can use wavelet bases for reconstruction given frequency measurements. In this paper, we will introduce a carefully documented toolbox...... for performing generalized sampling in Julia. Julia is a new language for technical computing with focus on performance, which is ideally suited to handle the large size problems often encountered in generalized sampling. The toolbox provides specialized solutions for the setup of Fourier bases and wavelets....... The performance of the toolbox is compared to existing implementations of generalized sampling in MATLAB....

  18. Forces in general relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ridgely, Charles T

    2010-01-01

    Many textbooks dealing with general relativity do not demonstrate the derivation of forces in enough detail. The analyses presented herein demonstrate straightforward methods for computing forces by way of general relativity. Covariant divergence of the stress-energy-momentum tensor is used to derive a general expression of the force experienced by an observer in general coordinates. The general force is then applied to the local co-moving coordinate system of a uniformly accelerating observer, leading to an expression of the inertial force experienced by the observer. Next, applying the general force in Schwarzschild coordinates is shown to lead to familiar expressions of the gravitational force. As a more complex demonstration, the general force is applied to an observer in Boyer-Lindquist coordinates near a rotating, Kerr black hole. It is then shown that when the angular momentum of the black hole goes to zero, the force on the observer reduces to the force on an observer held stationary in Schwarzschild coordinates. As a final consideration, the force on an observer moving in rotating coordinates is derived. Expressing the force in terms of Christoffel symbols in rotating coordinates leads to familiar expressions of the centrifugal and Coriolis forces on the observer. It is envisioned that the techniques presented herein will be most useful to graduate level students, as well as those undergraduate students having experience with general relativity and tensor analysis.

  19. Generalizing: The descriptive struggle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barney G. Glaser, Ph.D.; Hon Ph.D.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available The literature is not kind to the use of descriptive generalizations. Authors struggle and struggle to find and rationalize a way to use them and then fail in spite of trying a myriad of work-arounds. And then we have Lincoln and Guba’s famous statement: “The only generalization is: there is no generalization” in referring to qualitative research. (op cit, p. 110 They are referring to routine QDA yielding extensive descriptions, but which tacitly include conceptual generalizations without any real thought of knowledge about them. In this chapter I wish to explore this struggle for the purpose of explaining that the various contra arguments to using descriptive generalizations DO NOT apply to the ease of using conceptual generalizations yielded in SGT and especially FGT. I will not argue for the use of descriptive generalization. I agree with Lincoln and Guba with respect to QDA, “the only generalization is: there is no generalization.” It is up to the QDA methodologists, of whom there are many; to continue the struggle and I wish them well.

  20. Bimetric general relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosen, N.

    1979-01-01

    A modification of general relativity is proposed involving a second metric tensor describing a space-time of constant curvature and associated with the fundamental rest-frame of the universe. The theory generally agrees with the Einstein theory, but gives cosmological models without singularities which can account for present observation, including helium abundance

  1. Kerr generalized solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papoyan, V.V.

    1989-01-01

    A Kerr generalized solution for a stationary axially-symmetric gravitational field of rotating self-gravitational objects is given. For solving the problem Einstein equations and their combinations are used. The particular cases: internal and external Schwarzschild solutions are considered. The external solution of the stationary problem is a Kerr solution generalization. 3 refs

  2. General Education! Not Again?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsee, Stuart

    After reviewing definitions of general education and statements regarding its importance found in the literature, this paper presents observations to be considered in updating or developing general education programs. It is observed that many disciplines have developed excessive departmentalization; that administrators tend to view general…

  3. Generalized elementary functions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Monteiro, Giselle Antunes; Slavík, A.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 411, č. 2 (2014), s. 838-852 ISSN 0022-247X Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : elementary functions * Kurzweil-Stieltjes integral * generalized linear ordinary differential equations * time scale calculus Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 1.120, year: 2014 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0022247X13009141

  4. Generalized phase contrast:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glückstad, Jesper; Palima, Darwin

    Generalized Phase Contrast elevates the phase contrast technique not only to improve phase imaging but also to cross over and interface with diverse and seemingly disparate fields of contemporary optics and photonics. This book presents a comprehensive introduction to the Generalized Phase Contrast...

  5. Quantity Constrained General Equilibrium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Babenko, R.; Talman, A.J.J.

    2006-01-01

    In a standard general equilibrium model it is assumed that there are no price restrictions and that prices adjust infinitely fast to their equilibrium values.In case of price restrictions a general equilibrium may not exist and rationing on net demands or supplies is needed to clear the markets.In

  6. Generalized connectivity of graphs

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Xueliang

    2016-01-01

    Noteworthy results, proof techniques, open problems and conjectures in generalized (edge-) connectivity are discussed in this book. Both theoretical and practical analyses for generalized (edge-) connectivity of graphs are provided. Topics covered in this book include: generalized (edge-) connectivity of graph classes, algorithms, computational complexity, sharp bounds, Nordhaus-Gaddum-type results, maximum generalized local connectivity, extremal problems, random graphs, multigraphs, relations with the Steiner tree packing problem and generalizations of connectivity. This book enables graduate students to understand and master a segment of graph theory and combinatorial optimization. Researchers in graph theory, combinatorics, combinatorial optimization, probability, computer science, discrete algorithms, complexity analysis, network design, and the information transferring models will find this book useful in their studies.

  7. Inductive, Analogical, and Communicative Generalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adri Smaling

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Three forms of inductive generalization - statistical generalization, variation-based generalization and theory-carried generalization - are insufficient concerning case-to-case generalization, which is a form of analogical generalization. The quality of case-to-case generalization needs to be reinforced by setting up explicit analogical argumentation. To evaluate analogical argumentation six criteria are discussed. Good analogical reasoning is an indispensable support to forms of communicative generalization - receptive and responsive (participative generalization — as well as exemplary generalization.

  8. Context-dependent Generalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordan A Taylor

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The pattern of generalization following motor learning can provide a probe on the neural mechanisms underlying learning. For example, the breadth of generalization to untrained regions of space after visuomotor adaptation to targets in a restricted region of space has been attributed to the directional tuning properties of neurons in the motor system. Building on this idea, the effect of different types of perturbations on generalization (e.g., rotation versus visual translation have been attributed to the selection of differentially tuned populations. Overlooked in this discussion is consideration of how the context of the training environment may constrain generalization. Here, we explore the role of context by having participants learn a visuomotor rotation or a translational shift in two different contexts, one in which the array of targets were presented in a circular arrangement and the other in which they were presented in a rectilinear arrangement. The perturbation and environments were either consistent (e.g., rotation with circular arrangement or inconsistent (e.g., rotation with rectilinear arrangement. The pattern of generalization across the workspace was much more dependent on the context of the environment than on the perturbation, with broad generalization for the rectilinear arrangement for both types of perturbations. Moreover, the generalization pattern for this context was evident, even when the perturbation was introduced in a gradual manner, precluding the use of an explicit strategy. We describe how current models of generalization might be modified to incorporate these results, building on the idea that context provides a strong bias for how the motor system infers the nature of the visuomotor perturbation and, in turn, how this information influences the pattern of generalization.

  9. General game playing

    CERN Document Server

    Genesereth, Michael

    2014-01-01

    General game players are computer systems able to play strategy games based solely on formal game descriptions supplied at ""runtime"" (n other words, they don't know the rules until the game starts). Unlike specialized game players, such as Deep Blue, general game players cannot rely on algorithms designed in advance for specific games; they must discover such algorithms themselves. General game playing expertise depends on intelligence on the part of the game player and not just intelligence of the programmer of the game player.GGP is an interesting application in its own right. It is intell

  10. Generalized estimating equations

    CERN Document Server

    Hardin, James W

    2002-01-01

    Although powerful and flexible, the method of generalized linear models (GLM) is limited in its ability to accurately deal with longitudinal and clustered data. Developed specifically to accommodate these data types, the method of Generalized Estimating Equations (GEE) extends the GLM algorithm to accommodate the correlated data encountered in health research, social science, biology, and other related fields.Generalized Estimating Equations provides the first complete treatment of GEE methodology in all of its variations. After introducing the subject and reviewing GLM, the authors examine th

  11. Modern general topology

    CERN Document Server

    Nagata, J-I

    1985-01-01

    This classic work has been fundamentally revised to take account of recent developments in general topology. The first three chapters remain unchanged except for numerous minor corrections and additional exercises, but chapters IV-VII and the new chapter VIII cover the rapid changes that have occurred since 1968 when the first edition appeared.The reader will find many new topics in chapters IV-VIII, e.g. theory of Wallmann-Shanin's compactification, realcompact space, various generalizations of paracompactness, generalized metric spaces, Dugundji type extension theory, linearly ordered topolo

  12. Generalized Hardy's Paradox

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Shu-Han; Xu, Zhen-Peng; Su, Hong-Yi; Pati, Arun Kumar; Chen, Jing-Ling

    2018-01-01

    Here, we present the most general framework for n -particle Hardy's paradoxes, which include Hardy's original one and Cereceda's extension as special cases. Remarkably, for any n ≥3 , we demonstrate that there always exist generalized paradoxes (with the success probability as high as 1 /2n -1) that are stronger than the previous ones in showing the conflict of quantum mechanics with local realism. An experimental proposal to observe the stronger paradox is also presented for the case of three qubits. Furthermore, from these paradoxes we can construct the most general Hardy's inequalities, which enable us to detect Bell's nonlocality for more quantum states.

  13. Generalizations of orthogonal polynomials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bultheel, A.; Cuyt, A.; van Assche, W.; van Barel, M.; Verdonk, B.

    2005-07-01

    We give a survey of recent generalizations of orthogonal polynomials. That includes multidimensional (matrix and vector orthogonal polynomials) and multivariate versions, multipole (orthogonal rational functions) variants, and extensions of the orthogonality conditions (multiple orthogonality). Most of these generalizations are inspired by the applications in which they are applied. We also give a glimpse of these applications, which are usually generalizations of applications where classical orthogonal polynomials also play a fundamental role: moment problems, numerical quadrature, rational approximation, linear algebra, recurrence relations, and random matrices.

  14. Generalized Higgs inflation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamada, Kohei [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Kobayashi, Tsutomu [Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Hakubi Center; Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Physics; Takahashi, Tomo [Saga Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Physics; Yamaguchi, Masahide [Tokyo Institute of Technology (Japan). Dept. of Physics; Yokoyama, Jun' ichi [Tokyo Univ. (JP). Research Center for the Early Universe (RESCEU); Tokyo Univ., Chiba (JP). Inst. for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe (IPMU)

    2012-03-15

    We study Higgs inflation in the context of generalized G-inflation, i.e., the most general single-field inflation model with second-order field equations. The four variants of Higgs inflation proposed so far in the literature can be accommodated at one time in our framework. We also propose yet another class of Higgs inflation, the running Einstein inflation model, that can naturally arise from the generalized G-inflation framework. As a result, five Higgs inflation models in all should be discussed on an equal footing. Concise formulas for primordial fluctuations in these generalized Higgs inflation models are provided, which will be helpful to determine which model is favored from the future experiments and observations such as the Large Hadron Collider and the Planck satellite.

  15. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... General ultrasound procedure View full size with caption Pediatric Content Some imaging tests and treatments have special pediatric considerations. The teddy bear denotes child-specific content. ...

  16. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... inserted into a man's rectum to view the prostate. Transvaginal ultrasound. The transducer is inserted into a ... Stenting Ultrasound-Guided Breast Biopsy Obstetric Ultrasound Ultrasound - Prostate Biopsies - Overview Images related to General Ultrasound Videos ...

  17. Engineering general intelligence

    CERN Document Server

    Goertzel, Ben; Geisweiller, Nil

    2014-01-01

    The work outlines a novel conceptual and theoretical framework for understanding Artificial General Intelligence and based on this framework outlines a practical roadmap for the development of AGI with capability at the human level and ultimately beyond.

  18. Engineering general intelligence

    CERN Document Server

    Goertzel, Ben; Geisweiller, Nil

    2014-01-01

    The work outlines a detailed blueprint for the creation of an Artificial General Intelligence system with capability at the human level and ultimately beyond, according to the Cog Prime AGI design and the Open Cog software architecture.

  19. Generalizing smooth transition autoregressions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chini, Emilio Zanetti

    We introduce a variant of the smooth transition autoregression - the GSTAR model - capable to parametrize the asymmetry in the tails of the transition equation by using a particular generalization of the logistic function. A General-to-Specific modelling strategy is discussed in detail, with part......We introduce a variant of the smooth transition autoregression - the GSTAR model - capable to parametrize the asymmetry in the tails of the transition equation by using a particular generalization of the logistic function. A General-to-Specific modelling strategy is discussed in detail......, with particular emphasis on two different LM-type tests for the null of symmetric adjustment towards a new regime and three diagnostic tests, whose power properties are explored via Monte Carlo experiments. Four classical real datasets illustrate the empirical properties of the GSTAR, jointly to a rolling...

  20. Theoretical general relativity: 1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergmann, O.

    1979-01-01

    The metric and field equations of Einstein's general relativity theory are written down. Solutions to the equations are discussed. Connection is made between relativity theory and elementary particle theory. Possibilities for a unified field theory are considered

  1. General Relativity and Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, A. T.

    1973-01-01

    Reviews theoretical and experimental fundamentals of Einstein's theory of general relativity. Indicates that recent development of the theory of the continually expanding universe may lead to revision of the space-time continuum of the finite and unbounded universe. (CC)

  2. General relativity and experiment

    OpenAIRE

    Damour, T.

    1994-01-01

    The confrontation between Einstein's theory of gravitation and experiment is summarized. Although all current experimental data are compatible with general relativity, the importance of pursuing the quest for possible deviations from Einstein's theory is emphasized.

  3. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Index A-Z General Ultrasound Ultrasound imaging uses sound waves to produce pictures of the inside of ... pictures of the inside of the body using sound waves. Ultrasound imaging, also called ultrasound scanning or ...

  4. The General Aggression Model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Allen, Johnie J.; Anderson, Craig A.; Bushman, Brad J.

    The General Aggression Model (GAM) is a comprehensive, integrative, framework for understanding aggression. It considers the role of social, cognitive, personality, developmental, and biological factors on aggression. Proximate processes of GAM detail how person and situation factors influence

  5. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... More Info Images/Videos About Us News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z General Ultrasound Ultrasound ... computer or television monitor. The image is created based on the amplitude (loudness), frequency (pitch) and time ...

  6. Chemical Speciation - General Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page includes general information about the Chemical Speciation Network that is not covered on the main page. Commonly visited documents, including calendars, site lists, and historical files for the program are listed here

  7. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... is General Ultrasound Imaging? What are some common uses of the procedure? How should I prepare? What does the equipment look like? How does the procedure work? How is the procedure performed? What will I ...

  8. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Videos related to General Ultrasound Sponsored by Please note RadiologyInfo.org is not a medical facility. Please ... is further reviewed by committees from the American College of Radiology (ACR) and the Radiological Society of ...

  9. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Send us your feedback Did you find the information you were looking for? Yes No Please type your comment or suggestion ... General ultrasound procedure View full size with caption Pediatric ...

  10. Superstability of Generalized Derivations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ansari-Piri Esmaeil

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the superstability of the functional equation , where and are the mappings on Banach algebra . We have also proved the superstability of generalized derivations associated to the linear functional equation , where .

  11. Generalized Garvan's formulas

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zuevsky, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 3 (2016), s. 225-231 ISSN 1942-5600 Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : modular discriminant * Fay's trisecant identities * modular forms Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics OBOR OECD: Pure mathematics

  12. Science in General Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Read, Andrew F.

    2013-01-01

    General education must develop in students an appreciation of the power of science, how it works, why it is an effective knowledge generation tool, and what it can deliver. Knowing what science has discovered is desirable but less important.

  13. Tuberculosis: General Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    TB Elimination Tuberculosis: General Information What is TB? Tuberculosis (TB) is a disease caused by germs that are spread from person ... Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention Division of Tuberculosis Elimination CS227840_A What Does a Positive Test ...

  14. General Chemistry for Engineers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kybett, B. D.

    1982-01-01

    Discusses the relationship between molecular structure, intermolecular forces, and tensile strengths of a polymer and suggests that this is a logical way to introduce polymers into a general chemistry course. (Author/JN)

  15. Securing General Aviation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Elias, Bart

    2005-01-01

    General aviation (GA) -- a catch-all category that includes about 57% of all civilian aviation activity within the United States -- encompasses a wide range of airports, aircraft, and flight operations...

  16. A generalized Freiheitsatz

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majumdar, S.

    1988-09-01

    A simple proof of Magnus' Freiheitsatz for one-relator groups is given which can be easily applied with slight modifications to prove a generalization of the theorem to any number of relators. (author). 10 refs

  17. Diphoton generalized distribution amplitudes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Beiyad, M.; Pire, B.; Szymanowski, L.; Wallon, S.

    2008-01-01

    We calculate the leading order diphoton generalized distribution amplitudes by calculating the amplitude of the process γ*γ→γγ in the low energy and high photon virtuality region at the Born order and in the leading logarithmic approximation. As in the case of the anomalous photon structure functions, the γγ generalized distribution amplitudes exhibit a characteristic lnQ 2 behavior and obey inhomogeneous QCD evolution equations.

  18. Generalized concatenated quantum codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grassl, Markus; Shor, Peter; Smith, Graeme; Smolin, John; Zeng Bei

    2009-01-01

    We discuss the concept of generalized concatenated quantum codes. This generalized concatenation method provides a systematical way for constructing good quantum codes, both stabilizer codes and nonadditive codes. Using this method, we construct families of single-error-correcting nonadditive quantum codes, in both binary and nonbinary cases, which not only outperform any stabilizer codes for finite block length but also asymptotically meet the quantum Hamming bound for large block length.

  19. Matter in general relativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, J. R.

    1982-01-01

    Two theories of matter in general relativity, the fluid theory and the kinetic theory, were studied. Results include: (1) a discussion of various methods of completing the fluid equations; (2) a method of constructing charged general relativistic solutions in kinetic theory; and (3) a proof and discussion of the incompatibility of perfect fluid solutions in anisotropic cosmologies. Interpretations of NASA gravitational experiments using the above mentioned results were started. Two papers were prepared for publications based on this work.

  20. Generalizing optical geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jonsson, Rickard; Westman, Hans

    2006-01-01

    We show that by employing the standard projected curvature as a measure of spatial curvature, we can make a certain generalization of optical geometry (Abramowicz M A and Lasota J-P 1997 Class. Quantum Grav. A 14 23-30). This generalization applies to any spacetime that admits a hypersurface orthogonal shearfree congruence of worldlines. This is a somewhat larger class of spacetimes than the conformally static spacetimes assumed in standard optical geometry. In the generalized optical geometry, which in the generic case is time dependent, photons move with unit speed along spatial geodesics and the sideways force experienced by a particle following a spatially straight line is independent of the velocity. Also gyroscopes moving along spatial geodesics do not precess (relative to the forward direction). Gyroscopes that follow a curved spatial trajectory precess according to a very simple law of three-rotation. We also present an inertial force formalism in coordinate representation for this generalization. Furthermore, we show that by employing a new sense of spatial curvature (Jonsson R 2006 Class. Quantum Grav. 23 1)) closely connected to Fermat's principle, we can make a more extensive generalization of optical geometry that applies to arbitrary spacetimes. In general this optical geometry will be time dependent, but still geodesic photons move with unit speed and follow lines that are spatially straight in the new sense. Also, the sideways experienced (comoving) force on a test particle following a line that is straight in the new sense will be independent of the velocity

  1. Lectures on general relativity

    CERN Document Server

    Papapetrou, Achille

    1974-01-01

    This book is an elaboration of lecture notes for the graduate course on General Rela­ tivity given by the author at Boston University in the spring semester of 1972. It is an introduction to the subject only, as the time available for the course was limited. The author of an introduction to General Relativity is faced from the beginning with the difficult task of choosing which material to include. A general criterion as­ sisting in this choice is provided by the didactic character of the book: Those chapters have to be included in priority, which will be most useful to the reader in enabling him to understand the methods used in General Relativity, the results obtained so far and possibly the problems still to be solved. This criterion is not sufficient to ensure a unique choice. General Relativity has developed to such a degree, that it is impossible to include in an introductory textbook of a reasonable length even a very condensed treatment of all important problems which have been discussed unt...

  2. New general relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, K.; Shirafuji, T.

    1979-01-01

    A gravitational theory is formulated on the Weitzenboeck space-time, characterized by the vanishing curvature tensor (absolute parallelism) and by the torsion tensor formed of four parallel vector fields. This theory is called new general relativity, since Einstein in 1928 first gave its original form. New general relativity has three parameters c 1 , c 2 , and lambda, besides the Einstein constant kappa. In this paper we choose c 1 = 0 = c 2 , leaving open lambda. We prove, among other things, that (i) a static, spherically symmetric gravitational field is given by the Schwarzschild metric, that (ii) in the weak-field approximation an antisymmetric field of zero mass and zero spin exists, besides gravitons, and that (iii) new general relativity agrees with all the experiments so far carried out

  3. Generalized Gaussian Error Calculus

    CERN Document Server

    Grabe, Michael

    2010-01-01

    For the first time in 200 years Generalized Gaussian Error Calculus addresses a rigorous, complete and self-consistent revision of the Gaussian error calculus. Since experimentalists realized that measurements in general are burdened by unknown systematic errors, the classical, widespread used evaluation procedures scrutinizing the consequences of random errors alone turned out to be obsolete. As a matter of course, the error calculus to-be, treating random and unknown systematic errors side by side, should ensure the consistency and traceability of physical units, physical constants and physical quantities at large. The generalized Gaussian error calculus considers unknown systematic errors to spawn biased estimators. Beyond, random errors are asked to conform to the idea of what the author calls well-defined measuring conditions. The approach features the properties of a building kit: any overall uncertainty turns out to be the sum of a contribution due to random errors, to be taken from a confidence inter...

  4. Generalized isothermic lattices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doliwa, Adam

    2007-01-01

    We study multi-dimensional quadrilateral lattices satisfying simultaneously two integrable constraints: a quadratic constraint and the projective Moutard constraint. When the lattice is two dimensional and the quadric under consideration is the Moebius sphere one obtains, after the stereographic projection, the discrete isothermic surfaces defined by Bobenko and Pinkall by an algebraic constraint imposed on the (complex) cross-ratio of the circular lattice. We derive the analogous condition for our generalized isothermic lattices using Steiner's projective structure of conics, and we present basic geometric constructions which encode integrability of the lattice. In particular, we introduce the Darboux transformation of the generalized isothermic lattice and we derive the corresponding Bianchi permutability principle. Finally, we study two-dimensional generalized isothermic lattices, in particular geometry of their initial boundary value problem

  5. Generalized Phase Contrast

    CERN Document Server

    Glückstad, Jesper

    2009-01-01

    Generalized Phase Contrast elevates the phase contrast technique not only to improve phase imaging but also to cross over and interface with diverse and seemingly disparate fields of contemporary optics and photonics. This book presents a comprehensive introduction to the Generalized Phase Contrast (GPC) method including an overview of the range of current and potential applications of GPC in wavefront sensing and phase imaging, structured laser illumination and image projection, optical trapping and manipulation, and optical encryption and decryption. The GPC method goes further than the restrictive assumptions of conventional Zernike phase contrast analysis and achieves an expanded range of validity beyond weak phase perturbations. The generalized analysis yields design criteria for tuning experimental parameters to achieve optimal performance in terms of accuracy, fidelity and light efficiency. Optimization can address practical issues, such as finding an optimal spatial filter for the chosen application, ...

  6. General resonance mediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGarrie, Moritz

    2012-07-01

    We extend the framework of general gauge mediation to cases where the mediating fields have a nontrivial spectral function, as might arise from strong dynamics. We demonstrate through examples that this setup describes a broad class of possible models of gauge mediated supersymmetry breaking. A main emphasis is to give general formulas for cross sections for σ(visible → hidden) in these resonance models. We will also give formulas for soft masses, A-terms and demonstrate the framework with a holographic setup.

  7. Fractional Order Generalized Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Tenreiro Machado

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper formulates a novel expression for entropy inspired in the properties of Fractional Calculus. The characteristics of the generalized fractional entropy are tested both in standard probability distributions and real world data series. The results reveal that tuning the fractional order allow an high sensitivity to the signal evolution, which is useful in describing the dynamics of complex systems. The concepts are also extended to relative distances and tested with several sets of data, confirming the goodness of the generalization.

  8. Generalized G-theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sladkowski, J.

    1991-01-01

    Various attempts to formulate the fundamental physical interactions in the framework of unified geometric theories have recently gained considerable success (Kaluza, 1921; Klein, 1926; Trautmann, 1970; Cho, 1975). Symmetries of the spacetime and so-called internal spaces seem to play a key role in investigating both the fundamental interactions and the abundance of elementary particles. The author presents a category-theoretic description of a generalization of the G-theory concept and its application to geometric compactification and dimensional reduction. The main reasons for using categories and functors as tools are the clearness and the level of generalization one can obtain

  9. General minisum circle location

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Körner, Mark; Brimberg, Jack; Juel, Henrik

    2009-01-01

    In our paper we approximate a set of given points by a general circle. More precisely, we consider the problem of locating and scaling the unit ball of some given norm k1 with respect to xed points on the plane such that the sum of weighted distances between the circle and the xed points is minim......In our paper we approximate a set of given points by a general circle. More precisely, we consider the problem of locating and scaling the unit ball of some given norm k1 with respect to xed points on the plane such that the sum of weighted distances between the circle and the xed points...

  10. Implementing general gauge mediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carpenter, Linda M.; Dine, Michael; Festuccia, Guido; Mason, John D.

    2009-01-01

    Recently there has been much progress in building models of gauge mediation, often with predictions different than those of minimal gauge mediation. Meade, Seiberg, and Shih have characterized the most general spectrum which can arise in gauge-mediated models. We discuss some of the challenges of building models of general gauge mediation, especially the problem of messenger parity and issues connected with R symmetry breaking and CP violation. We build a variety of viable, weakly coupled models which exhibit some or all of the possible low energy parameters.

  11. General resonance mediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGarrie, Moritz

    2012-07-15

    We extend the framework of general gauge mediation to cases where the mediating fields have a nontrivial spectral function, as might arise from strong dynamics. We demonstrate through examples that this setup describes a broad class of possible models of gauge mediated supersymmetry breaking. A main emphasis is to give general formulas for cross sections for {sigma}(visible {yields} hidden) in these resonance models. We will also give formulas for soft masses, A-terms and demonstrate the framework with a holographic setup.

  12. Topics in general topology

    CERN Document Server

    Morita, K

    1989-01-01

    Being an advanced account of certain aspects of general topology, the primary purpose of this volume is to provide the reader with an overview of recent developments.The papers cover basic fields such as metrization and extension of maps, as well as newly-developed fields like categorical topology and topological dynamics. Each chapter may be read independently of the others, with a few exceptions. It is assumed that the reader has some knowledge of set theory, algebra, analysis and basic general topology.

  13. General edition program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaturi, Sylvain

    1969-01-01

    Computerized edition is essential for data processing exploitation. When a more or less complex edition program is required for each task, then the need for a general edition program become obvious. The aim of this study is to create a general edition program. Universal programs are capable to execute numerous and varied tasks. For a more precise processing, the execution of which is frequently required, the use of a specialized program is preferable because, contradictory to the universal program, it goes straight to the point [fr

  14. General Rytov approximation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potvin, Guy

    2015-10-01

    We examine how the Rytov approximation describing log-amplitude and phase fluctuations of a wave propagating through weak uniform turbulence can be generalized to the case of turbulence with a large-scale nonuniform component. We show how the large-scale refractive index field creates Fermat rays using the path integral formulation for paraxial propagation. We then show how the second-order derivatives of the Fermat ray action affect the Rytov approximation, and we discuss how a numerical algorithm would model the general Rytov approximation.

  15. General Drafting. Technical Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Department of the Army, Washington, DC.

    The manual provides instructional guidance and reference material in the principles and procedures of general drafting and constitutes the primary study text for personnel in drafting as a military occupational specialty. Included is information on drafting equipment and its use; line weights, conventions and formats; lettering; engineering charts…

  16. Towards General Temporal Aggregation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boehlen, Michael H.; Gamper, Johann; Jensen, Christian Søndergaard

    2008-01-01

    associated with the management of temporal data. Indeed, temporal aggregation is complex and among the most difficult, and thus interesting, temporal functionality to support. This paper presents a general framework for temporal aggregation that accommodates existing kinds of aggregation, and it identifies...

  17. Uniqueness of generalized parafermions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bougourzi, A.H.; Ho-Kim, Q.; Kikuchi, Y.; Lam, C.S.

    1991-01-01

    This paper gives an explicit construction of the Feigin--Fuchs representations of the generalized parafermions associated with SU(n) and write down the screening charges for the parafermionic model of SU(3). The authors show that the two representations the authors use are equivalent to each other and to two other representations recently proposed

  18. Interrogation: General vs. Local.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Jeannette

    This paper proposes a set of hypotheses on the nature of interrogration as a possible language universal. Examples and phrase structure rules and diagrams are given. Examining Tamazight and English, genetically unrelated languages with almost no contact, the author distinguishes two types of interrogation: (1) general, querying acceptability to…

  19. Generalized interpolative quantum statistics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramanathan, R.

    1992-01-01

    A generalized interpolative quantum statistics is presented by conjecturing a certain reordering of phase space due to the presence of possible exotic objects other than bosons and fermions. Such an interpolation achieved through a Bose-counting strategy predicts the existence of an infinite quantum Boltzmann-Gibbs statistics akin to the one discovered by Greenberg recently

  20. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Toggle navigation Test/Treatment Patient Type Screening/Wellness Disease/Condition Safety En Español More Info Images/Videos About Us News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z General Ultrasound Ultrasound imaging ...

  1. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... procedure work? How is the procedure performed? What will I experience during and after the procedure? Who interprets the results and how do I get them? What are the benefits vs. risks? What are the limitations of General ...

  2. On Training Generalized Thinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahn, James V.

    A two-phased training study attempted (1) to accelerate the rate at which a total of 8 severely and profoundly retarded children (mean age 57 months) developed the Piagetian concept of object permanence and (2) to demonstrate generalization of the higher performance on object permanence scale to other scales of sensorimotor intelligence and to the…

  3. Meeting Generalized Others

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strøbæk, Pernille Solveig; Willert, Søren

    2014-01-01

    Following George Herbert Mead, we contend that work-related organizational behavior requires continued negotiation of meaning – using linguistic, behavioral, and social tools. The meaning structures of the Generalized Other(s) of a particular employing organization provide the regulatory framework...

  4. Nonabelian generalized gauge multiplets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindstroem, Ulf; Zabzine, Maxim; Rocek, Martin; Ryb, Itai; Unge, Rikard von

    2009-01-01

    We give the nonabelian extension of the newly discovered N = (2, 2) two-dimensional vector multiplets. These can be used to gauge symmetries of sigma models on generalized Kaehler geometries. Starting from the transformation rule for the nonabelian case we find covariant derivatives and gauge covariant field-strengths and write their actions in N = (2, 2) and N = (1, 1) superspace.

  5. GENERAL PRACTITIONERS AND HOSPITALS

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In recent years in South Africa the position of the general practi- tioner in hospitals has ... ments, and it is in these hospitals that difficulties have arisen. On the other hand, ... great extent deprived of contact with his colleagues. He comes to ... eventually lose interest in the results of treatment and advances in medicine. In fact ...

  6. Generalized Morphology using Sponges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Gronde, Jasper J.; Roerdink, Jos B.T.M.

    2016-01-01

    Mathematical morphology has traditionally been grounded in lattice theory. For non-scalar data lattices often prove too restrictive, however. In this paper we present a more general alternative, sponges, that still allows useful definitions of various properties and concepts from morphological

  7. Annual General Meetings

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    We have produced this information booklet to explain why companies must – by law – hold an Annual General Meeting (AGM). The laws which cover AGMs are known as the Companies Acts. This guide gives only a summary of the rules for AGMs. If you have a concern about the AGM of a particular company, you should get independent legal advice.

  8. Generality in Artificial Intelligence

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 19; Issue 3. Generality in Artificial Intelligence. John McCarthy. Classics Volume 19 Issue 3 March 2014 pp 283-296. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: https://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/019/03/0283-0296. Author Affiliations.

  9. General conclusions on workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rustand, H.

    2006-01-01

    The author proposes a general conclusion on the second workshop on the indemnification of damage in the event of a nuclear accident, organized in Bratislava, the 18-20 May 2005. He pointed out the most important discussions and the results revealed during these two days. (A.L.B.)

  10. Generalized optical theorems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cahill, K.

    1975-11-01

    Local field theory is used to derive formulas that express certain boundary values of the N-point function as sums of products of scattering amplitudes. These formulas constitute a generalization of the optical theorem and facilitate the analysis of multiparticle scattering functions [fr

  11. General Relativistic Plasma Dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moortgat, J.B.

    2006-01-01

    In this thesis I discuss the importance of general relativity on plasma physics in several astrophysical and cosmological contexts. The first chapters show how gravitational waves can excite all three fundamental low frequency magnetohydrodynamic plasma modes, the Alfven, slow and fast

  12. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... transducer sends out high-frequency sound waves (that the human ear cannot hear) into the body and then ... ultrasound , there are no known harmful effects on humans. top of page What are the limitations of General Ultrasound Imaging? Ultrasound waves are ...

  13. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... to General Ultrasound Sponsored by Please note RadiologyInfo.org is not a medical facility. Please contact your ... links: For the convenience of our users, RadiologyInfo .org provides links to relevant websites. RadiologyInfo.org , ACR ...

  14. General image acquisition parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teissier, J.M.; Lopez, F.M.; Langevin, J.F.

    1993-01-01

    The general parameters are of primordial importance to achieve image quality in terms of spatial resolution and contrast. They also play a role in the acquisition time for each sequence. We describe them separately, before associating them in a decision tree gathering the various options that are possible for diagnosis

  15. Generalized zero point anomaly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nogueira, Jose Alexandre; Maia Junior, Adolfo

    1994-01-01

    It is defined Zero point Anomaly (ZPA) as the difference between the Effective Potential (EP) and the Zero point Energy (ZPE). It is shown, for a massive and interacting scalar field that, in very general conditions, the renormalized ZPA vanishes and then the renormalized EP and ZPE coincide. (author). 3 refs

  16. General Business 101.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manitoba Dept. of Education, Winnipeg.

    This teaching guide contains guidelines for conducting a secondary-level general business course. Intended to serve as an introduction to business and consumer fundamentals, the course provides socioeconomic background useful to students seeking vocational preparation for office and clerical occupations. The goals and objectives of the course are…

  17. Impetigo in General Practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Koning (Sander)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractImpetigo is a common skin infection, usually caused by Staphylococcus aureus that mainly occurs in children. Patients with impetigo usually consult their general practitioner, who also treats the vast majority of cases. Impetigo is considered highly infectious, and consequently

  18. General Algorithm (High level)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. General Algorithm (High level). Iteratively. Use Tightness Property to remove points of P1,..,Pi. Use random sampling to get a Random Sample (of enough points) from the next largest cluster, Pi+1. Use the Random Sampling Procedure to approximate ci+1 using the ...

  19. Superstability of Generalized Derivations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esmaeil Ansari-Piri

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the superstability of the functional equation f(xy=xf(y+g(xy, where f and g are the mappings on Banach algebra A. We have also proved the superstability of generalized derivations associated to the linear functional equation f(γx+βy=γf(x+βf(y, where γ,β∈ℂ.

  20. Inspector General Complaints

    Science.gov (United States)

    to file an online IG complaint. Active Duty Resources dfas logo Defense Finance Accounting Service Inspector General Air Force Reserve Resources dfas logo Defense Finance Accounting Service ARPC Air Reserve National Guard Resources dfas logo Defense Finance Accounting Service VPC-GR myPers AFPC Air Force Review

  1. THE CHAPLAIN-GENERAL

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Brigadier and the Director of Logistics and Fi- nance with the rank of Colonel. The Chaplains Service in the Combat. Services. The Chaplain-General is responsible for the short and long-term planning of the Chaplains. Service and for the execution of the approved policy in respect of religious and church affairs in the South ...

  2. Generalized rough sets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rady, E.A.; Kozae, A.M.; Abd El-Monsef, M.M.E.

    2004-01-01

    The process of analyzing data under uncertainty is a main goal for many real life problems. Statistical analysis for such data is an interested area for research. The aim of this paper is to introduce a new method concerning the generalization and modification of the rough set theory introduced early by Pawlak [Int. J. Comput. Inform. Sci. 11 (1982) 314

  3. The generalized circular model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Webers, H.M.

    1995-01-01

    In this paper we present a generalization of the circular model. In this model there are two concentric circular markets, which enables us to study two types of markets simultaneously. There are switching costs involved for moving from one circle to the other circle, which can also be thought of as

  4. Work and General Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Bangkok (Thailand). Regional Office for Education in Asia and the Pacific.

    Presentations and other materials are provided from the Asia and the Pacific Programme of Educational Innovation for Development (APEID) Planning and Review Meeting on Work as an Integral Part of General Education. The focus is on how education, through an orientation to work, could help to decrease the gravity of the problems of population…

  5. Generalized pure Lovelock gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Concha, Patrick; Rodríguez, Evelyn

    2017-11-01

    We present a generalization of the n-dimensional (pure) Lovelock Gravity theory based on an enlarged Lorentz symmetry. In particular, we propose an alternative way to introduce a cosmological term. Interestingly, we show that the usual pure Lovelock gravity is recovered in a matter-free configuration. The five and six-dimensional cases are explicitly studied.

  6. Generalized pure Lovelock gravity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Concha

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available We present a generalization of the n-dimensional (pure Lovelock Gravity theory based on an enlarged Lorentz symmetry. In particular, we propose an alternative way to introduce a cosmological term. Interestingly, we show that the usual pure Lovelock gravity is recovered in a matter-free configuration. The five and six-dimensional cases are explicitly studied.

  7. Generalized internal multiple imaging

    KAUST Repository

    Zuberi, Mohammad Akbar Hosain

    2014-12-04

    Various examples are provided for generalized internal multiple imaging (GIMI). In one example, among others, a method includes generating a higher order internal multiple image using a background Green\\'s function and rendering the higher order internal multiple image for presentation. In another example, a system includes a computing device and a generalized internal multiple imaging (GIMI) application executable in the computing device. The GIMI application includes logic that generates a higher order internal multiple image using a background Green\\'s function and logic that renders the higher order internal multiple image for display on a display device. In another example, a non-transitory computer readable medium has a program executable by processing circuitry that generates a higher order internal multiple image using a background Green\\'s function and renders the higher order internal multiple image for display on a display device.

  8. Annual General Asssembly

    CERN Document Server

    Pension Fund

    2005-01-01

    All members and beneficiaries of the Pension Fund are invited to attend the Annual General Asssembly to be held in the CERN Council Chamber on Thursday 13 October 2005 at 14:30 The Agenda comprises: Opening Remarks (J. Bezemer) Results and presentation of the Annual Report 2004 - Role of asset classes in pension funds (C. Cuénoud). Copies of the 2004 Report are available from departmental secretariats. Package of measures aiming at equilibrating the Fund - Proposals by the Governing Board (J.-P. Matheys). Questions from members and beneficiaries. Persons wishing to ask questions are encouraged to submit them, where possible, in writing in advance, addressed to Mr C. Cuénoud, Administrator of the Fund. Conclusions (J. Bezemer). As usual, participants are invited to drinks after the assembly. NB The minutes of the 2004 General Assembly are available from the Administration of the Fund (tel.(+4122)767 27 42; e-mail Sophia.Revol@cern.ch)

  9. Annual General Asssembly

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    All members and beneficiaries of the Pension Fund are invited to attend the Annual General Asssembly to be held in the CERN Council Chamber on Thursday 13 October 2005 at 14:30 The Agenda comprises: Opening Remarks (J. Bezemer) Results and presentation of the Annual Report 2004 - Role of asset classes in pension funds (C. Cuénoud) Copies of the 2004 Report are available from departmental secretariats. Package of measures aiming at equilibrating the Fund - Proposals by the Governing Board (J.-P. Matheys) Questions from members and beneficiaries Persons wishing to ask questions are encouraged to submit them, where possible, in writing in advance, addressed to Mr C. Cuénoud, Administrator of the Fund. Conclusions (J. Bezemer) As usual, participants are invited to drinks after the assembly. NB The minutes of the 2004 General Assembly are available from the Administration of the Fund (tel.(+4122)767 27 42; e-mail Sophia.Revol@cern.ch)

  10. Global general relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penrose, R.

    1979-01-01

    Much theoretical work in General Relativity has been concerned with finding explicit solutions of Einstein field equations. Exact solutions must involve simplifying procedures which in the case of strong gravitational fields may not be valid. Computers can help but complementary to these are the global qualitative mathematics that have been introduced into relativity over the past years. These have shown that Einstein's equations together with suitable inequalities on the energy-momentum tensor can lead inevitably to space-time singularities arising, provided that some qualitative geometric criterion is satisfied. It seems that in suitable situations of gravitational collapse this criterion will be satisfied. Similarly in a cosmological setting the criterion can be applied in the reverse direction in time. There is, however, the unsolved problem in general relativity of cosmic censorship and this is discussed as a consequence of Einstein's equations. (UK)

  11. Composition - GENERAL INTRODUCTION

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergstrøm-Nielsen, Carl

    2015-01-01

    . They contribute to define, establish and expand the fundamentals, even if their technical aspects are not directly a part of a psychological context. Here at VBN are given some examples of works, with the complete playing material and in some cases with several recordings for each so as to make it possible to get...... 2000 some works put special focus on tightening the interactional aspect beyond a more general indeterminate or loosely sequential situation - for instance Opportunities, Strategies, Cue Rondo, Cue Wheel. Further examples may be found in published fonograms (CD+DVD) (see bibliotek.dk - librarians.......snyk.dk. Additionally, the work database at the Danish copyright organisation KODA which is, however, not open to the general public. Please note that my father had exactly the same name. He published Danish literature....

  12. Elementary general relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clarke, C.

    1979-01-01

    The plan of the book is as follows: Chapter 1 develops special relativity in a setting and notation that can immediately be transferred to general relativity. Most of the fundamental geometrical ideas are established here. Chapter 2 gives a more conventional account of some selected applications of special relativity. Chapter 3 is the heart of the book. A geometrical model of space-time is progressively built up, motivated by physical arguments stemming from the equivalence principle, leading to Einstein's field equations. Chapter 4 deals very quickly with the simplest form of weak-field theory with application to gravitational radiation. Chapter 5 concludes the book with a fairly detailed analysis of the Schwarzschild solution, plane fronted gravitational waves, and the Robertson-Walker cosmological solutions. Exercises at the end of each chapter extend the general theory into particular applications, giving a broader picture of the scope of the subject. (author)

  13. Categorization = Decision Making + Generalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seger, Carol A; Peterson, Erik J.

    2013-01-01

    We rarely, if ever, repeatedly encounter exactly the same situation. This makes generalization crucial for real world decision making. We argue that categorization, the study of generalizable representations, is a type of decision making, and that categorization learning research would benefit from approaches developed to study the neuroscience of decision making. Similarly, methods developed to examine generalization and learning within the field of categorization may enhance decision making research. We first discuss perceptual information processing and integration, with an emphasis on accumulator models. We then examine learning the value of different decision making choices via experience, emphasizing reinforcement learning modeling approaches. Next we discuss how value is combined with other factors in decision making, emphasizing the effects of uncertainty. Finally, we describe how a final decision is selected via thresholding processes implemented by the basal ganglia and related regions. We also consider how memory related functions in the hippocampus may be integrated with decision making mechanisms and contribute to categorization. PMID:23548891

  14. Generalized internal multiple imaging

    KAUST Repository

    Zuberi, Mohammad Akbar Hosain; Alkhalifah, Tariq

    2014-01-01

    Various examples are provided for generalized internal multiple imaging (GIMI). In one example, among others, a method includes generating a higher order internal multiple image using a background Green's function and rendering the higher order internal multiple image for presentation. In another example, a system includes a computing device and a generalized internal multiple imaging (GIMI) application executable in the computing device. The GIMI application includes logic that generates a higher order internal multiple image using a background Green's function and logic that renders the higher order internal multiple image for display on a display device. In another example, a non-transitory computer readable medium has a program executable by processing circuitry that generates a higher order internal multiple image using a background Green's function and renders the higher order internal multiple image for display on a display device.

  15. Strains in general relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bini, Donato; Felice, Fernando de; Geralico, Andrea

    2006-01-01

    The definition of relative accelerations and strains among a set of comoving particles is studied in connection with the geometric properties of the frame adapted to a 'fiducial observer'. We find that a relativistically complete and correct definition of strains must take into account the transport law of the chosen spatial triad along the observer's congruence. We use special congruences of (accelerated) test particles in some familiar spacetimes to elucidate such a point. The celebrated idea of Szekeres' compass of inertia, arising when studying geodesic deviation among a set of free-falling particles, is here generalized to the case of accelerated particles. In doing so we have naturally contributed to the theory of relativistic gravity gradiometer. Moreover, our analysis was made in an observer-dependent form, a fact that would be very useful when thinking about general relativistic tests on space stations orbiting compact objects like black holes and also in other interesting gravitational situations

  16. General introduction to glucosinolates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halkier, Barbara Ann

    2016-01-01

    will be presented a general introduction to glucosinolates ranging from the evolution of glucosinolates to the many roles glucosinolates have for humans as well as an overview of the current knowledge on the orchestration of the glucosinolate biosynthetic pathway. The latter includes an introduction to the genes...... to the plasma membrane. Examples of how the knowledge gained from basic research has been translated into applied glucosinolate research through pathway and transport engineering will be presented....

  17. Generalized chiral perturbation theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knecht, M.; Stern, J.

    1994-01-01

    The Generalized Chiral Perturbation Theory enlarges the framework of the standard χPT (Chiral Perturbation Theory), relaxing certain assumptions which do not necessarily follow from QCD or from experiment, and which are crucial for the usual formulation of the low energy expansion. In this way, experimental tests of the foundations of the standard χPT become possible. Emphasis is put on physical aspects rather than on formal developments of GχPT. (author). 31 refs

  18. Generalized Rosenbluth potentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassan, M.H.A.

    1977-05-01

    It is shown that the coefficients of friction and diffusion of the Balescu-Lenard equation can be derived from two ''generalized Rosenbluth potentials'', which reduce to the standard Rosenbluth potentials if wave effects are neglected. The potentials are evaluated explicitly in the case of Maxwellian field particles. The dominant contribution of wave effects to the potentials is due to the interaction of electron field particles with ion sound waves

  19. Generalized fiber Fourier optics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cincotti, Gabriella

    2011-06-15

    A twofold generalization of the optical schemes that perform the discrete Fourier transform (DFT) is given: new passive planar architectures are presented where the 2 × 2 3 dB couplers are replaced by M × M hybrids, reducing the number of required connections and phase shifters. Furthermore, the planar implementation of the discrete fractional Fourier transform (DFrFT) is also described, with a waveguide grating router (WGR) configuration and a properly modified slab coupler.

  20. The Generalized Quantum Statistics

    OpenAIRE

    Hwang, WonYoung; Ji, Jeong-Young; Hong, Jongbae

    1999-01-01

    The concept of wavefunction reduction should be introduced to standard quantum mechanics in any physical processes where effective reduction of wavefunction occurs, as well as in the measurement processes. When the overlap is negligible, each particle obey Maxwell-Boltzmann statistics even if the particles are in principle described by totally symmetrized wavefunction [P.R.Holland, The Quantum Theory of Motion, Cambridge Unversity Press, 1993, p293]. We generalize the conjecture. That is, par...

  1. General LTE Sequence

    OpenAIRE

    Billal, Masum

    2015-01-01

    In this paper,we have characterized sequences which maintain the same property described in Lifting the Exponent Lemma. Lifting the Exponent Lemma is a very powerful tool in olympiad number theory and recently it has become very popular. We generalize it to all sequences that maintain a property like it i.e. if p^{\\alpha}||a_k and p^\\b{eta}||n, then p^{{\\alpha}+\\b{eta}}||a_{nk}.

  2. Impetigo in General Practice

    OpenAIRE

    Koning, Sander

    2005-01-01

    textabstractImpetigo is a common skin infection, usually caused by Staphylococcus aureus that mainly occurs in children. Patients with impetigo usually consult their general practitioner, who also treats the vast majority of cases. Impetigo is considered highly infectious, and consequently children are often barred from schools. Patients and doctors seek prompt treatment. Although we know the causative bacteria, we do not know what factors promote contagiousness or severity of impetigo. There...

  3. Generalized Asynchronous Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. S. Kudryashova

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper consider a mathematical model of a concurrent system, the special case of which is an asynchronous system. Distributed asynchronous automata are introduced here. It is proved that Petri nets and transition systems with independence can be considered as distributed asynchronous automata. Time distributed asynchronous automata are defined in a standard way by correspondence which relates events with time intervals. It is proved that the time distributed asynchronous automata generalize time Petri nets and asynchronous systems.

  4. Entrepreneurship within General Aviation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullmann, Brian M.

    1995-01-01

    Many modern economic theories place great importance upon entrepreneurship in the economy. Some see the entrepreneur as the individual who bears risk of operating a business in the face of uncertainty about future conditions and who is rewarded through profits and losses. The 20th century economist Joseph Schumpter saw the entrepreneur as the medium by which advancing technology is incorporated into society as businesses seek competitive advantages through more efficient product development processes. Due to the importance that capitalistic systems place upon entrepreneurship, it has become a well studied subject with many texts to discuss how entrepreneurs can succeed in modern society. Many entrepreneuring and business management courses go so far as to discuss the characteristic phases and prominent challenges that fledgling companies face in their efforts to bring a new product into a competitive market. However, even with all of these aids, start-up companies fail at an enormous rate. Indeed, the odds of shepherding a new company through the travails of becoming a well established company (as measured by the ability to reach Initial Public Offering (IPO)) have been estimated to be six in 1,000,000. Each niche industry has characteristic challenges which act as barriers to entry for new products into that industry. Thus, the applicability of broad generalizations is subject to limitations within niche markets. This paper will discuss entrepreneurship as it relates to general aviation. The goals of this paper will be to: introduce general aviation; discuss the details of marrying entrepreneurship with general aviation; and present a sample business plan which would characterize a possible entrepreneurial venture.

  5. Generalized Nonlinear Yule Models

    OpenAIRE

    Lansky, Petr; Polito, Federico; Sacerdote, Laura

    2016-01-01

    With the aim of considering models with persistent memory we propose a fractional nonlinear modification of the classical Yule model often studied in the context of macrovolution. Here the model is analyzed and interpreted in the framework of the development of networks such as the World Wide Web. Nonlinearity is introduced by replacing the linear birth process governing the growth of the in-links of each specific webpage with a fractional nonlinear birth process with completely general birth...

  6. Generalized classical mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Leon, M.; Rodrigues, P.R.

    1985-01-01

    The geometrical study of Classical Mechanics shows that the Hamiltonian (respectively, Lagrangian) formalism may be characterized by intrinsical structures canonically defined on the cotangent (respectively, tangent) bundle of a differentiable manifold. A generalized formalism for higher order Lagrangians is developed. Then the Hamiltonian form of the theory is developed. Finally, the Poisson brackets are defined and the conditions under which a mapping is a canonical transformation are studied. The Hamilton-Jacobi equation for this type of mechanics is established. (Auth.)

  7. Robotics in General Surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Wall, James; Chandra, Venita; Krummel, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    In summary, robotics has made a significant contribution to General Surgery in the past 20 years. In its infancy, surgical robotics has seen a shift from early systems that assisted the surgeon to current teleoperator systems that can enhance surgical skills. Telepresence and augmented reality surgery are being realized, while research and development into miniaturization and automation is rapidly moving forward. The future of surgical robotics is bright. Researchers are working to address th...

  8. General Relativity and Gravitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehlers, J.; Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    The General Theory of Relativity (GR), created by Albert Einstein between 1907 and 1915, is a theory both of gravitation and of spacetime structure. It is based on the assumption that matter, via its energy-momentum, interacts with the metric of spacetime, which is considered (in contrast to Newtonian physics and SPECIAL RELATIVITY) as a dynamical field having degrees of freedom of its own (GRAVI...

  9. General aviation in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xiaosi

    In the last four decades, China has accomplished economic reform successfully and grown to be a leading country in the world. As the "world factory", the country is able to manufacture a variety of industrial products from clothes and shoes to rockets and satellites. But the aviation industry has always been a weak spot and even the military relies on imported turbofan engines and jet fighters, not to mention the airlines. Recently China has launched programs such as ARJ21 and C919, and started reform to change the undeveloped situation of its aviation industry. As the foundation of the aviation industry, the development of general aviation is essential for the rise of commercial aviation. The primary goal of this study is to examine the general aviation industry and finds the issues that constrain the development of the industry in the system. The research method used in this thesis is the narrative research of qualitative approach since the policy instead of statistical data is analyzed. It appears that the main constraint for the general aviation industry is the government interference.

  10. Generalized dielectric permittivity tensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borzdov, G.N.; Barkovskii, L.M.; Fedorov, F.I.

    1986-01-01

    The authors deal with the question of what is to be done with the formalism of the electrodynamics of dispersive media based on the introduction of dielectric-permittivity tensors for purely harmonic fields when Voigt waves and waves of more general form exist. An attempt is made to broaden and generalize the formalism to take into account dispersion of waves of the given type. In dispersive media, the polarization, magnetization, and conduction current-density vectors of point and time are determined by the values of the electromagnetic field vectors in the vicinity of this point (spatial dispersion) in the preceding instants of time (time dispersion). The dielectric-permittivity tensor and other tensors of electrodynamic parameters of the medium are introduced in terms of a set of evolution operators and not the set of harmonic function. It is noted that a magnetic-permeability tensor and an elastic-modulus tensor may be introduced for an acoustic field in dispersive anisotropic media with coupling equations of general form

  11. General Relativity and Gravitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashtekar, Abhay; Berger, Beverly; Isenberg, James; MacCallum, Malcolm

    2015-07-01

    Part I. Einstein's Triumph: 1. 100 years of general relativity George F. R. Ellis; 2. Was Einstein right? Clifford M. Will; 3. Cosmology David Wands, Misao Sasaki, Eiichiro Komatsu, Roy Maartens and Malcolm A. H. MacCallum; 4. Relativistic astrophysics Peter Schneider, Ramesh Narayan, Jeffrey E. McClintock, Peter Mészáros and Martin J. Rees; Part II. New Window on the Universe: 5. Receiving gravitational waves Beverly K. Berger, Karsten Danzmann, Gabriela Gonzalez, Andrea Lommen, Guido Mueller, Albrecht Rüdiger and William Joseph Weber; 6. Sources of gravitational waves. Theory and observations Alessandra Buonanno and B. S. Sathyaprakash; Part III. Gravity is Geometry, After All: 7. Probing strong field gravity through numerical simulations Frans Pretorius, Matthew W. Choptuik and Luis Lehner; 8. The initial value problem of general relativity and its implications Gregory J. Galloway, Pengzi Miao and Richard Schoen; 9. Global behavior of solutions to Einstein's equations Stefanos Aretakis, James Isenberg, Vincent Moncrief and Igor Rodnianski; Part IV. Beyond Einstein: 10. Quantum fields in curved space-times Stefan Hollands and Robert M. Wald; 11. From general relativity to quantum gravity Abhay Ashtekar, Martin Reuter and Carlo Rovelli; 12. Quantum gravity via unification Henriette Elvang and Gary T. Horowitz.

  12. Hyperuniformity and its generalizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torquato, Salvatore

    2016-08-01

    Disordered many-particle hyperuniform systems are exotic amorphous states of matter that lie between crystal and liquid: They are like perfect crystals in the way they suppress large-scale density fluctuations and yet are like liquids or glasses in that they are statistically isotropic with no Bragg peaks. These exotic states of matter play a vital role in a number of problems across the physical, mathematical as well as biological sciences and, because they are endowed with novel physical properties, have technological importance. Given the fundamental as well as practical importance of disordered hyperuniform systems elucidated thus far, it is natural to explore the generalizations of the hyperuniformity notion and its consequences. In this paper, we substantially broaden the hyperuniformity concept along four different directions. This includes generalizations to treat fluctuations in the interfacial area (one of the Minkowski functionals) in heterogeneous media and surface-area driven evolving microstructures, random scalar fields, divergence-free random vector fields, and statistically anisotropic many-particle systems and two-phase media. In all cases, the relevant mathematical underpinnings are formulated and illustrative calculations are provided. Interfacial-area fluctuations play a major role in characterizing the microstructure of two-phase systems (e.g., fluid-saturated porous media), physical properties that intimately depend on the geometry of the interface, and evolving two-phase microstructures that depend on interfacial energies (e.g., spinodal decomposition). In the instances of random vector fields and statistically anisotropic structures, we show that the standard definition of hyperuniformity must be generalized such that it accounts for the dependence of the relevant spectral functions on the direction in which the origin in Fourier space is approached (nonanalyticities at the origin). Using this analysis, we place some well-known energy

  13. Robotics and general surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Brian P; Gagner, Michel

    2003-12-01

    Robotics are now being used in all surgical fields, including general surgery. By increasing intra-abdominal articulations while operating through small incisions, robotics are increasingly being used for a large number of visceral and solid organ operations, including those for the gallbladder, esophagus, stomach, intestines, colon, and rectum, as well as for the endocrine organs. Robotics and general surgery are blending for the first time in history and as a specialty field should continue to grow for many years to come. We continuously demand solutions to questions and limitations that are experienced in our daily work. Laparoscopy is laden with limitations such as fixed axis points at the trocar insertion sites, two-dimensional video monitors, limited dexterity at the instrument tips, lack of haptic sensation, and in some cases poor ergonomics. The creation of a surgical robot system with 3D visual capacity seems to deal with most of these limitations. Although some in the surgical community continue to test the feasibility of these surgical robots and to question the necessity of such an expensive venture, others are already postulating how to improve the next generation of telemanipulators, and in so doing are looking beyond today's horizon to find simpler solutions. As the robotic era enters the world of the general surgeon, more and more complex procedures will be able to be approached through small incisions. As technology catches up with our imaginations, robotic instruments (as opposed to robots) and 3D monitoring will become routine and continue to improve patient care by providing surgeons with the most precise, least traumatic ways of treating surgical disease.

  14. General engineering knowledge

    CERN Document Server

    Mcgeorge, H D

    2012-01-01

    This book covers the general engineering knowledge required by candidates for the Department of Transport's Certificates of Competency in Marine Engineering, Class One and Class Two. The text is updated throughout in this third edition, and new chapters have been added on production of fresh water and on noise and vibration. Reference is also provided to up-to-date papers and official publications on specialized topics. These updates ensure that this little volume will continue to be a useful pre-examination and revision text. - Marine Engineers Review, January 1992

  15. Generalized Power Domination

    OpenAIRE

    Omerzel, Aleš

    2014-01-01

    The power domination problem is an optimization problem that has emerged together with the development of the power networks. It is important to control the voltage and current in all the nodes and links in a power network. Measuring devices are expensive, which is why there is a tendency to place a minimum number of devices in a power network so that the network remains fully supervised. The k-power domination is a generalization of the power domination. The thesis represents the rules of th...

  16. Orthognathic surgery: general considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khechoyan, David Y

    2013-08-01

    a patient's appearance and occlusal function can be improved significantly, impacting the patient's sense of self and well-being. Successful outcomes in modern orthognathic surgery rely on close collaboration between the surgeon and the orthodontist across all stages of treatment, from preoperative planning to finalization of occlusion. Virtual computer planning promotes a more accurate analysis of dentofacial deformity and preoperative planning. It is also an invaluable aid in providing comprehensive patient education. In this article, the author describes the general surgical principles that underlie orthognathic surgery, highlighting the sequence of treatment, preoperative analysis of dentofacial deformity, surgical execution of the treatment plan, and possible complications.

  17. Conformally Coupled General Relativity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrej Arbuzov

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The gravity model developed in the series of papers (Arbuzov et al. 2009; 2010, (Pervushin et al. 2012 is revisited. The model is based on the Ogievetsky theorem, which specifies the structure of the general coordinate transformation group. The theorem is implemented in the context of the Noether theorem with the use of the nonlinear representation technique. The canonical quantization is performed with the use of reparametrization-invariant time and Arnowitt– Deser–Misner foliation techniques. Basic quantum features of the models are discussed. Mistakes appearing in the previous papers are corrected.

  18. Generalized Multiphoton Quantum Interference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Max Tillmann

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Nonclassical interference of photons lies at the heart of optical quantum information processing. Here, we exploit tunable distinguishability to reveal the full spectrum of multiphoton nonclassical interference. We investigate this in theory and experiment by controlling the delay times of three photons injected into an integrated interferometric network. We derive the entire coincidence landscape and identify transition matrix immanants as ideally suited functions to describe the generalized case of input photons with arbitrary distinguishability. We introduce a compact description by utilizing a natural basis that decouples the input state from the interferometric network, thereby providing a useful tool for even larger photon numbers.

  19. Itch Management: General Principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misery, Laurent

    2016-01-01

    Like pain, itch is a challenging condition that needs to be managed. Within this setting, the first principle of itch management is to get an appropriate diagnosis to perform an etiology-oriented therapy. In several cases it is not possible to treat the cause, the etiology is undetermined, there are several causes, or the etiological treatment is not effective enough to alleviate itch completely. This is also why there is need for symptomatic treatment. In all patients, psychological support and associated pragmatic measures might be helpful. General principles and guidelines are required, yet patient-centered individual care remains fundamental. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  20. The generalized Fubini instanton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yurova, A.A.; Yurov, A.V.

    2008-01-01

    We show that (1+2) nonlinear Klein-Gordon equation with negative coupling admits an exact solution which appears to be the linear superposition of the plane wave and the nonsingular rational soliton. We show that the same approach allows to construct the solution of similar properties for the Euclidean φ 4 model with broken symmetry. Interestingly, this regular solution will be of instanton type only in the D≤5 Euclidean space. Thus one can use the generalized Fubini instantons (in quantum cosmology for example) only for the case of the single infinite extra dimension

  1. Topology general & algebraic

    CERN Document Server

    Chatterjee, D

    2007-01-01

    About the Book: This book provides exposition of the subject both in its general and algebraic aspects. It deals with the notions of topological spaces, compactness, connectedness, completeness including metrizability and compactification, algebraic aspects of topological spaces through homotopy groups and homology groups. It begins with the basic notions of topological spaces but soon going beyond them reaches the domain of algebra through the notions of homotopy, homology and cohomology. How these approaches work in harmony is the subject matter of this book. The book finally arrives at the

  2. General gauge mediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meade, Patrick; Seiberg, Nathan; Shih, David

    2009-01-01

    We give a general definition of gauge mediated supersymmetry breaking which encompasses all the known gauge mediation models. In particular, it includes both models with messengers as well as direct mediation models. A formalism for computing the soft terms in the generic model is presented. Such a formalism is necessary in strongly-coupled direct mediation models where perturbation theory cannot be used. It allows us to identify features of the entire class of gauge mediation models and to distinguish them from specific signatures of various subclasses. (author)

  3. On generalized Volterra systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charalambides, S. A.; Damianou, P. A.; Evripidou, C. A.

    2015-01-01

    We construct a large family of evidently integrable Hamiltonian systems which are generalizations of the KM system. The algorithm uses the root system of a complex simple Lie algebra. The Hamiltonian vector field is homogeneous cubic but in a number of cases a simple change of variables transforms such a system to a quadratic Lotka-Volterra system. We present in detail all such systems in the cases of A3, A4 and we also give some examples from higher dimensions. We classify all possible Lotka-Volterra systems that arise via this algorithm in the An case.

  4. Directors General appointed

    CERN Multimedia

    1975-01-01

    At a special session on 21 March, presided over by P. Levaux, the Council of the European Organization for Nuclear Research appointed J . B. Adams and L . Van Hove as Directors General of the Organization for a period of five years beginning 1 January 1976. Dr. Adams will be responsible for the administration of CERN, for the operation of the equipment and services and for the construction of buildings and major equipment. Professor Van Hove will be responsible for the research activities of the Organization.

  5. General Criterion for Harmonicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proesmans, Karel; Vandebroek, Hans; Van den Broeck, Christian

    2017-10-01

    Inspired by Kubo-Anderson Markov processes, we introduce a new class of transfer matrices whose largest eigenvalue is determined by a simple explicit algebraic equation. Applications include the free energy calculation for various equilibrium systems and a general criterion for perfect harmonicity, i.e., a free energy that is exactly quadratic in the external field. As an illustration, we construct a "perfect spring," namely, a polymer with non-Gaussian, exponentially distributed subunits which, nevertheless, remains harmonic until it is fully stretched. This surprising discovery is confirmed by Monte Carlo and Langevin simulations.

  6. Generalized Block Failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jönsson, Jeppe

    2015-01-01

    Block tearing is considered in several codes as a pure block tension or a pure block shear failure mechanism. However in many situations the load acts eccentrically and involves the transfer of a substantial moment in combination with the shear force and perhaps a normal force. A literature study...... shows that no readily available tests with a well-defined substantial eccentricity have been performed. This paper presents theoretical and experimental work leading towards generalized block failure capacity methods. Simple combination of normal force, shear force and moment stress distributions along...... yield lines around the block leads to simple interaction formulas similar to other interaction formulas in the codes....

  7. The latest general chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryu, Geun Bae; Choi, Se Yeong; Kim, Chin Yeong; Yoon, Gil Jung; Lee, Eun Seok; Seo, Moon Gyu

    1995-02-01

    This book deals with the latest general chemistry, which is comprised of twenty-three chapters, the contents of this book are introduction, theory of atoms and molecule, chemical formula and a chemical reaction formula, structure of atoms, nature of atoms and the periodic table, structure of molecule and spectrum, gas, solution, solid, chemical combination, chemical reaction speed, chemical equilibrium, thermal chemistry, oxidation-reduction, electrochemistry, acid-base, complex, aquatic chemistry, air chemistry, nuclear chemistry, metal and nonmetal, organic chemistry and biochemistry. It has exercise in the end of each chapter.

  8. Generalized Partial Volume

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Darkner, Sune; Sporring, Jon

    2011-01-01

    Mutual Information (MI) and normalized mutual information (NMI) are popular choices as similarity measure for multimodal image registration. Presently, one of two approaches is often used for estimating these measures: The Parzen Window (PW) and the Generalized Partial Volume (GPV). Their theoret...... of view as well as w.r.t. computational complexity. Finally, we present algorithms for both approaches for NMI which is comparable in speed to Sum of Squared Differences (SSD), and we illustrate the differences between PW and GPV on a number of registration examples....

  9. Generalized inverses theory and computations

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Guorong; Qiao, Sanzheng

    2018-01-01

    This book begins with the fundamentals of the generalized inverses, then moves to more advanced topics. It presents a theoretical study of the generalization of Cramer's rule, determinant representations of the generalized inverses, reverse order law of the generalized inverses of a matrix product, structures of the generalized inverses of structured matrices, parallel computation of the generalized inverses, perturbation analysis of the generalized inverses, an algorithmic study of the computational methods for the full-rank factorization of a generalized inverse, generalized singular value decomposition, imbedding method, finite method, generalized inverses of polynomial matrices, and generalized inverses of linear operators. This book is intended for researchers, postdocs, and graduate students in the area of the generalized inverses with an undergraduate-level understanding of linear algebra.

  10. Generalized etale cohomology theories

    CERN Document Server

    Jardine, John F

    1997-01-01

    A generalized etale cohomology theory is a theory which is represented by a presheaf of spectra on an etale site for an algebraic variety, in analogy with the way an ordinary spectrum represents a cohomology theory for spaces. Examples include etale cohomology and etale K-theory. This book gives new and complete proofs of both Thomason's descent theorem for Bott periodic K-theory and the Nisnevich descent theorem. In doing so, it exposes most of the major ideas of the homotopy theory of presheaves of spectra, and generalized etale homology theories in particular. The treatment includes, for the purpose of adequately dealing with cup product structures, a development of stable homotopy theory for n-fold spectra, which is then promoted to the level of presheaves of n-fold spectra.   This book should be of interest to all researchers working in fields related to algebraic K-theory. The techniques presented here are essentially combinatorial, and hence algebraic. An extensive background in traditional stable hom...

  11. ANNUAL GENERAL ASSEMBLY

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    All members and beneficiaries of the Pension Fund are invited to attend the Annual General Asssembly to be held in the CERN Auditorium on Wednesday 3 October 2001 at 14.30 hrs The Agenda comprises:   Opening Remarks (P. Levaux) Some aspects of risk in a pension fund (C. Cuénoud) Annual Report 2000: Presentation and results (C. Cuénoud) Copies of the Report are available from divisional secretariats. Results of the actuarial reviews (G. Maurin) Questions from members and beneficiaries Persons wishing to ask questions are encouraged to submit them, where possible, in writing in advance, addressed to Mr C. Cuénoud, Administrator of the Fund. Conclusions (P. Levaux) As usual, participants are invited to drinks after the assembly. NB The minutes of the 2000 General Assembly are available from the Administration of the Fund (tel. + 41 22 767 91 94; e-mail Graziella.Praire@cern.ch) The English version will be published next week.

  12. Generalizing minimal supergravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Tianjun; Nanopoulos, Dimitri V.

    2010-01-01

    In Grand Unified Theories (GUTs), the Standard Model (SM) gauge couplings need not be unified at the GUT scale due to the high-dimensional operators. Considering gravity mediated supersymmetry breaking, we study for the first time the generic gauge coupling relations at the GUT scale, and the general gaugino mass relations which are valid from the GUT scale to the electroweak scale at one loop. We define the index k for these relations, which can be calculated in GUTs and can be determined at the Large Hadron Collider and the future International Linear Collider. Thus, we give a concrete definition of the GUT scale in these theories, and suggest a new way to test general GUTs at future experiments. We also discuss five special scenarios with interesting possibilities. With our generic formulae, we present all the GUT-scale gauge coupling relations and all the gaugino mass relations in the SU(5) and SO(10) models, and calculate the corresponding indices k. Especially, the index k is 5/3 in the traditional SU(5) and SO(10) models that have been studied extensively so far. Furthermore, we discuss the field theory realization of the U(1) flux effects on the SM gauge kinetic functions in F-theory GUTs, and calculate their indices k as well.

  13. Generalized Nonlinear Yule Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lansky, Petr; Polito, Federico; Sacerdote, Laura

    2016-11-01

    With the aim of considering models related to random graphs growth exhibiting persistent memory, we propose a fractional nonlinear modification of the classical Yule model often studied in the context of macroevolution. Here the model is analyzed and interpreted in the framework of the development of networks such as the World Wide Web. Nonlinearity is introduced by replacing the linear birth process governing the growth of the in-links of each specific webpage with a fractional nonlinear birth process with completely general birth rates. Among the main results we derive the explicit distribution of the number of in-links of a webpage chosen uniformly at random recognizing the contribution to the asymptotics and the finite time correction. The mean value of the latter distribution is also calculated explicitly in the most general case. Furthermore, in order to show the usefulness of our results, we particularize them in the case of specific birth rates giving rise to a saturating behaviour, a property that is often observed in nature. The further specialization to the non-fractional case allows us to extend the Yule model accounting for a nonlinear growth.

  14. Ordinary General Assembly

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2011-01-01

    Tuesday 12 April at 14.00 Council Chamber, Bldg 503 In conformity with the Statutes of the Staff Association, an ordinary General Assembly is organized once a year (article IV.2.1). Agenda   Adoption of the Agenda Approval of the Draft Minutes of the Ordinary General Assembly of 20 April 2010 Presentation and approval of the Activity Report 2010 Presentation and approval of the Financial Report 2010 Presentation and approval of the Auditors Report 2010 Programme for 2011 Presentation et and approval of the draft budget and subscription rate 2012 Election of the Election Committee Election of the Board of Auditors Miscellaneous We remind members of article IV.3.4 in the Statutes of the Association which reads: “After having dealt with all the items on the agenda, the members may, with the consent of the Assembly, have other matters discussed, but decisions may be taken only on the items listed on the agenda. Nevertheless, the Assembly ma...

  15. Ordinary General Assembly

    CERN Multimedia

    Association du personnel

    2010-01-01

    Tuesday 20 April at 10.00 Council Chamber, Bldg 503 In conformity with the Statutes of the Staff Association, an ordinary General Assembly is organized once a year (article IV.2.1). Agenda Adoption of the Agenda Approval of the Draft Minutes of the Ordinary General Assembly of 12 May 2009 Presentation and approval of the Activity Report 2009 Presentation and approval of the Financial Report 2009 Presentation and approval of the Auditors Report 2009 Programme for 2010 Presentation et and approval of the draft budget and subscription rate 2010 Modifications to the statutes of the association Election of the Election Committee Election of the Board of Auditors Miscellaneous We remind members of article IV.3.4 in the Statutes of the Association which reads: “After having dealt with all the items on the agenda, the members may, with the consent of the Assembly, have other matters discussed, but decisions may be taken only on the items listed on the agenda...

  16. Ordinary General Assembly

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2011-01-01

    Tuesday 12 April at 14.00 Council Chamber, Bldg 503 In conformity with the Statutes of the Staff Association, an ordinary General Assembly is organized once a year (article IV.2.1). Agenda   Adoption of the Agenda Approval of the Draft Minutes of the Ordinary General Assembly of 20 April 2010 Presentation and approval of the Activity Report 2010 Presentation and approval of the Financial Report 2010 Presentation and approval of the Auditors Report 2010 Programme for 2011 Presentation and approval of the draft budget and subscription rate 2012 Election of the Election Committee Election of the Board of Auditors Miscellaneous We remind members of article IV.3.4 in the Statutes of the Association which reads: “After having dealt with all the items on the agenda, the members may, with the consent of the Assembly, have other matters discussed, but decisions may be taken only on the items listed on the agenda. Nevertheless, the Assembly may r...

  17. Ordinary General Assembly

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2010-01-01

    Tuesday 20 April at 10.00 Council Chamber, Bldg 503 In conformity with the Statutes of the Staff Association, an ordinary General Assembly is organized once a year (article IV.2.1). Agenda   Adoption of the Agenda Approval of the Draft Minutes of the Ordinary General Assembly of 12 May 2009 Presentation and approval of the Activity Report 2009 Presentation and approval of the Financial Report 2009 Presentation and approval of the Auditors Report 2009 Programme for 2010 Presentation et and approval of the draft budget and subscription rate 2010 Election of the Election Committee Election of the Board of Auditors Miscellaneous We remind members of article IV.3.4 in the Statutes of the Association which reads: “After having dealt with all the items on the agenda, the members may, with the consent of the Assembly, have other matters discussed, but decisions may be taken only on the items listed on the agenda. Nevertheless, the Assembly may require t...

  18. Nuclear Energy General Objectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    considered and the specific goals to be achieved at different stages of implementation, all of which are consistent with the Basic Principles. The four Objectives publications include Nuclear General Objectives, Nuclear Power Objectives, Nuclear Fuel Cycle Objectives, and Radioactive Waste Management and Decommissioning Objectives. All four Objectives publications follow the same structure. For each topic in the area, the objectives are described in accordance with the sequence in the Basic Principles publication. Within each of these four Objectives publications, the individual topics that make up each area are addressed. The topics included in Nuclear General Objectives are Energy Systems Analysis and Development of Strategies for Nuclear Energy, Economics, Infrastructure, Management Systems, Human Resources and Knowledge Management. The diversity of the topics contained in Nuclear General Objectives necessitated incorporating some repetition in order to simplify access to the relevant information for the various interested audiences.

  19. The general dynamic model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borregaard, Michael K.; Matthews, Thomas J.; Whittaker, Robert James

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Island biogeography focuses on understanding the processes that underlie a set of well-described patterns on islands, but it lacks a unified theoretical framework for integrating these processes. The recently proposed general dynamic model (GDM) of oceanic island biogeography offers a step...... towards this goal. Here, we present an analysis of causality within the GDM and investigate its potential for the further development of island biogeographical theory. Further, we extend the GDM to include subduction-based island arcs and continental fragment islands. Location: A conceptual analysis...... of evolutionary processes in simulations derived from the mechanistic assumptions of the GDM corresponded broadly to those initially suggested, with the exception of trends in extinction rates. Expanding the model to incorporate different scenarios of island ontogeny and isolation revealed a sensitivity...

  20. The General Aggression Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Johnie J; Anderson, Craig A; Bushman, Brad J

    2018-02-01

    The General Aggression Model (GAM) is a comprehensive, integrative, framework for understanding aggression. It considers the role of social, cognitive, personality, developmental, and biological factors on aggression. Proximate processes of GAM detail how person and situation factors influence cognitions, feelings, and arousal, which in turn affect appraisal and decision processes, which in turn influence aggressive or nonaggressive behavioral outcomes. Each cycle of the proximate processes serves as a learning trial that affects the development and accessibility of aggressive knowledge structures. Distal processes of GAM detail how biological and persistent environmental factors can influence personality through changes in knowledge structures. GAM has been applied to understand aggression in many contexts including media violence effects, domestic violence, intergroup violence, temperature effects, pain effects, and the effects of global climate change. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Generalized Langevin quantization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Defendi, A.; Roncadelli, M.

    1994-01-01

    The recently proposed Langevin formulation of quantum dynamics yields the quantum mechanical propagator at imaginary time as a noise average which involves the solutions of a Langevin equation in configuration space with a Gaussian white noise. This strategy does not require any knowledge about the ground-state quantum dynamics and has been successful in dealing with certain as yet unsolved problems. Here we sketch a generalization of this approach which is based on a similar Langevin equation, whose drift however contains an arbitrary function. As it turns out, this freedom leads to a great simplification in the treatment of several quantum mechanical systems as compared to the original Langevin formulation (this point is illustrated by taking the forced harmonic oscillator as an example). We also show that when the above-mentioned arbitrary function obeys the imaginary-time Hamilton-Jacobi equation, then the new formulation of quantum dynamics exhibits a manifest connection with classical mechanics (at imaginary time). (orig.)

  2. General oilfield driver improvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, G.

    1997-01-01

    The general oilfield driver improvement (GODI) course was discussed. The course is offered to truckers in the oil and gas industry to help reduce accidents and injuries. Oilfield trucking is one of the most accident and injury prone sectors in the Alberta economy. This paper presented Heck's Trucking company's experience in sending its employees on the course. Drivers were taught (1) the National safety code requirements, (2) Commercial Vehicle Safety Alliance requirements, (3) occupational health and safety concerns, (4) vehicle dimension and GVW restrictions, (5) hours of service regulations, (6) log book and pre-trip inspection requirements, (7) workplace hazardous material information, and (8) transportation of dangerous goods. Overall, the course was judged to provide excellent training before sending drivers into the field. The employee, the customer, and the company, all stand to benefit from having rigorous and uniform standards for all drivers in the oil and gas industry

  3. General administrative activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silver, E.G.

    1984-01-01

    General Administrative Activities summarizes events that are related to safety but are not covered elsewhere in Nuclear Safety. Included in this issue are events reported during May and June 1984. Among the topics discussed are reports from the Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS) on several safety issues, the DOE plans to aid in the completion of nuclear power plants and its long-term mission plan for the disposal of high-level waste, action by New York City to delay shipment of Brookhaven waste through its streets, a federal Court ruling on emergency evacuation exercises, and changes in NRC rules on spent-fuel shipments. Also included is the report on an address by DOE Secretary Hodel, a summary of two speeches by NRC Commissioner Gilinsky, and a number of other noteworthy items with significance for nuclear safety

  4. Generalized global symmetries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaiotto, Davide; Kapustin, Anton; Seiberg, Nathan; Willett, Brian

    2015-01-01

    A q-form global symmetry is a global symmetry for which the charged operators are of space-time dimension q; e.g. Wilson lines, surface defects, etc., and the charged excitations have q spatial dimensions; e.g. strings, membranes, etc. Many of the properties of ordinary global symmetries (q=0) apply here. They lead to Ward identities and hence to selection rules on amplitudes. Such global symmetries can be coupled to classical background fields and they can be gauged by summing over these classical fields. These generalized global symmetries can be spontaneously broken (either completely or to a subgroup). They can also have ’t Hooft anomalies, which prevent us from gauging them, but lead to ’t Hooft anomaly matching conditions. Such anomalies can also lead to anomaly inflow on various defects and exotic Symmetry Protected Topological phases. Our analysis of these symmetries gives a new unified perspective of many known phenomena and uncovers new results.

  5. Generalized Wideband Cyclic MUSIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang-Meng Liu

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The method of Spectral Correlation-Signal Subspace Fitting (SC-SSF fails to separate wideband cyclostationary signals with coherent second-order cyclic statistics (SOCS. Averaged Cyclic MUSIC (ACM method made up for the drawback to some degree via temporally averaging the cyclic cross-correlation of the array output. This paper interprets ACM from another perspective and proposes a new DOA estimation method by generalizing ACM for wideband cyclostationary signals. The proposed method successfully makes up for the aforementioned drawback of SC-SSF and obtains a more satisfying performance than ACM. It is also demonstrated that ACM is a simplified form of the proposed method when only a single spectral frequency is exploited, and the integration of the frequencies within the signal bandwidth helps the new method to outperform ACM.

  6. [General aspects of homeopathy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avello L, Marcia; Avendaño O, Cristian; Mennickent C, Sigrid

    2009-01-01

    Homeopathic medicine is a type of therapy that appeared in Europe at the end of the eighteenth century. At the present time, it is widely accepted in developed countries as a form of alternative medicine. In Chile, health regulation includes homeopathy as pharmaceutical products and homeopathy is also considered a form of complementary medicine, that is well accepted by the public. The scientific rationale of homeopathy is based on an empiric type of thought that goes from the general to the particular. The symptoms that are valued are those that are particular to each sick individual. It uses diluted solutions of plants, minerals, animals and even venoms. There are basically two hypotheses to explain its mechanisms of action: The "immunological memory" and the "memory of water" or the transmission of electromagnetic information of the water. There still is needed to perform new studies to scientifically assess homeopathy and its usefulness, as an accepted alternative therapy.

  7. GOC: General Orbit Code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maddox, L.B.; McNeilly, G.S.

    1979-08-01

    GOC (General Orbit Code) is a versatile program which will perform a variety of calculations relevant to isochronous cyclotron design studies. In addition to the usual calculations of interest (e.g., equilibrium and accelerated orbits, focusing frequencies, field isochronization, etc.), GOC has a number of options to calculate injections with a charge change. GOC provides both printed and plotted output, and will follow groups of particles to allow determination of finite-beam properties. An interactive PDP-10 program called GIP, which prepares input data for GOC, is available. GIP is a very easy and convenient way to prepare complicated input data for GOC. Enclosed with this report are several microfiche containing source listings of GOC and other related routines and the printed output from a multiple-option GOC run

  8. Generalized analytic continuation

    CERN Document Server

    Ross, William T

    2002-01-01

    The theory of generalized analytic continuation studies continuations of meromorphic functions in situations where traditional theory says there is a natural boundary. This broader theory touches on a remarkable array of topics in classical analysis, as described in the book. This book addresses the following questions: (1) When can we say, in some reasonable way, that component functions of a meromorphic function on a disconnected domain, are "continuations" of each other? (2) What role do such "continuations" play in certain aspects of approximation theory and operator theory? The authors use the strong analogy with the summability of divergent series to motivate the subject. In this vein, for instance, theorems can be described as being "Abelian" or "Tauberian". The introductory overview carefully explains the history and context of the theory. The authors begin with a review of the works of Poincaré, Borel, Wolff, Walsh, and Gončar, on continuation properties of "Borel series" and other meromorphic func...

  9. Introduction to general relativity

    CERN Document Server

    Parthasarthy, R

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION TO GENERAL RELATIVITY begins with a description of the geometry of curved space, explaining geodesics, parallel transport, covariant differentiation, geodesic deviation and spacetime symmetry by killing vectors. It then introduces Einstein's theory of gravitation followed by Schwarzschild solution with its relevance to Positive Mass theorem. The three tests for Einstein's gravity are explained. Other exact solutions such as Vaidya, Kerr and Reisner - Nordstrom metric are included. In the Chapter on cosmological solutions, a detailed description of Godel metric is provided. It then introduces five dimensional spacetime of Kaluza showing the unification of gravity with electromagnetism. This is extended to include non-Abelian gauge theory by invoking compact extra dimensions. Explicit expressions in this case for Christoffel connections and ricci tensor are derived and the higher dimensional gravity action is shown to compactification are given.

  10. Recruitment of general practices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riis, Allan; Jensen, Cathrine Elgaard; Maindal, Helle Terkildsen

    2016-01-01

    -factors as determinants for successfully recruiting healthcare professionals: relationships, reputation, requirements, rewards, reciprocity, resolution, and respect. Method: This is a process evaluation of the seven R-factors. We applied these factors to guide the design of our recruitment strategy as well as to make......Introduction: Health service research often involves the active participation of healthcare professionals. However, their ability and commitment to research varies. This can cause recruitment difficulties and thereby prolong the study period and inflate budgets. Solberg has identified seven R...... adjustments when recruiting general practices in a guideline implementation study. In the guideline implementation study, we studied the effect of outreach visits, quality reports, and new patient stratification tools for low back pain patients. Results: During a period of 15 months, we recruited 60 practices...

  11. Nanotechnologies a general introduction

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva; Ferrari, M; Li Bassi, A

    2007-01-01

    After a brief description of what is nanotechnology (a triple definition will be attempted) and of its importance for the society, this first lecture manly aims at showing how nanoscience makes various nanotechnologies possible. The surprising story of direct imaging and manipulation of atoms (scanning probe microscopies will be the specific subject of the third lecture by prof. Andrea Li Bassi) is told to naturally introduce the crucial role of quantum confinement and surface defects. The electronic and vibrational properties of nanostructures are then discussed to understand the connection between the deeply modified (with respect to the bulk) quantum spectra and the physico-chemical properties of nanoscopic objects. In this context the concept of superatom (and its generalizations) is stressed. The essential role of both size and size control is finally emphasized discussing some significant applications in the fields of materials, devices and medicine. To this last argument (nanomedicine) the second lectu...

  12. GENERALIZED DOUBLE PARETO SHRINKAGE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armagan, Artin; Dunson, David B; Lee, Jaeyong

    2013-01-01

    We propose a generalized double Pareto prior for Bayesian shrinkage estimation and inferences in linear models. The prior can be obtained via a scale mixture of Laplace or normal distributions, forming a bridge between the Laplace and Normal-Jeffreys' priors. While it has a spike at zero like the Laplace density, it also has a Student's t -like tail behavior. Bayesian computation is straightforward via a simple Gibbs sampling algorithm. We investigate the properties of the maximum a posteriori estimator, as sparse estimation plays an important role in many problems, reveal connections with some well-established regularization procedures, and show some asymptotic results. The performance of the prior is tested through simulations and an application.

  13. General Climatology 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, Dennis L.

    General Climatology 3 is volume 3 of the series World Survey of Climatology, which consists of 15 volumes containing review articles on a broad range of topics. General Climatology 3 contains four chapters: ‘Human Bioclimatology,’ ‘Agricultural Climatology,’ ‘City Climate,’ and ‘Technical Climatology.’ Each of these chapters will be briefly described here.‘Human Bioclimatology,’ the first chapter, was authored by E. Flach and provides a survey of the effects on the human organism of the physical conditions at the earth's surface. It contains four main sections. A section entitled ‘Light and Life’ deals with the effects of solar radiation on man and contains much interesting information on the response of the human eye and human skin to radiation at various frequencies. ‘Air and Life’ discusses the composition of air and its effect on human health and performance, including discussions of the effects of altitude, aerosols, and noxious trace gases. ‘Temperature and Life’ discusses how the body responds to temperature and how it maintains its heat budget under the variety of conditions to which it falls subject and considerable discussion is given to objective ways to characterize air conditions that give an accurate measure of their impact on the body. This discussion leads naturally into the final section, ‘Bioclimatological Evaluation Systems,’ which addresses the problem of how to classify a particular site according to its overall suitability to human habitation.

  14. Generalized internal multiple imaging

    KAUST Repository

    Zuberi, M. A. H.

    2014-08-05

    Internal multiples deteriorate the image when the imaging procedure assumes only single scattering, especially if the velocity model does not have sharp contrasts to reproduce such scattering in the Green’s function through forward modeling. If properly imaged, internal multiples (internally scattered energy) can enhance the seismic image. Conventionally, to image internal multiples, accurate, sharp contrasts in the velocity model are required to construct a Green’s function with all the scattered energy. As an alternative, we have developed a generalized internal multiple imaging procedure that images any order internal scattering using the background Green’s function (from the surface to each image point), constructed from a smooth velocity model, usually used for conventional imaging. For the first-order internal multiples, the approach consisted of three steps, in which we first back propagated the recorded surface seismic data using the background Green’s function, then crosscorrelated the back-propagated data with the recorded data, and finally crosscorrelated the result with the original background Green’s function. This procedure images the contribution of the recorded first-order internal multiples, and it is almost free of the single-scattering recorded energy. The cost includes one additional crosscorrelation over the conventional single-scattering imaging application. We generalized this method to image internal multiples of any order separately. The resulting images can be added to the conventional single-scattering image, obtained, e.g., from Kirchhoff or reverse-time migration, to enhance the image. Application to synthetic data with reflectors illuminated by multiple scattering (double scattering) demonstrated the effectiveness of the approach.

  15. Generalized 2-vector spaces and general linear 2-groups

    OpenAIRE

    Elgueta, Josep

    2008-01-01

    In this paper a notion of {\\it generalized 2-vector space} is introduced which includes Kapranov and Voevodsky 2-vector spaces. Various kinds of generalized 2-vector spaces are considered and examples are given. The existence of non free generalized 2-vector spaces and of generalized 2-vector spaces which are non Karoubian (hence, non abelian) categories is discussed, and it is shown how any generalized 2-vector space can be identified with a full subcategory of an (abelian) functor category ...

  16. Generalized Linear Covariance Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, James R.; Markley, F. Landis

    2014-01-01

    This talk presents a comprehensive approach to filter modeling for generalized covariance analysis of both batch least-squares and sequential estimators. We review and extend in two directions the results of prior work that allowed for partitioning of the state space into solve-for'' and consider'' parameters, accounted for differences between the formal values and the true values of the measurement noise, process noise, and textita priori solve-for and consider covariances, and explicitly partitioned the errors into subspaces containing only the influence of the measurement noise, process noise, and solve-for and consider covariances. In this work, we explicitly add sensitivity analysis to this prior work, and relax an implicit assumption that the batch estimator's epoch time occurs prior to the definitive span. We also apply the method to an integrated orbit and attitude problem, in which gyro and accelerometer errors, though not estimated, influence the orbit determination performance. We illustrate our results using two graphical presentations, which we call the variance sandpile'' and the sensitivity mosaic,'' and we compare the linear covariance results to confidence intervals associated with ensemble statistics from a Monte Carlo analysis.

  17. Generalized reduced magnetohydrodynamic equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kruger, S.E.

    1999-01-01

    A new derivation of reduced magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) equations is presented. A multiple-time-scale expansion is employed. It has the advantage of clearly separating the three time scales of the problem associated with (1) MHD equilibrium, (2) fluctuations whose wave vector is aligned perpendicular to the magnetic field, and (3) those aligned parallel to the magnetic field. The derivation is carried out without relying on a large aspect ratio assumption; therefore this model can be applied to any general configuration. By accounting for the MHD equilibrium and constraints to eliminate the fast perpendicular waves, equations are derived to evolve scalar potential quantities on a time scale associated with the parallel wave vector (shear-Alfven wave time scale), which is the time scale of interest for MHD instability studies. Careful attention is given in the derivation to satisfy energy conservation and to have manifestly divergence-free magnetic fields to all orders in the expansion parameter. Additionally, neoclassical closures and equilibrium shear flow effects are easily accounted for in this model. Equations for the inner resistive layer are derived which reproduce the linear ideal and resistive stability criterion of Glasser, Greene, and Johnson. The equations have been programmed into a spectral initial value code and run with shear flow that is consistent with the equilibrium input into the code. Linear results of tearing modes with shear flow are presented which differentiate the effects of shear flow gradients in the layer with the effects of the shear flow decoupling multiple harmonics

  18. I in generalized supergravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araujo, T.; O Colgain, E. [Asia Pacific Center for Theoretical Physics, Pohang (Korea, Republic of); Sakamoto, J.; Yoshida, K. [Kyoto University, Department of Physics, Kyoto (Japan); Sheikh-Jabbari, M.M. [Institute for Research in Fundamental Sciences (IPM), School of Physics, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2017-11-15

    We showed in previous work that for homogeneous Yang-Baxter (YB) deformations of AdS{sub 5} x S{sup 5} the open string metric and coupling and as a result the closed string density e{sup -2Φ}√(g) remain undeformed. In this work, in addition to extending these results to the deformation associated with the modified CYBE or η-deformation, we identify the Page forms as the open string counterpart for RR fields and demonstrate case by case that the non-zero Page forms remain invariant under YB deformations. We give a physical meaning to the Killing vector I of generalized supergravity and show for all YB deformations: (1) I appears as a current for the center of mass motion on the worldvolume of a D-brane probing the background, (2) I is equal to the divergence of the noncommutativity parameter, (3) I exhibits ''holographic'' behavior where the radial component of I vanishes at the AdS boundary and (4) in pure spinor formalism I is related to a certain state in the BRST cohomology. (orig.)

  19. Beurling generalized numbers

    CERN Document Server

    Diamond, Harold G; Cheung, Man Ping

    2016-01-01

    "Generalized numbers" is a multiplicative structure introduced by A. Beurling to study how independent prime number theory is from the additivity of the natural numbers. The results and techniques of this theory apply to other systems having the character of prime numbers and integers; for example, it is used in the study of the prime number theorem (PNT) for ideals of algebraic number fields. Using both analytic and elementary methods, this book presents many old and new theorems, including several of the authors' results, and many examples of extremal behavior of g-number systems. Also, the authors give detailed accounts of the L^2 PNT theorem of J. P. Kahane and of the example created with H. L. Montgomery, showing that additive structure is needed for proving the Riemann hypothesis. Other interesting topics discussed are propositions "equivalent" to the PNT, the role of multiplicative convolution and Chebyshev's prime number formula for g-numbers, and how Beurling theory provides an interpretation of the ...

  20. General principles of radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Easson, E.C.

    1985-01-01

    The daily practice of any established branch of medicine should be based on some acceptable principles. This chapter is concerned with the general principles on which the radiotherapy of the Manchester school is based. Though many radiotherapists in other centres would doubtless accept these principles, there are sufficiently wide differences in practice throughout the world to suggest that some therapists adhere to a fundamentally different philosophy. The authors believe it is important, especially for those beginning their formal training in radiotherapy, to subscribe to an internally consistent school of thought, employing methods of treatment for each type of lesion in each anatomical site that are based on accepted principles and subjected to continuous rigorous scrutiny to test their effectiveness. Not only must each therapeutic technique be evaluated, but the underlying principles too must be questioned if and when this seems indicated. It is a feature of this hospital that similar lesions are all treated by the same technique, so long as statistical evidence justifies such a policy. All members of the staff adhere to the accepted policy until or unless reliable reasons are adduced to change this policy

  1. Generalized Canonical Time Warping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Feng; De la Torre, Fernando

    2016-02-01

    Temporal alignment of human motion has been of recent interest due to its applications in animation, tele-rehabilitation and activity recognition. This paper presents generalized canonical time warping (GCTW), an extension of dynamic time warping (DTW) and canonical correlation analysis (CCA) for temporally aligning multi-modal sequences from multiple subjects performing similar activities. GCTW extends previous work on DTW and CCA in several ways: (1) it combines CCA with DTW to align multi-modal data (e.g., video and motion capture data); (2) it extends DTW by using a linear combination of monotonic functions to represent the warping path, providing a more flexible temporal warp. Unlike exact DTW, which has quadratic complexity, we propose a linear time algorithm to minimize GCTW. (3) GCTW allows simultaneous alignment of multiple sequences. Experimental results on aligning multi-modal data, facial expressions, motion capture data and video illustrate the benefits of GCTW. The code is available at http://humansensing.cs.cmu.edu/ctw.

  2. Generalized differential semblance optimization

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, S.

    2013-06-10

    This paper inverts space-lags in the suboffset-domain CIGs instead of time-lags for velocity estimate. As a reminder, the conventional DSO is an image-domain method for wave-equation tomography, where the essence of this method is to focus the image at zero suboffset and minimize the image at nonzero suboffset. At each iteration, the velocity model is updated by smearing the image on the nonzero sub- offset along wavepath. The space-lag is used as a penalty operator which annihilates the image energy at nonzero lags, where this space-lag is independent of the velocity model. This new method, denoted as generalized DSO, treats the space-lag as a function of velocity model. It is an extension of the conventional DSO except it updates the velocity model not only by smearing the image on the nonzero suboffset as in conventional DSO but also by smearing the nonzero suboffset along the wavepath. The former minimizes the image in the nonzero suboffset and the latter minimizes the nonzero suboffset of the image. Both methods aim to focus the image energy at zero suboffset. The mathematical derivation and numerical examples are presented to demonstrate its effectiveness in velocity inversion.

  3. The generalized collective model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Troltenier, D.

    1992-07-01

    In this thesis a new way of proceeding, basing on the method of the finite elements, for the solution of the collective Schroedinger equation in the framework of the Generalized Collective Model was presented. The numerically reachable accuracy was illustrated by the comparison to analytically known solutions by means of numerous examples. Furthermore the potential-energy surfaces of the 182-196 Hg, 242-248 Cm, and 242-246 Pu isotopes were determined by the fitting of the parameters of the Gneuss-Greiner potential to the experimental data. In the Hg isotopes a shape consistency of nearly spherical and oblate deformations is shown, while the Cm and Pu isotopes possess an essentially equal remaining prolate deformation. By means of the pseudo-symplectic model the potential-energy surfaces of 24 Mg, 190 Pt, and 238 U were microscopically calculated. Using a deformation-independent kinetic energy so the collective excitation spectra and the electrical properties (B(E2), B(E4) values, quadrupole moments) of these nuclei were calculated and compared with the experiment. Finally an analytic relation between the (g R -Z/A) value and the quadrupole moment was derived. The study of the experimental data of the 166-170 Er isotopes shows an in the framework of the measurement accuracy a sufficient agreement with this relation. Furthermore it is by this relation possible to determine the effective magnetic dipole moment parameter-freely. (orig./HSI) [de

  4. Blastogenetic associations: General considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubinsky, Mark

    2015-11-01

    Associations of anomalies, with VACTERL as the prototype, have been the source of much debate, including questions about the validity and definition of this category. Evidence is presented for a teratologic basis for associations involving interactions between disruptive events and specific vulnerabilities. Because the embryo is organized in time and space, differences in the timing, location, and severity of exposures will create variable sequelae for any specific vulnerability, creating associations. The blastogenetic stage of development involves distinct properties that affect the nature of associations arising during this time, including relatively undifferentiated developmental fields and causally nonspecific malformations. With this, single anomalies can be part of the spectrum of findings that comprise a specific association. A specific defect defines a subset of disturbances, biasing frequencies of other defects. Processes are basic, integrated, and general, so disruptions are often lethal, and can have multiple effects, accounting for high incidences of multiple anomalies, and overlaps between associations. Blastogenetic disturbances also do not affect the late "fine tuning" of minor anomalies, although pathogenetic sequences can occur. This model suggests that certain combinations of congenital anomalies can arise from causally nonspecific teratogenetic fields determined by timing, location, and vulnerabilities, rather than polytopic developmental fields. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Generalized reduced MHD equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kruger, S.E.; Hegna, C.C.; Callen, J.D.

    1998-07-01

    A new derivation of reduced magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) equations is presented. A multiple-time-scale expansion is employed. It has the advantage of clearly separating the three time scales of the problem associated with (1) MHD equilibrium, (2) fluctuations whose wave vector is aligned perpendicular to the magnetic field, and (3) those aligned parallel to the magnetic field. The derivation is carried out without relying on a large aspect ratio assumption; therefore this model can be applied to any general toroidal configuration. By accounting for the MHD equilibrium and constraints to eliminate the fast perpendicular waves, equations are derived to evolve scalar potential quantities on a time scale associated with the parallel wave vector (shear-alfven wave time scale), which is the time scale of interest for MHD instability studies. Careful attention is given in the derivation to satisfy energy conservation and to have manifestly divergence-free magnetic fields to all orders in the expansion parameter. Additionally, neoclassical closures and equilibrium shear flow effects are easily accounted for in this model. Equations for the inner resistive layer are derived which reproduce the linear ideal and resistive stability criterion of Glasser, Greene, and Johnson

  6. Aquaglyceroporins: generalized metalloid channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhopadhyay, Rita; Bhattacharjee, Hiranmoy; Rosen, Barry P.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Aquaporins (AQPs), members of a superfamily of transmembrane channel proteins, are ubiquitous in all domains of life. They fall into a number of branches that can be functionally categorized into two major sub-groups: i) orthodox aquaporins, which are water-specific channels, and ii) aquaglyceroporins, which allow the transport of water, non-polar solutes, such as urea or glycerol, the reactive oxygen species hydrogen peroxide, and gases such as ammonia, carbon dioxide and nitric oxide and, as described in this review, metalloids. Scope of Review: This review summarizes the key findings that AQP channels conduct bidirectional movement of metalloids into and out of cells. Major Conclusions: As(OH)3 and Sb(OH)3 behave as inorganic molecular mimics of glycerol, a property that allows their passage through AQP channels. Plant AQPs also allow the passage of boron and silicon as their hydroxyacids, boric acid (B(OH)3) and orthosilicic acid (Si(OH)4), respectively. Genetic analysis suggests that germanic acid (GeO2) is also a substrate. While As(III), Sb(III) and Ge(IV) are toxic metalloids, borate (B(III)) and silicate (Si(IV)) are essential elements in higher plants. General Significance: The uptake of environmental metalloids by aquaporins provides an understanding of (i) how toxic elements such as arsenic enter the food chain; (ii) the delivery of arsenic and antimony containing drugs in the treatment of certain forms of leukemia and chemotherapy of diseases caused by pathogenic protozoa; and (iii) the possibility that food plants such as rice could be made safer by genetically modifying them to exclude arsenic while still accumulating boron and silicon. PMID:24291688

  7. Action principle for the generalized harmonic formulation of general relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, J. David

    2011-01-01

    An action principle for the generalized harmonic formulation of general relativity is presented. The action is a functional of the spacetime metric and the gauge source vector. An action principle for the Z4 formulation of general relativity has been proposed recently by Bona, Bona-Casas, and Palenzuela. The relationship between the generalized harmonic action and the Bona, Bona-Casas, and Palenzuela action is discussed in detail.

  8. Generalization of stochastic visuomotor rotations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo L Fernandes

    Full Text Available Generalization studies examine the influence of perturbations imposed on one movement onto other movements. The strength of generalization is traditionally interpreted as a reflection of the similarity of the underlying neural representations. Uncertainty fundamentally affects both sensory integration and learning and is at the heart of many theories of neural representation. However, little is known about how uncertainty, resulting from variability in the environment, affects generalization curves. Here we extend standard movement generalization experiments to ask how uncertainty affects the generalization of visuomotor rotations. We find that although uncertainty affects how fast subjects learn, the perturbation generalizes independently of uncertainty.

  9. GVS - GENERAL VISUALIZATION SYSTEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keith, S. R.

    1994-01-01

    The primary purpose of GVS (General Visualization System) is to support scientific visualization of data output by the panel method PMARC_12 (inventory number ARC-13362) on the Silicon Graphics Iris computer. GVS allows the user to view PMARC geometries and wakes as wire frames or as light shaded objects. Additionally, geometries can be color shaded according to phenomena such as pressure coefficient or velocity. Screen objects can be interactively translated and/or rotated to permit easy viewing. Keyframe animation is also available for studying unsteady cases. The purpose of scientific visualization is to allow the investigator to gain insight into the phenomena they are examining, therefore GVS emphasizes analysis, not artistic quality. GVS uses existing IRIX 4.0 image processing tools to allow for conversion of SGI RGB files to other formats. GVS is a self-contained program which contains all the necessary interfaces to control interaction with PMARC data. This includes 1) the GVS Tool Box, which supports color histogram analysis, lighting control, rendering control, animation, and positioning, 2) GVS on-line help, which allows the user to access control elements and get information about each control simultaneously, and 3) a limited set of basic GVS data conversion filters, which allows for the display of data requiring simpler data formats. Specialized controls for handling PMARC data include animation and wakes, and visualization of off-body scan volumes. GVS is written in C-language for use on SGI Iris series computers running IRIX. It requires 28Mb of RAM for execution. Two separate hardcopy documents are available for GVS. The basic document price for ARC-13361 includes only the GVS User's Manual, which outlines major features of the program and provides a tutorial on using GVS with PMARC_12 data. Programmers interested in modifying GVS for use with data in formats other than PMARC_12 format may purchase a copy of the draft GVS 3.1 Software Maintenance

  10. Anomaly General Circulation Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarra, Antonio

    The feasibility of the anomaly model is assessed using barotropic and baroclinic models. In the barotropic case, both a stationary and a time-dependent model has been formulated and constructed, whereas only the stationary, linear case is considered in the baroclinic case. Results from the barotropic model indicate that a relation between the stationary solution and the time-averaged non-linear solution exists. The stationary linear baroclinic solution can therefore be considered with some confidence. The linear baroclinic anomaly model poses a formidable mathematical problem because it is necessary to solve a gigantic linear system to obtain the solution. A new method to find solution of large linear system, based on a projection on the Krylov subspace is shown to be successful when applied to the linearized baroclinic anomaly model. The scheme consists of projecting the original linear system on the Krylov subspace, thereby reducing the dimensionality of the matrix to be inverted to obtain the solution. With an appropriate setting of the damping parameters, the iterative Krylov method reaches a solution even using a Krylov subspace ten times smaller than the original space of the problem. This generality allows the treatment of the important problem of linear waves in the atmosphere. A larger class (nonzonally symmetric) of basic states can now be treated for the baroclinic primitive equations. These problem leads to large unsymmetrical linear systems of order 10000 and more which can now be successfully tackled by the Krylov method. The (R7) linear anomaly model is used to investigate extensively the linear response to equatorial and mid-latitude prescribed heating. The results indicate that the solution is deeply affected by the presence of the stationary waves in the basic state. The instability of the asymmetric flows, first pointed out by Simmons et al. (1983), is active also in the baroclinic case. However, the presence of baroclinic processes modifies the

  11. RESETTING AND REINVENTING PRINT MEDIA: LEARNING FROM COLLEGE MEDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alyssa Jackson

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A readership study, employing an online survey (n = 275, was conducted to determine the reading preferences of students, faculty, staff, and alumni for the student magazine and web site of a technological university. The print version (53% was preferred over the online version (22%, with 25% having no preference. Internet and social media were the preferred news media with Facebook dominating all other sites. Few had downloaded the app (7%, despite the fact that 92% owned smartphones. Attitudes toward news were positive and predictive of reading specific sections. Reading the technology section was significantly related to being “part of my daily habit,” “part of my civic duty,” “helpful in making choices,” and negatively related to “inconvenient.” Additional qualitative responses are discussed.

  12. Effectiveness of the Factory Reset on a Mobile Device

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-01

    images and photos taken by the camera (.jpg, .png)  Other user data (address book /phone book /calendar data) The data that should be left behind...statements  Credit card statements  Tax returns  Emails  Contact lists  Photos The authors tested secondhand phones purchased through

  13. Temperature influence and reset voltage study of bipolar resistive ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Moreover, the Cu/ZrO2/ATO device which the ZrO2 thin film annealed at 300 °C can be measured as resistive switching sweeps at 200, 100 and 50 K. It was found that the ratio of off/on reduced when the measured temperature decreased. When the - measurement temperature decreases, on decreases obviously ...

  14. Arms Control and Proliferation Challenges to the Reset Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-01

    Sunshine Policy and economic transfers to the North.185 While it is impos- sible to determine conclusively which of these analy- ses of the DPRK’s motives...induce a return to some agreeable forum for negotiations. But it is quite unlikely that in the present configuration, North Korea will renounce its...engage North Ko- rea directly within the Six-Party framework, as China and others have recommended. Then it might be pos- sible to resume

  15. ASC Addresses Unit Commanders' Concerns through LBE and Reset Programs

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Young, Mark E

    2008-01-01

    .... Army Sustainment Command (ASC), part of the U.S. Army Materiel Command (AMC) team, is available to assist, identify, and resolve equipment and maintenance problems as well as materiel readiness issues for combatant commanders...

  16. Chromatin resetting mechanisms preventing trangenerational inheritance of epigenetic states

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayumi eIwasaki

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Epigenetic regulation can be altered by environmental cues including abiotic and biotic stresses. In most cases, environmentally-induced epigenetic changes are transient, but in some cases they are maintained for extensive periods of time and may even be transmitted to the next generation. However, the underlying mechanisms of transgenerational transmission of environmentally-induced epigenetic states remain largely unknown. Such traits can be adaptive, but also can have negative consequences if the parentally inherited epigenetic memory interferes with canonical environmental responses of the progeny. This review highlights recent insights into the mechanisms preventing transgenerational transmission of environmentally-induced epigenetic states in plants, which resemble those of germline reprogramming in mammals.

  17. Analysis of I Marine Expeditionary Force Support Team Reset Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    in the process. For the hands that have assisted in providing information and that have truly been a catalyst and a crutch for the completion...simulation-Marine Corps. Point paper . Retrieved February 20, 2013 from http://www.ehqmc.usmc.mil/org/IL/ Burton, L.D. (2005). Strategic Inventory

  18. Clinical Trial of Exercise on Circadian Clock Resetting

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Czeisler, Charles

    2001-01-01

    Specific Aim 1: test the hypothesis that a 9-hr phase delay shift of the duty-rest schedule, such as that required for either transmeridian travel or night operations, will induce physiologic maladaptation...

  19. Clinical Trial of Exercise on Circadian Clock Resetting

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Czeisler, Charles

    2001-01-01

    ...: test the hypothesis that multiple nightly bouts of exercise will induce significant delays in the endogenous circadian rhythms of core body temperature, plasma melatonin, reaction time, alertness...

  20. Investigating the resetting of OSL signals in rock surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sohbati, Reza; Murray, Andrew S.; Jain, Mayank

    2011-01-01

    were insensitive. Dose recovery tests using solar simulator and IR diodes on both K-feldspar grains and solid slices taken from the inner parts of the rocks are discussed. Preheat plateau results using surface grains and slices show that significant thermal transfer in naturally bleached samples can...... be avoided by keeping preheat temperatures low. Equivalent doses from surface K-feldspar grains were highly scattered and much larger than expected (0.02 Gy to >100 Gy), while solid surface slices gave more reproducible small doses (mean = 0.17±0.02 Gy, n = 32). Neither crushing nor partial bleaching were...... factors were derived for two samples. These indicate that, for instance, bleaching at a depth of 2 mm into these samples occurs at about ∼28% of the rate at the surface. We conclude that it should be possible to derive meaningful burial doses of >1 Gy from such cobbles; younger samples would probably...

  1. Resetting cancer stem cell regulatory nodes upon MYC inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galardi, Silvia; Savino, Mauro; Scagnoli, Fiorella; Pellegatta, Serena; Pisati, Federica; Zambelli, Federico; Illi, Barbara; Annibali, Daniela; Beji, Sara; Orecchini, Elisa; Alberelli, Maria Adele; Apicella, Clara; Fontanella, Rosaria Anna; Michienzi, Alessandro; Finocchiaro, Gaetano; Farace, Maria Giulia; Pavesi, Giulio; Ciafrè, Silvia Anna; Nasi, Sergio

    2016-12-01

    MYC deregulation is common in human cancer and has a role in sustaining the aggressive cancer stem cell populations. MYC mediates a broad transcriptional response controlling normal biological programmes, but its activity is not clearly understood. We address MYC function in cancer stem cells through the inducible expression of Omomyc-a MYC-derived polypeptide interfering with MYC activity-taking as model the most lethal brain tumour, glioblastoma. Omomyc bridles the key cancer stemlike cell features and affects the tumour microenvironment, inhibiting angiogenesis. This occurs because Omomyc interferes with proper MYC localization and itself associates with the genome, with a preference for sites occupied by MYC This is accompanied by selective repression of master transcription factors for glioblastoma stemlike cell identity such as OLIG2, POU3F2, SOX2, upregulation of effectors of tumour suppression and differentiation such as ID4, MIAT, PTEN, and modulation of the expression of microRNAs that target molecules implicated in glioblastoma growth and invasion such as EGFR and ZEB1. Data support a novel view of MYC as a network stabilizer that strengthens the regulatory nodes of gene expression networks controlling cell phenotype and highlight Omomyc as model molecule for targeting cancer stem cells. © 2016 The Authors.

  2. Proprioceptive input resets central locomotor rhythm in the spinal cat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conway, B. A.; Hultborn, H.; Kiehn, O.

    1987-01-01

    The reflex regulation of stepping is an important factor in adapting the step cycle to changes in the environment. The present experiments have examined the influence of muscle proprioceptors on centrally generated rhythmic locomotor activity in decerebrate unanesthetized cats with a spinal...... fictive locomotion in a coordinated fashion. An extensor group I volley delivered during a flexor burst would abruptly terminate the flexor activity and initiate an extensor burst. The same stimulus given during an extensor burst prolonged the extensor activity while delaying the appearance...... afferents. Thus an increased load of limb extensors during the stance phase would enhance and prolong extensor activity while simultaneously delaying the transition to the swing phase of the step cycle....

  3. Temperature influence and reset voltage study of bipolar resistive ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    which is typical for electronic transportation in a Cu metal. It is indicated ... the defects in the oxide (Choi et al 2005; Waser 2009). Researchers ... and ethanol as starting materials while benzoyl acetone ..... the temperature dependence of Roff.

  4. Resetting the T Cell Repertoire in Prostate Cancer Bearing Host

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-01

    Science 264:703-707. 32. Staveley-O’Carroll K, et al. (2003) In vivo ligation of CD40 enhances priming against the endogenous tumor antigen and promotes...bearing the invariant Va14 rearrangement [32,33]. Although the identity of the endogenous antigen presented by CD1d is still unclear, a synthetic...with a BrdU Flow Kit, as described by manufacturer (BD PharMingen). Induction of ConA induced hepatitis Con A (Sigma, C0412) was dissolved in pyrogen

  5. The General Factor of Personality: A General Critique

    OpenAIRE

    Revelle, William; Wilt, Joshua

    2013-01-01

    Recently, it has been proposed that all non-cognitive measures of personality share a general factor of personality. A problem with many of these studies is a lack of clarity in defining a general factor. In this paper we address the multiple ways in which a general factor has been identified and argue that many of these approaches find factors that are not in fact general. Through the use of artificial examples, we show that a general factor is not: The first factor or component of a correla...

  6. Associators in generalized octonionic maps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griffin, C.J.; Joshi, G.C.

    1994-01-01

    Generalizing previous work, it is shown that structural transitions are a general property of a large class of octonionic maps. They can thus be used as an indicator of non-associativity in an octonionic map. 7 refs., ills

  7. Generalized gravity from modified DFT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakatani, Yuho; Uehara, Shozo; Yoshida, Kentaroh

    2017-01-01

    Recently, generalized equations of type IIB supergravity have been derived from the requirement of classical kappa-symmetry of type IIB superstring theory in the Green-Schwarz formulation. These equations are covariant under generalized T-duality transformations and hence one may expect a formulation similar to double field theory (DFT). In this paper, we consider a modification of the DFT equations of motion by relaxing a condition for the generalized covariant derivative with an extra generalized vector. In this modified double field theory (mDFT), we show that the flatness condition of the modified generalized Ricci tensor leads to the NS-NS part of the generalized equations of type IIB supergravity. In particular, the extra vector fields appearing in the generalized equations correspond to the extra generalized vector in mDFT. We also discuss duality symmetries and a modification of the string charge in mDFT.

  8. Generalized gravity from modified DFT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakatani, Yuho [Department of Physics, Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine,Kyoto 606-0823 (Japan); Fields, Gravity and Strings, CTPU,Institute for Basic Sciences, Daejeon 34047 (Korea, Republic of); Uehara, Shozo [Department of Physics, Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine,Kyoto 606-0823 (Japan); Yoshida, Kentaroh [Department of Physics, Kyoto University,Kitashirakawa Oiwake-cho, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan)

    2017-04-20

    Recently, generalized equations of type IIB supergravity have been derived from the requirement of classical kappa-symmetry of type IIB superstring theory in the Green-Schwarz formulation. These equations are covariant under generalized T-duality transformations and hence one may expect a formulation similar to double field theory (DFT). In this paper, we consider a modification of the DFT equations of motion by relaxing a condition for the generalized covariant derivative with an extra generalized vector. In this modified double field theory (mDFT), we show that the flatness condition of the modified generalized Ricci tensor leads to the NS-NS part of the generalized equations of type IIB supergravity. In particular, the extra vector fields appearing in the generalized equations correspond to the extra generalized vector in mDFT. We also discuss duality symmetries and a modification of the string charge in mDFT.

  9. The General Factor of Personality: A General Critique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revelle, William; Wilt, Joshua

    2013-10-01

    Recently, it has been proposed that all non-cognitive measures of personality share a general factor of personality. A problem with many of these studies is a lack of clarity in defining a general factor. In this paper we address the multiple ways in which a general factor has been identified and argue that many of these approaches find factors that are not in fact general. Through the use of artificial examples, we show that a general factor is not: The first factor or component of a correlation or covariance matrix.The first factor resulting from a bifactor rotation or biquartimin transformationNecessarily the result of a confirmatory factor analysis forcing a bifactor solution We consider how the definition of what constitutes a general factor can lead to confusion, and we will demonstrate alternative ways of estimating the general factor saturation that are more appropriate.

  10. Transmuted Generalized Inverse Weibull Distribution

    OpenAIRE

    Merovci, Faton; Elbatal, Ibrahim; Ahmed, Alaa

    2013-01-01

    A generalization of the generalized inverse Weibull distribution so-called transmuted generalized inverse Weibull dis- tribution is proposed and studied. We will use the quadratic rank transmutation map (QRTM) in order to generate a flexible family of probability distributions taking generalized inverse Weibull distribution as the base value distribution by introducing a new parameter that would offer more distributional flexibility. Various structural properties including explicit expression...

  11. Generalized exclusion and Hopf algebras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yildiz, A

    2002-01-01

    We propose a generalized oscillator algebra at the roots of unity with generalized exclusion and we investigate the braided Hopf structure. We find that there are two solutions: these are the generalized exclusions of the bosonic and fermionic types. We also discuss the covariance properties of these oscillators

  12. General dental practitioner's views on dental general anaesthesia services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Threlfall, A G; King, D; Milsom, K M; Blinkhom, A S; Tickle, M

    2007-06-01

    Policy has recently changed on provision of dental general anaesthetic services in England. The aim of this study was to investigate general dental practitioners' views about dental general anaesthetics, the reduction in its availability and the impact on care of children with toothache. Qualitative study using semi-structured interviews and clinical case scenarios. General dental practitioners providing NHS services in the North West of England. 93 general dental practitioners were interviewed and 91 answered a clinical case scenario about the care they would provide for a 7-year-old child with multiple decayed teeth presenting with toothache. Scenario responses showed variation; 8% would immediately refer for general anaesthesia, 25% would initially prescribe antibiotics, but the majority would attempt to either restore or extract the tooth causing pain. Interview responses also demonstrated variation in care, however most dentists agree general anaesthesia has a role for nervous children but only refer as a last resort. The responses indicated an increase in inequalities, and that access to services did not match population needs, leaving some children waiting in pain. Most general dental practitioners support moving dental general anaesthesia into hospitals but some believe that it has widened health inequalities and there is also a problem associated with variation in treatment provision. Additional general anaesthetic services in some areas with high levels of tooth decay are needed and evidence based guidelines about caring for children with toothache are required.

  13. Generalized EMV-Effect Algebras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borzooei, R. A.; Dvurečenskij, A.; Sharafi, A. H.

    2018-04-01

    Recently in Dvurečenskij and Zahiri (2017), new algebraic structures, called EMV-algebras which generalize both MV-algebras and generalized Boolean algebras, were introduced. We present equivalent conditions for EMV-algebras. In addition, we define a partial algebraic structure, called a generalized EMV-effect algebra, which is close to generalized MV-effect algebras. Finally, we show that every generalized EMV-effect algebra is either an MV-effect algebra or can be embedded into an MV-effect algebra as a maximal ideal.

  14. The use of generalized functions and distributions in general relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinbauer, R; Vickers, J A

    2006-01-01

    We review the extent to which one can use classical distribution theory in describing solutions of Einstein's equations. We show that there are a number of physically interesting cases which cannot be treated using distribution theory but require a more general concept. We describe a mathematical theory of nonlinear generalized functions based on Colombeau algebras and show how this may be applied in general relativity. We end by discussing the concept of singularity in general relativity and show that certain solutions with weak singularities may be regarded as distributional solutions of Einstein's equations. (topical review)

  15. Methodological practicalities in analytical generalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halkier, Bente

    2011-01-01

    generalization. Theoretically, the argumentation in the article is based on practice theory. The main part of the article describes three different examples of ways of generalizing on the basis of the same qualitative data material. There is a particular focus on describing the methodological strategies......In this article, I argue that the existing literature on qualitative methodologies tend to discuss analytical generalization at a relatively abstract and general theoretical level. It is, however, not particularly straightforward to “translate” such abstract epistemological principles into more...... operative methodological strategies for producing analytical generalizations in research practices. Thus, the aim of the article is to contribute to the discussions among qualitatively working researchers about generalizing by way of exemplifying some of the methodological practicalities in analytical...

  16. Cancer Investigation in General Practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jacob Reinholdt; Møller, Henrik; Thomsen, Janus Laust

    2014-01-01

    Initiation of cancer investigations in general practice Background Close to 90% of all cancers are diagnosed because the patient presents symptoms and signs. Of these patients, 85% initiate the diagnostic pathway in general practice. Therefore, the initiation of a diagnostic pathway in general...... practice becomes extremely important. On average, a general practitioner (GP) is involved in 7500 consultations each year, and in the diagnostic process of 8-10 incident cancers. One half of cancer patients consult their GP with either general symptoms, which are not indicative of cancer, or vague and non......-specific symptoms. The other half present with what the GP assess as alarm symptoms. Three months prior to diagnosis, patients who are later diagnosed with cancer have twice as many GP consultations than a comparable reference population. Thus the complex diagnostic process in general practice requires the GP...

  17. Comments on general gauge mediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Intriligator, Kenneth; Sudano, Matthew

    2008-01-01

    There has been interest in generalizing models of gauge mediation of supersymmetry breaking. As shown by Meade, Seiberg, and Shih (MSS), the soft masses of general gauge mediation can be expressed in terms of the current two-point functions of the susy-breaking sector. We here give a simple extension of their result which provides, for general gauge mediation, the full effective potential for squark pseudo-D-flat directions. The effective potential reduces to the sfermion soft masses near the origin, and the full potential, away from the origin, can be useful for cosmological applications. We also generalize the soft masses and effective potential to allow for general gauge mediation by Higgsed gauge groups. Finally, we discuss general gauge mediation in the limit of small F-terms, and how the results of MSS connect with the analytic continuation in superspace results, based on a spurion analysis.

  18. General relativity basics and beyond

    CERN Document Server

    Date, Ghanashyam

    2015-01-01

    A Broad Perspective on the Theory of General Relativity and Its Observable Implications General Relativity: Basics and Beyond familiarizes students and beginning researchers with the basic features of the theory of general relativity as well as some of its more advanced aspects. Employing the pedagogical style of a textbook, it includes essential ideas and just enough background material needed for readers to appreciate the issues and current research. Basics The first five chapters form the core of an introductory course on general relativity. The author traces Einstein’s arguments and presents examples of space-times corresponding to different types of gravitational fields. He discusses the adaptation of dynamics in a Riemannian geometry framework, the Einstein equation and its elementary properties, and different phenomena predicted or influenced by general relativity. Beyond Moving on to more sophisticated features of general relativity, the book presents the physical requirements of a well-defined de...

  19. The generalized Airy diffusion equation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank M. Cholewinski

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Solutions of a generalized Airy diffusion equation and an associated nonlinear partial differential equation are obtained. Trigonometric type functions are derived for a third order generalized radial Euler type operator. An associated complex variable theory and generalized Cauchy-Euler equations are obtained. Further, it is shown that the Airy expansions can be mapped onto the Bessel Calculus of Bochner, Cholewinski and Haimo.

  20. Characterization of generalized Orlicz spaces

    KAUST Repository

    Ferreira, Rita; Hä stö , Peter; Ribeiro, Ana Margarida

    2016-01-01

    The norm in classical Sobolev spaces can be expressed as a difference quotient. This expression can be used to generalize the space to the fractional smoothness case. Because the difference quotient is based on shifting the function, it cannot be used in generalized Orlicz spaces. In its place, we introduce a smoothed difference quotient and show that it can be used to characterize the generalized Orlicz-Sobolev space. Our results are new even in Orlicz spaces and variable exponent spaces.

  1. Characterization of generalized Orlicz spaces

    KAUST Repository

    Ferreira, Rita

    2016-12-14

    The norm in classical Sobolev spaces can be expressed as a difference quotient. This expression can be used to generalize the space to the fractional smoothness case. Because the difference quotient is based on shifting the function, it cannot be used in generalized Orlicz spaces. In its place, we introduce a smoothed difference quotient and show that it can be used to characterize the generalized Orlicz-Sobolev space. Our results are new even in Orlicz spaces and variable exponent spaces.

  2. A generalization of Gale's lemma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alishahi, Meysam; Hajiabolhassan, Hossein

    2017-01-01

    In this work, we present a generalization of Gale's lemma. Using this generalization, we introduce two sharp combinatorial lower bounds for coind (B0(G)) + 1 andcoind(B(G)) + 2, the two classic topological lower boundsfor the chromatic number of a graph G.......In this work, we present a generalization of Gale's lemma. Using this generalization, we introduce two sharp combinatorial lower bounds for coind (B0(G)) + 1 andcoind(B(G)) + 2, the two classic topological lower boundsfor the chromatic number of a graph G....

  3. On a generalized secant integral

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanna, L.A.-M.; Kalla, S.L.

    2000-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce a generalization of the secant integral in the following form I a (ψ, b, λ)=b a ∫ ψ 0 (e -bsecφ (secφ) a (tanφ) 2λ-1 dφ) with a≥0, b>0, 0 0. This new generalization of the secant integral might have some applications in radiation field problems of different source-shield configurations. We have obtained two series representations for I a ψ, b, λ in terms of incomplete gamma function. The complete generalized secant integral is expressed in terms of generalized hypergeometric functions. Some recurrence relations are given.

  4. General Information about Kaposi Sarcoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Sarcoma Treatment Childhood Vascular Tumors Treatment Research Kaposi Sarcoma Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Kaposi Sarcoma Go to Health Professional Version Key Points Kaposi ...

  5. Weight Changes in General Practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Køster-Rasmussen, Rasmus

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: This PhD thesis is about weight changes. What determines long-term weight changes in the adult general population? Is it possible that weight loss may not always be healthy? The present clinical guidelines for general practice advice most overweight persons and patients with type 2 ...... lifestyle changes like for instance Mediterranean diet and increased exercise....

  6. Generalized r-Lah numbers

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    016-0309-0. Generalized r-Lah numbers. MARK SHATTUCK. Department of ...... of Dowling lattices, Discrete Math. 312. (2012) 2337–2348. [7] Hsu L C and Shiue P J-S, A unified approach to generalized Stirling numbers, Adv. Appl. Math.

  7. The principle of general tovariance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heunen, C.; Landsman, N.P.; Spitters, B.A.W.; Loja Fernandes, R.; Picken, R.

    2008-01-01

    We tentatively propose two guiding principles for the construction of theories of physics, which should be satisfied by a possible future theory of quantum gravity. These principles are inspired by those that led Einstein to his theory of general relativity, viz. his principle of general covariance

  8. 14 CFR Section 4 - General

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... UNIFORM SYSTEM OF ACCOUNTS AND REPORTS FOR LARGE CERTIFICATED AIR CARRIERS Balance Sheet Classifications Section 4 General (a) The balance sheet accounts are designed to show the financial condition of the air... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false General Section 4 Section 4 Aeronautics and...

  9. Essays in general equilibrium theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Konovalov, A.

    2001-01-01

    The thesis focuses on various issues of general equilibrium theory and can approximately be divided into three parts. The first part of the thesis studies generalized equilibria in the Arrow-Debreu model in the situation where the strong survival assumption is not satisfied. Chapter four deals with

  10. Order, disorder and generalized statistics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marino, E.C.; Swieca, J.A.

    1980-06-01

    We generalize the prescription of Kadanoff and Ceva for the computation of disorder variables correlation functions in the Ising model for continuous field theories with U(1) symmetry. By considering the product of order and disorder variables, we obtain a path integral representation for fields with generalized statistics. We discuss in detail the cases of massless Thirring and Schwinger models. (Author) [pt

  11. Behavioural science in general practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, D R

    1979-10-01

    Dr Peter Sowerby has written an important criticism of Michael Balint's work based on his understanding of Karl Popper's writings. I dispute Sowerby's interpretation of Popper and disagree with his conclusions, which I suggest would lead general practice into a retreat. I believe Balint made a major contribution to general practice and has helped us towards practising whole-person medicine.

  12. Sums of Generalized Harmonic Series

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 20; Issue 9. Sums of Generalized Harmonic Series: For Kids from Five to Fifteen. Zurab Silagadze. General Article Volume 20 Issue 9 September 2015 pp 822-843. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  13. Sampling Assumptions in Inductive Generalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, Daniel J.; Dry, Matthew J.; Lee, Michael D.

    2012-01-01

    Inductive generalization, where people go beyond the data provided, is a basic cognitive capability, and it underpins theoretical accounts of learning, categorization, and decision making. To complete the inductive leap needed for generalization, people must make a key "sampling" assumption about how the available data were generated.…

  14. General Editorial on Publication Ethics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 19; Issue 1. General Editorial on Publication Ethics. R Ramaswamy. General Editorial Volume 19 Issue 1 January 2014 pp 1-2. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: https://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/019/01/0001-0002 ...

  15. Order, disorder and generalized statistics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marino, E.C.; Swieca, J.A.; Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Rio de Janeiro

    1980-01-01

    We generalize the prescription of Kadanoff and Ceva for the computation of disorder variable correlation functions in the Ising model for continuous field theories with U(1) symmetry. By considering the product of order and disorder variables, we obtain a path integral representation for fields with generalized statistics. We discuss in detail the cases of massless Thirring and Schwinger models. (orig.)

  16. The future of general classification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mai, Jens Erik

    2013-01-01

    Discusses problems related to accessing multiple collections using a single retrieval language. Surveys the concepts of interoperability and switching language. Finds that mapping between more indexing languages always will be an approximation. Surveys the issues related to general classification...... and contrasts that to special classifications. Argues for the use of general classifications to provide access to collections nationally and internationally....

  17. Generalized Predictive Control and Neural Generalized Predictive Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadhana CHIDRAWAR

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available As Model Predictive Control (MPC relies on the predictive Control using a multilayer feed forward network as the plants linear model is presented. In using Newton-Raphson as the optimization algorithm, the number of iterations needed for convergence is significantly reduced from other techniques. This paper presents a detailed derivation of the Generalized Predictive Control and Neural Generalized Predictive Control with Newton-Raphson as minimization algorithm. Taking three separate systems, performances of the system has been tested. Simulation results show the effect of neural network on Generalized Predictive Control. The performance comparison of this three system configurations has been given in terms of ISE and IAE.

  18. On generalized fractional vibration equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dai, Hongzhe; Zheng, Zhibao; Wang, Wei

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • The paper presents a generalized fractional vibration equation for arbitrary viscoelastically damped system. • Some classical vibration equations can be derived from the developed equation. • The analytic solution of developed equation is derived under some special cases. • The generalized equation is particularly useful for developing new fractional equivalent linearization method. - Abstract: In this paper, a generalized fractional vibration equation with multi-terms of fractional dissipation is developed to describe the dynamical response of an arbitrary viscoelastically damped system. It is shown that many classical equations of motion, e.g., the Bagley–Torvik equation, can be derived from the developed equation. The Laplace transform is utilized to solve the generalized equation and the analytic solution under some special cases is derived. Example demonstrates the generalized transfer function of an arbitrary viscoelastic system.

  19. TRAC development at General Electric

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersen, J.G.M.; Shaug, J.C.; Shiralkar, B.S.

    1987-01-01

    TRAC is a computer code for transient analysis of light water reactors. The BWR version of TRAC has been developed as a result of a close cooperation between General Electric Company and Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Up through 1985 the development work at General Electric was jointly funded by General Electric, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission and Electric Power Research Institute under the Refill-Reflood and FIST programs. At INEL (which has the main responsibility for the NRC version of TRAC-BWR) this work has led to the development of TRACBD1 and TRACBF1, while at GE, TRACB04 was the final product of the Refill-Reflood and FIST programs. TRAC development has continued at General Electric after the completion of these programs with the evolution of the TRACG code. The purpose of the paper is to describe this work. The TRAC development at General Electric can be divided into two main categories: extended benchmark capability and improved user convenience

  20. Generalized complex geometry, generalized branes and the Hitchin sigma model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zucchini, Roberto

    2005-01-01

    Hitchin's generalized complex geometry has been shown to be relevant in compactifications of superstring theory with fluxes and is expected to lead to a deeper understanding of mirror symmetry. Gualtieri's notion of generalized complex submanifold seems to be a natural candidate for the description of branes in this context. Recently, we introduced a Batalin-Vilkovisky field theoretic realization of generalized complex geometry, the Hitchin sigma model, extending the well known Poisson sigma model. In this paper, exploiting Gualtieri's formalism, we incorporate branes into the model. A detailed study of the boundary conditions obeyed by the world sheet fields is provided. Finally, it is found that, when branes are present, the classical Batalin-Vilkovisky cohomology contains an extra sector that is related non trivially to a novel cohomology associated with the branes as generalized complex submanifolds. (author)

  1. 2008 Contruction General Permits & Multi-Sector General Permits

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — View stormwater notices of intent (NOIs) for construction projects under EPA's 2008 Construction General Permit (CGP), for Low Erosivity Waivers (LEWs) submitted...

  2. General relativity and mathematics; Relatividad General y Matematicas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mars, M.

    2015-07-01

    General relativity is more than a theory of gravity, since any physical process occupies space and lasts for a time, forcing to reconcile that physical theory that describes what the dynamic nature of space-time itself. (Author)

  3. Patch Test Negative Generalized Dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiker, Alison; Mowad, Christen

    2016-01-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis is a common condition in dermatology. Patch testing is the criterion standard for diagnosis. However, dermatitis is not always caused by an allergen, and patch testing does not identify a culprit in every patient. Generalized dermatitis, defined as eczematous dermatitis affecting greater than 3 body sites, is often encountered in dermatology practice, especially patch test referral centers. Management for patients with generalized dermatitis who are patch test negative is challenging. The purpose of this article is to outline an approach to this challenging scenario and summarize the paucity of existing literature on patch test negative generalized dermatitis.

  4. Remarks On General Fibonacci Numbers

    OpenAIRE

    Billal, Masum

    2015-01-01

    We dedicate this paper to investigate the most generalized form of Fibonacci Sequence, one of the most studied sections of the mathematical literature. One can notice that, we have discussed even a more general form of the conventional one. Although it seems the topic in the first section has already been covered before, but we present a different proof here. Later I found out that, the auxiliary theorem used in the first section was proven and even generalized further by F. T. Howard. Thanks...

  5. Proximinality in generalized direct sums

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darapaneni Narayana

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider proximinality and transitivity of proximinality for subspaces of finite codimension in generalized direct sums of Banach spaces. We give several examples of Banach spaces where proximinality is transitive among subspaces of finite codimension.

  6. Five Generalizations About Cognitive Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegler, Robert S.

    1983-01-01

    Proposes five generalizations on existing knowledge, learning, and their interaction, and discusses evidence for these from recent research on children's learning, memory, conceptual understanding, and problem solving. (Author/AOS)

  7. Nigerian Journal of General Practice

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nigerian Journal of General Practice. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 9, No 1 (2011) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  8. Construction Manager or General Contractor?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinley, John

    1991-01-01

    Unlike the general contractor approach, the construction management firm acts on behalf of the school district in school construction. Examines the development and nature of construction management, and cites its advantages and disadvantages. (MLF)

  9. The future of general medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firth, John

    2014-08-01

    It is a truth universally acknowledged that there is a problem with general medicine. Physicians have become increasingly specialised over the past 30 years or so, and specialist care has produced increasingly better outcomes for some patients. The patients left behind are looked after by general medicine, where demand is increasing, operational priority within hospitals is low, there is little professional kudos and recruitment is suffering. Three recent reports - Hospitals on the Edge?, the Future Hospital Commission report, and the Shape of Training report - have described the problems, but not articulated compelling solutions. Here, I discuss what is good about general medicine, what is bad and make suggestions for improvement. These involve getting specialities to take responsibility for care of appropriate admissions automatically and without delay, giving general physicians control over the service that they provide, and using well-chosen financial drivers to support movement in the right direction. © 2014 Royal College of Physicians.

  10. Modern canonical quantum general relativity

    CERN Document Server

    Thiemann, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    This is an introduction to the by now fifteen years old research field of canonical quantum general relativity, sometimes called "loop quantum gravity". The term "modern" in the title refers to the fact that the quantum theory is based on formulating classical general relativity as a theory of connections rather than metrics as compared to in original version due to Arnowitt, Deser and Misner. Canonical quantum general relativity is an attempt to define a mathematically rigorous, non-perturbative, background independent theory of Lorentzian quantum gravity in four spacetime dimensions in the continuum. The approach is minimal in that one simply analyzes the logical consequences of combining the principles of general relativity with the principles of quantum mechanics. The requirement to preserve background independence has lead to new, fascinating mathematical structures which one does not see in perturbative approaches, e.g. a fundamental discreteness of spacetime seems to be a prediction of the theory provi...

  11. Cosmological tests of general relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hut, P.

    1977-01-01

    It is stated that the general relativity theory could be tested on a cosmological scale by measuring the Hubble constant and the deceleration parameter, if, in addition, everything could be known about the matter filling the universe. If, on the other hand, nothing could be presupposed about the matter content of the universe general relativity could not be tested by measuring any number of time derivatives of the scale factor. But upon making the assumption of a universe filled with non-interacting mixture of non-relativistic matter and radiation general relativity can in principle be tested by measuring the first five derivatives of the scale factor. Some general relations are here presented using this assumption. (author)

  12. Problem Solving with General Semantics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewson, David

    1996-01-01

    Discusses how to use general semantics formulations to improve problem solving at home or at work--methods come from the areas of artificial intelligence/computer science, engineering, operations research, and psychology. (PA)

  13. Categorical database generalization in GIS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, Y.

    2002-01-01

    Key words: Categorical database, categorical database generalization, Formal data structure, constraints, transformation unit, classification hierarchy, aggregation hierarchy, semantic similarity, data model,

  14. Convergence semigroup actions: generalized quotients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Boustique

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Continuous actions of a convergence semigroup are investigated in the category of convergence spaces. Invariance properties of actions as well as properties of a generalized quotient space are presented

  15. Algebraic properties of generalized inverses

    CERN Document Server

    Cvetković‐Ilić, Dragana S

    2017-01-01

    This book addresses selected topics in the theory of generalized inverses. Following a discussion of the “reverse order law” problem and certain problems involving completions of operator matrices, it subsequently presents a specific approach to solving the problem of the reverse order law for {1} -generalized inverses. Particular emphasis is placed on the existence of Drazin invertible completions of an upper triangular operator matrix; on the invertibility and different types of generalized invertibility of a linear combination of operators on Hilbert spaces and Banach algebra elements; on the problem of finding representations of the Drazin inverse of a 2x2 block matrix; and on selected additive results and algebraic properties for the Drazin inverse. In addition to the clarity of its content, the book discusses the relevant open problems for each topic discussed. Comments on the latest references on generalized inverses are also included. Accordingly, the book will be useful for graduate students, Ph...

  16. ISA/92 Canada general program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This volume contains the proceedings of a portion of the Instrument Society of America's 1992 General Meeting. Topics covered include: diesel fuels, wastewater treatment, the environment, advancements in measurement and control, improved control systems and construction and design

  17. Geometrical optics in general relativity

    OpenAIRE

    Loinger, A.

    2006-01-01

    General relativity includes geometrical optics. This basic fact has relevant consequences that concern the physical meaning of the discontinuity surfaces propagated in the gravitational field - as it was first emphasized by Levi-Civita.

  18. The power of general relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clifton, Timothy; Barrow, John D.

    2005-01-01

    We study the cosmological and weak-field properties of theories of gravity derived by extending general relativity by means of a Lagrangian proportional to R 1+δ . This scale-free extension reduces to general relativity when δ→0. In order to constrain generalizations of general relativity of this power class, we analyze the behavior of the perfect-fluid Friedmann universes and isolate the physically relevant models of zero curvature. A stable matter-dominated period of evolution requires δ>0 or δ -19 assuming that Mercury follows a timelike geodesic. The combination of these observational constraints leads to the overall bound 0≤δ -19 on theories of this type

  19. Group supervision for general practitioners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galina Nielsen, Helena; Sofie Davidsen, Annette; Dalsted, Rikke

    2013-01-01

    AIM: Group supervision is a sparsely researched method for professional development in general practice. The aim of this study was to explore general practitioners' (GPs') experiences of the benefits of group supervision for improving the treatment of mental disorders. METHODS: One long-establish......AIM: Group supervision is a sparsely researched method for professional development in general practice. The aim of this study was to explore general practitioners' (GPs') experiences of the benefits of group supervision for improving the treatment of mental disorders. METHODS: One long...... considered important prerequisites for disclosing and discussing professional problems. CONCLUSION: The results of this study indicate that participation in a supervision group can be beneficial for maintaining and developing GPs' skills in dealing with patients with mental health problems. Group supervision...... influenced other areas of GPs' professional lives as well. However, more studies are needed to assess the impact of supervision groups....

  20. Glauber model and its generalizations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bialkowski, G.

    The physical aspects of the Glauber model problems are studied: potential model, profile function and Feynman diagrams approaches. Different generalizations of the Glauber model are discussed: particularly higher and lower energy processes and large angles [fr

  1. Generalized massive optimal data compression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsing, Justin; Wandelt, Benjamin

    2018-05-01

    In this paper, we provide a general procedure for optimally compressing N data down to n summary statistics, where n is equal to the number of parameters of interest. We show that compression to the score function - the gradient of the log-likelihood with respect to the parameters - yields n compressed statistics that are optimal in the sense that they preserve the Fisher information content of the data. Our method generalizes earlier work on linear Karhunen-Loéve compression for Gaussian data whilst recovering both lossless linear compression and quadratic estimation as special cases when they are optimal. We give a unified treatment that also includes the general non-Gaussian case as long as mild regularity conditions are satisfied, producing optimal non-linear summary statistics when appropriate. As a worked example, we derive explicitly the n optimal compressed statistics for Gaussian data in the general case where both the mean and covariance depend on the parameters.

  2. General Galilei Covariant Gaussian Maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasbarri, Giulio; Toroš, Marko; Bassi, Angelo

    2017-09-01

    We characterize general non-Markovian Gaussian maps which are covariant under Galilean transformations. In particular, we consider translational and Galilean covariant maps and show that they reduce to the known Holevo result in the Markovian limit. We apply the results to discuss measures of macroscopicity based on classicalization maps, specifically addressing dissipation, Galilean covariance and non-Markovianity. We further suggest a possible generalization of the macroscopicity measure defined by Nimmrichter and Hornberger [Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 16 (2013)].

  3. Emergency medicine and general practice

    OpenAIRE

    Abela, Gunther

    2005-01-01

    Emergency Medicine and Immediate Medical Care are relatively new specialties. In Malta, there is quite a considerable area of overlap between these specialties and general practice. Indeed, the family physician is confronted with some sort of medical emergency quite regularly. The brief of this article is to go through recent developments in Emergency Medicine as applied to General Practice. The areas considered are Basic Life Support, Head Injury, Asthma, Anaphylaxis, Community Acquired Pneu...

  4. A generalized gyrokinetic Poisson solver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Z.; Lee, W.W.

    1995-03-01

    A generalized gyrokinetic Poisson solver has been developed, which employs local operations in the configuration space to compute the polarization density response. The new technique is based on the actual physical process of gyrophase-averaging. It is useful for nonlocal simulations using general geometry equilibrium. Since it utilizes local operations rather than the global ones such as FFT, the new method is most amenable to massively parallel algorithms

  5. Generalized field theory of gravitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yilmaz, H.

    1976-01-01

    It is shown that if, on empirical grounds, one rules out the existence of cosmic fields of Dicke-Brans (scalar) and Will Nordvedt (vector, tensor) type, then the most general experimentally viable and theoretically reasonable theory of gravitation seems to be a LAMBDA-dependent generalization of Einstein and Yilmez theories, which reduces to the former for LAMBDA=0 and to the latter for LAMBDA=1

  6. Parental Divorce and Generalized Trust

    OpenAIRE

    Viitanen, Tarja

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the effect of parental divorce during childhood on generalized trust later on in life using Australian HILDA panel data. The dependent variable is composed of answers to the statement: “Generally speaking, most people can be trusted”. The main explanatory variables include the occurrence of parental divorce for the whole sample and the age at which parents divorced for the sub-sample. The analysis is conducted using random effects ordered probit, correlated random effects ...

  7. Transform analysis of generalized functions

    CERN Document Server

    Misra, O P

    1986-01-01

    Transform Analysis of Generalized Functions concentrates on finite parts of integrals, generalized functions and distributions. It gives a unified treatment of the distributional setting with transform analysis, i.e. Fourier, Laplace, Stieltjes, Mellin, Hankel and Bessel Series.Included are accounts of applications of the theory of integral transforms in a distributional setting to the solution of problems arising in mathematical physics. Information on distributional solutions of differential, partial differential equations and integral equations is conveniently collected here.The volume will

  8. The elderly and general anesthesia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steinmetz, J; Rasmussen, L S

    2010-01-01

    Due to the aging population, the number of elderly patients taking advantage of healthcare services is increasing. A general physical decline of all organ systems and a high frequency of chronic disease accompanying aging.Comorbidity and polypharmacy are therefore common in the elderly. Hence, th......, the administration of general anesthesia to the elderly can be a very challenging task. This paper aims to highlight some of the important issues presented to the elderly undergoing surgery and to suggest some strategies for management....

  9. Cosmic frontiers of general relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaufmann, W.J. III.

    1977-01-01

    All relevant topics in general astronomy are covered including orientation in space--time, special relativity, gravitation and general relativity, stars and stellar evolution, white dwarfs, pulsars, neutron stars, the black hole, the geometry of the Schwarzschild solution, and electrically charged and rotating black holes. Also the geometry of the Kerr solution, observations of black holes, white holes and particle creation, gravitational waves and lenses, exploding galaxies and massive and primordial black holes are discussed

  10. A generalized nonlocal vector calculus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alali, Bacim; Liu, Kuo; Gunzburger, Max

    2015-10-01

    A nonlocal vector calculus was introduced in Du et al. (Math Model Meth Appl Sci 23:493-540, 2013) that has proved useful for the analysis of the peridynamics model of nonlocal mechanics and nonlocal diffusion models. A formulation is developed that provides a more general setting for the nonlocal vector calculus that is independent of particular nonlocal models. It is shown that general nonlocal calculus operators are integral operators with specific integral kernels. General nonlocal calculus properties are developed, including nonlocal integration by parts formula and Green's identities. The nonlocal vector calculus introduced in Du et al. (Math Model Meth Appl Sci 23:493-540, 2013) is shown to be recoverable from the general formulation as a special example. This special nonlocal vector calculus is used to reformulate the peridynamics equation of motion in terms of the nonlocal gradient operator and its adjoint. A new example of nonlocal vector calculus operators is introduced, which shows the potential use of the general formulation for general nonlocal models.

  11. Generally representative is generally representative: comment on Shuttleworth-Edwards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Nicola

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this paper is to provide comment on Shuttleworth-Edwards' criticism of the general population norms created for the South African adaptation of the WAIS-IV. In her criticism, she states that the norms are not applicable for any groups in South Africa, based on the fact that the norms were not stratified according to quality of education. A discussion of some of the key issues that impact on the creation of general population norms in the South African context is provided. Demographic characteristics such as education level, quality of education, urban and rural demarcations, and home language are all considered. While the utility of within-group norms is not denied, the adoption of these without reference to the general population is not advised. To recommend that practitioners simply dispense with the general population norm without evidence that it creates misclassification or does not function effectively for the intended population lacks scientific merit at the current time. The need for clinical studies and further predictive validity research using the South African adaptation of the WAIS-IV is crucial to demonstrate the continued utility of the test in the South African context. Additional reference groups will improve the amount of comparative information available for clinicians to be able to make better informed decisions for diagnosis, but the general population norms will be an important starting point in this process.

  12. The generalized second law of thermodynamics in generalized gravity theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Shaofeng; Yang Guohong; Wang Bin; Zhang Pengming

    2008-01-01

    We investigate the generalized second law of thermodynamics (GSL) in generalized theories of gravity. We examine the total entropy evolution with time including the horizon entropy, the non-equilibrium entropy production, and the entropy of all matter, field and energy components. We derive a universal condition to protect the generalized second law and study its validity in different gravity theories. In Einstein gravity (even in the phantom-dominated universe with a Schwarzschild black hole), Lovelock gravity and braneworld gravity, we show that the condition to keep the GSL can always be satisfied. In f(R) gravity and scalar-tensor gravity, the condition to protect the GSL can also hold because the temperature should be positive, gravity is always attractive and the effective Newton constant should be an approximate constant satisfying the experimental bounds

  13. Advanced mechanics and general relativity an introduction to general relativity

    CERN Document Server

    Franklin, Joel

    2010-01-01

    Aimed at advanced undergraduates with background knowledge of classical mechanics and electricity and magnetism, this textbook presents both the particle dynamics relevant to general relativity, and the field dynamics necessary to understand the theory. Focusing on action extremization, the book develops the structure and predictions of general relativity by analogy with familiar physical systems. Topics ranging from classical field theory to minimal surfaces and relativistic strings are covered in a homogeneous manner. Nearly 150 exercises and numerous examples throughout the textbook enable students to test their understanding of the material covered.

  14. Teachers' Understanding of Algebraic Generalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawthorne, Casey Wayne

    Generalization has been identified as a cornerstone of algebraic thinking (e.g., Lee, 1996; Sfard, 1995) and is at the center of a rich conceptualization of K-8 algebra (Kaput, 2008; Smith, 2003). Moreover, mathematics teachers are being encouraged to use figural-pattern generalizing tasks as a basis of student-centered instruction, whereby teachers respond to and build upon the ideas that arise from students' explorations of these activities. Although more and more teachers are engaging their students in such generalizing tasks, little is known about teachers' understanding of generalization and their understanding of students' mathematical thinking in this domain. In this work, I addressed this gap, exploring the understanding of algebraic generalization of 4 exemplary 8th-grade teachers from multiple perspectives. A significant feature of this investigation is an examination of teachers' understanding of the generalization process, including the use of algebraic symbols. The research consisted of two phases. Phase I was an examination of the teachers' understandings of the underlying quantities and quantitative relationships represented by algebraic notation. In Phase II, I observed the instruction of 2 of these teachers. Using the lens of professional noticing of students' mathematical thinking, I explored the teachers' enacted knowledge of algebraic generalization, characterizing how it supported them to effectively respond to the needs and queries of their students. Results indicated that teachers predominantly see these figural patterns as enrichment activities, disconnected from course content. Furthermore, in my analysis, I identified conceptual difficulties teachers experienced when solving generalization tasks, in particular, connecting multiple symbolic representations with the quantities in the figures. Moreover, while the teachers strived to overcome the challenges of connecting different representations, they invoked both productive and unproductive

  15. UN Secretary General visits CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    UN Secretary General praises CERN in recent visit. Ban Ki-moon, Robert Aymar, CERN Director-General, and Sergei Ordzhonikidze, Director-General of the United Nations Office in Geneva at the CMS site.On Sunday 31 August, Ban Ki-moon, the UN Secretary General, made an important visit to CERN. Arriving in the late afternoon, he was warmly greeted at Point 5 by Robert Aymar, the Director-General, and the Sous-préfet of Gex, Olivier Laurens-Bernard. Accompanied by a UN delegation, Ban Ki-moon was also introduced to Jos Engelen, the Chief Scientific Officer, and Jim Virdee, the CMS spokesperson. He then took the opportunity to visit CMS and the machine tunnel. At the end of his short trip, Ban Ki-moon signed the Guest Book in the tradition of important dignitaries visiting CERN. Expressing his admiration for CERN’s spirit of collaboration, Ban Ki-moon said, "I am very honored to visit CERN, an invaluable scientific institution a...

  16. Bimetric general relativity and cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosen, N.

    1980-01-01

    A modification of the general relativity theory is proposed (bimetric general relativity) in which, in addition to the usual metric tensor gsub(μupsilon) describing the space-time geometry and gravitation, there exists also a background metric tensor γsub(μupsilon). The latter describes the space-time of the universe if no matter were present and is taken to correspond to a space-time of constant curvature with positive spatial curvature (k = 1). Field equations are obtained, and these agree with the Einstein equations for systems that are small compared to the size of the universe, such as the solar system. Energy considerations lead to a generalized form of the De Donder condition. Simple isotropic closed models of the universe can be set up which first contract and then expand without going through a singular state. It is suggested that the maximum density of the universe was of the order of c 5 -h -1 G -2 approximately 10 93 g/cm 3 . The expansion from such a high-density state is similar to that from the singular state ('big bang') of the general relativity models. In the case of the dust-filled model the parameters can be fitted to present cosmological data. Using the radiation-filled model to describe the early history of the universe, the cosmic abundance of helium and other light elements can be accounted for in the same way as in ordinary general relativity. (author)

  17. Generalized Fractional Integral Operators on Generalized Local Morrey Spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. S. Guliyev

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We study the continuity properties of the generalized fractional integral operator Iρ on the generalized local Morrey spaces LMp,φ{x0} and generalized Morrey spaces Mp,φ. We find conditions on the triple (φ1,φ2,ρ which ensure the Spanne-type boundedness of Iρ from one generalized local Morrey space LMp,φ1{x0} to another LMq,φ2{x0}, 1

  18. Introduction to generalized linear models

    CERN Document Server

    Dobson, Annette J

    2008-01-01

    Introduction Background Scope Notation Distributions Related to the Normal Distribution Quadratic Forms Estimation Model Fitting Introduction Examples Some Principles of Statistical Modeling Notation and Coding for Explanatory Variables Exponential Family and Generalized Linear Models Introduction Exponential Family of Distributions Properties of Distributions in the Exponential Family Generalized Linear Models Examples Estimation Introduction Example: Failure Times for Pressure Vessels Maximum Likelihood Estimation Poisson Regression Example Inference Introduction Sampling Distribution for Score Statistics Taylor Series Approximations Sampling Distribution for MLEs Log-Likelihood Ratio Statistic Sampling Distribution for the Deviance Hypothesis Testing Normal Linear Models Introduction Basic Results Multiple Linear Regression Analysis of Variance Analysis of Covariance General Linear Models Binary Variables and Logistic Regression Probability Distributions ...

  19. Reconstructing a general inflationary action

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bean, Rachel; Chung, Daniel J. H.; Geshnizjani, Ghazal

    2008-01-01

    If inflation is to be considered in an unbiased way, as possibly originating from one of a wide range of underlying theories, then observations need not be simply applied to reconstructing the inflaton potential V(φ) or a specific kinetic term, as in Dirac-Born-Infeld inflation, but rather to reconstruct the inflationary action in its entirety. We discuss the constraints that can be placed on a general single field action from measurements of the primordial scalar and tensor fluctuation power spectra and non-Gaussianities. The analytic form of the action that is consistent with data turns out to be surprisingly simple and easy to categorize. We also present the flow equation formalism for reconstructing a general inflationary Lagrangian L(X,φ), with X=(1/2)∂ μ φ∂ μ φ, in a general gauge, that reduces to canonical and DBI inflation in the specific gauge L X =c s -1 .

  20. Flux compactifications and generalized geometries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grana, Mariana

    2006-01-01

    Following the lectures given at CERN Winter School 2006, we present a pedagogical overview of flux compactifications and generalized geometries, concentrating on closed string fluxes in type II theories. We start by reviewing the supersymmetric flux configurations with maximally symmetric four-dimensional spaces. We then discuss the no-go theorems (and their evasion) for compactifications with fluxes. We analyse the resulting four-dimensional effective theories for Calabi-Yau and Calabi-Yau orientifold compactifications, concentrating on the flux-induced superpotentials. We discuss the generic mechanism of moduli stabilization and illustrate with two examples: the conifold in IIB and a T 6 /(Z 3 x Z 3 ) torus in IIA. We finish by studying the effective action and flux vacua for generalized geometries in the context of generalized complex geometry

  1. Flux compactifications and generalized geometries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grana, Mariana [Service de Physique Theorique, CEA/Saclay, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France)

    2006-11-07

    Following the lectures given at CERN Winter School 2006, we present a pedagogical overview of flux compactifications and generalized geometries, concentrating on closed string fluxes in type II theories. We start by reviewing the supersymmetric flux configurations with maximally symmetric four-dimensional spaces. We then discuss the no-go theorems (and their evasion) for compactifications with fluxes. We analyse the resulting four-dimensional effective theories for Calabi-Yau and Calabi-Yau orientifold compactifications, concentrating on the flux-induced superpotentials. We discuss the generic mechanism of moduli stabilization and illustrate with two examples: the conifold in IIB and a T{sup 6} /(Z{sub 3} x Z{sub 3}) torus in IIA. We finish by studying the effective action and flux vacua for generalized geometries in the context of generalized complex geometry.

  2. [General practitioner and palliative sedation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweitzer, Bart

    2014-01-01

    Recent publications in Dutch national newspapers on palliative sedation have raised concerns about its use in general practice. There is now evidence that there is no significant increase in the incidence of palliative sedation. Euthanasia requests were pending in 20.8% of the cases in which palliative sedation was performed, but the general practitioners could clearly justify why they made this choice. This is important because it indicates that they are aware of a sharp distinction between euthanasia and palliative sedation. Although the decision to perform palliative sedation was discussed with almost all cancer patients, patient involvement was less present in non-cancer conditions. This may be related to different disease trajectories, but it also indicates that attention should be devoted to earlier identification of patients in need of palliative care. The findings confirm that the practice of palliative sedation by general practitioners largely reflects the recommendations of the Dutch National Guideline on Palliative Sedation.

  3. Soliton Gases and Generalized Hydrodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyon, Benjamin; Yoshimura, Takato; Caux, Jean-Sébastien

    2018-01-01

    We show that the equations of generalized hydrodynamics (GHD), a hydrodynamic theory for integrable quantum systems at the Euler scale, emerge in full generality in a family of classical gases, which generalize the gas of hard rods. In this family, the particles, upon colliding, jump forward or backward by a distance that depends on their velocities, reminiscent of classical soliton scattering. This provides a "molecular dynamics" for GHD: a numerical solver which is efficient, flexible, and which applies to the presence of external force fields. GHD also describes the hydrodynamics of classical soliton gases. We identify the GHD of any quantum model with that of the gas of its solitonlike wave packets, thus providing a remarkable quantum-classical equivalence. The theory is directly applicable, for instance, to integrable quantum chains and to the Lieb-Liniger model realized in cold-atom experiments.

  4. Generalized Multiparameters Fractional Variational Calculus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Om Prakash Agrawal

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper builds upon our recent paper on generalized fractional variational calculus (FVC. Here, we briefly review some of the fractional derivatives (FDs that we considered in the past to develop FVC. We first introduce new one parameter generalized fractional derivatives (GFDs which depend on two functions, and show that many of the one-parameter FDs considered in the past are special cases of the proposed GFDs. We develop several parts of FVC in terms of one parameter GFDs. We point out how many other parts could be developed using the properties of the one-parameter GFDs. Subsequently, we introduce two new two- and three-parameter GFDs. We introduce some of their properties, and discuss how they can be used to develop FVC. In addition, we indicate how these formulations could be used in various fields, and how the generalizations presented here can be further extended.

  5. Quantum mechanics from general relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sachs, M.

    1986-01-01

    A generalization of quantum mechanics is demonstrated in the context of general relativity, following from a generally covariant field theory of inertia. Nonrelativistically, the formalism corresponds with linear quantum mechanics. In the limit of special relativity, nonlinearity remains and several new features are derived: (1) Particle-antiparticle pairs do not annihilate; an exact bound state solution is derived corresponding with all experimental facts about annihilation/creation - which, in approximation, gives the blackbody radiation spectrum for a sea of such pairs. (2) A result is proven, without approximation, that is physically equivalent to the Pauli exclusion principle - which, in linear approximation, gives the totally antisymmetrised many-body wave function and Fermi-Dirac statistics. (3) The hydrogen spectrum is derived, including the Lamb shifts, in agreement with experiment; new results are found for high energy electron-proton scattering. (4) Finally, several applications to the elementary particle domain are demonstrated, in agreement with results from experimental high energy physics. (Auth.)

  6. General crystal in prebiotic context

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simon, I.

    1993-09-01

    General crystal is an extension of the crystal concept to any form of matter which exhibit neighbour structure determination. This extension makes many results of solid state physics applicable to heterogeneous matter. Among other it includes the description of phase transition from random to unique structure. The advantage of the general crystal approach is demonstrated on globular protein, on of the most important macromolecules of life, which are capable to adopt unique 3D structure spontaneously, regardless of the heterogeneous character of their chemical structure and conformation. It is suggested that the use of general crystal concept may help to find candidates among heterogeneous matters capable to spontaneous self-organization in the same way as crystallization results in unique structure of homogeneous matter, and to apply some of the results of solid state physics to describe the phase transition and other behaviour of this matter. (author). 10 refs

  7. Pseudo-complex general relativity

    CERN Document Server

    Hess, Peter O; Greiner, Walter

    2016-01-01

    This volume presents an pseudo-complex extension of General Relativity which addresses these issues and presents proposals for experimental examinations in strong fields near a large mass. General Relativity is a beautiful and well tested theory of gravitation. Nevertheless, it implies conceptual problems like the creation of singularities (Black Holes) as a result of the collapse of large masses, or the appearance of event horizons which exclude parts of the space-time from the observation of external observers. The mathematical and geometrical foundations of this extension are displayed in detail, and applications including orbits and accretion disks around large central masses, neutron stars or cosmological models are introduced. Calculations both for classical and extended applications are often executed in the form of problems with extensive solutions, which makes this volume also a valuable resource for any student of General Relativity.

  8. Conformal covariance of general relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ionescu-Pallas, N.; Gottlieb, I.

    1980-01-01

    The Einstein's equations of General Relativity are written in a conformal metric, resulting as a consequence of geometrizing the pressure forces. Accordingly, the trajectory of a test body pursues a geodetic line even inside the source of gravitational field. Moreover, the pressure, entering the perfect fluid scheme, may be replaced by a certain scalar interaction. This new manner of interpreting General Relativity is then applied to Cosmology, in order to build up a model of Universe whose static limit should coincide with that of Einstein. At the same time, the cosmological constant is connected to the scalar interaction acquiring a plausible explanation. (author)

  9. Alternative general-aircraft engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomazic, W. A.

    1976-01-01

    The most promising alternative engine (or engines) for application to general aircraft in the post-1985 time period was defined, and the level of technology was cited to the point where confident development of a new engine can begin early in the 1980's. Low emissions, multifuel capability, and fuel economy were emphasized. Six alternative propulsion concepts were considered to be viable candidates for future general-aircraft application: the advanced spark-ignition piston, rotary combustion, two- and four-stroke diesel, Stirling, and gas turbine engines.

  10. Generalized Painleve-Gullstrand metrics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin Chunyu [Department of Physics, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 70101, Taiwan (China)], E-mail: l2891112@mail.ncku.edu.tw; Soo Chopin [Department of Physics, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 70101, Taiwan (China)], E-mail: cpsoo@mail.ncku.edu.tw

    2009-02-02

    An obstruction to the implementation of spatially flat Painleve-Gullstrand (PG) slicings is demonstrated, and explicitly discussed for Reissner-Nordstroem and Schwarzschild-anti-deSitter spacetimes. Generalizations of PG slicings which are not spatially flat but which remain regular at the horizons are introduced. These metrics can be obtained from standard spherically symmetric metrics by physical Lorentz boosts. With these generalized PG metrics, problematic contributions to the imaginary part of the action in the Parikh-Wilczek derivation of Hawking radiation due to the obstruction can be avoided.

  11. Three types of generalized synchronization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang Junzhong [School of Science, Beijing University of Posts and Telecomunications, Beijing 100876 (China)]. E-mail: jzyang@bupt.edu.cn; Hu Gang [China Center for Advanced Science and Technology (CCAST) (World Laboratory), PO Box 8730, Beijing 100080 (China) and Department of Physics, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China)]. E-mail: ganghu@bnu.edu.cn

    2007-02-05

    The roles played by drive and response systems on generalized chaos synchronization (GS) are studied. And the generalized synchronization is classified, based on these roles, to three distinctive types: the passive GS which is mainly determined by the response system and insensitive to the driving signal; the resonant GS where phase synchronization between the drive and response systems is preceding GS; and the interacting GS where both the drive and response have influences on the status of GS. The features of these GS types and the possible changes from one types to others are investigated.

  12. Three types of generalized synchronization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Junzhong; Hu Gang

    2007-01-01

    The roles played by drive and response systems on generalized chaos synchronization (GS) are studied. And the generalized synchronization is classified, based on these roles, to three distinctive types: the passive GS which is mainly determined by the response system and insensitive to the driving signal; the resonant GS where phase synchronization between the drive and response systems is preceding GS; and the interacting GS where both the drive and response have influences on the status of GS. The features of these GS types and the possible changes from one types to others are investigated

  13. General Purpose (office) Network reorganisation

    CERN Multimedia

    IT Department

    2016-01-01

    On Saturday 27 August, the IT Department’s Communication Systems group will perform a major reorganisation of CERN’s General Purpose Network.   This reorganisation will cause network interruptions on Saturday 27 August (and possibly Sunday 28 August) and will be followed by a change to the IP addresses of connected systems that will come into effect on Monday 3 October. For further details and information about the actions you may need to take, please see: https://information-technology.web.cern.ch/news/general-purpose-office-network-reorganisation.

  14. Generalized Gradient Approximation Made Simple

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perdew, J.P.; Burke, K.; Ernzerhof, M.

    1996-01-01

    Generalized gradient approximations (GGA close-quote s) for the exchange-correlation energy improve upon the local spin density (LSD) description of atoms, molecules, and solids. We present a simple derivation of a simple GGA, in which all parameters (other than those in LSD) are fundamental constants. Only general features of the detailed construction underlying the Perdew-Wang 1991 (PW91) GGA are invoked. Improvements over PW91 include an accurate description of the linear response of the uniform electron gas, correct behavior under uniform scaling, and a smoother potential. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society

  15. Regeneration and general Markov chains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir V. Kalashnikov

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available Ergodicity, continuity, finite approximations and rare visits of general Markov chains are investigated. The obtained results permit further quantitative analysis of characteristics, such as, rates of convergence, continuity (measured as a distance between perturbed and non-perturbed characteristics, deviations between Markov chains, accuracy of approximations and bounds on the distribution function of the first visit time to a chosen subset, etc. The underlying techniques use the embedding of the general Markov chain into a wide sense regenerative process with the help of splitting construction.

  16. General definition of gravitational tension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harmark, T.; Obers, N.A.

    2004-01-01

    In this note we give a general definition of the gravitational tension in a given asymptotically translationally-invariant spatial direction of a space-time. The tension is defined via the extrinsic curvature in analogy with the Hawking-Horowitz definition of energy. We show the consistency with the ADM tension formulas for asymptotically-flat space-times, in particular for Kaluza-Klein black hole solutions. Moreover, we apply the general tension formula to near-extremal branes, constituting a check for non-asymptotically flat space-times. (author)

  17. The gauge in general relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohn, J.

    1975-01-01

    The view is taken that the field equations of General Relativity, without a definition of congruence of length and time intervals at different events, are without physical content. The possibility is explored that the customary Einstein field equations are to be used but with a different congruence definition than is customary. When these resulting equations are, in turn, expressed with the customary congruence, they comprise a new set of field equations physically not equivalent to either Einstein's or Brans-Dicke's formulations of general relativity. Similarities with Einstein's and Brans-Dicke's formulations are discussed, and the possibility of experimental confirmation of these new equations is also briefly considered. (author)

  18. Invariants of generalized Lie algebras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agrawala, V.K.

    1981-01-01

    Invariants and invariant multilinear forms are defined for generalized Lie algebras with arbitrary grading and commutation factor. Explicit constructions of invariants and vector operators are given by contracting invariant forms with basic elements of the generalized Lie algebra. The use of the matrix of a linear map between graded vector spaces is emphasized. With the help of this matrix, the concept of graded trace of a linear operator is introduced, which is a rich source of multilinear forms of degree zero. To illustrate the use of invariants, a characteristic identity similar to that of Green is derived and a few Racah coefficients are evaluated in terms of invariants

  19. Generalization of Vaidya's radiation metric

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gleiser, R J; Kozameh, C N [Universidad Nacional de Cordoba (Argentina). Instituto de Matematica, Astronomia y Fisica

    1981-11-01

    In this paper it is shown that if Vaidya's radiation metric is considered from the point of view of kinetic theory in general relativity, the corresponding phase space distribution function can be generalized in a particular way. The new family of spherically symmetric radiation metrics obtained contains Vaidya's as a limiting situation. The Einstein field equations are solved in a ''comoving'' coordinate system. Two arbitrary functions of a single variable are introduced in the process of solving these equations. Particular examples considered are a stationary solution, a nonvacuum solution depending on a single parameter, and several limiting situations.

  20. Generalized field-transforming metamaterials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tretyakov, Sergei A; Nefedov, Igor S; Alitalo, Pekka

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce a generalized concept of field-transforming metamaterials, which perform field transformations defined as linear relations between the original and transformed fields. These artificial media change the fields in a prescribed fashion in the volume occupied by the medium. We show what electromagnetic properties of transforming medium are required. The coefficients of these linear functions can be arbitrary scalar functions of position and frequency, which makes the approach quite general and opens a possibility to realize various unusual devices.

  1. Generalized, Linear, and Mixed Models

    CERN Document Server

    McCulloch, Charles E; Neuhaus, John M

    2011-01-01

    An accessible and self-contained introduction to statistical models-now in a modernized new editionGeneralized, Linear, and Mixed Models, Second Edition provides an up-to-date treatment of the essential techniques for developing and applying a wide variety of statistical models. The book presents thorough and unified coverage of the theory behind generalized, linear, and mixed models and highlights their similarities and differences in various construction, application, and computational aspects.A clear introduction to the basic ideas of fixed effects models, random effects models, and mixed m

  2. Spinning fluids in general relativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, J. R.; Smalley, L. L.

    1982-01-01

    General relativity field equations are employed to examine a continuous medium with internal spin. A variational principle formerly applied in the special relativity case is extended to the general relativity case, using a tetrad to express the spin density and the four-velocity of the fluid. An energy-momentum tensor is subsequently defined for a spinning fluid. The equations of motion of the fluid are suggested to be useful in analytical studies of galaxies, for anisotropic Bianchi universes, and for turbulent eddies.

  3. General relativity and gravitational waves

    CERN Document Server

    Weber, Johanna

    1961-01-01

    An internationally famous physicist and electrical engineer, the author of this text was a pioneer in the investigation of gravitational waves. Joseph Weber's General Relativity and Gravitational Waves offers a classic treatment of the subject. Appropriate for upper-level undergraduates and graduate students, this text remains ever relevant. Brief but thorough in its introduction to the foundations of general relativity, it also examines the elements of Riemannian geometry and tensor calculus applicable to this field.Approximately a quarter of the contents explores theoretical and experimenta

  4. 21 CFR 610.11 - General safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false General safety. 610.11 Section 610.11 Food and... GENERAL BIOLOGICAL PRODUCTS STANDARDS General Provisions § 610.11 General safety. A general safety test... for administration to humans. The general safety test is required in addition to other specific tests...

  5. Burnout contagion among general practitioners.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, A.B.; Schaufeli, W.B.; Sixma, H.J.; Bosveld, W.

    2001-01-01

    This study used a representative sample of 507 general practitioners (GPs) to test the hypothesis that burnout is contagious. Following a two-dimensional conceptualization of burnout, it is assumed that burnout is comprised of emotional exhaustion and negative attitudes (i.e., depersonalization and

  6. Periodontal Emergencies in General Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadia, Reena; Ide, Mark

    2017-05-01

    Diagnosing and managing periodontal emergencies is a common part of general dental practice. This article summarises the presentation, aetiology and management of the key periodontal emergencies, including gingival abscess, periodontal abscess, peri-coronitis/peri-coronal abscess, perio-endo lesion/ abscess, necrotising gingivitis and periodontitis, acute herpetic gingivostomatitis, acute physical/chemical/thermal injury and subgingival root fracture.

  7. ADHD Psychosocial Treatments: Generalization Reconsidered

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abikoff, Howard

    2009-01-01

    Behavioral interventions have demonstrated clinical utility in improving the behavior of children with ADHD, especially in specialized therapeutic milieus (Pelham et al., 2000). Improvements in children's target behaviors often occur in the treatment settings where contingencies are in place and delivered consistently. However, generalization of…

  8. General assessment of estuarine pollution

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. General assessment of estuarine pollution. Contamination of estuaries by untreated domestic wastewater is widespread, however, in absence of time-series studies the responses of native flora and fauna to modified environment are unclear. Agricultural runoff ...

  9. A note on generalized pentagons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Stephan

    2010-01-01

    Thomassen introduced the notion of a generalized pentagon and proved that the chromatic number of a triangle-free graph with n vertices and minimum degree at least cn, c>13, is at most 2(3c-1)-(4c-1)(3c-1), the first bound independent of the order n. We present a short proof of the stronger upper...

  10. Generalized Mixability via Entropic Duality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.D. Reid; R.M. Frongillo; R.C. Williamson; N.A. Mehta (Nishant); P.D. Grünwald (Peter); E. Hazan; S. Kale

    2015-01-01

    textabstract Mixability is a property of a loss which characterizes when constant regret is possible in the game of prediction with expert advice. We show that a key property of mixability generalizes, and the $\\exp$ and $\\log$ operations present in the usual theory are not as special as

  11. Hydroelectric Generating Facilities General Permit ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-28

    The Notice of Availability of the Final NPDES General Permits (HYDROGP) for Discharges at Hydroelectric Generating Facilities in Massachusetts (MAG360000) and New Hampshire (NHG360000) and Tribal Lands in the State of Massachusetts was published in the Federal Register on December 7, 2009 (see 74 Fed. Reg. No. 233, pages 64074 - 64075).

  12. General discussion of feasibility study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calori, F.

    1976-01-01

    Fundamentals, objectives and parameters of feasibility studies in the field of nuclear power project planning are discussed in a general way. Technical and economic problems to be considered are pointed out. In special cases, IAEA offers its aid and support. (UA) [de

  13. General Relativity: horizons for tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yatskiv, Ya. S.; Alexandrov, A. N.; Vavilova, I. B.; Zhdanov, V. I.; Zhuk, A. I.; Kudrya, Yu. N.; Parnovsky, S. L.; Fedorova, E. V.; Khmil, S. V.

    2013-12-01

    Theoretical basis of the General Relativity Theory (GRT), its experimental tests as well as GRT applications are briefly summarized taking into account the results of the last decade. The monograph addresses scientists, post-graduated students, and students specialized in the natural sciences as well as everyone who takes an interest in GRT.

  14. General relativity and dark matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pestov, A.B.

    1993-01-01

    It is shown that from the first principles of General Relativity it follows that there exists a new type of interactions which are tightly connected with the gravitational interactions. New particles representing a new form of interactions do not interact electromagnetically, strongly and weakly with the known elementary particles. Physics of the new particles is defined by the Planck scales. (author.). 9 refs

  15. Generalized Probability-Probability Plots

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mushkudiani, N.A.; Einmahl, J.H.J.

    2004-01-01

    We introduce generalized Probability-Probability (P-P) plots in order to study the one-sample goodness-of-fit problem and the two-sample problem, for real valued data.These plots, that are constructed by indexing with the class of closed intervals, globally preserve the properties of classical P-P

  16. General Relativity: Geometry Meets Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomsen, Dietrick E.

    1975-01-01

    Observing the relationship of general relativity and the geometry of space-time, the author questions whether the rest of physics has geometrical explanations. As a partial answer he discusses current research on subatomic particles employing geometric transformations, and cites the existence of geometrical definitions of physical quantities such…

  17. Bakhtin and the "General Intellect"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardiner, Michael E.

    2017-01-01

    One of the key concepts in autonomist Marxism is the "general intellect." As capitalism develops, labour and its products become increasingly "immaterial", inasmuch as the physical side of production is taken over by automated systems. The result is that all aspects of the collective worker's affective, desiring and cognitive…

  18. Generalized Cherednik-Macdonald identities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stokman, J.V.

    2008-01-01

    We derive generalizations of the Cherednik-Macdonald constant term identities associated to root systems which depend, besides on the usual Multiplicity function, symmetrically on two additional parameters omega +/-. They are natural analogues of the Cherednik-Macdonald constant term q-identities in

  19. A generalized global alignment algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xiaoqiu; Chao, Kun-Mao

    2003-01-22

    Homologous sequences are sometimes similar over some regions but different over other regions. Homologous sequences have a much lower global similarity if the different regions are much longer than the similar regions. We present a generalized global alignment algorithm for comparing sequences with intermittent similarities, an ordered list of similar regions separated by different regions. A generalized global alignment model is defined to handle sequences with intermittent similarities. A dynamic programming algorithm is designed to compute an optimal general alignment in time proportional to the product of sequence lengths and in space proportional to the sum of sequence lengths. The algorithm is implemented as a computer program named GAP3 (Global Alignment Program Version 3). The generalized global alignment model is validated by experimental results produced with GAP3 on both DNA and protein sequences. The GAP3 program extends the ability of standard global alignment programs to recognize homologous sequences of lower similarity. The GAP3 program is freely available for academic use at http://bioinformatics.iastate.edu/aat/align/align.html.

  20. Nutrition communication in general practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dillen, van S.M.E.; Hiddink, G.J.; Koelen, M.A.; Graaf, de C.; Woerkum, van C.M.J.

    2006-01-01

    General practitioners (GPs) are frequently confronted with patients who suffer from obesity or other nutrition-related diseases, such as diabetes and coronary heart disease. There is increasing evidence that nutrition communication is effective in changing nutrition behaviour. Moreover, it is widely