Sample records for reservoir scale faults

  1. Permeability Evolution of Slowly Slipping Faults in Shale Reservoirs (United States)

    Wu, Wei; Reece, Julia S.; Gensterblum, Yves; Zoback, Mark D.


    Slow slip on preexisting faults during hydraulic fracturing is a process that significantly influences shale gas production in extremely low permeability "shale" (unconventional) reservoirs. We experimentally examined the impacts of mineralogy, surface roughness, and effective stress on permeability evolution of slowly slipping faults in Eagle Ford shale samples. Our results show that fault permeability decreases with slip at higher effective stress but increases with slip at lower effective stress. The permeabilities of saw cut faults fully recover after cycling effective stress from 2.5 to 17.5 to 2.5 MPa and increase with slip at constant effective stress due to asperity damage and dilation associated with slip. However, the permeabilities of natural faults only partially recover after cycling effective stress returns to 2.5 MPa and decrease with slip due to produced gouge blocking fluid flow pathways. Our results suggest that slowly slipping faults have the potential to enhance reservoir stimulation in extremely low permeability reservoirs.

  2. Basement Fault Reactivation by Fluid Injection into Sedimentary Reservoirs (United States)

    Peter, Eichhubl; Fan, Zhiqiang; Zhu, Cheng


    Many suspected injection-induced earthquakes occur in crystalline basement rather than in the overlying sedimentary injection reservoir. To address why earthquakes nucleate in the basement rather than the injection layer we investigate the relationship between pore pressure diffusion, rock matrix deformation, and induced fault reactivation through 3D fully coupled poroelastic finite element models. These models simulate the temporal and spatial perturbation of pore pressure and solid stresses within a basement fault that extends into overlying sedimentary layers and that is conductive for flow along the fault but a barrier for flow across. We compare the effects of direct pore pressure communication and indirect poroelastic stress transfer from the injection reservoir to the fault on increasing the Coulomb failure stress that could reactivate the basement fault for normal, reverse, and strike-slip faulting stress regimes. Our numerical results demonstrate that volumetric expansion of the reservoir causes a bending of the fault near the injector and induces shear tractions along the downdip direction of the fault in the basement. These induced shear tractions act to increase the Coulomb failure stress for a normal faulting stress regime, and decrease the Coulomb failure stress for a reverse faulting regime. For a strike-slip faulting stress regime, the induced shear tractions increase the Coulomb failure stress both in the reservoir and basement. The induced normal traction on the fault reduces the Coulomb failure stress in all three tectonic regimes, but is larger in the reservoir than in the basement due to the more pronounced poroelastic effect in the reservoir. As a result, strike-slip stress regimes favor fault reactivation in the basement. Whereas the magnitude of the direct pore pressure increase exceeds the magnitude of induced poroelastic stress change, the poroelastic stress change increases the Coulomb failure stress in the basement fault for the normal

  3. Geomechanical production optimization in faulted and fractured reservoirs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heege, J.H. ter; Pizzocolo, F.; Osinga, S.; Veer, E.F. van der


    Faults and fractures in hydrocarbon reservoirs are key to some major production issues including (1) varying productivity of different well sections due to intersection of preferential flow paths with the wellbore, (2) varying hydrocarbon column heights in different reservoir compartments due to

  4. Cross-fault pressure depletion, Zechstein carbonate reservoir, Weser-Ems area, Northern German Gas Basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corona, F.V.; Brauckmann, F.; Beckmann, H.; Gobi, A.; Grassmann, S.; Neble, J.; Roettgen, K. [ExxonMobil Production Deutschland GmbH (EMPG), Hannover (Germany)


    A cross-fault pressure depletion study in Upper Permian Zechstein Ca2 carbonate reservoir was undertaken in the Weser-Ems area of the Northern German Gas Basin. The primary objectives are to develop a practical workflow to define cross-fault pressures scenarios for Zechstein Ca2 reservoir drillwells, to determine the key factors of cross-fault pressure behavior in this platform carbonate reservoir, and to translate the observed cross-fault pressure depletion to fault transmissibility for reservoir simulation models. Analysis of Zechstein Ca2 cross-fault pressures indicates that most Zechstein-cutting faults appear to act as fluid-flow baffles with some local occurrences of fault seal. Moreover, there appears to be distinct cross-fault baffling or pressure depletion trends that may be related to the extent of the separating fault or fault system, degree of reservoir flow-path tortuosity, and quality of reservoir juxtaposition. Based on the above observations, a three-part workflow was developed consisting of (1) careful interpretation and mapping of faults and fault networks, (2) analysis of reservoir juxtaposition and reservoir juxtaposition quality, and (3) application of the observed cross-fault pressure depletion trends. This approach is field-analog based, is practical, and is being used currently to provide reliable and supportable pressure prediction scenarios for subsequent Zechstein fault-bounded drill-well opportunities.

  5. Modelling of fractured reservoirs. Case of multi-scale media; Modelisation des reservoirs fractures. Cas des milieux multi-echelles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henn, N.


    Some of the most productive oil and gas reservoirs are found in formations crossed by multi-scale fractures/faults. Among them, conductive faults may closely control reservoir performance. However, their modelling encounters numerical and physical difficulties linked with (a) the necessity to keep an explicit representation of faults through small-size grid blocks, (b) the modelling of multiphase flow exchanges between the fault and the neighbouring medium. In this thesis, we propose a physically-representative and numerically efficient modelling approach in order to incorporate sub-vertical conductive faults in single and dual-porosity simulators. To validate our approach and demonstrate its efficiency, simulation results of multiphase displacements in representative field sector models are presented. (author)

  6. Internal structure of fault zones in geothermal reservoirs: Examples from palaeogeothermal fields and potential host rocks (United States)

    Leonie Philipp, Sonja; Reyer, Dorothea; Meier, Silke; Bauer, Johanna F.; Afşar, Filiz


    characterized by increased fracture densities and higher percentages of fractures with large apertures. In the Upper Rhine Graben (2) damage zones in Muschelkalk limestones (Middle Triassic) are well developed even in fault zones with dm-scale displacements. Their fault cores, however, are narrow compared with that of fault zones with larger displacements and comprise brecciated material, clay smear, host rock lenses or zones of mineralization. Fracture apertures are larger parallel or subparallel to fault zone strike. A large fault zone footwall in Triassic Bunter sandstone shows a clearly developed fault core with fault gouge, slip zones, deformation bands and host rock lenses, a distal fault core with disturbed layering and high fracture density and a damage zone with increased fracture density compared with the host rock. In the study areas of palaeogeothermal fields in the Bristol Channel (3), all the mineral veins are clearly related to the faults and occur almost exclusively in the damage zones, indicating that geothermal water was transported along the then-active faults into the host rocks. Field measurements indicate that in all the localities, a large majority of the fractures in the fault damage zones are extension fractures, fewer are shear fractures. In the Jurassic Blue Lias there is evidence that the veins were injected as hydrofractures from fault planes into the limestone layers. In the Triassic Mercia Mudstone most veins were arrested during their propagation by layers with contrasting mechanical properties (stress barriers). Some veins, however, propagated through the barriers along faults to shallower levels. Our studies contribute to understanding and modelling of hydromechanical behaviour of fault zones and fluid transport in geothermal reservoirs. For successful exploration and exploitation, fault zones must be studied in detail regarding their likely internal structure, fracture parameters and orientation in relation to the current stress field. We show

  7. Geodetic imaging of thermal deformation in geothermal reservoirs - production, depletion and fault reactivation (United States)

    Im, Kyungjae; Elsworth, Derek; Guglielmi, Yves; Mattioli, Glen S.


    We investigate thermally induced surface deformation in geothermal systems. To define source mechanisms at depth, we assess the mechanical process of subsurface deformation by assuming a spherically cooled fractured reservoir in an infinite medium and derive relations that define magnitudes of thermal contraction, stress change and permeability evolution. The magnitude of thermal deformation in typical geothermal system is larger than anticipated and suggests two different modalities of surface subsidence - thermal contraction and fault reactivation. Here, surface deformation (vertical displacement, surface tilt and horizontal strain) induced by the two different modalities are assessed with Mogi (contraction) and Okada (slip) models and compared with instrumental sensitivity of high precision surface geodetic tools. We show that 1 year of geothermal operation at 10 MW with a power plant conversion efficiency of 12% can yield 3.0 × 104 m3 of subsurface volume change. For a reservoir at 2000 m depth, this induces 1.7 mm of vertical surface displacement, 800 nano-radians of surface tilt and 900 nano-strains of surface strain. This result implies that typically observed magnitudes of surface subsidence (order of cm/year) are naturally expected in massive (100 MW scale) geothermal operations and observed surface subsidence may largely be the result of thermal contraction. Conversely, thermal unloading can trigger fault reactivation. Analysis with an Okada slip model shows these shear offsets on pre-existing faults can also result in surface deformations of considerable magnitude. Our analysis of field operational data from various geothermal projects suggests that both thermal contraction and slow fault reactivation may contribute to the observed large surface deformation. Comparison of predicted deformation with instrumental sensitivity of high precision surface tools confirms that geodetic signals, especially tilt and strain, are indeed sufficiently large to

  8. Characteristics of volcanic reservoirs and distribution rules of effective reservoirs in the Changling fault depression, Songliao Basin

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    Pujun Wang


    Full Text Available In the Songliao Basin, volcanic oil and gas reservoirs are important exploration domains. Based on drilling, logging, and 3D seismic (1495 km2 data, 546 sets of measured physical properties and gas testing productivity of 66 wells in the Changling fault depression, Songliao Basin, eruptive cycles and sub-lithofacies were distinguished after lithologic correction of the 19,384 m volcanic well intervals, so that a quantitative analysis was conducted on the relation between the eruptive cycles, lithologies and lithofacies and the distribution of effective reservoirs. After the relationship was established between lithologies, lithofacies & cycles and reservoir physical properties & oil and gas bearing situations, an analysis was conducted on the characteristics of volcanic reservoirs and the distribution rules of effective reservoirs. It is indicated that 10 eruptive cycles of 3 sections are totally developed in this area, and the effective reservoirs are mainly distributed at the top cycles of eruptive sequences, with those of the 1st and 3rd Members of Yingcheng Formation presenting the best reservoir properties. In this area, there are mainly 11 types of volcanic rocks, among which rhyolite, rhyolitic tuff, rhyolitic tuffo lava and rhyolitic volcanic breccia are the dominant lithologies of effective reservoirs. In the target area are mainly developed 4 volcanic lithofacies (11 sub-lithofacies, among which upper sub-lithofacies of effusive facies and thermal clastic sub-lithofacies of explosion lithofacies are predominant in effective reservoirs. There is an obvious corresponding relationship between the physical properties of volcanic reservoirs and the development degree of effective reservoirs. The distribution of effective reservoirs is controlled by reservoir physical properties, and the formation of effective reservoirs is influenced more by porosity than by permeability. It is concluded that deep volcanic gas exploration presents a good

  9. Laboratory scale micro-seismic monitoring of rock faulting and injection-induced fault reactivation (United States)

    Sarout, J.; Dautriat, J.; Esteban, L.; Lumley, D. E.; King, A.


    The South West Hub CCS project in Western Australia aims to evaluate the feasibility and impact of geosequestration of CO2 in the Lesueur sandstone formation. Part of this evaluation focuses on the feasibility and design of a robust passive seismic monitoring array. Micro-seismicity monitoring can be used to image the injected CO2plume, or any geomechanical fracture/fault activity; and thus serve as an early warning system by measuring low-level (unfelt) seismicity that may precede potentially larger (felt) earthquakes. This paper describes laboratory deformation experiments replicating typical field scenarios of fluid injection in faulted reservoirs. Two pairs of cylindrical core specimens were recovered from the Harvey-1 well at depths of 1924 m and 2508 m. In each specimen a fault is first generated at the in situ stress, pore pressure and temperature by increasing the vertical stress beyond the peak in a triaxial stress vessel at CSIRO's Geomechanics & Geophysics Lab. The faulted specimen is then stabilized by decreasing the vertical stress. The freshly formed fault is subsequently reactivated by brine injection and increase of the pore pressure until slip occurs again. This second slip event is then controlled in displacement and allowed to develop for a few millimeters. The micro-seismic (MS) response of the rock during the initial fracturing and subsequent reactivation is monitored using an array of 16 ultrasonic sensors attached to the specimen's surface. The recorded MS events are relocated in space and time, and correlate well with the 3D X-ray CT images of the specimen obtained post-mortem. The time evolution of the structural changes induced within the triaxial stress vessel is therefore reliably inferred. The recorded MS activity shows that, as expected, the increase of the vertical stress beyond the peak led to an inclined shear fault. The injection of fluid and the resulting increase in pore pressure led first to a reactivation of the pre


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hickman, John; Leetaru, Hannes


    The presence of known faults near potential geologic CO2 sequestration sites significantly raises the uncertainty of having a sufficient seal to prevent leakage along the fault plane from the intended reservoir. In regions where relocating a large sequestration project a considerable distance away from any known faults is impractical, a detailed analysis of the sealing potential of any faults within the projected future injection plume must be performed. In order to estimate the sealing potential of faults within the Late Cambrian-Early Ordovician Knox Supergroup in the Illinois Basin, two well-based cross sections were produced across two different regional fault systems (Rough Creek Fault Zone in Kentucky, and the unnamed core fault of the LaSalle Anticlinorium in Illinois) to calculate subsurface stratigraphic juxtapositions across each fault zone. Using this stratigraphic and lithologic data, three different algorithms were used to calculate the sealing potential of a theoretical Knox reservoir at each section location. These results indicate a high probability for sealing within the Rough Creek Fault Zone, but a much lower probability for a continuous seal within the LaSalle Anticlinorium.

  11. Finite-fault scaling relations in Mexico (United States)

    Rodríguez-Pérez, Quetzalcoatl; Ottemöller, Lars


    Earthquake source parameters are widely used for computing scaling laws. We estimated source parameters for earthquakes in the Gulf of California, and the Mexican subduction zone through teleseismic fault slip inversion. The scaling relations herein can provide useful information for studies focused on source characteristics and ground motions in Mexico. We derived source scaling relations to estimate fault dimensions, combined asperity area, ratio of combined asperity area to rupture area, maximum displacement, mean displacement, duration and seismic energy of subduction interplate earthquakes based on their moment magnitude. We do not developed scaling relationships for strike-slip events in the Gulf of California due to the reduced number of data, but compare source parameters. We analyzed differences in source parameters between the two types of earthquakes. Scaling relations were fitted with orthogonal regression and we analyzed the difference between our subduction zone relationships and previous ones. We determined 21 finite-fault slip distributions for earthquakes in the magnitude range of 6.5 authors based on different inversion methods to construct scaling relationships in a consistent manner. Within this study, we characterized heterogeneous slip models by determining source parameters on the asperities and on the background area, such as number of asperities, combined asperity area, stress drop on asperities, aspect ratio, strain and average stress drop. We found that the area of the asperities represented about 22 and 24 per cent of the total area for strike-slip, and reverse events respectively with two different criteria based on average slip and maximum displacement. Sensitivity tests were carried out to estimate the variability of slip patterns and source parameters by changing fault dimensions, subfault size and the number of stations. We observed robust slip solutions and reliable source parameter estimations resulting in robust scaling

  12. From Target Selection to Post-Stimulation Analysis: Example of an Unconventional Faulted Reservoir (United States)

    LeCalvez, J. H.; Williams, M.; Xu, W.; Stokes, J.; Moros, H.; Maxwell, S. C.; Conners, S.


    As the global balance of supply and demand forces the hydrocarbon industry toward unconventional resources, technology- and economics-driven shale oil and gas production is gaining momentum throughout many basins worldwide. Production from such unconventional plays is facilitated by massive hydraulic fracturing treatments aimed at increasing permeability and reactivating natural fractures. Large-scale faulting and fracturing partly control stress distribution, hence stimulation-derived hydraulically-induced fracture systems development. Therefore, careful integrated approaches to target selection, treatment staging, and stimulation methods need to be used to economically maximize ultimate hydrocarbon recovery. We present a case study of a multistage, multilateral stimulation project in the Fort Worth Basin, Texas. Wells had to be drilled within city limits in a commercially developing building area. Well locations and trajectories were determined in and around large-scale faults using 3D surface seismic with throws varying from seven to thirty meters. As a result, three horizontal wells were drilled in the Lower Barnett Shale section, 150 m apart with the central well landed about 25 m shallower than the outside laterals. Surface seismic indicates that the surface locations are on top of a major fault complex with the lateral sections drilling away from the major fault system and through a smaller fault. Modeling of the borehole-based microseismic monitoring options led to the selection of an optimum set of configurations given the operational restrictions faced: monitoring would mainly take place using a horizontal array to be tractored downhole and moved according to the well and stage to be monitored. Wells were completed using a perf-and-plug approach allowing for each stimulation stage to obtain a precise orientation of the various three-component accelerometers of the monitoring array as well as the calibration of the velocity model used to process the


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. O. Kuzmin


    Full Text Available Recent deformation processes taking place in real time are analyzed on the basis of data on fault zones which were collected by long-term detailed geodetic survey studies with application of field methods and satellite monitoring.A new category of recent crustal movements is described and termed as parametrically induced tectonic strain in fault zones. It is shown that in the fault zones located in seismically active and aseismic regions, super intensive displacements of the crust (5 to 7 cm per year, i.e. (5 to 7·10–5 per year occur due to very small external impacts of natural or technogenic / industrial origin.The spatial discreteness of anomalous deformation processes is established along the strike of the regional Rechitsky fault in the Pripyat basin. It is concluded that recent anomalous activity of the fault zones needs to be taken into account in defining regional regularities of geodynamic processes on the basis of real-time measurements.The paper presents results of analyses of data collected by long-term (20 to 50 years geodetic surveys in highly seismically active regions of Kopetdag, Kamchatka and California. It is evidenced by instrumental geodetic measurements of recent vertical and horizontal displacements in fault zones that deformations are ‘paradoxically’ deviating from the inherited movements of the past geological periods.In terms of the recent geodynamics, the ‘paradoxes’ of high and low strain velocities are related to a reliable empirical fact of the presence of extremely high local velocities of deformations in the fault zones (about 10–5 per year and above, which take place at the background of slow regional deformations which velocities are lower by the order of 2 to 3. Very low average annual velocities of horizontal deformation are recorded in the seismic regions of Kopetdag and Kamchatka and in the San Andreas fault zone; they amount to only 3 to 5 amplitudes of the earth tidal deformations per year.A ‘fault

  14. Modeling of fault activation and seismicity by injection directly into a fault zone associated with hydraulic fracturing of shale-gas reservoirs (United States)

    LBNL, in consultation with the EPA, expanded upon a previous study by injecting directly into a 3D representation of a hypothetical fault zone located in the geologic units between the shale-gas reservoir and the drinking water aquifer.

  15. Numerical modeling of fracking fluid and methane migration through fault zones in shale gas reservoirs (United States)

    Taherdangkoo, Reza; Tatomir, Alexandru; Sauter, Martin


    Hydraulic fracturing operation in shale gas reservoir has gained growing interest over the last few years. Groundwater contamination is one of the most important environmental concerns that have emerged surrounding shale gas development (Reagan et al., 2015). The potential impacts of hydraulic fracturing could be studied through the possible pathways for subsurface migration of contaminants towards overlying aquifers (Kissinger et al., 2013; Myers, 2012). The intent of this study is to investigate, by means of numerical simulation, two failure scenarios which are based on the presence of a fault zone that penetrates the full thickness of overburden and connect shale gas reservoir to aquifer. Scenario 1 addresses the potential transport of fracturing fluid from the shale into the subsurface. This scenario was modeled with COMSOL Multiphysics software. Scenario 2 deals with the leakage of methane from the reservoir into the overburden. The numerical modeling of this scenario was implemented in DuMux (free and open-source software), discrete fracture model (DFM) simulator (Tatomir, 2012). The modeling results are used to evaluate the influence of several important parameters (reservoir pressure, aquifer-reservoir separation thickness, fault zone inclination, porosity, permeability, etc.) that could affect the fluid transport through the fault zone. Furthermore, we determined the main transport mechanisms and circumstances in which would allow frack fluid or methane migrate through the fault zone into geological layers. The results show that presence of a conductive fault could reduce the contaminant travel time and a significant contaminant leakage, under certain hydraulic conditions, is most likely to occur. Bibliography Kissinger, A., Helmig, R., Ebigbo, A., Class, H., Lange, T., Sauter, M., Heitfeld, M., Klünker, J., Jahnke, W., 2013. Hydraulic fracturing in unconventional gas reservoirs: risks in the geological system, part 2. Environ Earth Sci 70, 3855

  16. Multi-scale velocity structure of an active seismogenic normal fault zone (Central Apennines, Italy) (United States)

    Fondriest, M.; Mitchell, T. M.; Vassallo, M.; Di Giulio, G.; Fabrizio, B.; Passelegue, F. X.; Pischiutta, M.; Di Toro, G.


    The petrophysical characterization of fault zones (e.g., ultrasonic velocities, porosity and fracture intensity of the fault zone rocks) is a relevant topic in reservoir geology (exploration and exploitation) and fault mechanics (for both long-term quasi-static and fast dynamic fault evolution). Here we characterized the shallow subsurface velocity structure of the active Vado di Corno normal fault zone (Campo Imperatore, Central Apennines, Italy). Based on a detailed structural mapping of the fault footwall block, four main structural units separated by principal fault strands were recognized: (i) cataclastic unit, (ii) breccia unit, (iii) high-strain damage zone, (iv) low-strain damage zone. The single units were systematically sampled along a transect ( 200 m) orthogonal to the average strike of the fault and characterized in the laboratory in terms of petrophysical properties (i.e., Vp, Vs and He-porosity). The cataclastic and breccia units (Vp = 4.68±0.43 kms-1, Vs = 2.68±0.24 kms-1) were significantly "slower" compared to the damage zone units (Vp = 5.43±0.53 kms-1, Vs = 3.20±0.29 kms-1). A general negative correlation between ultrasonic velocity and porosity values was reported; moreover measured acoustic anisotropies were related to deformation fabrics (i.e., open fractures, veins) observed at the sample scale. A Vp - Vsseismic refraction tomography was performed in the field along a profile ( 90 m) across the fault zone. The tomographic results clearly illuminated fault-bounded rock bodies characterized by different velocities (i.e., elastic properties) and geometries which match with the ones deduced from the structural analysis of the fault zone exposures. Fracture intensity measurements (both at the sample and outcrop scale) were performed to investigate the scaling relation between laboratory and field measurements. These results were then coupled with ultrasonic velocity vs. confining pressure (0-30 MPa) profiles measured in the laboratory to

  17. Automated extraction of faults and porous reservoir bodies. Examples from the Vallhall Field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barkved, Olav Inge; Whitman, Doug; Kunz, Tim


    The Norwegian Vahall field is located 250 km South-West of Stavanger. The production is primarily from the highly porous and fractured chalk, the Tor formation. Fractures, evidently play a significant role in enhancing flow properties as well as production rates, are significantly higher than expected from matrix permeability alone. The fractures are primarily tectonically induced and related to faulting. Syn-depositional faulting is believed to be a controlling factor on reservoir thickness variations observed across the field. Due to the low acoustic contrast and weak appearance of the highly porous chalk, direct evidence of faulting in well bore logs is limited. The seismic data quality in the most central area of the field is very poor due to tertiary gas charging, but in the flank area of the field, the quality is excellent. 1 ref., 5 figs.

  18. Probabilistic Risk Assessment of Hydraulic Fracturing in Unconventional Reservoirs by Means of Fault Tree Analysis: An Initial Discussion (United States)

    Rodak, C. M.; McHugh, R.; Wei, X.


    The development and combination of horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing has unlocked unconventional hydrocarbon reserves around the globe. These advances have triggered a number of concerns regarding aquifer contamination and over-exploitation, leading to scientific studies investigating potential risks posed by directional hydraulic fracturing activities. These studies, balanced with potential economic benefits of energy production, are a crucial source of information for communities considering the development of unconventional reservoirs. However, probabilistic quantification of the overall risk posed by hydraulic fracturing at the system level are rare. Here we present the concept of fault tree analysis to determine the overall probability of groundwater contamination or over-exploitation, broadly referred to as the probability of failure. The potential utility of fault tree analysis for the quantification and communication of risks is approached with a general application. However, the fault tree design is robust and can handle various combinations of regional-specific data pertaining to relevant spatial scales, geological conditions, and industry practices where available. All available data are grouped into quantity and quality-based impacts and sub-divided based on the stage of the hydraulic fracturing process in which the data is relevant as described by the USEPA. Each stage is broken down into the unique basic events required for failure; for example, to quantify the risk of an on-site spill we must consider the likelihood, magnitude, composition, and subsurface transport of the spill. The structure of the fault tree described above can be used to render a highly complex system of variables into a straightforward equation for risk calculation based on Boolean logic. This project shows the utility of fault tree analysis for the visual communication of the potential risks of hydraulic fracturing activities on groundwater resources.

  19. Fault seal analysis to predict the compartmentalization of gas reservoir: Case study of Steenkool formation Bintuni Basin (United States)

    Ginanjar, W. C. B.; Haris, A.; Riyanto, A.


    This study is aimed to analyze the mechanism of hydrocarbons trapping in the field on a relatively new play in the Bintuni basin particularly Steenkool formation. The first well in this field has been drilled with a shallow target in the Steenkool formation and the drilling is managed to find new gas reserves in the shale-sandstone layer. In the structure of this gas discovery, there is the potential barrier for compartmentalization that draws attention to analyze how the patterns of structural of fault become a part of reservoir compartment. In order to measure the risk associated with prospects on a field bounded by faults, it is important to understand the processes that contribute to fault seal. The method of Fault Seal Analysis (FSA) is one of the methods used for the analysis of the nature of a fault whether the fault is sealing or leaking the fluid flow in the reservoir. Trapping systems that are limited by faults play an important role in creating a trap of hydrocarbon. The ability of a fault to seal fluid is quantitatively reflected by the value of Shale Gouge Ratio (SGR). SGR is the calculation of the amount of fine-grained material that fills fault plane (fault gouge) as a result of the movement mechanism of fault. The result of this study is a valuable resource for the systematic evaluation of the analysis of hydrocarbon prospects in the field.

  20. Parallel, Multigrid Finite Element Simulator for Fractured/Faulted and Other Complex Reservoirs based on Common Component Architecture (CCA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milind Deo; Chung-Kan Huang; Huabing Wang


    Black-oil, compositional and thermal simulators have been developed to address different physical processes in reservoir simulation. A number of different types of discretization methods have also been proposed to address issues related to representing the complex reservoir geometry. These methods are more significant for fractured reservoirs where the geometry can be particularly challenging. In this project, a general modular framework for reservoir simulation was developed, wherein the physical models were efficiently decoupled from the discretization methods. This made it possible to couple any discretization method with different physical models. Oil characterization methods are becoming increasingly sophisticated, and it is possible to construct geologically constrained models of faulted/fractured reservoirs. Discrete Fracture Network (DFN) simulation provides the option of performing multiphase calculations on spatially explicit, geologically feasible fracture sets. Multiphase DFN simulations of and sensitivity studies on a wide variety of fracture networks created using fracture creation/simulation programs was undertaken in the first part of this project. This involved creating interfaces to seamlessly convert the fracture characterization information into simulator input, grid the complex geometry, perform the simulations, and analyze and visualize results. Benchmarking and comparison with conventional simulators was also a component of this work. After demonstration of the fact that multiphase simulations can be carried out on complex fracture networks, quantitative effects of the heterogeneity of fracture properties were evaluated. Reservoirs are populated with fractures of several different scales and properties. A multiscale fracture modeling study was undertaken and the effects of heterogeneity and storage on water displacement dynamics in fractured basements were investigated. In gravity-dominated systems, more oil could be recovered at a given pore

  1. Modeling Reservoir-River Networks in Support of Optimizing Seasonal-Scale Reservoir Operations (United States)

    Villa, D. L.; Lowry, T. S.; Bier, A.; Barco, J.; Sun, A.


    HydroSCOPE (Hydropower Seasonal Concurrent Optimization of Power and the Environment) is a seasonal time-scale tool for scenario analysis and optimization of reservoir-river networks. Developed in MATLAB, HydroSCOPE is an object-oriented model that simulates basin-scale dynamics with an objective of optimizing reservoir operations to maximize revenue from power generation, reliability in the water supply, environmental performance, and flood control. HydroSCOPE is part of a larger toolset that is being developed through a Department of Energy multi-laboratory project. This project's goal is to provide conventional hydropower decision makers with better information to execute their day-ahead and seasonal operations and planning activities by integrating water balance and operational dynamics across a wide range of spatial and temporal scales. This presentation details the modeling approach and functionality of HydroSCOPE. HydroSCOPE consists of a river-reservoir network model and an optimization routine. The river-reservoir network model simulates the heat and water balance of river-reservoir networks for time-scales up to one year. The optimization routine software, DAKOTA (Design Analysis Kit for Optimization and Terascale Applications -, is seamlessly linked to the network model and is used to optimize daily volumetric releases from the reservoirs to best meet a set of user-defined constraints, such as maximizing revenue while minimizing environmental violations. The network model uses 1-D approximations for both the reservoirs and river reaches and is able to account for surface and sediment heat exchange as well as ice dynamics for both models. The reservoir model also accounts for inflow, density, and withdrawal zone mixing, and diffusive heat exchange. Routing for the river reaches is accomplished using a modified Muskingum-Cunge approach that automatically calculates the internal timestep and sub-reach lengths to match the conditions of

  2. Fault assessment for basement reservoir compartmentalization: Case study at Northeast Betara gas field, South Sumatra Basin (United States)

    Risyad, M.; Suta, I. N.; Haris, A.


    Northeast Betara field is situated on the northern part of prolific South Sumatra Basin. It has produced gas from Lower Talang Akar Formation sandstone and over 90 wells have been drilled. A 3D seismic data was acquired in 2000 and reprocessed in 2012 to enhance the subsurface image. In 2013 an exploratory well NEB Base-1 was drilled and made gas and condensate discovery from the subsequent pre-tertiary basement which is confirmed as granite. The well proved fractured basement reservoir play on paleo high of the structure. The absence of full-diameter conventional core prompts well logs and seismic data analysis by using a workstation. Main methods for fracture prediction have been seismic attributes extraction and structural geology studies of basement provided by image logs on a few exploration wells. Ant tracking attribute is widely employed to image seismic event discontinuities due to extensive faults which generated the natural fractures. Delineations well NEB Base-2 was drilled on second paleo high and unfortunately, it did not find any gas indication from pre-tertiary basement target. Seismic structural interpretation and seismic attributes are conducted to image distribution of event discontinuities related to faults or fracture. We found that compartmentalization on basement involved old faults and both paleo high have undergone different structural history and stress character which resulted in separated fractures distribution.

  3. Infrastructure and mechanical properties of a fault zone in sandstone as an outcrop analogue of a potential geothermal reservoir (United States)

    Bauer, J. F.; Meier, S.; Philipp, S. L.


    Due to high drilling costs of geothermal projects, it is economically sensible to assess the potential suitability of a reservoir prior to drilling. Fault zones are of particular importance, because they may enhance fluid flow, or be flow barriers, respectively, depending on their particular infrastructure. Outcrop analogue studies are useful to analyze the fault zone infrastructure and thereby increase the predictability of fluid flow behavior across fault zones in the corresponding deep reservoir. The main aims of the present study are to 1) analyze the infrastructure and the differences of fracture system parameters in fault zones and 2) determine the mechanical properties of the faulted rocks. We measure fracture frequencies as well as orientations, lengths and apertures and take representative rock samples for each facies to obtain Young's modulus, compressive and tensile strengths in the laboratory. Since fractures reduce the stiffnesses of in situ rock masses we use an inverse correlation of the number of discontinuities to calculate effective (in situ) Young's moduli to investigate the variation of mechanical properties in fault zones. In addition we determine the rebound hardness, which correlates with the compressive strength measured in the laboratory, with a 'Schmidt-Hammer' in the field because this allows detailed maps of mechanical property variations within fault zones. Here we present the first results for a fault zone in the Triassic Lower Bunter of the Upper Rhine Graben in France. The outcrop at Cleebourg exposes the damage zone of the footwall and a clear developed fault core of a NNW-SSE-striking normal fault. The approximately 15 m wide fault core consists of fault gouge, slip zones, deformation bands and host rock lenses. Intensive deformation close to the core led to the formation of a distal fault core, a 5 m wide zone with disturbed layering and high fracture frequency. The damage zone also contains more fractures than the host rock

  4. Study on Zipingpu reservoir induced multi-scale porous flows related to 2008 Wenchuan Ms 8.0 earthquake by parallel CPU and GPU computation (United States)

    Shi, Y.; Zhu, B.


    Coulomb failure assumption is used to evaluate the earthquake trigger, and pore pressures play an important part in triggering the earthquake slip. Based on the parallel CPU computation and GPU visualization technology, the relationship between the pore stress accumulation on Zipingpu reservoir and the trigging and propagation mechanism of the Longmenshan coseismic fault slip have been studied on different length scales [Scale I: 30.976E_31.105E, 103.45N_103.577N;Scale II: 30.7E_31.3E, 103.05N_103.76N; Scale III: 29E_33E, 101N_105N]. Longmenshan fault slip of 2008 Wenchuan Ms 8.0 earthquake is obtained by GPS & InSAR inversion technique, it composed with two slips and cross-wised Zipingpu reservoir zone. The relationship between the pore stress accumulation of Zipingpu reservoir and the trigging and propagation of the Longmenshan coseismic fault slip because very important for it direction effect the dynamic real-time security evaluation and monitor of Zipingpu key water control project. Zipingpu reservoir is located on the upstream of Minjiang river, the maximum reservoir storage capacity is 11×109 m3, the adjustable reservoir storage capacity is 8×109 m3, the normal impounded level is 877m, the dam top altitude is 894m and the dam bottom altitude is 728m.The key water control project began Mar.3.2001, stop flow time is Nov.1.2002, storage time is Dec.1.2004 and completed at Dec.1.2006. The total pore stress accumulation time before Wenchuan Ms 8.0 Earthquake (May.12.2008) is 3~4 years. In our physical model, we use the 15000 time steps (10 ts/day) to describe the effect of pore stress of reservoir to the Longmenshan fault slip. From the GPS&InSAR inversion technology, the Longmenshan earthquake fault slip is divided into 673 parts. The results show that the relationship between extended pore strain and stress on Zipingpu reservoir and Longmenshan coseismic fault slip on Scale I under 20000ts. The pore stress accumulation value level is 0.3Mp. The relationship

  5. Understanding the Hydromechanical Behavior of a Fault Zone From Transient Surface Tilt and Fluid Pressure Observations at Hourly Time Scales (United States)

    Schuite, Jonathan; Longuevergne, Laurent; Bour, Olivier; Burbey, Thomas J.; Boudin, Frédérick; Lavenant, Nicolas; Davy, Philippe


    Flow through reservoirs such as fractured media is powered by head gradients which also generate measurable poroelastic deformation of the rock body. The combined analysis of surface deformation and subsurface pressure provides valuable insights of a reservoir's structure and hydromechanical properties, which are of interest for deep-seated CO2 or nuclear waste storage for instance. Among all surveying tools, surface tiltmeters offer the possibility to grasp hydraulically induced deformations over a broad range of time scales with a remarkable precision. Here we investigate the information content of transient surface tilt generated by the pressurization a kilometer scale subvertical fault zone. Our approach involves the combination of field data and results of a fully coupled poromechanical model. The signature of pressure changes in the fault zone due to pumping cycles is clearly recognizable in field tilt data and we aim to explain the peculiar features that appear in (1) tilt time series alone from a set of four instruments and 2) the ratio of tilt over pressure. We evidence that the shape of tilt measurements on both sides of a fault zone is sensitive to its diffusivity and its elastic modulus. The ratio of tilt over pressure predominantly encompasses information about the system's dynamic behavior and extent of the fault zone and allows separating contributions of flow in the different compartments. Hence, tiltmeters are well suited to characterize hydromechanical processes associated with fault zone hydrogeology at short time scales, where spaceborne surveying methods fail to recognize any deformation signal.

  6. A multiscale hydro-geochemical-mechanical approach to analyze faulted CO 2 reservoirs: Original Research Article: A multiscale hydro-geochemical-mechanical approach to analyze faulted CO 2 reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen, Ba Nghiep [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA USA; Hou, Zhangshuan [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA USA; Bacon, Diana H. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA USA; White, Mark D. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA USA


    This paper applies a multiscale hydro-geochemical-mechanical approach to analyze faulted CO2 reservoirs using the STOMP-CO2-R code that is coupled to the ABAQUS® finite element package. STOMP-CO2-R models the reactive transport of CO2 causing mineral volume fraction changes that are captured by an Eshelby-Mori-Tanka model implemented in ABAQUS®. A three-dimensional (3D) STOMP-CO2-R model for a reservoir containing an inclined fault was built to analyze a formation containing a reaction network with 5 minerals: albite, anorthite, calcite, kaolinite and quartz. A 3D finite element mesh that exactly maps the STOMP-CO2-R grid is developed for coupled hydro-geochemical-mechanical analyses. The model contains alternating sandstone and shale layers. The impact of reactive transport of CO2 on the geomechanical properties of reservoir rocks and seals are studied in terms of mineral composition changes that affect their geomechanical responses. Simulations assuming extensional and compressional stress regimes with and without coupled geochemistry are performed to study the stress regime effect on the risk of hydraulic fracture. The tendency for the fault to slip is examined in terms of stress regime, geomechanical and geochemical-mechanical effects as well as fault inclination. The results show that mineralogical changes due to long-term injection of CO2 reduce the permeability and elastic modulus of the reservoir, leading to increased risk of hydraulic fracture in the injection location and at the caprock seal immediately above the injection zone. Fault slip is not predicted to occur. However, fault inclination and stress regime have an important impact on the slip tendency factor.

  7. Impact of fault damage zones on reservoir performance in the Hibernia oilfield (Jeanne d'Arc Basin, Newfoundland) : an analysis of structural, petrophysical and dynamic well-test data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porter, J.R.; McAllister, E.; Fisher, Q.J.; Knipe, R.J.; Condliffe, D.M.; Kay, M.A. [Leeds Univ., Leeds (United Kingdom). Dept. of Earth Sciences, Rock Deformation Research Group; Stylianides, G.; Sinclair, I.K. [Hibernia Management and Development Co. Ltd., St. John' s, NL (Canada)


    Petroleum reservoirs are typically characterized by combining conventional core analysis results, wire-line log data and sedimentological description with production data. This study emphasized the benefits of including structural analysis of core material as part of general reservoir characterization. In particular, it examined the influence of fault zones on fluid flow within the Hibernia Formation in the Hibernia Oilfield in the Jeanne d'Arc Basin on the Grand Banks of Newfoundland. The geologic setting and background to the Hibernia Field was presented. Fault seal analysis was used in the study to help manage the compartmentalized Hibernia Field. Cross-fault juxtaposition analysis was also integrated with structural logging and petrophysical measurement of core material. The analysis of core material resulted in an increased confidence in production data interpretation. The study also examined how deformation features present within the Hibernia Formation drill cores have the potential to act as baffles or seals to hydrocarbon flow. Deformation features were described with reference to low, intermediate and high clay content fault rocks. It was shown that fault rocks are capable of severely restricting fluid flow, particularly when close to production or injection wells. The targeting of wheels to avoid the damage-zone envelope associated with seismic-scale faults will result in a large improvement in producer-injector performance despite reducing the potential drainage volume. The results confirm that inclusion of structural analysis in reservoir characterization studies can have a great and positive impact on field management strategies. 31 refs., 2 tabs., 8 figs.

  8. Structural analysis of an outcropping granite (Proterozoic basement of Yémen): faults and fractures distributions and scaling properties. (United States)

    Le Garzic, Edouard; de L'Hamaide, Thibaut; Diraison, Marc; Géraud, Yves; de Urreiztieta, Marc; Hauville, Benoit; Champanhet, Jean-Michel


    Numerous deep fractured reservoirs in basement have risen in recent years for oil or geothermal production. Such reservoirs are often badly-known because of a lack of direct information. Indeed, structural models proposed are mostly based on 1D borehole data, and conventional geophysical methods like seismic profiles are not so good techniques to image basement structures. Therefore, understanding the effects of scale in the organization of fracture system is a key problem in modelling geometry of deep fractured reservoir. The aim of this study is to present a detailed structural analysis of an outcropping granite at different scales and to contribute to comprehension of scaling properties of faults systems. Multi-scale structural maps were produced by remote sensing techniques and field approaches in the granitic Proterozoic basement of Al-Mukalla (Yémen). This region, located at the Southern boundary of the Arabian Plate, has a Pan-African tectonic signature and then has undergone two phases of continental extension since Mesozoic times: Jurassic-Cretaceous and Oligo-Miocene rifting (i.e. Gulf of Aden opening). In a first time, very high resolution satellite imagery (QUICKBIRD) was used to construct map of structural lineaments from regional scale to micro-block scale (~1 km x 1 km). In a second time, field observations and fractures measurements performed at outcrop scale allow us to confirm suitability of satellite picking. Finally, description of the various structures existing in Burum's granite and characterization of geometrical and morphological features of faults, fractured corridors and joints enable us to interpret structural lineaments with better accuracy. Major faults strike N090°E and N120°E, whereas secondary structures strike N000°E and N040°E and are interpreted as minor faults, fractured corridors or joints. Consequently, brittle deformation is mainly characterised by structural blocks with parallelogram shaped with fault segments

  9. Simulation of commercial scale CO2 injection into a fracture reservoir (United States)

    Li, Y.; Li, S.; Zhang, Y.


    Geologic Carbon Sequestration is a proposed means to reduce atmospheric concentration of carbon dioxide (CO2). At Teapot Dome, Wyoming, CO2 will be injected into the Tensleep Formation, a depleted oil reservoir characterized with significant heterogeneity including facies, faults, and fractures. We've collected geological and engineering characterization data of the entire Teapot Dome field, including core data, well logs, seismic data, and production records. All data were screened for accuracy, before subsets of the data are used to build a geologic reservoir model. A formation structural model is created first by interpreting faults and stratigraphy from 3D seismic data. Formation MicroImager logs are analyzed for fracture characteristics to generate in-situ fracture intensity at wells, which is subsequently interpolated throughout the model with kriging. Based on the intensity and a set of geometric fracture parameters (constrained by outcrop and core measurements), a 3D stochastic Discrete Fracture Network (DFN) is created. One realization of the DFN is upscaled to a dual-porosity simulation model using a variant of the Oda's method. This method upscales the fracture network to an effective grid-block fracture permeability. To account for fluid transfer from matrix to fracture, a sigma factor is computed using average fracture spacings within the grid block. Matrix porosity is populated in the model by kriging interpolation of well-log-derived values. With the dual-porosity model, CO2 is injected near the crest of the dome (the proposed location) at a rate of 2.6 Mt/year for 50 years, with an injection bottomhole pressure set at 160% hydrostatic pressure. Boundary of the model is open except along one bounding fault assumed sealed. Results of the simulation suggest that provided that fluid pressure buildup is not an issue (simulated pressure buildup near the fault is minor), the Tensleep Formation at Teapot Dome can sustain commercial-scale injection over time

  10. 3D multi-scale velocity structure of an active seismogenic normal fault zone (Central Apennines, Italy) (United States)

    Fondriest, Michele; Mitchell, Tom; Vassallo, Maurizio; Di Giulio, Giuseppe; Balsamo, Fabrizio; Passelegue, Francois; Pischiutta, Marta; Di Toro, Giulio


    The characterization of physical properties of fault zones (e.g., ultrasonic velocities, elastic moduli, porosity and fracture intensity of the fault zone rocks) is a relevant topic in reservoir geology (exploration and exploitation) and fault mechanics, for the modelling of both long-term quasi-static and fast dynamic fault zone evolution with time. Here we characterized the shallow subsurface velocity-elastic structure of the active Vado di Corno normal fault zone (Campo Imperatore, Central Apennines, Italy) which is up to > 300 m thick. Based on a detailed structural mapping of the fault footwall block covering a 2 km long fault segment, four main structural units separated by principal fault strands were recognized: (i) cataclastic unit, (ii) breccia unit, (iii) high-strain damage zone, (iv) low-strain damage zone. The single units were systematically sampled along a transect ( 200 m) orthogonal to the average strike of the fault and characterized in the laboratory in terms of petrophysical properties (i.e., Vp, Vs, static and dynamic elastic moduli, porosity). The cataclastic and breccia units (Vp = 4.68±0.43 kms-1, Vs = 2.68±0.24 kms-1) were significantly "slower" compared to the damage zone units (Vp = 5.43±0.53 kms-1, Vs = 3.20±0.29 kms-1). A general negative correlation between ultrasonic velocity and porosity values was reported. Moreover three dimensional acoustic anisotropy was quantified within the different units with respect to the mapped fault strands, and related to the deformation fabrics (i.e., open fractures, veins) observed at the sample scale. A Vp - Vs seismic refraction tomography was then performed in the field along a profile ( 90 m) across the fault zone. The tomographic results clearly illuminated fault-bounded rock bodies characterized by different velocities (i.e., elastic properties) and geometries which match with the ones deduced from the structural analysis of the fault zone exposures. Fracture intensity measurements (both at

  11. Coulombic faulting from the grain scale to the geophysical scale: lessons from ice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiss, Jerome [Laboratoire de Glaciologie et Geophysique de l' Environnement, CNRS, 54 rue Moliere, BP 96, 38402 St Martin d' Heres Cedex (France); Schulson, Erland M, E-mail: weiss@lgge.obs.ujf-grenoble.f, E-mail: Erland.M.Schulson@Dartmouth.ED [Thayer School of Engineering, Dartmouth College, Hanover, NH, 03755 (United States)


    Coulombic faulting, a concept formulated more than two centuries ago, still remains pertinent in describing the brittle compressive failure of various materials, including rocks and ice. Many questions remain, however, about the physical processes underlying this macroscopic phenomenology. This paper reviews the progress made in these directions during the past few years through the study of ice and its mechanical behaviour in both the laboratory and the field. Fault triggering is associated with the formation of specific features called comb-cracks and involves frictional sliding at the micro(grain)-scale. Similar mechanisms are observed at geophysical scales within the sea ice cover. This scale-independent physics is expressed by the same Coulombic phenomenology from laboratory to geophysical scales, with a very similar internal friction coefficient ({mu} {approx} 0.8). On the other hand, the cohesion strongly decreases with increasing spatial scale, reflecting the role of stress concentrators on fault initiation. Strong similarities also exist between ice and other brittle materials such as rocks and minerals and between faulting of the sea ice cover and Earth's crust, arguing for the ubiquitous nature of the underlying physics.

  12. Sustainability of small reservoirs and large scale water availability under current conditions and climate change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krol, Martinus S.; de Vries, Marjella J.; van Oel, P.R.; Carlos de Araújo, José


    Semi-arid river basins often rely on reservoirs for water supply. Small reservoirs may impact on large-scale water availability both by enhancing availability in a distributed sense and by subtracting water for large downstream user communities, e.g. served by large reservoirs. Both of these impacts

  13. A Fault Oblivious Extreme-Scale Execution Environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKie, Jim


    The FOX project, funded under the ASCR X-stack I program, developed systems software and runtime libraries for a new approach to the data and work distribution for massively parallel, fault oblivious application execution. Our work was motivated by the premise that exascale computing systems will provide a thousand-fold increase in parallelism and a proportional increase in failure rate relative to today’s machines. To deliver the capability of exascale hardware, the systems software must provide the infrastructure to support existing applications while simultaneously enabling efficient execution of new programming models that naturally express dynamic, adaptive, irregular computation; coupled simulations; and massive data analysis in a highly unreliable hardware environment with billions of threads of execution. Our OS research has prototyped new methods to provide efficient resource sharing, synchronization, and protection in a many-core compute node. We have experimented with alternative task/dataflow programming models and shown scalability in some cases to hundreds of thousands of cores. Much of our software is in active development through open source projects. Concepts from FOX are being pursued in next generation exascale operating systems. Our OS work focused on adaptive, application tailored OS services optimized for multi → many core processors. We developed a new operating system NIX that supports role-based allocation of cores to processes which was released to open source. We contributed to the IBM FusedOS project, which promoted the concept of latency-optimized and throughput-optimized cores. We built a task queue library based on distributed, fault tolerant key-value store and identified scaling issues. A second fault tolerant task parallel library was developed, based on the Linda tuple space model, that used low level interconnect primitives for optimized communication. We designed fault tolerance mechanisms for task parallel computations

  14. Fault features and enrichment laws of narrow-channel distal tight sandstone gas reservoirs: A case study of the Jurassic Shaximiao Fm gas reservoir in the Zhongjiang Gas Field, Sichuan Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhongping Li


    Full Text Available The Jurassic Shaximiao Fm gas reservoir in the Zhongjiang Gas Field, Sichuan Basin, is the main base of Sinopec Southwest Oil & Gas Company for gas reserves and production increase during the 12th Five-Year Plan. However, its natural gas exploration and development process was restricted severely, since the exploration wells cannot be deployed effectively in this area based on the previous gas accumulation and enrichment pattern of “hydrocarbon source fault + channel sand body + local structure”. In this paper, the regional fault features and the gas accumulation and enrichment laws were discussed by analyzing the factors like fault evolution, fault elements, fault-sand body configuration (the configuration relationship between hydrocarbon source faults and channel sand bodies, trap types, and reservoir anatomy. It is concluded that the accumulation and enrichment of the Shaximiao Fm gas reservoir in this area is controlled by three factors, i.e., hydrocarbon source, sedimentary facies and structural position. It follows the accumulation laws of source controlling region, facies controlling zone and position controlling reservoir, which means deep source and shallow accumulation, fault-sand body conductivity, multiphase channel, differential accumulation, adjusted enrichment and gas enrichment at sweet spots. A good configuration relationship between hydrocarbon source faults and channel sand bodies is the basic condition for the formation of gas reservoirs. Natural gas accumulated preferentially in the structures or positions with good fault-sand body configuration. Gas reservoirs can also be formed in the monoclinal structures which were formed after the late structural adjustment. In the zones supported by multiple faults or near the crush zones, no gas accumulation occurs, but water is dominantly produced. The gas-bearing potential is low in the area with undeveloped faults or being 30 km away from the hydrocarbon source faults. So

  15. Nonlinear Filtering Effects of Reservoirs on Flood Frequency Curves at the Regional Scale: RESERVOIRS FILTER FLOOD FREQUENCY CURVES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Wei; Li, Hong-Yi; Leung, Lai-Yung; Yigzaw, Wondmagegn Y.; Zhao, Jianshi; Lu, Hui; Deng, Zhiqun; Demissie, Yonas; Bloschl, Gunter


    Anthropogenic activities, e.g., reservoir operation, may alter the characteristics of Flood Frequency Curve (FFC) and challenge the basic assumption of stationarity used in flood frequency analysis. This paper presents a combined data-modeling analysis of the nonlinear filtering effects of reservoirs on the FFCs over the contiguous United States. A dimensionless Reservoir Impact Index (RII), defined as the total upstream reservoir storage capacity normalized by the annual streamflow volume, is used to quantify reservoir regulation effects. Analyses are performed for 388 river stations with an average record length of 50 years. The first two moments of the FFC, mean annual maximum flood (MAF) and coefficient of variations (CV), are calculated for the pre- and post-dam periods and compared to elucidate the reservoir regulation effects as a function of RII. It is found that MAF generally decreases with increasing RII but stabilizes when RII exceeds a threshold value, and CV increases with RII until a threshold value beyond which CV decreases with RII. The processes underlying the nonlinear threshold behavior of MAF and CV are investigated using three reservoir models with different levels of complexity. All models capture the non-linear relationships of MAF and CV with RII, suggesting that the basic flood control function of reservoirs is key to the non-linear relationships. The relative roles of reservoir storage capacity, operation objectives, available storage prior to a flood event, and reservoir inflow pattern are systematically investigated. Our findings may help improve flood-risk assessment and mitigation in regulated river systems at the regional scale.

  16. Inferring Fault Frictional and Reservoir Hydraulic Properties From Injection-Induced Seismicity (United States)

    Jagalur-Mohan, Jayanth; Jha, Birendra; Wang, Zheng; Juanes, Ruben; Marzouk, Youssef


    Characterizing the rheological properties of faults and the evolution of fault friction during seismic slip are fundamental problems in geology and seismology. Recent increases in the frequency of induced earthquakes have intensified the need for robust methods to estimate fault properties. Here we present a novel approach for estimation of aquifer and fault properties, which combines coupled multiphysics simulation of injection-induced seismicity with adaptive surrogate-based Bayesian inversion. In a synthetic 2-D model, we use aquifer pressure, ground displacements, and fault slip measurements during fluid injection to estimate the dynamic fault friction, the critical slip distance, and the aquifer permeability. Our forward model allows us to observe nonmonotonic evolutions of shear traction and slip on the fault resulting from the interplay of several physical mechanisms, including injection-induced aquifer expansion, stress transfer along the fault, and slip-induced stress relaxation. This interplay provides the basis for a successful joint inversion of induced seismicity, yielding well-informed Bayesian posterior distributions of dynamic friction and critical slip. We uncover an inverse relationship between dynamic friction and critical slip distance, which is in agreement with the small dynamic friction and large critical slip reported during seismicity on mature faults.

  17. Improving Mechanical Insight into Ring Fault Initiation and Caldera Formation via Elastic Models of Magma Reservoir Inflation (Invited) (United States)

    Grosfils, E. B.; McGovern, P. J.; Gregg, P. M.; Galgana, G. A.; Hurwitz, D. M.; Long, S.; Chestler, S.


    Elastic numerical models have become increasingly important for interpreting field data and gaining insight into the magmatic and volcanic processes spawned by shallow magma reservoirs on Earth and other planets. Using an approach introduced nearly a century ago, most researchers investigating magma reservoir inflation and rupture in response to the evolution of a subsurface magma reservoir have treated the reservoir as a cavity subjected only to over/underpressure in an otherwise unloaded elastic host. This approach is at times argued to be a more concise mathematical equivalent to solutions that retain a fully three-dimensional, gravitationally loaded stress tensor in the host rock. The two approaches are not equivalent, however, and detailed elucidation of this argument under diverse geological conditions (e.g., layering, edifice loading) has demonstrated the implications for several fundamental volcanic processes under an array of different conditions [cf. Grosfils, JVGR, 2007]. Given the importance of the link between subsurface magmatic processes and volcanic activity, gaining a better understanding of the basic assumptions underpinning these two endmember modeling approaches--and the attendant implications--is critical. In this presentation we intend to: (1) discuss what we see as the physical assumptions underpinning the two endmember model approaches, thereby framing a call for further field constraints upon the host rock conditions in the vicinity of a magma reservoir; (2) use models of ring fault formation and caldera initiation to illustrate the striking differences in outcome that can occur; (3) demonstrate that retaining the full gravitationally loaded host rock stress tensor reconciles comparable numerical and analogue model results, resolving persistent concerns regarding the ';mismatch' between outcomes obtained from these two complementary model styles; and, (4) briefly describe the importance--and limitations--of elastic model treatments when

  18. Modeling of fault reactivation and induced seismicity during hydraulic fracturing of shale-gas reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rutqvist, Jonny; Rinaldi, Antonio P.; Cappa, Frédéric; Moridis, George J.


    We have conducted numerical simulation studies to assess the potential for injection-induced fault reactivation and notable seismic events associated with shale-gas hydraulic fracturing operations. The modeling is generally tuned towards conditions usually encountered in the Marcellus shale play in the Northeastern US at an approximate depth of 1500 m (~;;4,500 feet). Our modeling simulations indicate that when faults are present, micro-seismic events are possible, the magnitude of which is somewhat larger than the one associated with micro-seismic events originating from regular hydraulic fracturing because of the larger surface area that is available for rupture. The results of our simulations indicated fault rupture lengths of about 10 to 20 m, which, in rare cases can extend to over 100 m, depending on the fault permeability, the in situ stress field, and the fault strength properties. In addition to a single event rupture length of 10 to 20 m, repeated events and aseismic slip amounted to a total rupture length of 50 m, along with a shear offset displacement of less than 0.01 m. This indicates that the possibility of hydraulically induced fractures at great depth (thousands of meters) causing activation of faults and creation of a new flow path that can reach shallow groundwater resources (or even the surface) is remote. The expected low permeability of faults in producible shale is clearly a limiting factor for the possible rupture length and seismic magnitude. In fact, for a fault that is initially nearly-impermeable, the only possibility of larger fault slip event would be opening by hydraulic fracturing; this would allow pressure to penetrate the matrix along the fault and to reduce the frictional strength over a sufficiently large fault surface patch. However, our simulation results show that if the fault is initially impermeable, hydraulic fracturing along the fault results in numerous small micro-seismic events along with the propagation, effectively

  19. Fault Ride Through Capability Enhancement of a Large-Scale PMSG Wind System with Bridge Type Fault Current Limiters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALAM, M. S.


    Full Text Available In this paper, bridge type fault current limiter (BFCL is proposed as a potential solution to the fault problems of permanent magnet synchronous generator (PMSG based large-scale wind energy system. As PMSG wind system is more vulnerable to disturbances, it is essential to guarantee the stability during severe disturbances by enhancing the fault ride through capability. BFCL controller has been designed to insert resistance and inductance during the inception of system disturbances in order to limit fault current. Constant capacitor voltage has been maintained by the grid voltage source converter (GVSC controller while current extraction or injection has been achieved by machine VSC (MVSC controller. Symmetrical and unsymmetrical faults have been applied in the system to show the effectiveness of the proposed BFCL solution. PMSG wind system, BFCL and their controllers have been implemented by real time hardware in loop (RTHIL setup with real time digital simulator (RTDS and dSPACE. Another significant feature of this work is that the performance of the proposed BFCL is compared with that of series dynamic braking resistor (SDBR. Comparative RTHIL implementation results show that the proposed BFCL is very efficient in improving system fault ride through capability by limiting the fault current and outperforms SDBR.

  20. Two sides of a fault: Grain-scale analysis of pore pressure control on fault slip (United States)

    Yang, Zhibing; Juanes, Ruben


    Pore fluid pressure in a fault zone can be altered by natural processes (e.g., mineral dehydration and thermal pressurization) and industrial operations involving subsurface fluid injection and extraction for the development of energy and water resources. However, the effect of pore pressure change on the stability and slip motion of a preexisting geologic fault remains poorly understood; yet, it is critical for the assessment of seismic hazard. Here, we develop a micromechanical model to investigate the effect of pore pressure on fault slip behavior. The model couples fluid flow on the network of pores with mechanical deformation of the skeleton of solid grains. Pore fluid exerts pressure force onto the grains, the motion of which is solved using the discrete element method. We conceptualize the fault zone as a gouge layer sandwiched between two blocks. We study fault stability in the presence of a pressure discontinuity across the gouge layer and compare it with the case of continuous (homogeneous) pore pressure. We focus on the onset of shear failure in the gouge layer and reproduce conditions where the failure plane is parallel to the fault. We show that when the pressure is discontinuous across the fault, the onset of slip occurs on the side with the higher pore pressure, and that this onset is controlled by the maximum pressure on both sides of the fault. The results shed new light on the use of the effective stress principle and the Coulomb failure criterion in evaluating the stability of a complex fault zone.

  1. Two sides of a fault: Grain-scale analysis of pore pressure control on fault slip. (United States)

    Yang, Zhibing; Juanes, Ruben


    Pore fluid pressure in a fault zone can be altered by natural processes (e.g., mineral dehydration and thermal pressurization) and industrial operations involving subsurface fluid injection and extraction for the development of energy and water resources. However, the effect of pore pressure change on the stability and slip motion of a preexisting geologic fault remains poorly understood; yet, it is critical for the assessment of seismic hazard. Here, we develop a micromechanical model to investigate the effect of pore pressure on fault slip behavior. The model couples fluid flow on the network of pores with mechanical deformation of the skeleton of solid grains. Pore fluid exerts pressure force onto the grains, the motion of which is solved using the discrete element method. We conceptualize the fault zone as a gouge layer sandwiched between two blocks. We study fault stability in the presence of a pressure discontinuity across the gouge layer and compare it with the case of continuous (homogeneous) pore pressure. We focus on the onset of shear failure in the gouge layer and reproduce conditions where the failure plane is parallel to the fault. We show that when the pressure is discontinuous across the fault, the onset of slip occurs on the side with the higher pore pressure, and that this onset is controlled by the maximum pressure on both sides of the fault. The results shed new light on the use of the effective stress principle and the Coulomb failure criterion in evaluating the stability of a complex fault zone.

  2. Small Reservoir Impact on Simulated Watershed-Scale Nutrient Yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shane J. Prochnow


    Full Text Available The soil and water assessment tool (SWAT is used to assess the influence of small upland reservoirs (PL566 on watershed nutrient yield. SWAT simulates the impact of collectively increasing and decreasing PL566 magnitudes (size parameters on the watershed. Totally removing PL566 reservoirs results in a 100% increase in total phosphorus and an 82% increase in total nitrogen, while a total maximum daily load (TMDL calling for a 50% reduction in total phosphorus can be achieved with a 500% increase in the magnitude of PL566s in the watershed. PL566 reservoirs capture agriculture pollution in surface flow, providing long-term storage of these constituents when they settle to the reservoir beds. A potential strategy to reduce future downstream nutrient loading is to enhance or construct new PL566 reservoirs in the upper basin to better capture agricultural runoff.

  3. Modeling of fault reactivation and induced seismicity during hydraulic fracturing of shale-gas reservoirs (United States)

    We have conducted numerical simulation studies to assess the potential for injection-induced fault reactivation and notable seismic events associated with shale-gas hydraulic fracturing operations. The modeling is generally tuned toward conditions usually encountered in the Marce...

  4. Frictional and transport properties of simulated faults in CO2 storage reservoirs and clay-rich caprocks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, Elisenda


    In order to mitigate and meet CO2 emission regulations, long-term CO2 storage in hydrocarbon reservoirs is one of the most attractive large-scale options. To ensure save anthropogenic storage, it is important to maintain the sealing integrity of potential storage complexes. It is therefore

  5. Displacement-length scaling of brittle faults in ductile shear. (United States)

    Grasemann, Bernhard; Exner, Ulrike; Tschegg, Cornelius


    Within a low-grade ductile shear zone, we investigated exceptionally well exposed brittle faults, which accumulated antithetic slip and rotated into the shearing direction. The foliation planes of the mylonitic host rock intersect the faults approximately at their centre and exhibit ductile reverse drag. Three types of brittle faults can be distinguished: (i) Faults developing on pre-existing K-feldspar/mica veins that are oblique to the shear direction. These faults have triclinic flanking structures. (ii) Wing cracks opening as mode I fractures at the tips of the triclinic flanking structures, perpendicular to the shear direction. These cracks are reactivated as faults with antithetic shear, extend from the parent K-feldspar/mica veins and form a complex linked flanking structure system. (iii) Joints forming perpendicular to the shearing direction are deformed to form monoclinic flanking structures. Triclinic and monoclinic flanking structures record elliptical displacement-distance profiles with steep displacement gradients at the fault tips by ductile flow in the host rocks, resulting in reverse drag of the foliation planes. These structures record one of the greatest maximum displacement/length ratios reported from natural fault structures. These exceptionally high ratios can be explained by localized antithetic displacement along brittle slip surfaces, which did not propagate during their rotation during surrounding ductile flow.

  6. Displacement–length scaling of brittle faults in ductile shear (United States)

    Grasemann, Bernhard; Exner, Ulrike; Tschegg, Cornelius


    Within a low-grade ductile shear zone, we investigated exceptionally well exposed brittle faults, which accumulated antithetic slip and rotated into the shearing direction. The foliation planes of the mylonitic host rock intersect the faults approximately at their centre and exhibit ductile reverse drag. Three types of brittle faults can be distinguished: (i) Faults developing on pre-existing K-feldspar/mica veins that are oblique to the shear direction. These faults have triclinic flanking structures. (ii) Wing cracks opening as mode I fractures at the tips of the triclinic flanking structures, perpendicular to the shear direction. These cracks are reactivated as faults with antithetic shear, extend from the parent K-feldspar/mica veins and form a complex linked flanking structure system. (iii) Joints forming perpendicular to the shearing direction are deformed to form monoclinic flanking structures. Triclinic and monoclinic flanking structures record elliptical displacement–distance profiles with steep displacement gradients at the fault tips by ductile flow in the host rocks, resulting in reverse drag of the foliation planes. These structures record one of the greatest maximum displacement/length ratios reported from natural fault structures. These exceptionally high ratios can be explained by localized antithetic displacement along brittle slip surfaces, which did not propagate during their rotation during surrounding ductile flow. PMID:26806996

  7. Contribution to the tectonic characterization of fractured reservoirs, I: photo-elasticimetric modelling of the stress perturbations near faults and the associated fracture network: application to oil reserves, II mechanisms for the 3D joint organization in a natural reservoir analogue (flat-lying Devonian Old Red Sandstones of Caitness in North Scotland); Contribution a la caracterisation tectonique des reservoirs fractures, I: modelisation photoelecticimetrique des perturbations de contrainte au voisinage des failles et de la fracturation associee: application petroliere, II: mecanismes de developpement en 3D des diaclases dans un analogue de reservoir, le Devonien tabulaire du caithness (Ecosse)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Auzias, V.


    In order to understand joint network organisation in oil reservoirs, as a first step we have adapted to technique (the photo-elasticimetry) to study stress fields in 2D. This method allows to determine the principal stress trajectories near faults, as well as the associated joint network organisation. Natural joint networks perturbed near faults are modeled and the parameters that control stress perturbation are proposed. With the aim of extrapolating joint data from a well to the entire reservoir our modelling is based on both 3 D seismic data and local joint data. The second part of our research was dedicated to studying joint propagation mechanisms in a natural reservoir analogue (flat-lying Devonian Old Red Sandstones of Caitness in North Scotland). Several exposure observation at different scales and in 3D (horizontal and cliff sections) allow to reconstitute the fracturing geometry from centimeter to kilometer scale and to link these to the regional tectonic history. This study shows that it is possible to differentiate three types of joints major joints, `classic` joints and micro-joints, each with different vertical persistence. New concepts on the 3D joint organisation have been deduced from field quantitative data, which can be applied to reservoir fracture modeling. In particular the non-coexistence phenomenon in a single bed of two regional joint sets with close strikes. Some joint development mechanisms are discussed: interaction between joints and sedimentary interfaces, joint distribution near faults, origin of en echelon arrays associated with joints. (author) 142 refs.

  8. Large-scale hydraulic structure of a seismogenic fault at 10 km depth (Gole Larghe Fault Zone, Italian Southern Alps) (United States)

    Bistacchi, Andrea; Di Toro, Giulio; Smith, Steve; Mittempergher, Silvia; Garofalo, Paolo


    The definition of hydraulic properties of fault zones is a major issue in structural geology, seismology, and in several applications (hydrocarbons, hydrogeology, CO2 sequestration, etc.). The permeability of fault rocks can be measured in laboratory experiments, but its upscaling to large-scale structures is not straightforward. For instance, typical permeability of fine-grained fault rock samples is in the 10-18-10-20 m2 range, but, according to seismological estimates, the large-scale permeability of active fault zones can be as high as 10-10 m2. Solving this issue is difficult because in-situ measurements of large-scale permeability have been carried out just at relatively shallow depths - mainly in oil wells and exceptionally in active tectonic settings (e.g. SAFOD at 3 km), whilst deeper experiments have been performed only in the stable continental crust (e.g. KTB at 9 km). In this study, we apply discrete fracture-network (DFN) modelling techniques developed for shallow aquifers (mainly in nuclear waste storage projects like Yucca Mountain) and in the oil industry, in order to model the hydraulic structure of the Gole Larghe Fault Zone (GLFZ, Italian Southern Alps). This fault, now exposed in world-class glacier-polished outcrops, has been exhumed from ca. 8 km, where it was characterized by a well-documented seismic activity, but also by hydrous fluid flow evidenced by alteration halos and precipitation of hydrothermal minerals in veins and along cataclasites. The GLFZ does not show a classical seal structure that in other fault zones corresponds to a core zone characterized by fine-grained fault rocks. However, permeability is heterogeneous and the permeability tensor is strongly anisotropic due to fracture preferential orientation. We will show with numerical experiments that this hydraulic structure results in a channelized fluid flow (which is consistent with the observed hydrothermal alteration pattern). This results in a counterintuitive situation

  9. Fault Detection for Large-Scale Railway Maintenance Equipment Base on Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junfu Yu


    Full Text Available Focusing on the fault detection application for large-scale railway maintenance equipment with the specialties of low-cost, energy efficiency, collecting data of the function units. This paper proposed energy efficiency, convenient installation fault detection application using Sigsbee wireless sensor networks, which Sigsbee is the most widely used protocol based on IEEE 802.15.4. This paper proposed a systematic application from hardware design using STM32F103 chips as processer, to software system. Fault detection application is the basic part of the fault diagnose system, wireless sensor nodes of the fault detection application with different kinds of sensors for verities function units communication by Sigsbee to collecting and sending basic working status data to the home gateway, then data will be sent to the fault diagnose system.

  10. Orogen-scale uplift in the central Italian Apennines drives episodic behaviour of earthquake faults. (United States)

    Cowie, P A; Phillips, R J; Roberts, G P; McCaffrey, K; Zijerveld, L J J; Gregory, L C; Faure Walker, J; Wedmore, L N J; Dunai, T J; Binnie, S A; Freeman, S P H T; Wilcken, K; Shanks, R P; Huismans, R S; Papanikolaou, I; Michetti, A M; Wilkinson, M


    Many areas of the Earth's crust deform by distributed extensional faulting and complex fault interactions are often observed. Geodetic data generally indicate a simpler picture of continuum deformation over decades but relating this behaviour to earthquake occurrence over centuries, given numerous potentially active faults, remains a global problem in hazard assessment. We address this challenge for an array of seismogenic faults in the central Italian Apennines, where crustal extension and devastating earthquakes occur in response to regional surface uplift. We constrain fault slip-rates since ~18 ka using variations in cosmogenic 36 Cl measured on bedrock scarps, mapped using LiDAR and ground penetrating radar, and compare these rates to those inferred from geodesy. The 36 Cl data reveal that individual faults typically accumulate meters of displacement relatively rapidly over several thousand years, separated by similar length time intervals when slip-rates are much lower, and activity shifts between faults across strike. Our rates agree with continuum deformation rates when averaged over long spatial or temporal scales (10 4  yr; 10 2  km) but over shorter timescales most of the deformation may be accommodated by fault array. We attribute the shifts in activity to temporal variations in the mechanical work of faulting.

  11. Effect of wettability on scale-up of multiphase flow from core-scale to reservoir fine-grid-scale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Y.C.; Mani, V.; Mohanty, K.K. [Univ. of Houston, TX (United States)


    Typical field simulation grid-blocks are internally heterogeneous. The objective of this work is to study how the wettability of the rock affects its scale-up of multiphase flow properties from core-scale to fine-grid reservoir simulation scale ({approximately} 10{prime} x 10{prime} x 5{prime}). Reservoir models need another level of upscaling to coarse-grid simulation scale, which is not addressed here. Heterogeneity is modeled here as a correlated random field parameterized in terms of its variance and two-point variogram. Variogram models of both finite (spherical) and infinite (fractal) correlation length are included as special cases. Local core-scale porosity, permeability, capillary pressure function, relative permeability functions, and initial water saturation are assumed to be correlated. Water injection is simulated and effective flow properties and flow equations are calculated. For strongly water-wet media, capillarity has a stabilizing/homogenizing effect on multiphase flow. For small variance in permeability, and for small correlation length, effective relative permeability can be described by capillary equilibrium models. At higher variance and moderate correlation length, the average flow can be described by a dynamic relative permeability. As the oil wettability increases, the capillary stabilizing effect decreases and the deviation from this average flow increases. For fractal fields with large variance in permeability, effective relative permeability is not adequate in describing the flow.

  12. Do fault-related folds follow the same scaling law as their associated faults? A study using 3D seismic reflection data (United States)

    Pitcher, Eleanor; Imber, Jonathan


    Fractal distributions are largely agreed to follow a power-law distribution. Power-law scaling relationships describe the size distribution of fault lengths or displacements. Being able to identify these scaling properties provides a powerful tool for predicting the numbers of geological structures, such as small-scale faults in sedimentary basins that are below the resolution of seismic reflection data. The aim of this study is to determine whether fault-related folds follow the same power law scaling properties, or if they follow a different scaling law. We use TrapTester to interpret a 3D seismic volume from the Gulf of Mexico to construct fault planes and cut-off lines along selected horizons in the vicinity of fault upper tip lines. Fault-related folds are particularly well developed above steeply plunging tip lines, but are discontinuous along the strike of the fault plane. Folding is less well developed on horizons that intersect, or lie close to, the locus of maximum throw (bullseye) of the fault plane. We then measured fold amplitudes and fault throws across these same horizons using a one-dimensional multi-line sampling approach. Graphs of fault throw and fold amplitude vs. distance parallel to fault strike show that folds occur where there is no resolvable fault throw, and that fault throw and fold amplitudes show an approximately inverse relationship. Close to the locus of maximum throw, there is largely just faulting, whilst at the upper tip line folding predominates. By plotting cumulative frequency against throw for the fault and fold data we can investigate whether the data follow a power law, log normal or exponential distribution. Plotting the data on log vs. log (power law), linear vs. log (log normal) and log vs. linear (exponential) axes allow us to establish which displays the best "straight-line fit". We observed that the fault throw data satisfied a straight-line on a log vs. log graph - implying a power law distribution - and also returned

  13. Assessment of disturbance at three spatial scales in two large tropical reservoirs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Letícia de Morais


    Full Text Available Large reservoirs are an increasingly common feature across tropical landscapes because of their importance for water supply, flood control and hydropower, but their ecological conditions are infrequently evaluated. Our objective was to assess the range of disturbances for two large tropical reservoirs and their influences on benthic macroinvertebrates. We tested three hypotheses: i a wide variation in the level of environmental disturbance can be observed among sites in the reservoirs; ii the two reservoirs would exhibit a different degree of disturbance level; and iii the magnitude of disturbance would influence the structure and composition of benthic assemblages. For each reservoir, we assessed land use (macroscale, physical habitat structure (mesoscale, and water quality (microscale. We sampled 40 sites in the littoral zones of both Três Marias and São Simão Reservoirs (Minas Gerais, Brazil. At the macroscale, we measured cover percentages of land use categories in buffer areas at each site, where each buffer was a circular arc of 250 m. At the mesoscale, we assessed the presence of human disturbances in the riparian and drawdown zones at the local (site scale. At the microscale, we assessed water quality at each macroinvertebrate sampling station using the Micro Disturbance Index (MDI. To evaluate anthropogenic disturbance of each site, we calculated an integrated disturbance index (IDI from a buffer disturbance index (BDI and a local disturbance index (LDI. For each site, we calculated richness and abundance of benthic macroinvertebrates, Chironomidae genera richness, abundance and percent Chironomidae individuals, abundance and percent EPT individuals, richness and percent EPT taxa, abundance and percent resistant individuals, and abundance and percent non-native individuals. We also evaluated the influence of disturbance on benthic macroinvertebrate assemblages at the entire-reservoir scale. The BDI, LDI and IDI had significantly

  14. Determination of paleoseismic activity over a large time-scale: Fault scarp dating with 36Cl (United States)

    Mozafari Amiri, Nasim; Tikhomirov, Dmitry; Sümer, Ökmen; Özkaymak, Çaǧlar; Uzel, Bora; Ivy-Ochs, Susan; Vockenhuber, Christof; Sözbilir, Hasan; Akçar, Naki


    Bedrock fault scarps are the most direct evidence of past earthquakes to reconstruct seismic activity in a large time-scale using cosmogenic 36Cl dating if built in carbonates. For this method, a surface along the fault scarp with a minimum amount of erosion is required to be chosen as an ideal target point. The section of the fault selected for sampling should cover at least two meters of the fault surface from the lower part of the scarp, where intersects with colluvium wedge. Ideally, sampling should be performed on a continuous strip along the direction of the fault slip direction. First, samples of 10 cm high and 15 cm wide are marked on the fault surface. Then, they are collected using cutters, hammer and chisel in a thickness of 3 cm. The main geometrical factors of scarp dip, scarp height, top surface dip and colluvium dip are also measured. Topographic shielding in the sampling spot is important to be estimated as well. Moreover, density of the fault scarp and colluvium are calculated. The physical and chemical preparations are carried in laboratory for AMS and chemical analysis of the samples. A Matlab® code is used for modelling of seismically active periods based on increasing production rate of 36Cl following each rupture, when a buried section of a fault is exposed. Therefore, by measuring the amount of cosmogenic 36Cl versus height, the timing of major ruptures and their offsets are determined. In our study, Manastır, Mugırtepe and Rahmiye faults in Gediz graben, Priene-Sazlı, Kalafat and Yavansu faults in Büyük Menderes graben and Ören fault in Gökava half-graben have been examined in the seismically active region of Western Turkey. Our results reconstruct at least five periods of high seismic activity during the Holocene time, three of which reveal seismic ruptures beyond the historical pre-existing data.

  15. Adaptive Fuzzy Output-Constrained Fault-Tolerant Control of Nonlinear Stochastic Large-Scale Systems With Actuator Faults. (United States)

    Li, Yongming; Ma, Zhiyao; Tong, Shaocheng


    The problem of adaptive fuzzy output-constrained tracking fault-tolerant control (FTC) is investigated for the large-scale stochastic nonlinear systems of pure-feedback form. The nonlinear systems considered in this paper possess the unstructured uncertainties, unknown interconnected terms and unknown nonaffine nonlinear faults. The fuzzy logic systems are employed to identify the unknown lumped nonlinear functions so that the problems of structured uncertainties can be solved. An adaptive fuzzy state observer is designed to solve the nonmeasurable state problem. By combining the barrier Lyapunov function theory, adaptive decentralized and stochastic control principles, a novel fuzzy adaptive output-constrained FTC approach is constructed. All the signals in the closed-loop system are proved to be bounded in probability and the system outputs are constrained in a given compact set. Finally, the applicability of the proposed controller is well carried out by a simulation example.

  16. Train axle bearing fault detection using a feature selection scheme based multi-scale morphological filter (United States)

    Li, Yifan; Liang, Xihui; Lin, Jianhui; Chen, Yuejian; Liu, Jianxin


    This paper presents a novel signal processing scheme, feature selection based multi-scale morphological filter (MMF), for train axle bearing fault detection. In this scheme, more than 30 feature indicators of vibration signals are calculated for axle bearings with different conditions and the features which can reflect fault characteristics more effectively and representatively are selected using the max-relevance and min-redundancy principle. Then, a filtering scale selection approach for MMF based on feature selection and grey relational analysis is proposed. The feature selection based MMF method is tested on diagnosis of artificially created damages of rolling bearings of railway trains. Experimental results show that the proposed method has a superior performance in extracting fault features of defective train axle bearings. In addition, comparisons are performed with the kurtosis criterion based MMF and the spectral kurtosis criterion based MMF. The proposed feature selection based MMF method outperforms these two methods in detection of train axle bearing faults.

  17. The seismo-hydromechanical behavior during deep geothermal reservoir stimulations: open questions tackled in a decameter-scale in situ stimulation experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Amann


    Full Text Available In this contribution, we present a review of scientific research results that address seismo-hydromechanically coupled processes relevant for the development of a sustainable heat exchanger in low-permeability crystalline rock and introduce the design of the In situ Stimulation and Circulation (ISC experiment at the Grimsel Test Site dedicated to studying such processes under controlled conditions. The review shows that research on reservoir stimulation for deep geothermal energy exploitation has been largely based on laboratory observations, large-scale projects and numerical models. Observations of full-scale reservoir stimulations have yielded important results. However, the limited access to the reservoir and limitations in the control on the experimental conditions during deep reservoir stimulations is insufficient to resolve the details of the hydromechanical processes that would enhance process understanding in a way that aids future stimulation design. Small-scale laboratory experiments provide fundamental insights into various processes relevant for enhanced geothermal energy, but suffer from (1 difficulties and uncertainties in upscaling the results to the field scale and (2 relatively homogeneous material and stress conditions that lead to an oversimplistic fracture flow and/or hydraulic fracture propagation behavior that is not representative of a heterogeneous reservoir. Thus, there is a need for intermediate-scale hydraulic stimulation experiments with high experimental control that bridge the various scales and for which access to the target rock mass with a comprehensive monitoring system is possible. The ISC experiment is designed to address open research questions in a naturally fractured and faulted crystalline rock mass at the Grimsel Test Site (Switzerland. Two hydraulic injection phases were executed to enhance the permeability of the rock mass. During the injection phases the rock mass deformation across fractures and

  18. The seismo-hydromechanical behavior during deep geothermal reservoir stimulations: open questions tackled in a decameter-scale in situ stimulation experiment (United States)

    Amann, Florian; Gischig, Valentin; Evans, Keith; Doetsch, Joseph; Jalali, Reza; Valley, Benoît; Krietsch, Hannes; Dutler, Nathan; Villiger, Linus; Brixel, Bernard; Klepikova, Maria; Kittilä, Anniina; Madonna, Claudio; Wiemer, Stefan; Saar, Martin O.; Loew, Simon; Driesner, Thomas; Maurer, Hansruedi; Giardini, Domenico


    In this contribution, we present a review of scientific research results that address seismo-hydromechanically coupled processes relevant for the development of a sustainable heat exchanger in low-permeability crystalline rock and introduce the design of the In situ Stimulation and Circulation (ISC) experiment at the Grimsel Test Site dedicated to studying such processes under controlled conditions. The review shows that research on reservoir stimulation for deep geothermal energy exploitation has been largely based on laboratory observations, large-scale projects and numerical models. Observations of full-scale reservoir stimulations have yielded important results. However, the limited access to the reservoir and limitations in the control on the experimental conditions during deep reservoir stimulations is insufficient to resolve the details of the hydromechanical processes that would enhance process understanding in a way that aids future stimulation design. Small-scale laboratory experiments provide fundamental insights into various processes relevant for enhanced geothermal energy, but suffer from (1) difficulties and uncertainties in upscaling the results to the field scale and (2) relatively homogeneous material and stress conditions that lead to an oversimplistic fracture flow and/or hydraulic fracture propagation behavior that is not representative of a heterogeneous reservoir. Thus, there is a need for intermediate-scale hydraulic stimulation experiments with high experimental control that bridge the various scales and for which access to the target rock mass with a comprehensive monitoring system is possible. The ISC experiment is designed to address open research questions in a naturally fractured and faulted crystalline rock mass at the Grimsel Test Site (Switzerland). Two hydraulic injection phases were executed to enhance the permeability of the rock mass. During the injection phases the rock mass deformation across fractures and within intact rock

  19. Incipient multiple fault diagnosis in real time with applications to large-scale systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, H.Y.; Bien, Z.; Park, J.H.; Seon, P.H.


    By using a modified signed directed graph (SDG) together with the distributed artificial neutral networks and a knowledge-based system, a method of incipient multi-fault diagnosis is presented for large-scale physical systems with complex pipes and instrumentations such as valves, actuators, sensors, and controllers. The proposed method is designed so as to (1) make a real-time incipient fault diagnosis possible for large-scale systems, (2) perform the fault diagnosis not only in the steady-state case but also in the transient case as well by using a concept of fault propagation time, which is newly adopted in the SDG model, (3) provide with highly reliable diagnosis results and explanation capability of faults diagnosed as in an expert system, and (4) diagnose the pipe damage such as leaking, break, or throttling. This method is applied for diagnosis of a pressurizer in the Kori Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) unit 2 in Korea under a transient condition, and its result is reported to show satisfactory performance of the method for the incipient multi-fault diagnosis of such a large-scale system in a real-time manner

  20. A Fault-oblivious Extreme-scale Execution Environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sadayappan, Ponnuswamy [The Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States)


    Exascale computing systems will provide a thousand-fold increase in parallelism and a proportional increase in failure rate relative to today's machines. Systems software for exascale machines must provide the infrastructure to support existing applications while simultaneously enabling efficient execution of new programming models that naturally express dynamic, adaptive, irregular computation; coupled simulations; and massive data analysis in a highly unreliable hardware environment with billions of threads of execution. We propose a new approach to the data and work distribution model provided by system software based on the unifying formalism of an abstract file system. The proposed hierarchical data model provides simple, familiar visibility and access to data structures through the file system hierarchy, while providing fault tolerance through selective redundancy. The hierarchical task model features work queues whose form and organization are represented as file system objects. Data and work are both first class entities. By exposing the relationships between data and work to the runtime system, information is available to optimize execution time and provide fault tolerance. The data distribution scheme provides replication (where desirable and possible) for fault tolerance and efficiency, and it is hierarchical to make it possible to take advantage of locality. The user, tools, and applications, including legacy applications, can interface with the data, work queues, and one another through the abstract file model. This runtime environment will provide multiple interfaces to support traditional Message Passing Interface applications, languages developed under DARPA's High Productivity Computing Systems program, as well as other, experimental programming models. We will validate our runtime system with pilot codes on existing platforms and will use simulation to validate for exascale-class platforms. In this final report, we summarize research

  1. Characterization and application of microearthquake clusters to problems of scaling, fault zone dynamics, and seismic monitoring at Parkfield, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nadeau, Robert Michael [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)


    This document contains information about the characterization and application of microearthquake clusters and fault zone dynamics. Topics discussed include: Seismological studies; fault-zone dynamics; periodic recurrence; scaling of microearthquakes to large earthquakes; implications of fault mechanics and seismic hazards; and wave propagation and temporal changes.

  2. Petroleum reservoir fault reactivation problem analysis through finite element viscodamage model; Analise de problema de reativacao de falha em reservatorio de petroleo por modelo de viscodano via metodo dos elementos finitos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandes, Julliana de P.V.; Guimaraes, Leonardo J. do N.; Gomes, Igor F.; Pontes Filho, Ivaldo Dario da S. [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil)


    Recently, many new constitutive models for geomechanical materials were developed taking into account its complex behavior. The continuum damage mechanics, formulated according to irreversible thermodynamics principles, can be used to model materials subjected to degradation of its mechanical properties. Reservoir depletion may result in compaction and subsidence that induces fault reactivation, among others consequences. The fault reactivation problem in petroleum reservoirs has been widely studied as its changes completely the flow regime in subsurface. Isotropic damage model can be used to model the fault reactivation process, where its hydro-mechanical properties (stiffness and permeability) are affected during the reservoir production. In this paper, a fault reactivation case in a synthetic reservoir is presented and a sensibility analysis is carried out to identify the main variables that influence this process. (author)

  3. A fault diagnosis scheme for planetary gearboxes using adaptive multi-scale morphology filter and modified hierarchical permutation entropy (United States)

    Li, Yongbo; Li, Guoyan; Yang, Yuantao; Liang, Xihui; Xu, Minqiang


    The fault diagnosis of planetary gearboxes is crucial to reduce the maintenance costs and economic losses. This paper proposes a novel fault diagnosis method based on adaptive multi-scale morphological filter (AMMF) and modified hierarchical permutation entropy (MHPE) to identify the different health conditions of planetary gearboxes. In this method, AMMF is firstly adopted to remove the fault-unrelated components and enhance the fault characteristics. Second, MHPE is utilized to extract the fault features from the denoised vibration signals. Third, Laplacian score (LS) approach is employed to refine the fault features. In the end, the obtained features are fed into the binary tree support vector machine (BT-SVM) to accomplish the fault pattern identification. The proposed method is numerically and experimentally demonstrated to be able to recognize the different fault categories of planetary gearboxes.

  4. Four-Dimensional Transform Fault Processes: Evolution of Step-Overs and Bends at Different Scales (United States)

    Wakabayashi, J.; Hengesh, J. V.; Sawyer, T. L.


    consequence of this type of step-over evolution is that the long-term displacement zone of major strike-slip faults (such as the San Andreas, Hayward, and Calaveras faults) may be several km wide and include several traces, and that the Holocene trace locally does not correspond to the trace with the largest cumulative displacement. Similar 4D evolution may characterize other regions in the world, including the Dead Sea pull-apart, and the Gulf of Paria pull-apart basin of northern Venezuela. This type of tectonic evolution appears to be common for features from scales of tens of km to small features such as pressure ridges and sag ponds. Not all bend and step-over features along strike-slip faults have evolved by the process described above. For example, the left bend along the San Andreas fault in the Loma Prieta area, the regional-scale left bend of the Big Bend area of the southern San Andreas fault, and the right step along the San Andreas fault in the Salton Trough area are long-lived structures that have developed large structural relief as a consequence of continued activity on the same family of transverse structures.

  5. Application of Anisotropy of Magnetic Susceptibility to large-scale fault kinematics: an evaluation (United States)

    Casas, Antonio M.; Roman-Berdiel, Teresa; Marcén, Marcos; Oliva-Urcia, Belen; Soto, Ruth; Garcia-Lasanta, Cristina; Calvin, Pablo; Pocovi, Andres; Gil-Imaz, Andres; Pueyo-Anchuela, Oscar; Izquierdo-Llavall, Esther; Vernet, Eva; Santolaria, Pablo; Osacar, Cinta; Santanach, Pere; Corrado, Sveva; Invernizzi, Chiara; Aldega, Luca; Caricchi, Chiara; Villalain, Juan Jose


    Major discontinuities in the Earth's crust are expressed by faults that often cut across its whole thickness favoring, for example, the emplacement of magmas of mantelic origin. These long-lived faults are common in intra-plate environments and show multi-episodic activity that spans for hundred of million years and constitute first-order controls on plate evolution, favoring basin formation and inversion, rotations and the accommodation of deformation in large segments of plates. Since the post-Paleozoic evolution of these large-scale faults has taken place (and can only be observed) at shallow crustal levels, the accurate determination of fault kinematics is hampered by scarcely developed fault rocks, lack of classical structural indicators and the brittle deformation accompanying fault zones. These drawbacks are also found when thick clayey or evaporite levels, with or without diapiric movements, are the main detachment levels that facilitate large displacements in the upper crust. Anisotropy of Magnetic Susceptibility (AMS) provides a useful tool for the analysis of fault zones lacking fully developed kinematic indicators. However, its meaning in terms of deformational fabrics must be carefully checked by means of outcrop and thin section analysis in order to establish the relationship between the orientation of magnetic ellipsoid axes and the transport directions, as well as the representativity of scalar parameters regarding deformation mechanisms. Timing of faulting, P-T conditions and magnetic mineralogy are also major constraints for the interpretation of magnetic fabrics and therefore, separating ferro- and para-magnetic fabric components may be necessary in complex cases. AMS results indicate that the magnetic lineation can be parallel (when projected onto the shear plane) or perpendicular (i.e. parallel to the intersection lineation) to the transport direction depending mainly on the degree of shear deformation. Changes between the two end-members can

  6. The fault diagnosis of large-scale wind turbine based on expert system (United States)

    Chen, Changzheng; Li, Yun


    The wind turbine is the critical equipment for wind power, due to the poor working environment and the long running, the wind turbine components will have a variety of failures. Planned maintenance which has long been used is unable to understand the operational status of equipment comprehensively and timely in a way, especially for large wind machine, the repair work took too long time and cause serious damage. Therefore, fault diagnosis and predictive maintenance becomes more imminent. In this paper, the fault symptoms and corresponding reason of the large-scale wind turbine parts are analyzed and summarized ,such as gear box, generator, yaw system, and so on . And on this basis, the large-scale wind turbine fault diagnosis expert system was constructed by using expert system tool CLIPS and Visual C + +.

  7. Adaptive Fault-Tolerant Control of Uncertain Nonlinear Large-Scale Systems With Unknown Dead Zone. (United States)

    Chen, Mou; Tao, Gang


    In this paper, an adaptive neural fault-tolerant control scheme is proposed and analyzed for a class of uncertain nonlinear large-scale systems with unknown dead zone and external disturbances. To tackle the unknown nonlinear interaction functions in the large-scale system, the radial basis function neural network (RBFNN) is employed to approximate them. To further handle the unknown approximation errors and the effects of the unknown dead zone and external disturbances, integrated as the compounded disturbances, the corresponding disturbance observers are developed for their estimations. Based on the outputs of the RBFNN and the disturbance observer, the adaptive neural fault-tolerant control scheme is designed for uncertain nonlinear large-scale systems by using a decentralized backstepping technique. The closed-loop stability of the adaptive control system is rigorously proved via Lyapunov analysis and the satisfactory tracking performance is achieved under the integrated effects of unknown dead zone, actuator fault, and unknown external disturbances. Simulation results of a mass-spring-damper system are given to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed adaptive neural fault-tolerant control scheme for uncertain nonlinear large-scale systems.

  8. Effects of reservoir heterogeneity on scaling of effective mass transfer coefficient for solute transport (United States)

    Leung, Juliana Y.; Srinivasan, Sanjay


    Modeling transport process at large scale requires proper scale-up of subsurface heterogeneity and an understanding of its interaction with the underlying transport mechanisms. A technique based on volume averaging is applied to quantitatively assess the scaling characteristics of effective mass transfer coefficient in heterogeneous reservoir models. The effective mass transfer coefficient represents the combined contribution from diffusion and dispersion to the transport of non-reactive solute particles within a fluid phase. Although treatment of transport problems with the volume averaging technique has been published in the past, application to geological systems exhibiting realistic spatial variability remains a challenge. Previously, the authors developed a new procedure where results from a fine-scale numerical flow simulation reflecting the full physics of the transport process albeit over a sub-volume of the reservoir are integrated with the volume averaging technique to provide effective description of transport properties. The procedure is extended such that spatial averaging is performed at the local-heterogeneity scale. In this paper, the transport of a passive (non-reactive) solute is simulated on multiple reservoir models exhibiting different patterns of heterogeneities, and the scaling behavior of effective mass transfer coefficient (Keff) is examined and compared. One such set of models exhibit power-law (fractal) characteristics, and the variability of dispersion and Keff with scale is in good agreement with analytical expressions described in the literature. This work offers an insight into the impacts of heterogeneity on the scaling of effective transport parameters. A key finding is that spatial heterogeneity models with similar univariate and bivariate statistics may exhibit different scaling characteristics because of the influence of higher order statistics. More mixing is observed in the channelized models with higher-order continuity. It

  9. Derivation of Optimal Operating Rules for Large-scale Reservoir Systems Considering Multiple Trade-off (United States)

    Zhang, J.; Lei, X.; Liu, P.; Wang, H.; Li, Z.


    Flood control operation of multi-reservoir systems such as parallel reservoirs and hybrid reservoirs often suffer from complex interactions and trade-off among tributaries and the mainstream. The optimization of such systems is computationally intensive due to nonlinear storage curves, numerous constraints and complex hydraulic connections. This paper aims to derive the optimal flood control operating rules based on the trade-off among tributaries and the mainstream using a new algorithm known as weighted non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm II (WNSGA II). WNSGA II could locate the Pareto frontier in non-dominated region efficiently due to the directed searching by weighted crowding distance, and the results are compared with those of conventional operating rules (COR) and single objective genetic algorithm (GA). Xijiang river basin in China is selected as a case study, with eight reservoirs and five flood control sections within four tributaries and the mainstream. Furthermore, the effects of inflow uncertainty have been assessed. Results indicate that: (1) WNSGA II could locate the non-dominated solutions faster and provide better Pareto frontier than the traditional non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm II (NSGA II) due to the weighted crowding distance; (2) WNSGA II outperforms COR and GA on flood control in the whole basin; (3) The multi-objective operating rules from WNSGA II deal with the inflow uncertainties better than COR. Therefore, the WNSGA II can be used to derive stable operating rules for large-scale reservoir systems effectively and efficiently.

  10. Simulation of water-energy fluxes through small-scale reservoir systems under limited data availability (United States)

    Papoulakos, Konstantinos; Pollakis, Giorgos; Moustakis, Yiannis; Markopoulos, Apostolis; Iliopoulou, Theano; Dimitriadis, Panayiotis; Koutsoyiannis, Demetris; Efstratiadis, Andreas


    Small islands are regarded as promising areas for developing hybrid water-energy systems that combine multiple sources of renewable energy with pumped-storage facilities. Essential element of such systems is the water storage component (reservoir), which implements both flow and energy regulations. Apparently, the representation of the overall water-energy management problem requires the simulation of the operation of the reservoir system, which in turn requires a faithful estimation of water inflows and demands of water and energy. Yet, in small-scale reservoir systems, this task in far from straightforward, since both the availability and accuracy of associated information is generally very poor. For, in contrast to large-scale reservoir systems, for which it is quite easy to find systematic and reliable hydrological data, in the case of small systems such data may be minor or even totally missing. The stochastic approach is the unique means to account for input data uncertainties within the combined water-energy management problem. Using as example the Livadi reservoir, which is the pumped storage component of the small Aegean island of Astypalaia, Greece, we provide a simulation framework, comprising: (a) a stochastic model for generating synthetic rainfall and temperature time series; (b) a stochastic rainfall-runoff model, whose parameters cannot be inferred through calibration and, thus, they are represented as correlated random variables; (c) a stochastic model for estimating water supply and irrigation demands, based on simulated temperature and soil moisture, and (d) a daily operation model of the reservoir system, providing stochastic forecasts of water and energy outflows. Acknowledgement: This research is conducted within the frame of the undergraduate course "Stochastic Methods in Water Resources" of the National Technical University of Athens (NTUA). The School of Civil Engineering of NTUA provided moral support for the participation of the students

  11. Fault Transient Analysis and Protection Performance Evaluation within a Large-scale PV Power Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen Jinghua


    Full Text Available In this paper, a short-circuit test within a large-scale PV power plant with a total capacity of 850MWp is discussed. The fault currents supplied by the PV generation units are presented and analysed. According to the fault behaviour, the existing protection coordination principles with the plant are considered and their performances are evaluated. Moreover, these protections are examined in simulation platform under different operating situations. A simple measure with communication system is proposed to deal with the foreseeable problem about the current protection scheme in the PV power plant.

  12. Incorporating Scale-Dependent Fracture Stiffness for Improved Reservoir Performance Prediction (United States)

    Crawford, B. R.; Tsenn, M. C.; Homburg, J. M.; Stehle, R. C.; Freysteinson, J. A.; Reese, W. C.


    We present a novel technique for predicting dynamic fracture network response to production-driven changes in effective stress, with the potential for optimizing depletion planning and improving recovery prediction in stress-sensitive naturally fractured reservoirs. A key component of the method involves laboratory geomechanics testing of single fractures in order to develop a unique scaling relationship between fracture normal stiffness and initial mechanical aperture. Details of the workflow are as follows: tensile, opening mode fractures are created in a variety of low matrix permeability rocks with initial, unstressed apertures in the micrometer to millimeter range, as determined from image analyses of X-ray CT scans; subsequent hydrostatic compression of these fractured samples with synchronous radial strain and flow measurement indicates that both mechanical and hydraulic aperture reduction varies linearly with the natural logarithm of effective normal stress; these stress-sensitive single-fracture laboratory observations are then upscaled to networks with fracture populations displaying frequency-length and length-aperture scaling laws commonly exhibited by natural fracture arrays; functional relationships between reservoir pressure reduction and fracture network porosity, compressibility and directional permeabilities as generated by such discrete fracture network modeling are then exported to the reservoir simulator for improved naturally fractured reservoir performance prediction.

  13. Fine-Scale Spatial Heterogeneity in the Distribution of Waterborne Protozoa in a Drinking Water Reservoir. (United States)

    Burnet, Jean-Baptiste; Ogorzaly, Leslie; Penny, Christian; Cauchie, Henry-Michel


    The occurrence of faecal pathogens in drinking water resources constitutes a threat to the supply of safe drinking water, even in industrialized nations. To efficiently assess and monitor the risk posed by these pathogens, sampling deserves careful design, based on preliminary knowledge on their distribution dynamics in water. For the protozoan pathogens Cryptosporidium and Giardia, only little is known about their spatial distribution within drinking water supplies, especially at fine scale. Two-dimensional distribution maps were generated by sampling cross-sections at meter resolution in two different zones of a drinking water reservoir. Samples were analysed for protozoan pathogens as well as for E. coli, turbidity and physico-chemical parameters. Parasites displayed heterogeneous distribution patterns, as reflected by significant (oo)cyst density gradients along reservoir depth. Spatial correlations between parasites and E. coli were observed near the reservoir inlet but were absent in the downstream lacustrine zone. Measurements of surface and subsurface flow velocities suggest a role of local hydrodynamics on these spatial patterns. This fine-scale spatial study emphasizes the importance of sampling design (site, depth and position on the reservoir) for the acquisition of representative parasite data and for optimization of microbial risk assessment and monitoring. Such spatial information should prove useful to the modelling of pathogen transport dynamics in drinking water supplies.

  14. Accounting for geochemical alterations of caprock fracture permeability in basin-scale models of leakage from geologic CO2 reservoirs (United States)

    Guo, B.; Fitts, J. P.; Dobossy, M.; Bielicki, J. M.; Peters, C. A.


    Climate mitigation, public acceptance and energy, markets demand that the potential CO2 leakage rates from geologic storage reservoirs are predicted to be low and are known to a high level of certainty. Current approaches to predict CO2 leakage rates assume constant permeability of leakage pathways (e.g., wellbores, faults, fractures). A reactive transport model was developed to account for geochemical alterations that result in permeability evolution of leakage pathways. The one-dimensional reactive transport model was coupled with the basin-scale Estimating Leakage Semi-Analytical (ELSA) model to simulate CO2 and brine leakage through vertical caprock pathways for different CO2 storage reservoir sites and injection scenarios within the Mt. Simon and St. Peter sandstone formations of the Michigan basin. Mineral dissolution in the numerical reactive transport model expands leakage pathways and increases permeability as a result of calcite dissolution by reactions driven by CO2-acidified brine. A geochemical model compared kinetic and equilibrium treatments of calcite dissolution within each grid block for each time step. For a single fracture, we investigated the effect of the reactions on leakage by performing sensitivity analyses of fracture geometry, CO2 concentration, calcite abundance, initial permeability, and pressure gradient. Assuming that calcite dissolution reaches equilibrium at each time step produces unrealistic scenarios of buffering and permeability evolution within fractures. Therefore, the reactive transport model with a kinetic treatment of calcite dissolution was coupled to the ELSA model and used to compare brine and CO2 leakage rates at a variety of potential geologic storage sites within the Michigan basin. The results are used to construct maps based on the susceptibility to geochemically driven increases in leakage rates. These maps should provide useful and easily communicated inputs into decision-making processes for siting geologic CO2

  15. Fault diagnosis of rolling element bearing using a new optimal scale morphology analysis method. (United States)

    Yan, Xiaoan; Jia, Minping; Zhang, Wan; Zhu, Lin


    Periodic transient impulses are key indicators of rolling element bearing defects. Efficient acquisition of impact impulses concerned with the defects is of much concern to the precise detection of bearing defects. However, transient features of rolling element bearing are generally immersed in stochastic noise and harmonic interference. Therefore, in this paper, a new optimal scale morphology analysis method, named adaptive multiscale combination morphological filter-hat transform (AMCMFH), is proposed for rolling element bearing fault diagnosis, which can both reduce stochastic noise and reserve signal details. In this method, firstly, an adaptive selection strategy based on the feature energy factor (FEF) is introduced to determine the optimal structuring element (SE) scale of multiscale combination morphological filter-hat transform (MCMFH). Subsequently, MCMFH containing the optimal SE scale is applied to obtain the impulse components from the bearing vibration signal. Finally, fault types of bearing are confirmed by extracting the defective frequency from envelope spectrum of the impulse components. The validity of the proposed method is verified through the simulated analysis and bearing vibration data derived from the laboratory bench. Results indicate that the proposed method has a good capability to recognize localized faults appeared on rolling element bearing from vibration signal. The study supplies a novel technique for the detection of faulty bearing. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Multi-Scale Stochastic Resonance Spectrogram for fault diagnosis of rolling element bearings (United States)

    He, Qingbo; Wu, Enhao; Pan, Yuanyuan


    It is not easy to identify incipient defect of a rolling element bearing by analyzing the vibration data because of the disturbance of background noise. The weak and unrecognizable transient fault signal of a mechanical system can be enhanced by the stochastic resonance (SR) technique that utilizes the noise in the system. However, it is challenging for the SR technique to identify sensitive fault information in non-stationary signals. This paper proposes a new method called multi-scale SR spectrogram (MSSRS) for bearing defect diagnosis. The new method considers the non-stationary property of the defective bearing vibration signals, and treats every scale of the time-frequency distribution (TFD) as a modulation system. Then the SR technique is utilized on each modulation system according to each frequencies in the TFD. The SR results are sensitive to the defect information because the energy of transient vibration is distributed in a limited frequency band in the TFD. Collecting the spectra of the SR outputs at all frequency scales then generates the MSSRS. The proposed MSSRS is able to well deal with the non-stationary transient signal, and can highlight the defect-induced frequency component corresponding to the impulse information. Experimental results with practical defective bearing vibration data have shown that the proposed method outperforms the former SR methods and exhibits a good application prospect in rolling element bearing fault diagnosis.

  17. Scale-up of miscible flood processes for heterogeneous reservoirs. Second annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orr, F.M. Jr.


    Progress is reported for a comprehensive investigation of the scaling behavior of gas injection processes in heterogeneous reservoirs. The interplay of phase behavior, viscous fingering, gravity segregation, capillary imbibition and drainage, and reservoir heterogeneity is examined in a series of simulations and experiments. Use of streamtube to model multiphase flow is demonstrated to be a fast and accurate approach for displacements that are dominated by reservoir heterogeneity. The streamtube technique is particularly powerful for multiphase compositional displacements because it represents the effects of phase behavior with a one-dimensional flow and represents the effects of heterogeneity through the locations of streamtubes. A new approach for fast calculations of critical tie-lines directly from criticality conditions is reported. A global triangular structure solution for four-component flow systems, whose tie-lies meet at the edge of a quaternary phase diagram or lie in planes is presented. Also demonstrated is the extension of this solution to multicomponent systems under the same assumptions. The interplay of gravity, capillary and viscous forces on final residual oil saturation is examined experimentally and theoretically. The analysis of vertical equilibrium conditions for three-phase gravity drainage shows that almost all oil can be recovered from the top part of a reservoir. The prediction of spreading and stability of thin film is performed to investigate three-phase gravity drainage mechanisms. Finally, experimental results from gravity drainage of crude oil in the presence of CO{sub 2} suggest that gravity drainage could be an efficient oil recovery process for vertically fractured reservoirs.

  18. Large Scale Landslide Database System Established for the Reservoirs in Southern Taiwan (United States)

    Tsai, Tsai-Tsung; Tsai, Kuang-Jung; Shieh, Chjeng-Lun


    Typhoon Morakot seriously attack southern Taiwan awaken the public awareness of large scale landslide disasters. Large scale landslide disasters produce large quantity of sediment due to negative effects on the operating functions of reservoirs. In order to reduce the risk of these disasters within the study area, the establishment of a database for hazard mitigation / disaster prevention is necessary. Real time data and numerous archives of engineering data, environment information, photo, and video, will not only help people make appropriate decisions, but also bring the biggest concern for people to process and value added. The study tried to define some basic data formats / standards from collected various types of data about these reservoirs and then provide a management platform based on these formats / standards. Meanwhile, in order to satisfy the practicality and convenience, the large scale landslide disasters database system is built both provide and receive information abilities, which user can use this large scale landslide disasters database system on different type of devices. IT technology progressed extreme quick, the most modern system might be out of date anytime. In order to provide long term service, the system reserved the possibility of user define data format /standard and user define system structure. The system established by this study was based on HTML5 standard language, and use the responsive web design technology. This will make user can easily handle and develop this large scale landslide disasters database system.

  19. Optimizing multiple reliable forward contracts for reservoir allocation using multitime scale streamflow forecasts (United States)

    Lu, Mengqian; Lall, Upmanu; Robertson, Andrew W.; Cook, Edward


    Streamflow forecasts at multiple time scales provide a new opportunity for reservoir management to address competing objectives. Market instruments such as forward contracts with specified reliability are considered as a tool that may help address the perceived risk associated with the use of such forecasts in lieu of traditional operation and allocation strategies. A water allocation process that enables multiple contracts for water supply and hydropower production with different durations, while maintaining a prescribed level of flood risk reduction, is presented. The allocation process is supported by an optimization model that considers multitime scale ensemble forecasts of monthly streamflow and flood volume over the upcoming season and year, the desired reliability and pricing of proposed contracts for hydropower and water supply. It solves for the size of contracts at each reliability level that can be allocated for each future period, while meeting target end of period reservoir storage with a prescribed reliability. The contracts may be insurable, given that their reliability is verified through retrospective modeling. The process can allow reservoir operators to overcome their concerns as to the appropriate skill of probabilistic forecasts, while providing water users with short-term and long-term guarantees as to how much water or energy they may be allocated. An application of the optimization model to the Bhakra Dam, India, provides an illustration of the process. The issues of forecast skill and contract performance are examined. A field engagement of the idea is useful to develop a real-world perspective and needs a suitable institutional environment.

  20. Global-scale analysis of river flow alterations due to water withdrawals and reservoirs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Döll


    Full Text Available Global-scale information on natural river flows and anthropogenic river flow alterations is required to identify areas where aqueous ecosystems are expected to be strongly degraded. Such information can support the identification of environmental flow guidelines and a sustainable water management that balances the water demands of humans and ecosystems. This study presents the first global assessment of the anthropogenic alteration of river flow regimes, in particular of flow variability, by water withdrawals and dams/reservoirs. Six ecologically relevant flow indicators were quantified using an improved version of the global water model WaterGAP. WaterGAP simulated, with a spatial resolution of 0.5 degree, river discharge as affected by human water withdrawals and dams around the year 2000, as well as naturalized discharge without this type of human interference. Compared to naturalized conditions, long-term average global discharge into oceans and internal sinks has decreased by 2.7% due to water withdrawals, and by 0.8% due to dams. Mainly due to irrigation, long-term average river discharge and statistical low flow Q90 (monthly river discharge that is exceeded in 9 out of 10 months have decreased by more than 10% on one sixth and one quarter of the global land area (excluding Antarctica and Greenland, respectively. Q90 has increased significantly on only 5% of the land area, downstream of reservoirs. Due to both water withdrawals and reservoirs, seasonal flow amplitude has decreased significantly on one sixth of the land area, while interannual variability has increased on one quarter of the land area mainly due to irrigation. It has decreased on only 8% of the land area, in areas downstream of reservoirs where consumptive water use is low. The impact of reservoirs is likely underestimated by our study as small reservoirs are not taken into account. Areas most affected by anthropogenic river flow

  1. Are Geotehrmal Reservoirs Stressed Out? (United States)

    Davatzes, N. C.; Laboso, R. C.; Layland-Bachmann, C. E.; Feigl, K. L.; Foxall, W.; Tabrez, A. R.; Mellors, R. J.; Templeton, D. C.; Akerley, J.


    Crustal permeability can be strongly influenced by developing connected networks of open fractures. However, the detailed evolution of a fracture network, its extent, and the persistence of fracture porosity are difficult to analyze. Even in fault-hosted geothermal systems, where heat is brought to the surface from depth along a fault, hydrothermal flow is heterogeneously distributed. This is presumably due to variations in fracture density, connectivity, and attitude, as well as variations in fracture permeability caused by sealing of fractures by precipitated cements or compaction. At the Brady Geothermal field in Nevada, we test the relationship between the modeled local stress state perturbed by dislocations representing fault slip or volume changes in the geothermal reservoir inferred from surface deformation measured by InSAR and the location of successful geothermal wells, hydrothermal activity, and seismicity. We postulate that permeability is favored in volumes that experience positive Coulomb stress changes and reduced compression, which together promote high densities of dilatant fractures. Conversely, permeability can be inhibited in locations where Coulomb stress is reduced, compression promotes compaction, or where the faults are poorly oriented in the stress field and consequently slip infrequently. Over geologic time scales spanning the development of the fault system, these local stress states are strongly influenced by the geometry of the fault network relative to the remote stress driving slip. At shorter time scales, changes in fluid pressure within the fracture network constituting the reservoir cause elastic dilations and contractions. We integrate: (1) direct observations of stress state and fractures in boreholes and the mapped geometry of the fault network; (2) evidence of permeability from surface hydrothermal features, production/injection wells and surface deformations related to pumping history; and (3) seismicity to test the

  2. a Stochastic Approach to Multiobjective Optimization of Large-Scale Water Reservoir Networks (United States)

    Bottacin-Busolin, A.; Worman, A. L.


    A main challenge for the planning and management of water resources is the development of multiobjective strategies for operation of large-scale water reservoir networks. The optimal sequence of water releases from multiple reservoirs depends on the stochastic variability of correlated hydrologic inflows and on various processes that affect water demand and energy prices. Although several methods have been suggested, large-scale optimization problems arising in water resources management are still plagued by the high dimensional state space and by the stochastic nature of the hydrologic inflows. In this work, the optimization of reservoir operation is approached using approximate dynamic programming (ADP) with policy iteration and function approximators. The method is based on an off-line learning process in which operating policies are evaluated for a number of stochastic inflow scenarios, and the resulting value functions are used to design new, improved policies until convergence is attained. A case study is presented of a multi-reservoir system in the Dalälven River, Sweden, which includes 13 interconnected reservoirs and 36 power stations. Depending on the late spring and summer peak discharges, the lowlands adjacent to Dalälven can often be flooded during the summer period, and the presence of stagnating floodwater during the hottest months of the year is the cause of a large proliferation of mosquitos, which is a major problem for the people living in the surroundings. Chemical pesticides are currently being used as a preventive countermeasure, which do not provide an effective solution to the problem and have adverse environmental impacts. In this study, ADP was used to analyze the feasibility of alternative operating policies for reducing the flood risk at a reasonable economic cost for the hydropower companies. To this end, mid-term operating policies were derived by combining flood risk reduction with hydropower production objectives. The performance

  3. Fault Zone Architecture and Mineralogy: Implications in Fluid Flow and Permeability in Crustal Scale Fault Zones in the Southern Andes. (United States)

    Roquer, T.; Terrón, E.; Perez-Flores, P.; Arancibia, G.; Cembrano, J. M.


    Fluid flow in the upper crust is controlled by the permeability and interconnection of fractures in the fault zones. The permeability within the fault zone is determined by its activity, architecture and, in particular, by the mineralogy of the core and the damage zone. Whereas the permeability structure of a fault zone can be defined by the volume proportion of the core with respect to the damage zone, the relationship between the mineralogy and permeability along fault zones still remains obscure. This work examines structural and mineralogical data to show the relationship between the mineral composition of the fault zone with its permeability in the Liquiñe-Ofqui Fault System (LOFS) and the Arc-oblique Long-lived Fault Systems (ALFS), Southern Chile. The LOFS is an active ca. 1200 km long strike-slip Cenozoic intra-arc structure that strikes NNE in its master traces and NE in its subsidiary traces, with dextral and dextral-normal movement mostly developed in the last 6 My. Although the LOFS and the ALFS cross-cut each other, the ALFS is an apparently older basement fault system where seismic and field evidences record sinistral, sinistral-normal and sinistral-reverse movements. One 22-m-long NE transect was mapped orthogonal to a segment of the ALFS, where host rocks are Miocene andesitic rocks. Structural and XRD sampling were conducted in the core and damage zone. Structural mapping shows a multiple core, NW-striking fault zone with foliated gouge and an asymmetric damage zone, where the hanging wall has significantly higher mesoscopic fracture density than the footwall. The hanging wall is characterized by NW-striking, steeply dipping veins. Preliminary XRD results indicate the presence of homogenously distributed Ca-rich zeolite (mainly laumontite) in the core and the veins of the damage zone, which could indicate that the core acted as a conduit for low-temperature (ca. 220°C) fluids.

  4. Scale-up of miscible flood processes for heterogeneous reservoirs. 1993 annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orr, F.M. Jr.


    Progress is reported for a comprehensive investigation of the scaling behavior of gas injection processes in heterogeneous reservoirs. The interplay of phase behavior, viscous fingering, gravity segregation, capillary imbibition and drainage, and reservoir heterogeneity is examined in a series of simulations and experiments. Compositional and first-contact miscable simulations of viscous fingering and gravity segregation are compared to show that the two techniques can give very different results. Also, analyzed are two-dimensional and three-dimensional flows in which gravity segregation and viscous fingering interact. The simulations show that 2D and 3D flows can differ significantly. A comparison of analytical solutions for three-component two-phase flow with experimental results for oil/water/alcohol systems is reported. While the experiments and theory show reasonable agreement, some differences remain to be explained. The scaling behavior of the interaction of gravity segregation and capillary forces is investigated through simulations and through scaling arguments based on analysis of the differential equations. The simulations show that standard approaches do not agree well with results of low IFT displacements. The scaling analyses, however, reveal flow regimes where capillary, gravity, or viscous forces dominate the flow.

  5. 2009 fault tolerance for extreme-scale computing workshop, Albuquerque, NM - March 19-20, 2009.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katz, D. S.; Daly, J.; DeBardeleben, N.; Elnozahy, M.; Kramer, B.; Lathrop, S.; Nystrom, N.; Milfeld, K.; Sanielevici, S.; Scott, S.; Votta, L.; Louisiana State Univ.; Center for Exceptional Computing; LANL; IBM; Univ. of Illinois; Shodor Foundation; Pittsburgh Supercomputer Center; Texas Advanced Computing Center; ORNL; Sun Microsystems


    This is a report on the third in a series of petascale workshops co-sponsored by Blue Waters and TeraGrid to address challenges and opportunities for making effective use of emerging extreme-scale computing. This workshop was held to discuss fault tolerance on large systems for running large, possibly long-running applications. The main point of the workshop was to have systems people, middleware people (including fault-tolerance experts), and applications people talk about the issues and figure out what needs to be done, mostly at the middleware and application levels, to run such applications on the emerging petascale systems, without having faults cause large numbers of application failures. The workshop found that there is considerable interest in fault tolerance, resilience, and reliability of high-performance computing (HPC) systems in general, at all levels of HPC. The only way to recover from faults is through the use of some redundancy, either in space or in time. Redundancy in time, in the form of writing checkpoints to disk and restarting at the most recent checkpoint after a fault that cause an application to crash/halt, is the most common tool used in applications today, but there are questions about how long this can continue to be a good solution as systems and memories grow faster than I/O bandwidth to disk. There is interest in both modifications to this, such as checkpoints to memory, partial checkpoints, and message logging, and alternative ideas, such as in-memory recovery using residues. We believe that systematic exploration of these ideas holds the most promise for the scientific applications community. Fault tolerance has been an issue of discussion in the HPC community for at least the past 10 years; but much like other issues, the community has managed to put off addressing it during this period. There is a growing recognition that as systems continue to grow to petascale and beyond, the field is approaching the point where we don

  6. Grain scale observations of stick-slip dynamics in fluid saturated granular fault gouge (United States)

    Johnson, P. A.; Dorostkar, O.; Guyer, R. A.; Marone, C.; Carmeliet, J.


    We are studying granular mechanics during slip. In the present work, we conduct coupled computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and discrete element method (DEM) simulations to study grain scale characteristics of slip instabilities in fluid saturated granular fault gouge. The granular sample is confined with constant normal load (10 MPa), and sheared with constant velocity (0.6 mm/s). This loading configuration is chosen to promote stick-slip dynamics, based on a phase-space study. Fluid is introduced in the beginning of stick phase and characteristics of slip events i.e. macroscopic friction coefficient, kinetic energy and layer thickness are monitored. At the grain scale, we monitor particle coordination number, fluid-particle interaction forces as well as particle and fluid kinetic energy. Our observations show that presence of fluids in a drained granular fault gouge stabilizes the layer in the stick phase and increases the recurrence time. In saturated model, we observe that average particle coordination number reaches higher values compared to dry granular gouge. Upon slip, we observe that a larger portion of the granular sample is mobilized in saturated gouge compared to dry system. We also observe that regions with high particle kinetic energy are correlated with zones of high fluid motion. Our observations highlight that spatiotemporal profile of fluid dynamic pressure affects the characteristics of slip instabilities, increasing macroscopic friction coefficient drop, kinetic energy release and granular layer compaction. We show that numerical simulations help characterize the micromechanics of fault mechanics.

  7. Bearing Fault Detection Using Multi-Scale Fractal Dimensions Based on Morphological Covers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei-Lin Zhang


    Full Text Available Vibration signals acquired from bearing have been found to demonstrate complicated nonlinear characteristics in literature. Fractal geometry theory has provided effective tools such as fractal dimension for characterizing the vibration signals in bearing faults detection. However, most of the natural signals are not critical self-similar fractals; the assumption of a constant fractal dimension at all scales may not be true. Motivated by this fact, this work explores the application of the multi-scale fractal dimensions (MFDs based on morphological cover (MC technique for bearing fault diagnosis. Vibration signals from bearing with seven different states under four operations conditions are collected to validate the presented MFDs based on MC technique. Experimental results reveal that the vibration signals acquired from bearing are not critical self-similar fractals. The MFDs can provide more discriminative information about the signals than the single global fractal dimension. Furthermore, three classifiers are employed to evaluate and compare the classification performance of the MFDs with other feature extraction methods. Experimental results demonstrate the MFDs to be a desirable approach to improve the performance of bearing fault diagnosis.

  8. Low-frequency scaling applied to stochastic finite-fault modeling (United States)

    Crane, Stephen; Motazedian, Dariush


    Stochastic finite-fault modeling is an important tool for simulating moderate to large earthquakes. It has proven to be useful in applications that require a reliable estimation of ground motions, mostly in the spectral frequency range of 1 to 10 Hz, which is the range of most interest to engineers. However, since there can be little resemblance between the low-frequency spectra of large and small earthquakes, this portion can be difficult to simulate using stochastic finite-fault techniques. This paper introduces two different methods to scale low-frequency spectra for stochastic finite-fault modeling. One method multiplies the subfault source spectrum by an empirical function. This function has three parameters to scale the low-frequency spectra: the level of scaling and the start and end frequencies of the taper. This empirical function adjusts the earthquake spectra only between the desired frequencies, conserving seismic moment in the simulated spectra. The other method is an empirical low-frequency coefficient that is added to the subfault corner frequency. This new parameter changes the ratio between high and low frequencies. For each simulation, the entire earthquake spectra is adjusted, which may result in the seismic moment not being conserved for a simulated earthquake. These low-frequency scaling methods were used to reproduce recorded earthquake spectra from several earthquakes recorded in the Pacific Earthquake Engineering Research Center (PEER) Next Generation Attenuation Models (NGA) database. There were two methods of determining the stochastic parameters of best fit for each earthquake: a general residual analysis and an earthquake-specific residual analysis. Both methods resulted in comparable values for stress drop and the low-frequency scaling parameters; however, the earthquake-specific residual analysis obtained a more accurate distribution of the averaged residuals.

  9. Assessing the influence of small-scale tectonic faults on mining coal deposits with minimum losses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verescagin, G.V.; Grigor' ev, V.E.


    The paper proposes a calculation value, K/SUB/g, for quantitatively assessing the degree of disturbances in a coal working field. The value indicates the relation of the combined extent of faults in individual mine sections to the total surface of this section. The value allows the degree of disturbances between mining blocks to be compared; it is also proportional to reserve losses after mining these sections. The formulae can also be used to calculate coal reserve losses in safety pillars. The economic limit for mining coal field sections is K/SUB/g values higher than 200 to 300 m/ha. These coal sections should not be mined as coal production costs exceed the economic value of the coal. An objective prognosis for expected coal reserve losses due to small-scale tectonic faults can be made with the described method.

  10. Innovation-driven efficient development of the Longwangmiao Fm large-scale sulfur gas reservoir in Moxi block, Sichuan Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinhua Ma


    Full Text Available The Lower Cambrian Longwangmiao Fm gas reservoir in Moxi block of the Anyue Gas field, Sichuan Basin, is the largest single-sandbody integrated carbonate gas reservoir proved so far in China. Notwithstanding this reservoir's advantages like large-scale reserves and high single-well productivity, there are multiple complicated factors restricting its efficient development, such as a median content of hydrogen sulfide, low porosity and strong heterogeneity of fracture–cave formation, various modes of gas–water occurrences, and close relation between overpressure and stress sensitivity. Up till now, since only a few Cambrian large-scale carbonate gas reservoirs have ever been developed in the world, there still exists some blind spots especially about its exploration and production rules. Besides, as for large-scale sulfur gas reservoirs, the exploration and construction is costly, and production test in the early evaluation stage is severely limited, all of which will bring about great challenges in productivity construction and high potential risks. In this regard, combining with Chinese strategic demand of strengthening clean energy supply security, the PetroChina Southwest Oil & Gas Field Company has carried out researches and field tests for the purpose of providing high-production wells, optimizing development design, rapidly constructing high-quality productivity and upgrading HSE security in the Longwangmiao Fm gas reservoir in Moxi block. Through the innovations of technology and management mode within 3 years, this gas reservoir has been built into a modern large-scale gas field with high quality, high efficiency and high benefit, and its annual capacity is now up to over 100 × 108 m3, with a desirable production capacity and development indexes gained as originally anticipated. It has become a new model of large-scale gas reservoirs with efficient development, providing a reference for other types of gas reservoirs in China.

  11. Metal fluxing in a large-scale intra-arc fault: insights from the Liquiñe-Ofqui Fault System (LOFS) and associated geothermal fields in southern Chile (United States)

    Tardani, D.; Reich, M.; Sano, Y.; Takahata, N.; Wen, H.; Roulleau, E.; Sanchez-Alfaro, P.; González-Jiménez, J. M.; Shinohara, H.; Yang, T. F.; Cembrano, J. M.; Arancibia, G.


    In compressional and extensional settings, high-enthalpy geothermal systems and epithermal vein deposits are genetically linked to shallow magmatic reservoirs, overlying hydrothermal circulation cells, and structural meshes that permit vertical migration of fluids. In the Andean Cordillera of Central-Southern Chile, the nature of the relationship between tectonics and volcanism is the result of interaction between the crustal structures and the regional stress field. Between 37° and 46°S, the volcanic and geothermal activity is controlled by the NNE-trending, 1,200 km long LOFS, an intra-arc dextral strike-slip fault system, associated with second-order intra-arc anisotropies of overall NE-SW and NW-SE orientation. Although there is consensus that volcanism in this segment are controlled by the regional scale tectonic stress field, the structural controls on magma degassing and metal fluxing remains poorly constrained. The goal of the study is to constrain the first-order controls on fluxes of noble metals (Au, Ag, PGEs), base metals (Cu, Zn, Pb) and metalloids (As, Sb, Se) along this segment. For this purpose we collected fumarole and thermal water samples from five selected volcanic-geothermal systems along the northern termination of the LOFS. The selected areas are characterized by the occurrence of surface manifestations and are located along NNE-oriented or NWN-oriented fault systems. In each location, the trace metal budget and isotopic composition of fumaroles and springs were constrained along with cations, anions and dissolved gaseous species. The helium isotopic ratios of fumaroles, defined as R/Ra, range between 3.5 and 7.5 in the studied segment. High R/Ra, mantle-like signatures are associated with geothermal manifestations occurring along NNE-trending faults, whereas lower R/Ra values in NWN-oriented systems most likely represent mixing between mantle and crustal sources. Concentrations of Au, Cu and As are significant in selected geothermal wells

  12. Field- to nano-scale evidence for weakening mechanisms along the fault of the 2016 Amatrice and Norcia earthquakes, Italy (United States)

    Smeraglia, Luca; Billi, Andrea; Carminati, Eugenio; Cavallo, Andrea; Doglioni, Carlo


    In August and October 2016, two normal fault earthquakes (Mw 6.0 and Mw 6.5, respectively) struck the Amatrice-Norcia area in the central Apennines, Italy. The mainshocks nucleated at depths of 7-9 km with the co-seismic slip propagating upward along the Mt. Gorzano Fault (MGF) and Mt. Vettore Fault System (MVFS). To recognize possible weakening mechanisms along the carbonate-hosted seismogenic faults that generated the Amatrice-Norcia earthquakes, the fresh co-seismic fault exposure (i.e., "nastrino") exposed along the Mt. Vettoretto Fault was sampled and analyzed. This exposed fault belongs to the MVFS and was exhumed from 2-3 km depth. Over the fresh fault surface, phyllosilicates concentrated and localized along mm- to μm-thick layers, and truncated clasts and fluid-like structures were found. At the nano-scale, instead of their common platy-lamellar crystallographic texture, the analyzed phyllosilicates consist of welded nm-thick nanospherules and nanotubes similar to phyllosilicates deformed in rotary shear apparatus at seismic velocities or altered under high hydrothermal temperatures (> 250 °C). Moreover, the attitude of the Mt. Vettoretto Fault and its kinematics inferred from exposed slickenlines are consistent with the co-seismic fault and slip vectors obtained from the focal mechanisms computed for the 2016 mainshocks. All these pieces of evidence suggest that the Mt. Vettoretto Fault slipped seismically during past earthquakes and that co-seismic slip was assisted and facilitated at depths of synoptic picture of co-seismic processes and weakening mechanisms that may occur in carbonate-hosted seismogenic faults.

  13. Recovery enhancement at the later stage of supercritical condensate gas reservoir development via CO2 injection: A case study on Lian 4 fault block in the Fushan sag, Beibuwan Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenyan Feng


    Full Text Available Lian 4 fault block is located in the northwest of Fushan sag, Beibuwan Basin. It is a high-saturated condensate gas reservoir with rich condensate oil held by three faults. In order to seek an enhanced condensate oil recovery technology that is suitable for this condensate gas reservoir at its later development stage, it is necessary to analyze its reserve producing degree and remaining development potential after depletion production, depending on the supercritical fluid phase behavior and depletion production performance characteristics. The supercritical fluid theories and multiple reservoir engineering dynamic analysis methods were adopted comprehensively, such as dynamic reserves, production decline, liquid-carrying capacity of a production well, and remaining development potential analysis. It is shown that, at its early development stage, the condensate in Lian 4 fault block presented the features of supercritical fluid, and the reservoir pressure was lower than the dew point pressure, so retrograde condensate loss was significant. Owing to the retrograde condensate effect and the fast release of elastic energy, the reserve producing degree of depletion production is low in Lian 4 fault block, and 80% of condensate oil still remains in the reservoir. So, the remaining development potential is great. The supercritical condensate in Lian 4 fault block is of high density. Based on the optimization design by numerical simulation of compositional model, it is proposed to inject CO2 at the top and build up pressure by alternating production and injection, so that the secondary gas cap is formed while the gravity-stable miscible displacement is realized. In this way, the recovery factor of condensate reservoirs can be improved by means of the secondary development technology.

  14. Fault detection and isolation for a full-scale railway vehicle suspension with multiple Kalman filters (United States)

    Jesussek, Mathias; Ellermann, Katrin


    Reliability and dependability in complex mechanical systems can be improved by fault detection and isolation (FDI) methods. These techniques are key elements for maintenance on demand, which could decrease service cost and time significantly. This paper addresses FDI for a railway vehicle: the mechanical model is described as a multibody system, which is excited randomly due to track irregularities. Various parameters, like masses, spring- and damper-characteristics, influence the dynamics of the vehicle. Often, the exact values of the parameters are unknown and might even change over time. Some of these changes are considered critical with respect to the operation of the system and they require immediate maintenance. The aim of this work is to detect faults in the suspension system of the vehicle. A Kalman filter is used in order to estimate the states. To detect and isolate faults the detection error is minimised with multiple Kalman filters. A full-scale train model with nonlinear wheel/rail contact serves as an example for the described techniques. Numerical results for different test cases are presented. The analysis shows that for the given system it is possible not only to detect a failure of the suspension system from the system's dynamic response, but also to distinguish clearly between different possible causes for the changes in the dynamical behaviour.

  15. The Pore-scale modeling of multiphase flows in reservoir rocks using the lattice Boltzmann method (United States)

    Mu, Y.; Baldwin, C. H.; Toelke, J.; Grader, A.


    Digital rock physics (DRP) is a new technology to compute the physical and fluid flow properties of reservoir rocks. In this approach, pore scale images of the porous rock are obtained and processed to create highly accurate 3D digital rock sample, and then the rock properties are evaluated by advanced numerical methods at the pore scale. Ingrain's DRP technology is a breakthrough for oil and gas companies that need large volumes of accurate results faster than the current special core analysis (SCAL) laboratories can normally deliver. In this work, we compute the multiphase fluid flow properties of 3D digital rocks using D3Q19 immiscible LBM with two relaxation times (TRT). For efficient implementation on GPU, we improved and reformulated color-gradient model proposed by Gunstensen and Rothmann. Furthermore, we only use one-lattice with the sparse data structure: only allocate memory for pore nodes on GPU. We achieved more than 100 million fluid lattice updates per second (MFLUPS) for two-phase LBM on single Fermi-GPU and high parallel efficiency on Multi-GPUs. We present and discuss our simulation results of important two-phase fluid flow properties, such as capillary pressure and relative permeabilities. We also investigate the effects of resolution and wettability on multiphase flows. Comparison of direct measurement results with the LBM-based simulations shows practical ability of DRP to predict two-phase flow properties of reservoir rock.

  16. Multi-scale approach in numerical reservoir simulation; Uma abordagem multiescala na simulacao numerica de reservatorios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guedes, Solange da Silva


    Advances in petroleum reservoir descriptions have provided an amount of data that can not be handled directly during numerical simulations. This detailed geological information must be incorporated into a coarser model during multiphase fluid flow simulations by means of some upscaling technique. the most used approach is the pseudo relative permeabilities and the more widely used is the Kyte and Berry method (1975). In this work, it is proposed a multi-scale computational model for multiphase flow that implicitly treats the upscaling without using pseudo functions. By solving a sequence of local problems on subdomains of the refined scale it is possible to achieve results with a coarser grid without expensive computations of a fine grid model. The main advantage of this new procedure is to treat the upscaling step implicitly in the solution process, overcoming some practical difficulties related the use of traditional pseudo functions. results of bidimensional two phase flow simulations considering homogeneous porous media are presented. Some examples compare the results of this approach and the commercial upscaling program PSEUDO, a module of the reservoir simulation software ECLIPSE. (author)

  17. Considering the potential effect of faulting on regional-scale groundwater flow: an illustrative example from Australia's Great Artesian Basin (United States)

    Smerdon, Brian D.; Turnadge, Chris


    Hydraulic head measurements in the Great Artesian Basin (GAB), Australia, began in the early 20th century, and despite subsequent decades of data collection, a well-accepted smoothed potentiometric surface has continually assumed a contiguous aquifer system. Numerical modeling was used to produce alternative potentiometric surfaces for the Cadna-owie-Hooray aquifers with and without the effect of major faults. Where a fault created a vertical offset between the aquifers and was juxtaposed with an aquitard, it was assumed to act as a lateral barrier to flow. Results demonstrate notable differences in the central portion of the study area between potentiometric surfaces including faults and those without faults. Explicitly considering faults results in a 25-50 m difference where faults are perpendicular to the regional flow path, compared to disregarding faults. These potential barriers create semi-isolated compartments where lateral groundwater flow may be diminished or absent. Groundwater management in the GAB relies on maintaining certain hydraulic head conditions and, hence, a potentiometric surface. The presence of faulting has two implications for management: (1) a change in the inferred hydraulic heads (and associated fluxes) at the boundaries of regulatory jurisdictions; and (2) assessment of large-scale extractions occurring at different locations within the GAB.

  18. Regional-scale comparison of the effects of lakes and reservoirs versus streams on water quality (United States)

    Schmadel, N. M.; Harvey, J. W.; Alexander, R. B.; Schwarz, G. E.; Moore, R. B.; Gomez-Velez, J. D.; Scott, D.; Boyer, E. W.


    Recent physically-based modeling at regional scales has revealed that the potential for biogeochemical transformations of nitrogen—such as denitrification—along a fluvial network may be dominated by hyporheic exchange. However, fluvial networks are comprised of a mosaic of water body types from headwaters to coasts, each potentially playing a different role in water quality. For example, depending on conditions, streams or ponded waters (lakes, reservoirs) may disproportionately act as biogeochemical hotspots. Because downstream water quality reflects an accumulation or blending of processes, it is not clear how ponded waters that vary in number and location across a network influence downstream water quality. Here, we quantified the effects of ponded waters along fluvial networks on the fate of nitrogen in the Northeastern and Mid-Atlantic regions of the United States. We used a spatially referenced model calibrated to land use and water quality data and considered both the number and location of ponded waters across the regions. We experimentally modeled the replacement of nearly 30,000 ponded waters with streams using corresponding estimates of hydraulic geometry and nitrogen removal, thereby providing a direct comparison of the role of ponded waters versus the role of streams with regard to nitrogen removal. We found that pond size, density (total pond area to drainage area), and position within a network were all important factors. These findings complement field measurements and reach-scale modeling by upscaling to reveal cumulative effects. This regional-scale modeling of ponded waters is useful toward developing better strategies for prioritizing creation of new reservoirs or removal of dams, or informing stream restoration at ecologically-relevant scales. This research is a product of the John Wesley Powell Center River Corridor Working Group.

  19. Reactive Transport Modeling and Geophysical Monitoring of Bioclogging at Reservoir Scale (United States)

    Surasani, V.; Commer, M.; Ajo Franklin, J. B.; Li, L.; Hubbard, S. S.


    In Microbial-Enhanced-Hydrocarbon-Recovery (MEHR), preferential bioclogging targets the growth of the biofilms (def. immobilized biopolymers with active cells embodied in it) in highly permeable thief zones to enhance sweep efficiency in oil reservoirs. During MEHR, understanding and controlling bioclogging is hindered by the lack of advanced modeling and monitoring tools; these deficiencies contribute to suboptimal performance. Our focus in this study was on developing a systematic approach to understand and monitor bioclogging at the reservoir scale using a combination of reactive transport modeling and geophysical imaging tools (EM & seismic). In this study, we created a realistic reservoir model from a heterogeneous gas reservoir in the Southern Sacramento basin, California; the model well (Citizen Green #1) was characterized using sonic, electrical, nuclear, and NMR logs for hydrologic and geophysical properties. From the simplified 2D log data model, a strip of size 150m x75m with several high permeability streaks is identified for bioclogging simulation experiments. From the NMR log data it is observed that a good linear correlation exist between logarithmic permeability (0.55- 3.34 log (mD)) versus porosity (0.041-0.28). L. mesenteroides was chosen as the model bacteria. In the presence of sucrose, it enzymatically catalyzes the production of dextran, a useful bioclogging agent. Using microbial kinetics from our laboratory experiment and reservoir heterogeneity, a reactive transport model (RTM) is established for two kinds of bioclogging treatments based on whether microbes are present in situ or are supplied externally. In both cases, sucrose media (1.5 M) is injected at the rate of 1 liter/s for 20 days into the center of high permeable strip to stimulate microbes. Simulations show that the high dextran production was deep into the formation from the injection well. This phenomenon can be explained precisely with bacterial kinetics and injection rate. In

  20. Modelling earthquake location errors at a reservoir scale: a case study in the Upper Rhine Graben (United States)

    Kinnaert, X.; Gaucher, E.; Achauer, U.; Kohl, T.


    Earthquake absolute location errors which can be encountered in an underground reservoir are investigated. In such an exploitation context, earthquake hypocentre errors can have an impact on the field development and economic consequences. The approach using the state-of-the-art techniques covers both the location uncertainty and the location inaccuracy—or bias—problematics. It consists, first, in creating a 3-D synthetic seismic cloud of events in the reservoir and calculating the seismic traveltimes to a monitoring network assuming certain propagation conditions. In a second phase, the earthquakes are relocated with assumptions different from the initial conditions. Finally, the initial and relocated hypocentres are compared. As a result, location errors driven by the seismic onset time picking uncertainties and inaccuracies are quantified in 3-D. Effects induced by erroneous assumptions associated with the velocity model are also modelled. In particular, 1-D velocity model uncertainties, a local 3-D perturbation of the velocity and a 3-D geostructural model are considered. The present approach is applied to the site of Rittershoffen (Alsace, France), which is one of the deep geothermal fields existing in the Upper Rhine Graben. This example allows setting realistic scenarios based on the knowledge of the site. In that case, the zone of interest, monitored by an existing seismic network, ranges between 1 and 5 km depth in a radius of 2 km around a geothermal well. Well log data provided a reference 1-D velocity model used for the synthetic earthquake relocation. The 3-D analysis highlights the role played by the seismic network coverage and the velocity model in the amplitude and orientation of the location uncertainties and inaccuracies at subsurface levels. The location errors are neither isotropic nor aleatoric in the zone of interest. This suggests that although location inaccuracies may be smaller than location uncertainties, both quantities can have a

  1. The compressed state Kalman filter for nonlinear state estimation: Application to large-scale reservoir monitoring (United States)

    Li, Judith Yue; Kokkinaki, Amalia; Ghorbanidehno, Hojat; Darve, Eric F.; Kitanidis, Peter K.


    Reservoir monitoring aims to provide snapshots of reservoir conditions and their uncertainties to assist operation management and risk analysis. These snapshots may contain millions of state variables, e.g., pressures and saturations, which can be estimated by assimilating data in real time using the Kalman filter (KF). However, the KF has a computational cost that scales quadratically with the number of unknowns, m, due to the cost of computing and storing the covariance and Jacobian matrices, along with their products. The compressed state Kalman filter (CSKF) adapts the KF for solving large-scale monitoring problems. The CSKF uses N preselected orthogonal bases to compute an accurate rank-N approximation of the covariance that is close to the optimal spectral approximation given by SVD. The CSKF has a computational cost that scales linearly in m and uses an efficient matrix-free approach that propagates uncertainties using N + 1 forward model evaluations, where N≪m. Here we present a generalized CSKF algorithm for nonlinear state estimation problems such as CO2 monitoring. For simultaneous estimation of multiple types of state variables, the algorithm allows selecting bases that represent the variability of each state type. Through synthetic numerical experiments of CO2 monitoring, we show that the CSKF can reproduce the Kalman gain accurately even for large compression ratios (m/N). For a given computational cost, the CSKF uses a robust and flexible compression scheme that gives more reliable uncertainty estimates than the ensemble Kalman filter, which may display loss of ensemble variability leading to suboptimal uncertainty estimates.

  2. Laboratory and computational investigation of dynamics and permeability evolution in clay-smear type fault zones

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heege, J.H. ter; Wassing, B.B.T.; Orlic, B.; Colenell, M.B.; Giger, S.B.; Ciftici, N.B.; Ricchetti, M.; Clark, P.; Harbers, C.


    Practical application of fault seal analysis for reducing risk in hydrocarbon exploration and CO2 storage, and for predicting the dynamics of reservoirs under stress, requires that both small and large scale processes within and around fault zones are understood and that structural evolution is

  3. Multi-scale electromagnetic imaging of the Monte Aquila Fault (Agri Valley, Southern Italy) (United States)

    Giocoli, Alessandro; Piscitelli, Sabatino; Romano, Gerardo; Balasco, Marianna; Lapenna, Vincenzo; Siniscalchi, Agata


    The Agri Valley is a NW-SE trending intermontane basin formed during the Quaternary times along the axial zone of the Southern Apennines thrust belt chain. This basin is about 30 Km long and 12 Km wide and is filled by Quaternary continental deposits, which cover down-thrown pre-Quaternary rocks of the Apennines chain. The Agri Valley was hit by the M 7.0, 1857 Basilicata earthquake (Branno et al., 1985), whose macroseismic field covered a wide sector of the Southern Apennines chain. The latest indications of Late Quaternary faulting processes in Agri Valley were reported in Maschio et al., (2005), which documented a unknown NE-dipping normal fault thanks to the finding of small-scale morphological features of recent tectonic activity. The identified structure was termed Monte Aquila Fault (MAF) and corresponds to the southern strand of the NW-SE trending Monti della Maddalena Fault System (Maschio et al., 2005; Burrato and Valensise, 2007). The NE-dipping MAF consists of a main northern segment, about 10 Km long, and two smaller segments with cumulate length of ~10 Km, thus bringing the total length to ~20 Km. The three segments are arranged in a right-stepping en-echelon pattern and are characterized by subtle geomorphic features. In order to provide more detailed and accurate information about the MAF, a strategy based on the application of complementary investigation tools was employed. In particular, multi-scale electromagnetic investigation, including Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT), Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) and Magnetotelluric (MT) methods, was used to image the MAF from near-surface to several hundred metres depth. Large-scale MT investigation proved to be useful in detecting the MAF location down to several hundred meters depth, but it didn't show any shallow evidence about MAF. Conversely, ERT and GPR surveys evidenced signatures of normal-faulting activity at shallow depth (e.g., back-tilting of the bedrock, colluvial wedges, etc.). In

  4. Validation of meter-scale surface faulting offset measurements from high-resolution topographic data (United States)

    Salisbury, Barrett; Haddad, D.E.; Rockwell, T.K.; Arrowsmith, R.; Madugo, C.; Zielke, O.; Scharer, Katherine M.


    Studies of active fault zones have flourished with the availability of high-resolution topographic data, particularly where airborne light detection and ranging (lidar) and structure from motion (SfM) data sets provide a means to remotely analyze submeter-scale fault geomorphology. To determine surface offset at a point along a strike-slip earthquake rupture, geomorphic features (e.g., stream channels) are measured days to centuries after the event. Analysis of these and cumulatively offset features produces offset distributions for successive earthquakes that are used to understand earthquake rupture behavior. As researchers expand studies to more varied terrain types, climates, and vegetation regimes, there is an increasing need to standardize and uniformly validate measurements of tectonically displaced geomorphic features. A recently compiled catalog of nearly 5000 earthquake offsets across a range of measurement and reporting styles provides insight into quality rating and uncertainty trends from which we formulate best-practice and reporting recommendations for remote studies. In addition, a series of public and beginner-level studies validate the remote methodology for a number of tools and emphasize considerations to enhance measurement accuracy and precision for beginners and professionals. Our investigation revealed that (1) standardizing remote measurement methods and reporting quality rating schemes is essential for the utility and repeatability of fault-offset measurements; (2) measurement discrepancies often involve misinterpretation of the offset geomorphic feature and are a function of the investigator’s experience; (3) comparison of measurements made by a single investigator in different climatic regions reveals systematic differences in measurement uncertainties attributable to variation in feature preservation; (4) measuring more components of a displaced geomorphic landform produces more consistently repeatable estimates of offset; and (5

  5. Validation of meter-scale surface faulting offset measurements from high-resolution topographic data

    KAUST Repository

    Salisbury, J. Barrett


    Studies of active fault zones have flourished with the availability of high-resolution topographic data, particularly where airborne light detection and ranging (lidar) and structure from motion (SfM) data sets provide a means to remotely analyze submeter- scale fault geomorphology. To determine surface offset at a point along a strike-slip earthquake rupture, geomorphic features (e.g., stream channels) are measured days to centuries after the event. Analysis of these and cumulatively offset features produces offset distributions for successive earthquakes that are used to understand earthquake rupture behavior. As researchers expand studies to more varied terrain types, climates, and vegetation regimes, there is an increasing need to standardize and uniformly validate measurements of tectonically displaced geomorphic features. A recently compiled catalog of nearly 5000 earthquake offsets across a range of measurement and reporting styles provides insight into quality rating and uncertainty trends from which we formulate best-practice and reporting recommendations for remote studies. In addition, a series of public and beginner-level studies validate the remote methodology for a number of tools and emphasize considerations to enhance measurement accuracy and precision for beginners and professionals. Our investigation revealed that (1) standardizing remote measurement methods and reporting quality rating schemes is essential for the utility and repeatability of fault-offset measurements; (2) measurement discrepancies often involve misinterpretation of the offset geomorphic feature and are a function of the investigator\\'s experience; (3) comparison of measurements made by a single investigator in different climatic regions reveals systematic differences in measurement uncertainties attributable to variation in feature preservation; (4) measuring more components of a displaced geomorphic landform produces more consistently repeatable estimates of offset; and (5

  6. Dating Tectonic Activity on Mercury’s Large-Scale Lobate-Scarp Thrust Faults (United States)

    Barlow, Nadine G.; E Banks, Maria


    Mercury’s widespread large-scale lobate-scarp thrust faults reveal that the planet’s tectonic history has been dominated by global contraction, primarily due to cooling of its interior. Constraining the timing and duration of this contraction provides key insight into Mercury’s thermal and geologic evolution. We combine two techniques to enhance the statistical validity of size-frequency distribution crater analyses and constrain timing of the 1) earliest and 2) most recent detectable activity on several of Mercury’s largest lobate-scarp thrust faults. We use the sizes of craters directly transected by or superposed on the edge of the scarp face to define a count area around the scarp, a method we call the Modified Buffered Crater Counting Technique (MBCCT). We developed the MBCCT to avoid the issue of a near-zero scarp width since feature widths are included in area calculations of the commonly used Buffered Crater Counting Technique (BCCT). Since only craters directly intersecting the scarp face edge conclusively show evidence of crosscutting relations, we increase the number of craters in our analysis (and reduce uncertainties) by using the morphologic degradation state (i.e. relative age) of these intersecting craters to classify other similarly degraded craters within the count area (i.e., those with the same relative age) as superposing or transected. The resulting crater counts are divided into two categories: transected craters constrain the earliest possible activity and superposed craters constrain the most recent detectable activity. Absolute ages are computed for each population using the Marchi et al. [2009] model production function. A test of the Blossom lobate scarp indicates the MBCCT gives statistically equivalent results to the BCCT. We find that all scarps in this study crosscut surfaces Tolstojan or older in age (>~3.7 Ga). The most recent detectable activity along lobate-scarp thrust faults ranges from Calorian to Kuiperian (~3.7 Ga to

  7. Adaptive Neural Networks Decentralized FTC Design for Nonstrict-Feedback Nonlinear Interconnected Large-Scale Systems Against Actuator Faults. (United States)

    Li, Yongming; Tong, Shaocheng

    The problem of active fault-tolerant control (FTC) is investigated for the large-scale nonlinear systems in nonstrict-feedback form. The nonstrict-feedback nonlinear systems considered in this paper consist of unstructured uncertainties, unmeasured states, unknown interconnected terms, and actuator faults (e.g., bias fault and gain fault). A state observer is designed to solve the unmeasurable state problem. Neural networks (NNs) are used to identify the unknown lumped nonlinear functions so that the problems of unstructured uncertainties and unknown interconnected terms can be solved. By combining the adaptive backstepping design principle with the combination Nussbaum gain function property, a novel NN adaptive output-feedback FTC approach is developed. The proposed FTC controller can guarantee that all signals in all subsystems are bounded, and the tracking errors for each subsystem converge to a small neighborhood of zero. Finally, numerical results of practical examples are presented to further demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed control strategy.The problem of active fault-tolerant control (FTC) is investigated for the large-scale nonlinear systems in nonstrict-feedback form. The nonstrict-feedback nonlinear systems considered in this paper consist of unstructured uncertainties, unmeasured states, unknown interconnected terms, and actuator faults (e.g., bias fault and gain fault). A state observer is designed to solve the unmeasurable state problem. Neural networks (NNs) are used to identify the unknown lumped nonlinear functions so that the problems of unstructured uncertainties and unknown interconnected terms can be solved. By combining the adaptive backstepping design principle with the combination Nussbaum gain function property, a novel NN adaptive output-feedback FTC approach is developed. The proposed FTC controller can guarantee that all signals in all subsystems are bounded, and the tracking errors for each subsystem converge to a small

  8. The use of outcrop data in fault prediction analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steen, Oeystein


    This thesis begins by describing deformation structures formed by gravitational sliding in partially lithified sediments by studying the spatial variation in frequency of deformation structures, as well as their geometries and kinematics, the sequential development of an ancient slide is outlined. This study brings to light a complex deformation history which was associated with block gliding, involving folding, listric faulting, small-scale boudinage and clastic dyke injection. The collapse deformation which is documented in the basal part of a gliding sheet is described for the first time. Further, rift-related normal faults formed in a continental sequence of normal beds are described and there is a focus on the scaling behaviour of faults in variably cemented sandstones. It is shown that the displacement population coefficients of faults are influenced by the local lithology and hence scaling of faults is not uniform on all scales and is variable in different parts of a rock volume. The scaling behaviour of small faults is linked to mechanical heterogeneities in the rock and to the deformation style. It is shown that small faults occur in an aureole around larger faults. Strain and scaling of the small faults were measured in different structural positions relative to the major faults. The local strain field is found to be variable and can be correlated with drag folding along the master faults. A modeling approach is presented for prediction of small faults in a hydrocarbon reservoir. By modeling an outcrop bedding surface on a seismic workstation, outcrop data could be compared with seismic data. Further, well data were used to test the relationships inferred from the analogue outcrops. The study shows that seismic ductile strain can be correlated with the distribution of small faults. Moreover, the use of horizontal structural well data is shown to calibrate the structural interpretation of faulted seismic horizons. 133 refs., 64 figs., 3 tabs.

  9. Microseismic Monitoring of Stimulating Shale Gas Reservoir in SW China: 2. Spatial Clustering Controlled by the Preexisting Faults and Fractures (United States)

    Chen, Haichao; Meng, Xiaobo; Niu, Fenglin; Tang, Youcai; Yin, Chen; Wu, Furong


    Microseismic monitoring is crucial to improving stimulation efficiency of hydraulic fracturing treatment, as well as to mitigating potential induced seismic hazard. We applied an improved matching and locating technique to the downhole microseismic data set during one treatment stage along a horizontal well within the Weiyuan shale gas play inside Sichuan Basin in SW China, resulting in 3,052 well-located microseismic events. We employed this expanded catalog to investigate the spatiotemporal evolution of the microseismicity in order to constrain migration of the injected fluids and the associated dynamic processes. The microseismicity is generally characterized by two distinctly different clusters, both of which are highly correlated with the injection activity spatially and temporarily. The distant and well-confined cluster (cluster A) is featured by relatively large-magnitude events, with 40 events of M -1 or greater, whereas the cluster in the immediate vicinity of the wellbore (cluster B) includes two apparent lineations of seismicity with a NE-SW trending, consistent with the predominant orientation of natural fractures. We calculated the b-value and D-value, an index of fracture complexity, and found significant differences between the two seismicity clusters. Particularly, the distant cluster showed an extremely low b-value ( 0.47) and D-value ( 1.35). We speculate that the distant cluster is triggered by reactivation of a preexisting critically stressed fault, whereas the two lineations are induced by shear failures of optimally oriented natural fractures associated with fluid diffusion. In both cases, the spatially clustered microseismicity related to hydraulic stimulation is strongly controlled by the preexisting faults and fractures.

  10. Microfluidic very large-scale integration for biochips: Technology, testing and fault-tolerant design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Araci, Ismail Emre; Pop, Paul; Chakrabarty, Krishnendu


    of this paper is on continuous-flow biochips, where the basic building block is a microvalve. By combining these microvalves, more complex units such as mixers, switches, multiplexers can be built, hence the name of the technology, “microfluidic Very Large-Scale Integration” (mVLSI). A roadblock......Microfluidic biochips are replacing the conventional biochemical analyzers by integrating all the necessary functions for biochemical analysis using microfluidics. Biochips are used in many application areas, such as, in vitro diagnostics, drug discovery, biotech and ecology. The focus...... presents the state-of-the-art in the mVLSI platforms and emerging research challenges in the area of continuous-flow microfluidics, focusing on testing techniques and fault-tolerant design....

  11. Mineral Reactions in Shale Gas Reservoirs: Barite Scale Formation from Reusing Produced Water As Hydraulic Fracturing Fluid. (United States)

    Paukert Vankeuren, Amelia N; Hakala, J Alexandra; Jarvis, Karl; Moore, Johnathan E


    Hydraulic fracturing for gas production is now ubiquitous in shale plays, but relatively little is known about shale-hydraulic fracturing fluid (HFF) reactions within the reservoir. To investigate reactions during the shut-in period of hydraulic fracturing, experiments were conducted flowing different HFFs through fractured Marcellus shale cores at reservoir temperature and pressure (66 °C, 20 MPa) for one week. Results indicate HFFs with hydrochloric acid cause substantial dissolution of carbonate minerals, as expected, increasing effective fracture volume (fracture volume + near-fracture matrix porosity) by 56-65%. HFFs with reused produced water composition cause precipitation of secondary minerals, particularly barite, decreasing effective fracture volume by 1-3%. Barite precipitation occurs despite the presence of antiscalants in experiments with and without shale contact and is driven in part by addition of dissolved sulfate from the decomposition of persulfate breakers in HFF at reservoir conditions. The overall effect of mineral changes on the reservoir has yet to be quantified, but the significant amount of barite scale formed by HFFs with reused produced water composition could reduce effective fracture volume. Further study is required to extrapolate experimental results to reservoir-scale and to explore the effect that mineral changes from HFF interaction with shale might have on gas production.

  12. Geomechanical effects on CO2 leakage through fault zones during large-scale underground injection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rinaldi, Antonio P. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Rutqvist, Jonny [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Cappa, Frédéric [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Univ. of Nice Sophia-Antipolis, Nice (France). Cote d' Azur Observatory. GeoAzur


    The importance of geomechanics—including the potential for faults to reactivate during large-scale geologic carbon sequestration operations—has recently become more widely recognized. However, notwithstanding the potential for triggering notable (felt) seismic events, the potential for buoyancy-driven CO2 to reach potable groundwater and the ground surface is actually more important from public safety and storage-efficiency perspectives. In this context, this paper extends the previous studies on the geomechanical modeling of fault responses during underground carbon dioxide injection, focusing on the short-term integrity of the sealing caprock, and hence on the potential for leakage of either brine or CO2 to reach the shallow groundwater aquifers during active injection. We consider stress/strain-dependent permeability and study the leakage through the fault zone as its permeability changes during a reactivation, also causing seismicity. We analyze several scenarios related to the volume of CO2 injected (and hence as a function of the overpressure), involving both minor and major faults, and analyze the profile risks of leakage for different stress/strain-permeability coupling functions. We conclude that whereas it is very difficult to predict how much fault permeability could change upon reactivation, this process can have a significant impact on the leakage rate. Moreover, our analysis shows that induced seismicity associated with fault reactivation may not necessarily open up a new flow path for leakage. Results show a poor correlation between magnitude and amount of fluid leakage, meaning that a single event is generally not enough to substantially change the permeability along the entire fault length. Finally, and consequently, even if some changes in permeability occur, this does not mean that the CO2 will migrate up along the entire fault, breaking through the caprock to enter the overlying aquifer.

  13. Fault mechanics at the base of the continental seismogenic zone: Insights from geochemical and mechanical analyses of a crustal-scale transpressional fault from the Argentera crystalline massif, French-Italian Alps (United States)

    Leclère, Henri; Lacroix, Brice; Fabbri, Olivier


    Faulting mechanics is examined by combining geochemical and mechanical analyses from a key exposure of a major fault zone crossing the Argentera crystalline massif (French-Italian Alps). The analyses are carried out on co-genetic and syn-tectonic quartz and chlorite extension veins and shear veins associated with late stage deformation in the fault zone. Paleothermometry based on chlorite compositions gives formation temperatures of 300 °C ± 20 °C, that is near the base of the seismogenic zone. δ18O values of quartz and δD and δ18O values of chlorite indicate that veins crystallized from a metamorphic fluid. In parallel, a mechanical analysis based on the Mohr-Coulomb theory shows that the pore fluid factor λv required to simultaneously reactivate the studied fault and to open the extension veins was close to a lithostatic value (λv ˜ 1). Comparisons with the 2003-2004 Ubaye seismic swarm, having occurred in the continuity of the studied fault zone, suggest that the base of the seismogenic zone may act as a limit separating an upper permeable reservoir saturated with meteoric waters under hydrostatic to supra-hydrostatic pressures from a lower low-permeability reservoir containing metamorphic waters under lithostatic pressure. This study suggests that overpressured fluids can be released upwards in the brittle crust by shear-enhanced permeability and can trigger earthquakes.

  14. Analysis of fault rupture potential resulting from large-scale groundwater withdrawal: application to Spring Valley, Nevada (United States)

    Anderson, B. J.; Schumer, R.; McCoy, S. W.; Hammond, W. C.


    Hydrospheric mass changes create subsurface stress perturbations on a scale that can trigger seismic events or accelerate frequency of seismicity on proximal faults. For example, groundwater pumping has been implicated in the 2011 Mw 5.1 earthquake in Lorca, Spain and the 2010 Mw 7.1 El-Mayor Cucapah earthquake in northern Baja California. Previous work on effects of pumping on seismicity is retrospective. We propose a method to assess changes in rupture potential on faults near areas of large-scale groundwater withdrawal ahead before pumping begins. Changes in potentiometric head due to pumping predicted by (MODFLOW) groundwater flow models can be used as the change in surface load input for analytical solutions from Boussinesq [1885] to resolve changes in the subsurface state of stress. Coulomb stress, which quantifies a fault's tendency toward failure, is then resolved on proximal faults. These stress changes can be compared with a 10 kPa stress threshold developed in previous work from statistical correlation of aftershock occurrence with spatial patterns of post-seismic Coulomb stress change on surrounding faults. Stress changes on critical to near-critically stressed faults above the threshold represent a higher likelihood of seismic rupture. The method is applied to a proposed groundwater development project in Spring Valley, Nevada. Proposed pumping in excess of 50 years will result in stress change on the proximal normal fault exceeding the 10 kPa threshold. This change in Coulomb stress is in the realm of earthquake-inducing pumping. However, the low seismic hazard in the region determined from geodetic and paleo-seismic analysis does not suggest imminent rupture.

  15. Full Scale Earth Fault Experiments on 10 kV laboratory network with comparative Measurements on Conventional CT's and VT's

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Stefan; Nielsen, Hans Ove; Bak-Jensen, Birgitte


    In this paper we present a result of a full scale earth fault carried out on the 10 kV research/laboratory distribution network at Kyndbyvaerket Denmark in May 2001. The network is compensated through a Petersen-Coil and current and voltage measurements were measured on conventional current...

  16. Multi-scale reservoir modeling as an integrated assessment tool for geo-sequestration in the San Juan Basin (United States)

    Young, G.; Haerer, D.; Bromhal, G.; Reeves, S.


    The Southwestern Regional Partnership on CO2 Sequestration conducted an Enhanced Coalbed Methane (ECBM)/Carbon Storage Pilot in the San Juan Basin as part of the ongoing DOE/NETL Carbon Capture and Storage Program. The primary goal of this pilot is to demonstrate the efficacy of using CO2 to enhance coalbed methane recovery particularly near reservoir abandonment pressure while also evaluating the suitability of coal seams for longer-term carbon storage. Basic geologic models of the coal seams were developed from well logs in the area. Production histories from several surrounding CBM wells were shown. To monitor the injection of up to 75,000 ton of CO2 beginning September 2007, seismic surveys and tiltmeter arrays were utilized. Larger-scale geo-hydrodynamic simulations were used to develop a regional model for the fluid dynamics of the northern San Juan Basin. Smaller-scale reservoir simulations, incorporating available laboratory and field data, were used to develop an improved understanding of reservoir dynamics within the specific 640-acre pilot area. Both modeling scales were critical to assessing the suitability of deploying commercial carbon storage programs throughout the basin. Reservoir characterization results on the optimization of total CO2 injection volume, injection rate over time, and how CO2 is expected to disperse after injection are presented. This is an abstract of a paper presented at the 2007 AIChE Annual Meeting (Salt Lake City, UT 11/4-9/2007).

  17. Model-Based Control and Optimization of Large Scale Physical Systems - Challenges in Reservoir Engineering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van den Hof, P.M.J.; Jansen, J.D.; Van Essen, G.M.; Bosgra, O.H.


    Due to urgent needs to increase efficiency in oil recovery from subsurface reservoirs new technology is developed that allows more detailed sensing and actuation of multiphase flow properties in oil reservoirs. One of the examples is the controlled injection of water through injection wells with the

  18. Pore-scale mechanisms of gas flow in tight sand reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silin, D.; Kneafsey, T.J.; Ajo-Franklin, J.B.; Nico, P.


    Tight gas sands are unconventional hydrocarbon energy resource storing large volume of natural gas. Microscopy and 3D imaging of reservoir samples at different scales and resolutions provide insights into the coaredo not significantly smaller in size than conventional sandstones, the extremely dense grain packing makes the pore space tortuous, and the porosity is small. In some cases the inter-granular void space is presented by micron-scale slits, whose geometry requires imaging at submicron resolutions. Maximal Inscribed Spheres computations simulate different scenarios of capillary-equilibrium two-phase fluid displacement. For tight sands, the simulations predict an unusually low wetting fluid saturation threshold, at which the non-wetting phase becomes disconnected. Flow simulations in combination with Maximal Inscribed Spheres computations evaluate relative permeability curves. The computations show that at the threshold saturation, when the nonwetting fluid becomes disconnected, the flow of both fluids is practically blocked. The nonwetting phase is immobile due to the disconnectedness, while the permeability to the wetting phase remains essentially equal to zero due to the pore space geometry. This observation explains the Permeability Jail, which was defined earlier by others. The gas is trapped by capillarity, and the brine is immobile due to the dynamic effects. At the same time, in drainage, simulations predict that the mobility of at least one of the fluids is greater than zero at all saturations. A pore-scale model of gas condensate dropout predicts the rate to be proportional to the scalar product of the fluid velocity and pressure gradient. The narrowest constriction in the flow path is subject to the highest rate of condensation. The pore-scale model naturally upscales to the Panfilov's Darcy-scale model, which implies that the condensate dropout rate is proportional to the pressure gradient squared. Pressure gradient is the greatest near the

  19. Scaling properties reveal regulation of river flows in the Amazon through a forest reservoir (United States)

    Salazar, Juan Fernando; Villegas, Juan Camilo; María Rendón, Angela; Rodríguez, Estiven; Hoyos, Isabel; Mercado-Bettín, Daniel; Poveda, Germán


    Many natural and social phenomena depend on river flow regimes that are being altered by global change. Understanding the mechanisms behind such alterations is crucial for predicting river flow regimes in a changing environment. Here we introduce a novel physical interpretation of the scaling properties of river flows and show that it leads to a parsimonious characterization of the flow regime of any river basin. This allows river basins to be classified as regulated or unregulated, and to identify a critical threshold between these states. We applied this framework to the Amazon river basin and found both states among its main tributaries. Then we introduce the forest reservoir hypothesis to describe the natural capacity of river basins to regulate river flows through land-atmosphere interactions (mainly precipitation recycling) that depend strongly on the presence of forests. A critical implication is that forest loss can force the Amazonian river basins from regulated to unregulated states. Our results provide theoretical and applied foundations for predicting hydrological impacts of global change, including the detection of early-warning signals for critical transitions in river basins.

  20. Prediction of tectonic stresses and fracture networks with geomechanical reservoir models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henk, A.; Fischer, K. [TU Darmstadt (Germany). Inst. fuer Angewandte Geowissenschaften


    This project evaluates the potential of geomechanical Finite Element (FE) models for the prediction of in situ stresses and fracture networks in faulted reservoirs. Modeling focuses on spatial variations of the in situ stress distribution resulting from faults and contrasts in mechanical rock properties. In a first methodological part, a workflow is developed for building such geomechanical reservoir models and calibrating them to field data. In the second part, this workflow was applied successfully to an intensively faulted gas reservoir in the North German Basin. A truly field-scale geomechanical model covering more than 400km{sup 2} was built and calibrated. It includes a mechanical stratigraphy as well as a network of 86 faults. The latter are implemented as distinct planes of weakness and allow the fault-specific evaluation of shear and normal stresses. A so-called static model describes the recent state of the reservoir and, thus, after calibration its results reveal the present-day in situ stress distribution. Further geodynamic modeling work considers the major stages in the tectonic history of the reservoir and provides insights in the paleo stress distribution. These results are compared to fracture data and hydraulic fault behavior observed today. The outcome of this project confirms the potential of geomechanical FE models for robust stress and fracture predictions. The workflow is generally applicable and can be used for modeling of any stress-sensitive reservoir.

  1. Prediction of tectonic stresses and fracture networks with geomechanical reservoir models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henk, A.; Fischer, K.


    This project evaluates the potential of geomechanical Finite Element (FE) models for the prediction of in situ stresses and fracture networks in faulted reservoirs. Modeling focuses on spatial variations of the in situ stress distribution resulting from faults and contrasts in mechanical rock properties. In a first methodological part, a workflow is developed for building such geomechanical reservoir models and calibrating them to field data. In the second part, this workflow was applied successfully to an intensively faulted gas reservoir in the North German Basin. A truly field-scale geomechanical model covering more than 400km 2 was built and calibrated. It includes a mechanical stratigraphy as well as a network of 86 faults. The latter are implemented as distinct planes of weakness and allow the fault-specific evaluation of shear and normal stresses. A so-called static model describes the recent state of the reservoir and, thus, after calibration its results reveal the present-day in situ stress distribution. Further geodynamic modeling work considers the major stages in the tectonic history of the reservoir and provides insights in the paleo stress distribution. These results are compared to fracture data and hydraulic fault behavior observed today. The outcome of this project confirms the potential of geomechanical FE models for robust stress and fracture predictions. The workflow is generally applicable and can be used for modeling of any stress-sensitive reservoir.

  2. Marine and fluvial facies modelling at petroleum reservoir scale; Modelisation des heterogeneites lithologiques a l'echelle du reservoir petrolier en milieu marin et fluviatile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leflon, B.


    When modelling a petroleum reservoir, well data are very useful to model properties at a sub-seismic scale. Petrophysical properties like porosity or permeability are linked to the rock-type. Two methods based on well data have been developed to model facies. The first one is used to model marine carbonates deposits. The geometry of sedimentary layers is modelled through a special parameterization of the reservoir similar to Wheeler space. The time parameter is defined along the well paths thanks to correlations. The layer thickness is then extrapolated between wells. A given relationship between facies and bathymetry of sedimentation makes it possible to compute bathymetry along the well paths. Bathymetry is then extrapolated from wells and a reference map using the concept of accommodation. The model created this way is stratigraphically consistent. Facies simulation can then be constrained by the computed bathymetry. The second method describes a novel approach to fluvial reservoirs modelling. The core of the method lies in the association of a fairway with the channels to be simulated. Fairways are positioned so that all data are taken in account; they can be stochastic if unknown or explicitly entered if identified on seismic data. A potential field is defined within the fairway. Specifying a transfer function to map this potential field to thickness results in generating a channel inside the fairway. A residual component is stochastically simulated and added to the potential field creating realistic channel geometries. Conditioning to well data is obtained by applying the inverse transfer function at the data location to derive thickness values that will constrain the simulation of residuals. (author)

  3. Numerical study of sediment and137Cs discharge out of reservoirs during various scale rainfall events. (United States)

    Kurikami, Hiroshi; Funaki, Hironori; Malins, Alex; Kitamura, Akihiro; Onishi, Yasuo


    Contamination of reservoirs with radiocesium is one of the main concerns in Fukushima Prefecture, Japan. We performed simulations using the three-dimensional finite volume code FLESCOT to understand sediment and radiocesium transport in generic models of reservoirs with parameters similar to those in Fukushima Prefecture. The simulations model turbulent water flows, transport of sediments with different grain sizes, and radiocesium migration both in dissolved and particulate forms. To demonstrate the validity of the modeling approach for the Fukushima environment, we performed a test simulation of the Ogaki Dam reservoir over Typhoon Man-yi in September 2013 and compared the results with field measurements. We simulated a set of generic model reservoirs systematically varying features such as flood intensity, reservoir volume and the radiocesium distribution coefficient. The results ascertain how these features affect the amount of sediment or 137 Cs discharge downstream from the reservoirs, and the forms in which 137 Cs is discharged. Silt carries the majority of the radiocesium in the larger flood events, while the clay-sorbed followed by dissolved forms are dominant in smaller events. The results can be used to derive indicative values of discharges from Fukushima reservoirs under arbitrary flood events. For example the generic model simulations indicate that about 30% of radiocesium that entered the Ogaki Dam reservoir over the flood in September 2015 caused by Typhoon Etau discharged downstream. Continued monitoring and numerical predictions are necessary to quantify future radiocesium migration in Fukushima Prefecture and evaluate possible countermeasures since reservoirs can be a sink of radiocesium. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Geological analysis of paleozoic large-scale faulting in the south-central Pyrenees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Speksnijder, A.


    Detailed structural and sedimentological analysis reveals the existence of an east-west directed fundamental fault zone in the south-central Pyrenees, which has been intermittently active from (at least) the Devonian on. Emphasis is laid on the stUdy of fault-bounded post-Variscan (StephanoPermian)

  5. Geological analysis of paleozoic large-scale faulting in the south-central Pyrenees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Speksnijder, A.


    Detailed structural and sedimentological analysis reveals the existence of an east-west directed fundamental fault zone in the south-central Pyrenees, which has been intermittently active from (at least) the Devonian on. Emphasis is laid on the stUdy of fault-bounded post-Variscan

  6. Millennial-scale variability in the local radiocarbon reservoir age of south Florida during the Holocene (United States)

    Toth, Lauren T.; Cheng, Hai; Edwards, R. Lawrence; Ashe, Erica; Richey, Julie N.


    A growing body of research suggests that the marine environments of south Florida provide a critical link between the tropical and high-latitude Atlantic. Changes in the characteristics of water masses off south Florida may therefore have important implications for our understanding of climatic and oceanographic variability over a broad spatial scale; however, the sources of variability within this oceanic corridor remain poorly understood. Measurements of ΔR, the local offset of the radiocarbon reservoir age, from shallow-water marine environments can serve as a powerful tracer of water-mass sources that can be used to reconstruct variability in local-to regional-scale oceanography and hydrology. We combined radiocarbon and U-series measurements of Holocene-aged corals from the shallow-water environments of the Florida Keys reef tract (FKRT) with robust statistical modeling to quantify the millennial-scale variability in ΔR at locations with (“nearshore”) and without (“open ocean”) substantial terrestrial influence. Our reconstructions demonstrate that there was significant spatial and temporal variability in ΔR on the FKRT during the Holocene. Whereas ΔR was similar throughout the region after ∼4000 years ago, nearshore ΔR was significantly higher than in the open ocean during the middle Holocene. We suggest that the elevated nearshore ΔR from ∼8000 to 5000 years ago was most likely the result of greater groundwater influence associated with lower sea level at this time. In the open ocean, which would have been isolated from the influence of groundwater, ΔR was lowest ∼7000 years ago, and was highest ∼3000 years ago. We evaluated our open-ocean model of ΔR variability against records of local-to regional-scale oceanography and conclude that local upwelling was not a significant driver of open-ocean radiocarbon variability in this region. Instead, the millennial-scale trends in open-ocean ΔR were more likely a result of broader-scale

  7. Evaporation suppression from water reservoirs using floating covers: Lab scale observations and model predictions (United States)

    Or, D.; Lehmann, P.; Aminzadeh, M.; Sommer, M.; Wey, H.; Wunderli, H.; Breitenstein, D.


    The competition over dwindling fresh water resources is expected to intensify with projected increase in human population in arid regions, expansion of irrigated land and changes in climate and drought patterns. The volume of water stored in reservoirs would also increase to mitigate seasonal shortages due to rainfall variability and to meet irrigation water needs. By some estimates up to half of the stored water is lost to evaporation thereby exacerbating the water scarcity problem. Recently, there is an upsurge in the use of self-assembling floating covers to suppress evaporation, yet the design, and implementation remain largely empirical. Studies have shown that evaporation suppression is highly nonlinear, as also known from a century of research on gas exchange from plant leaves (that often evaporate as free water surfaces through stomata that are only 1% of leaf area). We report a systematic evaluation of different cover types and external drivers (radiation, wind, wind+radiation) on evaporation suppression and energy balance of a 1.4 m2 basin placed in a wind-tunnel. Surprisingly, evaporation suppression by black and white floating covers (balls and plates) were similar despite significantly different energy balance regimes over the cover surfaces. Moreover, the evaporation suppression efficiency was a simple function of the uncovered area (square root of the uncovered fraction) with linear relations with the covered area in some cases. The thermally decoupled floating covers offer an efficient solution to the evaporation suppression with limited influence of the surface energy balance (water temperature for black and white covers was similar and remained nearly constant). The results will be linked with a predictive evaporation-energy balance model and issues of spatial scales and long exposure times will be studied.

  8. Length-Displacement Scaling of Lunar Thrust Faults and the Formation of Uphill-Facing Scarps (United States)

    Hiesinger, Harald; Roggon, Lars; Hetzel, Ralf; Clark, Jaclyn D.; Hampel, Andrea; van der Bogert, Carolyn H.


    Lobate scarps are straight to curvilinear positive-relief landforms that occur on all terrestrial bodies [e.g., 1-3]. They are the surface manifestation of thrust faults that cut through and offset the upper part of the crust. Fault scarps on planetary surfaces provide the opportunity to study the growth of faults under a wide range of environmental conditions (e.g., gravity, temperature, pore pressure) [4]. We studied four lunar thrust-fault scarps (Simpelius-1, Morozov (S1), Fowler, Racah X-1) ranging in length from 1.3 km to 15.4 km [5] and found that their maximum total displacements are linearly correlated with length over one order of magnitude. We propose that during the progressive accumulation of slip, lunar faults propagate laterally and increase in length. On the basis of our measurements, the ratio of maximum displacement, D, to fault length, L, ranges from 0.017 to 0.028 with a mean value of 0.023 (or 2.3%). This is an order of magnitude higher than the value of 0.1% derived by theoretical considerations [4], and about twice as large as the value of 0.012-0.013 estimated by [6,7]. Our results, in addition to recently published findings for other lunar scarps [2,8], indicate that the D/L ratios of lunar thrust faults are similar to those of faults on Mercury and Mars (e.g., 1, 9-11], and almost as high as the average D/L ratio of 3% for faults on Earth [16,23]. Three of the investigated thrust fault scarps (Simpelius-1, Morozov (S1), Fowler) are uphill-facing scarps generated by slip on faults that dip in the same direction as the local topography. Thrust faults with such a geometry are common ( 60% of 97 studied scarps) on the Moon [e.g., 2,5,7]. To test our hypothesis that the surface topography plays an important role in the formation of uphill-facing fault scarps by controlling the vertical load on a fault plane, we simulated thrust faulting and its relation to topography with two-dimensional finite-element models using the commercial code ABAQUS

  9. Strike-slip fault Kinematics and mechanics at the seismic cycle time-scale : Results from new analogue model experiments. (United States)

    Caniven, Yannick; Dominguez, Stéphane; Soliva, Roger; Cattin, Rodolphe; Peyret, Michel; Chéry, Jean; Romano, Christian


    The average seismic cycle duration extends from hundred to a few thousands years but geodetic measurements, including trilateration, GPS, Insar and seismological data extend over less than one century. This short time observation scale renders difficult, then, to constrain the role of key parameters such as fault friction and geometry, crust rheology, stress and strain rate that control the kinematics and mechanics of active faults. To solve this time scale issue, we have developed a new experimental set-up that reproduces scaled micro-earthquakes and several hundreds of seismic cycles along a strike-slip fault. The model is constituted by two polyurethane foam plates laterally in contact, lying on a basal silicone layer, which simulate the mechanical behaviour of an elastoplastic upper crust over a ductile lower crust, respectively. To simulate the boundary conditions of a strike-slip fault, a computerized motoreductor system moves the two compartments on an opposite sens and at a constant very low velocity (a few µm/s). The model spatial and temporal scaling, deduces from analog material physical and mechanical parameters, implies that 1 cm in the model represents 2-3 km in the nature and 1 s is equivalent to 5-15 years. Surface-horizontal strain field is quantified by sub-pixel correlation of digital camera pictures recorded every 16 µm of displacement. For each experience about 2000 horizontal-velocity field measurements are recorded. The analysis of model-interseismic and coseismic surface displacements and their comparison to seismogenic natural faults demonstrate that our analog model reproduces correctly both near and far-field surface strains. To compare the experiences, we have developed several algorithms that allow studying the main spatial and temporal evolution of the physical parameters and surface deformation processes that characterise the seismic cycle (magnitudes, stress, strain, friction coefficients, interseismic locking depth, recurrence

  10. Fault permeability models for geothermal doublet designs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heege, J.H. ter


    The occurrence and properties of natural faults and fractures in geothermal reservoirs are key in determining reservoir flow properties, and thereby the performance of geothermal doublets placed in fractured reservoirs or in the vicinity of fault zones. In this paper, an analytical model is

  11. Distribution and decontamination of radioactive cesium in small-scale agricultural reservoirs of Fukushima Prefecture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okumura, Hiroshi; Yamamoto, Atsushi; Inagaki, Masayo; Yamanishi, Hirokuni; Itoh, Tetsuo


    The authors studied optimal methods against the Cs contamination of agricultural reservoirs outside the evacuation zones, which had been contaminated by the accident of Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station. As a result of measurements at three points of a small reservoir, the highest radioactivity value was 16.8 Bq/g, with a higher value at bank part and bottom mud. The possibility is considered that the bank part held an organic layer with accumulated Cs, and the bottom mud had litters and clay soil that adsorbed Ce. The distribution of Cs was fluctuated depending on the environment of reservoirs, with the effects of the influx of sediment, influx of litters, and landform of catchment areas. In the 'Technical manual on measures against radioactive materials at reservoirs,' published by the Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries, three decontamination methods for reservoirs have been taken up: (1) removal of mud, (2) fixation of bottom mud, and (3) improvement of water intake method. The method (1) and (2) alone cannot cope with re-contamination from water catchment areas. As a countermeasure for recontamination after decontamination, it is good to install a headrace channel, slope, retaining part, etc. at the pond bottom, to increase the efficiency of the recollection and immobilization of Ce. The felling of neighboring trees, litter collection in peripheral areas, and covering measures for the surface layer in the vicinity are essential. (A.O.)

  12. Research on Fault Characteristics and Line Protections Within a Large-scale Photovoltaic Power Plant (United States)

    Zhang, Chi; Zeng, Jie; Zhao, Wei; Zhong, Guobin; Xu, Qi; Luo, Pandian; Gu, Chenjie; Liu, Bohan


    Centralized photovoltaic (PV) systems have different fault characteristics from distributed PV systems due to the different system structures and controls. This makes the fault analysis and protection methods used in distribution networks with distributed PV not suitable for a centralized PV power plant. Therefore, a consolidated expression for the fault current within a PV power plant under different controls was calculated considering the fault response of the PV array. Then, supported by the fault current analysis and the on-site testing data, the overcurrent relay (OCR) performance was evaluated in the collection system of an 850 MW PV power plant. It reveals that the OCRs at downstream side on overhead lines may malfunction. In this case, a new relay scheme was proposed using directional distance elements. In the PSCAD/EMTDC, a detailed PV system model was built and verified using the on-site testing data. Simulation results indicate that the proposed relay scheme could effectively solve the problems under variant fault scenarios and PV plant output levels.

  13. Gear fault diagnosis under variable conditions with intrinsic time-scale decomposition-singular value decomposition and support vector machine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xing, Zhanqiang; Qu, Jianfeng; Chai, Yi; Tang, Qiu; Zhou, Yuming [Chongqing University, Chongqing (China)


    The gear vibration signal is nonlinear and non-stationary, gear fault diagnosis under variable conditions has always been unsatisfactory. To solve this problem, an intelligent fault diagnosis method based on Intrinsic time-scale decomposition (ITD)-Singular value decomposition (SVD) and Support vector machine (SVM) is proposed in this paper. The ITD method is adopted to decompose the vibration signal of gearbox into several Proper rotation components (PRCs). Subsequently, the singular value decomposition is proposed to obtain the singular value vectors of the proper rotation components and improve the robustness of feature extraction under variable conditions. Finally, the Support vector machine is applied to classify the fault type of gear. According to the experimental results, the performance of ITD-SVD exceeds those of the time-frequency analysis methods with EMD and WPT combined with SVD for feature extraction, and the classifier of SVM outperforms those for K-nearest neighbors (K-NN) and Back propagation (BP). Moreover, the proposed approach can accurately diagnose and identify different fault types of gear under variable conditions.

  14. Perfluorinated substance assessment in sediments of a large-scale reservoir in Danjiangkou, China. (United States)

    He, Xiaomin; Li, Aimin; Wang, Shengyao; Chen, Hao; Yang, Zixin


    The occurrence of eight perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) in the surface sediments from 10 sampling sites spread across the Danjiangkou Reservoir was investigated by isotope dilution ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) after solid-phase extraction (SPE). All the sediments from the 10 sites contained detectable levels of PFCs. The total concentration of the target PFCs in each sediment sample (C ∑PFCs ) ranged from 0.270 to 0.395 ng g -1 of dry weight, and the mean value of C ∑PFCs was 0.324 ± 0.045 ng g -1 of dry weight for the whole reservoir. For each perfluorinated compound in one sediment, perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) or perfluoro-n-butanoic acid (PFBA) consistently had a higher concentration than the other six PFCs, while perfluoro-n-octanoic acid (PFOA) was always undetectable. In terms of spatial distribution, the total and individual concentrations of PFCs in sediment from downstream sites of the Danjiangkou Reservoir were higher than those from upstream sites. Factor analysis revealed that PFCs in the sediment samples originated from electroplating and anti-fog agents in industry, food/pharmaceutical packaging and the water/oil repellent paper coating, and the deposition process. The quotient method was utilized to assess the ecological risk of PFCs in the sediments of the Danjiangkou Reservoir, which showed that the concentrations of PFCs were not considered a risk. In this study, detailed information on the concentration level and distribution of PFCs in the sediments of the Danjiangkou Reservoir, which is the source of water for the Middle Route Project of the South-to-North Water Transfer Scheme in China, was reported and analyzed for the first time. These results can provide valuable information for water resource management and pollution control in the Danjiangkou Reservoir.

  15. Fault zone processes in mechanically layered mudrock and chalk (United States)

    Ferrill, David A.; Evans, Mark A.; McGinnis, Ronald N.; Morris, Alan P.; Smart, Kevin J.; Wigginton, Sarah S.; Gulliver, Kirk D. H.; Lehrmann, Daniel; de Zoeten, Erich; Sickmann, Zach


    A 1.5 km long natural cliff outcrop of nearly horizontal Eagle Ford Formation in south Texas exposes northwest and southeast dipping normal faults with displacements of 0.01-7 m cutting mudrock, chalk, limestone, and volcanic ash. These faults provide analogs for both natural and hydraulically-induced deformation in the productive Eagle Ford Formation - a major unconventional oil and gas reservoir in south Texas, U.S.A. - and other mechanically layered hydrocarbon reservoirs. Fault dips are steep to vertical through chalk and limestone beds, and moderate through mudrock and clay-rich ash, resulting in refracted fault profiles. Steeply dipping fault segments contain rhombohedral calcite veins that cross the fault zone obliquely, parallel to shear segments in mudrock. The vertical dimensions of the calcite veins correspond to the thickness of offset competent beds with which they are contiguous, and the slip parallel dimension is proportional to fault displacement. Failure surface characteristics, including mixed tensile and shear segments, indicate hybrid failure in chalk and limestone, whereas shear failure predominates in mudrock and ash beds - these changes in failure mode contribute to variation in fault dip. Slip on the shear segments caused dilation of the steeper hybrid segments. Tabular sheets of calcite grew by repeated fault slip, dilation, and cementation. Fluid inclusion and stable isotope geochemistry analyses of fault zone cements indicate episodic reactivation at 1.4-4.2 km depths. The results of these analyses document a dramatic bed-scale lithologic control on fault zone architecture that is directly relevant to the development of porosity and permeability anisotropy along faults.

  16. Automated fault extraction and classification using 3-D seismic data for the Ekofisk field development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Signer, C.; Nickel, M.; Randen, T.; Saeter, T.; Soenneland, H.H.


    Mapping of fractures is important for the prediction of fluid flow in many reservoir types. The fluid flow depends mainly on the efficiency of the reservoir seals. Improved spatial mapping of the open and closed fracture systems will allow a better prediction of the fluid flow pattern. The primary objectives of this paper is to present fracture characterization at the reservoir scale combined with seismic facies mapping. The complexity of the giant Ekofisk field on the Norwegian continental shelf provides an ideal framework for testing the validity and the applicability of an automated seismic fault and fracture detection and mapping tool. The mapping of the faults can be based on seismic attribute grids, which means that attribute-responses related to faults are extracted along key horizons which were interpreted in the reservoir interval. 3 refs., 3 figs.

  17. PENDEKATAN MULTI DIMENSIONAL SCALING UNTUK EVALUASI KEBERLANJUTAN WADUK CIRATA - PROPINSI JAWA BARAT (Multidimensional Scaling Approach to Evaluate Sustainability of Cirata Reservoir – West Java Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kholil Kholil


    Full Text Available ABSTRAK Waduk Cirata merupakan salah satu waduk di Indonesia yang memiliki peran sangat besar bagi pembangunan ekonomi, sebagai Pembangkit Listrik Tenaga Air (PLTA. Pertumbuhan Keramba Jaring Apung (KJA dan perkembangan permukiman di sekitar waduk, serta perubahan tataruang di DAS Citarum untuk kegiatan permukiman, industri, pertanian, dan peternakan menyebabkan peningkatan sedimentasi dan penurunan kualitas air waduk, sehingga berpengaruh terhadap kinerja dan keberlajutan waduk. Kajian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui tingkat keberlanjutan waduk dengan menggunakan metode Multidimesional Scaling berdasarkan 5 dimensi yaitu ekologi dan tata ruang, ekonomi, sosial dan budaya, peraturan dan kelembagaan, dan infrastruktur dan teknologi. Hasil analisis MDS menunjukkan bahwa dimensi ekologi dan tataruang, dan peraturan dan kelembagaan kurang berlanjut dengan nilai indeks keberlanjutan masing-masing 45,76 dan 42,24. Sementara untuk dimensi ekonomi, sosial dan budaya, dan infrastruktur dan teknologi memiliki nilai indeks keberlanjutan masing-masing 63,12; 64,42 dan 68,64 yang berarti hanya masuk kategori cukup berlanjut. Atribut yang paling sensitif yang mempengaruhi indeks keberlanjutan ekologi dan tataruang adalah laju sedimentasi, jumlah KJA dan kualitas air waduk. Pada dimensi peraturan dan kelembagaan adalah lemahnya koordinasi, perijinan dan penegakan hukum. Untuk menjamin keberlanjutan kinerja Waduk Cirata perlu dilakukan pengendalian penggunaan lahan di DAS Citarum dan permukiman di sekitar waduk, pengetatan perijinan, dan penegakan hukum. ABSTRACT Cirata reservoir is one of the reservoirs in Indonesia, that plays an important role for economic development as a Hydroelectric Power Plant. The development of settlement around the dam, and land use change of Citarum’s watershed for industrial activities, agriculture, and animal husbandry have increased the erosion, sedimentation and degradation water quality of reservoir. This paper will discuss

  18. Effect of Permeability Anisotropy on the Production of Multi-Scale Shale Gas Reservoirs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting Huang


    Full Text Available Shales or mudstones are fine grained and layered reservoirs, which leads to strong shale permeability anisotropy. Shale has a wide pore-size distribution, and pores with different diameters contribute differently to the apparent permeability of shales. Therefore, understanding the anisotropy of multiscale shale gas reservoirs is an important aspect to model and evaluate gas production from shales. In this paper, a novel model of permeability anisotropy for shale gas reservoirs is presented to calculate the permeability in an arbitrary direction in three dimensional space. A numerical model which is valid for the entire Knudsen’s range (continuum flow, slip flow, transition flow and free molecular flow in shale gas reservoirs was developed, and the effect of gas-water flow and the simulation of hydraulic fracturing cracks were taken into consideration as well. The simulation result of the developed model was validated with field data. Effects of critical factors such as permeability anisotropy, relative permeability curves with different nanopore radii and initial water saturation in formation on the gas production rate of multi-stage fractured horizontal well were discussed. Besides, flow regimes of gas flow in shales were classified by Knudsen number, and the effect of various flow regimes on both apparent permeability of shales and then the gas production has been analyzed thoroughly.

  19. Recent faulting in western Nevada revealed by multi-scale seismic reflection (United States)

    Frary, Roxanna N.; Louie, John N.; Stephenson, William J.; Odum, Jackson K.; Kell, Annie; Eisses, Amy; Kent, Graham M.; Driscoll, Neal W.; Karlin, Robert; Baskin, Robert L.; Pullammanappallil, Satish; Liberty, Lee M.


    The main goal of this study is to compare different reflection methods used to image subsurface structure within different physical environments in western Nevada. With all the methods employed, the primary goal is fault imaging for structural information toward geothermal exploration and seismic hazard estimation. We use seismic CHIRP (a swept-frequency marine acquisition system), weight drop (an accelerated hammer source), and two different vibroseis systems to characterize fault structure. We focused our efforts in the Reno metropolitan area and the area within and surrounding Pyramid Lake in northern Nevada. These different methods have provided valuable constraints on the fault geometry and activity, as well as associated fluid movement. These are critical in evaluating the potential for large earthquakes in these areas, and geothermal exploration possibilities near these structures.

  20. Reservoir-Scale Biological Community Response to Trace Element Additions in a Northern Montana Oil Field (United States)

    Connors, D. E.; Bradfish, J.; DeBruyn, R. P.; Zemetra, J.; Mitchell, H.


    In subsurface oil bearing formations, microbial growth and metabolism is restricted due to a lack of elements other than carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen required for cell structure and as cofactors. A chemical treatment that adds these elements back into the formation was deployed into an oil reservoir in Northern Montana, with the intent of increasing biogenic methane generation. Samples of water from producing wells in the reservoir were collected anaerobically, and analyzed for geochemical content, and cells from the water were collected and analyzed via 16S rRNA gene DNA sequencing to determine the makeup of the microbial community over the course of twelve months of treatment, and for two years after. Prior to chemical treatment, this reservoir was depleted in elements required for enzyme co-factors in the methanogenesis metabolic pathway (Co, Mo, Ni, W, Zn) as well as nitrogen and phosphorus. Most the microbial community was composed of chemoheterotrophic bacteria associated with the biodegradation of large carbon molecules, with a small community of acetoclastic methanogens. During and after additions of the depleted elements, the metabolism of the community in the reservoir shifted towards chemoautotrophs and hydrogenotrophic methanogens, and the cell density increased. After treatment was ended, cell counts stabilized at a new equilibrium concentration, and the autotrophic metabolism was maintained. The pre-treatment community was dependent on energy input from solubilized oil molecules, whereas the post-treatment community more effectively utilized dissolved organics and carbon dioxide as carbon sources for fixation and respiration. This study demonstrates the capability of microbial communities to rapidly reorganize in the environment when provided with an influx of the elements required for growth and metabolism.

  1. Nano-scale experimental investigation of in-situ wettability and spontaneous imbibition in ultra-tight reservoir rocks (United States)

    Akbarabadi, Morteza; Saraji, Soheil; Piri, Mohammad; Georgi, Dan; Delshad, Mohammad


    We investigated spontaneous imbibition behavior, three-dimensional fluid occupancy maps, and in-situ wettability at the nano scale in five ultra-tight and shale reservoir rock samples. For this purpose, we developed a novel technique by integrating a custom-built in-situ miniature fluid-injection module with a non-destructive high-resolution X-ray imaging system. Small cylindrical core samples (15-60 μm in diameter) were prepared from reservoir rocks using Focused-Ion Beam (FIB) milling technique. The pore network inside the samples were first characterized using ultra-high resolution three-dimensional images obtained at initial state by X-ray nano-tomography (Nano-CT) and FIB-Scanning Electron Microscopy (FIB-SEM) techniques at the nano scale. The petrophysical parameters, including porosity, permeability, pore-size distribution, and organic content were computed for each sample using image analysis. We then performed series of imbibition experiments using brine, oil, and surfactant solutions on each core sample. We observed that both oil and brine phases spontaneously imbibe into the pore network of the rock samples at various quantities. We also, for the first time, examined fluid distribution in individual pores and found a complex wettability behavior at the pore scale in the reservoir rock samples. Three pore types were identified with water-wet, oil-wet, and fractionally-wet behaviors. This work opens a new path to developing an improved understanding of the pore-level physics involved in multi-phase flow and transport not only in tight rock samples but also in other nanoporous material used in different science and engineering applications.

  2. A coupled FE and scaled boundary FE-approach for the earthquake response analysis of arch dam-reservoir-foundation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Yi; Lin Gao; Hu Zhiqiang


    For efficient and accurate modelling of arch dam-reservoir-foundation system a coupled Finite Element method (FEM) and Scaled Boundary Finite Element method (SBFEM) is developed. Both the dam-foundation interaction and the dam-reservoir interaction including the effect of reservoir boundary absorption are taken into account. The arch dam is modelled by FEM, while the reservoir domain and the unbounded foundation are modelled by SBFEM. In order to make comparison with the results available in the literature, the Morrow Point arch dam is selected for numerical analysis. The analyses are carried out in the frequency domain, and then the time-domain response of the dam-reservoir-foundation system is obtained by Inverse Fourier Transform.

  3. Physical simulation of gas reservoir formation in the Liwan 3-1 deep-water gas field in the Baiyun sag, Pearl River Mouth Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gang Gao


    Full Text Available To figure out the process and controlling factors of gas reservoir formation in deep-waters, based on an analysis of geological features, source of natural gas and process of reservoir formation in the Liwan 3-1 gas field, physical simulation experiment of the gas reservoir formation process has been performed, consequently, pattern and features of gas reservoir formation in the Baiyun sag has been found out. The results of the experiment show that: ① the formation of the Liwan 3-1 faulted anticline gas field is closely related to the longstanding active large faults, where natural gas is composed of a high proportion of hydrocarbons, a small amount of non-hydrocarbons, and the wet gas generated during highly mature stage shows obvious vertical migration signs; ② liquid hydrocarbons associated with natural gas there are derived from source rock of the Enping & Zhuhai Formation, whereas natural gas comes mainly from source rock of the Enping Formation, and source rock of the Wenchang Formation made a little contribution during the early Eocene period as well; ③ although there was gas migration and accumulation, yet most of the natural gas mainly scattered and dispersed due to the stronger activity of faults in the early period; later as fault activity gradually weakened, gas started to accumulate into reservoirs in the Baiyun sag; ④ there is stronger vertical migration of oil and gas than lateral migration, and the places where fault links effective source rocks with reservoirs are most likely for gas accumulation; ⑤ effective temporal-spatial coupling of source-fault-reservoir in late stage is the key to gas reservoir formation in the Baiyun sag; ⑥ the nearer the distance from a trap to a large-scale fault and hydrocarbon source kitchen, the more likely gas may accumulate in the trap in late stage, therefore gas accumulation efficiency is much lower for the traps which are far away from large-scale faults and hydrocarbon source

  4. Application of ultrasonic as a novel technology for removal of inorganic scales (KCl) in hydrocarbon reservoirs: An experimental approach. (United States)

    Taheri-Shakib, Jaber; Naderi, Hassan; Salimidelshad, Yaser; Kazemzadeh, Ezzatollah; Shekarifard, Ali


    Inorganic scales are one of the most important causes of formation damage, which causes pressure drops near wellbores; these in turn impair permeability and severely reduce production in oil and gas reservoirs. This paper examines the effectiveness of ultrasonic waves in removing potassium chloride (KCl) scales. Twenty core samples with different permeabilities were exposed to KCl precipitation. After measuring the permeabilities of the saturated core samples, the samples were first subjected to water injection, and then to water injection with ultrasonic wave radiation. At each stage, sample permeabilities were measured and recorded. The results showed that water injection with two pore volumes did not significantly improve permeability, especially in low-permeability core samples. Ultrasonic wave radiation with water could efficiently improve permeability; this result is more obvious for samples with lower permeabilities. SEM images taken from thin sections of the core samples under water injection and water with ultrasonic waves showed that ultrasonic waves distorted the crystal lattice of the KCl scales, causing cracking and delamination. Creation of wormholes in KCl deposits within fractures also resulted from the application of ultrasonic waves. Analysis of chlorine in the output water from core samples in the core-flooding process showed that ultrasonic waves increased the solubility of scales in water, improving the recovery of permeability in the samples. Results of this study show that using ultrasonic waves can be considered a novel and practical method in the removal of inorganic scales in the near-wellbore region of oil and gas reservoirs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Characterization of nanometer-scale porosity in reservoir carbonate rock by focused ion beam-scanning electron microscopy. (United States)

    Bera, Bijoyendra; Gunda, Naga Siva Kumar; Mitra, Sushanta K; Vick, Douglas


    Sedimentary carbonate rocks are one of the principal porous structures in natural reservoirs of hydrocarbons such as crude oil and natural gas. Efficient hydrocarbon recovery requires an understanding of the carbonate pore structure, but the nature of sedimentary carbonate rock formation and the toughness of the material make proper analysis difficult. In this study, a novel preparation method was used on a dolomitic carbonate sample, and selected regions were then serially sectioned and imaged by focused ion beam-scanning electron microscopy. The resulting series of images were used to construct detailed three-dimensional representations of the microscopic pore spaces and analyze them quantitatively. We show for the first time the presence of nanometer-scale pores (50-300 nm) inside the solid dolomite matrix. We also show the degree of connectivity of these pores with micron-scale pores (2-5 μm) that were observed to further link with bulk pores outside the matrix.

  6. Reservoir characterization of Pennsylvanian sandstone reservoirs. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelkar, M.


    This final report summarizes the progress during the three years of a project on Reservoir Characterization of Pennsylvanian Sandstone Reservoirs. The report is divided into three sections: (i) reservoir description; (ii) scale-up procedures; (iii) outcrop investigation. The first section describes the methods by which a reservoir can be described in three dimensions. The next step in reservoir description is to scale up reservoir properties for flow simulation. The second section addresses the issue of scale-up of reservoir properties once the spatial descriptions of properties are created. The last section describes the investigation of an outcrop.

  7. Structural controls on fractured coal reservoirs in the southern Appalachian Black Warrior foreland basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Groshong, R.H.; Pashin, J.C.; McIntyre, M.R. [University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL (United States). Dept. of Geological Science


    Coal is a nearly impermeable rock type for which the production of fluids requires the presence of open fractures. Basin-wide controls on the fractured coal reservoirs of the Black Warrior foreland basin are demonstrated by the variability of maximum production rates from coalbed methane wells. Reservoir behavior depends on distance from the thrust front. Far from the thrust front, normal faults are barriers to fluid migration and compartmentalize the reservoirs. Close to the thrust front, rates are enhanced along some normal faults, and a new trend is developed. The two trends have the geometry of conjugate strike-slip faults with the same sigma(1) direction as the Appalachian fold-thrust belt and are inferred to be the result of late pure-shear deformation of the foreland. Face cleat causes significant permeability anisotropy in some shallow coal seams but does not produce a map-scale production trend.

  8. Structural controls on fractured coal reservoirs in the southern Appalachian Black Warrior foreland basin (United States)

    Groshong, Richard H., Jr.; Pashin, Jack C.; McIntyre, Marcella R.


    Coal is a nearly impermeable rock type for which the production of fluids requires the presence of open fractures. Basin-wide controls on the fractured coal reservoirs of the Black Warrior foreland basin are demonstrated by the variability of maximum production rates from coalbed methane wells. Reservoir behavior depends on distance from the thrust front. Far from the thrust front, normal faults are barriers to fluid migration and compartmentalize the reservoirs. Close to the thrust front, rates are enhanced along some normal faults, and a new trend is developed. The two trends have the geometry of conjugate strike-slip faults with the same σ1 direction as the Appalachian fold-thrust belt and are inferred to be the result of late pure-shear deformation of the foreland. Face cleat causes significant permeability anisotropy in some shallow coal seams but does not produce a map-scale production trend.

  9. Characteristic scale of heterogeneity of seismically active fault and its manifestation in scaling of earthquake source spectra (United States)

    Gusev, A. A.


    Previously, similarity of source spectra of Kamchatka earthquakes with respect to the common corner frequency f c1 and the expressed deviations from similarity for the second f c2 and the third f c3 corner frequencies were revealed. The value of f c3 reflects the characteristic size L is of fault surface; correspondingly, L is ≈ v r T is , where v r is the rupture speed and T is ≈ 1/ f c3 is characteristic time. The estimates of f c3 are used for normalizing f c1 and f c2. In this way one obtains dimensionless rupture temporal parametres τ1 and τ2 and can further study the dependence τ2 (τ1). The growth of a rupture is considered as a process of aggregation of elementary fault spots of the size L is . The dimensionless width of the random front of aggregation is on the order of τ2. The relationship τ2 (τ1) approximately follows power law with exponent β. The estimates of β derived from earthquake populations of Kamchatka, USA and Central Asia (β = 0.35-0.6) agree with values expected from the known Eden's theory of random aggregation growth and from its generalizations.

  10. The role of reservoir storage in large-scale surface water availability analysis for Europe (United States)

    Garrote, L. M.; Granados, A.; Martin-Carrasco, F.; Iglesias, A.


    A regional assessment of current and future water availability in Europe is presented in this study. The assessment was made using the Water Availability and Adaptation Policy Analysis (WAAPA) model. The model was built on the river network derived from the Hydro1K digital elevation maps, including all major river basins of Europe. Reservoir storage volume was taken from the World Register of Dams of ICOLD, including all dams with storage capacity over 5 hm3. Potential Water Availability is defined as the maximum amount of water that could be supplied at a certain point of the river network to satisfy a regular demand under pre-specified reliability requirements. Water availability is the combined result of hydrological processes, which determine streamflow in natural conditions, and human intervention, which determines the available hydraulic infrastructure to manage water and establishes water supply conditions through operating rules. The WAAPA algorithm estimates the maximum demand that can be supplied at every node of the river network accounting for the regulation capacity of reservoirs under different management scenarios. The model was run for a set of hydrologic scenarios taken from the Inter-Sectoral Impact Model Intercomparison Project (ISIMIP), where the PCRGLOBWB hydrological model was forced with results from five global climate models. Model results allow the estimation of potential water stress by comparing water availability to projections of water abstractions along the river network under different management alternatives. The set of sensitivity analyses performed showed the effect of policy alternatives on water availability and highlighted the large uncertainties linked to hydrological and anthropological processes.

  11. Evaluation of Simple Causal Message Logging for Large-Scale Fault Tolerant HPC Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bronevetsky, G; Meneses, E; Kale, L V


    The era of petascale computing brought machines with hundreds of thousands of processors. The next generation of exascale supercomputers will make available clusters with millions of processors. In those machines, mean time between failures will range from a few minutes to few tens of minutes, making the crash of a processor the common case, instead of a rarity. Parallel applications running on those large machines will need to simultaneously survive crashes and maintain high productivity. To achieve that, fault tolerance techniques will have to go beyond checkpoint/restart, which requires all processors to roll back in case of a failure. Incorporating some form of message logging will provide a framework where only a subset of processors are rolled back after a crash. In this paper, we discuss why a simple causal message logging protocol seems a promising alternative to provide fault tolerance in large supercomputers. As opposed to pessimistic message logging, it has low latency overhead, especially in collective communication operations. Besides, it saves messages when more than one thread is running per processor. Finally, we demonstrate that a simple causal message logging protocol has a faster recovery and a low performance penalty when compared to checkpoint/restart. Running NAS Parallel Benchmarks (CG, MG and BT) on 1024 processors, simple causal message logging has a latency overhead below 5%.

  12. Probabilistic Approach to Enable Extreme-Scale Simulations under Uncertainty and System Faults. Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knio, Omar [Duke Univ., Durham, NC (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science


    The current project develops a novel approach that uses a probabilistic description to capture the current state of knowledge about the computational solution. To effectively spread the computational effort over multiple nodes, the global computational domain is split into many subdomains. Computational uncertainty in the solution translates into uncertain boundary conditions for the equation system to be solved on those subdomains, and many independent, concurrent subdomain simulations are used to account for this bound- ary condition uncertainty. By relying on the fact that solutions on neighboring subdomains must agree with each other, a more accurate estimate for the global solution can be achieved. Statistical approaches in this update process make it possible to account for the effect of system faults in the probabilistic description of the computational solution, and the associated uncertainty is reduced through successive iterations. By combining all of these elements, the probabilistic reformulation allows splitting the computational work over very many independent tasks for good scalability, while being robust to system faults.

  13. An Efficient Upscaling Process Based on a Unified Fine-scale Multi-Physics Model for Flow Simulation in Naturally Fracture Carbonate Karst Reservoirs

    KAUST Repository

    Bi, Linfeng


    The main challenges in modeling fluid flow through naturally-fractured carbonate karst reservoirs are how to address various flow physics in complex geological architectures due to the presence of vugs and caves which are connected via fracture networks at multiple scales. In this paper, we present a unified multi-physics model that adapts to the complex flow regime through naturally-fractured carbonate karst reservoirs. This approach generalizes Stokes-Brinkman model (Popov et al. 2007). The fracture networks provide the essential connection between the caves in carbonate karst reservoirs. It is thus very important to resolve the flow in fracture network and the interaction between fractures and caves to better understand the complex flow behavior. The idea is to use Stokes-Brinkman model to represent flow through rock matrix, void caves as well as intermediate flows in very high permeability regions and to use an idea similar to discrete fracture network model to represent flow in fracture network. Consequently, various numerical solution strategies can be efficiently applied to greatly improve the computational efficiency in flow simulations. We have applied this unified multi-physics model as a fine-scale flow solver in scale-up computations. Both local and global scale-up are considered. It is found that global scale-up has much more accurate than local scale-up. Global scale-up requires the solution of global flow problems on fine grid, which generally is computationally expensive. The proposed model has the ability to deal with large number of fractures and caves, which facilitate the application of Stokes-Brinkman model in global scale-up computation. The proposed model flexibly adapts to the different flow physics in naturally-fractured carbonate karst reservoirs in a simple and effective way. It certainly extends modeling and predicting capability in efficient development of this important type of reservoir.

  14. Internal structure, fault rocks, and inferences regarding deformation, fluid flow, and mineralization in the seismogenic Stillwater normal fault, Dixie Valley, Nevada (United States)

    Caine, Jonathan S.; Bruhn, R.L.; Forster, C.B.


    Outcrop mapping and fault-rock characterization of the Stillwater normal fault zone in Dixie Valley, Nevada are used to document and interpret ancient hydrothermal fluid flow and its possible relationship to seismic deformation. The fault zone is composed of distinct structural and hydrogeological components. Previous work on the fault rocks is extended to the map scale where a distinctive fault core shows a spectrum of different fault-related breccias. These include predominantly clast-supported breccias with angular clasts that are cut by zones containing breccias with rounded clasts that are also clast supported. These are further cut by breccias that are predominantly matrix supported with angular and rounded clasts. The fault-core breccias are surrounded by a heterogeneously fractured damage zone. Breccias are bounded between major, silicified slip surfaces, forming large pod-like structures, systematically oriented with long axes parallel to slip. Matrix-supported breccias have multiply brecciated, angular and rounded clasts revealing episodic deformation and fluid flow. These breccias have a quartz-rich matrix with microcrystalline anhedral, equant, and pervasively conformable mosaic texture. The breccia pods are interpreted to have formed by decompression boiling and rapid precipitation of hydrothermal fluids whose flow was induced by coseismic, hybrid dilatant-shear deformation and hydraulic connection to a geothermal reservoir. The addition of hydrothermal silica cement localized in the core at the map scale causes fault-zone widening, local sealing, and mechanical heterogeneities that impact the evolution of the fault zone throughout the seismic cycle. ?? 2010.

  15. Responses of spatial-temporal dynamics of bacterioplankton community to large-scale reservoir operation: a case study in the Three Gorges Reservoir, China


    Li, Zhe; Lu, Lunhui; Guo, Jinsong; Yang, Jixiang; Zhang, Jiachao; He, Bin; Xu, Linlin


    Large rivers are commonly regulated by damming, yet the effects of such disruption on bacterioplankton community structures have not been adequately studied. The aim of this study was to explore the biogeographical patterns present under dam regulation and to uncover the major drivers structuring bacterioplankton communities. Bacterioplankton assemblages in the Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR) were analyzed using Illumina Miseq sequencing by comparing seven sites located within the TGR before and...

  16. Large reservoirs: Chapter 17 (United States)

    Miranda, Leandro E.; Bettoli, Phillip William


    expressed effects, such as turbidity and water quality, zooplankton density and size composition, or fish growth rates and assemblage composition, are the upshot of large-scale factors operating outside reservoirs and not under the direct control of reservoir managers. Realistically, abiotic and biotic conditions in reservoirs are shaped by factors working inside and outside reservoirs, with the relative importance of external factors differing among reservoirs. With this perspective, large reservoirs are viewed from a habitat standpoint within the framework of a conceptual model in which individual reservoir characteristics are influenced by both local- and landscape-scale factors (Figure 17.1). In the sections that follow, how each element of this hierarchical model influences habitat and fish assemblages in reservoirs is considered. Important in-reservoir habitat issues and reservoirs as part of larger systems, where reservoir management requires looking for real solutions outside individual reservoirs are described.

  17. Informing the operations of water reservoirs over multiple temporal scales by direct use of hydro-meteorological data (United States)

    Denaro, Simona; Anghileri, Daniela; Giuliani, Matteo; Castelletti, Andrea


    Water reservoir systems may become more adaptive and reliable to external changes by enlarging the information sets used in their operations. Models and forecasts of future hydro-climatic and socio-economic conditions are traditionally used for this purpose. Nevertheless, the identification of skillful forecasts and models might be highly critical when the system comprises several processes with inconsistent dynamics (fast and slow) and disparate levels of predictability. In these contexts, the direct use of observational data, describing the current conditions of the water system, may represent a practicable and zero-cost alternative. This paper contrasts the relative contribution of state observations and perfect forecasts of future water availability in improving multipurpose water reservoirs operation over short- and long-term temporal scales. The approach is demonstrated on the snow-dominated Lake Como system, operated for flood control and water supply. The Information Selection Assessment (ISA) framework is adopted to retrieve the most relevant information to be used for conditioning the operations. By explicitly distinguishing between observational dataset and future forecasts, we quantify the relative contribution of current water system state estimates and perfect streamflow forecasts in improving the lake regulation with respect to both flood control and water supply. Results show that using the available observational data capturing slow dynamic processes, particularly the snow melting process, produces a 10% improvement in the system performance. This latter represents the lower bound of the potential improvement, which may increase to the upper limit of 40% in case skillful (perfect) long-term streamflow forecasts are used.

  18. Fault Tolerance and Scaling in e-Science Cloud Applications: Observations from the Continuing Development of MODISAzure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Jie [Univ. of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA (United States). Dept. of Computer Science; Humphrey, Marty [Univ. of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA (United States). Dept. of Computer Science; Cheah, You-Wei [Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States); Ryu, Youngryel [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Environmental Science, Policy, and Management; Agarwal, Deb [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Jackson, Keith [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); van Ingen, Catharine [Microsoft Research. San Francisco, CA (United States)


    It can be natural to believe that many of the traditional issues of scale have been eliminated or at least greatly reduced via cloud computing. That is, if one can create a seemingly wellfunctioning cloud application that operates correctly on small or moderate-sized problems, then the very nature of cloud programming abstractions means that the same application will run as well on potentially significantly larger problems. In this paper, we present our experiences taking MODISAzure, our satellite data processing system built on the Windows Azure cloud computing platform, from the proof-of-concept stage to a point of being able to run on significantly larger problem sizes (e.g., from national-scale data sizes to global-scale data sizes). To our knowledge, this is the longest-running eScience application on the nascent Windows Azure platform. We found that while many infrastructure-level issues were thankfully masked from us by the cloud infrastructure, it was valuable to design additional redundancy and fault-tolerance capabilities such as transparent idempotent task retry and logging to support debugging of user code encountering unanticipated data issues. Further, we found that using a commercial cloud means anticipating inconsistent performance and black-box behavior of virtualized compute instances, as well as leveraging changing platform capabilities over time. We believe that the experiences presented in this paper can help future eScience cloud application developers on Windows Azure and other commercial cloud providers.

  19. Investigating the ancient landscape and Cenozoic drainage development of southern Yukon (Canada), through restoration modeling of the Cordilleran-scale Tintina Fault. (United States)

    Hayward, N.; Jackson, L. E.; Ryan, J. J.


    This study of southern Yukon (Canada) challenges the notion that the landscape in the long-lived, tectonically active, northern Canadian Cordillera is implicitly young. The impact of Cenozoic displacement along the continental- scale Tintina Fault on the development of the Yukon River and drainage basins of central Yukon is investigated through geophysical and hydrological modeling of digital terrain model data. Regional geological evidence suggests that the age of the planation of the Yukon plateaus is at least Late Cretaceous, rather than Neogene as previously concluded, and that there has been little penetrative deformation or net incision in the region since the late Mesozoic. The Tintina Fault has been interpreted as having experienced 430 km of dextral displacement, primarily during the Eocene. However, the alignment of river channels across the fault at specific displacements, coupled with recent seismic events and related fault activity, indicate that the fault may have moved in stages over a longer time span. Topographic restoration and hydrological models show that the drainage of the Yukon River northwestward into Alaska via the ancestral Kwikhpak River was only possible at restored displacements of up to 50-55 km on the Tintina Fault. We interpret the published drainage reversals convincingly attributed to the effects of Pliocene glaciation as an overprint on earlier Yukon River reversals or diversions attributed to tectonic displacements along the Tintina Fault. At restored fault displacements of between 230 and 430 km, our models illustrate that paleo Yukon River drainage conceivably may have flowed eastward into the Atlantic Ocean via an ancestral Liard River, which was a tributary of the paleo Bell River system. The revised drainage evolution if correct requires wide-reaching reconsideration of surficial geology deposits, the flow direction and channel geometries of the region's ancient rivers, and importantly, exploration strategies of placer gold

  20. Temporal Asynchrony of Trophic Status Between Mainstream and Tributary Bay Within a Giant Dendritic Reservoir: The Role of Local-Scale Regulators. (United States)

    Xu, Yaoyang; Shao, Meiling; Han, Xinqin; Cai, Qinghua


    Limnologists have regarded temporal coherence (synchrony) as a powerful tool for identifying the relative importance of local-scale regulators and regional climatic drivers on lake ecosystems. Limnological studies on Asian reservoirs have emphasized that climate and hydrology under the influences of monsoon are dominant factors regulating seasonal patterns of lake trophic status; yet, little is known of synchrony or asynchrony of trophic status in the single reservoir ecosystem. Based on monthly monitoring data of chlorophyll a, transparency, nutrients, and nonvolatile suspended solids (NVSS) during 1-year period, the present study evaluated temporal coherence to test whether local-scale regulators disturb the seasonal dynamics of trophic state indices (TSI) in a giant dendritic reservoir, China (Three Gorges Reservoir, TGR). Reservoir-wide coherences for TSI(CHL), TSI(SD), and TSI(TP) showed dramatic variations over spatial scale, indicating temporal asynchrony of trophic status. Following the concept of TSI differences, algal productivity in the mainstream of TGR and Xiangxi Bay except the upstream of the bay were always limited by nonalgal turbidity (TSI(CHL)-TSI(SD) TSI(CHL)-TSI(TN) TSI(CHL)-TSI(TP) TSI differences showed that local processes of Xiangxi Bay were the main responsible for local asynchrony of nonalgal turbidity limitation levels. Regression analysis further proved that local temporal asynchrony for TSI(SD) and nonalgal turbidity limitation levels were regulated by local dynamics of NVSS, rather than geographical distance. The implications of the present study are to emphasize that the results of trophic status obtained from a single environment (reservoir mainstream) cannot be extrapolated to other environments (tributary bay) in a way that would allow its use as a sentinel site.

  1. Controllable Grid Interface for Testing Ancillary Service Controls and Fault Performance of Utility-Scale Wind Power Generation: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gevorgian, Vahan; Koralewicz, Przemyslaw; Wallen, Robb; Muljadi, Eduard


    The rapid expansion of wind power has led many transmission system operators to demand modern wind power plants to comply with strict interconnection requirements. Such requirements involve various aspects of wind power plant operation, including fault ride-through and power quality performance as well as the provision of ancillary services to enhance grid reliability. During recent years, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) of the U.S. Department of Energy has developed a new, groundbreaking testing apparatus and methodology to test and demonstrate many existing and future advanced controls for wind generation (and other renewable generation technologies) on the multimegawatt scale and medium-voltage levels. This paper describes the capabilities and control features of NREL's 7-MVA power electronic grid simulator (also called a controllable grid interface, or CGI) that enables testing many active and reactive power control features of modern wind turbine generators -- including inertial response, primary and secondary frequency responses, and voltage regulation -- under a controlled, medium-voltage grid environment. In particular, this paper focuses on the specifics of testing the balanced and unbalanced fault ride-through characteristics of wind turbine generators under simulated strong and weak medium-voltage grid conditions. In addition, this paper provides insights on the power hardware-in-the-loop feature implemented in the CGI to emulate (in real time) the conditions that might exist in various types of electric power systems under normal operations and/or contingency scenarios. Using actual test examples and simulation results, this paper describes the value of CGI as an ultimate modeling validation tool for all types of 'grid-friendly' controls by wind generation.

  2. Length-displacement scaling of thrust faults on the Moon and the formation of uphill-facing scarps (United States)

    Roggon, Lars; Hetzel, Ralf; Hiesinger, Harald; Clark, Jaclyn D.; Hampel, Andrea; van der Bogert, Carolyn H.


    Fault populations on terrestrial planets exhibit a linear relationship between their length, L, and the maximum displacement, D, which implies a constant D/L ratio during fault growth. Although it is known that D/L ratios of faults are typically a few percent on Earth and 0.2-0.8% on Mars and Mercury, the D/L ratios of lunar faults are not well characterized. Quantifying the D/L ratios of faults on the Moon is, however, crucial for a better understanding of lunar tectonics, including for studies of the amount of global lunar contraction. Here, we use high-resolution digital terrain models to perform a topographic analysis of four lunar thrust faults - Simpelius-1, Morozov (S1), Fowler, and Racah X-1 - that range in length from 1.3 km to 15.4 km. First, we determine the along-strike variation of the vertical displacement from ≥ 20 topographic profiles across each fault. For measuring the vertical displacements, we use a method that is commonly applied to fault scarps on Earth and that does not require detrending of the profiles. The resulting profiles show that the displacement changes gradually along these faults' strike, with maximum vertical displacements ranging from 17 ± 2 m for Simpelius-1 to 192 ± 30 m for Racah X-1. Assuming a fault dip of 30° yields maximum total displacements (D) that are twice as large as the vertical displacements. The linear relationship between D and L supports the inference that lunar faults gradually accumulate displacement as they propagate laterally. For the faults we investigated, the D/L ratio is ∼2.3%, an order of magnitude higher than theoretical predictions for the Moon, but a value similar for faults on Earth. We also employ finite-element modeling and a Mohr circle stress analysis to investigate why many lunar thrust faults, including three of those studied here, form uphill-facing scarps. Our analysis shows that fault slip is preferentially initiated on planes that dip in the same direction as the topography, because

  3. Multi-scale model of resistive-type superconducting fault current limiters based on 2G HTS coated conductors (United States)

    Bonnard, Charles-Henri; Sirois, Frédéric; Lacroix, Christian; Didier, Gaëtan


    In order to plan the integration of superconducting fault current limiters (SFCLs) in power systems, accurate models of SFCLs must be made available in commercial power system transient simulators. In this context, we developed such a model for the EMTP-RV software package, a power system transient simulator widely used by power utilities. The model can be used with any resistive-type SFCL (rSFCL) made of high temperature superconductor (HTS) tapes, which are discretized in ‘electro-thermal elements’. Those elements consist solely of electric circuit components, and are used to represent portions of tape of various sizes and dimensions (a ‘multi-scale’ approach). Both the electrical and thermal behaviors of the tape are modeled, including interfacial effects, nonlinear properties of materials and heat transfer to the surrounding environment. Such a multi-scale model can simulate accurately both the local quench dynamics of HTS tapes (microscopic scale) and the global impact of the rSFCL on the power system (macroscopic/system scale). In this paper, the model is used to compute phenomena such as propagation velocity of a hot spot and heat diffusion through the thickness of the tape. Results were verified by comparing EMTP-RV results with finite element simulations. In addition to the development of the multi-scale model itself, which is the major contribution of this paper, the use of the model allowed us to determine the conditions of validity of the commonly used ‘homogenization’ of the thermal properties across the tape thickness. Indeed, when the current flowing into the rSFCL is slightly above its critical current I c (and up to 2{I}{{c}}), very important errors in the power waveforms arise, leading to potentially wrong decisions of protection systems. Homogenized thermal models should thus be used with great care in practice.

  4. Scheduling and Voltage Scaling for Energy/Reliability Trade-offs in Fault-Tolerant Time-Triggered Embedded Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pop, Paul; Poulsen, Kåre Harbo; Izosimov, Viacheslav


    are satisfied and the energy is minimized. We present a constraint logic programming- based approach which is able to find reliable and schedulable implementations within limited energy and hardware resources. The developed algorithms have been evaluated using extensive experiments....... transient faults. Addressing simultaneously energy and reliability is especially challenging because lowering the voltage to reduce the energy consumption has been shown to exponentially increase the number of transient faults. In addition, time-redundancy based fault-tolerance techniques such as re...

  5. Reservoir characterization of the Snorre Field


    Gjestvang, Jørgen


    Master's thesis in Petroleum engineering The fluvial sandstone in the Snorre field consists of braided to meander streams deposited in arid and in humid climate that show a clear differences in the sedimentology and reservoir properties, especially the silt content in large part of the reservoir which decrease the reservoir properties and water saturation. The heterogeneity of these fluvial formations combined with the faulting history makes this reservoir highly complex with many local an...

  6. Structural analysis and Miocene-to-Present tectonic evolution of a lithospheric-scale, transcurrent lineament: The Sciacca Fault (Sicilian Channel, Central Mediterranean Sea) (United States)

    Fedorik, Jakub; Toscani, Giovanni; Lodolo, Emanuele; Civile, Dario; Bonini, Lorenzo; Seno, Silvio


    Seismo-stratigraphic and structural analysis of a large number of multichannel seismic reflection profiles acquired in the northern part of the Sicilian Channel allowed a 3-D reconstruction of a regional NS-trending transfer zone which displays a transcurrent tectonic regime, and that is of broad relevance for its seismotectonic and geodynamic implications. It is constituted of two major transcurrent faults delimiting a 30-km-wide, mostly undeformed basin. The western fault (Capo Granitola) does not show clear evidence of present-day tectonic activity, and toward the south it is connected with the volcanic area of the Graham Bank. The eastern fault (Sciacca) is structurally more complex, showing active deformation at the sea-floor, particularly evident along the Nerita Bank. The Sciacca Fault is constituted of a master and splay faults compatible with a right-lateral kinematics. Sciacca Fault is superimposed on an inherited weakness zone (a Mesozoic carbonate ramp), which borders to the east a 2.5-km-thick Plio-Quaternary basin, and that was reactivated during the Pliocene. A set of scaled claybox analogue models was carried out in order to better understand the tectonic processes that led to the structural setting displayed by seismic data. Tectonic structures and uplift/subsidence patterns generated by the models are compatible with the 3-D model obtained from seismic reflection profiles. The best fit between the tectonic setting deriving from the interpretation of seismic profiles and the analogue models was obtained considering a right-lateral movement for the Sciacca Fault. Nevertheless, the stress field in the study area derived from GPS measurements does not support the present-day modelled right-lateral kinematics along the Sciacca Fault. Moreover, seismic events along this fault show focal mechanisms with a left-lateral component. We ascribe the slip change along the Sciacca Fault, from a right-lateral transcurrent regime to the present-day left

  7. Fault damage zone volume and initial salinity distribution determine intensity of shallow aquifer salinisation in subsurface storage (United States)

    Tillner, Elena; Langer, Maria; Kempka, Thomas; Kühn, Michael


    Injection of fluids into deep saline aquifers causes a pore pressure increase in the storage formation, and thus displacement of resident brine. Via hydraulically conductive faults, brine may migrate upwards into shallower aquifers and lead to unwanted salinisation of potable groundwater resources. In the present study, we investigated different scenarios for a potential storage site in the Northeast German Basin using a three-dimensional (3-D) regional-scale model that includes four major fault zones. The focus was on assessing the impact of fault length and the effect of a secondary reservoir above the storage formation, as well as model boundary conditions and initial salinity distribution on the potential salinisation of shallow groundwater resources. We employed numerical simulations of brine injection as a representative fluid. Our simulation results demonstrate that the lateral model boundary settings and the effective fault damage zone volume have the greatest influence on pressure build-up and development within the reservoir, and thus intensity and duration of fluid flow through the faults. Higher vertical pressure gradients for short fault segments or a small effective fault damage zone volume result in the highest salinisation potential due to a larger vertical fault height affected by fluid displacement. Consequently, it has a strong impact on the degree of shallow aquifer salinisation, whether a gradient in salinity exists or the saltwater-freshwater interface lies below the fluid displacement depth in the faults. A small effective fault damage zone volume or low fault permeability further extend the duration of fluid flow, which can persist for several tens to hundreds of years, if the reservoir is laterally confined. Laterally open reservoir boundaries, large effective fault damage zone volumes and intermediate reservoirs significantly reduce vertical brine migration and the potential of freshwater salinisation because the origin depth of displaced

  8. Evaporation suppression from reservoirs using floating covers: Lab scale wind-tunnel observations and mechanistic model predictions (United States)

    Or, Dani; Lehmann, Peter; Aminzadeh, Milad; Sommer, Martina; Wey, Hannah; Krentscher, Christiane; Wunderli, Hans; Breitenstein, Daniel


    The competition over dwindling fresh water resources is expected to intensify with projected increase in human population in arid regions, expansion of irrigated land and changes in climate and drought patterns. The volume of water stored in reservoirs would also increase to mitigate seasonal shortages due to rainfall variability and to meet irrigation water needs. By some estimates up to half of the stored water is lost to evaporation, thereby exacerbating the water scarcity problem. Recently, there is an upsurge in the use of self-assembling floating covers to suppress evaporation, yet the design and implementation remain largely empirical. We report a systematic experimental evaluation of different cover types and external drivers (radiation, wind, wind plus radiation) on evaporation suppression and energy balance of a 1.4 m2 basin placed in a wind-tunnel. Surprisingly, evaporation suppression by black and white floating covers (balls and plates) were similar despite significantly different energy balance regimes over the cover surfaces. Moreover, the evaporation suppression efficiency was a simple function of the uncovered area (square root of the uncovered fraction) with linear relations with the covered area in some cases. The thermally decoupled floating covers offer an efficient solution to the evaporation suppression with limited influence of the surface energy balance (water temperature for black and white covers was similar and remained nearly constant). The results will be linked with a predictive evaporation-energy balance model and issues of spatial scales and long exposure times will be studied.

  9. Slip Potential of Faults in the Fort Worth Basin (United States)

    Hennings, P.; Osmond, J.; Lund Snee, J. E.; Zoback, M. D.


    Similar to other areas of the southcentral United States, the Fort Worth Basin of NE Texas has experienced an increase in the rate of seismicity which has been attributed to injection of waste water in deep saline aquifers. To assess the hazard of induced seismicity in the basin we have integrated new data on location and character of previously known and unknown faults, stress state, and pore pressure to produce an assessment of fault slip potential which can be used to investigate prior and ongoing earthquake sequences and for development of mitigation strategies. We have assembled data on faults in the basin from published sources, 2D and 3D seismic data, and interpretations provided from petroleum operators to yield a 3D fault model with 292 faults ranging in strike-length from 116 to 0.4 km. The faults have mostly normal geometries, all cut the disposal intervals, and most are presumed to cut into the underlying crystalline and metamorphic basement. Analysis of outcrops along the SW flank of the basin assist with geometric characterization of the fault systems. The interpretation of stress state comes from integration of wellbore image and sonic data, reservoir stimulation data, and earthquake focal mechanisms. The orientation of SHmax is generally uniform across the basin but stress style changes from being more strike-slip in the NE part of the basin to normal faulting in the SW part. Estimates of pore pressure come from a basin-scale hydrogeologic model as history-matched to injection test data. With these deterministic inputs and appropriate ranges of uncertainty we assess the conditional probability that faults in our 3D model might slip via Mohr-Coulomb reactivation in response to increases in injected-related pore pressure. A key component of the analysis is constraining the uncertainties associated with each of the principal parameters. Many of the faults in the model are interpreted to be critically-stressed within reasonable ranges of uncertainty.

  10. Extracting Energy from Petroleum Reservoirs at Large Scale without CO2 Emissions -Is it possible? Is The Attempt Desirable? (United States)

    Larter, Steve; Strous, Marc; Bryant, Steven


    technological change is needed, yet few alternatives have been proposed. To resolve this crisis, a focused, multi-sector collaborative approach is needed that both provides a transitional technical fix and a basis for a transition to stable diverse renewables powered economies. The experience of other successful focused mega projects, often called "moonshots" in homage to the Apollo program, suggests several ingredients are essential. • Leadership: A long term ambition and vision with sustained political and institutional leadership, focused at a single achievable goal with an aggressive timeline of achievement. • Partnership: A coherent, organised and sustained interaction between industry, academic and government R&D communities. • Science and technology: A strong foundation in key areas of science, engineering and social science from which the necessary development can be built. • Funding: Sustained investment in research and development over extended periods of time (5-10 years) with funding at an appropriate scale to succeed within the given timeline We examine Zero Emission Energy Recovery And Use(ZEERAU), from oil reservoirs, for technical and societal viability in the context of such a moonshot project.

  11. The water footprint of human-made reservoirs for hydropower, irrigation, water supply, flood prevention, fishing and recreation on a global scale (United States)

    Hogeboom, Rick; Knook, Luuk; Hoekstra, Arjen


    Increasing the availability of freshwater to meet growing and competing demands is on many policy agendas. The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) prescribe sustainable management of water for human consumption. For centuries humans have resorted to building dams to store water in periods of excess for use in times of shortage. Although dams and their reservoirs have made important contributions to human development, it is increasingly acknowledged that reservoirs can be substantial water consumers as well. We estimated the water footprint of human-made reservoirs on a global scale and attributed it to the various reservoir purposes (hydropower generation, residential and industrial water supply, irrigation water supply, flood protection, fishing and recreation) based on their economic value. We found that economic benefits from derived products and services from 2235 reservoirs globally, amount to 311 billion US dollar annually, with residential and industrial water supply and hydropower generation as major contributors. The water footprint associated with these benefits is the sum of the water footprint of dam construction (footprint of reservoirs globally adds up to ˜104 km3yr-1. Attribution per purpose shows that, with a global average water footprint of 21,5 m3GJ,-1 hydropower on average is a water intensive form of energy. We contextualized the water footprint of reservoirs and their purposes with regard to the water scarcity level of the river basin in which they occur. We found the lion's share (55%) of the water footprint is located in non-water scarce basins and only 1% in year-round scarce basins. The purpose for which the reservoir is primarily used changes with increasing water scarcity, from mainly hydropower generation in non-scarce basins, to the (more essential) purposes residential and industrial water supply, irrigation and flood control in scarcer areas. The quantitative explication of how the burden of water consumption from reservoirs is

  12. Structural heritage, reactivation and distribution of fault and fracture network in a rifting context: Case study of the western shoulder of the Upper Rhine Graben (United States)

    Bertrand, Lionel; Jusseaume, Jessie; Géraud, Yves; Diraison, Marc; Damy, Pierre-Clément; Navelot, Vivien; Haffen, Sébastien


    In fractured reservoirs in the basement of extensional basins, fault and fracture parameters like density, spacing and length distribution are key properties for modelling and prediction of reservoir properties and fluids flow. As only large faults are detectable using basin-scale geophysical investigations, these fine-scale parameters need to be inferred from faults and fractures in analogous rocks at the outcrop. In this study, we use the western shoulder of the Upper Rhine Graben as an outcropping analogue of several deep borehole projects in the basement of the graben. Geological regional data, DTM (Digital Terrain Model) mapping and outcrop studies with scanlines are used to determine the spatial arrangement of the faults from the regional to the reservoir scale. The data shows that: 1) The fault network can be hierarchized in three different orders of scale and structural blocks with a characteristic structuration. This is consistent with other basement rocks studies in other rifting system allowing the extrapolation of the important parameters for modelling. 2) In the structural blocks, the fracture network linked to the faults is linked to the interplay between rock facies variation linked to the rock emplacement and the rifting event.

  13. Responses of spatial-temporal dynamics of bacterioplankton community to large-scale reservoir operation: a case study in the Three Gorges Reservoir, China. (United States)

    Li, Zhe; Lu, Lunhui; Guo, Jinsong; Yang, Jixiang; Zhang, Jiachao; He, Bin; Xu, Linlin


    Large rivers are commonly regulated by damming, yet the effects of such disruption on bacterioplankton community structures have not been adequately studied. The aim of this study was to explore the biogeographical patterns present under dam regulation and to uncover the major drivers structuring bacterioplankton communities. Bacterioplankton assemblages in the Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR) were analyzed using Illumina Miseq sequencing by comparing seven sites located within the TGR before and after impoundment. This approach revealed ecological and spatial-temporal variations in bacterioplankton community composition along the longitudinal axis. The community was dynamic and dominated by Proteobacteria and Actinobacteria phyla, encompassing 39.26% and 37.14% of all sequences, respectively, followed by Bacteroidetes (8.67%) and Cyanobacteria (3.90%). The Shannon-Wiener index of the bacterioplankton community in the flood season (August) was generally higher than that in the impoundment season (November). Principal Component Analysis of the bacterioplankton community compositions showed separation between different seasons and sampling sites. Results of the relationship between bacterioplankton community compositions and environmental variables highlighted that ecological processes of element cycling and large dam disturbances are of prime importance in driving the assemblages of riverine bacterioplankton communities.

  14. Fault structure, stress, or pressure control of the seismicity in shale? Insights from a controlled experiment of fluid-induced fault reactivation (United States)

    De Barros, Louis; Daniel, Guillaume; Guglielmi, Yves; Rivet, Diane; Caron, Hervé; Payre, Xavier; Bergery, Guillaume; Henry, Pierre; Castilla, Raymi; Dick, Pierre; Barbieri, Ernesto; Gourlay, Maxime


    Clay formations are present in reservoirs and earthquake faults, but questions remain on their mechanical behavior, as they can vary from ductile (aseismic) to brittle (seismic). An experiment, at a scale of 10 m, aims to reactivate a natural fault by fluid pressure in shale materials. The injection area was surrounded by a dense monitoring network comprising pressure, deformation, and seismicity sensors, in a well-characterized geological setting. Thirty-two microseismic events were recorded during several injection phases in five different locations within the fault zone. Their computed magnitude ranged between -4.3 and -3.7. Their spatiotemporal distribution, compared with the measured displacement at the injection points, shows that most of the deformation induced by the injection is aseismic. Whether the seismicity is controlled by the fault architecture, mineralogy of fracture filling, fluid, and/or stress state is then discussed. The fault damage zone architecture and mineralogy are of crucial importance, as seismic slip mainly localizes on the sealed-with-calcite fractures which predominate in the fault damage zone. As no seismicity is observed in the close vicinity of the injection areas, the presence of fluid seems to prevent seismic slips. The fault core acts as an impermeable hydraulic barrier that favors fluid confinement and pressurization. Therefore, the seismic behavior seems to be strongly sensitive to the structural heterogeneity (including permeability) of the fault zone, which leads to a heterogeneous stress response to the pressurized volume.

  15. Spatial arrangement of faults and opening-mode fractures (United States)

    Laubach, S. E.; Lamarche, J.; Gauthier, B. D. M.; Dunne, W. M.; Sanderson, David J.


    Spatial arrangement is a fundamental characteristic of fracture arrays. The pattern of fault and opening-mode fracture positions in space defines structural heterogeneity and anisotropy in a rock volume, governs how faults and fractures affect fluid flow, and impacts our understanding of the initiation, propagation and interactions during the formation of fracture patterns. This special issue highlights recent progress with respect to characterizing and understanding the spatial arrangements of fault and fracture patterns, providing examples over a wide range of scales and structural settings. Five papers describe new methods and improvements of existing techniques to quantify spatial arrangement. One study unravels the time evolution of opening-mode fracture spatial arrangement, which are data needed to compare natural patterns with progressive fracture growth in kinematic and mechanical models. Three papers investigate the role of evolving diagenesis in localizing fractures by mechanical stratigraphy and nine discuss opening-mode fracture spatial arrangement. Two papers show the relevance of complex cluster patterns to unconventional reservoirs through examples of fractures in tight gas sandstone horizontal wells, and a study of fracture arrangement in shale. Four papers demonstrate the roles of folds in fracture localization and the development spatial patterns. One paper models along-fault friction and fluid pressure and their effects on fault-related fracture arrangement. Contributions address deformation band patterns in carbonate rocks and fault size and arrangement above a detachment fault. Three papers describe fault and fracture arrangements in basement terrains, and three document fracture patterns in shale. This collection of papers points toward improvement in field methods, continuing improvements in computer-based data analysis and creation of synthetic fracture patterns, and opportunities for further understanding fault and fracture attributes in

  16. Reservoir structural model updating using the Ensemble Kalman Filter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seiler, Alexandra


    In reservoir characterization, a large emphasis is placed on risk management and uncertainty assessment, and the dangers of basing decisions on a single base-case reservoir model are widely recognized. In the last years, statistical methods for assisted history matching have gained popularity for providing integrated models with quantified uncertainty, conditioned on all available data. Structural modeling is the first step in a reservoir modeling work flow and consists in defining the geometrical framework of the reservoir, based on the information from seismic surveys and well data. Large uncertainties are typically associated with the processing and interpretation of seismic data. However, the structural model is often fixed to a single interpretation in history-matching work flows due to the complexity of updating the structural model and related reservoir grid. This thesis present a method that allows to account for the uncertainties in the structural model and continuously update the model and related uncertainties by assimilation of production data using the Ensemble Kalman Filter (EnKF). We consider uncertainties in the depth of the reservoir horizons and in the fault geometry, and assimilate production data, such as oil production rate, gas-oil ratio and water-cut. In the EnKF model-updating work flow, an ensemble of reservoir models, expressing explicitly the model uncertainty, is created. We present a parameterization that allows to generate different realizations of the structural model to account for the uncertainties in faults and horizons and that maintains the consistency throughout the reservoir characterization project, from the structural model to the prediction of production profiles. The uncertainty in the depth of the horizons is parameterized as simulated depth surfaces, the fault position as a displacement vector and the fault throw as a throw-scaling factor. In the EnKF, the model parameters and state variables are updated sequentially in

  17. Changes in the contents of strontium, barium, and lead in scales of bream Abramis brama from the Mozhaisk Reservoir over a quarter century. (United States)

    Saltykova, E A; Pelgunova, L A; Sokolova, E L; Skomorokhov, M O; Demidova, T B; Golubtsov, A S


    The heavy metal contents in the scales of bream (Abramis brama) from the Mozhaisk Reservoir collected in the second half of the 1980s were compared to the current values. The concentrations of three out of the seven elements studied in the bream scales have changed severalfold during the past quarter century: that of strontium has decreased, and those of barium and lead have increased. Short-term variations of heavy metal contents have proved to be smaller than the observed long-term differences. There is grounds to believe that these long-term differences adequately reflect the changes that have occurred in the water body.

  18. Increasing Waterflooding Reservoirs in the Wilmington Oil Field through Improved Reservoir Characterization and Reservoir Management, Class III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koerner, Roy; Clarke, Don; Walker, Scott; Phillips, Chris; Nguyen, John; Moos, Dan; Tagbor, Kwasi


    This project was intended to increase recoverable waterflood reserves in slope and basin reservoirs through improved reservoir characterization and reservoir management. The particular application of this project is in portions of Fault Blocks IV and V of the Wilmington Oil Field, in Long Beach, California, but the approach is widely applicable in slope and basin reservoirs, transferring technology so that it can be applied in other sections of the Wilmington field and by operators in other slope and basin reservoirs is a primary component of the project.

  19. On the influence of faulting on small-scale soil-gas radon variability: a case study in the Iberian Uranium Province. (United States)

    Pereira, A J S C; Godinho, M M; Neves, L J P F


    In order to evaluate the influence of faulting on the variability of geogenic radon at detailed scale (1:2000), data on gamma ray fluxes, U and Th concentrations in rocks, radon in soil-gas and radon in groundwater were collected in three target areas on the Oliveira do Hospital region (Central Portugal). This region stands on the Iberian Uranium Province, and is dominantly composed of Hercynian granites and metasedimentary rocks of pre-Ordovician age, crosscut by faults with dominant strike N35 degrees E, N55 degrees E and N75 degrees E. Radiometric anomalies are frequent, associated with faults of the referred systems and metasedimentary enclaves; the analytical data confirms that these anomalies are produced by local high uranium contents in rocks and fault-filling materials (n=34, range 13-724 ppm), while other radiogenic elements are relatively constant (e.g. Th 4-30 ppm). Radon concentration in soil can be extremely high, up to 12,850 kBq m(-3) (n=215), with a large proportion of results above 100 kBq m(-3). Unsurprisingly, groundwater also shows high radon concentrations, with observed values in the range 150-4850 Bq.L(-1) (n=17). From the results it is concluded that metasedimentary enclaves, as well as faults, can accumulate uranium from circulating fluids, and as a consequence, strongly locally enhance geogenic radon potential. Due to this fact, for the purpose of land use planning in such uranium-enriched regions, very detailed geological mapping is needed to precisely recognize radon high risk areas. A correlation between radon concentration in soil or in groundwater and gamma ray fluxes was established pointing to the possible use of these fluxes as a first step in assessing geogenic radon potential, at least to geological setting similar to the study area. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. On the influence of faulting on small-scale soil-gas radon variability: a case study in the Iberian Uranium Province

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, A.J.S.C., E-mail: apereira@dct.uc.p [IMAR, Department of Earth Sciences, University of Coimbra, 3000-272 Coimbra (Portugal); Godinho, M.M. [Department of Earth Sciences, University of Coimbra, 3000-272 Coimbra (Portugal); Neves, L.J.P.F. [IMAR, Department of Earth Sciences, University of Coimbra, 3000-272 Coimbra (Portugal)


    In order to evaluate the influence of faulting on the variability of geogenic radon at detailed scale (1:2000), data on gamma ray fluxes, U and Th concentrations in rocks, radon in soil-gas and radon in groundwater were collected in three target areas on the Oliveira do Hospital region (Central Portugal). This region stands on the Iberian Uranium Province, and is dominantly composed of Hercynian granites and metasedimentary rocks of pre-Ordovician age, crosscut by faults with dominant strike N35{sup o}E, N55{sup o}E and N75{sup o}E. Radiometric anomalies are frequent, associated with faults of the referred systems and metasedimentary enclaves; the analytical data confirms that these anomalies are produced by local high uranium contents in rocks and fault-filling materials (n = 34, range 13-724 ppm), while other radiogenic elements are relatively constant (e.g. Th 4-30 ppm). Radon concentration in soil can be extremely high, up to 12,850 kBq m{sup -3} (n = 215), with a large proportion of results above 100 kBq m{sup -3}. Unsurprisingly, groundwater also shows high radon concentrations, with observed values in the range 150-4850 Bq.L{sup -1} (n = 17). From the results it is concluded that metasedimentary enclaves, as well as faults, can accumulate uranium from circulating fluids, and as a consequence, strongly locally enhance geogenic radon potential. Due to this fact, for the purpose of land use planning in such uranium-enriched regions, very detailed geological mapping is needed to precisely recognize radon high risk areas. A correlation between radon concentration in soil or in groundwater and gamma ray fluxes was established pointing to the possible use of these fluxes as a first step in assessing geogenic radon potential, at least to geological setting similar to the study area.

  1. A multi-scale case study of natural fracture systems in outcrops and boreholes with applications to reservoir modelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Taal-van Koppen, J.K.J.


    Fractured reservoirs are notoriously difficult to characterize because the resolution of seismic data is too low to detect fractures whereas borehole data is detailed but sparse. Therefore, outcrops can be of great support in gaining knowledge of the three-dimensional geometry of fracture networks,

  2. Large scale in-situ BOrehole and Geofluid Simulator (i.BOGS) for the development and testing of borehole technologies at reservoir conditions (United States)

    Duda, Mandy; Bracke, Rolf; Stöckhert, Ferdinand; Wittig, Volker


    A fundamental problem of technological applications related to the exploration and provision of geothermal energy is the inaccessibility of subsurface processes. As a result, actual reservoir properties can only be determined using (a) indirect measurement techniques such as seismic surveys, machine feedback and geophysical borehole logging, (b) laboratory experiments capable of simulating in-situ properties, but failing to preserve temporal and spatial scales, or vice versa, and (c) numerical simulations. Moreover, technological applications related to the drilling process, the completion and cementation of a wellbore or the stimulation and exploitation of the reservoir are exposed to high pressure and temperature conditions as well as corrosive environments resulting from both, rock formation and geofluid characteristics. To address fundamental and applied questions in the context of geothermal energy provision and subsurface exploration in general one of Europe's largest geoscientific laboratory infrastructures is introduced. The in-situ Borehole and Geofluid Simulator (i.BOGS) allows to simulate quasi scale-preserving processes at reservoir conditions up to depths of 5000 m and represents a large scale pressure vessel for iso-/hydrostatic and pore pressures up to 125 MPa and temperatures from -10°C to 180°C. The autoclave can either be filled with large rock core samples (25 cm in diameter, up to 3 m length) or with fluids and technical borehole devices (e.g. pumps, sensors). The pressure vessel is equipped with an ultrasound system for active transmission and passive recording of acoustic emissions, and can be complemented by additional sensors. The i.BOGS forms the basic module for the Match.BOGS finally consisting of three modules, i.e. (A) the i.BOGS, (B) the Drill.BOGS, a drilling module to be attached to the i.BOGS capable of applying realistic torques and contact forces to a drilling device that enters the i.BOGS, and (C) the Fluid.BOGS, a geofluid

  3. Linking pore-scale and basin-scale effects on diffusive methane transport in hydrate bearing environments through multi-scale reservoir simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nole, Michael; Daigle, Hugh; Cook, Ann; Malinverno, Alberto; Hillman, Jess


    We explore the gas hydrate-generating capacity of diffusive methane transport induced by solubility gradients due to pore size contrasts in lithologically heterogeneous marine sediments. Through the use of 1D, 2D, and 3D reactive transport simulations, we investigate scale-dependent processes in diffusion-dominated gas hydrate systems. These simulations all track a sand body, or series of sands, surrounded by clays as they are buried through the gas hydrate stability zone. Methane is sourced by microbial methanogenesis in the clays surrounding the sand layers. In 1D, simulations performed in a Lagrangian reference frame demonstrate that gas hydrate in thin sands (3.6 m thick) can occur in high saturations (upward of 70%) at the edges of sand bodies within the upper 400 meters below the seafloor. Diffusion of methane toward the center of the sand layer depends on the concentration gradient within the sand: broader sand pore size distributions with smaller median pore sizes enhance diffusive action toward the sand’s center. Incorporating downhole log- and laboratory-derived sand pore size distributions, gas hydrate saturations in the center of the sand can reach 20% of the hydrate saturations at the sand’s edges. Furthermore, we show that hydrate-free zones exist immediately above and below the sand and are approximately 5 m thick, depending on the sand-clay solubility contrast. A moving reference frame is also adopted in 2D, and the angle of gravity is rotated relative to the grid system to simulate a dipping sand layer. This is important to minimize diffusive edge effects or numerical diffusion that might be associated with a dipping sand in an Eulerian grid system oriented orthogonal to gravity. Two-dimensional simulations demonstrate the tendency for gas hydrate to accumulate downdip in a sand body because of greater methane transport at depth due to larger sand-clay solubility contrasts. In 3D, basin-scale simulations illuminate how convergent sand layers in

  4. Scale-up of miscible flood processes for heterogeneous reservoirs. Quarterly report, April 1--June 30, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orr, F.M. Jr.


    The current project is a systematic research effort aimed at quantifying relationships between process mechanisms that can lead to improved recovery from gas injection processes performed in heterogeneous Class 1 and Class 2 reservoirs. It will provide a rational basis for the design of displacement processes that take advantage of crossflow due to capillary, gravity and viscous forces to offset partially the adverse effects of heterogeneity. In effect, the high permeability zones are used to deliver fluid by crossflow to zones that would otherwise be flooded only very slowly. Thus, the research effort is divided into five areas: Development of miscibility in multicomponent systems; Design estimates for nearly miscible displacements; Design of miscible floods for fractured reservoirs; Compositional flow visualization experiments; Simulation of near-miscible flow in heterogeneous systems The status of the research effort in each area is reviewed briefly in the following section.

  5. Faults Images (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Through the study of faults and their effects, much can be learned about the size and recurrence intervals of earthquakes. Faults also teach us about crustal...

  6. Quantification of a maximum injection volume of CO2 to avert geomechanical perturbations using a compositional fluid flow reservoir simulator (United States)

    Jung, Hojung; Singh, Gurpreet; Espinoza, D. Nicolas; Wheeler, Mary F.


    Subsurface CO2 injection and storage alters formation pressure. Changes of pore pressure may result in fault reactivation and hydraulic fracturing if the pressure exceeds the corresponding thresholds. Most simulation models predict such thresholds utilizing relatively homogeneous reservoir rock models and do not account for CO2 dissolution in the brine phase to calculate pore pressure evolution. This study presents an estimation of reservoir capacity in terms of allowable injection volume and rate utilizing the Frio CO2 injection site in the coast of the Gulf of Mexico as a case study. The work includes laboratory core testing, well-logging data analyses, and reservoir numerical simulation. We built a fine-scale reservoir model of the Frio pilot test in our in-house reservoir simulator IPARS (Integrated Parallel Accurate Reservoir Simulator). We first performed history matching of the pressure transient data of the Frio pilot test, and then used this history-matched reservoir model to investigate the effect of the CO2 dissolution into brine and predict the implications of larger CO2 injection volumes. Our simulation results -including CO2 dissolution- exhibited 33% lower pressure build-up relative to the simulation excluding dissolution. Capillary heterogeneity helps spread the CO2 plume and facilitate early breakthrough. Formation expansivity helps alleviate pore pressure build-up. Simulation results suggest that the injection schedule adopted during the actual pilot test very likely did not affect the mechanical integrity of the storage complex. Fault reactivation requires injection volumes of at least about sixty times larger than the actual injected volume at the same injection rate. Hydraulic fracturing necessitates much larger injection rates than the ones used in the Frio pilot test. Tested rock samples exhibit ductile deformation at in-situ effective stresses. Hence, we do not expect an increase of fault permeability in the Frio sand even in the presence of

  7. Reservoir management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Satter, A.; Varnon, J.E.; Hoang, M.T.


    A reservoir's life begins with exploration leading to discovery followed by delineation of the reservoir, development of the field, production by primary, secondary and tertiary means, and finally to abandonment. Sound reservoir management is the key to maximizing economic operation of the reservoir throughout its entire life. Technological advances and rapidly increasing computer power are providing tools to better manage reservoirs and are increasing the gap between good and neutral reservoir management. The modern reservoir management process involves goal setting, planning, implementing, monitoring, evaluating, and revising plans. Setting a reservoir management strategy requires knowledge of the reservoir, availability of technology, and knowledge of the business, political, and environmental climate. Formulating a comprehensive management plan involves depletion and development strategies, data acquisition and analyses, geological and numerical model studies, production and reserves forecasts, facilities requirements, economic optimization, and management approval. This paper provides management, engineers geologists, geophysicists, and field operations staff with a better understanding of the practical approach to reservoir management using a multidisciplinary, integrated team approach

  8. Fault finder (United States)

    Bunch, Richard H.


    A fault finder for locating faults along a high voltage electrical transmission line. Real time monitoring of background noise and improved filtering of input signals is used to identify the occurrence of a fault. A fault is detected at both a master and remote unit spaced along the line. A master clock synchronizes operation of a similar clock at the remote unit. Both units include modulator and demodulator circuits for transmission of clock signals and data. All data is received at the master unit for processing to determine an accurate fault distance calculation.

  9. South Louisiana Enhanced Oil Recovery/Sequestration R&D Project Small Scale Field Tests of Geologic Reservoir Classes for Geologic Storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hite, Roger [Blackhorse Energy LLC, Houston, TX (United States)


    The project site is located in Livingston Parish, Louisiana, approximately 26 miles due east of Baton Rouge. This project proposed to evaluate an early Eocene-aged Wilcox oil reservoir for permanent storage of CO2. Blackhorse Energy, LLC planned to conduct a parallel CO2 oil recovery project in the First Wilcox Sand. The primary focus of this project was to examine and prove the suitability of South Louisiana geologic formations for large-scale geologic sequestration of CO2 in association with enhanced oil recovery applications. This was to be accomplished through the focused demonstration of small-scale, permanent storage of CO2 in the First Wilcox Sand. The project was terminated at the request of Blackhorse Energy LLC on October 22, 2014.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott Walker; Chris Phillips; Roy Koerner; Don Clarke; Dan Moos; Kwasi Tagbor


    This project increased recoverable waterflood reserves in slope and basin reservoirs through improved reservoir characterization and reservoir management. The particular application of this project is in portions of Fault Blocks IV and V of the Wilmington Oil Field, in Long Beach, California, but the approach is widely applicable in slope and basin reservoirs. Transferring technology so that it can be applied in other sections of the Wilmington Field and by operators in other slope and basin reservoirs is a primary component of the project. This project used advanced reservoir characterization tools, including the pulsed acoustic cased-hole logging tool, geologic three-dimensional (3-D) modeling software, and commercially available reservoir management software to identify sands with remaining high oil saturation following waterflood. Production from the identified high oil saturated sands was stimulated by recompleting existing production and injection wells in these sands using conventional means as well as a short radius redrill candidate. Although these reservoirs have been waterflooded over 40 years, researchers have found areas of remaining oil saturation. Areas such as the top sand in the Upper Terminal Zone Fault Block V, the western fault slivers of Upper Terminal Zone Fault Block V, the bottom sands of the Tar Zone Fault Block V, and the eastern edge of Fault Block IV in both the Upper Terminal and Lower Terminal Zones all show significant remaining oil saturation. Each area of interest was uncovered emphasizing a different type of reservoir characterization technique or practice. This was not the original strategy but was necessitated by the different levels of progress in each of the project activities.

  11. Influence of fault heterogeneity on the frequency-magnitude statistics of earthquake cycle simulations (United States)

    Norbeck, Jack; Horne, Roland


    Numerical models are useful tools for investigating natural geologic conditions can affect seismicity, but it can often be difficult to generate realistic earthquake sequences using physics-based earthquake rupture models. Rate-and-state earthquake cycle simulations on planar faults with homogeneous frictional properties and stress conditions typically yield single event sequences with a single earthquake magnitude characteristic of the size of the fault. In reality, earthquake sequences have been observed to follow a Gutenberg-Richter-type frequency-magnitude distribution that can be characterized by a power law scaling relationship. The purpose of this study was to determine how fault heterogeneity can affect the frequency-magnitude distribution of simulated earthquake events. We considered the effects fault heterogeneity at two different length-scales by performing numerical earthquake rupture simulations within a rate-and-state friction framework. In our first study, we investigated how heterogeneous, fractal distributions of shear and normal stress resolved along a two-dimensional fault surface influenced the earthquake nucleation, rupture, and arrest processes. We generated a catalog of earthquake events by performing earthquake cycle simulations for 90 random realizations of fractal stress distributions. Typical realizations produced between 4 to 6 individual earthquakes ranging in event magnitudes between those characteristic of the minimum patch size for nucleation and the size of the model fault. The resulting aggregate frequency-magnitude distributions were characterized well by a power-law scaling behavior. In our second study, we performed simulations of injection-induced seismicity using a coupled fluid flow and rate-and-state earthquake model. Fluid flow in a two-dimensional reservoir was modeled, and the fault mechanics was modeled under a plane strain assumption (i.e., one-dimensional faults). We generated a set of faults with an average strike of

  12. Structural analysis characterization of permeability pathways across reservoir-seal interface - South-Eastern Utah; Results from integrated sedimentological, structural, and geochemical studies. (United States)

    Petrie, E. S.; Evans, J. P.; Richey, D.; Flores, S.; Barton, C.; Mozley, P.


    Sedimentary rocks in the San Rafael Swell, Utah, were deformed by Laramide compression and subsequent Neogene extension. We evaluate the effect of fault damage zone morphology as a function of structural position, and changes in mechanical stratigraphy on the distribution of secondary minerals across the reservoir-seal pair of the Navajo Sandstone and overlying Carmel Formation. We decipher paleo-fluid migration and examine the effect faults and fractures have on reservoir permeability and efficacy of top seal for a range of geo-engineering applications. Map-scale faults have an increased probability of allowing upward migration of fluids along the fault plane and within the damage zone, potentially bypassing the top seal. Field mapping, mesoscopic structural analyses, petrography, and geochemical observations demonstrate that fault zone thickness increases at structural intersections, fault relay zones, fault-related folds, and fault tips. Higher densities of faults with meters of slip and dense fracture populations are present in relay zones relative to single, discrete faults. Curvature analysis of the San Rafael monocline and fracture density data show that fracture density is highest where curvature is highest in the syncline hinge and near faults. Fractures cross the reservoir-seal interface where fracture density is highest and structural diagensis includes mineralization events and bleaching and calcite and gypsum mineralization. The link between fracture distributions and structural setting implys that transmissive fractures have predictable orientations and density distributions. At the m- to cm- scale, deformation-band faults and joints in the Navajo Sandstone penetrate the reservoir-seal interface and transition into open-mode fractures in the caprock seal. Scanline analysis and petrography of veins provide evidence for subsurface mineralization and fracture reactivation, suggesting that the fractures act as loci for fluid flow through time

  13. Fault detection based on microseismic events (United States)

    Yin, Chen


    In unconventional reservoirs, small faults allow the flow of oil and gas as well as act as obstacles to exploration; for, (1) fracturing facilitates fluid migration, (2) reservoir flooding, and (3) triggering of small earthquakes. These small faults are not generally detected because of the low seismic resolution. However, such small faults are very active and release sufficient energy to initiate a large number of microseismic events (MEs) during hydraulic fracturing. In this study, we identified microfractures (MF) from hydraulic fracturing and natural small faults based on microseismicity characteristics, such as the time-space distribution, source mechanism, magnitude, amplitude, and frequency. First, I identified the mechanism of small faults and MF by reservoir stress analysis and calibrated the ME based on the microseismic magnitude. The dynamic characteristics (frequency and amplitude) of MEs triggered by natural faults and MF were analyzed; moreover, the geometry and activity types of natural fault and MF were grouped according to the source mechanism. Finally, the differences among time-space distribution, magnitude, source mechanism, amplitude, and frequency were used to differentiate natural faults and manmade fractures.

  14. Tectonic inheritance, reactivation and long term fault weakening processes (United States)

    Holdsworth, Bob


    This talk gives a geological review of weakening processes in faults and their long-term effect on reactivation and tectonic inheritance during crustal deformation. Examples will be drawn from the Atlantic margins, N America, Japan and the Alps. Tectonic inheritance and reactivation are fundamentally controlled by the processes of stress concentration and shear localisation manifested at all scales in the continental lithosphere. Lithosphere-scale controls include crustal thickness, thermal age and the boundary conditions imposed by the causative plate tectonic processes during extension. At the other end of the scale range, grain-scale controls include local environmental controls (depth, stress, strain rate), rock composition, grainsize, fabric intensity and the presence of fluids or melt. Intermediate-scale geometric controls are largely related to the size, orientation and interconnectivity of pre-existing anisotropies. If reactivation of pre-existing structures occurs, it likely requires a combination of processes across all three scale ranges to be favourable. This can make the unequivocal recognition of inheritance and reactivation difficult. Large (e.g. crustal-scale) pre-existing structures are especially important due to their ability to efficiently concentrate stress and localise strain. For big faults (San Andreas, Great Glen, Median Tectonic Line), detailed studies of the associated exposed fault rocks indicate that reactivation is linked to the development of strongly anisotropic phyllosilicate-rich fault rocks that are weak (e.g. friction coefficients as low as 0.2 or less) under a broad range of deformation conditions. In the case of pre-existing regional dyke swarms (S Atlantic, NW Scotland) - which may themselves track deep mantle fabrics at depth - multiple reactivation of dyke margins is widespread and may preclude reactivation of favourably oriented local basement fabrics. In a majority of cases, pre-existing structures in the crust are

  15. Structural and statistical characterization of joints and multi-scale faults in an alternating sandstone and shale turbidite sequence at the Santa Susana Field Laboratory: Implications for their effects on groundwater flow and contaminant transport (United States)

    Cilona, Antonino; Aydin, Atilla; Likerman, Jeremias; Parker, Beth; Cherry, John


    This paper describes the properties of faults and fractures in the Upper Cretaceous Chatsworth Formation exposed at Santa Susana Field Laboratory and its surroundings (Simi Hills, California), where groundwater flow and contamination have been studied for over three decades. The complex depositional architecture of this turbidite consisting of alternating sandstones and shales, interacting with formative stress conditions are responsible for multi-scale fault hierarchies and permeable fractures in which nearly all groundwater flow occurs. Intensity and distribution of background fractures and their relation to bedding thickness are established for sandstones, the dominant lithology. The architecture of faults with increasing displacement is described, and relationships among fault dimensional parameters captured. Data from ∼400 boreholes and piezometers reveal the effect of faults and fractures on groundwater flow. Large hydraulic head differences, observed across fault zones with shale-rich cores, indicate these structures as cross-flow barriers. Moreover, hydraulic head profiles under ambient conditions, and pumping tests suggest strong hydraulic connectivity in all directions to depth of hundreds of meters. This outcrop-based structural characterization relates the horizontal hydraulic conductivity to the observed well-connected fracture network, and explains the strong vertical connectivity across low-hydraulic conductivity shales as faults and sheared fractures provide flow pathways.

  16. CO2 geosequestration at the laboratory scale: Combined geophysical and hydromechanical assessment of weakly-cemented shallow Sleipner-like reservoirs (United States)

    Falcon-Suarez, I.; North, L. J.; Best, A. I.


    To date, the most promising mitigation strategy for reducing global carbon emissions is Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS). The storage technology (i.e., CO2 geosequestration, CGS) consists of injecting CO2 into deep geological formations, specifically selected for such massive-scale storage. To guarantee the mechanical stability of the reservoir during and after injection, it is crucial to improve existing monitoring techniques for controlling CGS activities. We developed a comprehensive experimental program to investigate the integrity of the Sleipner CO2 storage site in the North Sea - the first commercial CCS project in history where 1 Mtn/y of CO2 has been injected since 1996. We assessed hydro-mechanical effects and the related geophysical signatures of three synthetic sandstones and samples from the Utsira Sand formation (main reservoir at Sleipner), at realistic pressure-temperature (PT) conditions and fluid compositions. Our experimental approach consists of brine-CO2 flow-through tests simulating variable inflation/depletion scenarios, performed in the CGS-rig (Fig. 1; Falcon-Suarez et al., 2017) at the National Oceanography Centre (NOC) in Southampton. The rig is designed for simultaneous monitoring of ultrasonic P- and S-wave velocities and attenuations, electrical resistivity, axial and radial strains, pore pressure and flow, during the co-injection of up to two fluids under controlled PT conditions. Our results show velocity-resistivity and seismic-geomechanical relations of practical importance for the distinction between pore pressure and pore fluid distribution during CGS activities. By combining geophysical and thermo-hydro-mechano-chemical coupled information, we can provide laboratory datasets that complement in situ seismic, geomechanical and electrical survey information, useful for the CO2 plume monitoring in Sleipner site and other shallow weakly-cemented sand CCS reservoirs. Falcon-Suarez, I., Marín-Moreno, H., Browning, F., Lichtschlag, A

  17. Field Evidence for a Low Permeability, High Storage Fault Core at the Santa Susana Field Laboratory (United States)

    Allègre, V.; Brodsky, E. E.; Parker, B. L.; Cherry, J. A.


    In situ measurements of hydrogeologic properties within fault zones are few, in part because of the challenges of measuring the scale-dependent quantities in fractured rock reservoirs. This work aims to fill the gap by utilizing a combination of tidal, barometric and seismic response analyses on pressure head time-series from the Santa Susana Field Laboratory in Southern California. The techniques sample different effective volumes and so allow us to investigate the scale-dependent structure near fault zones. Permeability and specific storage were inverted from tidal response at 14 locations, and specific storage was also computed from barometric efficiencies at 10 locations. In addition, we computed hydro-seismic transfer functions after nine local earthquakes and teleseismic events. We found that permeability computed from tidal response are quite homogeneous within about one and a half orders of magnitude over the site regardless of the presence of moderate to large faults. This result is consistent with the earlier aquifer tests using standard methods. The tidal responses also showed higher variability of specific storage inside the fault zones suggesting that fault damage zone generates a storage architecture. The storage from the tidal responses can be consistently interpreted for the tidal, barometric and seismic responses. However, the observations require that the permeability inside the fault zones at the spatial scale of the seismic response (~meters) is much lower than at the spatial scale of the tidal response (~10's of meters). The result suggests possible sensitivity to the low permeability fault core, which has been historically difficult to measure at the field scale.

  18. Fast parametric relationships for the large-scale reservoir simulation of mixed CH4-CO2 gas hydrate systems (United States)

    Reagan, Matthew T.; Moridis, George J.; Seim, Katie S.


    A recent Department of Energy field test on the Alaska North Slope has increased interest in the ability to simulate systems of mixed CO2-CH4 hydrates. However, the physically realistic simulation of mixed-hydrate simulation is not yet a fully solved problem. Limited quantitative laboratory data leads to the use of various ab initio, statistical mechanical, or other mathematic representations of mixed-hydrate phase behavior. Few of these methods are suitable for inclusion in reservoir simulations, particularly for systems with large number of grid elements, 3D systems, or systems with complex geometric configurations. In this work, we present a set of fast parametric relationships describing the thermodynamic properties and phase behavior of a mixed methane-carbon dioxide hydrate system. We use well-known, off-the-shelf hydrate physical properties packages to generate a sufficiently large dataset, select the most convenient and efficient mathematical forms, and fit the data to those forms to create a physical properties package suitable for inclusion in the TOUGH+ family of codes. The mapping of the phase and thermodynamic space reveals the complexity of the mixed-hydrate system and allows understanding of the thermodynamics at a level beyond what much of the existing laboratory data and literature currently offer.

  19. Large-scale thermal convection of viscous fluids in a faulted system: 3D test case for numerical codes (United States)

    Magri, Fabien; Cacace, Mauro; Fischer, Thomas; Kolditz, Olaf; Wang, Wenqing; Watanabe, Norihiro


    In contrast to simple homogeneous 1D and 2D systems, no appropriate analytical solutions exist to test onset of thermal convection against numerical models of complex 3D systems that account for variable fluid density and viscosity as well as permeability heterogeneity (e.g. presence of faults). Owing to the importance of thermal convection for the transport of energy and minerals, the development of a benchmark test for density/viscosity driven flow is crucial to ensure that the applied numerical models accurately simulate the physical processes at hands. The presented study proposes a 3D test case for the simulation of thermal convection in a faulted system that accounts for temperature dependent fluid density and viscosity. The linear stability analysis recently developed by Malkovsky and Magri (2016) is used to estimate the critical Rayleigh number above which thermal convection of viscous fluids is triggered. The numerical simulations are carried out using the finite element technique. OpenGeoSys (Kolditz et al., 2012) and Moose (Gaston et al., 2009) results are compared to those obtained using the commercial software FEFLOW (Diersch, 2014) to test the ability of widely applied codes in matching both the critical Rayleigh number and the dynamical features of convective processes. The methodology and Rayleigh expressions given in this study can be applied to any numerical model that deals with 3D geothermal processes in faulted basins as by example the Tiberas Basin (Magri et al., 2016). References Kolditz, O., Bauer, S., Bilke, L., Böttcher, N., Delfs, J. O., Fischer, T., U. J. Görke, T. Kalbacher, G. Kosakowski, McDermott, C. I., Park, C. H., Radu, F., Rink, K., Shao, H., Shao, H.B., Sun, F., Sun, Y., Sun, A., Singh, K., Taron, J., Walther, M., Wang,W., Watanabe, N., Wu, Y., Xie, M., Xu, W., Zehner, B., 2012. OpenGeoSys: an open-source initiative for numerical simulation of thermo-hydro-mechanical/chemical (THM/C) processes in porous media. Environmental

  20. Influence of the geothermal fluid rheology in the large scale hydro-thermal circulation in Soultz-sous-Forêts reservoir. (United States)

    Vallier, Bérénice; Magnenet, Vincent; Fond, Christophe; Schmittbuhl, Jean


    Many numerical models have been developed in deep geothermal reservoir engineering to interpret field measurements of the natural hydro-thermal circulations or to predict exploitation scenarios. They typically aim at analyzing the Thermo-Hydro-Mechanical and Chemical (THMC) coupling including complex rheologies of the rock matrix like thermo-poro-elasticity. Few approaches address in details the role of the fluid rheology and more specifically the non-linear sensitivity of the brine rheology with temperature and pressure. Here we use the finite element Code_Aster to solve the balance equations of a 2D THM model of the Soultz-sous-Forêts reservoir. The brine properties are assumed to depend on the fluid pressure and the temperature as in Magnenet et al. (2014). A sensitive parameter is the thermal dilatation of the brine that is assumed to depend quadratically with temperature as proposed by the experimental measurements of Rowe and Chou (1970). The rock matrix is homogenized at the scale of the equation resolution assuming to have a representative elementary volume of the fractured medium smaller than the mesh size. We still chose four main geological units to adjust the rock physic parameters at large scale: thermal conductivity, permeability, radioactive source production rate, elastic and Biot parameters. We obtain a three layer solution with a large hydro-thermal convection below the cover-basement transition. Interestingly, the geothermal gradient in the sedimentary layer is controlled by the radioactive production rate in the upper altered granite. The second part of the study deals with an inversion approach of the homogenized solid and fluid parameters at large scale using our direct THM model. The goal is to compare the large scale inverted estimates of the rock and brine properties with direct laboratory measurements on cores and discuss their upscaling in the context of a fractured network hydraulically active. Magnenet V., Fond C., Genter A. and

  1. A systematic assessment of watershed-scale nonpoint source pollution during rainfall-runoff events in the Miyun Reservoir watershed. (United States)

    Qiu, Jiali; Shen, Zhenyao; Wei, Guoyuan; Wang, Guobo; Xie, Hui; Lv, Guanping


    The assessment of peak flow rate, total runoff volume, and pollutant loads during rainfall process are very important for the watershed management and the ecological restoration of aquatic environment. Real-time measurements of rainfall-runoff and pollutant loads are always the most reliable approach but are difficult to carry out at all desired location in the watersheds considering the large consumption of material and financial resources. An integrated environmental modeling approach for the estimation of flash streamflow that combines the various hydrological and quality processes during rainstorms within the agricultural watersheds is essential to develop targeted management strategies for the endangered drinking water. This study applied the Hydrological Simulation Program-Fortran (HSPF) to simulate the spatial and temporal variation in hydrological processes and pollutant transport processes during rainstorm events in the Miyun Reservoir watershed, a drinking water resource area in Beijing. The model performance indicators ensured the acceptable applicability of the HSPF model to simulate flow and pollutant loads in the studied watershed and to establish a relationship between land use and the parameter values. The proportion of soil and land use was then identified as the influencing factors of the pollution intensities. The results indicated that the flush concentrations were much higher than those observed during normal flow periods and considerably exceeded the limits of Class III Environmental Quality Standards for Surface Water (GB3838-2002) for the secondary protection zones of the drinking water resource in China. Agricultural land and leached cinnamon soils were identified as the key sources of sediment, nutrients, and fecal coliforms. Precipitation volume was identified as a driving factor that determined the amount of runoff and pollutant loads during rainfall processes. These results are useful to improve the streamflow predictions, provide

  2. The role of reservoir characterization in the reservoir management process (as reflected in the Department of Energy`s reservoir management demonstration program)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fowler, M.L. [BDM-Petroleum Technologies, Bartlesville, OK (United States); Young, M.A.; Madden, M.P. [BDM-Oklahoma, Bartlesville, OK (United States)] [and others


    Optimum reservoir recovery and profitability result from guidance of reservoir practices provided by an effective reservoir management plan. Success in developing the best, most appropriate reservoir management plan requires knowledge and consideration of (1) the reservoir system including rocks, and rock-fluid interactions (i.e., a characterization of the reservoir) as well as wellbores and associated equipment and surface facilities; (2) the technologies available to describe, analyze, and exploit the reservoir; and (3) the business environment under which the plan will be developed and implemented. Reservoir characterization is the essential to gain needed knowledge of the reservoir for reservoir management plan building. Reservoir characterization efforts can be appropriately scaled by considering the reservoir management context under which the plan is being built. Reservoir management plans de-optimize with time as technology and the business environment change or as new reservoir information indicates the reservoir characterization models on which the current plan is based are inadequate. BDM-Oklahoma and the Department of Energy have implemented a program of reservoir management demonstrations to encourage operators with limited resources and experience to learn, implement, and disperse sound reservoir management techniques through cooperative research and development projects whose objectives are to develop reservoir management plans. In each of the three projects currently underway, careful attention to reservoir management context assures a reservoir characterization approach that is sufficient, but not in excess of what is necessary, to devise and implement an effective reservoir management plan.

  3. Anisotropy of permeability in faulted porous sandstones (United States)

    Farrell, N. J. C.; Healy, D.; Taylor, C. W.


    Studies of fault rock permeabilities advance the understanding of fluid migration patterns around faults and contribute to predictions of fault stability. In this study a new model is proposed combining brittle deformation structures formed during faulting, with fluid flow through pores. It assesses the impact of faulting on the permeability anisotropy of porous sandstone, hypothesising that the formation of fault related micro-scale deformation structures will alter the host rock porosity organisation and create new permeability pathways. Core plugs and thin sections were sampled around a normal fault and oriented with respect to the fault plane. Anisotropy of permeability was determined in three orientations to the fault plane at ambient and confining pressures. Results show that permeabilities measured parallel to fault dip were up to 10 times higher than along fault strike permeability. Analysis of corresponding thin sections shows elongate pores oriented at a low angle to the maximum principal palaeo-stress (σ1) and parallel to fault dip, indicating that permeability anisotropy is produced by grain scale deformation mechanisms associated with faulting. Using a soil mechanics 'void cell model' this study shows how elongate pores could be produced in faulted porous sandstone by compaction and reorganisation of grains through shearing and cataclasis.

  4. Development of Reservoir Characterization Techniques and Production Models for Exploiting Naturally Fractured Reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiggins, M.L.; Evans, R.D.; Brown, R.L.; Gupta, A.


    This report focuses on integrating geoscience and engineering data to develop a consistent characterization of the naturally fractured reservoirs. During this reporting period, effort was focused on relating seismic data to reservoir properties of naturally fractured reservoirs, scaling well log data to generate interwell descriptors of these reservoirs, enhancing and debugging a naturally fractured reservoir simulator, and developing a horizontal wellbore model for use in the simulator.

  5. Continuity of slip rates over various time scales on the Puente Hills Blind-thrust Fault, Los Angeles, California (United States)

    Bergen, Kristian J.; Shaw, John H.; Leon, Lorraine A.; Dolan, James F.; Pratt, Thomas L.; Ponti, Daniel J.; Barrera, Wendy; Rhodes, Edward J.; Murari, Madhav K.; Owen, Lewis A.


    Our study seeks to assess the history of slip on the Los Angeles segment of the Puente Hills blind-thrust fault system (PHT) from its inception through the Holocene by integrating a suite of geological and geophysical datasets. The PHT presents one of the largest seismic hazards in the United States, given its location beneath downtown Los Angeles. It is also well suited to slip rate studies, as fold scarps formed by slip on the PHT at depth have been continually buried by flood deposits from the Los Angeles and San Gabriel Rivers, preserving a record of uplift in the form of growth stratigraphy. We determined uplift from the growth stratigraphy by measuring the difference in sediment thickness across the folded layers. At our study site above the western segment of the PHT, the fold structure was imaged by industry seismic reflection data and a pair of high-resolution (100 to 700 m depth) seismic reflection profiles acquired by the authors for this study using weight drop and small vibrator sources. The industry and high-resolution profiles were stacked, migrated and depth converted using a velocity model based on the stacking velocities and the Southern California Earthquake Center Community Velocity Model. The shallowest layers of growth stratigraphy were geometrically constrained by lithological correlations across a series of cone penetration tests and continuously cored boreholes. Age control was provided by radiocarbon dating, optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) and infrared stimulated luminescence (IRSL) dating, and sequence-stratigraphic boundaries. Radiocarbon dating was used to constrain individual earthquake event ages in the borehole transect. Using a novel coring procedure, light-protected samples for quartz OSL and feldspar IRSL dating were acquired from a 171-m-deep borehole that we drilled within the growth fold. These samples provided age constraints on growth strata that were tied to prominent seismic reflections and were combined with

  6. CO2 Reaction Induced Wettability Alteration and its Impacts on CO2 Storage: Pore to Core Scale Reservoir Condition Experimental Studies (United States)

    Wan, J.; Tokunaga, T. K.; Kim, Y.; Jung, J.; Kim, T.; Dong, W.


    Wettability of the mineral surfaces plays an important role in subsurface multiphase flow and transport. Wettability affects the capillary pressure-saturation (Pc- S) relations, relative permeability (kr) of each fluid phase, and relative phase occupancy in reservoir pores. Although wettability issues have been studied extensively in other fields, significant knowledge gaps remain when applying the existing understanding to geological carbon sequestration; due largely to the unique physical-chemical properties of supercritical (sc) CO2 relative to other common non-wetting fluids such as air and oil. Here, we report our recent progress on wettability alteration upon reaction with CO2 and the resulting differences in capillary trapping of CO2 versus air. (1) Pore Scale Studies. There are conflict predictions in the literature concerning the effect of wettability on capillary trapping; some find that larger contact angles lead to lower capillary trapping while others have found opposite behavior. We hypothesized that spontaneous imbibition becomes energetically unfavorable with decreased wettability, so that increased residual trapping of scCO2 should occur during the post-injection inbibition stage. We developed a laboratory high-pressure and elevated temperature microscopic-micromodel system that is capable of controlling fine scale capillary pressure of scCO2-brine, and enabled us to conduct imbibition under controlled capillary pressures at the pore scale. We found that the de-wetting enhanced scCO2 capillary trapping is significant. These results suggest that scCO2 reaction induced dewetting can result in higher degrees of CO2 residual trapping in the post-injection stage than previously predicted. (2) Core Scale Studies. Capillary scaling is used routinely to predict Pc(S) relations for scCO2-brine systems at field scale, based on relations measured with air-water or mercury porosimetry. However, scaling-based predictions for CO2-brine systems have not been

  7. Fault diagnosis (United States)

    Abbott, Kathy


    The objective of the research in this area of fault management is to develop and implement a decision aiding concept for diagnosing faults, especially faults which are difficult for pilots to identify, and to develop methods for presenting the diagnosis information to the flight crew in a timely and comprehensible manner. The requirements for the diagnosis concept were identified by interviewing pilots, analyzing actual incident and accident cases, and examining psychology literature on how humans perform diagnosis. The diagnosis decision aiding concept developed based on those requirements takes abnormal sensor readings as input, as identified by a fault monitor. Based on these abnormal sensor readings, the diagnosis concept identifies the cause or source of the fault and all components affected by the fault. This concept was implemented for diagnosis of aircraft propulsion and hydraulic subsystems in a computer program called Draphys (Diagnostic Reasoning About Physical Systems). Draphys is unique in two important ways. First, it uses models of both functional and physical relationships in the subsystems. Using both models enables the diagnostic reasoning to identify the fault propagation as the faulted system continues to operate, and to diagnose physical damage. Draphys also reasons about behavior of the faulted system over time, to eliminate possibilities as more information becomes available, and to update the system status as more components are affected by the fault. The crew interface research is examining display issues associated with presenting diagnosis information to the flight crew. One study examined issues for presenting system status information. One lesson learned from that study was that pilots found fault situations to be more complex if they involved multiple subsystems. Another was pilots could identify the faulted systems more quickly if the system status was presented in pictorial or text format. Another study is currently under way to

  8. FOX: A Fault-Oblivious Extreme-Scale Execution Environment Boston University Final Report Project Number: DE-SC0005365

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Appavoo, Jonathan [Boston Univ., MA (United States)


    Exascale computing systems will provide a thousand-fold increase in parallelism and a proportional increase in failure rate relative to today's machines. Systems software for exascale machines must provide the infrastructure to support existing applications while simultaneously enabling efficient execution of new programming models that naturally express dynamic, adaptive, irregular computation; coupled simulations; and massive data analysis in a highly unreliable hardware environment with billions of threads of execution. The FOX project explored systems software and runtime support for a new approach to the data and work distribution for fault oblivious application execution. Our major OS work at Boston University focused on developing a new light-weight operating systems model that provides an appropriate context for both multi-core and multi-node application development. This work is discussed in section 1. Early on in the FOX project BU developed infrastructure for prototyping dynamic HPC environments in which the sets of nodes that an application is run on can be dynamically grown or shrunk. This work was an extension of the Kittyhawk project and is discussed in section 2. Section 3 documents the publications and software repositories that we have produced. To put our work in context of the complete FOX project contribution we include in section 4 an extended version of a paper that documents the complete work of the FOX team.

  9. Fault displacement along the Naruto-South fault, the Median Tectonic Line active fault system in the eastern part of Shikoku, southwestern Japan


    高田, 圭太; 中田, 高; 後藤, 秀昭; 岡田, 篤正; 原口, 強; 松木, 宏彰


    The Naruto-South fault is situated of about 1000m south of the Naruto fault, the Median Tectonic Line active fault system in the eastern part of Shikoku. We investigated fault topography and subsurface geology of this fault by interpretation of large scale aerial photographs, collecting borehole data and Geo-Slicer survey. The results obtained are as follows; 1) The Naruto-South fault runs on the Yoshino River deltaic plain at least 2.5 km long with fault scarplet. the Naruto-South fault is o...

  10. 3D architecture modeling of reservoir compartments in a Shingled Turbidite Reservoir using high-resolution seismic data and sparse well control, example from Mars {open_quotes}Pink{close_quotes} reservoir, Mississippi Canyon Area, Gulf of Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chapin, M.A.; Mahaffie, M.J.; Tiller, G.M. [Shell Exploration and Production Technology Co., Houston, TX (United States)


    Economics of most deep-water development projects require large reservoir volumes to be drained with relatively few wells. The presence of reservoir compartments must therefore be detected and planned for in a pre-development stage. We have used 3-D seismic data to constrain large-scale, deterministic reservoir bodies in a 3-D architecture model of Pliocene-turbidite sands of the {open_quotes}E{close_quotes} or {open_quotes}Pink{close_quotes} reservoir, Prospect Mars, Mississippi Canyon Areas 763 and 807, Gulf of Mexico. Reservoir compartmentalization is influenced by stratigraphic shingling, which in turn is caused by low accommodation space predentin the upper portion of a ponded seismic sequence within a salt withdrawal mini-basin. The accumulation is limited by updip onlap onto a condensed section marl, and by lateral truncation by a large scale submarine erosion surface. Compartments were suggested by RFT pressure variations and by geochemical analysis of RFT fluid samples. A geological interpretation derived from high-resolution 3-D seismic and three wells was linked to 3-D architecture models through seismic inversion, resulting in a reservoir all available data. Distinguishing subtle stratigraphical shingles from faults was accomplished by detailed, loop-level mapping, and was important to characterize the different types of reservoir compartments. Seismic inversion was used to detune the seismic amplitude, adjust sandbody thickness, and update the rock properties. Recent development wells confirm the architectural style identified. This modeling project illustrates how high-quality seismic data and architecture models can be combined in a pre-development phase of a prospect, in order to optimize well placement.

  11. 3D architecture modeling of reservoir compartments in a Shingled Turbidite Reservoir using high-resolution seismic data and sparse well control, example from Mars [open quotes]Pink[close quotes] reservoir, Mississippi Canyon Area, Gulf of Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chapin, M.A.; Mahaffie, M.J.; Tiller, G.M. (Shell Exploration and Production Technology Co., Houston, TX (United States))


    Economics of most deep-water development projects require large reservoir volumes to be drained with relatively few wells. The presence of reservoir compartments must therefore be detected and planned for in a pre-development stage. We have used 3-D seismic data to constrain large-scale, deterministic reservoir bodies in a 3-D architecture model of Pliocene-turbidite sands of the [open quotes]E[close quotes] or [open quotes]Pink[close quotes] reservoir, Prospect Mars, Mississippi Canyon Areas 763 and 807, Gulf of Mexico. Reservoir compartmentalization is influenced by stratigraphic shingling, which in turn is caused by low accommodation space predentin the upper portion of a ponded seismic sequence within a salt withdrawal mini-basin. The accumulation is limited by updip onlap onto a condensed section marl, and by lateral truncation by a large scale submarine erosion surface. Compartments were suggested by RFT pressure variations and by geochemical analysis of RFT fluid samples. A geological interpretation derived from high-resolution 3-D seismic and three wells was linked to 3-D architecture models through seismic inversion, resulting in a reservoir all available data. Distinguishing subtle stratigraphical shingles from faults was accomplished by detailed, loop-level mapping, and was important to characterize the different types of reservoir compartments. Seismic inversion was used to detune the seismic amplitude, adjust sandbody thickness, and update the rock properties. Recent development wells confirm the architectural style identified. This modeling project illustrates how high-quality seismic data and architecture models can be combined in a pre-development phase of a prospect, in order to optimize well placement.

  12. Fatigue Damage Prognosis in FRP Composites by Combining Multi-Scale Degradation Fault Modes in an Uncertainty Bayesian Framework (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In this work, a framework for the estimation of the fatigue damage propagation in CFRP composites is proposed. Macro-scale phenomena such as stiffness and strength...

  13. Long-term trend analysis of reservoir water quality and quantity at the landscape scale in two major river basins of Texas, USA. (United States)

    Patino, Reynaldo; Asquith, William H.; VanLandeghem, Matthew M.; Dawson, D.


    Trends in water quality and quantity were assessed for 11 major reservoirs of the Brazos and Colorado river basins in the southern Great Plains (maximum period of record, 1965–2010). Water quality, major contributing-stream inflow, storage, local precipitation, and basin-wide total water withdrawals were analyzed. Inflow and storage decreased and total phosphorus increased in most reservoirs. The overall, warmest-, or coldest-monthly temperatures increased in 7 reservoirs, decreased in 1 reservoir, and did not significantly change in 3 reservoirs. The most common monotonic trend in salinity-related variables (specific conductance, chloride, sulfate) was one of no change, and when significant change occurred, it was inconsistent among reservoirs. No significant change was detected in monthly sums of local precipitation. Annual water withdrawals increased in both basins, but the increase was significant (P quality data due to the presence of high- and low-salinity reservoirs in both basins. These observations present a landscape in the Brazos and Colorado river basins where, in the last ∼40 years, reservoir inflow and storage generally decreased, eutrophication generally increased, and water temperature generally increased in at least 1 of 3 temperature indicators evaluated. Because local precipitation remained generally stable, observed reductions in reservoir inflow and storage during the study period may be attributable to other proximate factors, including increased water withdrawals (at least in the Colorado River basin) or decreased runoff from contributing watersheds.

  14. Nebula Scale Mixing Between Non-Carbonaceous and Carbonaceous Chondrite Reservoirs: Testing the Grand Tack Model with Almahata Sitta Stones (United States)

    Yin, Q.-Z.; Sanborn, M. E.; Goodrich, C. A.; Zolensky, M.; Fioretti, A. M.; Shaddad, M.; Kohl, I. E.; Young, E. D.


    There is an increasing number of Cr-O-Ti isotope studies that show that solar system materials are divided into two main populations, one carbonaceous chondrite (CC)-like and the other is non-carbonaceous (NCC)-like, with minimal mixing between them attributed to a gap opened in the propoplanetary disk due to Jupiter's formation. The Grand Tack model suggests that there should be a particular time in the disk history when this gap is breached and ensuring a subsequent large-scale mixing between S- and C-type asteroids (inner solar system and outer solar system materials), an idea supported by our recent work on chondrule (Delta)17O-(epsilon)54Cr isotope systematics.

  15. Spatial Distribution, Scaling and Self-similar Behavior of Fracture Arrays in the Los Planes Fault, Baja California Sur, Mexico (United States)

    Nieto-Samaniego, A. F.; Alaniz-Alvarez, S. A.; Tolson, G.; Oleschko, K.; Korvin, G.; Xu, S. S.; Pérez-Venzor, J. A.


    We present a case of detailed analysis of fracture arrays spanning four orders of magnitude in length; all of them measured at a single natural site by acquiring images at progressively larger scales. There is a high dispersion of cumulative-length exponents, box dimensions and fracture densities. However, the fractal analysis supports the fractal nature of fracture arrays. Our data indicate the existence of an upper limit for the density parameters, as similarly reported by other authors. We prove that box dimension is in inverse relation with fracture concentration and in direct relation with fracture density. These relations are also observed in our data and additionally there is an upper limit for the box dimensions. We interpret the dispersion in our results as more fundamental than methodological problems. It represents a truncation in the complete evolution of the fracture systems because in natural cases strain initiates overprinting of previous fracture arrays. Considering that larger fractures accommodate strain more efficiently than small fractures, the generation of small fractures is inhibited in the presence of pre-existing larger fractures. Maximum values of fracture density prevent accommodating an excess of strain in a single or restricted range of scales; we claim this condition produces migration of fracturing to larger scales originating fracture scaling.

  16. Static reservoir modeling of the Bahariya reservoirs for the oilfields development in South Umbarka area, Western Desert, Egypt (United States)

    Abdel-Fattah, Mohamed I.; Metwalli, Farouk I.; Mesilhi, El Sayed I.


    3D static reservoir modeling of the Bahariya reservoirs using seismic and wells data can be a relevant part of an overall strategy for the oilfields development in South Umbarka area (Western Desert, Egypt). The seismic data is used to build the 3D grid, including fault sticks for the fault modeling, and horizon interpretations and surfaces for horizon modeling. The 3D grid is the digital representation of the structural geology of Bahariya Formation. When we got a reasonably accurate representation, we fill the 3D grid with facies and petrophysical properties to simulate it, to gain a more precise understanding of the reservoir properties behavior. Sequential Indicator Simulation (SIS) and Sequential Gaussian Simulation (SGS) techniques are the stochastic algorithms used to spatially distribute discrete reservoir properties (facies) and continuous reservoir properties (shale volume, porosity, and water saturation) respectively within the created 3D grid throughout property modeling. The structural model of Bahariya Formation exhibits the trapping mechanism which is a fault assisted anticlinal closure trending NW-SE. This major fault breaks the reservoirs into two major fault blocks (North Block and South Block). Petrophysical models classified Lower Bahariya reservoir as a moderate to good reservoir rather than Upper Bahariya reservoir in terms of facies, with good porosity and permeability, low water saturation, and moderate net to gross. The Original Oil In Place (OOIP) values of modeled Bahariya reservoirs show hydrocarbon accumulation in economic quantity, considering the high structural dips at the central part of South Umbarka area. The powerful of 3D static modeling technique has provided a considerable insight into the future prediction of Bahariya reservoirs performance and production behavior.

  17. Reservoir Structure and Wastewater-Induced Seismicity at the Val d'Agri Oilfield (Italy) Shown by Three-Dimensional Vp and Vp/Vs Local Earthquake Tomography (United States)

    Improta, L.; Bagh, S.; De Gori, P.; Valoroso, L.; Pastori, M.; Piccinini, D.; Chiarabba, C.; Anselmi, M.; Buttinelli, M.


    Wastewater injection into a high-rate well in the Val d'Agri oilfield, the largest in onshore Europe, has induced swarm microseismicity since the initiation of disposal in 2006. To investigate the reservoir structure and to track seismicity, we performed a high-spatial resolution local earthquake tomography using 1,281 natural and induced earthquakes recorded by local networks. The properties of the carbonate reservoir (rock fracturing, pore fluid pressure) and inherited faults control the occurrence and spatiotemporal distribution of seismicity. A low-Vp, high-Vp/Vs region under the well represents a fluid saturated fault zone ruptured by induced seismicity. High-Vp, high-Vp/Vs bumps match reservoir culminations indicating saturated liquid-bearing zones, whereas a very low Vp, low Vp/Vs anomaly might represent a strongly fractured and depleted zone of the hydrocarbon reservoir characterized by significant fluid withdrawal. The comprehensive picture of the injection-linked seismicity obtained by integrating reservoir-scale tomography, high-precision earthquake locations, and geophysical and injection data suggests that the driving mechanism is the channeling of pore pressure perturbations through a high permeable fault damage zone within the reservoir. The damage zone surrounds a Pliocene reverse fault optimally oriented in the current extensional stress field. The ruptured damage zone measures 2 km along strike and 3 km along dip and is confined between low permeability ductile formations. Injection pressure is the primary parameter controlling seismicity rate. Our study underlines that local earthquake tomography also using wastewater-induced seismicity can give useful insights into the physical mechanism leading to these earthquakes.

  18. Developing Large-Scale Bayesian Networks by Composition: Fault Diagnosis of Electrical Power Systems in Aircraft and Spacecraft (United States)

    Mengshoel, Ole Jakob; Poll, Scott; Kurtoglu, Tolga


    This CD contains files that support the talk (see CASI ID 20100021404). There are 24 models that relate to the ADAPT system and 1 Excel worksheet. In the paper an investigation into the use of Bayesian networks to construct large-scale diagnostic systems is described. The high-level specifications, Bayesian networks, clique trees, and arithmetic circuits representing 24 different electrical power systems are described in the talk. The data in the CD are the models of the 24 different power systems.

  19. The small-scale urban reservoir fisheries of Lago Paranoá, Brasília, DF, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Walter

    Full Text Available In many cases in large urban centers, which have appropriate waterbodies, small-scale fisheries are the only source of cheap protein for the poor. In Lago Paranoá, located in Brasília, the capital city of Brazil, fishing was studied by conducting interviews with 53 fishers filling in logbooks from March, 1999 to March, 2000 in three fishing communities. The fishers come from the poorest towns around Brasília, known as satellite-towns. They have been living there on average for 21.7 years (s = 9.6 years, their families have 4.9 members (s = 3.6 on average and 44.2% do not have a basic education. However, such characteristics are similar to the socioeconomic indices of the metropolis where they live. In spite of being illegal between 1966 and 2000, fishing generated an average monthly income of U$ 239.00 (s = U$ 171.77. The Nile Tilapia Oreocrhromis niloticus is the main captured species (85% of a total number of landings in weight of 62.5 t.. Fishing is carried out in rowing boats, individually or in pairs. The fishing equipment used are gillnets and castnets. Gillnets were used actively, whereby the surface of the water is beaten with a stick to drive Tilapias towards nets as they have the ability to swim backwards. This fishing strategy was used in 64.7% of the fisheries, followed by castnets (31.1% and by gillnets which were used less (4.2%. The fish is sold directly in the streets and fairs of the satellite-towns to middlemen or to bar owners. Three communities have different strategies in terms of fishing equipments, fishing spots and commercialization. Consequently, there are statistically significant differences in relation to the monthly income for each one of these communities.

  20. Limnology in the Upper Paraná River floodplain: large-scale spatial and temporal patterns, and the influence of reservoirs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MC. Roberto

    Full Text Available Knowledge of abiotic limnological factors is important to monitor changes caused by humans, and to explain the structure and dynamics of populations and communities in a variety of inland water ecosystems. In this study, we used a long term data-set (eight years collected in 10 habitats with different features (river channels, and connected and isolated lakes to describe the spatial and temporal patterns of some of the principal limnological factors. In general, the degree of connectivity of the lakes, together with the rivers to which the lakes are connected, were important determinants of their limnological characteristics. These differences are expected, because rivers entering the floodplain come from different geological regions and are subject to different human impacts. At large spatial scales, these differences contribute to the increased habitat diversity of the floodplain and thus to its high biodiversity. With regard to temporal variation, Secchi-disk transparency increased, and total phosphorus decreased in the Paraná River main channel during the last 20 years. Although these changes are directly attributed to the several reservoir cascades located upstream, the closing of the Porto Primavera dam in 1998 enhanced this effect. The increase in water transparency explains biotic changes within the floodplain. The lower-phosphorus Paraná River water probably dilutes concentrations of this element in the floodplain waterbodies during major floods, with future consequences for their productivity.

  1. Assemblage of strike-slip faults and tectonic extension and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    Assemblage of strike-slip faults and tectonic. 1 extension and compression analysis: A case. 2 study of a Lower Permian commercial coal. 3 reservoir in China. 4. 5. Shuai Yina,*, Dawei Lvb, Zhonghu Wu c .... high-quality reservoirs, and tectonic action is a leading factor for oil and gas. 70 enrichment. Therefore, it is of great ...

  2. Experimental and simulation studies of pore scale flow and reactive transport associated with supercritical CO2 injection into brine-filled reservoir rocks (Invited) (United States)

    DePaolo, D. J.; Steefel, C. I.; Bourg, I. C.


    This talk will review recent research relating to pore scale reactive transport effects done in the context of the Department of Energy-sponsored Energy Frontier Research Center led by Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory with several other laboratory and University partners. This Center, called the Center for Nanoscale Controls on Geologic CO2 (NCGC) has focused effort on the behavior of supercritical CO2 being injected into and/or residing as capillary trapped-bubbles in sandstone and shale, with particular emphasis on the description of nanoscale to pore scale processes that could provide the basis for advanced simulations. In general, simulation of reservoir-scale behavior of CO2 sequestration assumes a number of mostly qualitative relationships that are defensible as nominal first-order descriptions of single-fluid systems, but neglect the many complications that are associated with a two-phase or three-phase reactive system. The contrasts in properties, and the mixing behavior of scCO2 and brine provide unusual conditions for water-rock interaction, and the NCGC has investigated the underlying issues by a combination of approaches including theoretical and experimental studies of mineral nucleation and growth, experimental studies of brine films, mineral wetting properties, dissolution-precipitation rates and infiltration patterns, molecular dynamic simulations and neutron scattering experiments of fluid properties for fluid confined in nanopores, and various approaches to numerical simulation of reactive transport processes. The work to date has placed new constraints on the thickness of brine films, and also on the wetting properties of CO2 versus brine, a property that varies between minerals and with salinity, and may also change with time as a result of the reactivity of CO2-saturated brine. Mineral dissolution is dependent on reactive surface area, which can be shown to vary by a large factor for various minerals, especially when correlated with

  3. Scale-dependence of hydraulic properties observed in fractured sedimentary rocks through large scale pumping test (United States)

    Guihéneuf, N.; Dausse, A.; de Dreuzy, J. R.; Cherry, J. A.; Parker, B. L.


    Predicting flow in fractured reservoirs remains challenging as it highly depends on hydraulic connectivity of fractures which can vary from point to point. Classical pumping experiments conducted in fractured reservoirs often display fractional flow and anomalous slow diffusion due to bottlenecks or dead zones, characteristic of heterogeneity. In order to investigate reservoir properties at a contaminated site in the Simi Hills (South California, USA), composed by sandstones (dominant calcite cement) inter-bedded with fine-grained formations (shales, siltstones and mudstones), a large scale pumping test was performed in a major fault over 151 days. Deconvolution was applied first to remove the effect of variable flow rates and obtain constant-rate responses of the reservoir. Next, pressure-transients were analyzed both in time and space to get flow dimension, n, through the pressure derivative and extract the anomalous diffusion exponent, dw, as well as the fractal dimension, df. Analysis revealed at least two kinds of responses characterized by flow dimensions of 0.08 and 0.39 and anomalous diffusion exponents of 2.16 and 2.93, respectively. These properties, which can be related to major geological structures (i.e. major faults and surrounding fractures network), shows decreasing hydraulic properties (transmissivity, T, and storativity, S), and consequently, decreasing hydraulic connectivity, with increasing scale of investigation. In particular, the major fault (n = 0.39 ; dw = 2.93) shows a relationship of about T S3 with T r-1.36 and S r-0.43, consistent with flow within a fracture, while the surrounding fractures network (n = 0.08 ; dw = 2.16) displays a relationship which follow T S with T r-1.07 and S r-0.91. This scale-dependence of hydraulic properties may help improve groundwater flow prediction in such fractured reservoirs and could be taken into account for long-term transport of contaminants at this site.

  4. Evolution of groundwater chemistry along fault structures in sandstone (United States)

    Dausse, A.; Guiheneuf, N.; Pierce, A. A.; Cherry, J. A.; Parker, B. L.


    Fluid-rock interaction across geological structures plays a major role on evolution of groundwater chemistry and physical properties of reservoirs. In particular, groundwater chemistry evolve on different facies according to residence times which can be linked to hydraulic properties of the geological unit. In this study, we analyze groundwater samples collected at an 11 km² site located in southern California (USA) to evaluate the evolution of groundwater chemistry according to different geological structures. Major and minor elements were sampled at the same period of time from 40 wells located along the main structures in the northeast of the site, where major NE-SW trending faults and other oriented ESE-WNW are present in sandstone Chatsworth formation. By analyzing the spatial distribution of ions concentration at the site scale, several hydrochemical compartments (main- and sub-compartments) can be distinguished and are in agreement with structural and hydrological information. In particular, as previously observed from piezometric informations, the shear zone fault serves as a barrier for groundwater flow and separates the site on two mains compartments. In addition, the analysis along major faults oriented orthogonal to this shear zone (ESE-WNW) in the eastern part of the site, shows an increase in mineralization following the hydraulic gradient. This salinization has been confirmed by ionic ratio and Gibbs plots and is attributed to fluid-rock interaction processes. In particular, groundwater chemistry seems to evolve from bicarbonate to sodium facies. Moreover, the gradient of concentrations vary depending on fault locations and can be related to their hydraulic properties and hence to different characteristic times from point to point. To conclude, major faults across the site display different degrees of groundwater chemistry evolution, linked to their physical properties, which may in turn have a large impact on contaminant transport and attenuation.

  5. Towards an integrated workflow for structural reservoir model updating and history matching

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeuwenburgh, O.; Peters, E.; Wilschut, F.


    A history matching workflow, as typically used for updating of petrophysical reservoir model properties, is modified to include structural parameters including the top reservoir and several fault properties: position, slope, throw and transmissibility. A simple 2D synthetic oil reservoir produced by

  6. Influence of host lithofacies on fault rock variation in carbonate fault zones: A case study from the Island of Malta (United States)

    Michie, E. A. H.


    Relatively few studies have examined fault rock microstructures in carbonates. Understanding fault core production helps predict the hydraulic behaviour of faults and the potential for reservoir compartmentalisation. Normal faults on Malta, ranging from fracture networks that develop into breccias. Alternatively, this lithofacies is commonly recrystallised. In contrast, in the coarse-grained, heterogeneous grain-dominated carbonates the development of faulting is characterised by localised deformation, creating protocataclasite and cataclasite fault rocks. Cementation also occurs within some grain-dominated carbonates close to and on slip surfaces. Fault rock variation is a function of displacement as well as juxtaposed lithofacies. An increase in fault rock variability is observed at higher displacements, potentially creating a more transmissible fault, which opposes what may be expected in siliciclastic and crystalline faults. Significant heterogeneity in the fault rock types formed is likely to create variable permeability along fault-strike, potentially allowing across-fault fluid flow. However, areas with homogeneous fault rocks may generate barriers to fluid flow.

  7. Groundwater sources and geochemical processes in a crystalline fault aquifer (United States)

    Roques, Clément; Aquilina, Luc; Bour, Olivier; Maréchal, Jean-Christophe; Dewandel, Benoît; Pauwels, Hélène; Labasque, Thierry; Vergnaud-Ayraud, Virginie; Hochreutener, Rebecca


    The origin of water flowing in faults and fractures at great depth is poorly known in crystalline media. This paper describes a field study designed to characterize the geochemical compartmentalization of a deep aquifer system constituted by a graben structure where a permeable fault zone was identified. Analyses of the major chemical elements, trace elements, dissolved gases and stable water isotopes reveal the origin of dissolved components for each permeable domain and provide information on various water sources involved during different seasonal regimes. The geochemical response induced by performing a pumping test in the fault-zone is examined, in order to quantify mixing processes and contribution of different permeable domains to the flow. Reactive processes enhanced by the pumped fluxes are also identified and discussed. The fault zone presents different geochemical responses related to changes in hydraulic regime. They are interpreted as different water sources related to various permeable structures within the aquifer. During the low water regime, results suggest mixing of recent water with a clear contribution of older water of inter-glacial origin (recharge temperature around 7 °C), suggesting the involvement of water trapped in a local low-permeability matrix domain or the contribution of large scale circulation loops. During the high water level period, due to inversion of the hydraulic gradient between the major permeable fault zone and its surrounding domains, modern water predominantly flows down to the deep bedrock and ensures recharge at a local scale within the graben. Pumping in a permeable fault zone induces hydraulic connections with storage-reservoirs. The overlaid regolith domain ensures part of the flow rate for long term pumping (around 20% in the present case). During late-time pumping, orthogonal fluxes coming from the fractured domains surrounding the major fault zone are dominant. Storage in the connected fracture network within the

  8. Generation of reservoir models on flexible meshes; Generation de modeles de reservoir sur maillage flexible

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ricard, L.


    The high level geo-statistic description of the subsurface are often far too detailed for use in routine flow simulators. To make flow simulations tractable, the number of grid blocks has to be reduced: an approximation, still relevant with flow description, is necessary. In this work, we place the emphasis on the scaling procedure from the fine scale model to the multi-scale reservoir model. Two main problems appear: Near wells, faults and channels, the volume of flexible cells may be less than fine ones, so we need to solve a down-scaling problem; Far from these regions, the volume of cells are bigger than fine ones so we need to solve an up-scaling problem. In this work, research has been done on each of these three areas: down-scaling, up-scaling and fluid flow simulation. For each of these subjects, a review, some news improvements and comparative study are proposed. The proposed down-scaling method is build to be compatible with existing data integration methods. The comparative study shows that empirical methods are not enough accurate to solve the problem. Concerning the up-scaling step, the proposed approach is based on an existing method: the perturbed boundary conditions. An extension to unstructured mesh is developed for the inter-cell permeability tensor. The comparative study shows that numerical methods are not always as accurate as expected and the empirical model can be sufficient in lot of cases. A new approach to single-phase fluid flow simulation is developed. This approach can handle with full tensorial permeability fields with source or sink terms.(author)

  9. Stress concentrations at structural discontinuities in active fault zones in the western United States: Implications for permeability and fluid flow in geothermal fields (United States)

    Siler, Drew; Hinz, Nicholas H.; Faulds, James E.


    Slip can induce concentration of stresses at discontinuities along fault systems. These structural discontinuities, i.e., fault terminations, fault step-overs, intersections, bends, and other fault interaction areas, are known to host fluid flow in ore deposition systems, oil and gas reservoirs, and geothermal systems. We modeled stress transfer associated with slip on faults with Holocene-to-historic slip histories at the Salt Wells and Bradys geothermal systems in western Nevada, United States. Results show discrete locations of stress perturbation within discontinuities along these fault systems. Well field data, surface geothermal manifestations, and subsurface temperature data, each a proxy for modern fluid circulation in the fields, indicate that geothermal fluid flow is focused in these same areas where stresses are most highly perturbed. These results suggest that submeter- to meter-scale slip on these fault systems generates stress perturbations that are sufficiently large to promote slip on an array of secondary structures spanning the footprint of the modern geothermal activity. Slip on these secondary faults and fractures generates permeability through kinematic deformation and allows for transmission of fluids. Still, mineralization is expected to seal permeability along faults and fractures over time scales that are generally shorter than either earthquake recurrence intervals or the estimated life span of geothermal fields. This suggests that though stress perturbations resulting from fault slip are broadly important for defining the location and spatial extent of enhanced permeability at structural discontinuities, continual generation and maintenance of flow conduits throughout these areas are probably dependent on the deformation mechanism(s) affecting individual structures.

  10. 4. International reservoir characterization technical conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This volume contains the Proceedings of the Fourth International Reservoir Characterization Technical Conference held March 2-4, 1997 in Houston, Texas. The theme for the conference was Advances in Reservoir Characterization for Effective Reservoir Management. On March 2, 1997, the DOE Class Workshop kicked off with tutorials by Dr. Steve Begg (BP Exploration) and Dr. Ganesh Thakur (Chevron). Tutorial presentations are not included in these Proceedings but may be available from the authors. The conference consisted of the following topics: data acquisition; reservoir modeling; scaling reservoir properties; and managing uncertainty. Selected papers have been processed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology database.


    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pollard, David; Aydin, Atilla


    Fractures and faults are brittle structural heterogeneities that can act both as conduits and barriers with respect to fluid flow in rock. This range in the hydraulic effects of fractures and faults greatly complicates the challenges faced by geoscientists working on important problems: from groundwater aquifer and hydrocarbon reservoir management, to subsurface contaminant fate and transport, to underground nuclear waste isolation, to the subsurface sequestration of CO2 produced during fossil-fuel combustion. The research performed under DOE grant DE-FG03-94ER14462 aimed to address these challenges by laying a solid foundation, based on detailed geological mapping, laboratory experiments, and physical process modeling, on which to build our interpretive and predictive capabilities regarding the structure, patterns, and fluid flow properties of fractures and faults in sandstone reservoirs. The material in this final technical report focuses on the period of the investigation from July 1, 2001 to October 31, 2004. The Aztec Sandstone at the Valley of Fire, Nevada, provides an unusually rich natural laboratory in which exposures of joints, shear deformation bands, compaction bands and faults at scales ranging from centimeters to kilometers can be studied in an analog for sandstone aquifers and reservoirs. The suite of structures there has been documented and studied in detail using a combination of low-altitude aerial photography, outcrop-scale mapping and advanced computational analysis. In addition, chemical alteration patterns indicative of multiple paleo fluid flow events have been mapped at outcrop, local and regional scales. The Valley of Fire region has experienced multiple episodes of fluid flow and this is readily evident in the vibrant patterns of chemical alteration from which the Valley of Fire derives its name. We have successfully integrated detailed field and petrographic observation and analysis, process-based mechanical modeling, and numerical


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pollard, David; Aydin, Atilla


    Fractures and faults are brittle structural heterogeneities that can act both as conduits and barriers with respect to fluid flow in rock. This range in the hydraulic effects of fractures and faults greatly complicates the challenges faced by geoscientists working on important problems: from groundwater aquifer and hydrocarbon reservoir management, to subsurface contaminant fate and transport, to underground nuclear waste isolation, to the subsurface sequestration of CO2 produced during fossil-fuel combustion. The research performed under DOE grant DE-FG03-94ER14462 aimed to address these challenges by laying a solid foundation, based on detailed geological mapping, laboratory experiments, and physical process modeling, on which to build our interpretive and predictive capabilities regarding the structure, patterns, and fluid flow properties of fractures and faults in sandstone reservoirs. The material in this final technical report focuses on the period of the investigation from July 1, 2001 to October 31, 2004. The Aztec Sandstone at the Valley of Fire, Nevada, provides an unusually rich natural laboratory in which exposures of joints, shear deformation bands, compaction bands and faults at scales ranging from centimeters to kilometers can be studied in an analog for sandstone aquifers and reservoirs. The suite of structures there has been documented and studied in detail using a combination of low-altitude aerial photography, outcrop-scale mapping and advanced computational analysis. In addition, chemical alteration patterns indicative of multiple paleo fluid flow events have been mapped at outcrop, local and regional scales. The Valley of Fire region has experienced multiple episodes of fluid flow and this is readily evident in the vibrant patterns of chemical alteration from which the Valley of Fire derives its name. We have successfully integrated detailed field and petrographic observation and analysis, process-based mechanical modeling, and numerical

  13. Geometries of inversion structures and implication for hydrocarbon prospectivity in the Troms-Finnmark Fault Complex, SW Barents Sea (United States)

    Zervas, Ioannis; Olakunle Omosanya, Kamaldeen; Lippard, Stephen John; Johansen, Ståle Emil; Marfo, George


    Several inversion structures have been reported in the Southwestern Barents Sea, however such structures are poorly understood in the Troms-Finnmark Fault Complex (TFFC). This study interpreted three-dimensional (3-D) seismic data mainly in the TFFC and several adjoining structural elements, such as the Harstad and Tromsø Basins, the Finnmark Platform and the Ringvassøy Loppa Fault Complex. The methods used here include detailed seismic interpretation, analysis of structural maps, and fault displacement characterization. Our results show several evidences of localized partial positive inversion, intermittent with rifting events of Middle Jurassic to Early Cretaceous age. The inversion structures are of Middle/Late Triassic to Early Cretaceous age and include snakehead geometries of inverted wedge structures, folds associated with extensional faults, small-scale stratigraphic inversion in a fault network and reverse drag geometries along planar to rotated fault planes. The axial planes of folds associated with extensional faults in the study area revealed two different episodes of contraction linked to either compressional or shearing movements. Causes of inversion may also include far-field stresses related to halokinesis in the Tromsø Basin and uplift of the Loppa High. Inversion structures have had an impact on hydrocarbon prospectivity and accumulation in the TFFC and surrounding basins. Our work shows that localized folds close to extensional faults positively change the geometries of traps within the Stø Fm. (reservoir) and the Hekkingen Fm. (cap rock). In contrast, folding observed in the potential source rock of the Hekkingen Fm. post-dates the timing of petroleum generation and migration. Reactivated faults in the TFFC can act as conduits for hydrocarbons or compromise the sealing integrity of the traps.

  14. Numerical modeling of fluid flow in a fault zone: a case of study from Majella Mountain (Italy). (United States)

    Romano, Valentina; Battaglia, Maurizio; Bigi, Sabina; De'Haven Hyman, Jeffrey; Valocchi, Albert J.


    The study of fluid flow in fractured rocks plays a key role in reservoir management, including CO2 sequestration and waste isolation. We present a numerical model of fluid flow in a fault zone, based on field data acquired in Majella Mountain, in the Central Apennines (Italy). This fault zone is considered a good analogue for the massive presence of fluid migration in the form of tar. Faults are mechanical features and cause permeability heterogeneities in the upper crust, so they strongly influence fluid flow. The distribution of the main components (core, damage zone) can lead the fault zone to act as a conduit, a barrier, or a combined conduit-barrier system. We integrated existing information and our own structural surveys of the area to better identify the major fault features (e.g., type of fractures, statistical properties, geometrical and petro-physical characteristics). In our model the damage zones of the fault are described as discretely fractured medium, while the core of the fault as a porous one. Our model utilizes the dfnWorks code, a parallelized computational suite, developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), that generates three dimensional Discrete Fracture Network (DFN) of the damage zones of the fault and characterizes its hydraulic parameters. The challenge of the study is the coupling between the discrete domain of the damage zones and the continuum one of the core. The field investigations and the basic computational workflow will be described, along with preliminary results of fluid flow simulation at the scale of the fault.

  15. Surface analogue outcrops of deep fractured basement reservoirs in extensional geological settings. Examples within active rift system (Uganda) and proximal passive margin (Morocco). (United States)

    Walter, Bastien; Géraud, Yves; Diraison, Marc


    The important role of extensive brittle faults and related structures in the development of reservoirs has already been demonstrated, notably in initially low-porosity rocks such as basement rocks. Large varieties of deep-seated resources (e.g. water, hydrocarbons, geothermal energy) are recognized in fractured basement reservoirs. Brittle faults and fracture networks can develop sufficient volumes to allow storage and transfer of large amounts of fluids. Development of hydraulic model with dual-porosity implies the structural and petrophysical characterization of the basement. Drain porosity is located within the larger fault zones, which are the main fluid transfer channels. The storage porosity corresponds both to the matrix porosity and to the volume produced by the different fractures networks (e.g. tectonic, primary), which affect the whole reservoir rocks. Multi-scale genetic and geometric relationships between these deformation features support different orders of structural domains in a reservoir, from several tens of kilometers to few tens of meters. In subsurface, 3D seismic data in basement can be sufficient to characterize the largest first order of structural domains and bounding fault zones (thickness, main orientation, internal architecture, …). However, lower order structural blocks and fracture networks are harder to define. The only available data are 1D borehole electric imaging and are used to characterize the lowest order. Analog outcrop studies of basement rocks fill up this resolution gap and help the understanding of brittle deformation, definition of reservoir geometries and acquirement of reservoir properties. These geological outcrop studies give information about structural blocks of second and third order, getting close to the field scale. This allows to understand relationships between brittle structures geometry and factors controlling their development, such as the structural inheritance or the lithology (e.g. schistosity, primary

  16. Area of Interest 1, CO2 at the Interface. Nature and Dynamics of the Reservoir/Caprock Contact and Implications for Carbon Storage Performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mozley, Peter [New Mexico Institute Of Mining And Technology, Socorro, NM (United States); Evans, James [New Mexico Institute Of Mining And Technology, Socorro, NM (United States); Dewers, Thomas [New Mexico Institute Of Mining And Technology, Socorro, NM (United States)


    We examined the influence of geologic features present at the reservoir/caprock interface on the transmission of supercritical CO2 into and through caprock. We focused on the case of deformation-band faults in reservoir lithologies that intersect the interface and transition to opening-mode fractures in caprock lithologies. Deformation-band faults are exceeding common in potential CO2 injection units and our fieldwork in Utah indicates that this sort of transition is common. To quantify the impact of these interface features on flow and transport we first described the sedimentology and permeability characteristics of selected sites along the Navajo Sandstone (reservoir lithology) and Carmel Formation (caprock lithology) interface, and along the Slickrock Member (reservoir lithology) and Earthy Member (caprock lithology) of the Entrada Sandstone interface, and used this information to construct conceptual permeability models for numerical analysis. We then examined the impact of these structures on flow using single-phase and multiphase numerical flow models for these study sites. Key findings include: (1) Deformation-band faults strongly compartmentalize the reservoir and largely block cross-fault flow of supercritical CO2. (2) Significant flow of CO2 through the fractures is possible, however, the magnitude is dependent on the small-scale geometry of the contact between the opening-mode fracture and the deformation band fault. (3) Due to the presence of permeable units in the caprock, caprock units are capable of storing significant volumes of CO2, particularly when the fracture network does not extend all the way through the caprock. The large-scale distribution of these deformation-bandfault-to-opening-mode-fractures is related to the curvature of the beds, with greater densities of fractures in high curvature regions. We also examined core and outcrops from the Mount Simon Sandstone and Eau Claire

  17. Stratigraphic and structural compartmentalization observed within a model turbidite reservoir, Pennsylvanian Upper Jackfork Formation, Hollywood Quarry, Arkansas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slatt, R. [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States); Jordan, D. [Arco International Oil and Gas Co., Plano, TX (United States); Stone, C. [Arkansas Geological Commission, Little Rock, AR (United States)] [and others


    Hollywood Quarry is a 600 x 375 x 150 ft. (200 x 125 x 50m) excavation which provides a window into lower Pennsylvanian Jackfork Formation turbidite stratal architecture along the crest of a faulted anticlinal fold. A variety of turbidite facies are present, including: (a) lenticular, channelized sandstones, pebbly sandstones, and conglomerates within shale, (b) laterally continuous, interbedded thin sandstones and shales, and (c) thicker, laterally continuous shales. The sandstone and shale layers we broken by several strike-slip and reverse faults, with vertical displacements of up to several feet. This combination of facies and structural elements has resulted in a highly compartmentalized stratigraphic interval, both horizontally and vertically, along the anticlinal flexure. The quarry can be considered analogous to a scaled-down turbidite reservoir. Outcrop gamma-ray logs, measured sections, a fault map, and cross sections provide a database which is analogous to what would be available for a subsurface reservoir. Thus, the quarry provides an ideal outdoor geologic and engineering {open_quote}workshop{close_quote} venue for visualizing the potential complexities of a combination structural-stratigraphic (turbidite) reservoir. Since all forms of compartmentalization are readily visible in the quarry, problems related to management of compartmentalized reservoirs can be discussed and analyzed first-hand while standing in the quarry, within this {open_quote}model reservoir{close_quotes}. These problems include: (a) the high degree of stratigraphic and structural complexity that may be encountered, even at close well spacings, (b) uncertainty in well log correlations and log-shape interpretations, (c) variations in volumetric calculations as a function of amount of data available, and (d) potential production problems associated with specific {open_quote}field{close_quote} development plans.

  18. Application of oil gas-chromatography in reservoir compartmentalization in a mature Venezuelan oil field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munoz, N.G.; Mompart, L. [Maraven, Caracas (Venezuela); Talukdar, S.C.


    Gas chromatographic oil {open_quotes}fingerprinting{close_quotes} was successfully applied in a multidisciplinary production geology project by Maraven, S.A. to define the extent of vertical and lateral continuity of Eocene and Miocene sandstone reservoirs in the highly faulted Bloque I field, Maracaibo Basin, Venezuela. Seventy-five non-biodegraded oils (20{degrees}-37.4{degrees} API) were analyzed with gas chromatography. Fifty were produced from the Eocene Misoa C-4, C-5, C-6 or C-7 horizons, fifteen from the Miocene basal La Rosa and ten from multizone completions. Gas chromatographic and terpane and sterane biomarker data show that all of the oils are genetically related. They were expelled from a type II, Upper Cretaceous marine La Luna source rock at about 0.80-0.90% R{sub o} maturity. Alteration in the reservoir by gas stripping with or without subsequent light hydrocarbons mixing was observed in some oils. Detailed chromatographic comparisons among the oils shown by star plots and cluster analysis utilizing several naphthenic and aromatic peak height ratios, resulted in oil pool groupings. This led to finding previously unknown lateral and vertical reservoir communication and also helped in checking and updating the scaling character of faults. In the commingled oils, percentages of each contributing zone in the mixture were also determined giving Maraven engineers a proven, rapid and inexpensive tool for production allocation and reservoir management The oil pool compartmentalization defined by the geochemical fingerprinting is in very good agreement with the sequence stratigraphic interpretation of the reservoirs and helped evaluate the influence of structure in oil migration and trapping.

  19. Polyphase exhumation in the western Qinling Mountains, China: Rapid Early Cretaceous cooling along a lithospheric-scale tear fault and pulsed Cenozoic uplift. (United States)

    Heberer, Bianca; Anzenbacher, Thomas; Neubauer, Franz; Genser, Johann; Dong, Yunpeng; Dunkl, István


    The western sector of the Qinling-Dabie orogenic belt plays a key role in both Late Jurassic to Early Cretaceous "Yanshanian" intracontinental tectonics and Cenozoic lateral escape triggered by India-Asia collision. The Taibai granite in the northern Qinling Mountains is located at the westernmost tip of a Yanshanian granite belt. It consists of multiple intrusions, constrained by new Late Jurassic and Early Cretaceous U-Pb zircon ages (156 ± 3 Ma and 124 ± 1 Ma). Applying various geochronometers ( 40 Ar/ 39 Ar on hornblende, biotite and K-feldspar, apatite fission-track, apatite [U-Th-Sm]/He) along a vertical profile of the Taibai Mountain refines the cooling and exhumation history. The new age constraints record the prolonged pre-Cenozoic intracontinental deformation as well as the cooling history mostly related to India-Asia collision. We detected rapid cooling for the Taibai granite from ca. 800 to 100 °C during Early Cretaceous (ca. 123 to 100 Ma) followed by a period of slow cooling from ca. 100 Ma to ca. 25 Ma, and pulsed exhumation of the low-relief Cretaceous peneplain during Cenozoic times. We interpret the Early Cretaceous rapid cooling and exhumation as a result from activity along the southern sinistral lithospheric scale tear fault of the recently postulated intracontinental subduction of the Archean/Palaeoproterozoic North China Block beneath the Alashan Block. A Late Oligocene to Early Miocene cooling phase might be triggered either by the lateral motion during India-Asia collision and/or the Pacific subduction zone. Late Miocene intensified cooling is ascribed to uplift of the Tibetan Plateau.

  20. Modeling of time-lapse multi-scale seismic monitoring of CO2 injected into a fault zone to enhance the characterization of permeability in enhanced geothermal systems (United States)

    Zhang, R.; Borgia, A.; Daley, T. M.; Oldenburg, C. M.; Jung, Y.; Lee, K. J.; Doughty, C.; Altundas, B.; Chugunov, N.; Ramakrishnan, T. S.


    Subsurface permeable faults and fracture networks play a critical role for enhanced geothermal systems (EGS) by providing conduits for fluid flow. Characterization of the permeable flow paths before and after stimulation is necessary to evaluate and optimize energy extraction. To provide insight into the feasibility of using CO2 as a contrast agent to enhance fault characterization by seismic methods, we model seismic monitoring of supercritical CO2 (scCO2) injected into a fault. During the CO2 injection, the original brine is replaced by scCO2, which leads to variations in geophysical properties of the formation. To explore the technical feasibility of the approach, we present modeling results for different time-lapse seismic methods including surface seismic, vertical seismic profiling (VSP), and a cross-well survey. We simulate the injection and production of CO2 into a normal fault in a system based on the Brady's geothermal field and model pressure and saturation variations in the fault zone using TOUGH2-ECO2N. The simulation results provide changing fluid properties during the injection, such as saturation and salinity changes, which allow us to estimate corresponding changes in seismic properties of the fault and the formation. We model the response of the system to active seismic monitoring in time-lapse mode using an anisotropic finite difference method with modifications for fracture compliance. Results to date show that even narrow fault and fracture zones filled with CO2 can be better detected using the VSP and cross-well survey geometry, while it would be difficult to image the CO2 plume by using surface seismic methods.

  1. Machine Fault Signature Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pratesh Jayaswal


    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to present recent developments in the field of machine fault signature analysis with particular regard to vibration analysis. The different types of faults that can be identified from the vibration signature analysis are, for example, gear fault, rolling contact bearing fault, journal bearing fault, flexible coupling faults, and electrical machine fault. It is not the intention of the authors to attempt to provide a detailed coverage of all the faults while detailed consideration is given to the subject of the rolling element bearing fault signature analysis.

  2. Faulting, fracturing and in-situ stress prediction in the Ahnet Basin, Algeria - a finite element approach.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beekman, W.W.W.; Badsi, M; van Wees, J.D.A.M.


    Many low-efficiency hydrocarbon reservoirs are productive largely because effective reservoir permeability is controlled by faults and natural fractures. Accurate and low-cost information on basic fault and fracture properties, orientation in particular, is critical in reducing well costs and

  3. Optimal fault signal estimation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stoorvogel, Antonie Arij; Niemann, H.H.; Saberi, A.; Sannuti, P.


    We consider here both fault identification and fault signal estimation. Regarding fault identification, we seek either exact or almost fault identification. On the other hand, regarding fault signal estimation, we seek either $H_2$ optimal, $H_2$ suboptimal or Hinfinity suboptimal estimation. By

  4. Fault Tolerant External Memory Algorithms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Allan Grønlund; Brodal, Gerth Stølting; Mølhave, Thomas


    Algorithms dealing with massive data sets are usually designed for I/O-efficiency, often captured by the I/O model by Aggarwal and Vitter. Another aspect of dealing with massive data is how to deal with memory faults, e.g. captured by the adversary based faulty memory RAM by Finocchi and Italiano....... However, current fault tolerant algorithms do not scale beyond the internal memory. In this paper we investigate for the first time the connection between I/O-efficiency in the I/O model and fault tolerance in the faulty memory RAM, and we assume that both memory and disk are unreliable. We show a lower...... bound on the number of I/Os required for any deterministic dictionary that is resilient to memory faults. We design a static and a dynamic deterministic dictionary with optimal query performance as well as an optimal sorting algorithm and an optimal priority queue. Finally, we consider scenarios where...

  5. Distribution and arrest of vertical through-going joints in shallow-water carbonates: Insights from an integrated virtual outcrop - field structural analysis of a reservoir-scale exposure (Sorrento Peninsula, Italy) (United States)

    Corradetti, Amerigo; Tavani, Stefano; Parente, Mariano; Iannace, Alessandro; Vinci, Francesco; Pirmez, Carlos; Torrieri, Stefano; Giorgioni, Maurizio; Pignalosa, Antonio; Mazzoli, Stefano


    Through-going joints cutting across several beds are often invoked to match large-scale permeability patterns in tight carbonate reservoirs. However, despite the importance of these structures for fluid flow, only few field studies focused on the understanding and estimation of through-going joint dimensional parameters, including spacing and vertical extent in relation to stratigraphy. Recent improvements in the construction of virtual models of outcrops can greatly help to overcome many logistic issues, favoring the evaluation of relationships between jointing and stratigraphy at the reservoir scale. In this study, we present the results obtained from integrating field measurements and stratigraphic logs with a virtual outcrop model of a carbonate platform reservoir analogue in the Sorrento peninsula (Italy). The outcrop consists of a nearly vertical cliff exposing a monocline of alternating gently-dipping shallow-water limestones and dolostones, crossed by several vertical joints of different size. This study allowed us to define how major through-going joints pass across thick beds (bed thickness > 30 cm), while they arrest against packages made of thinly stratified layers. In essence, through-going joints arrest on "weak" levels, consisting of thinly bedded layers interposed between packages made of thick beds, in the same manner as bed-confined joints arrest on less competent interlayers.

  6. Towards a better understanding of small scale distribution of littoral age-0 fish in a deep-valley reservoir: day or night surveys?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kratochvíl, Michal; Vašek, Mojmír; Peterka, Jiří; Draštík, Vladislav; Čech, Martin; Jůza, Tomáš; Muška, Milan; Matěna, Josef; Kubečka, Jan


    Roč. 728, č. 1 (2014), s. 125-139 ISSN 0018-8158 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.20.0204 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : spatial distribution * habitat use * juvenile fish * littoral zone * deep reservoirs * electrofishing Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 2.275, year: 2014

  7. Subsidence rates at the southern Salton Sea consistent with reservoir depletion (United States)

    Barbour, Andrew J.; Evans, Eileen; Hickman, Stephen H.; Eneva, Mariana


    Space geodetic measurements from the Envisat satellite between 2003 and 2010 show that subsidence rates near the southeastern shoreline of the Salton Sea in Southern California are up to 52mmyr−1 greater than the far-field background rate. By comparing these measurements with model predictions, we find that this subsidence appears to be dominated by poroelastic contraction associated with ongoing geothermal fluid production, rather than the purely fault-related subsidence proposed previously. Using a simple point source model, we suggest that the source of this proposed volumetric strain is at depths between 1.0 km and 2.4 km (95% confidence interval), comparable to generalized boundaries of the Salton Sea geothermal reservoir. We find that fault slip on two previously imaged tectonic structures, which are part of a larger system of faults in the Brawley Seismic Zone, is not an adequate predictor of surface velocity fields because the magnitudes of the best fitting slip rates are often greater than the full plate boundary rate and at least 2 times greater than characteristic sedimentation rates in this region. Large-scale residual velocity anomalies indicate that spatial patterns predicted by fault slip are incompatible with the observations.

  8. Adaptive PCA based fault diagnosis scheme in imperial smelting process. (United States)

    Hu, Zhikun; Chen, Zhiwen; Gui, Weihua; Jiang, Bin


    In this paper, an adaptive fault detection scheme based on a recursive principal component analysis (PCA) is proposed to deal with the problem of false alarm due to normal process changes in real process. Our further study is also dedicated to develop a fault isolation approach based on Generalized Likelihood Ratio (GLR) test and Singular Value Decomposition (SVD) which is one of general techniques of PCA, on which the off-set and scaling fault can be easily isolated with explicit off-set fault direction and scaling fault classification. The identification of off-set and scaling fault is also applied. The complete scheme of PCA-based fault diagnosis procedure is proposed. The proposed scheme is first applied to Imperial Smelting Process, and the results show that the proposed strategies can be able to mitigate false alarms and isolate faults efficiently. Copyright © 2013 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Reservoir characterization of Pennsylvanian Sandstone Reservoirs. Annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelkar, M.


    This annual report describes the progress during the second year of a project on Reservoir Characterization of Pennsylvanian Sandstone Reservoirs. The report is divided into three sections: (i) reservoir description and scale-up procedures; (ii) outcrop investigation; (iii) in-fill drilling potential. The first section describes the methods by which a reservoir can be characterized, can be described in three dimensions, and can be scaled up with respect to its properties, appropriate for simulation purposes. The second section describes the progress on investigation of an outcrop. The outcrop is an analog of Bartlesville Sandstone. We have drilled ten wells behind the outcrop and collected extensive log and core data. The cores have been slabbed, photographed and the several plugs have been taken. In addition, minipermeameter is used to measure permeabilities on the core surface at six inch intervals. The plugs have been analyzed for the permeability and porosity values. The variations in property values will be tied to the geological descriptions as well as the subsurface data collected from the Glen Pool field. The third section discusses the application of geostatistical techniques to infer in-fill well locations. The geostatistical technique used is the simulated annealing technique because of its flexibility. One of the important reservoir data is the production data. Use of production data will allow us to define the reservoir continuities, which may in turn, determine the in-fill well locations. The proposed technique allows us to incorporate some of the production data as constraints in the reservoir descriptions. The technique has been validated by comparing the results with numerical simulations.

  10. Fault Reactivation Can Generate Hydraulic Short Circuits in Underground Coal Gasification—New Insights from Regional-Scale Thermo-Mechanical 3D Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Otto


    Full Text Available Underground coal gasification (UCG has the potential to increase worldwide coal reserves by utilization of coal deposits not mineable by conventional methods. This involves combusting coal in situ to produce a synthesis gas, applicable for electricity generation and chemical feedstock production. Three-dimensional (3D thermo-mechanical models already significantly contribute to UCG design by process optimization and mitigation of the environmental footprint. We developed the first 3D UCG model based on real structural geological data to investigate the impacts of using isothermal and non-isothermal simulations, two different pillar widths and four varying regional stress regimes on the spatial changes in temperature and permeability, ground surface subsidence and fault reactivation. Our simulation results demonstrate that non-isothermal processes have to be considered in these assessments due to thermally-induced stresses. Furthermore, we demonstrate that permeability increase is limited to the close reactor vicinity, although the presence of previously undetected faults can introduce formation of hydraulic short circuits between single UCG channels over large distances. This requires particular consideration of potentially present sub-seismic faults in the exploration and site selection stages, since the required pillar widths may be easily underestimated in presence of faults with different orientations with respect to the regional stress regime.

  11. Fault detection and isolation in systems with parametric faults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stoustrup, Jakob; Niemann, Hans Henrik


    The problem of fault detection and isolation of parametric faults is considered in this paper. A fault detection problem based on parametric faults are associated with internal parameter variations in the dynamical system. A fault detection and isolation method for parametric faults is formulated...... in a standard setup and a synthesis method for fault detectors is given. Further, fault detection problems with both parametric faults and faults described by external input signals are also shortly considered....

  12. Fault zone fabric and fault weakness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Collettini, C.; Niemeijer, A.; Viti, C.; Marone, C.


    Geological and geophysical evidence suggests that some crustal faults are weak1–6 compared to laboratory measurements of frictional strength7. Explanations for fault weakness include the presence of weak minerals4, high fluid pressures within the fault core8,9 and dynamic processes such as

  13. Two-phase flow visualization under reservoir conditions for highly heterogeneous conglomerate rock: A core-scale study for geologic carbon storage. (United States)

    Kim, Kue-Young; Oh, Junho; Han, Weon Shik; Park, Kwon Gyu; Shinn, Young Jae; Park, Eungyu


    Geologic storage of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) is considered a viable strategy for significantly reducing anthropogenic CO 2 emissions into the atmosphere; however, understanding the flow mechanisms in various geological formations is essential for safe storage using this technique. This study presents, for the first time, a two-phase (CO 2 and brine) flow visualization under reservoir conditions (10 MPa, 50 °C) for a highly heterogeneous conglomerate core obtained from a real CO 2 storage site. Rock heterogeneity and the porosity variation characteristics were evaluated using X-ray computed tomography (CT). Multiphase flow tests with an in-situ imaging technology revealed three distinct CO 2 saturation distributions (from homogeneous to non-uniform) dependent on compositional complexity. Dense discontinuity networks within clasts provided well-connected pathways for CO 2 flow, potentially helping to reduce overpressure. Two flow tests, one under capillary-dominated conditions and the other in a transition regime between the capillary and viscous limits, indicated that greater injection rates (potential causes of reservoir overpressure) could be significantly reduced without substantially altering the total stored CO 2 mass. Finally, the capillary storage capacity of the reservoir was calculated. Capacity ranged between 0.5 and 4.5%, depending on the initial CO 2 saturation.

  14. Data Compression of Hydrocarbon Reservoir Simulation Grids

    KAUST Repository

    Chavez, Gustavo Ivan


    A dense volumetric grid coming from an oil/gas reservoir simulation output is translated into a compact representation that supports desired features such as interactive visualization, geometric continuity, color mapping and quad representation. A set of four control curves per layer results from processing the grid data, and a complete set of these 3-dimensional surfaces represents the complete volume data and can map reservoir properties of interest to analysts. The processing results yield a representation of reservoir simulation results which has reduced data storage requirements and permits quick performance interaction between reservoir analysts and the simulation data. The degree of reservoir grid compression can be selected according to the quality required, by adjusting for different thresholds, such as approximation error and level of detail. The processions results are of potential benefit in applications such as interactive rendering, data compression, and in-situ visualization of large-scale oil/gas reservoir simulations.

  15. Modeling reservoir geomechanics using discrete element method : Application to reservoir monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alassi, Haitham Tayseer


    Understanding reservoir geomechanical behavior is becoming more and more important for the petroleum industry. Reservoir compaction, which may result in surface subsidence and fault reactivation, occurs during reservoir depletion. Stress changes and possible fracture development inside and outside a depleting reservoir can be monitored using time-lapse (so-called '4D') seismic and/or passive seismic, and this can give valuable information about the conditions of a given reservoir during production. In this study we will focus on using the (particle-based) Discrete Element Method (DEM) to model reservoir geomechanical behavior during depletion and fluid injection. We show in this study that DEM can be used in modeling reservoir geomechanical behavior by comparing results obtained from DEM to those obtained from analytical solutions. The match of the displacement field between DEM and the analytical solution is good, however there is mismatch of the stress field which is related to the way stress is measured in DEM. A good match is however obtained by measuring the stress field carefully. We also use DEM to model reservoir geomechanical behavior beyond the elasticity limit where fractures can develop and faults can reactivate. A general technique has been developed to relate DEM parameters to rock properties. This is necessary in order to use correct reservoir geomechanical properties during modeling. For any type of particle packing there is a limitation that the maximum ratio between P- and S-wave velocity Vp/Vs that can be modeled is 3 . The static behavior for a loose packing is different from the dynamic behavior. Empirical relations are needed for the static behavior based on numerical test observations. The dynamic behavior for both dense and loose packing can be given by analytical relations. Cosserat continuum theory is needed to derive relations for Vp and Vs. It is shown that by constraining the particle rotation, the S-wave velocity can be

  16. Paleoseismological investigations on a slow-moving active fault in central Anatolia, Tecer Fault, Sivas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Husnu Serdar Akyuz


    Full Text Available Tecer Fault is a N60˚-70˚E-trending, left-lateral, strike-slip fault to the south of the town of Sivas, Turkey. This fault is considered as the eastward continuation of Deliler Fault, which was classified as a probably active, left-lateral fault on the Active Fault Map of Turkey. We investigated the field characteristics and paleoseismic history of Tecer Fault in detail. After analyzing aerial photographs and satellite images, we mapped the exact fault trace on a 1/25,000 scale topographic map, between the towns of Deliilyas in southwest and Bogazdere in northeast. Tecer Fault is characterized by morphological features such as offset streams and gullies, linear depressions and scarps, and elongated hills. Four paleoseismological trenches were excavated on the northeastern extent of the fault. Two past earthquakes were identified in these trenches, and the dates of the collected charcoal samples suggested that the first of these earthquakes occurred about 8000 B.C. while the more recent event took place around 3500 B.C. Field observations and paleoseismic data indicate that Tecer Fault is an active, pure sinistral, strike-slip fault, and that there is about a 4500 years time span between the two earthquakes. It is also clear that there has not been any surface-ruptured faulting over the last 800 years. Compared with the earthquake characteristics of other strike-slip fault zones in Turkey in terms of time-slip relations, the slip rate can be estimated as about 1 mm/yr on Tecer Fault.

  17. Fracture properties from tight reservoir outcrop analogues with application to geothermal exploration (United States)

    Philipp, Sonja L.; Reyer, Dorothea; Afsar, Filiz; Bauer, Johanna F.; Meier, Silke; Reinecker, John


    In geothermal reservoirs, similar to other tight reservoirs, fluid flow may be intensely affected by fracture systems, in particular those associated with fault zones. When active (slipping) the fault core, that is, the inner part of a fault zone, which commonly consists of breccia or gouge, can suddenly develop high permeability. Fault cores of inactive fault zones, however, may have low permeabilities and even act as flow barriers. In the outer part of a fault zone, the damage zone, permeability depends mainly on the fracture properties, that is, the geometry (orientation, aperture, density, connectivity, etc.) of the fault-associated fracture system. Mineral vein networks in damage zones of deeply eroded fault zones in palaeogeothermal fields demonstrate their permeability. In geothermal exploration, particularly for hydrothermal reservoirs, the orientation of fault zones in relation to the current stress field as well as their internal structure, in particular the properties of the associated fracture system, must be known as accurately as possible for wellpath planning and reservoir engineering. Here we present results of detailed field studies and numerical models of fault zones and associated fracture systems in palaeogeo¬thermal fields and host rocks for geothermal reservoirs from various stratigraphies, lithologies and tectonic settings: (1) 74 fault zones in three coastal sections of Upper Triassic and Lower Jurassic age (mudstones and limestone-marl alternations) in the Bristol Channel Basin, UK. (2) 58 fault zones in 22 outcrops from Upper Carboniferous to Upper Cretaceous in the Northwest German Basin (siliciclastic, carbonate and volcanic rocks); and (3) 16 fault zones in 9 outcrops in Lower Permian to Middle Triassic (mainly sandstone and limestone) in the Upper Rhine Graben shoulders. Whereas (1) represent palaeogeothermal fields with mineral veins, (2) and (3) are outcrop analogues of reservoir horizons from geothermal exploration. In the study

  18. Fault geometry and earthquake mechanics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. J. Andrews


    Full Text Available Earthquake mechanics may be determined by the geometry of a fault system. Slip on a fractal branching fault surface can explain: 1 regeneration of stress irregularities in an earthquake; 2 the concentration of stress drop in an earthquake into asperities; 3 starting and stopping of earthquake slip at fault junctions, and 4 self-similar scaling of earthquakes. Slip at fault junctions provides a natural realization of barrier and asperity models without appealing to variations of fault strength. Fault systems are observed to have a branching fractal structure, and slip may occur at many fault junctions in an earthquake. Consider the mechanics of slip at one fault junction. In order to avoid a stress singularity of order 1/r, an intersection of faults must be a triple junction and the Burgers vectors on the three fault segments at the junction must sum to zero. In other words, to lowest order the deformation consists of rigid block displacement, which ensures that the local stress due to the dislocations is zero. The elastic dislocation solution, however, ignores the fact that the configuration of the blocks changes at the scale of the displacement. A volume change occurs at the junction; either a void opens or intense local deformation is required to avoid material overlap. The volume change is proportional to the product of the slip increment and the total slip since the formation of the junction. Energy absorbed at the junction, equal to confining pressure times the volume change, is not large enongh to prevent slip at a new junction. The ratio of energy absorbed at a new junction to elastic energy released in an earthquake is no larger than P/µ where P is confining pressure and µ is the shear modulus. At a depth of 10 km this dimensionless ratio has th value P/µ= 0.01. As slip accumulates at a fault junction in a number of earthquakes, the fault segments are displaced such that they no longer meet at a single point. For this reason the

  19. Fault-Related CO2 Degassing, Geothermics, and Fluid Flow in Southern California Basins--Physiochemical Evidence and Modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garven, Grant [Tufts Univ., Medford, MA (United States)


    Our studies have had an important impact on societal issues. Experimental and field observations show that CO2 degassing, such as might occur from stored CO2 reservoir gas, can result in significant stable isotopic disequilibrium. In the offshore South Ellwood field of the Santa Barbara channel, we show how oil production has reduced natural seep rates in the area, thereby reducing greenhouse gases. Permeability is calculated to be ~20-30 millidarcys for km-scale fault-focused fluid flow, using changes in natural gas seepage rates from well production, and poroelastic changes in formation pore-water pressure. In the Los Angeles (LA) basin, our characterization of formation water chemistry, including stable isotopic studies, allows the distinction between deep and shallow formations waters. Our multiphase computational-based modeling of petroleum migration demonstrates the important role of major faults on geological-scale fluid migration in the LA basin, and show how petroleum was dammed up against the Newport-Inglewood fault zone in a “geologically fast” interval of time (less than 0.5 million years). Furthermore, these fluid studies also will allow evaluation of potential cross-formational mixing of formation fluids. Lastly, our new study of helium isotopes in the LA basin shows a significant leakage of mantle helium along the Newport Inglewood fault zone (NIFZ), at flow rates up to 2 cm/yr. Crustal-scale fault permeability (~60 microdarcys) and advective versus conductive heat transport rates have been estimated using the observed helium isotopic data. The NIFZ is an important deep-seated fault that may crosscut a proposed basin decollement fault in this heavily populated area, and appears to allow seepage of helium from the mantle sources about 30 km beneath Los Angeles. The helium study has been widely cited in recent weeks by the news media, both in radio and on numerous web sites.

  20. Fault-related CO2 degassing, geothermics, and fluid flow in southern California basins---Physiochemical evidence and modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boles, James R. [Univ. of California, Santa Barbara, CA (United States); Garven, Grant [Tufts Univ., Medford, MA (United States)


    Our studies have had an important impact on societal issues. Experimental and field observations show that CO2 degassing, such as might occur from stored CO2 reservoir gas, can result in significant stable isotopic disequilibrium. In the offshore South Ellwood field of the Santa Barbara channel, we show how oil production has reduced natural seep rates in the area, thereby reducing greenhouse gases. Permeability is calculated to be ~20-30 millidarcys for km-scale fault-focused fluid flow, using changes in natural gas seepage rates from well production, and poroelastic changes in formation pore-water pressure. In the Los Angeles (LA) basin, our characterization of formation water chemistry, including stable isotopic studies, allows the distinction between deep and shallow formations waters. Our multiphase computational-based modeling of petroleum migration demonstrates the important role of major faults on geological-scale fluid migration in the LA basin, and show how petroleum was dammed up against the Newport-Inglewood fault zone in a “geologically fast” interval of time (less than 0.5 million years). Furthermore, these fluid studies also will allow evaluation of potential cross-formational mixing of formation fluids. Lastly, our new study of helium isotopes in the LA basin shows a significant leakage of mantle helium along the Newport Inglewood fault zone (NIFZ), at flow rates up to 2 cm/yr. Crustal-scale fault permeability (~60 microdarcys) and advective versus conductive heat transport rates have been estimated using the observed helium isotopic data. The NIFZ is an important deep-seated fault that may crosscut a proposed basin decollement fault in this heavily populated area, and appears to allow seepage of helium from the mantle sources about 30 km beneath Los Angeles. The helium study has been widely cited in recent weeks by the news media, both in radio and on numerous web sites.

  1. Study of the reactive processes during CO2 injection into sedimentary reservoirs: Experimental quantification of the processes at meso-scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luquot, L.


    In order to minimize CO 2 atmospheric concentration, a solution consists in sequestrating CO 2 in geological reservoirs. To estimate long term risks, it is necessary to quantify the couplings between reaction processes as well as structural and hydrodynamical modifications. We realised two experimental benches enabling injecting CO 2 -enriched-brine in conditions corresponding to in situ storage (T ≤ 200 C and P ≤ 200 bar) and developed an experimental protocol using X-Ray microtomography and fluid and rock analyses in order to measure the variations of physical and chemical parameters. The study of carbonated reservoirs near the injection well, allows quantifying different k-phi relationships depending on the dissolution processes and triggered by the local fluid chemical composition and initials conditions. Away from the injection well, we observe carbonate precipitation decreasing the permeability. The study of fractured cap-rock samples shows that alternative percolation of CO 2 -enriched-brine and CO 2 gas increases the fracture permeability. The study of silicated rocks indicates carbonate precipitation in zeolite sandstone and sintered dunite grains. Nevertheless, in zeolite sandstone we also observe the precipitation of clay particles located in the fluid pathways which decrease strongly the permeability. (author)

  2. Estimating fault stability and sustainable fluid pressures for underground storage of CO2 in porous rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Streit, J.E.; Hillis, R.R.


    Geomechanical modelling of fault stability is an integral part of Australia's GEODISC research program to ensure the safe storage of carbon dioxide in subsurface reservoirs. Storage of CO 2 in deep saline formations or depleted hydrocarbon reservoirs requires estimates of sustainable fluid pressures that will not induce fracturing or create fault permeability that could lead to CO 2 escape. Analyses of fault stability require the determination of fault orientations, ambient pore fluid pressures and in situ stresses in a potential storage site. The calculation of effective stresses that act on faults and reservoir rocks lead then to estimates of fault slip tendency and fluid pressures sustainable during CO 2 storage. These parameters can be visualized on 3D images of fault surfaces or in 2D projections. Faults that are unfavourably oriented for reactivation can be identified from failure plots. In depleted oil and gas fields, modelling of fault and rock stability needs to incorporate changes of the pre-production stresses that were induced by hydrocarbon production and associated pore pressure depletion. Such induced stress changes influence the maximum sustainable formation pressures and CO 2 storage volumes. Hence, determination of in situ stresses and modelling of fault stability are essential prerequisites for the safe engineering of subsurface CO 2 injection and the modelling of storage capacity. (author)

  3. Fault tree handbook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haasl, D.F.; Roberts, N.H.; Vesely, W.E.; Goldberg, F.F.


    This handbook describes a methodology for reliability analysis of complex systems such as those which comprise the engineered safety features of nuclear power generating stations. After an initial overview of the available system analysis approaches, the handbook focuses on a description of the deductive method known as fault tree analysis. The following aspects of fault tree analysis are covered: basic concepts for fault tree analysis; basic elements of a fault tree; fault tree construction; probability, statistics, and Boolean algebra for the fault tree analyst; qualitative and quantitative fault tree evaluation techniques; and computer codes for fault tree evaluation. Also discussed are several example problems illustrating the basic concepts of fault tree construction and evaluation

  4. Reservoir fisheries of Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, S.S. De.


    At a workshop on reservoir fisheries research, papers were presented on the limnology of reservoirs, the changes that follow impoundment, fisheries management and modelling, and fish culture techniques. Separate abstracts have been prepared for three papers from this workshop

  5. Fault Tolerant Feedback Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stoustrup, Jakob; Niemann, H.


    An architecture for fault tolerant feedback controllers based on the Youla parameterization is suggested. It is shown that the Youla parameterization will give a residual vector directly in connection with the fault diagnosis part of the fault tolerant feedback controller. It turns out...... that there is a separation be-tween the feedback controller and the fault tolerant part. The closed loop feedback properties are handled by the nominal feedback controller and the fault tolerant part is handled by the design of the Youla parameter. The design of the fault tolerant part will not affect the design...

  6. GHGT-10 : Assessing the integrity of fault- and top seals at CO2 storage sites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Orlic, B.; Heege J.H. ter; Wassing, B.


    Induced stress changes due to CO2 injection into geological reservoirs can mechanically damage bounding fault- and top seals creating preferential pathways for CO2 migration from the containment or trigger existing faults causing seismic activity at storage sites. In this paper we present

  7. Guaranteed Cost Fault-Tolerant Control for Networked Control Systems with Sensor Faults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qixin Zhu


    Full Text Available For the large scale and complicated structure of networked control systems, time-varying sensor faults could inevitably occur when the system works in a poor environment. Guaranteed cost fault-tolerant controller for the new networked control systems with time-varying sensor faults is designed in this paper. Based on time delay of the network transmission environment, the networked control systems with sensor faults are modeled as a discrete-time system with uncertain parameters. And the model of networked control systems is related to the boundary values of the sensor faults. Moreover, using Lyapunov stability theory and linear matrix inequalities (LMI approach, the guaranteed cost fault-tolerant controller is verified to render such networked control systems asymptotically stable. Finally, simulations are included to demonstrate the theoretical results.

  8. Fault-Tolerant Approach for Modular Multilevel Converters under Submodule Faults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deng, Fujin; Tian, Yanjun; Zhu, Rongwu


    The modular multilevel converter (MMC) is attractive for medium- or high-power applications because of the advantages of its high modularity, availability, and high power quality. The fault-tolerant operation is one of the important issues for the MMC. This paper proposed a fault-tolerant approach...... for the MMC under submodule (SM) faults. The characteristic of the MMC with arms containing different number of healthy SMs under faults is analyzed. Based on the characteristic, the proposed approach can effectively keep the MMC operation as normal under SM faults. It can effectively improve the MMC...... performance under SM faults but without the knowledge of the number of the faulty SMs in the arm, without extra demand on communication systems, which potentially increases the reliability. The time-domain simulation studies with the PSCAD/EMTDC are conducted and a down-scale MMC prototype is also tested...

  9. Forming mechanism of the Ordovician karst carbonate reservoirs on the northern slope of central Tarim Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heng Fu


    Full Text Available The Ordovician karst carbonate reservoirs on the northern slope of central Tarim Basin are important oil and gas exploration targets in the basin, but their dissolution mechanisms are in controversy. In this paper, based on the integrated study of sedimentation, sequence and reservoir, together with microscopic analysis and macroscopic seismic data analysis, the carbonate karst reservoirs in the study area were divided into three types: dissolved pore-cavity limestone reservoir, pore-cavity dolomite reservoir and fracture-cavity siliceous reservoir, and their forming mechanisms were discussed respectively. Some findings were obtained. First, dissolved pore-cavity limestone reservoirs are distributed in the upper Yingshan Fm and Yijianfang Fm of the Ordovician vertically, while pore-cavity dolomite reservoirs are mainly developed in the Penglai Fm and lower Yingshan Fm of the Ordovician with great thickness. Second, dissolved pore-cavity limestone reservoirs were formed by karstification on the third-order sequence boundary (lowstand tract, while pore-cavity dolomite reservoirs were formed by deep burial dolomitization controlled by karstification on the third-order sequence boundary, both of which are distributed in the highstand tract below the third-order sequence boundary. Third, siliceous reservoirs are developed under the control of faulting, as a result of reworking of deep hydrothermal fluids along faults to the limestone, and the siliceous reservoirs and their hydrothermal solution fracture-cavity systems are distributed near faults. It is further predicted that, in addition to the three types of reservoir above, platform-margin reef-flat reservoirs are developed in the Ordovician on the northern slope of central Tarim Basin.

  10. Stream, Lake, and Reservoir Management. (United States)

    Dai, Jingjing; Mei, Ying; Chang, Chein-Chi


    This review on stream, lake, and reservoir management covers selected 2016 publications on the focus of the following sections: Stream, lake, and reservoir management • Water quality of stream, lake, and reservoirReservoir operations • Models of stream, lake, and reservoir • Remediation and restoration of stream, lake, and reservoir • Biota of stream, lake, and reservoir • Climate effect of stream, lake, and reservoir.

  11. Status of Wheeler Reservoir

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    This is one in a series of status reports prepared by the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) for those interested in the conditions of TVA reservoirs. This overview of Wheeler Reservoir summarizes reservoir purposes and operation, reservoir and watershed characteristics, reservoir uses and use impairments, and water quality and aquatic biological conditions. The information presented here is from the most recent reports, publications, and original data available. If no recent data were available, historical data were summarized. If data were completely lacking, environmental professionals with special knowledge of the resource were interviewed. 12 refs., 2 figs.

  12. Fault detection and isolation in systems with parametric faults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stoustrup, Jakob; Niemann, Hans Henrik


    The problem of fault detection and isolation of parametric faults is considered in this paper. A fault detection problem based on parametric faults are associated with internal parameter variations in the dynamical system. A fault detection and isolation method for parametric faults is formulated...

  13. Did the Zipingpu Reservoir trigger the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake? (United States)

    Ge, S.; Liu, M.; Lu, N.; Godt, J.W.; Luo, G.


    The devastating May 2008 Wenchuan earthquake (Mw 7.9) resulted from thrust of the Tibet Plateau on the Longmen Shan fault zone, a consequence of the Indo-Asian continental collision. Many have speculated on the role played by the Zipingpu Reservoir, impounded in 2005 near the epicenter, in triggering the earthquake. This study evaluates the stress changes in response to the impoundment of the Zipingpu Reservoir and assesses their impact on the Wenchuan earthquake. We show that the impoundment could have changed the Coulomb stress by -0.01 to 0.05 MPa at locations and depth consistent with reported hypocenter positions. This level of stress change has been shown to be significant in triggering earthquakes on critically stressed faults. Because the loading rate on the Longmen Shan fault is earthquake by tens to hundreds of years. Copyright 2009 by the American Geophysical Union.

  14. Iowa Bedrock Faults (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — This fault coverage locates and identifies all currently known/interpreted fault zones in Iowa, that demonstrate offset of geologic units in exposure or subsurface...

  15. Design of fault simulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gabbar, Hossam A.; Sayed, Hanaa E.; Osunleke, Ajiboye S.; Masanobu, Hara


    Fault simulator is proposed to understand and evaluate all possible fault propagation scenarios, which is an essential part of safety design and operation design and support of chemical/production processes. Process models are constructed and integrated with fault models, which are formulated in qualitative manner using fault semantic networks (FSN). Trend analysis techniques are used to map real time and simulation quantitative data into qualitative fault models for better decision support and tuning of FSN. The design of the proposed fault simulator is described and applied on experimental plant (G-Plant) to diagnose several fault scenarios. The proposed fault simulator will enable industrial plants to specify and validate safety requirements as part of safety system design as well as to support recovery and shutdown operation and disaster management.

  16. Layered Fault Management Architecture

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sztipanovits, Janos


    ... UAVs or Organic Air Vehicles. The approach of this effort was to analyze fault management requirements of formation flight for fleets of UAVs, and develop a layered fault management architecture which demonstrates significant...

  17. CarbonSAFE Rocky Mountain Phase I : Seismic Characterization of the Navajo Reservoir, Buzzard Bench, Utah (United States)

    Haar, K. K.; Balch, R. S.; Lee, S. Y.


    The CarbonSAFE Rocky Mountain project team is in the initial phase of investigating the regulatory, financial and technical feasibility of commercial-scale CO2 capture and storage from two coal-fired power plants in the northwest region of the San Rafael Swell, Utah. The reservoir interval is the Jurassic Navajo Sandstone, an eolian dune deposit that at present serves as the salt water disposal reservoir for Ferron Sandstone coal-bed methane production in the Drunkards Wash field and Buzzard Bench area of central Utah. In the study area the Navajo sandstone is approximately 525 feet thick and is at an average depth of about 7000 feet below the surface. If sufficient porosity and permeability exist, reservoir depth and thickness would provide storage for up to 100,000 metric tonnes of CO2 per square mile, based on preliminary estimates. This reservoir has the potential to meet the DOE's requirement of having the ability to store at least 50 million metric tons of CO2 and fulfills the DOE's initiative to develop protocols for commercially sequestering carbon sourced from coal-fired power plants. A successful carbon storage project requires thorough structural and stratigraphic characterization of the reservoir, seal and faults, thereby allowing the creation of a comprehensive geologic model with subsequent simulations to evaluate CO2/brine migration and long-term effects. Target formation lithofacies and subfacies data gathered from outcrop mapping and laboratory analysis of core samples were developed into a geologic model. Synthetic seismic was modeled from this, allowing us to seismically characterize the lithofacies of the target formation. This seismic characterization data was then employed in the interpretation of 2D legacy lines which provided stratigraphic and structural control for more accurate model development of the northwest region of the San Rafael Swell. Developing baseline interpretations such as this are crucial toward long-term carbon storage

  18. Economics of Developing Hot Stratigraphic Reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greg Mines; Hillary Hanson; Rick Allis; Joseph Moore


    Stratigraphic geothermal reservoirs at 3 – 4 km depth in high heat-flow basins are capable of sustaining 100 MW-scale power plants at about 10 c/kWh. This paper examines the impacts on the levelized cost of electricity (LCOE) of reservoir depth and temperature, reservoir productivity, and drillhole/casing options. For a reservoir at 3 km depth with a moderate productivity index by hydrothermal reservoir standards (about 50 L/s/MPa, 5.6 gpm/psi), an LCOE of 10c/kWh requires the reservoir to be at about 200°C. This is the upper temperature limit for pumps. The calculations assume standard hydrothermal drilling costs, with the production interval completed with a 7 inch liner in an 8.5 inch hole. If a reservoir at 4 km depth has excellent permeability characteristics with a productivity index of 100 L/s/MPa (11.3 gpm/psi), then the LCOE is about 11 c/kWh assuming the temperature decline rate with development is not excessive (< 1%/y, with first thermal breakthrough delayed by about 10 years). Completing wells with modest horizontal legs (e.g. several hundred meters) may be important for improving well productivity because of the naturally high, sub-horizontal permeability in this type of reservoir. Reducing the injector/producer well ratio may also be cost-effective if the injectors are drilled as larger holes.

  19. Fault tolerant computing systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Randell, B.


    Fault tolerance involves the provision of strategies for error detection damage assessment, fault treatment and error recovery. A survey is given of the different sorts of strategies used in highly reliable computing systems, together with an outline of recent research on the problems of providing fault tolerance in parallel and distributed computing systems. (orig.)

  20. Performance based fault diagnosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niemann, Hans Henrik


    Different aspects of fault detection and fault isolation in closed-loop systems are considered. It is shown that using the standard setup known from feedback control, it is possible to formulate fault diagnosis problems based on a performance index in this general standard setup. It is also shown...

  1. Seismic response to power production at the Coso Geothermal field, south-eastern CA: using operational parameters and relocated events to study anthropogenic seismicity rates and reservoir scale tectonic structure (United States)

    Lajoie, L. J.; O'Connell, D. R.; Creed, R. J.; Brodsky, E. E.


    The United States is increasing its dependence on renewable energies and with that has come an interest in expanding geothermal operations. Due to the proximity of many existing and potential geothermal sites to population centers and seismically active regions, it is important to understand how geothermal operations interact with local (and regional) seismicity, and to determine if seismicity rates are predictable from operational parameters (i.e. fluid injection, production, and net fluid extraction) alone. Furthermore, geothermal injection and production strategies can be improved by identifying, locating and characterizing related earthquakes within the tectonic related background seismicity. As the geothermal production related seismic source focal mechanisms, moment, and location are better characterized, important pragmatic questions (such as the improvement of injection strategies and 3-d thermohydromechanical model validation) and research issues (such as the relationship between far field seismic signals, local rheology changes, and native state reservoir stress evolution as a function of injection and production transients) can be more systematically addressed. We focus specifically on the 270 MW Coso geothermal field in south-eastern California, which is characterized by both high seismicity rates and relatively high aftershock triggering. After performing statistical de-clustering of local seismicity into background and aftershock rates, we show that the background rate (at both the Coso and Salton Sea geothermal fields) can be approximated during many time intervals at the 90% + confidence level by a linear combination of injection volume and the net extracted volume (difference between production and injection). Different magnitude ranges are sampled to determine if the response is constant with respect to magnitude. We also use relative relocations and focal mechanisms from Yang et al. (2012) to map fault planes within the Coso geothermal field. We

  2. Sandstone-filled normal faults: A case study from central California (United States)

    Palladino, Giuseppe; Alsop, G. Ian; Grippa, Antonio; Zvirtes, Gustavo; Phillip, Ruy Paulo; Hurst, Andrew


    Despite the potential of sandstone-filled normal faults to significantly influence fluid transmissivity within reservoirs and the shallow crust, they have to date been largely overlooked. Fluidized sand, forcefully intruded along normal fault zones, markedly enhances the transmissivity of faults and, in general, the connectivity between otherwise unconnected reservoirs. Here, we provide a detailed outcrop description and interpretation of sandstone-filled normal faults from different stratigraphic units in central California. Such faults commonly show limited fault throw, cm to dm wide apertures, poorly-developed fault zones and full or partial sand infill. Based on these features and inferences regarding their origin, we propose a general classification that defines two main types of sandstone-filled normal faults. Type 1 form as a consequence of the hydraulic failure of the host strata above a poorly-consolidated sandstone following a significant, rapid increase of pore fluid over-pressure. Type 2 sandstone-filled normal faults form as a result of regional tectonic deformation. These structures may play a significant role in the connectivity of siliciclastic reservoirs, and may therefore be crucial not just for investigation of basin evolution but also in hydrocarbon exploration.

  3. Understanding creep in sandstone reservoirs - theoretical deformation mechanism maps for pressure solution in granular materials (United States)

    Hangx, Suzanne; Spiers, Christopher


    Subsurface exploitation of the Earth's natural resources removes the natural system from its chemical and physical equilibrium. As such, groundwater extraction and hydrocarbon production from subsurface reservoirs frequently causes surface subsidence and induces (micro)seismicity. These effects are not only a problem in onshore (e.g. Groningen, the Netherlands) and offshore hydrocarbon fields (e.g. Ekofisk, Norway), but also in urban areas with extensive groundwater pumping (e.g. Venice, Italy). It is known that fluid extraction inevitably leads to (poro)elastic compaction of reservoirs, hence subsidence and occasional fault reactivation, and causes significant technical, economic and ecological impact. However, such effects often exceed what is expected from purely elastic reservoir behaviour and may continue long after exploitation has ceased. This is most likely due to time-dependent compaction, or 'creep deformation', of such reservoirs, driven by the reduction in pore fluid pressure compared with the rock overburden. Given the societal and ecological impact of surface subsidence, as well as the current interest in developing geothermal energy and unconventional gas resources in densely populated areas, there is much need for obtaining better quantitative understanding of creep in sediments to improve the predictability of the impact of geo-energy and groundwater production. The key problem in developing a reliable, quantitative description of the creep behaviour of sediments, such as sands and sandstones, is that the operative deformation mechanisms are poorly known and poorly quantified. While grain-scale brittle fracturing plus intergranular sliding play an important role in the early stages of compaction, these time-independent, brittle-frictional processes give way to compaction creep on longer time-scales. Thermally-activated mass transfer processes, like pressure solution, can cause creep via dissolution of material at stressed grain contacts, grain

  4. Editorial: Spatial arrangement of faults and opening-mode fractures (United States)

    Laubach, Stephen E.; Lamarche, Juliette; Gauthier, Bertand D. M.; Dunne, William M.


    This issue of the Journal of Structural Geology titled Spatial arrangement of faults and opening-mode fractures explores a fundamental characteristic of fault and fracture arrays. The pattern of fault and opening-mode fracture positions in space defines structural heterogeneity and anisotropy in a rock volume, governs how faults and fractures affect fluid flow, and impacts our understanding of the initiation, propagation and interactions during the formation of fracture patterns. This special issue highlights recent progress with respect to characterizing and understanding the spatial arrangements of fault and fracture patterns, providing examples over a wide range of scales and structural settings.

  5. Reservoirs in the United States (United States)

    Harbeck, G. Earl


    Man has engaged in the control of flowing water since history began. Among his early recorded efforts were reservoirs for muncipal water-supplies constructed near ancient Jerusalem to store water which was brought there in masonry conduits. 1/  Irrigation was practiced in Egypt as early as 2000 B. C. There the "basin system" was used from ancient times until the 19th century. The land was divided , into basins of approximately 40,000 acres, separated by earthen dikes. 2/  Flood waters of the Nile generally inundated the basins through canals, many of which were built by the Pharaohs. Even then the economic consequences of a deficient annual flood were recognized. Lake Maeris, which according to Herodotus was an ancient storage reservoir, is said to have had an area of 30,000 acres. In India, the British found at the time of their occupancy of the Presidency of Madras about 50,000 reservoirs for irrigation, many believed to be of ancient construction. 3/ During the period 115-130 A. D. reservoirs were built to improve the water-supply of Athens. Much has been written concerning the elaborate collection and distribution system built to supply Rome, and parts of it remain to this day as monuments to the engineering skill employed by the Romans in solving the problem of large-scale municipal water-supplies.

  6. Secondary Fault Activity of the North Anatolian Fault near Avcilar, Southwest of Istanbul: Evidence from SAR Interferometry Observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faqi Diao


    Full Text Available Strike-slip faults may be traced along thousands of kilometers, e.g., the San Andreas Fault (USA or the North Anatolian Fault (Turkey. A closer look at such continental-scale strike faults reveals localized complexities in fault geometry, associated with fault segmentation, secondary faults and a change of related hazards. The North Anatolian Fault displays such complexities nearby the mega city Istanbul, which is a place where earthquake risks are high, but secondary processes are not well understood. In this paper, long-term persistent scatterer interferometry (PSI analysis of synthetic aperture radar (SAR data time series was used to precisely identify the surface deformation pattern associated with the faulting complexity at the prominent bend of the North Anatolian Fault near Istanbul city. We elaborate the relevance of local faulting activity and estimate the fault status (slip rate and locking depth for the first time using satellite SAR interferometry (InSAR technology. The studied NW-SE-oriented fault on land is subject to strike-slip movement at a mean slip rate of ~5.0 mm/year and a shallow locking depth of <1.0 km and thought to be directly interacting with the main fault branch, with important implications for tectonic coupling. Our results provide the first geodetic evidence on the segmentation of a major crustal fault with a structural complexity and associated multi-hazards near the inhabited regions of Istanbul, with similarities also to other major strike-slip faults that display changes in fault traces and mechanisms.

  7. Construction of a carbonate reservoir model using pressure transient data : field case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taheri, S. [Petro-Iran, (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ghanizadeh, M. [Tehran Energy, (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Haghighi, M. [Tehran Univ., (Iran, Islamic Republic of)


    Pressure transient data was integrated with other reservoir information to create a geological model of a carbonate reservoir in the Salaman offshore field in Iran. The model was created using seismic and well log data as well as the interpretation of 99 well tests performed in this field. Several features such as sealing faults, aquifer, fracturing and layering systems were observed. Two faults were identified in the northern part of the reservoir. The distance between the major fault and well number 27 was less than predicted from seismic data. An active aquifer and minor fault were also identified near well number 6. A fracture system was identified around well number 22. Most well tests showed communication between different layers of the reservoirs, suggesting interconnected layers in terms of geology. All calculated permeabilities from the well tests were found to be significantly higher than those from core analysis, suggesting that discrete fractures exist throughout the reservoir. The northern region of the reservoir has the highest permeability values and the lowest values are observed in the central part of the reservoir. 18 refs., 6 figs.

  8. Investigation of fault interaction and growth in Mygdonia basin (Greece) fault system (United States)

    Gkarlaouni, Charikleia; Kilias, Adamantios; Papadimitriou, Eleftheria; Lasocki, Stanislaw; Karakostas, Vasileios


    Nowadays there is a scientific debate upon the strong correlation that exists between the earthquake clusters and the active seismogenic fault systems since they both constitute populations that participate in processes that include different states of initiation, interaction and coalescence. Since faults grow by the increase in their displacement and their length, the degree of fault interaction between two neighbour segments is expressed by scaling laws describing the fault dimensions, such as the displacement and the length. The distribution of the displacement along the fault trace, follows a bell-shaped pattern according to Dugdale model and is often a key to quantify the degree of interaction between two different fault segments since it gives an insight to the stage of growth and linkage between faults. In our case the fault attributes of Mygdonia basin that is located in the northern part of the Greek mainland are investigated under the prism of the scaling properties of its major active faults. Important seismogenic fault segments such as Lagina - Agios Vasilios, Gerakarou - Stivos and Sohos fault that define the boundaries of the basin and have generated important earthquakes in the past are investigated. Displacement - length profiles were constrained for the major fault segments, using digital elevation models (DEMs) since intense tectonics is etched upon the topography of the area such as to provide valuable seismotectonic information. In our case scarp heights are used for the approximation of fault displacement. Structural information, concerning displacement measurements on active fault scarps, and slip lineaments onto fault expressions are collected in-situ from field surveys. The information based on the field observations, justify the results coming out from the D.E.M. analysis. The final results are compared to conclusions derived from the investigation of different fault systems and the influence on the hazard assessment is discussed. This work

  9. Fault-Tree Compiler (United States)

    Butler, Ricky W.; Boerschlein, David P.


    Fault-Tree Compiler (FTC) program, is software tool used to calculate probability of top event in fault tree. Gates of five different types allowed in fault tree: AND, OR, EXCLUSIVE OR, INVERT, and M OF N. High-level input language easy to understand and use. In addition, program supports hierarchical fault-tree definition feature, which simplifies tree-description process and reduces execution time. Set of programs created forming basis for reliability-analysis workstation: SURE, ASSIST, PAWS/STEM, and FTC fault-tree tool (LAR-14586). Written in PASCAL, ANSI-compliant C language, and FORTRAN 77. Other versions available upon request.

  10. Information Based Fault Diagnosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niemann, Hans Henrik; Poulsen, Niels Kjølstad


    Fault detection and isolation, (FDI) of parametric faults in dynamic systems will be considered in this paper. An active fault diagnosis (AFD) approach is applied. The fault diagnosis will be investigated with respect to different information levels from the external inputs to the systems....... These inputs are disturbance inputs, reference inputs and auxilary inputs. The diagnosis of the system is derived by an evaluation of the signature from the inputs in the residual outputs. The changes of the signatures form the external inputs are used for detection and isolation of the parametric faults....

  11. Oil Reservoir Production Optimization using Optimal Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Völcker, Carsten; Jørgensen, John Bagterp; Stenby, Erling Halfdan


    Practical oil reservoir management involves solution of large-scale constrained optimal control problems. In this paper we present a numerical method for solution of large-scale constrained optimal control problems. The method is a single-shooting method that computes the gradients using the adjo...... reservoir using water ooding and smart well technology. Compared to the uncontrolled case, the optimal operation increases the Net Present Value of the oil field by 10%.......Practical oil reservoir management involves solution of large-scale constrained optimal control problems. In this paper we present a numerical method for solution of large-scale constrained optimal control problems. The method is a single-shooting method that computes the gradients using...

  12. Fault isolability conditions for linear systems with additive faults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niemann, Hans Henrik; Stoustrup, Jakob


    In this paper, we shall show that an unlimited number of additive single faults can be isolated under mild conditions if a general isolation scheme is applied. Multiple faults are also covered. The approach is algebraic and is based on a set representation of faults, where all faults within a set...... can occur simultaneously, whereas faults belonging to different fault sets appear disjoint in time. The proposed fault detection and isolation (FDI) scheme consists of three steps. A fault detection (FD) step is followed by a fault set isolation (FSI) step. Here the fault set is isolated wherein...... the faults have occurred. The last step is a fault isolation (FI) of the faults occurring in a specific fault set, i.e. equivalent with the standard FI step....

  13. Earthquake fault superhighways (United States)

    Robinson, D. P.; Das, S.; Searle, M. P.


    Motivated by the observation that the rare earthquakes which propagated for significant distances at supershear speeds occurred on very long straight segments of faults, we examine every known major active strike-slip fault system on land worldwide and identify those with long (> 100 km) straight portions capable not only of sustained supershear rupture speeds but having the potential to reach compressional wave speeds over significant distances, and call them "fault superhighways". The criteria used for identifying these are discussed. These superhighways include portions of the 1000 km long Red River fault in China and Vietnam passing through Hanoi, the 1050 km long San Andreas fault in California passing close to Los Angeles, Santa Barbara and San Francisco, the 1100 km long Chaman fault system in Pakistan north of Karachi, the 700 km long Sagaing fault connecting the first and second cities of Burma, Rangoon and Mandalay, the 1600 km Great Sumatra fault, and the 1000 km Dead Sea fault. Of the 11 faults so classified, nine are in Asia and two in North America, with seven located near areas of very dense populations. Based on the current population distribution within 50 km of each fault superhighway, we find that more than 60 million people today have increased seismic hazards due to them.

  14. What does fault tolerant Deep Learning need from MPI?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amatya, Vinay C.; Vishnu, Abhinav; Siegel, Charles M.; Daily, Jeffrey A.


    Deep Learning (DL) algorithms have become the {\\em de facto} Machine Learning (ML) algorithm for large scale data analysis. DL algorithms are computationally expensive -- even distributed DL implementations which use MPI require days of training (model learning) time on commonly studied datasets. Long running DL applications become susceptible to faults -- requiring development of a fault tolerant system infrastructure, in addition to fault tolerant DL algorithms. This raises an important question: {\\em What is needed from MPI for designing fault tolerant DL implementations?} In this paper, we address this problem for permanent faults. We motivate the need for a fault tolerant MPI specification by an in-depth consideration of recent innovations in DL algorithms and their properties, which drive the need for specific fault tolerance features. We present an in-depth discussion on the suitability of different parallelism types (model, data and hybrid); a need (or lack thereof) for check-pointing of any critical data structures; and most importantly, consideration for several fault tolerance proposals (user-level fault mitigation (ULFM), Reinit) in MPI and their applicability to fault tolerant DL implementations. We leverage a distributed memory implementation of Caffe, currently available under the Machine Learning Toolkit for Extreme Scale (MaTEx). We implement our approaches by extending MaTEx-Caffe for using ULFM-based implementation. Our evaluation using the ImageNet dataset and AlexNet neural network topology demonstrates the effectiveness of the proposed fault tolerant DL implementation using OpenMPI based ULFM.

  15. Scales (United States)

    Scales are a visible peeling or flaking of outer skin layers. These layers are called the stratum ... Scales may be caused by dry skin, certain inflammatory skin conditions, or infections. Examples of disorders that ...

  16. Fault-Zone Maturity Defines Maximum Earthquake Magnitude: The case of the North Anatolian Fault Zone (United States)

    Bohnhoff, Marco; Bulut, Fatih; Stierle, Eva; Martinez-Garzon, Patricia; Benzion, Yehuda


    Estimating the maximum likely magnitude of future earthquakes on transform faults near large metropolitan areas has fundamental consequences for the expected hazard. Here we show that the maximum earthquakes on different sections of the North Anatolian Fault Zone (NAFZ) scale with the duration of fault zone activity, cumulative offset and length of individual fault segments. The findings are based on a compiled catalogue of historical earthquakes in the region, using the extensive literary sources that exist due to the long civilization record. We find that the largest earthquakes (M~8) are exclusively observed along the well-developed part of the fault zone in the east. In contrast, the western part is still in a juvenile or transitional stage with historical earthquakes not exceeding M=7.4. This limits the current seismic hazard to NW Turkey and its largest regional population and economical center Istanbul. Our findings for the NAFZ are consistent with data from the two other major transform faults, the San Andreas fault in California and the Dead Sea Transform in the Middle East. The results indicate that maximum earthquake magnitudes generally scale with fault-zone evolution.

  17. Mathematical and field analysis of longitudinal reservoir infill (United States)

    Ke, W. T.; Capart, H.


    In reservoirs, severe problems are caused by infilled sediment deposits. In long term, the sediment accumulation reduces the capacity of reservoir storage and flood control benefits. In the short term, the sediment deposits influence the intakes of water-supply and hydroelectricity generation. For the management of reservoir, it is important to understand the deposition process and then to predict the sedimentation in reservoir. To investigate the behaviors of sediment deposits, we propose a one-dimensional simplified theory derived by the Exner equation to predict the longitudinal sedimentation distribution in idealized reservoirs. The theory models the reservoir infill geomorphic actions for three scenarios: delta progradation, near-dam bottom deposition, and final infill. These yield three kinds of self-similar analytical solutions for the reservoir bed profiles, under different boundary conditions. Three analytical solutions are composed by error function, complementary error function, and imaginary error function, respectively. The theory is also computed by finite volume method to test the analytical solutions. The theoretical and numerical predictions are in good agreement with one-dimensional small-scale laboratory experiment. As the theory is simple to apply with analytical solutions and numerical computation, we propose some applications to simulate the long-profile evolution of field reservoirs and focus on the infill sediment deposit volume resulting the uplift of near-dam bottom elevation. These field reservoirs introduced here are Wushe Reservoir, Tsengwen Reservoir, Mudan Reservoir in Taiwan, Lago Dos Bocas in Puerto Rico, and Sakuma Dam in Japan.

  18. Functional age as an indicator of reservoir senescence (United States)

    Miranda, Leandro E.; Krogman, R. M.


    It has been conjectured that reservoirs differ in the rate at which they manifest senescence, but no attempt has been made to find an indicator of senescence that performs better than chronological age. We assembled an indicator of functional age by creating a multimetric scale consisting of 10 metrics descriptive of reservoir environments that were expected to change directionally with reservoir senescence. In a sample of 1,022 U.S. reservoirs, chronological age was not correlated with functional age. Functional age was directly related to percentage of cultivated land in the catchment and inversely related to reservoir depth. Moreover, aspects of reservoir fishing quality and fish population characteristics were related to functional age. A multimetric scale to indicate reservoir functional age presents the possibility for management intervention from multiple angles. If a reservoir is functionally aging at an accelerated rate, action may be taken to remedy the conditions contributing most to functional age. Intervention to reduce scores of selected metrics in the scale can potentially reduce the rate of senescence and increase the life expectancy of the reservoir. This leads to the intriguing implication that steps can be taken to reduce functional age and actually make the reservoir grow younger.

  19. Testing the influence of vertical, pre-existing joints on normal faulting using analogue and 3D discrete element models (DEM) (United States)

    Kettermann, Michael; von Hagke, Christoph; Virgo, Simon; Urai, Janos L.


    Brittle rocks are often affected by different generations of fractures that influence each other. We study pre-existing vertical joints followed by a faulting event. Understanding the effect of these interactions on fracture/fault geometries as well as the development of dilatancy and the formation of cavities as potential fluid pathways is crucial for reservoir quality prediction and production. Our approach combines scaled analogue and numerical modeling. Using cohesive hemihydrate powder allows us to create open fractures prior to faulting. The physical models are reproduced using the ESyS-Particle discrete element Modeling Software (DEM), and different parameters are investigated. Analogue models were carried out in a manually driven deformation box (30x28x20 cm) with a 60° dipping pre-defined basement fault and 4.5 cm of displacement. To produce open joints prior to faulting, sheets of paper were mounted in the box to a depth of 5 cm at a spacing of 2.5 cm. Powder was then sieved into the box, embedding the paper almost entirely (column height of 19 cm), and the paper was removed. We tested the influence of different angles between the strike of the basement fault and the joint set (0°, 4°, 8°, 12°, 16°, 20°, and 25°). During deformation we captured structural information by time-lapse photography that allows particle imaging velocimetry analyses (PIV) to detect localized deformation at every increment of displacement. Post-mortem photogrammetry preserves the final 3-dimensional structure of the fault zone. We observe that no faults or fractures occur parallel to basement-fault strike. Secondary fractures are mostly oriented normal to primary joints. At the final stage of the experiments we analyzed semi-quantitatively the number of connected joints, number of secondary fractures, degree of segmentation (i.e. number of joints accommodating strain), damage zone width, and the map-view area fraction of open gaps. Whereas the area fraction does not change

  20. An experimental unification of reservoir computing methods. (United States)

    Verstraeten, D; Schrauwen, B; D'Haene, M; Stroobandt, D


    Three different uses of a recurrent neural network (RNN) as a reservoir that is not trained but instead read out by a simple external classification layer have been described in the literature: Liquid State Machines (LSMs), Echo State Networks (ESNs) and the Backpropagation Decorrelation (BPDC) learning rule. Individual descriptions of these techniques exist, but a overview is still lacking. Here, we present a series of experimental results that compares all three implementations, and draw conclusions about the relation between a broad range of reservoir parameters and network dynamics, memory, node complexity and performance on a variety of benchmark tests with different characteristics. Next, we introduce a new measure for the reservoir dynamics based on Lyapunov exponents. Unlike previous measures in the literature, this measure is dependent on the dynamics of the reservoir in response to the inputs, and in the cases we tried, it indicates an optimal value for the global scaling of the weight matrix, irrespective of the standard measures. We also describe the Reservoir Computing Toolbox that was used for these experiments, which implements all the types of Reservoir Computing and allows the easy simulation of a wide range of reservoir topologies for a number of benchmarks.

  1. Fault tolerant control for uncertain systems with parametric faults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niemann, Hans Henrik; Poulsen, Niels Kjølstad


    A fault tolerant control (FTC) architecture based on active fault diagnosis (AFD) and the YJBK (Youla, Jarb, Bongiorno and Kucera)parameterization is applied in this paper. Based on the FTC architecture, fault tolerant control of uncertain systems with slowly varying parametric faults...... is investigated. Conditions are given for closed-loop stability in case of false alarms or missing fault detection/isolation....

  2. Modeling of flow in faulted and fractured media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oeian, Erlend


    The work on this thesis has been done as part of a collaborative and inter disciplinary effort to improve the understanding of oil recovery mechanisms in fractured reservoirs. This project has been organized as a Strategic University Program (SUP) at the University of Bergen, Norway. The complex geometries of fractured reservoirs combined with flow of several fluid phases lead to difficult mathematical and numerical problems. In an effort to try to decrease the gap between the geological description and numerical modeling capabilities, new techniques are required. Thus, the main objective has been to improve the ATHENA flow simulator and utilize it within a fault modeling context. Specifically, an implicit treatment of the advection dominated mass transport equations within a domain decomposition based local grid refinement framework has been implemented. Since large computational tasks may arise, the implicit formulation has also been included in a parallel version of the code. Within the current limits of the simulator, appropriate up scaling techniques has also been considered. Part I of this thesis includes background material covering the basic geology of fractured porous media, the mathematical model behind the in-house flow simulator ATHENA and the additions implemented to approach simulation of flow through fractured and faulted porous media. In Part II, a set of research papers stemming from Part I is presented. A brief outline of the thesis follows below. In Chapt. 1 important aspects of the geological description and physical parameters of fractured and faulted porous media is presented. Based on this the scope of this thesis is specified having numerical issues and consequences in mind. Then, in Chapt. 2, the mathematical model and discretizations in the flow simulator is given followed by the derivation of the implicit mass transport formulation. In order to be fairly self-contained, most of the papers in Part II also includes the mathematical model

  3. Machine Learning of Fault Friction (United States)

    Johnson, P. A.; Rouet-Leduc, B.; Hulbert, C.; Marone, C.; Guyer, R. A.


    We are applying machine learning (ML) techniques to continuous acoustic emission (AE) data from laboratory earthquake experiments. Our goal is to apply explicit ML methods to this acoustic datathe AE in order to infer frictional properties of a laboratory fault. The experiment is a double direct shear apparatus comprised of fault blocks surrounding fault gouge comprised of glass beads or quartz powder. Fault characteristics are recorded, including shear stress, applied load (bulk friction = shear stress/normal load) and shear velocity. The raw acoustic signal is continuously recorded. We rely on explicit decision tree approaches (Random Forest and Gradient Boosted Trees) that allow us to identify important features linked to the fault friction. A training procedure that employs both the AE and the recorded shear stress from the experiment is first conducted. Then, testing takes place on data the algorithm has never seen before, using only the continuous AE signal. We find that these methods provide rich information regarding frictional processes during slip (Rouet-Leduc et al., 2017a; Hulbert et al., 2017). In addition, similar machine learning approaches predict failure times, as well as slip magnitudes in some cases. We find that these methods work for both stick slip and slow slip experiments, for periodic slip and for aperiodic slip. We also derive a fundamental relationship between the AE and the friction describing the frictional behavior of any earthquake slip cycle in a given experiment (Rouet-Leduc et al., 2017b). Our goal is to ultimately scale these approaches to Earth geophysical data to probe fault friction. References Rouet-Leduc, B., C. Hulbert, N. Lubbers, K. Barros, C. Humphreys and P. A. Johnson, Machine learning predicts laboratory earthquakes, in review (2017)., B. et al., Friction Laws Derived From the Acoustic Emissions of a Laboratory Fault by Machine Learning (2017), AGU Fall Meeting Session S025

  4. Transport of reservoir fines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yuan, Hao; Shapiro, Alexander; Stenby, Erling Halfdan

    Modeling transport of reservoir fines is of great importance for evaluating the damage of production wells and infectivity decline. The conventional methodology accounts for neither the formation heterogeneity around the wells nor the reservoir fines’ heterogeneity. We have developed an integral...


    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Calls have been made to the government through various media to assist its populace in combating this nagging problem. It was concluded that sediment maximum accumulation is experienced in reservoir during the periods of maximum flow. Keywords: reservoir model, siltation, sediment, catchment, sediment transport. 1.

  6. Dynamic reservoir well interaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sturm, W.L.; Belfroid, S.P.C.; Wolfswinkel, O. van; Peters, M.C.A.M.; Verhelst, F.J.P.C.M.


    In order to develop smart well control systems for unstable oil wells, realistic modeling of the dynamics of the well is essential. Most dynamic well models use a semi-steady state inflow model to describe the inflow of oil and gas from the reservoir. On the other hand, reservoir models use steady

  7. Reservoir Engineering Management Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howard, J.H.; Schwarz, W.J.


    The Reservoir Engineering Management Program being conducted at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory includes two major tasks: 1) the continuation of support to geothermal reservoir engineering related work, started under the NSF-RANN program and transferred to ERDA at the time of its formation; 2) the development and subsequent implementation of a broad plan for support of research in topics related to the exploitation of geothermal reservoirs. This plan is now known as the GREMP plan. Both the NSF-RANN legacies and GREMP are in direct support of the DOE/DGE mission in general and the goals of the Resource and Technology/Resource Exploitation and Assessment Branch in particular. These goals are to determine the magnitude and distribution of geothermal resources and reduce risk in their exploitation through improved understanding of generically different reservoir types. These goals are to be accomplished by: 1) the creation of a large data base about geothermal reservoirs, 2) improved tools and methods for gathering data on geothermal reservoirs, and 3) modeling of reservoirs and utilization options. The NSF legacies are more research and training oriented, and the GREMP is geared primarily to the practical development of the geothermal reservoirs. 2 tabs., 3 figs.

  8. Geometry of the Gerede Segment, North Anatolian Fault Zone, Turkey (United States)

    Caglayan, A.; ISIK, V.


    The North Anatolian Fault Zone (NAFZ) is an active dextral strike-slip fault zone in northern Turkey. The NAFZ is approximately 1200 km in length which extends from Karliova in the east and to reach as far as the Gulf of Saros in the west. The NAFZ becomes wider geometry from east to west which are characterized by 9 destructive earthquake of Ms>7 in the 20th century. An earthquake on 1944 February 1 (Ms 7,3) caused 180 km long surface rupture associated with 2-6.5 m of right-lateral slip between Bayramören in the east and Abant Lake in the west along the NAFZ, which is called the Gerede Segment. This study describes internal geometrical characteristics and deformation mechanism of faults with fault surfaces in the Gerede Segment. The faults along the segment variously cut across Mesozoic-Cenozoic basement rocks and Quaternary alluvium deposits. They juxtapose not only different units of basement but also basement rocks and alluvium. We select typical fault surface that have been formed the best exposures in limestone in different locality, which define exhumed main faults along the segment. These faults strike N70°-80°E and dip 50°-85°NW. Slickenlines on these fault surface plunge shallowly to the NE and/or SW. Fault surface include brittle kinematic indicators indicating right-lateral strike-slip displacements. Some typical Riedel shear fractures (R- and P-fractures) around the main faults also show dextral displacements. Along the main faults two main architectural elements including fault core and fault damage zone is typical. The fault damage zones of these faults are characterized by both fault-related fracturing and fluid-assisted deformation processes. Although breccia is common fault rock in fault zones, gouge and cataclasite are seen in variable exposures. We have defined crackle, mosaic and chaotic type breccias using clast-size and clast proportion. Rock fragments within breccias have occurred mm-cm scale from angular to rounded clast. Sub

  9. Hydrological ensemble predictions for reservoir inflow management (United States)

    Zalachori, Ioanna; Ramos, Maria-Helena; Garçon, Rémy; Gailhard, Joel


    Hydrologic forecasting is a topic of special importance for a variety of users with different purposes. It concerns operational hydrologists interested in forecasting hazardous events (eg., floods and droughts) for early warning and prevention, as well as planners and managers searching to optimize the management of water resources systems at different space-time scales. The general aim of this study is to investigate the benefits of using hydrological ensemble predictions for reservoir inflow management. Ensemble weather forecasts are used as input to a hydrologic forecasting model and daily ensemble streamflow forecasts are generated up to a lead time of 7 days. Forecasts are then integrated into a heuristic decision model for reservoir management procedures. Performance is evaluated in terms of potential gain in energy production. The sensitivity of the results to various reservoir characteristics and future streamflow scenarios is assessed. A set of 11 catchments in France is used to illustrate the added value of ensemble streamflow forecasts for reservoir management.

  10. Porosity variations in and around normal fault zones: implications for fault seal and geomechanics (United States)

    Healy, David; Neilson, Joyce; Farrell, Natalie; Timms, Nick; Wilson, Moyra


    clear lithofacies control on the Vp-porosity and the Vs-Vp relationships for faulted limestones. Using porosity patterns quantified in naturally deformed rocks we have modelled their effect on the mechanical stability of fluid-saturated fault zones in the subsurface. Poroelasticity theory predicts that variations in fluid pressure could influence fault stability. Anisotropic patterns of porosity in and around fault zones can - depending on their orientation and intensity - lead to an increase in fault stability in response to a rise in fluid pressure, and a decrease in fault stability for a drop in fluid pressure. These predictions are the exact opposite of the accepted role of effective stress in fault stability. Our work has provided new data on the spatial and statistical variation of porosity in fault zones. Traditionally considered as an isotropic and scalar value, porosity and pore networks are better considered as anisotropic and as scale-dependent statistical distributions. The geological processes controlling the evolution of porosity are complex. Quantifying patterns of porosity variation is an essential first step in a wider quest to better understand deformation processes in and around normal fault zones. Understanding porosity patterns will help us to make more useful predictive tools for all agencies involved in the study and management of fluids in the subsurface.

  11. 3D Dynamic Rupture Simulations along the Wasatch Fault, Utah, Incorporating Rough-fault Topography (United States)

    Withers, Kyle; Moschetti, Morgan


    Studies have found that the Wasatch Fault has experienced successive large magnitude (>Mw 7.2) earthquakes, with an average recurrence interval near 350 years. To date, no large magnitude event has been recorded along the fault, with the last rupture along the Salt Lake City segment occurring 1300 years ago. Because of this, as well as the lack of strong ground motion records in basins and from normal-faulting earthquakes worldwide, seismic hazard in the region is not well constrained. Previous numerical simulations have modeled deterministic ground motion in the heavily populated regions of Utah, near Salt Lake City, but were primarily restricted to low frequencies ( 1 Hz). Our goal is to better assess broadband ground motions from the Wasatch Fault Zone. Here, we extend deterministic ground motion prediction to higher frequencies ( 5 Hz) in this region by using physics-based spontaneous dynamic rupture simulations along a normal fault with characteristics derived from geologic observations. We use a summation by parts finite difference code (Waveqlab3D) with rough-fault topography following a self-similar fractal distribution (over length scales from 100 m to the size of the fault) and include off-fault plasticity to simulate ruptures > Mw 6.5. Geometric complexity along fault planes has previously been shown to generate broadband sources with spectral energy matching that of observations. We investigate the impact of varying the hypocenter location, as well as the influence that multiple realizations of rough-fault topography have on the rupture process and resulting ground motion. We utilize Waveqlab3's computational efficiency to model wave-propagation to a significant distance from the fault with media heterogeneity at both long and short spatial wavelengths. These simulations generate a synthetic dataset of ground motions to compare with GMPEs, in terms of both the median and inter and intraevent variability.

  12. Studies of fracture network geometry of reservoir outcrop analogues from terrestrial lidar data: attempts to quantify spatial variations of fracture characteristics (United States)

    Vsemirnova, E. A.; Jones, R. R.; McCaffrey, K. J. W.


    We describe studies analysing terrestrial lidar datasets of fracture systems from a range of reservoir analogues in clastic and carbonate lithologies that represent geological analogues of offshore hydrocarbon reservoirs for the UK continental shelf. As fracture networks (observed here from centimetre to kilometre scale) can significantly affect the permeability of a fractured reservoir, the definition of fracture network geometry at various scales has become an important goal of structural analysis. The main aim of the study has been to extend the investigation of fracture networks in order to quantify spatial variations in fracture parameters in a variety of lithologies. The datasets were pre-processed using RiSCAN PRO software, and then re-sampled and filtered to derive characteristics which are traditionally measured from outcrops, including size distributions, fracture spacing and clustering statistics. This type of analysis can significantly reduce the uncertainty associated with some field fracture network measurements. The digitised fracture networks datasets are then used to investigate various aspects of spatial heterogeneity. A series of fracture maps (joints and faults) were generated at different scales, and fracture trends were studied to test scale dependency of fracture orientations. Multiscale trend analysis was then applied to describe the trend structure of the fracture networks.

  13. How Faults Shape the Earth. (United States)

    Bykerk-Kauffman, Ann


    Presents fault activity with an emphasis on earthquakes and changes in continent shapes. Identifies three types of fault movement: normal, reverse, and strike faults. Discusses the seismic gap theory, plate tectonics, and the principle of superposition. Vignettes portray fault movement, and the locations of the San Andreas fault and epicenters of…

  14. Seismic Velocity and Elastic Properties of Plate Boundary Faults (United States)

    Jeppson, Tamara N.

    The elastic properties of fault zone rock at depth play a key role in rupture nucleation, propagation, and the magnitude of fault slip. Materials that lie within major plate boundary fault zones often have very different material properties than standard crustal rock values. In order to understand the mechanics of faulting at plate boundaries, we need to both measure these properties and understand how they govern the behavior of different types of faults. Mature fault zones tend to be identified in large-scale geophysical field studies as zones with low seismic velocity and/or electrical resistivity. These anomalous properties are related to two important mechanisms: (1) mechanical or diagenetic alteration of the rock materials and/or (2) pore fluid pressure and stress effects. However, in remotely-sensed and large-length-scale data it is difficult to determine which of these mechanisms are affecting the measured properties. The objective of this dissertation research is to characterize the seismic velocity and elastic properties of fault zone rocks at a range of scales, with a focus on understanding why the fault zone properties are different from those of the surrounding rock and the potential effects on earthquake rupture and fault slip. To do this I performed ultrasonic velocity experiments under elevated pressure conditions on drill core and outcrops samples from three plate boundary fault zones: the San Andreas Fault, California, USA; the Alpine Fault, South Island, New Zealand; and the Japan Trench megathrust, Japan. Additionally, I compared laboratory measurements to sonic log and large-scale seismic data to examine the scale-dependence of the measured properties. The results of this study provide the most comprehensive characterization of the seismic velocities and elastic properties of fault zone rocks currently available. My work shows that fault zone rocks at mature plate boundary faults tend to be significantly more compliant than surrounding crustal

  15. Constraining recent fault offsets with statistical and geometrical methods: Example from the Jasneuf Fault (Western Alps, France) (United States)

    Billant, Jérémy; Bellier, Olivier; Godard, Vincent; Hippolyte, Jean-Claude


    We propose two new approaches regarding recent fault offset measurements by studying the seismogenic potential of the Jasneuf Fault. The NE trending right-lateral strike-slip Jasneuf Fault is the southwestern extension of the Belledonne fault system in the Vercors Massif. This fault, which is located in an intraplate domain, does not show strongly associated seismicity but displays morphological anomalies that are related to recent faulting (right-lateral offset of Late Cenozoic cliffs, recent talwegs, and post Günz scarps). The two methods that we use to quantify fault slip are as follows. 1 - Recursive measurements of stream offsets are conducted. This analysis reveals that a stream network can display characteristic distances between streams that can be mistakenly interpreted as long-term cumulative fault offsets. A comparison of the apparent stream offset values and stream spacing values is necessary to identify the true offsets. 2 - We propose a new method that enables us to determine the fault offset and kinematics by using recursive measurements of topographic apparent offsets to counter the lack of morphologic features that are used to determine piercing points or lines. This method enables us to define each possible slip vector for numerous artificial piercing points along a fault. The slip vector that is shared by these piercing points is the true slip vector. By applying these methodologies, we determine that the Jasneuf Fault has accumulated slip since the Messinian, which corresponds to an average slip rate of 0.13 ± 0.03 mm year-1. The extension of the fault is poorly constrained. Nevertheless, if we do not consider the potential aseismic (creep slip) component of the faulting, we calculate that this fault could generate Mw 5.7 earthquakes every 500 years according to Wells and Coppersmith's scaling laws and by assuming that the faulting is limited to the sedimentary cover and the Vercors Plateau.

  16. Effect of carbonate content on the mechanical behaviour of clay fault-gouges (United States)

    Bakker, Elisenda; Niemeijer, André; Hangx, Suzanne; Spiers, Chris


    Carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS) in depleted oil and gas reservoirs is considered to be the most promising technology to achieve large-scale reduction in anthropogenic emissions. In order to retain the stored CO2 from the atmosphere for the very long-term, i.e. on timescales of the order of 103-104 years, it is essential to maintain the integrity of the caprock, and more specifically of any faults penetrating the seal. When selecting suitable CO2-storage reservoirs, pre-exisiting faults within the caprock require close attention, as changes in the stress state resulting from CO2-injection may induce fault slip motion which might cause leakage. Little is known about the effect of fluid-rock interactions on the mineral composition, mechanical properties and the integrity and sealing capacity of the caprock. Previous studies on the effect of mineral composition on the frictional properties of fault gouges have shown that friction is controlled by the dominant phase unless there is a frictionally weak, through-going fabric. However, the effect on stability is less clear. Since long-term CO2-exposure might cause chemical reactions, potentially resulting in the dissolution or precipitation of carbonate minerals, a change in mineralogy could affect the mechanical stability of a caprock significantly. Calcite, for example, is known to be prone to micro-seismicity and shows a transition from velocity-strengthening to velocity-weakening behaviour around 100-150°C. Therefore, we investigated the effect of varying clay:carbonate ratios on fault friction behaviour, fault reactivation potential and slip stability, i.e. seismic vs. aseismic behaviour. Three types of simulated fault gouges were used: i) carbonate-free, natural clay-rich caprock samples, consisting of predominantly phyllosilicates (~80%) and quartz ~20%), ii) pure calcite, and iii) mixtures of carbonate-free clay-rich caprock and pure calcite, with predetermined clay:carbonate ratios. For the natural clay


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matthias G. Imhof; James W. Castle


    The objective of the project is to examine how seismic and geologic data can be used to improve characterization of small-scale heterogeneity and their parameterization in reservoir models. The study is performed at West Coalinga Field in California. We continued our investigation on the nature of seismic reactions from heterogeneous reservoirs. We began testing our algorithm to infer parameters of object-based reservoir models from seismic data. We began integration of seismic and geologic data to determine the deterministic limits of conventional seismic data interpretation. Lastly, we began integration of seismic and geologic heterogeneity using stochastic models conditioned both on wireline and seismic data.

  18. Advances in carbonate exploration and reservoir analysis (United States)

    Garland, J.; Neilson, J.; Laubach, S.E.; Whidden, Katherine J.


    The development of innovative techniques and concepts, and the emergence of new plays in carbonate rocks are creating a resurgence of oil and gas discoveries worldwide. The maturity of a basin and the application of exploration concepts have a fundamental influence on exploration strategies. Exploration success often occurs in underexplored basins by applying existing established geological concepts. This approach is commonly undertaken when new basins ‘open up’ owing to previous political upheavals. The strategy of using new techniques in a proven mature area is particularly appropriate when dealing with unconventional resources (heavy oil, bitumen, stranded gas), while the application of new play concepts (such as lacustrine carbonates) to new areas (i.e. ultra-deep South Atlantic basins) epitomizes frontier exploration. Many low-matrix-porosity hydrocarbon reservoirs are productive because permeability is controlled by fractures and faults. Understanding basic fracture properties is critical in reducing geological risk and therefore reducing well costs and increasing well recovery. The advent of resource plays in carbonate rocks, and the long-standing recognition of naturally fractured carbonate reservoirs means that new fracture and fault analysis and prediction techniques and concepts are essential.

  19. Sediment management for reservoir

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahman, A.


    All natural lakes and reservoirs whether on rivers, tributaries or off channel storages are doomed to be sited up. Pakistan has two major reservoirs of Tarbela and Managla and shallow lake created by Chashma Barrage. Tarbela and Mangla Lakes are losing their capacities ever since first impounding, Tarbela since 1974 and Mangla since 1967. Tarbela Reservoir receives average annual flow of about 62 MAF and sediment deposits of 0.11 MAF whereas Mangla gets about 23 MAF of average annual flows and is losing its storage at the rate of average 34,000 MAF annually. The loss of storage is a great concern and studies for Tarbela were carried out by TAMS and Wallingford to sustain its capacity whereas no study has been done for Mangla as yet except as part of study for Raised Mangla, which is only desk work. Delta of Tarbala reservoir has advanced to about 6.59 miles (Pivot Point) from power intakes. In case of liquefaction of delta by tremor as low as 0.12g peak ground acceleration the power tunnels I, 2 and 3 will be blocked. Minimum Pool of reservoir is being raised so as to check the advance of delta. Mangla delta will follow the trend of Tarbela. Tarbela has vast amount of data as reservoir is surveyed every year, whereas Mangla Reservoir survey was done at five-year interval, which has now been proposed .to be reduced to three-year interval. In addition suspended sediment sampling of inflow streams is being done by Surface Water Hydrology Project of WAPDA as also some bed load sampling. The problem of Chasma Reservoir has also been highlighted, as it is being indiscriminately being filled up and drawdown several times a year without regard to its reaction to this treatment. The Sediment Management of these reservoirs is essential and the paper discusses pros and cons of various alternatives. (author)

  20. Uncovering dynamic fault trees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Junges, Sebastian; Guck, Dennis; Katoen, Joost P.; Stoelinga, Mariëlle Ida Antoinette

    Fault tree analysis is a widespread industry standard for assessing system reliability. Standard (static) fault trees model the failure behaviour of systems in dependence of their component failures. To overcome their limited expressive power, common dependability patterns, such as spare management,

  1. Nonlinear Multigrid for Reservoir Simulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Max la Cour; Eskildsen, Klaus Langgren; Engsig-Karup, Allan Peter


    modeled after local linearization, leading to a nonlinear multigrid method in the form of the full-approximation scheme (FAS). It is demonstrated through numerical experiments that, without loss of robustness, the FAS method can outperform the conventional techniques in terms of algorithmic and numerical...... efficiency for a black-oil model. Furthermore, the use of the FAS method enables a significant reduction in memory usage compared with conventional techniques, which suggests new possibilities for improved large-scale reservoir simulation and numerical efficiency. Last, nonlinear multilevel preconditioning...


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephen C. Ruppel


    Despite declining production rates, existing reservoirs in the US contain large quantities of remaining oil and gas that constitute a huge target for improved diagnosis and imaging of reservoir properties. The resource target is especially large in carbonate reservoirs, where conventional data and methodologies are normally insufficient to resolve critical scales of reservoir heterogeneity. The objectives of the research described in this report were to develop and test such methodologies for improved imaging, measurement, modeling, and prediction of reservoir properties in carbonate hydrocarbon reservoirs. The focus of the study is the Permian-age Fullerton Clear Fork reservoir of the Permian Basin of West Texas. This reservoir is an especially appropriate choice considering (a) the Permian Basin is the largest oil-bearing basin in the US, and (b) as a play, Clear Fork reservoirs have exhibited the lowest recovery efficiencies of all carbonate reservoirs in the Permian Basin.

  3. Reservoir characteristics and control factors of Carboniferous volcanic gas reservoirs in the Dixi area of Junggar Basin, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji'an Shi


    Full Text Available Field outcrop observation, drilling core description, thin-section analysis, SEM analysis, and geochemistry, indicate that Dixi area of Carboniferous volcanic rock gas reservoir belongs to the volcanic rock oil reservoir of the authigenic gas reservoir. The source rocks make contact with volcanic rock reservoir directly or by fault, and having the characteristics of near source accumulation. The volcanic rock reservoir rocks mainly consist of acidic rhyolite and dacite, intermediate andesite, basic basalt and volcanic breccia: (1 Acidic rhyolite and dacite reservoirs are developed in the middle-lower part of the structure, have suffered strong denudation effect, and the secondary pores have formed in the weathering and tectonic burial stages, but primary pores are not developed within the early diagenesis stage. Average porosity is only at 8%, and the maximum porosity is at 13.5%, with oil and gas accumulation showing poor performance. (2 Intermediate andesite and basic basalt reservoirs are mainly distributed near the crater, which resembles the size of and suggests a volcanic eruption. Primary pores are formed in the early diagenetic stage, secondary pores developed in weathering and erosion transformation stage, and secondary fractures formed in the tectonic burial stage. The average porosity is at 9.2%, and the maximum porosity is at 21.9%: it is of the high-quality reservoir types in Dixi area. (3 The volcanic breccia reservoir has the same diagenetic features with sedimentary rocks, but also has the same mineral composition with volcanic rock; rigid components can keep the primary porosity without being affected by compaction during the burial process. At the same time, the brittleness of volcanic breccia reservoir makes it easily fracture under the stress; internal fracture was developmental. Volcanic breccia developed in the structural high part and suffered a long-term leaching effect. The original pore-fracture combination also made

  4. Solar system fault detection (United States)

    Farrington, R.B.; Pruett, J.C. Jr.


    A fault detecting apparatus and method are provided for use with an active solar system. The apparatus provides an indication as to whether one or more predetermined faults have occurred in the solar system. The apparatus includes a plurality of sensors, each sensor being used in determining whether a predetermined condition is present. The outputs of the sensors are combined in a pre-established manner in accordance with the kind of predetermined faults to be detected. Indicators communicate with the outputs generated by combining the sensor outputs to give the user of the solar system and the apparatus an indication as to whether a predetermined fault has occurred. Upon detection and indication of any predetermined fault, the user can take appropriate corrective action so that the overall reliability and efficiency of the active solar system are increased.

  5. Fault Tolerant Control Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøgh, S. A.

    This thesis considered the development of fault tolerant control systems. The focus was on the category of automated processes that do not necessarily comprise a high number of identical sensors and actuators to maintain safe operation, but still have a potential for improving immunity to component...... failures. It is often feasible to increase availability for these control loops by designing the control system to perform on-line detection and reconfiguration in case of faults before the safety system makes a close-down of the process. A general development methodology is given in the thesis...... that carried the control system designer through the steps necessary to consider fault handling in an early design phase. It was shown how an existing control loop with interface to the plant wide control system could be extended with three additional modules to obtain fault tolerance: Fault detection...

  6. Nonlinear analysis of concrete gravity dams under normal fault motion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Alijani Ardeshir


    Full Text Available The importance of the seismic behavior of concrete gravity dams in their safety evaluation and stability is inevitable. Many factors affect the prediction of the behavior of concrete dams such as dam-foundation-reservoir interaction, dam and foundation cracking and also displacement due to fault movement that could causes nonlinear behavior. The aim of this study is nonlinear analysis of concrete gravity dams, including displacement caused by normal fault movement in the dam foundation. For this purpose, dam-foundation-reservoir system is modeled using Lagrangian method and analysis of system is done by finite element method. The coordinate smeared crack model based on the nonlinear fracture mechanics is used for crack modeling in the dam body and foundation. Using two separate method including split node technique and contact element, the fault movement are modeled and the position and angle of fault has been studied. To verify the results, dam crest displacement and crack profile in the body of a concrete gravity dam is presented as an example. The results show that low fault movement causes the cracks in the dam body and could be jeopardizes the stability and safety of concrete dam.

  7. Origins of oblique-slip faulting during caldera subsidence (United States)

    Holohan, Eoghan P.; Walter, Thomas R.; Schöpfer, Martin P. J.; Walsh, John J.; van Wyk de Vries, Benjamin; Troll, Valentin R.


    Although conventionally described as purely dip-slip, faults at caldera volcanoes may have a strike-slip displacement component. Examples occur in the calderas of Olympus Mons (Mars), Miyakejima (Japan), and Dolomieu (La Reunion). To investigate this phenomenon, we use numerical and analog simulations of caldera subsidence caused by magma reservoir deflation. The numerical models constrain mechanical causes of oblique-slip faulting from the three-dimensional stress field in the initial elastic phase of subsidence. The analog experiments directly characterize the development of oblique-slip faulting, especially in the later, non-elastic phases of subsidence. The combined results of both approaches can account for the orientation, mode, and location of oblique-slip faulting at natural calderas. Kinematically, oblique-slip faulting originates to resolve the following: (1) horizontal components of displacement that are directed radially toward the caldera center and (2) horizontal translation arising from off-centered or "asymmetric" subsidence. We informally call these two origins the "camera iris" and "sliding trapdoor" effects, respectively. Our findings emphasize the fundamentally three-dimensional nature of deformation during caldera subsidence. They hence provide an improved basis for analyzing structural, geodetic, and geophysical data from calderas, as well as analogous systems, such as mines and producing hydrocarbon reservoirs.

  8. Diagenetic setting, dolomitization and reservoir characterization of Late Cretaceous Kawagarh Formation, Khanpur Dam section, Hazara, Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maqsood Ur Rahman


    Full Text Available The Kawagarh Formation is well exposed in Hazara basin in different sections. Due to deep depositional settings, the Kawagarh Formation is least appealing to geologists to investigate it as a hydrocarbon reservoir. In the present study, the diagenetic settings of Kawagarh Formation were chronologically studied to interpret its diagenetic history and the effect of different diagenetic phases on the reservoir potential. The dolomitization is also studied in depth to use it as a key for its reservoir potential. Kawagarh Formation is sampled at Khanpur Dam Section for porosity analysis. The samples were taken from limestone and dolomite facies randomly. The dolomites are in the form of veins and well developed thick size beds. These dolomites are secondary in nature which is hosted by fractures and joints of limestone, which affect about 25% of limestone facies. At outcrop scale different types of dolomites are recognised on the basis of color and texture, yellowish fine-grained, brown blackish coarse-grained in the top portion and saddle dolomites. In petrographic study partial and complete dolomitization are observed. On the basis of crystal sizes and geometry different types of dolomites are recognized which are; (1 fine crystalline planar-euhedral dolomite, (2 medium crystalline planar-subhedral dolomite, (3 medium crystalline non-planar-anhedral dolomite, (4 coarse crystalline planar-subhedral dolomite, (5 coarse crystalline, non-planar-anhedral dolomite and (6 saddle dolomites (SD1. In petrographic study, high inclusions and disturbance are observed at the surfaces of dolomitic rhombs which indicate low Mg replacement or dedolomitization phenomena. On image J porosity analysis, the porosity is found of limestone and dolomitic samples. In limestone facies which is mostly, non-laminated mudstone has very low up to 2 to 3% in the form of vugs and fractures. In dolomitic facies, the porosity is ranging from 5% to 14%. In most of the dolomitic

  9. Modeling Chemical EOR Processes: Some Illustrations from Lab to Reservoir Scale Modélisation des procédés EOR chimiques : du laboratoire au réservoir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douarche F.


    Full Text Available Chemical flooding, SP (Surfactant Polymer or ASP (Alkali-Surfactant-Polymer, are of increasing interest due to the need to increase oil production. Design of chemical processes is very project specific and requires case by case studies including various steps among which reservoir data analysis, chemical formulations, coreflood validations and reservoir simulation. Every step is dependent on the preceding ones and the last reservoir simulation step gathers all the information collected during the project. In this paper, we present a chemical simulator describing two phase flow with chemical transport of alkali, surfactant, polymer and salinity. Two phase flow is related to capillary desaturation curve through the decrease of oil-water interfacial tension. Physical chemistry reactions are described either with a thermodynamic approach or a simplified one using tables or simplified physics to be compatible with large scale reservoir simulations. In this paper, we describe the simulator and present results of numerous experiments specially designed to validate the model: alkaline injections of carbonates and borates, surfactant adsorption experiments at different salinities and pH, systematic effect of salinity on interfacial tension and oil recovery with/without salinity gradient. The good agreement between the experimental and numerical oil recoveries and chemical compositions is very encouraging and supports the validity of the physics implemented in the simulator. In particular, the dominant effect of pH on adsorption and the importance of a salinity gradient on oil recovery is highlighted by numerical simulation. Finally, a sensitivity study at the reservoir scale is presented to illustrate relevant factors for the implementation of an economic surfactant-based process. Les procédés de récupération tertiaire par voie chimique, SP (Surfactant Polymer ou ASP (Alkali-Surfactant-Polymer, sont en plein essor du fait d’une demande croissante

  10. Predictive permeability model of faults in crystalline rocks ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This gives a proportional relationship for JH approximately 1:4:2 between the fault core, inner damage zone, and outer damage zone of extensional fault zones in crystalline rocks. The results of the verification exercise revealed that the new approach would be efficient and that the JH parameter is a reliable scale for the ...

  11. Nature and continuity of the Sundance Fault, Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potter, Christopher J.; Dickerson, Robert P.; Day, Warren C.


    This report describes the detailed geologic mapping (1:2,400 scale) that was performed in the northern part of the potential nuclear waste repository area at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, to determine the nature and extent of the Sundance Fault zone and to evaluate structural relations between the Sundance and other faults

  12. Layer rotation around vertical fault overlap zones: observations from seismic data, field examples, and physical experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rykkelid, E. [Norsk Hydro ASA, Oslo (Norway); Fossen, H. [University of Bergen (Norway). Dept. of Geology


    Vertically overlapping fault segments are common structures in faulted hydrocarbon reservoirs. Experimental work and field observations show a close relationship between the rotation of layers in the region of overlap, the type of overlap (restraining vs. releasing) and fault curvature. In general, releasing overlap zones (where the normal fault steps upward into the hanging-wall) show normal rotation or drag, thus decreasing the effective throw on the fault. In contrast, restraining overlaps tend to develop reverse rotation in the overlap zone, particularly if the normal fault tips curve toward each other. Releasing overlap zones seem to be more common than the restraining zones, and the overlaps tend to form in shaly layers between thicker sandstones. Narrow overlaps of this type typically develop zones of drag or shale smear that could seal or reduce communication across the adjacent sandstone layers. Hence, overlap zones may significantly influence communication in a reservoir, depending on the fault arrangement, geometry, and lithological properties. Seismic interpreters and structural geologists should pay particular attention to layer rotation to identify vertical overlap structures and to evaluate their influence on reservoir performance. (author)

  13. Aseismic Motions Drive a Sparse Seismicity During Fluid Injections Into a Fractured Zone in a Carbonate Reservoir (United States)

    Duboeuf, Laure; De Barros, Louis; Cappa, Frédéric; Guglielmi, Yves; Deschamps, Anne; Seguy, Simon


    An increase in fluid pressure in faults can trigger seismicity and large aseismic motions. Understanding how fluid and faults interact is an essential goal for seismic hazard and reservoir monitoring, but this key relation remains unclear. We developed an in situ experiment of fluid injections at a 10 meter scale. Water was injected at high pressure in different geological structures inside a fault damaged zone, in limestone at 280 m depth in the Low Noise Underground Laboratory (France). Induced seismicity, as well as strains, pressure, and flow rate, was continuously monitored during the injections. Although nonreversible deformations related to fracture reactivations were observed for all injections, only a few tests generated seismicity. Events are characterized by a 0.5-to-4 kHz content and a small magnitude (approximately -3.5). They are located within 1.5 m accuracy between 1 and 12 m from the injections. Comparing strain measurements and seismicity shows that more than 96% of the deformation is aseismic. The seismic moment is also small compared to the one expected from the injected volume. Moreover, a dual seismic behavior is observed as (1) the spatiotemporal distribution of some cluster of events is clearly independent from the fluid diffusion (2) while a diffusion-type pattern can be observed for some others clusters. The seismicity might therefore appear as an indirect effect to the fluid pressure, driven by aseismic motion and related stress perturbation transferred through failure.

  14. Exposing the faults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richardson, P.J.


    UK NIREX, the body with responsibility for finding an acceptable strategy for deposition of radioactive waste has given the impression throughout its recent public consultation that the problem of nuclear waste is one of public and political acceptability, rather than one of a technical nature. However the results of the consultation process show that it has no mandate from the British public to develop a single, national, deep repository for the burial of radioactive waste. There is considerable opposition to this method of managing radioactive waste and suspicion of the claims by NIREX concerning the supposed integrity and safety of this deep burial option. This report gives substance to those suspicions and details the significant areas of uncertainty in the concept of effective geological containment of hazardous radioactive elements, which remain dangerous for tens of thousands of years. Because the science of geology is essentially retrospective rather than predictive, NIREX's plans for a single, national, deep 'repository' depend heavily upon a wide range of assumptions about the geological and hydrogeological regimes in certain areas of the UK. This report demonstrates that these assumptions are based on a limited understanding of UK geology and on unvalidated and simplistic theoretical models of geological processes, the performance of which can never be directly tested over the long time-scales involved. NIREX's proposals offer no guarantees for the safe and effective containment of radioactivity. They are deeply flawed. This report exposes the faults. (author)

  15. Characterization and 3D reservoir modelling of fluvial sandstones of the Williams Fork Formation, Rulison Field, Piceance Basin, Colorado, USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pranter, Matthew J; Vargas, Marielis F; Davis, Thomas L


    This study describes the stratigraphic characteristics and distribution of fluvial deposits of the Upper Cretaceous Williams Fork Formation in a portion of Rulison Field and addresses 3D geologic modelling of reservoir sand bodies and their associated connectivity. Fluvial deposits include isolated and stacked point-bar deposits, crevasse splays and overbank (floodplain) mudrock. Within the Williams Fork Formation, the distribution and connectivity of fluvial sandstones significantly impact reservoir productivity and ultimate recovery. The reservoir sandstones are primarily fluvial point-bar deposits interbedded with shales and coals. Because of the lenticular geometry and limited lateral extent of the reservoir sandstones (common apparent widths of ∼500–1000 ft; ∼150–300 m), relatively high well densities (e.g. 10 acre (660 ft; 200 m) spacing) are often required to deplete the reservoir. Heterogeneity of these fluvial deposits includes larger scale stratigraphic variability associated with vertical stacking patterns and structural heterogeneities associated with faults that exhibit lateral and reverse offsets. The discontinuous character of the fluvial sandstones and lack of distinct marker beds in the middle and upper parts of the Williams Fork Formation make correlation between wells tenuous, even at a 10 acre well spacing. Some intervals of thicker and amalgamated sandstones within the middle and upper Williams Fork Formation can be correlated across greater distances. To aid correlation and for 3D reservoir modelling, vertical lithology proportion curves were used to estimate stratigraphic trends and define the stratigraphic zonation within the reservoir interval. Object-based and indicator-based modelling methods have been applied to the same data and results from the models were compared. Results from the 3D modelling indicate that sandstone connectivity increases with net-to-gross ratio and, at lower net-to-gross ratios (<30%), differences exist in

  16. Re-evaluating fault zone evolution, geometry, and slip rate along the restraining bend of the southern San Andreas Fault Zone (United States)

    Blisniuk, K.; Fosdick, J. C.; Balco, G.; Stone, J. O.


    This study presents new multi-proxy data to provide an alternative interpretation of the late -to-mid Quaternary evolution, geometry, and slip rate of the southern San Andreas fault zone, comprising of the Garnet Hill, Banning, and Mission Creek fault strands, along its restraining bend near the San Bernardino Mountains and San Gorgonio Pass. Present geologic and geomorphic studies in the region indicate that as the Mission Creek and Banning faults diverge from one another in the southern Indio Hills, the Banning Fault Strand accommodates the majority of lateral displacement across the San Andreas Fault Zone. In this currently favored kinematic model of the southern San Andreas Fault Zone, slip along the Mission Creek Fault Strand decreases significantly northwestward toward the San Gorgonio Pass. Along this restraining bend, the Mission Creek Fault Strand is considered to be inactive since the late -to-mid Quaternary ( 500-150 kya) due to the transfer of plate boundary strain westward to the Banning and Garnet Hills Fault Strands, the Jacinto Fault Zone, and northeastward, to the Eastern California Shear Zone. Here, we present a revised geomorphic interpretation of fault displacement, initial 36Cl/10Be burial ages, sediment provenance data, and detrital geochronology from modern catchments and displaced Quaternary deposits that improve across-fault correlations. We hypothesize that continuous large-scale translation of this structure has occurred throughout its history into the present. Accordingly, the Mission Creek Fault Strand is active and likely a primary plate boundary fault at this latitude.

  17. Adaptive Stochastic Resonance in Second-Order System with General Scale Transformation for Weak Feature Extraction and Its Application in Bearing Fault Diagnosis (United States)

    Ma, Qiang; Huang, Dawen; Yang, Jianhua

    The theory of general scale transformation (GST) is put forward and used in the second-order underdamped bistable system to extract weak signal features submerged into strong noise. An adaptive stochastic resonance (SR) with GST is proposed and realized by the quantum particle swarm optimization (QPSO) algorithm. The harmonic signal and experimental signal are considered to compare GST with normalized scale transformation (NST) in the second-order system. The results show that detection effect of the adaptive SR with GST is better than the NST SR. In addition, the output signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) is significantly improved in the GST method. Meanwhile, the dependence of the signal extraction efficiency on the noise intensity is researched. The output SNR is decreased with the increase of the noise intensity in two methods. However, the proposed method is always superior to the NST. Moreover, the superiority of the Brown particle oscillation in the single well is discussed. The proposed method has certain reference value in the extraction of the weak signal under the strong noise background.

  18. A study of small-scale foliation in lengths of core enclosing fault zones in borehole WD-3, Permit Area D, Lac du Bonnet Batholith

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ejeckam, R.B.


    Small-scale foliation measurements in lengths of core from borehole WD-3 of Permit Area D of the Lac du Bonnet Batholith have defined five major mean orientation sets. They strike NW, N and NE. The orientations (strike to the left of the dip direction/dip) of these sets are as follows: Set I - 028/74 deg; II - 001/66 deg; III - 100/58 deg; IV - 076/83 deg; and V - 210/40 deg. The small-scale foliations were defined by different mineral types such as biotite crystals, plagioclase, mineral banding and quartz lenses. Well-developed biotite foliation is commonly present whenever well-developed plagioclase foliation exists, but as the strength of development weakens, the preferred orientations of plagioclase foliation do not correspond to those of biotite. It is also noted that the foliations appear to strike in directions orthogonal to the fractures in the fracture zones in the same depth interval. No significant change in foliation orientation was observed in Zones I to IV. Set V, however, whose mean orientation is 210/40 deg, is absent from the Zone IV interval, ranging from 872 to 905 m. (auth)

  19. Some open issues in the analysis of the storage and migration properties of fractured carbonate reservoirs (United States)

    Agosta, Fabrizio


    Underground CO2 storage in depleted hydrocarbon reservoirs may become a common practice in the future to lower the concentration of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. Results from the first experiments conducted in carbonate rocks, for instance the Lacq integrated CCS Pilot site, SW France, are quite exciting. All monitored parameters, such as the CO2 concentration at well sites, well pressures, cap rock integrity and environmental indicators show the long-term integrity of this type of geological reservoirs. Other positive news arise from the OXY-CFB-300 Compostilla Project, NW Spain, where most of the injected CO2 dissolved into the formation brines, suggesting the long-term security of this method. However, in both cases, the CO2- rich fluids partially dissolved the carbonate minerals during their migration through the fractured reservoir, modifying the overall pore volume and pressure regimes. These results support the growing need for a better understanding of the mechanical behavior of carbonate rocks over geological time of scales. In fact, it is well known that carbonates exhibit a variety of deformation mechanisms depending upon many intrinsic factors such as composition, texture, connected pore volume, and nature of the primary heterogeneities. Commonly, tight carbonates are prone to opening-mode and/or pressure solution deformation. The interplay between these two mechanisms likely affects the petrophysical properties of the fault damage zones, which form potential sites for CO2 storage due to their high values of both connected porosity and permeability. On the contrary, cataclastic deformation produces fault rocks that often form localized fluid barriers for cross-fault fluid flow. Nowadays, questions on the conditions of sealing/leakage of carbonate fault rocks are still open. In particular, the relative role played by bulk crushing, chipping, cementation, and pressure solution on connected porosity of carbonate fault rocks during structural


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James R. Wood; William B. Harrison


    The purpose of the study was to collect and analyze existing data on the Michigan Basin for fracture patterns on scales ranging form thin section to basin. The data acquisition phase has been successfully concluded with the compilation of several large digital databases containing nearly all the existing information on formation tops, lithology and hydrocarbon production over the entire Michigan Basin. These databases represent the cumulative result of over 80 years of drilling and exploration. Plotting and examination of these data show that contrary to most depictions, the Michigan Basin is in fact extensively faulted and fractured, particularly in the central portion of the basin. This is in contrast to most of the existing work on the Michigan Basin, which tends to show relatively simple structure with few or minor faults. It also appears that these fractures and faults control the Paleozoic sediment deposition, the subsequent hydrocarbon traps and very likely the regional dolomitization patterns. Recent work has revealed that a detailed fracture pattern exists in the interior of the Central Michigan Basin, which is related to the mid-continent gravity high. The inference is that early Precambrian, ({approx}1 Ga) rifting events presumed by many to account for the gravity anomaly subsequently controlled Paleozoic sedimentation and later hydrocarbon accumulation. There is a systematic relationship between the faults and a number of gas and oil reservoirs: major hydrocarbon accumulations consistently occur in small anticlines on the upthrown side of the faults. The main tools used in this study to map the fault/fracture patterns are detailed, close-interval (CI = 10 feet) contouring of the formation top picks accompanied by a new way of visualizing the data using a special color spectrum to bring out the third dimension. In addition, recent improvements in visualization and contouring software were instrumental in the study. Dolomitization is common in the

  1. What's shaking?: Understanding creep and induced seismicity in depleting sandstone reservoirs (United States)

    Hangx, Suzanne; Spiers, Christopher


    Subsurface exploitation of the Earth's natural resources, such as oil, gas and groundwater, removes the natural system from its chemical and physical equilibrium. With global energy and water demand increasing rapidly, while availability diminishes, densely populated areas are becoming increasingly targeted for exploitation. Indeed, the impact of our geo-resources needs on the environment has already become noticeable. Deep groundwater pumping has led to significant surface subsidence in urban areas such as Venice and Bangkok. Hydrocarbons production has also led to subsidence and seismicity in offshore (e.g. Ekofisk, Norway) and onshore hydrocarbon fields (e.g. Groningen, the Netherlands). Fluid extraction inevitably leads to (poro)elastic compaction of reservoirs, hence subsidence and occasional fault reactivation. However, such effects often exceed what is expected from purely elastic reservoir behaviour and may continue long after exploitation has ceased or show other time-lag effects in relation to changes in production rates. One of the main hypotheses advanced to explain this is time-dependent compaction, or 'creep deformation', of such reservoirs, driven by the reduction in pore fluid pressure compared with the vertical rock overburden pressure. The operative deformation mechanisms may include grain-scale brittle fracturing and thermally-activated mass transfer processes (e.g. pressure solution). Unfortunately, these mechanisms are poorly known and poorly quantified. As a first step to better describe creep in sedimentary granular aggregates, we have derived a universal, simple model for intergranular pressure solution (IPS) within an ordered pack of spherical grains. This universal model is able to predict the conditions under which each of the respective pressure solution serial processes, i.e. diffusion, precipitation or dissolution, is dominant. In essence, this creates a generic deformation mechanism map for IPS in any granular material. We have used

  2. Fault-tolerant design

    CERN Document Server

    Dubrova, Elena


    This textbook serves as an introduction to fault-tolerance, intended for upper-division undergraduate students, graduate-level students and practicing engineers in need of an overview of the field.  Readers will develop skills in modeling and evaluating fault-tolerant architectures in terms of reliability, availability and safety.  They will gain a thorough understanding of fault tolerant computers, including both the theory of how to design and evaluate them and the practical knowledge of achieving fault-tolerance in electronic, communication and software systems.  Coverage includes fault-tolerance techniques through hardware, software, information and time redundancy.  The content is designed to be highly accessible, including numerous examples and exercises.  Solutions and powerpoint slides are available for instructors.   ·         Provides textbook coverage of the fundamental concepts of fault-tolerance; ·         Describes a variety of basic techniques for achieving fault-toleran...

  3. Fault Management Metrics (United States)

    Johnson, Stephen B.; Ghoshal, Sudipto; Haste, Deepak; Moore, Craig


    This paper describes the theory and considerations in the application of metrics to measure the effectiveness of fault management. Fault management refers here to the operational aspect of system health management, and as such is considered as a meta-control loop that operates to preserve or maximize the system's ability to achieve its goals in the face of current or prospective failure. As a suite of control loops, the metrics to estimate and measure the effectiveness of fault management are similar to those of classical control loops in being divided into two major classes: state estimation, and state control. State estimation metrics can be classified into lower-level subdivisions for detection coverage, detection effectiveness, fault isolation and fault identification (diagnostics), and failure prognosis. State control metrics can be classified into response determination effectiveness and response effectiveness. These metrics are applied to each and every fault management control loop in the system, for each failure to which they apply, and probabilistically summed to determine the effectiveness of these fault management control loops to preserve the relevant system goals that they are intended to protect.

  4. Reservoir engineering studies of the Gladys McCall geopressured-geothermal resource. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lea, C.M.; Lee, K.; Miller, M.A.


    Transient pressure analysis techniques have been used to evaluate the performance of the Gladys McCall geopressured-geothermal reservoir. A fault-controlled aquifer influx model has also been developed to account for pressure support observed during both reservoir depletion and recovery phases. The Gladys McCall No. 1 well was drilled and completed in the lower Miocene geopressured sandstones under the US Department of energy geopressured-geothermal research program. The well was shut in october 1987 after producing over 27 MMstb of brine and 676 MMscf gas since October 1983. Eight pressure transient tests were conducted in the well. Analysis of transient pressure data provided a quantitative evaluation of reservoir characteristics, including: (a) formation transmissibility and skin, (b) the size and possible shape of the main producing reservoir, (c) characteristics of the pressure support mechanism. The pressure behavior of 1983 Reservoir Limits Test (RLT) suggested that the Gladys McCall reservoir might have a long narrow shape with the well located off-center. An elongated numerical model developed accordingly was able to reproduce the pressure characteristics show in the test. During both the reservoir production and shut-in periods, pressure buildup tests indicated some degree of external pressure support. Aquifer recharging was believed to be the main source. Based on reservoir material-balance calculations, an aquifer influx model was derived from a conceptual model of water leakage through a partially sealing fault into the reservoir under steady-state conditions. Moreover, a match of the pressure history required that the conductivity of the fault be a function of the pressure difference between the supporting aquifer and the reservoir.

  5. Reservoir engineering studies of the Gladys McCall geopressured-geothermal resource; Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen-Min; Less, K.; Miller, M.A.


    Transient pressure analysis techniques have been used to evaluate the performance of the Gladys McCall geopressured-geothermal reservoir. A fault-controlled aquifer influx model has also been developed to account for pressure support observed during both reservoir depletion and recovery phases. The Gladys McCall No. 1 well was drilled and completed in the lower Miocene geopressured sandstones under the US Department of Energy geopressured-geothermal research program. The well was shut in October 1987 after producing over 27 MMstb of brine and 676 MMscf gas since October 1983. Eight pressure transient tests were conducted in the well. Analysis of transient pressure data provided a quantitative evaluation of reservoir characteristics, including: (a) formation transmissibility and skin, (b) the size and possible shape of the main producing reservoir, and (c) characteristics of the pressure support mechanism. The pressure behavior of 1983 Reservoir Limits Test (RLT) suggested that the Gladys McCall reservoir might have a long narrow shape with the well located off-center. An elongated numerical model developed accordingly was able to reproduce the pressure characteristics shown in the test. During both the reservoir production and shut-in periods, pressure buildup tests indicated some degree of external pressure support. Aquifer recharging was believed to be the main source. Based on reservoir material-balance calculations, an aquifer influx model was derived from a conceptual model of water leakage through a partially sealing fault into the reservoir under steady-state conditions. Moreover, a match of the pressure history required that the conductivity of the fault be a function of the pressure difference between the supporting aquifer and the reservoir.

  6. Constraints on 3D fault and fracture distribution in layered volcanic- volcaniclastic sequences from terrestrial LIDAR datasets: Faroe Islands (United States)

    Raithatha, Bansri; McCaffrey, Kenneth; Walker, Richard; Brown, Richard; Pickering, Giles


    Hydrocarbon reservoirs commonly contain an array of fine-scale structures that control fluid flow in the subsurface, such as polyphase fracture networks and small-scale fault zones. These structures are unresolvable using seismic imaging and therefore outcrop-based studies have been used as analogues to characterize fault and fracture networks and assess their impact on fluid flow in the subsurface. To maximize recovery and enhance production, it is essential to understand the geometry, physical properties, and distribution of these structures in 3D. Here we present field data and terrestrial LIDAR-derived 3D, photo-realistic virtual outcrops of fault zones at a range of displacement scales (0.001- 4.5 m) within a volcaniclastic sand- and basaltic lava unit sequence in the Faroe Islands. Detailed field observations were used to constrain the virtual outcrop dataset, and a workflow has been developed to build a discrete fracture network (DFN) models in GOCAD® from these datasets. Model construction involves three main stages: (1) Georeferencing and processing of LIDAR datasets; (2) Structural interpretation to discriminate between faults, fractures, veins, and joint planes using CAD software and RiSCAN Pro; and (3) Building a 3D DFN in GOCAD®. To test the validity of this workflow, we focus here on a 4.5 m displacement strike-slip fault zone that displays a complex polymodal fracture network in the inter-layered basalt-volcaniclastic sequence, which is well-constrained by field study. The DFN models support our initial field-based hypothesis that fault zone geometry varies with increasing displacement through volcaniclastic units. Fracture concentration appears to be greatest in the upper lava unit, decreases into the volcaniclastic sediments, and decreases further into the lower lava unit. This distribution of fractures appears to be related to the width of the fault zone and the amount of fault damage on the outcrop. For instance, the fault zone is thicker in

  7. Hydrocarbon Reservoir Identification in Volcanic Zone by using Magnetotelluric and Geochemistry Information (United States)

    Firda, S. I.; Permadi, A. N.; Supriyanto; Suwardi, B. N.


    The resistivity of Magnetotelluric (MT) data show the resistivity mapping in the volcanic reservoir zone and the geochemistry information for confirm the reservoir and source rock formation. In this research, we used 132 data points divided with two line at exploration area. We used several steps to make the resistivity mapping. There are time series correction, crosspower correction, then inversion of Magnetotelluric (MT) data. Line-2 and line-3 show anomaly geological condition with Gabon fault. The geology structure from the resistivity mapping show the fault and the geological formation with the geological rock data mapping distribution. The geochemistry information show the maturity of source rock formation. According to core sample analysis information, we get the visual porosity for reservoir rock formation in several geological structure. Based on that, we make the geological modelling where the potential reservoir and the source rock around our interest area.

  8. Climate variability and sedimentation of a hydropower reservoir

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riedel, M.


    As part of the relicensing of a large Hydroelectric Project in the central Appalachians, large scale watershed and reservoir sedimentation models were developed to forecast potential sedimentation scenarios. The GIS based watershed model was spatially explicit and calibrated to long term observed data. Potential socio/economic development scenarios were used to construct future watershed land cover scenarios. Climatic variability and potential change analysis were used to identify future climate regimes and shifts in precipitation and temperature patterns. Permutations of these development and climate changes were forecasted over 50 years and used to develop sediment yield regimes to the project reservoir. Extensive field work and reservoir survey, including current and wave instrumentation, were used to characterize the project watershed, rivers and reservoir hydrodynamics. A fully 3 dimensional hydrodynamic reservoir sedimentation model was developed for the project and calibrated to observed data. Hydrologic and sedimentation results from watershed forecasting provided boundary conditions for reservoir inputs. The calibrated reservoir model was then used to forecast changes in reservoir sedimentation and storage capacity under different future climate scenarios. Results indicated unique zones of advancing sediment deltas and temporary storage areas. Forecasted changes in reservoir bathymetry and sedimentation patterns were also developed for the various climate change scenarios. The warmer and wetter scenario produced sedimentation impacts similar to extensive development under no climate change. The results of these analyses are being used to develop collaborative watershed and soil conservation partnerships to reduce future soil losses and reservoir sedimentation from projected development. (author)

  9. Relationships between along-fault heterogeneous normal stress and fault slip patterns during the seismic cycle: Insights from a strike-slip fault laboratory model (United States)

    Caniven, Yannick; Dominguez, Stéphane; Soliva, Roger; Peyret, Michel; Cattin, Rodolphe; Maerten, Frantz


    We use a strike-slip fault analog model to study experimentally the role played by along-fault non-uniform and asymmetric applied normal stress on both coseismic slip and long-term fault behavior. Our model is based on a visco-elasto-plastic multi-layered rheology that allows to produce several hundreds of scaled analog microquakes and associated seismic cycles. Uniform or heterogeneous applied normal stress along the fault plane is imposed and maintained constant during the whole experiment durations. Our results suggest that coseismic slip patterns are strongly controlled by spatial normal stress variations and subsequent accumulated shear stress along fault strike. Major microquakes occur preferentially in zones of major shear stress asperities. Coseismic slip distributions exhibit a pattern similar to the along-fault applied normal stress distribution. The occurrence of isolated low to moderate microquakes where residual stresses persist around secondary stress asperities, indicates that stress conditions along the fault also control the whole variability of fault slip events. Moreover, when fault slip stability conditions are modulated by normal stress distribution, our experiments suggest that the along-fault stress heterogeneity influences the seismic cycle regularity and, consequently, long-term fault slip behavior. Uniform applied normal stress favors irregular seismic cycles and the occurrence of earthquakes clustering, whereas non-uniform normal stress with a single high amplitude stress asperity generates strong characteristic microquake events with stable return periods. Together our results strengthen the assumption that coseismic slip distribution and earthquake variability along an active fault may provide relevant information on long term tectonic stress and could thus improve seismic hazard assessment.

  10. Influence of fault steps on rupture termination of strike-slip earthquake faults (United States)

    Li, Zhengfang; Zhou, Bengang


    A statistical analysis was completed on the rupture data of 29 historical strike-slip earthquakes across the world. The purpose of this study is to examine the effects of fault steps on the rupture termination of these events. The results show good correlations between the type and length of steps with the seismic rupture and a poor correlation between the step number and seismic rupture. For different magnitude intervals, the smallest widths of the fault steps (Lt) that can terminate the rupture propagation are variable: Lt = 3 km for Ms 6.5 6.9, Lt = 4 km for Ms 7.0 7.5, Lt = 6 km for Ms 7.5 8.0, and Lt = 8 km for Ms 8.0 8.5. The dilational fault step is easier to rupture through than the compression fault step. The smallest widths of the fault step for the rupture arrest can be used as an indicator to judge the scale of the rupture termination of seismic faults. This is helpful for research on fault segmentation, as well as estimating the magnitude of potential earthquakes, and is thus of significance for the assessment of seismic risks.

  11. Fault Analysis in Cryptography

    CERN Document Server

    Joye, Marc


    In the 1970s researchers noticed that radioactive particles produced by elements naturally present in packaging material could cause bits to flip in sensitive areas of electronic chips. Research into the effect of cosmic rays on semiconductors, an area of particular interest in the aerospace industry, led to methods of hardening electronic devices designed for harsh environments. Ultimately various mechanisms for fault creation and propagation were discovered, and in particular it was noted that many cryptographic algorithms succumb to so-called fault attacks. Preventing fault attacks without

  12. Fault tolerant control based on active fault diagnosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niemann, Hans Henrik


    An active fault diagnosis (AFD) method will be considered in this paper in connection with a Fault Tolerant Control (FTC) architecture based on the YJBK parameterization of all stabilizing controllers. The architecture consists of a fault diagnosis (FD) part and a controller reconfiguration (CR......) part. The FTC architecture can be applied for additive faults, parametric faults, and for system structural changes. Only parametric faults will be considered in this paper. The main focus in this paper is on the use of the new approach of active fault diagnosis in connection with FTC. The active fault...... diagnosis approach is based on including an auxiliary input in the system. A fault signature matrix is introduced in connection with AFD, given as the transfer function from the auxiliary input to the residual output. This can be considered as a generalization of the passive fault diagnosis case, where...

  13. Tectonic framework of the southern portion of the Paraná Basin based on magnetotelluric method: a contribution to the understanding of unconventional reservoirs (United States)

    Rolim, S.


    The characterization of the tectonic framework of Paleozoic terrains is crucial for the investigation of unconventional fractured volcanic reservoirs. In recent years, the need for exploitation of these areas showed the value of the non-seismic methods in Brazil. Here we present the results of a magnetotelluric imaging (MT) to identify and characterize the structural framework of the southern portion of the Paraná Basin, southern Brazil. We carried out a SW-NE ,1200 km-long MT profile, with 68 stations spaced between 5-15 km on the southernmost states in Brazil. The observation of the PSI profile highlights the presence of large scale NW-SE faults and emphasize the presence of two major regional structures: (i) the Rio Grande Arc in the southern portion, and (ii) the Torres Syncline in the northern portion. The Rio Grande Arc is a horst highlighted by the basement uplift and the thicker layers of sedimentary rocks in the extremes south and north of this structure. The fault system observed along the profile suggests simultaneously uplifting of the basement and deposition of the sedimentary sequences of the Paraná Basin. This hypothesis is in agreement with stratigraphic, borehole and geochronological data, which have shown that the Rio Grande arc is contemporaneous with the deposition of the Triassic to Early Jurassic sediments. The Torres Syncline is a structure characterized by the increasing thickness of sedimentary layers in the north section of our MT profile. The continuity of the layers is interrupted by large regional fault systems, which also affect the volcanic rocks of the Serra Geral Formation, indicating that the faults were active after the Cretaceous. The results show that the MT modeling brings a distinct contribution to the understanding of the present structural architecture of the Paraná basin and the construction of a model for potential fractured volcanic reservoirs.

  14. Modelling Spatial and Temporal Fault Zone Evolution in Basement Rocks (United States)

    Lunn, R. J.; Willson, J. P.; Shipton, Z. K.


    joints, the temporal development of simple fault zones from pre-existing joint patterns, and hydrofracturing during thermal pressurisation. Results from these simulations have been validated using outcrop data and research is now in progress to up-scale our results for determination of statistical parameters describing larger scale spatial permeability structure in faults.

  15. Reservoir Characterization and Flow Simulation for CO 2-EOR in the Tensleep Formation Using Discrete Fracture Networks, Teapot Dome, Wyoming (United States)

    Kavousi Ghahfarokhi, Payam

    The Tensleep oil reservoir at Teapot Dome, Wyoming, USA, is a naturally fractured tight sandstone reservoir that has been considered for carbon-dioxide enhanced oil recovery (CO2-EOR) and sequestration. CO2-EOR analysis requires a thorough understanding of the Tensleep fracture network. Wireline image logs from the field suggest that the reservoir fracture network is dominated by early formed structural hinge oblique fractures with interconnectivity enhanced by hinge parallel and hinge perpendicular fracture sets. Available post stack 3D seismic data are used to generate a seismic fracture intensity attribute for the reservoir fracture network. The resulting seismic fracture intensity is qualitatively correlated to the field production history. Wells located on hinge-oblique discontinuities are more productive than other wells in the field. We use Oda's method to upscale the fracture permeabilities in the discrete fracture network for use in a dual porosity fluid flow simulator. We analytically show that Oda's method is sensitive to the grid orientation relative to fracture set strike. Results show that the calculated permeability tensors have maximum geometric mean for the non-zero permeability components (kxx,kyy,kzz,kxy) when the dominant fracture set cuts diagonally through the grid cell at 45° relative to the grid cell principal directions (i,j). The geometric mean of the permeability tensor components falls to a minimum when the dominant fracture set is parallel to either grid wall (i or j principal directions). The latter case has off-diagonal permeability terms close to zero. We oriented the Tensleep reservoir grid to N72°W to minimize the off-diagonal permeability terms. The seismic fracture intensity attribute is then used to generate a realization of the reservoir fracture network. Subsequently, fracture properties are upscaled to the reservoir grid scale for a fully compositional flow simulation. We implemented a PVT analysis using CO2 swelling test

  16. Slip behaviour of carbonate-bearing faults subjected to fluid pressure stimulations (United States)

    Collettini, Cristiano; Scuderi, Marco; Marone, Chris


    Earthquakes caused by fluid injection within reservoir have become an important topic of political and social discussion as new drilling and improved technologies enable the extraction of oil and gas from previously unproductive formations. During reservoir stimulation, the coupled interactions of frictional and fluid flow properties together with the stress state control both the onset of fault slip and fault slip behaviour. However, currently, there are no studies under controlled, laboratory conditions for which the effect of fluid pressure on fault slip behaviour can be deduced. To cover this gap, we have developed laboratory experiments where we monitor fault slip evolution at constant shear stress but with increasing fluid pressure, i.e. reducing the effective normal stress. Experiments have been conducted in the double direct shear configuration within a pressure vessel on carbonate fault gouge, characterized by a slightly velocity strengthening friction that is indicative of stable aseismic creep. In our experiments fault slip history can be divided in three main stages: 1) for high effective normal stress the fault is locked and undergoes compaction; 2) when the shear and effective normal stress reach the failure condition, accelerated creep is associated to fault dilation; 3) further pressurization leads to an exponential acceleration during fault compaction and slip localization. Our results indicate that fault weakening induced by fluid pressurization overcomes the velocity strengthening behaviour of calcite gouge, resulting in fast acceleration and earthquake slip. As applied to tectonic faults our results suggest that a larger number of crustal faults, including those slightly velocity strengthening, can experience earthquake slip due to fluid pressurization.

  17. The Geomorphological Developments Along the East Anatolian Fault Zone, Turkey (United States)

    Saber, R.; Caglayan, A.; Isik, V.; Seyitoglu, G.


    The collision of Eurasia with Arabia has given rise to intracontinental shortening in SE Turkey and development of large scale fault zones. The East Anatolian Fault Zone (EAFZ), a major active fault zone over 700 km in length with NE-striking, defines the boundary zone between Eurasia plate and Anatolian micro-plate. Although the northeastern continuation of the zone merges into the North Anatolian Fault Zone at Karliova region, the southwestern continuation has been the subject of some debate. The zone is characterized by numerous, complex faults and segmented surface ruptures. It cuts and offsets several distinctive units in east and southeast Turkey. The portion of the EAFZ examined in this study extends from Celikhan to Turkoglu. Active fault strands in this portion of the EAFZ is termed the Erkenek and Golbasi segments. The zone is made of several NE-SW closely spaced strands cut across Mesozoic-to-Tertiary variable rock units and structures, indicating inception of strike-slip motion in Quaternary and characterized by a series of basins. Fault-related several morphological features have been mapped are within the study area, suggesting the left-lateral motion of fault strands along this part of the EAFZ. Offset streams, beheaded channels, pressure and shutter ridges, linear valleys and ridges and sag ponds are prominent morpho-tectonic features. Offset streams have been measured as few meters to hundreds of meters and show sinistral displacement along the fault zone. Fault scarps, several tens of metres high, are developed in fan deposits along the length of the fault strands. Forming the set of linear sag ponds in Golbasi reveals extentional activity of the EAFZ in this area. Motion of fault strands formed linear valleys and ridges parallel to the faults which is most remarkable features. Our geomorphic studies demonstrated the ongoing activity of the the EAFZ between Celikhan to Turkoglu regions.

  18. Mantle strength of the San Andreas fault system and the role of mantle-crust feedbacks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chatzaras, V.; Tikoff, B.; Newman, J.; Withers, A.C.; Drury, M.R.


    In lithospheric-scale strike-slip fault zones, upper crustal strength is well constrained from borehole observations and fault rock deformation experiments, but mantle strength is less well known. Using peridotite xenoliths, we show that the upper mantle below the San Andreas fault system

  19. Permeable fracture zones in the hard rocks of the geothermal reservoir at Rittershoffen, France (United States)

    Vidal, J.; Genter, A.; Chopin, F.


    Fluid circulation in zones of fractures are a key challenge to exploit deep geothermal heat from natural reservoir. At Rittershoffen (Upper Rhine Graben, France), two geothermal boreholes, GRT-1 and GRT-2, were drilled in 2012 and 2014, respectively. They targeted the local Rittershoffen normal fault, which strikes N-S and dips westward. In this study, major natural fractures were observed in the open holes of both wells from acoustic image logs correlated with other standard geophysical logs (gamma ray, neutron porosity, and caliper). Their permeability was evaluated at the borehole scale from temperature logs, mud losses, and gas surveys. One originally permeable (OP) fracture zone was observed in the granite of GRT-1. In GRT-2, four OP fracture zones were observed in the granite and two in sandstones. In GRT-2, fracture zones are composed by several fluid pathways that could explain the higher natural permeability than in GRT-1. All OP fractures are associated with positive temperature anomaly, interpreted as circulation of hot geothermal water through the permeable fracture, or negative one, interpreted as the cooling of a porous, altered and fractured zone around the permeable fracture after drilling operations. Permeability of natural fracture oriented N170° seems to be intimately linked to the secondary mineral deposits resulting from paleocirculations. The geometrical fracture model along the wellbore suggests that the inclined trajectory of GRT-2 increases the connection between the borehole and the nearly vertical fracture network associated to the local fault. A good characterization of zones of fractures in a targeted natural reservoir allows an optimal exploitation of geothermal resource.

  20. Fractured reservoirs - Indication from the EGS at Soultz (United States)

    Schill, E.; Kümmritz, J.; Geiermann, J.


    The Soultz geothermal site is located in the Upper Rhine Graben, which is part of Cenozoic European Rift Structure. Local heat flow maxima of up to 150 mW m2 in the Upper Rhine valley originate from a strong convectional heat transport mainly in the granitic basement (e.g. Bächler, 2003). Such systems may be exploited using Enchanced Geothermal System (EGS) technology. By definition these systems are characterised by natural permeability, which is improved using stimulation techniques. In the case of the Soultz reservoir natural permeability of about up to 3x10-14 m2 was inferred from the temperature distribution (Kohl et al., 2000). High permeability is often related to active faulting (Gudmundsson et al., 2001). Seismic activity and GPS measurements indicate active faulting in the entire Upper Rhine Graben (Bonjer, 1997, Tesauro et al., 2006, Cardozo et al., 2005). The granitic basement at Soultz underwent multi-phase tectonic deformation including the Hercynian and Alpine phases. The main faults in the sedimentary cover of Soultz strike N20°E, i.e. they follow the Rhenish direction. At depth a horst structure is present and the top basement is at 1400 m. Within the horst seismic sections reveal faults mainly dipping to the W. In the five deep wells at Soultz 39 fracture zones have been determined on three different scales (Dezayes and Genter, 2008). In the granite the major direction is about N160°E to N-S with steep dipping to the East and West. With depth the strike of the main sets is consistent, the dip orientation, however, changes. Between 1420 to 2700 m TVD, the main fracture set dips to the East. In the sections between 2700 and 4800 m two conjugate sets reveal fractures dipping to the East and to the West and at reservoir depth between 4800 m and 5000 m the westward dipping set is dominant (Valley, 2007; Dezayes and Genter, 2008). New magnetotelluric (MT) data, as well as inversion of gravity and MT data may be used for estimating relative porosity

  1. Fault-tolerant Control of a Cyber-physical System (United States)

    Roxana, Rusu-Both; Eva-Henrietta, Dulf


    Cyber-physical systems represent a new emerging field in automatic control. The fault system is a key component, because modern, large scale processes must meet high standards of performance, reliability and safety. Fault propagation in large scale chemical processes can lead to loss of production, energy, raw materials and even environmental hazard. The present paper develops a multi-agent fault-tolerant control architecture using robust fractional order controllers for a (13C) cryogenic separation column cascade. The JADE (Java Agent DEvelopment Framework) platform was used to implement the multi-agent fault tolerant control system while the operational model of the process was implemented in Matlab/SIMULINK environment. MACSimJX (Multiagent Control Using Simulink with Jade Extension) toolbox was used to link the control system and the process model. In order to verify the performance and to prove the feasibility of the proposed control architecture several fault simulation scenarios were performed.

  2. Heterogeneity in the Fault Damage Zone: a Field Study on the Borrego Fault, B.C., Mexico (United States)

    Ostermeijer, G.; Mitchell, T. M.; Dorsey, M. T.; Browning, J.; Rockwell, T. K.; Aben, F. M.; Fletcher, J. M.; Brantut, N.


    The nature and distribution of damage around faults, and its impacts on fault zone properties has been a hot topic of research over the past decade. Understanding the mechanisms that control the formation of off fault damage can shed light on the processes during the seismic cycle, and the nature of fault zone development. Recent published work has identified three broad zones of damage around most faults based on the type, intensity, and extent of fracturing; Tip, Wall, and Linking damage. Although these zones are able to adequately characterise the general distribution of damage, little has been done to identify the nature of damage heterogeneity within those zones, often simplifying the distribution to fit log-normal linear decay trends. Here, we attempt to characterise the distribution of fractures that make up the wall damage around seismogenic faults. To do so, we investigate an extensive two dimensional fracture network exposed on a river cut platform along the Borrego Fault, BC, Mexico, 5m wide, and extending 20m from the fault core into the damage zone. High resolution fracture mapping of the outcrop, covering scales ranging three orders of magnitude (cm to m), has allowed for detailed observations of the 2D damage distribution within the fault damage zone. Damage profiles were obtained along several 1D transects perpendicular to the fault and micro-damage was examined from thin-sections at various locations around the outcrop for comparison. Analysis of the resulting fracture network indicates heterogeneities in damage intensity at decimetre scales resulting from a patchy distribution of high and low intensity corridors and clusters. Such patchiness may contribute to inconsistencies in damage zone widths defined along 1D transects and the observed variability of fracture densities around decay trends. How this distribution develops with fault maturity and the scaling of heterogeneities above and below the observed range will likely play a key role in

  3. Quaternary Fault Lines (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This data set contains locations and information on faults and associated folds in the United States that are believed to be sources of M>6 earthquakes during the...

  4. Seismicity within the Irpinia Fault System As Monitored By Isnet (Irpinia Seismic Network) and Its Possible Relation with Fluid Storage (United States)

    Festa, G.; Zollo, A.; Amoroso, O.; Ascione, A.; Colombelli, S.; Elia, L.; Emolo, A.; Martino, C.; Mazzoli, S.; Orefice, A.; Russo, G.


    ISNet ( is deployed in Southern Apennines along the active fault system responsible for the 1980, M 6.9 Irpinia earthquake. ISNet consists of 32 seismic stations equipped with both strong motion and velocimetric instruments (either broadband or short-period), with the aim of capture a broad set of seismic signals, from ambient noise to strong motion. Real time and near real time procedures run at ISNet with the goal of monitoring the seismicity, check possible space-time anomalies, detect seismic sequences and launch an earthquake early warning in the case of potential significant ground shaking in the area. To understand the role of fluids on the seismicity of the area, we investigated velocity and attenuation models. The former is built from accurate cross-correlation picking and S wave detection based onto polarization analysis. Joint inversion of both P and S arrival times is then based on a linearized multi-scale tomographic approach. Attenuation is instead obtained from inversion of displacement spectra, deconvolving for the source effect. High VP/VS and QS/QP >1 were found within a ~15 km wide rock volume where intense microseismicity is located. This indicates that concentration of seismicity is possibly controlled by high pore fluid pressure. This earthquake reservoir may come from a positive feedback between the seismic pumping that controls the fluid transmission through the fractured damage zone and the low permeability of cross fault barrier, increasing the fluid pore pressure within the fault bounded block. In this picture, sequences mostly occur at the base of this fluid rich layer. They show an anomalous pattern in the earthquake occurrence per magnitude classes; main events evolve with a complex source kinematics, as obtained from backprojection of apparent source time functions, indicating possible directivity effects. In this area sequences might be the key for understanding the transition between the deep

  5. Structural setting and kinematics of Nubian fault system, SE Western Desert, Egypt: An example of multi-reactivated intraplate strike-slip faults (United States)

    Sakran, Shawky; Said, Said Mohamed


    Detailed surface geological mapping and subsurface seismic interpretation have been integrated to unravel the structural style and kinematic history of the Nubian Fault System (NFS). The NFS consists of several E-W Principal Deformation Zones (PDZs) (e.g. Kalabsha fault). Each PDZ is defined by spectacular E-W, WNW and ENE dextral strike-slip faults, NNE sinistral strike-slip faults, NE to ENE folds, and NNW normal faults. Each fault zone has typical self-similar strike-slip architecture comprising multi-scale fault segments. Several multi-scale uplifts and basins were developed at the step-over zones between parallel strike-slip fault segments as a result of local extension or contraction. The NNE faults consist of right-stepping sinistral strike-slip fault segments (e.g. Sin El Kiddab fault). The NNE sinistral faults extend for long distances ranging from 30 to 100 kms and cut one or two E-W PDZs. Two nearly perpendicular strike-slip tectonic regimes are recognized in the NFS; an inactive E-W Late Cretaceous - Early Cenozoic dextral transpression and an active NNE sinistral shear.

  6. Improved characterization of reservoir behavior by integration of reservoir performances data and rock type distributions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davies, D.K.; Vessell, R.K. [David K. Davies & Associates, Kingwood, TX (United States); Doublet, L.E. [Texas A& M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)] [and others


    An integrated geological/petrophysical and reservoir engineering study was performed for a large, mature waterflood project (>250 wells, {approximately}80% water cut) at the North Robertson (Clear Fork) Unit, Gaines County, Texas. The primary goal of the study was to develop an integrated reservoir description for {open_quotes}targeted{close_quotes} (economic) 10-acre (4-hectare) infill drilling and future recovery operations in a low permeability, carbonate (dolomite) reservoir. Integration of the results from geological/petrophysical studies and reservoir performance analyses provide a rapid and effective method for developing a comprehensive reservoir description. This reservoir description can be used for reservoir flow simulation, performance prediction, infill targeting, waterflood management, and for optimizing well developments (patterns, completions, and stimulations). The following analyses were performed as part of this study: (1) Geological/petrophysical analyses: (core and well log data) - {open_quotes}Rock typing{close_quotes} based on qualitative and quantitative visualization of pore-scale features. Reservoir layering based on {open_quotes}rock typing {close_quotes} and hydraulic flow units. Development of a {open_quotes}core-log{close_quotes} model to estimate permeability using porosity and other properties derived from well logs. The core-log model is based on {open_quotes}rock types.{close_quotes} (2) Engineering analyses: (production and injection history, well tests) Material balance decline type curve analyses to estimate total reservoir volume, formation flow characteristics (flow capacity, skin factor, and fracture half-length), and indications of well/boundary interference. Estimated ultimate recovery analyses to yield movable oil (or injectable water) volumes, as well as indications of well and boundary interference.

  7. Modular, Fault-Tolerant Electronics Supporting Space Exploration, Phase II (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Modern electronic systems tolerate only as many point failures as there are redundant system copies, using mere macro-scale redundancy. Fault Tolerant Electronics...

  8. Fault tolerance and reliability in integrated ship control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jens Frederik Dalsgaard; Izadi-Zamanabadi, Roozbeh; Schiøler, Henrik


    Various strategies for achieving fault tolerance in large scale control systems are discussed. The positive and negative impacts of distribution through network communication are presented. The ATOMOS framework for standardized reliable marine automation is presented along with the corresponding...

  9. Reservoir characterization and seal integrity of Jemir field in Niger Delta, Nigeria (United States)

    Adagunodo, Theophilus Aanuoluwa; Sunmonu, Lukman Ayobami; Adabanija, Moruffdeen Adedapo


    Ignoring fault seal and depending solely on reservoir parameters and estimated hydrocarbon contacts can lead to extremely unequal division of reserves especially in oil fields dominated by structural traps where faults play an important role in trapping of hydrocarbons. These faults may be sealing or as conduit to fluid flow. In this study; three-dimensional seismic and well log data has been used to characterize the reservoirs and investigate the seal integrity of fault plane trending NW-SE and dip towards south in Jemir field, Niger-Delta for enhanced oil recovery. The petrophysical and volumetric analysis of the six reservoirs that were mapped as well as structural interpretation of the faults were done both qualitatively and quantitatively. In order to know the sealing potential of individual hydrocarbon bearing sand, horizon-fault intersection was done, volume of shale was determined, thickness of individual bed was estimated, and quality control involving throw analysis was done. Shale Gouge Ratio (SGR) and Hydrocarbon Column Height (HCH) (supportable and structure-supported) were also determined to assess the seal integrity of the faults in Jemir field. The petrophysical analysis indicated the porosity of traps on Jemir field ranged from 0.20 to 0.29 and the volumetric analyses showed that the Stock Tank Original Oil in Place varied between 5.5 and 173.4 Mbbl. The SGR ranged from leaking (60%) fault plane suggesting poor to moderate sealing. The supportable HCH of Jemir field ranged from 98.3 to 446.2 m while its Structure-supported HCH ranged from 12.1 to 101.7 m. The porosities of Jemir field are good enough for hydrocarbon production as exemplified by its oil reserve estimates. However, improper sealing of the fault plane might enhance hydrocarbon leakage.

  10. Salt movements and faulting of the overburden - can numerical modeling predict the fault patterns above salt structures?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, O.R.; Egholm, D.L.; Wesenberg, Rasmus

    among other things the productivity due to the segmentation of the reservoir (Stewart 2006). 3D seismic data above salt structures can map such fault patterns in great detail and studies have shown that a variety of fault patterns exists. Yet, most patterns fall between two end members: concentric....... radiating) can thus be linked to two different styles of salt movement: i) the vertical rising of a salt indenter and ii) the inflation of a ‘salt-balloon’ beneath the deformed strata. The results are in accordance with published analogue and theoretical models, as well as natural systems, and the model may...... the hydrocarbon production from reservoirs located above salt structures is optimized....

  11. An algorithm for the visualization of stochastically generated colour images of reservoir attributes, structural information and reservoir boundaries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzales, O.G.; Intevep, S.A.


    Visualization of reservoir models, integration of a variety of relevant information and generation of final maps on both computer screen and paper, are important parts of reservoir modelling work. The automation of the map generation process enhances the visualization of models integrating multiple geological features, improves quality and reduces time requirements. This paper presents an image processing algorithm, developed on workstations, which enhances the integration of information used in visualizing and representing reservoir models and related geological-engineering characteristics. The algorithm can integrate images of: (1) Stochastically generated colour maps of reservoir attributes. (2) Scanned structural reservoir maps including faults as well as borehole locations and names. (3) Scanned maps of reservoir boundaries. This information is digitally integrated into a single colour map that can be manipulated on the screen or printed on paper. Part of the work is developed to extend the visualization of two dimensional maps such as structural maps into three dimensions without relying on digitizer tables. The practical aspects and visualization capabilities of the algorithm are demonstrated with examples.

  12. Estimates of reservoir methane emissions based on a spatially balanced probabilistic-survey (United States)

    Global estimates of methane (CH4) emissions from reservoirs are poorly constrained, partly due to the challenges of accounting for intra-reservoir spatial variability. Reservoir-scale emission rates are often estimated by extrapolating from measurement made at a few locations; h...

  13. Optimising reservoir operation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ngo, Long le

    Anvendelse af optimeringsteknik til drift af reservoirer er blevet et væsentligt element i vandressource-planlægning og -forvaltning. Traditionelt har reservoirer været styret af heuristiske procedurer for udtag af vand, suppleret i en vis udstrækning af subjektive beslutninger. Udnyttelse af...... reservoirer involverer en lang række interessenter med meget forskellige formål (f.eks. kunstig vanding, vandkraft, vandforsyning mv.), og optimeringsteknik kan langt bedre lede frem til afbalancerede løsninger af de ofte modstridende interesser. Afhandlingen foreslår en række tiltag, hvormed traditionelle...... driftsstrategier kan erstattes af optimale strategier baseret på den nyeste udvikling indenfor computer-baserede beregninger. Hovedbidraget i afhandlingen er udviklingen af et beregningssystem, hvori en simuleringsmodel er koblet til en model for optimering af nogle udvalgte beslutningsvariable, der i særlig grad...

  14. Reservoir characterization and enhanced oil recovery research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lake, L.W.; Pope, G.A.; Schechter, R.S.


    The research in this annual report falls into three tasks each dealing with a different aspect of enhanced oil recovery. The first task strives to develop procedures for accurately modeling reservoirs for use as input to numerical simulation flow models. This action describes how we have used a detail characterization of an outcrop to provide insights into what features are important to fluid flow modeling. The second task deals with scaling-up and modeling chemical and solvent EOR processes. In a sense this task is the natural extension of task 1 and, in fact, one of the subtasks uses many of the same statistical procedures for insight into the effects of viscous fingering and heterogeneity. The final task involves surfactants and their interactions with carbon dioxide and reservoir minerals. This research deals primarily with phenomena observed when aqueous surfactant solutions are injected into oil reservoirs.

  15. Fault morphology of the lyo Fault, the Median Tectonic Line Active Fault System


    後藤, 秀昭


    In this paper, we investigated the various fault features of the lyo fault and depicted fault lines or detailed topographic map. The results of this paper are summarized as follows; 1) Distinct evidence of the right-lateral movement is continuously discernible along the lyo fault. 2) Active fault traces are remarkably linear suggesting that the angle of fault plane is high. 3) The lyo fault can be divided into four segments by jogs between left-stepping traces. 4) The mean slip rate is 1.3 ~ ...

  16. Characteristics of Fault Zones in Volcanic Rocks Near Yucca Flat, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donald Sweetkind; Ronald M. Drake II


    During 2005 and 2006, the USGS conducted geological studies of fault zones at surface outcrops at the Nevada Test Site. The objectives of these studies were to characterize fault geometry, identify the presence of fault splays, and understand the width and internal architecture of fault zones. Geologic investigations were conducted at surface exposures in upland areas adjacent to Yucca Flat, a basin in the northeastern part of the Nevada Test Site; these data serve as control points for the interpretation of the subsurface data collected at Yucca Flat by other USGS scientists. Fault zones in volcanic rocks near Yucca Flat differ in character and width as a result of differences in the degree of welding and alteration of the protolith, and amount of fault offset. Fault-related damage zones tend to scale with fault offset; damage zones associated with large-offset faults (>100 m) are many tens of meters wide, whereas damage zones associated with smaller-offset faults are generally a only a meter or two wide. Zeolitically-altered tuff develops moderate-sized damage zones whereas vitric nonwelded, bedded and airfall tuff have very minor damage zones, often consisting of the fault zone itself as a deformation band, with minor fault effect to the surrounding rock mass. These differences in fault geometry and fault zone architecture in surface analog sites can serve as a guide toward interpretation of high-resolution subsurface geophysical results from Yucca Flat.

  17. Geothermal reservoir engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Grant, Malcolm Alister


    As nations alike struggle to diversify and secure their power portfolios, geothermal energy, the essentially limitless heat emanating from the earth itself, is being harnessed at an unprecedented rate.  For the last 25 years, engineers around the world tasked with taming this raw power have used Geothermal Reservoir Engineering as both a training manual and a professional reference.  This long-awaited second edition of Geothermal Reservoir Engineering is a practical guide to the issues and tasks geothermal engineers encounter in the course of their daily jobs. The bo

  18. Session: Reservoir Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Renner, Joel L.; Bodvarsson, Gudmundur S.; Wannamaker, Philip E.; Horne, Roland N.; Shook, G. Michael


    This session at the Geothermal Energy Program Review X: Geothermal Energy and the Utility Market consisted of five papers: ''Reservoir Technology'' by Joel L. Renner; ''LBL Research on the Geysers: Conceptual Models, Simulation and Monitoring Studies'' by Gudmundur S. Bodvarsson; ''Geothermal Geophysical Research in Electrical Methods at UURI'' by Philip E. Wannamaker; ''Optimizing Reinjection Strategy at Palinpinon, Philippines Based on Chloride Data'' by Roland N. Horne; ''TETRAD Reservoir Simulation'' by G. Michael Shook

  19. Imaging fault zones using 3D seismic image processing techniques (United States)

    Iacopini, David; Butler, Rob; Purves, Steve


    and collecting these into "disturbance geobodies". These seismic image processing methods represents a first efficient step toward a construction of a robust technique to investigate sub-seismic strain, mapping noisy deformed zones and displacement within subsurface geology (Dutzer et al.,2011; Iacopini et al.,2012). In all these cases, accurate fault interpretation is critical in applied geology to building a robust and reliable reservoir model, and is essential for further study of fault seal behavior, and reservoir compartmentalization. They are also fundamental for understanding how deformation localizes within sedimentary basins, including the processes associated with active seismogenetic faults and mega-thrust systems in subduction zones. Dutzer, JF, Basford., H., Purves., S. 2009, Investigating fault sealing potential through fault relative seismic volume analysis. Petroleum Geology Conference series 2010, 7:509-515; doi:10.1144/0070509 Marfurt, K.J., Chopra, S., 2007, Seismic attributes for prospect identification and reservoir characterization. SEG Geophysical development Iacopini, D., Butler, RWH. & Purves, S. (2012). 'Seismic imaging of thrust faults and structural damage: a visualization workflow for deepwater thrust belts'. First Break, vol 5, no. 30, pp. 39-46.

  20. Determining on-fault earthquake magnitude distributions from integer programming (United States)

    Geist, Eric L.; Parsons, Tom


    Earthquake magnitude distributions among faults within a fault system are determined from regional seismicity and fault slip rates using binary integer programming. A synthetic earthquake catalog (i.e., list of randomly sampled magnitudes) that spans millennia is first formed, assuming that regional seismicity follows a Gutenberg-Richter relation. Each earthquake in the synthetic catalog can occur on any fault and at any location. The objective is to minimize misfits in the target slip rate for each fault, where slip for each earthquake is scaled from its magnitude. The decision vector consists of binary variables indicating which locations are optimal among all possibilities. Uncertainty estimates in fault slip rates provide explicit upper and lower bounding constraints to the problem. An implicit constraint is that an earthquake can only be located on a fault if it is long enough to contain that earthquake. A general mixed-integer programming solver, consisting of a number of different algorithms, is used to determine the optimal decision vector. A case study is presented for the State of California, where a 4 kyr synthetic earthquake catalog is created and faults with slip ≥3 mm/yr are considered, resulting in >106 variables. The optimal magnitude distributions for each of the faults in the system span a rich diversity of shapes, ranging from characteristic to power-law distributions.

  1. Dead sea transform fault system reviews

    CERN Document Server

    Garfunkel, Zvi; Kagan, Elisa


    The Dead Sea transform is an active plate boundary connecting the Red Sea seafloor spreading system to the Arabian-Eurasian continental collision zone. Its geology and geophysics provide a natural laboratory for investigation of the surficial, crustal and mantle processes occurring along transtensional and transpressional transform fault domains on a lithospheric scale and related to continental breakup. There have been many detailed and disciplinary studies of the Dead Sea transform fault zone during the last?20 years and this book brings them together.This book is an updated comprehensive coverage of the knowledge, based on recent studies of the tectonics, structure, geophysics, volcanism, active tectonics, sedimentology and paleo and modern climate of the Dead Sea transform fault zone. It puts together all this new information and knowledge in a coherent fashion.

  2. Fault-Zone Maturity Defines Maximum Earthquake Magnitude (United States)

    Bohnhoff, M.; Bulut, F.; Stierle, E.; Ben-Zion, Y.


    Estimating the maximum likely magnitude of future earthquakes on transform faults near large metropolitan areas has fundamental consequences for the expected hazard. Here we show that the maximum earthquakes on different sections of the North Anatolian Fault Zone (NAFZ) scale with the duration of fault zone activity, cumulative offset and length of individual fault segments. The findings are based on a compiled catalogue of historical earthquakes in the region, using the extensive literary sources that exist due to the long civilization record. We find that the largest earthquakes (M~8) are exclusively observed along the well-developed part of the fault zone in the east. In contrast, the western part is still in a juvenile or transitional stage with historical earthquakes not exceeding M=7.4. This limits the current seismic hazard to NW Turkey and its largest regional population and economical center Istanbul. Our findings for the NAFZ are consistent with data from the two other major transform faults, the San Andreas fault in California and the Dead Sea Transform in the Middle East. The results indicate that maximum earthquake magnitudes generally scale with fault-zone evolution.

  3. Physical Model-Based Investigation of Reservoir Sedimentation Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Chia Huang


    Full Text Available Sedimentation is a serious problem in the operations of reservoirs. In Taiwan, the situation became worse after the Chi-Chi Earthquake recorded on 21 September 1999. The sediment trap efficiency in several regional reservoirs has been sharply increased, adversely affecting the operations on water supplies. According to the field record, the average annual sediment deposition observed in several regional reservoirs in Taiwan has been increased. For instance, the typhoon event recorded in 2008 at the Wushe Reservoir, Taiwan, produced a 3 m sediment deposit upstream of the dam. The remaining storage capacity in the Wushe Reservoir was reduced to 35.9% or a volume of 53.79 million m3 for flood water detention in 2010. It is urgent that research should be conducted to understand the sediment movement in the Wushe Reservoir. In this study, a scale physical model was built to reproduce the flood flow through the reservoir, investigate the long-term depositional pattern, and evaluate sediment trap efficiency. This allows us to estimate the residual life of the reservoir by proposing a modification of Brune’s method. It can be presented to predict the lifespan of Taiwan reservoirs due to higher applicability in both the physical model and the observed data.

  4. Structural analysis of a fractured basement reservoir, central Yemen (United States)

    Veeningen, Resi; Rice, Hugh; Schneider, Dave; Grasemann, Bernhard; Decker, Kurt


    The Pan-African Arabian-Nubian Shield (ANS), within which Yemen lies, formed as a result of Neoproterozoic collisional events between c. 870-550 Ma. Several subsequent phases of extension occurred, from the Mesozoic (due to the breakup of Gondwana) to the Recent (forming the Gulf of Aden and the Red Sea). These resulted in the formation of numerous horst- and-graben structures and the development of fractured basement reservoirs in the southeast part of the ANS. Two drill cores from the Mesozoic Marib-Shabwa Basin, central Yemen, penetrated the upper part of the Pan-African basement. The cores show both a lithological and structural inhomogeneity, with variations in extension-related deformation structures such as dilatational breccias, open fractures and closed veins. At least three deformation events have been recognized: D1) Ductile to brittle NW-SE directed faulting during cooling of a granitic pluton. U-Pb zircon ages revealed an upper age limit for granite emplacement at 627±3.5 Ma. As these structures show evidence for ductile deformation, this event must have occurred during the Ediacaran, shortly after intrusion, since Rb/Sr and (U-Th)/He analyses show that subsequent re-heating of the basement did not take place. D2) The development of shallow dipping, NNE-SSW striking extensional faults that formed during the Upper Jurassic, simultaneously with the formation of the Marib-Shabwa Basin. These fractures are regularly cross-cut by D3. D3) Steeply dipping NNE-SSW to ENE-WSW veins that are consistent with the orientation of the opening of the Gulf of Aden. These faults are the youngest structures recognized. The formation of ductile to brittle faults in the granite (D1) resulted in a hydrothermally altered zone ca. 30 cm wide replacing (mainly) plagioclase with predominantly chlorite, as well as kaolinite and heavy element minerals such as pyrite. The alteration- induced porosity has an average value of 20%, indicating that the altered zone is potentially a

  5. Active Fault Isolation in MIMO Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niemann, Hans Henrik; Poulsen, Niels Kjølstad


    Active fault isolation of parametric faults in closed-loop MIMO system s are considered in this paper. The fault isolation consists of two steps. T he first step is group- wise fault isolation. Here, a group of faults is isolated from other pos sible faults in the system. The group-wise fault...... isolation is based directly on the input/output s ignals applied for the fault detection. It is guaranteed that the fault group includes the fault that had occurred in the system. The second step is individual fault isolation in the fault group . Both types of isolation are obtained by applying dedicated...

  6. unconventional natural gas reservoirs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Correa G, Tomas F; Osorio, Nelson; Restrepo R, Dora P


    This work is an exploration about different unconventional gas reservoirs worldwide: coal bed methane, tight gas, shale gas and gas hydrate? describing aspects such as definition, reserves, production methods, environmental issues and economics. The overview also mentioned preliminary studies about these sources in Colombia.

  7. Parallel reservoir simulator computations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hemanth-Kumar, K.; Young, L.C.


    The adaptation of a reservoir simulator for parallel computations is described. The simulator was originally designed for vector processors. It performs approximately 99% of its calculations in vector/parallel mode and relative to scalar calculations it achieves speedups of 65 and 81 for black oil and EOS simulations, respectively on the CRAY C-90

  8. Faults in Linux

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palix, Nicolas Jean-Michel; Thomas, Gaël; Saha, Suman


    In 2001, Chou et al. published a study of faults found by applying a static analyzer to Linux versions 1.0 through 2.4.1. A major result of their work was that the drivers directory contained up to 7 times more of certain kinds of faults than other directories. This result inspired a number...... a major problem? To answer these questions, we have transported the experiments of Chou et al. to Linux versions 2.6.0 to 2.6.33, released between late 2003 and early 2010. We find that Linux has more than doubled in size during this period, but that the number of faults per line of code has been...... decreasing. And, even though drivers still accounts for a large part of the kernel code and contains the most faults, its fault rate is now below that of other directories, such as arch (HAL) and fs (file systems). These results can guide further development and research efforts. To enable others...

  9. Characterization of the San Andreas Fault near Parkfield, California by fault-zone trapped waves (United States)

    Li, Y.; Vidale, J.; Cochran, E.


    by M6 earthquake episode at Parkfield although it probably represents the accumulated wear from many previous great earthquakes and other kinematical processes. The width of low-velocity waveguide likely represents the damage extent in dynamic rupture, consistent with the scale of process zone size to rupture length as existing model predicted. The variation in velocity reduction along the fault zone indicates an inference of changes in on-fault stress, fine-scale fault geometry, and fluid content at depths. On the other hand, a less developed and narrower low-velocity waveguide is on the north strand that experienced minor breaks at surface in the 1966 M6 event probably due to energy partitioning, strong shaking and dynamic strain by the earthquake on the main fault.

  10. Fault location on power networks

    CERN Document Server

    Saha, Murari Mohan


    Fault Location on Power Lines enables readers to pinpoint the location of a fault on power lines following a disturbance. The nine chapters are organised according to the design of different locators. The authors do not simply refer the reader to manufacturers' documentation, but instead have compiled detailed information to allow for in-depth comparison. Fault Location on Power Lines describes basic algorithms used in fault locators, focusing on fault location on overhead transmission lines, but also covering fault location in distribution networks. An application of artificial intelligence i

  11. What is Fault Tolerant Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blanke, Mogens; Frei, C. W.; Kraus, K.


    Faults in automated processes will often cause undesired reactions and shut-down of a controlled plant, and the consequences could be damage to the plant, to personnel or the environment. Fault-tolerant control is the synonym for a set of recent techniques that were developed to increase plant...... availability and reduce the risk of safety hazards. Its aim is to prevent that simple faults develop into serious failure. Fault-tolerant control merges several disciplines to achieve this goal, including on-line fault diagnosis, automatic condition assessment and calculation of remedial actions when a fault...

  12. How seismicity impacts the evolution and branching of strike-slip faults (United States)

    Preuss, S.; van Dinther, Y.; Ampuero, J. P.; Herrendoerfer, R.; Gerya, T.


    Strike-slip fault systems are capable of producing large earthquakes on both their main fault and on secondary and potentially unknown faults. A recent example is the 2016 Mw 7.8 Kaikōura earthquake that resulted in surface ruptures along at least 12 major crustal faults. Strike-slip faults are surrounded by inelastic off-fault deformation zones whose displacement accounts for up to 60% of the total displacement. Secondary faults in California accommodate up to 43% of the total fault slip rate of mapped faults taken from the SCEC catalog, while unknown faults arguably accommodate up to 30% of the long-term strain. To better understand these complexities and the long-term evolution of branching fault structures, we quantify the parameters influencing branching structure with a particular focus on the role of seismicity. We incorporate the relevant dynamics of both long-term fault evolution and short-term seismogenesis using the continuum visco-elasto-plastic tools of Seismo-Thermo-Mechanical (STM) modeling approach (van Dinther et al., 2013, Herrendörfer et al., in prep). Long-term fault evolution is governed by Drucker-Prager plasticity and plastic strain weakening of cohesion, while frictional weakening and rapid slip is governed by either strongly rate-dependent (RDF) or rate-and-state friction (RSF). We use a 2D, plane view, natural scale model setup (1200 km x 1000 km), which contains the end of a dextral mature strike-slip fault on one side. Episodic slip events on this pre-existing fault patch propagate into the undamaged host rock. As faults grow they develop a fan-like plastic strain envelope, whose width keeps growing with fault length and accumulated on-fault slip. We interpret this zone as a splay-fault network, which is typically seen ahead of propagating fault tips. We analyze the evolving faults in terms of dissipated strain energy GC, accumulated slip D and fault length L. Results show that a single event is capable of producing a several hundreds

  13. Integration of Seismic and Petrophysics to Characterize Reservoirs in “ALA” Oil Field, Niger Delta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. A. Alao


    Full Text Available In the exploration and production business, by far the largest component of geophysical spending is driven by the need to characterize (potential reservoirs. The simple reason is that better reservoir characterization means higher success rates and fewer wells for reservoir exploitation. In this research work, seismic and well log data were integrated in characterizing the reservoirs on “ALA” field in Niger Delta. Three-dimensional seismic data was used to identify the faults and map the horizons. Petrophysical parameters and time-depth structure maps were obtained. Seismic attributes was also employed in characterizing the reservoirs. Seven hydrocarbon-bearing reservoirs with thickness ranging from 9.9 to 71.6 m were delineated. Structural maps of horizons in six wells containing hydrocarbon-bearing zones with tops and bottoms at range of −2,453 to −3,950 m were generated; this portrayed the trapping mechanism to be mainly fault-assisted anticlinal closures. The identified prospective zones have good porosity, permeability, and hydrocarbon saturation. The environments of deposition were identified from log shapes which indicate a transitional-to-deltaic depositional environment. In this research work, new prospects have been recommended for drilling and further research work. Geochemical and biostratigraphic studies should be done to better characterize the reservoirs and reliably interpret the depositional environments.

  14. Development of Characterization Technology for Fault Zone Hydrology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karasaki, Kenzi; Onishi, Tiemi; Gasperikova, Erika; Goto, Junichi; Tsuchi, Hiroyuki; Miwa, Tadashi; Ueta, Keiichi; Kiho, Kenzo; Miyakawa, Kimio


    Several deep trenches were cut, and a number of geophysical surveys were conducted across the Wildcat Fault in the hills east of Berkeley, California. The Wildcat Fault is believed to be a strike-slip fault and a member of the Hayward Fault System, with over 10 km of displacement. So far, three boreholes of ∼ 150m deep have been core-drilled and borehole geophysical logs were conducted. The rocks are extensively sheared and fractured; gouges were observed at several depths and a thick cataclasitic zone was also observed. While confirming some earlier, published conclusions from shallow observations about Wildcat, some unexpected findings were encountered. Preliminary analysis indicates that Wildcat near the field site consists of multiple faults. The hydraulic test data suggest the dual properties of the hydrologic structure of the fault zone. A fourth borehole is planned to penetrate the main fault believed to lie in-between the holes. The main philosophy behind our approach for the hydrologic characterization of such a complex fractured system is to let the system take its own average and monitor a long term behavior instead of collecting a multitude of data at small length and time scales, or at a discrete fracture scale and to 'up-scale,' which is extremely tenuous.

  15. Development of Characterization Technology for Fault Zone Hydrology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karasaki, Kenzi; Onishi, Tiemi; Gasperikova, Erika; Goto, Junichi; Tsuchi, Hiroyuki; Miwa, Tadashi; Ueta, Keiichi; Kiho, Kenzo; MIyakawa, Kimio


    Several deep trenches were cut, and a number of geophysical surveys were conducted across the Wildcat Fault in the hills east of Berkeley, California. The Wildcat Fault is believed to be a strike-slip fault and a member of the Hayward Fault System, with over 10 km of displacement. So far, three boreholes of ~;; 150m deep have been core-drilled and borehole geophysical logs were conducted. The rocks are extensively sheared and fractured; gouges were observed at several depths and a thick cataclasitic zone was also observed. While confirming some earlier, published conclusions from shallow observations about Wildcat, some unexpected findings were encountered. Preliminary analysis indicates that Wildcat near the field site consists of multiple faults. The hydraulic test data suggest the dual properties of the hydrologic structure of the fault zone. A fourth borehole is planned to penetrate the main fault believed to lie in-between the holes. The main philosophy behind our approach for the hydrologic characterization of such a complex fractured system is to let the system take its own average and monitor a long term behavior instead of collecting a multitude of data at small length and time scales, or at a discrete fracture scale and to ?up-scale,? which is extremely tenuous.

  16. Geothermal reservoir engineering research at Stanford University. Third annual report for the period October 1, 1982-September 30, 1983

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramey, H.J. Jr.; Kruger, P.; Horne, R.N.; Brigham, W.E.; Miller, F.G.


    Progress is reported in the following areas: heat extraction from hydrothermal reservoirs; radon reservoir engineering; well test analysis and bench scale experiments; field applications; workshop, seminars, and technical information; reinjection technology; and seismic monitoring of vapor/liquid interfaces. (MHR)


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jack Bergeron; Tom Blasingame; Louis Doublet; Mohan Kelkar; George Freeman; Jeff Callard; David Moore; David Davies; Richard Vessell; Brian Pregger; Bill Dixon; Bryce Bezant


    Reservoir performance and characterization are vital parameters during the development phase of a project. Infill drilling of wells on a uniform spacing, without regard to characterization does not optimize development because it fails to account for the complex nature of reservoir heterogeneities present in many low permeability reservoirs, especially carbonate reservoirs. These reservoirs are typically characterized by: (1) large, discontinuous pay intervals; (2) vertical and lateral changes in reservoir properties; (3) low reservoir energy; (4) high residual oil saturation; and (5) low recovery efficiency. The operational problems they encounter in these types of reservoirs include: (1) poor or inadequate completions and stimulations; (2) early water breakthrough; (3) poor reservoir sweep efficiency in contacting oil throughout the reservoir as well as in the nearby well regions; (4) channeling of injected fluids due to preferential fracturing caused by excessive injection rates; and (5) limited data availability and poor data quality. Infill drilling operations only need target areas of the reservoir which will be economically successful. If the most productive areas of a reservoir can be accurately identified by combining the results of geological, petrophysical, reservoir performance, and pressure transient analyses, then this ''integrated'' approach can be used to optimize reservoir performance during secondary and tertiary recovery operations without resorting to ''blanket'' infill drilling methods. New and emerging technologies such as geostatistical modeling, rock typing, and rigorous decline type curve analysis can be used to quantify reservoir quality and the degree of interwell communication. These results can then be used to develop a 3-D simulation model for prediction of infill locations. The application of reservoir surveillance techniques to identify additional reservoir ''pay'' zones

  18. Hydrogeochemistry Characteristics and Daily Variation of Geothermal Water in the Moxi Fault,Southwest of China (United States)

    Qi, Jihong; Xu, Mo; An, Chenjiao; Zhang, Yunhui; Zhang, Qiang


    The Xianshuihe Fault with frequent earthquakes activities is the regional deep fault in China. The Moxi Fault is the southern part of the Xianshuihe Fault, where the strong activities of geothermal water could bring abundant information of deep crust. In this article, some typical geothermal springs were collected along the Moxi fault from Kangding to Shimian. Using the the Na-K-Mg equilibrium diagram, it explains the state of water-rock equilibrium, and estimates the reservoir temperature basing appropriate geothermometers. Basing on the relationship between the enthalpy and chlorine concentration of geothermal water, it analyze the mixing progress of thermal water with shallow groundwater. Moreover, the responses of variation of geothermal water to the solid tides are considered to study the hydrothermal activities of this fault. The Guanding in Kangding are considered as the center of the geothermal system, and the hydrothermal activities decrease southward extending. Geothermal water maybe is heated by the deep heat source of the Himalayan granites, while the springs in the south area perform the mixture with thermal water in the sub-reservoir of the Permian crystalline limestone. It improves the research of hydrothermal activities in the Moxi Fault, meanwhile using the variation of geothermal water maybe become a important method to study the environment of deep earth in the future.

  19. Integrated Approach to Drilling Project in Unconventional Reservoir Using Reservoir Simulation (United States)

    Stopa, Jerzy; Wiśniowski, Rafał; Wojnarowski, Paweł; Janiga, Damian; Skrzypaszek, Krzysztof


    Accumulation and flow mechanisms in unconventional reservoir are different compared to conventional. This requires a special approach of field management with drilling and stimulation treatments as major factor for further production. Integrated approach of unconventional reservoir production optimization assumes coupling drilling project with full scale reservoir simulation for determine best well placement, well length, fracturing treatment design and mid-length distance between wells. Full scale reservoir simulation model emulate a part of polish shale - gas field. The aim of this paper is to establish influence of technical factor for gas production from shale gas field. Due to low reservoir permeability, stimulation treatment should be direct towards maximizing the hydraulic contact. On the basis of production scenarios, 15 stages hydraulic fracturing allows boost gas production over 1.5 times compared to 8 stages. Due to the possible interference of the wells, it is necessary to determine the distance between the horizontal parts of the wells trajectories. In order to determine the distance between the wells allowing to maximize recovery factor of resources in the stimulated zone, a numerical algorithm based on a dynamic model was developed and implemented. Numerical testing and comparative study show that the most favourable arrangement assumes a minimum allowable distance between the wells. This is related to the volume ratio of the drainage zone to the total volume of the stimulated zone.

  20. Wind turbine fault detection and fault tolerant control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Odgaard, Peter Fogh; Johnson, Kathryn


    In this updated edition of a previous wind turbine fault detection and fault tolerant control challenge, we present a more sophisticated wind turbine model and updated fault scenarios to enhance the realism of the challenge and therefore the value of the solutions. This paper describes...... the challenge model and the requirements for challenge participants. In addition, it motivates many of the faults by citing publications that give field data from wind turbine control tests....

  1. The Morelia-Acambay Fault System (United States)

    Velázquez Bucio, M.; Soria-Caballero, D.; Garduño-Monroy, V.; Mennella, L.


    The Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt (TMVB) is one of the most actives and representative zones of Mexico geologically speaking. Research carried out in this area gives stratigraphic, seismologic and historical evidence of its recent activity during the quaternary (Martinez and Nieto, 1990). Specifically the Morelia-Acambay faults system (MAFS) consist in a series of normal faults of dominant direction E - W, ENE - WSW y NE - SW which is cut in center west of the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt. This fault system appeared during the early Miocene although the north-south oriented structures are older and have been related to the activity of the tectonism inherited from the "Basin and Range" system, but that were reactivated by the east- west faults. It is believed that the activity of these faults has contributed to the creation and evolution of the longed lacustrine depressions such as: Chapala, Zacapu, Cuitzeo, Maravatio y Acambay also the location of monogenetic volcanoes that conformed the Michoacan-Guanajuato volcanic field (MGVF) and tend to align in the direction of the SFMA dominant effort. In a historical time different segments of the MAFS have been the epicenter of earthquakes from moderated to strong magnitude like the events of 1858 in Patzcuaro, Acambay in 1912, 1979 in Maravatio and 2007 in Morelia, among others. Several detailed analysis and semi-detailed analysis through a GIS platform based in the vectorial archives and thematic charts 1:50 000 scaled from the data base of the INEGI which has allowed to remark the influence of the MAFS segments about the morphology of the landscape and the identification of other structures related to the movement of the existent faults like fractures, alignments, collapses and others from the zone comprehended by the northwest of Morelia in Michoacán to the East of Acambay, Estado de México. Such analysis suggests that the fault segments possess a normal displacement plus a left component. In addition it can be

  2. Geomorphology of intraplate postglacial faults in Sweden (United States)

    Ask, M. V. S.; Abdujabbar, M.; Lund, B.; Smith, C.; Mikko, H.; Munier, R.


    Melting of the Weichselian ice sheet at ≈10 000 BP is inferred to have induced large to great intraplate earthquakes in northern Fennoscandia. Over a dozen large so-called postglacial faults (PGF) have been found, mainly using aerial photogrammetry, trenching, and recognition of numerous paleolandslides in the vicinity of the faults (e.g. Lagerbäck & Sundh 2008). Recent LiDAR-based mapping led to the extension of known PGFs, the discovery of new segments of existing PGFs, and a number of new suspected PGFs (Smith et al. 2014; Mikko et al. 2015). The PGFs in Fennoscandia occur within 14-25°E and 61-69°N; the majority are within Swedish territory. PGFs generally are prominent features, up to 155 km in length and 30 m maximum surface offset. The most intense microseismic activity in Sweden occurs near PGFs. The seismogenic zone of the longest known PGF (Pärvie fault zone, PFZ) extends to ≈40 km depth. From fault geometry and earthquake scaling relations, the paleomagnitude of PFZ is estimated to 8.0±0.3 (Lindblom et al. 2015). The new high-resolution LiDAR-derived elevation model of Sweden offers an unprecedented opportunity to constrain the surface geometry of the PGFs. The objective is to reach more detailed knowledge of the surface offset across their scarps. This distribution provides a one-dimensional view of the slip distribution during the inferred paleorupture. The second objective is to analyze the pattern of vertical displacement of the hanging wall, to obtain a two-dimensional view of the displaced area that is linked to the fault geometry at depth. The anticipated results will further constrain the paleomagnitude of PGFs and will be incorporated into future modeling efforts to investigate the nature of PGFs. ReferencesLagerbäck & Sundh 2008. Early Holocene faulting and paleoseismicity in northern Sweden. Smith et al. 2014. Surficial geology indicates early Holocene faulting and seismicity

  3. Characterizations of geothermal springs along the Moxi deep fault in the western Sichuan plateau, China (United States)

    Qi, Jihong; Xu, Mo; An, Chengjiao; Wu, Mingliang; Zhang, Yunhui; Li, Xiao; Zhang, Qiang; Lu, Guoping


    Abundant geothermal springs occur along the Moxi fault located in western Sichuan Province (the eastern edge of the Qinghai-Tibet plateau), highlighted by geothermal water outflow with an unusually high temperature of 218 °C at 21.5 MPa from a 2010-m borehole in Laoyulin, Kangding. Earthquake activity occurs relatively more frequently in the region and is considered to be related to the strong hydrothermal activity. Geothermal waters hosted by a deep fault may provide evidence regarding the deep underground; their aqueous chemistry and isotopic information can indicate the mechanism of thermal springs. Cyclical variations of geothermal water outflows are thought to work under the effect of solid earth tides and can contribute to understanding conditions and processes in underground geo-environments. This paper studies the origin and variations of the geothermal spring group controlled by the Moxi fault and discusses conditions in the deep ground. Flow variation monitoring of a series of parameters was performed to study the geothermal responses to solid tides. Geothermal reservoir temperatures are evaluated with Na-K-Mg data. The abundant sulfite content, dissolved oxygen (DO) and oxidation-reduction potential (ORP) data are discussed to study the oxidation-reduction states. Strontium isotopes are used to trace the water source. The results demonstrate that geothermal water could flow quickly through the Moxi fault the depth of the geothermal reservoir influences the thermal reservoir temperature, where supercritical hot water is mixed with circulating groundwater and can reach 380 °C. To the southward along the fault, the circulation of geothermal waters becomes shallower, and the waters may have reacted with metamorphic rock to some extent. Our results provide a conceptual deep heat source model for geothermal flow and the reservoir characteristics of the Moxi fault and indicate that the faulting may well connect the deep heat source to shallower depths. The

  4. Fault Tolerant Computer Architecture

    CERN Document Server

    Sorin, Daniel


    For many years, most computer architects have pursued one primary goal: performance. Architects have translated the ever-increasing abundance of ever-faster transistors provided by Moore's law into remarkable increases in performance. Recently, however, the bounty provided by Moore's law has been accompanied by several challenges that have arisen as devices have become smaller, including a decrease in dependability due to physical faults. In this book, we focus on the dependability challenge and the fault tolerance solutions that architects are developing to overcome it. The two main purposes

  5. Computer hardware fault administration (United States)

    Archer, Charles J.; Megerian, Mark G.; Ratterman, Joseph D.; Smith, Brian E.


    Computer hardware fault administration carried out in a parallel computer, where the parallel computer includes a plurality of compute nodes. The compute nodes are coupled for data communications by at least two independent data communications networks, where each data communications network includes data communications links connected to the compute nodes. Typical embodiments carry out hardware fault administration by identifying a location of a defective link in the first data communications network of the parallel computer and routing communications data around the defective link through the second data communications network of the parallel computer.

  6. Geoscience/engineering characterization of the interwell environment in carbonate reservoirs based on outcrop analogs, Permian Basin, West Texas and New Mexico-stratigraphic hierarchy and cycle stacking facies distribution, and interwell-scale heterogeneity: Grayburg Formation, New Mexico. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnaby, R.J.; Ward, W.B.; Jennings, J.W. Jr.


    The Grayburg Formation (middle Guadalupian) is a major producing interval in the Permian Basin and has yielded more than 2.5 billion barrels of oil in West Texas. Grayburg reservoirs have produced, on average, less than 30 percent of their original oil in place and are undergoing secondary and tertiary recovery. Efficient design of such enhanced recovery programs dictates improved geological models to better understand and predict reservoir heterogeneity imposed by depositional and diagenetic controls. The Grayburg records mixed carbonate-siliciclastic sedimentation on shallow-water platforms that rimmed the Delaware and Midland Basins. Grayburg outcrops in the Guadalupe and Brokeoff Mountains region on the northwest margin of the Delaware Basin present an opportunity to construct a detailed, three-dimensional image of the stratigraphic and facies architecture. This model can be applied towards improved description and characterization of heterogeneity in analogous Grayburg reservoirs. Four orders of stratigraphic hierarchy are recognized in the Grayburg Formation. The Grayburg represents a long-term composite sequence composed of four high-frequency sequences (HFS 1-4). Each HFS contains several composite cycles comprising two or more cycles that define intermediate-scale transgressive-regressive successions. Cycles are the smallest scale upward-shoaling vertical facies successions that can be recognized and correlated across various facies tracts. Cycles thus form the basis for establishing the detailed chronostratigraphic correlations needed to delineate facies heterogeneity.

  7. Introduction to the appropriate-stimulation degree of hydraulic fracture networks in shale gas reservoirs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuzhang Liu


    Full Text Available Due to the limitation of actual shale gas reservoir conditions and fracturing technologies, artificial fracture networks are different greatly even in the same or similar stimulated reservoir volume. Deviations and even faults occur in evaluation and cognition if only the stimulated reservoir volume (SRV is used to characterize and evaluate the effect of stimulation. In this paper, the spatial distribution of artificial fractures and natural fractures and the internal pressure state and degree of reserve recovery of stimulated shale gas reservoirs were studied by means of artificial fracture propagation numerical simulation and production numerical simulation. And three concepts were proposed, i.e., shale gas fracture network, ideal fracture network and appropriate-stimulation degree of fracture network. The study results indicate that, at the end of reservoir development, target zones can be classified into three types (i.e., relatively appropriate stimulation zone, transitional stimulation zone, and uncompleted stimulation zone according to the recovery degree and production time of stimulated reservoirs; and that the final morphologic parameter of fracture networks and the reservoir characteristic are two main factors affecting the appropriate-stimulation degree of fracture networks. As for a specific gas reservoir, the orientation, length, conduction, height and spatial location of its fracture network are the main factors influencing its appropriate-stimulation degree if the well trajectory is set. The proposal of the theory on the appropriate-stimulation degree of hydraulic fracture networks in shale gas reservoir enriches the theoretical system of shale reservoir stimulation technology, and it can be used as the reference for characterizing the fracture systems in other unconventional reservoirs, such as tight oil and gas reservoirs. Keywords: Shale gas, Reservoir stimulation, Ideal fracture network, Appropriate-stimulation degree of

  8. Redefining the Viral Reservoirs That Prevent HIV-1 Eradication (United States)

    Eisele, Evelyn; Siliciano, Robert F.


    Summary This review proposes definitions for key terms in the field of HIV-1 latency and eradication. In the context of eradication, a reservoir is a cell type that allows persistence of replication-competent HIV-1 on a time scale of years in patients on optimal antiretroviral therapy. Reservoirs act as a barrier to eradication in the patient population in whom cure attempts will likely be made. Halting viral replication is essential to eradication, and definitions and criteria for assessing whether this goal has been achieved are proposed. The cell types that may serve as reservoirs for HIV-1 are discussed. Currently, only latently infected resting CD4+ T cells fit the proposed definition of a reservoir, and more evidence is necessary to demonstrate that other cell types including hematopoietic stem cells and macrophages fit this definition. Further research is urgently required on potential reservoirs in the gut-associated lymphoid tissue and the central nervous system. PMID:22999944

  9. High resolution reservoir geological modelling using outcrop information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Changmin; Lin Kexiang; Liu Huaibo [Jianghan Petroleum Institute, Hubei (China)] [and others


    This is China`s first case study of high resolution reservoir geological modelling using outcrop information. The key of the modelling process is to build a prototype model and using the model as a geological knowledge bank. Outcrop information used in geological modelling including seven aspects: (1) Determining the reservoir framework pattern by sedimentary depositional system and facies analysis; (2) Horizontal correlation based on the lower and higher stand duration of the paleo-lake level; (3) Determining the model`s direction based on the paleocurrent statistics; (4) Estimating the sandbody communication by photomosaic and profiles; (6) Estimating reservoir properties distribution within sandbody by lithofacies analysis; and (7) Building the reservoir model in sandbody scale by architectural element analysis and 3-D sampling. A high resolution reservoir geological model of Youshashan oil field has been built by using this method.

  10. Numerical Modeling of CO2 and Brine Leakage through Open Fracture in a Fault Zone: Open Channel Flow or Darcy Flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning Liu


    Full Text Available Understanding fluids migration and leakage risk along the fault zone is necessary to guarantee the safety of CO2 geological storage. The validity of Darcy’s law gets challenged in dealing with the flow in open fractures since the occurring of turbulence flow. In this study, we develop a 2D model with usage of T2Well, an integrated wellbore-reservoir simulator, to investigate the leakage problem along open fractures which are embedded in a fault zone from the deep injection reservoir to shallow aquifers. The results record a positive feedback of gas expansion and pressure response in fracture, which causes a quick downward propagation of highly gas saturated zone from the top of fracture and an easy gas breakthrough in the shallower aquifers. The decreasing of aperture size of fracture significantly enhances the leakage rates in fracture, but with less influences as aperture increases. In comparison, the Equivalent Porous Media models show a good approximation with the momentum model of large apertures but poor for the small one. Nevertheless, the differences are small in terms of final CO2 distribution among various aquifers, suggesting that Darcy’s law may be still “effective” in solving flow problem along fractures in a constant injection system at a large time scale.

  11. Improving Multiple Fault Diagnosability using Possible Conflicts (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Multiple fault diagnosis is a difficult problem for dynamic systems. Due to fault masking, compensation, and relative time of fault occurrence, multiple faults can...

  12. ESR dating of fault rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Hee Kwon


    Past movement on faults can be dated by measurement of the intensity of ESR signals in quartz. These signals are reset by local lattice deformation and local frictional heating on grain contacts at the time of fault movement. The ESR signals then trow back as a result of bombardment by ionizing radiation from surrounding rocks. The age is obtained from the ratio of the equivalent dose, needed to produce the observed signal, to the dose rate. Fine grains are more completely reset during faulting, and a plot of age vs grain size shows a plateau for grains below critical size : these grains are presumed to have been completely zeroed by the last fault activity. We carried out ESR dating of fault rocks collected from the Yangsan fault system. ESR dates from the this fault system range from 870 to 240 ka. Results of this research suggest that long-term cyclic fault activity continued into the pleistocene

  13. Fault diagnosis of induction motors

    CERN Document Server

    Faiz, Jawad; Joksimović, Gojko


    This book is a comprehensive, structural approach to fault diagnosis strategy. The different fault types, signal processing techniques, and loss characterisation are addressed in the book. This is essential reading for work with induction motors for transportation and energy.

  14. Fault management and systems knowledge (United States)


    Pilots are asked to manage faults during flight operations. This leads to the training question of the type and depth of system knowledge required to respond to these faults. Based on discussions with multiple airline operators, there is agreement th...

  15. Fault-patch stress-transfer efficiency in presence of sub-patch geometric complexity

    KAUST Repository

    Zielke, Olaf


    It is well known that faults are not planar surfaces. Instead they exhibit self-similar or self-affine properties that span a wide range of spatial (sub-micrometer to tens-of-kilometer). This geometric fault roughness has a distinct impact on amount and distribution of stresses/strains induced in the medium and on other portions of the fault. However, when numerically simulated (for example in multi-cycle EQ rupture simulations or Coulomb failure stress calculations) this roughness is largely ignored: individual fault patches --the incremental elements that build the fault surface in the respective computer models-- are planar and fault roughness at this and lower spatial scales is not considered. As a result, the fault-patch stress-transfer efficiency may be systematically too large in those numerical simulations with respect to the "actual" efficiency level. Here, we investigate the effect of sub-patch geometric complexity on fault-patch stress-transfer efficiency. For that, we sub-divide a fault patch (e.g., 1x1km) into a large number of sub-patches (e.g., 20x20m) and determine amount of induced stresses at selected positions around that patch for different levels and realizations of fault roughness. For each fault roughness level, we compute mean and standard deviation of the induced stresses, enabling us to compute the coefficient of variation. We normalize those values with stresses from the corresponding single (planar) fault patch, providing scaling factors and their variability for stress transfer efficiency. Given a certain fault roughness that is assumed for a fault, this work provides the means to implement the sub-patch fault roughness into investigations based on fault-patch interaction schemes.

  16. Environmental flows in the context of small reservoirs in Ghana (United States)

    Gao, Y.; Kirshen, P.; Vogel, R.; Walker, P.


    Modification of rivers by dams reduces the magnitude and frequency of floods, and impacts the entire flow regime. In many cases, these modifications have adversely affected the ecological and hydrological integrity of the watershed as well as impacting food security and livelihood choices of the local community. There is now an increasing consensus that modification to river flows needs to be balanced with maintenance of essential water-dependent ecological services. Many small multi-purpose reservoirs have been built in West Africa, where rainfall is highly variable, and droughts and flash floods are frequent. These small reservoirs are an important source of water for domestic use, livestock watering, small-scale irrigation and other beneficial uses in rural communities. The small reservoirs are hydrologically linked by their associated stream network. The reservoirs alter the hydrology of the streams and the groundwater resources within the region. When an individual reservoir is considered, alteration to the entire watershed is usually not significant. However, when considered as a system, together the small reservoirs store a significant quantity of water and influence downstream flows. The small reservoirs have rarely been considered as a system, thus little consideration has been given to their collective impact on the natural environment and livelihoods of the local population in the long term. Furthermore, the impact is difficult to quantify given the diffuse nature of the small reservoirs. Therefore, a comprehensive environmental flow assessment is needed to investigate the effect of the small reservoirs as a system on the watershed, and appropriate water policy should be formulated to implement the finding from the assessment. Our project is specifically aimed at addressing this topic. We will present a case study conducted in the Upper East Region of Ghana and will discuss the findings on the hydrological, ecological and socio-economic implications of

  17. Work reservoirs in thermodynamics (United States)

    Anacleto, Joaquim


    We stress the usefulness of the work reservoir in the formalism of thermodynamics, in particular in the context of the first law. To elucidate its usefulness, the formalism is then applied to the Joule expansion and other peculiar and instructive experimental situations, clarifying the concepts of configuration and dissipative work. The ideas and discussions presented in this study are primarily intended for undergraduate students, but they might also be useful to graduate students, researchers and teachers.

  18. San andreas fault zone head waves near parkfield, california. (United States)

    Ben-Zion, Y; Malin, P


    Microearthquake seismograms from the borehole seismic network on the San Andreas fault near Parkfield, California, provide three lines of evidence that first P arrivals are "head" waves refracted along the cross-fault material contrast. First, the travel time difference between these arrivals and secondary phases identified as direct P waves scales linearly with the source-receiver distance. Second, these arrivals have the emergent wave character associated in theory and practice with refracted head waves instead of the sharp first breaks associated with direct P arrivals. Third, the first motion polarities of the emergent arrivals are reversed from those of the direct P waves as predicted by the theory of fault zone head waves for slip on the San Andreas fault. The presence of fault zone head waves in local seismic network data may help account for scatter in earthquake locations and source mechanisms. The fault zone head waves indicate that the velocity contrast across the San Andreas fault near Parkfield is approximately 4 percent. Further studies of these waves may provide a way of assessing changes in the physical state of the fault system.

  19. Automatic Fault Characterization via Abnormality-Enhanced Classification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bronevetsky, G; Laguna, I; de Supinski, B R


    Enterprise and high-performance computing systems are growing extremely large and complex, employing hundreds to hundreds of thousands of processors and software/hardware stacks built by many people across many organizations. As the growing scale of these machines increases the frequency of faults, system complexity makes these faults difficult to detect and to diagnose. Current system management techniques, which focus primarily on efficient data access and query mechanisms, require system administrators to examine the behavior of various system services manually. Growing system complexity is making this manual process unmanageable: administrators require more effective management tools that can detect faults and help to identify their root causes. System administrators need timely notification when a fault is manifested that includes the type of fault, the time period in which it occurred and the processor on which it originated. Statistical modeling approaches can accurately characterize system behavior. However, the complex effects of system faults make these tools difficult to apply effectively. This paper investigates the application of classification and clustering algorithms to fault detection and characterization. We show experimentally that naively applying these methods achieves poor accuracy. Further, we design novel techniques that combine classification algorithms with information on the abnormality of application behavior to improve detection and characterization accuracy. Our experiments demonstrate that these techniques can detect and characterize faults with 65% accuracy, compared to just 5% accuracy for naive approaches.

  20. On the mechanisms of reservoir-induced seismicity (United States)

    Chen, Linyue

    Reservoir-induced seismicity (RIS) is caused by failure of pre-existing fractures due to reservoir impoundment or water level changes. More than one hundred RIS cases have been observed around the world, with the largest event reaching a magnitude M6.3. We have used detailed data collected around the world to study the mechanisms of RIS. Impoundment of a reservoir can change the frictional strength of a fault by elastic loading and by pore pressure diffusion. Stress and strength changes were calculated for 53 well-located earthquakes at Monticello Reservoir, South Carolina where detailed information of the fault planes and reservoir filling was known. The calculations showed that the diffusion of pore pressure is primarily responsible for the earthquakes, and that strength changes ≤0.1 MPa are enough to trigger RIS, indicating that large parts of crust are very near the state of critical failure. Monticello Reservoir was impounded in 1977 and the seismicity had decayed to background level by 1992. There was a sudden increase in seismicity starting at the end of 1996, at a time when there were no water level changes in the reservoir. This new seismicity occurred in isolated new hypocentral areas with no previous earthquakes. Analyses showed that the new seismicity was caused by the coupled effects of chemical reactions and pore pressure diffusion. Of the nineteen cases of RIS in China, fifteen are located in carbonate rocks. Chemical reactions between water and the carbonate rocks are responsible for the seismicity. Detailed spatial and temporal data of seismicity associated with reservoir impoundment, geothermal and oilfield exploitation and fluid injection were collected in the study. Hydraulic diffusivity and permeability values in the seismogenic areas were estimated from these data. The results showed that in the seismogenic areas with induced seismicity, hydraulic diffusivity values lie in the range of 0.1 to 10 m2/s and the permeability values are in the

  1. Fault-Mechanism Simulator (United States)

    Guyton, J. W.


    An inexpensive, simple mechanical model of a fault can be produced to simulate the effects leading to an earthquake. This model has been used successfully with students from elementary to college levels and can be demonstrated to classes as large as thirty students. (DF)

  2. Row fault detection system (United States)

    Archer, Charles Jens [Rochester, MN; Pinnow, Kurt Walter [Rochester, MN; Ratterman, Joseph D [Rochester, MN; Smith, Brian Edward [Rochester, MN


    An apparatus, program product and method checks for nodal faults in a row of nodes by causing each node in the row to concurrently communicate with its adjacent neighbor nodes in the row. The communications are analyzed to determine a presence of a faulty node or connection.

  3. Guilt without fault

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schrøder, Katja; la Cour, Karen; Jørgensen, Jan Stener


    -free approach is promoted in the aftermath of adverse events. The purpose is to illustrate how healthcare professionals may experience guilt without being at fault after adverse events, and Gamlund's theory on forgiveness without blame is used as the theoretical framework for this analysis. Philosophical...

  4. Modelling earthquake ruptures with dynamic off-fault damage (United States)

    Okubo, Kurama; Bhat, Harsha S.; Klinger, Yann; Rougier, Esteban


    Earthquake rupture modelling has been developed for producing scenario earthquakes. This includes understanding the source mechanisms and estimating far-field ground motion with given a priori constraints like fault geometry, constitutive law of the medium and friction law operating on the fault. It is necessary to consider all of the above complexities of a fault systems to conduct realistic earthquake rupture modelling. In addition to the complexity of the fault geometry in nature, coseismic off-fault damage, which is observed by a variety of geological and seismological methods, plays a considerable role on the resultant ground motion and its spectrum compared to a model with simple planer fault surrounded by purely elastic media. Ideally all of these complexities should be considered in earthquake modelling. State of the art techniques developed so far, however, cannot treat all of them simultaneously due to a variety of computational restrictions. Therefore, we adopt the combined finite-discrete element method (FDEM), which can effectively deal with pre-existing complex fault geometry such as fault branches and kinks and can describe coseismic off-fault damage generated during the dynamic rupture. The advantage of FDEM is that it can handle a wide range of length scales, from metric to kilometric scale, corresponding to the off-fault damage and complex fault geometry respectively. We used the FDEM-based software tool called HOSSedu (Hybrid Optimization Software Suite - Educational Version) for the earthquake rupture modelling, which was developed by Los Alamos National Laboratory. We firstly conducted the cross-validation of this new methodology against other conventional numerical schemes such as the finite difference method (FDM), the spectral element method (SEM) and the boundary integral equation method (BIEM), to evaluate the accuracy with various element sizes and artificial viscous damping values. We demonstrate the capability of the FDEM tool for

  5. The Ahuachapan geothermal field, El Salvador: Reservoir analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aunzo, Z.; Bodvarsson, G.S.; Laky, C.; Lippmann, M.J.; Steingrimsson, B.; Truesdell, A.H.; Witherspoon, P.A. (Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (USA); Icelandic National Energy Authority, Reykjavik (Iceland); Geological Survey, Menlo Park, CA (USA); Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (USA))


    The Earth Sciences Division of Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) is conducting a reservoir evaluation study of the Ahuachapan geothermal field in El Salvador. This work is being performed in cooperation with the Comision Ejecutiva Hidroelectrica del Rio Lempa (CEL) and the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). This report describes the work done during the first year of the study (FY 1988--89), and includes the (1) development of geological and conceptual models of the field, (2) evaluation of the initial thermodynamic and chemical conditions and their changes during exploitation, (3) evaluation of interference test data and the observed reservoir pressure decline, and (4) the development of a natural state model for the field. The geological model of the field indicates that there are seven (7) major and five (5) minor faults that control the fluid movement in the Ahuachapan area. Some of the faults act as a barrier to flow as indicated by large temperature declines towards the north and west. Other faults act as preferential pathways to flow. The Ahuachapan Andesites provide good horizontal permeability to flow and provide most of the fluids to the wells. The underlying Older Agglomerates also contribute to well production, but considerably less than the Andesites. 84 refs.

  6. Multiscale Fractal Characterization of Hierarchical Heterogeneity in Sandstone Reservoirs (United States)

    Liu, Yanfeng; Liu, Yuetian; Sun, Lu; Liu, Jian


    Heterogeneities affecting reservoirs often develop at different scales. Previous studies have described these heterogeneities using different parameters depending on their size, and there is no one comprehensive method of reservoir evaluation that considers every scale. This paper introduces a multiscale fractal approach to quantify consistently the hierarchical heterogeneities of sandstone reservoirs. Materials taken from typical depositional pattern and aerial photography are used to represent three main types of sandstone reservoir: turbidite, braided, and meandering river system. Subsequent multiscale fractal dimension analysis using the Bouligand-Minkowski method characterizes well the hierarchical heterogeneity of the sandstone reservoirs. The multiscale fractal dimension provides a curve function that describes the heterogeneity at different scales. The heterogeneity of a reservoir’s internal structure decreases as the observational scale increases. The shape of a deposit’s facies is vital for quantitative determination of the sedimentation type, and thus enhanced oil recovery. Characterization of hierarchical heterogeneity by multiscale fractal dimension can assist reservoir evaluation, geological modeling, and even the design of well patterns.

  7. Fault Monitoring and Fault Recovery Control for Position Moored Tanker

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fang, Shaoji; Blanke, Mogens


    This paper addresses fault tolerant control for position mooring of a shuttle tanker operating in the North Sea. A complete framework for fault diagnosis is presented but the loss of a sub-sea mooring line buoyancy element is given particular attention, since this fault could lead to mooring line...... breakage and a high-risk abortion of an oil-loading operation. With significant drift forces from waves, non-Gaussian elements dominate forces and the residuals designed for fault diagnosis. Hypothesis testing need be designed using dedicated change detection for the type of distribution encountered....... Properties of detection and fault-tolerant control are demonstrated by high fidelity simulations....

  8. Physical and Transport Property Variations Within Carbonate-Bearing Fault Zones: Insights From the Monte Maggio Fault (Central Italy) (United States)

    Trippetta, F.; Carpenter, B. M.; Mollo, S.; Scuderi, M. M.; Scarlato, P.; Collettini, C.


    The physical characterization of carbonate-bearing normal faults is fundamental for resource development and seismic hazard. Here we report laboratory measurements of density, porosity, Vp, Vs, elastic moduli, and permeability for a range of effective confining pressures (0.1-100 MPa), conducted on samples representing different structural domains of a carbonate-bearing fault. We find a reduction in porosity from the fault breccia (11.7% total and 6.2% connected) to the main fault plane (9% total and 3.5% connected), with both domains showing higher porosity compared to the protolith (6.8% total and 1.1% connected). With increasing confining pressure, P wave velocity evolves from 4.5 to 5.9 km/s in the fault breccia, is constant at 5.9 km/s approaching the fault plane and is low (4.9 km/s) in clay-rich fault domains. We find that while the fault breccia shows pressure sensitive behavior (a reduction in permeability from 2 × 10-16 to 2 × 10-17 m2), the cemented cataclasite close to the fault plane is characterized by pressure-independent behavior (permeability 4 × 10-17 m2). Our results indicate that the deformation processes occurring within the different fault structural domains influence the physical and transport properties of the fault zone. In situ Vp profiles match well the laboratory measurements demonstrating that laboratory data are valuable for implications at larger scale. Combining the experimental values of elastic moduli and frictional properties it results that at shallow crustal levels, M ≤ 1 earthquakes are less favored, in agreement with earthquake-depth distribution during the L'Aquila 2009 seismic sequence that occurred on carbonates.

  9. Fault-Related Sanctuaries (United States)

    Piccardi, L.


    Beyond the study of historical surface faulting events, this work investigates the possibility, in specific cases, of identifying pre-historical events whose memory survives in myths and legends. The myths of many famous sacred places of the ancient world contain relevant telluric references: "sacred" earthquakes, openings to the Underworld and/or chthonic dragons. Given the strong correspondence with local geological evidence, these myths may be considered as describing natural phenomena. It has been possible in this way to shed light on the geologic origin of famous myths (Piccardi, 1999, 2000 and 2001). Interdisciplinary researches reveal that the origin of several ancient sanctuaries may be linked in particular to peculiar geological phenomena observed on local active faults (like ground shaking and coseismic surface ruptures, gas and flames emissions, strong underground rumours). In many of these sanctuaries the sacred area is laid directly above the active fault. In a few cases, faulting has affected also the archaeological relics, right through the main temple (e.g. Delphi, Cnidus, Hierapolis of Phrygia). As such, the arrangement of the cult site and content of relative myths suggest that specific points along the trace of active faults have been noticed in the past and worshiped as special `sacred' places, most likely interpreted as Hades' Doors. The mythological stratification of most of these sanctuaries dates back to prehistory, and points to a common derivation from the cult of the Mother Goddess (the Lady of the Doors), which was largely widespread since at least 25000 BC. The cult itself was later reconverted into various different divinities, while the `sacred doors' of the Great Goddess and/or the dragons (offspring of Mother Earth and generally regarded as Keepers of the Doors) persisted in more recent mythologies. Piccardi L., 1999: The "Footprints" of the Archangel: Evidence of Early-Medieval Surface Faulting at Monte Sant'Angelo (Gargano, Italy

  10. Fault-controlled permeability and fluid flow in low-porosity crystalline rocks: an example from naturally fractured geothermal systems in the Southern Andes (United States)

    Arancibia, G.; Roquer, T.; Sepúlveda, J.; Veloso, E. A.; Morata, D.; Rowland, J. V.


    Fault zones can control the location, emplacement, and evolution of economic mineral deposits and geothermal systems by acting as barriers and/or conduits to crustal fluid flow (e.g. magma, gas, oil, hydro-geothermal and groundwater). The nature of the fault control permeability is critical in the case of fluid flow into low porosity/permeability crystalline rocks, since structural permeability provides the main hydraulic conductivity to generate a natural fractured system. However, several processes accompanying the failure of rocks (i.e. episodic permeability given by cycling ruptures, mineral precipitation from fluids in veins, dissolution of minerals in the vicinity of a fracture) promote a complex time-dependent and enhancing/reducing fault-controlled permeability. We propose the Southern Volcanic Zone (Southern Andes, Chile) as a case study to evaluate the role of the structural permeability in low porosity crystalline rocks belonging to the Miocene North Patagonian Batholith. Recently published studies propose a relatively well-constrained first-order role of two active fault systems, the arc-parallel (NS to NNE trending) Liquiñe Ofqui Fault System and the arc-oblique (NW trending) Andean Transverse Fault Zones, in fluid flow at crustal scales. We now propose to examine the Liquiñe ( 39°S) and Maihue ( 40°S) areas as sites of interaction between these fault systems, in order to evaluate a naturally fractured geothermal system. Preliminary results indicate upwelling of thermal water directly from fractured granite or from fluvial deposits overlying granitoids. Measured temperatures of thermal springs suggest a low- to medium-enthalpy system, which could potentially be harnessed for use in geothermal energy applications (e.g. heating, wood dryer and green house), which are much needed in Southern Chile. Future work will aim to examine the nature of structural permeability from the regional to the microscopic scale connecting the paleo- and current- fluid

  11. Advantageous Reservoir Characterization Technology in Extra Low Permeability Oil Reservoirs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yutian Luo


    Full Text Available This paper took extra low permeability reservoirs in Dagang Liujianfang Oilfield as an example and analyzed different types of microscopic pore structures by SEM, casting thin sections fluorescence microscope, and so on. With adoption of rate-controlled mercury penetration, NMR, and some other advanced techniques, based on evaluation parameters, namely, throat radius, volume percentage of mobile fluid, start-up pressure gradient, and clay content, the classification and assessment method of extra low permeability reservoirs was improved and the parameter boundaries of the advantageous reservoirs were established. The physical properties of reservoirs with different depth are different. Clay mineral variation range is 7.0%, and throat radius variation range is 1.81 μm, and start pressure gradient range is 0.23 MPa/m, and movable fluid percentage change range is 17.4%. The class IV reservoirs account for 9.56%, class II reservoirs account for 12.16%, and class III reservoirs account for 78.29%. According to the comparison of different development methods, class II reservoir is most suitable for waterflooding development, and class IV reservoir is most suitable for gas injection development. Taking into account the gas injection in the upper section of the reservoir, the next section of water injection development will achieve the best results.

  12. Fault Diagnosis and Fault Handling for Autonomous Aircraft

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Søren

    that the fault is discovered in time such that appropriate actions can be taken. That could either be the aircraft controlling computer taking the fault into account or a human operator that intervenes. Detection of faults that occur during flight is exactly the subject of this thesis. Safety towards faults...... for manned aircraft is often achieved by making most of the systems onboard redundant. This is an easy way to obtain safety since no single system fault is catastrophic. The failed subsystem can be disconnected and the redundant systems can take over the tasks of the failed system. For smaller UAVs both...... a specific UAV, used by the Danish military, it is investigated how a number of critical faults can be detected and handled. One of the challenges using telemetry data for the fault diagnosis is the limited bandwidth in the radio link between the aircraft and the base-station on ground. This combined...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Yuanzheng


    Full Text Available The 2008 Wenchuan MS8.0 earthquake occurred on Longmenshan fault zone (LMSF, which is at the eastern margin of the Tibetan plateau. The epicenter is near the Shuimogou earthquake swarm, which was thought to be triggered by the Zipingpu reservoir after its impounding in 2004. People have speculated that the large earthquake was triggered by the water filling of the reservoir. To figure out the role of the Zipingpu reservoir on the earthquake, the local seismicity recorded by the Zipingpu local seismic network during the period from 31 July 2004 to 11 May 2008 were analyzed in detail. The distribution of hypocenters showed that most earthquakes occurred on Yingxiu-Beichuan fault (YBF in the reservoir area with hypocenters depth less than 10 km, which is a major source fault of the Wenchuan earthquake. Useful information on fault geometry in the depth was also obtained. The spatial-temporal distribution of hypocenters demonstrated clear migration pattern that indicated pore-pressure diffusion, it also showed a hydraulic diffusivity (D of 0.7 m2/s. Previous experiments show the existence of the synergism process of the fault under a meta-instability state before fault sliding. It enhances the stress on the stronger portion of the fault and the synergism degree by reducing strength of the weak portions and by increasing the total length of weak portions. According to this view, the pore pressure diffusion by water filling of Zipingpu reservoir increased the total length of weak portions and enhanced the stress at the focal.

  14. Fault detection and isolation in processes involving induction machines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zell, K.; Medvedev, A. [Control Engineering Group, Luleaa University of Technology, Luleaa (Sweden)


    A model-based technique for fault detection and isolation in electro-mechanical systems comprising induction machines is introduced. Two coupled state observers, one for the induction machine and another for the mechanical load, are used to detect and recognize fault-specific behaviors (fault signatures) from the real-time measurements of the rotor angular velocity and terminal voltages and currents. Practical applicability of the method is verified in full-scale experiments with a conveyor belt drive at SSAB, Luleaa Works. (orig.) 3 refs.

  15. Simulation of Co-Seismic Off-Fault Stress Effects: Influence of Fault Roughness and Pore Pressure Coupling (United States)

    Fälth, B.; Lund, B.; Hökmark, H.


    Aiming at improved safety assessment of geological nuclear waste repositories, we use dynamic 3D earthquake simulations to estimate the potential for co-seismic off-fault distributed fracture slip. Our model comprises a 12.5 x 8.5 km strike-slip fault embedded in a full space continuum where we apply a homogeneous initial stress field. In the reference case (Case 1) the fault is planar and oriented optimally for slip, given the assumed stress field. To examine the potential impact of fault roughness, we also study cases where the fault surface has undulations with self-similar fractal properties. In both the planar and the undulated cases the fault has homogeneous frictional properties. In a set of ten rough fault models (Case 2), the fault friction is equal to that of Case 1, meaning that these models generate lower seismic moments than Case 1. In another set of ten rough fault models (Case 3), the fault dynamic friction is adjusted such that seismic moments on par with that of Case 1 are generated. For the propagation of the earthquake rupture we adopt the linear slip-weakening law and obtain Mw 6.4 in Case 1 and Case 3, and Mw 6.3 in Case 2 (35 % lower moment than Case 1). During rupture we monitor the off-fault stress evolution along the fault plane at 250 m distance and calculate the corresponding evolution of the Coulomb Failure Stress (CFS) on optimally oriented hypothetical fracture planes. For the stress-pore pressure coupling, we assume Skempton's coefficient B = 0.5 as a base case value, but also examine the sensitivity to variations of B. We observe the following: (I) The CFS values, and thus the potential for fracture slip, tend to increase with the distance from the hypocenter. This is in accordance with results by other authors. (II) The highest CFS values are generated by quasi-static stress concentrations around fault edges and around large scale fault bends, where we obtain values of the order of 10 MPa. (III) Locally, fault roughness may have a

  16. Faults in parts of north-central and western Houston metropolitan area, Texas (United States)

    Verbeek, Earl R.; Ratzlaff, Karl W.; Clanton, Uel S.


    Hundreds of residential, commercial, and industrial structures in the Houston metropolitan area have sustained moderate to severe damage owing to their locations on or near active faults. Paved roads have been offset by faults at hundreds of locations, butted pipelines have been distorted by fault movements, and fault-induced gradient changes in drainage lines have raised concern among flood control engineers. Over 150 faults, many of them moving at rates of 0.5 to 2 cm/yr, have been mapped in the Houston area; the number of faults probably far exceeds this figure.This report includes a map of eight faults, in north-central and western Houston, at a scale useful for land-use planning. Seven of the faults, are known, to be active and have caused considerable damage to structures built on or near them. If the eighth fault is active, it may be of concern to new developments on the west side of Houston. A ninth feature shown on the map is regarded only as a possible fault, as an origin by faulting has not been firmly established.Seismic and drill-hold data for some 40 faults, studied in detail by various investigators have verified connections between scarps at the land surface and growth faults in the shallow subsurface. Some scarps, then, are known to be the surface manifestations of faults that have geologically long histories of movement. The degree to which natural geologic processes contribute to current fault movement, however, is unclear, for some of man’s activities may play a role in faulting as well.Evidence that current rates of fault movement far exceed average prehistoric rates and that most offset of the land surface in the Houston area has occurred only within the last 50 years indirectly suggest that fluid withdrawal may be accelerating or reinitiating movement on pre-existing faults. This conclusion, however, is based only on a coincidence in time between increased fault activity and increased rates of withdrawal of water, oil, and gas from

  17. Accounting for Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Reservoirs ... (United States)

    Nearly three decades of research has demonstrated that the impoundment of rivers and the flooding of terrestrial ecosystems behind dams can increase rates of greenhouse gas emission, particularly methane. The 2006 IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories includes a methodology for estimating methane emissions from flooded lands, but the methodology was published as an appendix to be used as a ‘basis for future methodological development’ due to a lack of data. Since the 2006 Guidelines were published there has been a 6-fold increase in the number of peer reviewed papers published on the topic including reports from reservoirs in India, China, Africa, and Russia. Furthermore, several countries, including Iceland, Switzerland, and Finland, have developed country specific methodologies for including flooded lands methane emissions in their National Greenhouse Gas Inventories. This presentation will include a review of the literature on flooded land methane emissions and approaches that have been used to upscale emissions for national inventories. We will also present ongoing research in the United States to develop a country specific methodology. In the U.S., research approaches include: 1) an effort to develop predictive relationships between methane emissions and reservoir characteristics that are available in national databases, such as reservoir size and drainage area, and 2) a national-scale probabilistic survey of reservoir methane em

  18. Why are small scale demonstration projects important for the future of CCS? (United States)

    Leetaru, H. E.; Bauer, R. A.; McBride, J. H.; Freiburg, J. T.; Greenberg, S. E.


    Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) is moving toward large-scale commercial projects and the U.S. Department of Energy is supporting a new CarbonSAFE initiative to assist in the development of a 50 million tonnes geologic storage project. This type of large commercial CCS project will rely on lessons learned from smaller DOE CCS projects such as the Illinois Basin-Decatur Project (IBDP) and the Illinois Industrial Carbon Capture and Storage (IL-ICCS) Project located one mile north of IBDP. Over a three year period ending 2014 IBDP injected almost one million tonnes of CO2 into the Mt. Simon Sandstone, and the IL-ICCS project which commenced injection in 2017 will inject another four million tonnes over a four year period. The IBDP has recorded microseismic events within the study area through continuous downhole seismic monitoring before, during, and after injection. Monitoring shows that microseismicity increased during injection and originate not only in the Cambrian Mt. Simon Sandstone (the target reservoir), but also in the underlying Argenta clastics and deeper Precambrian igneous rocks as SW-NE elongate clusters aligned in strike to the maximum in situ stress direction. An interpretation of site 3D seismic reflection data suggests that much of the microseismicity is proximal to interpreted faults that extend from the basement up into the lowermost Mt. Simon strata. The faults proximally associated with microseismic activity are oriented parallel with respect to the maximum stress direction. The seismic monitoring of the IBDP indicate that the assessment of induced seismic potential associated with commercial-scale CCS requires not only identification of a suitable reservoir and its petrophysical characteristics, but also the extent and orientation of existing faults and their relation to regional stress orientation. Assessment of regional fault orientation using 3D seismic reflection data can be extremely useful to understanding the risks of induced seismicity

  19. The study of permeabilities, measured at various scales, of a fluviatile sandstone reservoir. Development and application of a well test numerical simulator; Etude des permeabilites mesurees a differentes echelles d`un reservoir greseux fluviatile. Developpement et application d`un simulateur numerique de tests de puits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacquin, T.


    The general problem of a single phase fluid flow through heterogenous porous media, is studied, focusing on well test data interpretation in the context of reservoir characterization; a 3D finite volume code, with capacity of local refinement, is developed to simulate well tests. After a review of traditional techniques used to interpret well test data, and their extension to heterogenous media using a weighting function that depends upon the flow geometry, an analysis is carried out for 2D correlated lognormal permeability distributions: it compares well to numerical well tests performed on low variance permeability distributions but needs further investigation for high variance. For 3D heterogenous permeability fields, well bore pressure cannot be estimated by analytical means; therefore a more empirical approach is used to study the permeability field of a reservoir used by Gaz de France as an underground gas storage. Simulated well tests are performed on a reservoir model based upon core measurements and log analysis. The numerical investigation reveals inconsistencies in the treatment of available data, which can be corrected so geology is better taken into account

  20. Fault rocks and uranium mineralization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tong Hangshou.


    The types of fault rocks, microstructural characteristics of fault tectonite and their relationship with uranium mineralization in the uranium-productive granite area are discussed. According to the synthetic analysis on nature of stress, extent of crack and microstructural characteristics of fault rocks, they can be classified into five groups and sixteen subgroups. The author especially emphasizes the control of cataclasite group and fault breccia group over uranium mineralization in the uranium-productive granite area. It is considered that more effective study should be made on the macrostructure and microstructure of fault rocks. It is of an important practical significance in uranium exploration