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Sample records for reservoir ma study

  1. Ma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingrid Berthon-Moine

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Ma (2009 is a single channel video of a mother and child walking together side by side, holding hands. The title is reminiscent of the affectionate nickname for a mother, 'Ma', but also a concealed way to convey maternal ambivalence. Maternal ambivalence is the result of the tension between the idealisation of motherhood and women’s lived experience of mothering. The maternal struggle finds its source in the difficulty of identifying with the ideological representation of the mother. This image still conveys an idealistic and nostalgic, patriarchal image of maternal love bounded by culture and history. http://podcast.ulcc.ac.uk/accounts/BirkbeckCollege/mamsie/MA.mov

  2. Chickamauga reservoir embayment study - 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meinert, D.L.; Butkus, S.R.; McDonough, T.A.

    1992-12-01

    The objectives of this report are three-fold: (1) assess physical, chemical, and biological conditions in the major embayments of Chickamauga Reservoir; (2) compare water quality and biological conditions of embayments with main river locations; and (3) identify any water quality concerns in the study embayments that may warrant further investigation and/or management actions. Embayments are important areas of reservoirs to be considered when assessments are made to support water quality management plans. In general, embayments, because of their smaller size (water surface areas usually less than 1000 acres), shallower morphometry (average depth usually less than 10 feet), and longer detention times (frequently a month or more), exhibit more extreme responses to pollutant loadings and changes in land use than the main river region of the reservoir. Consequently, embayments are often at greater risk of water quality impairments (e.g. nutrient enrichment, filling and siltation, excessive growths of aquatic plants, algal blooms, low dissolved oxygen concentrations, bacteriological contamination, etc.). Much of the secondary beneficial use of reservoirs occurs in embayments (viz. marinas, recreation areas, parks and beaches, residential development, etc.). Typically embayments comprise less than 20 percent of the surface area of a reservoir, but they often receive 50 percent or more of the water-oriented recreational use of the reservoir. This intensive recreational use creates a potential for adverse use impacts if poor water quality and aquatic conditions exist in an embayment.

  3. Microcap M&A: An Exploratory Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keith Turpie

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available A substantial body of accounting and finance literature has been devoted to the study of Mergers and Acquisitions (M&As dominated by discussions relating to the gains and losses that accrue from transactions involving large public companies. This paper makes a unique contribution to the literature by investigating the M&A experience of microcap businesses. Transactions involving microcap M&A are substantially different to those involving large companies on a number of dimensions. This paper explores the determinants of microcap M&A success and pitfalls and problems from an integration perspective. Due to the paucity of research in the area an exploratory research design is employed, conducting interviews with five CEOs of companies that had each managed multiple transactions. We find microcap M&As are successful when measured against identified goals but generally take longer and cost more than expected. Further, culture and communication are key issues in determining success/failure. We also find the in-house management of integration aspects is problematic for these businesses and suggest this warrants further study.

  4. Geothermal reservoir insurance study. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-10-09

    The principal goal of this study was to provide analysis of and recommendations on the need for and feasibility of a geothermal reservoir insurance program. Five major tasks are reported: perception of risk by major market sectors, status of private sector insurance programs, analysis of reservoir risks, alternative government roles, and recommendations.

  5. Amplitude various angles (AVA) phenomena in thin layer reservoir: Case study of various reservoirs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    thfloor, Physics Dept., FMIPA, Institut Teknologi Bandung (Indonesia); Rock Fluid Imaging Lab., Bandung (Indonesia))" data-affiliation=" (Wave Inversion and Subsurface Fluid Imaging Research Laboratory (WISFIR), Basic Science Center A 4thfloor, Physics Dept., FMIPA, Institut Teknologi Bandung (Indonesia); Rock Fluid Imaging Lab., Bandung (Indonesia))" >Nurhandoko, Bagus Endar B.; Susilowati

    2015-01-01

    Amplitude various offset is widely used in petroleum exploration as well as in petroleum development field. Generally, phenomenon of amplitude in various angles assumes reservoir’s layer is quite thick. It also means that the wave is assumed as a very high frequency. But, in natural condition, the seismic wave is band limited and has quite low frequency. Therefore, topic about amplitude various angles in thin layer reservoir as well as low frequency assumption is important to be considered. Thin layer reservoir means the thickness of reservoir is about or less than quarter of wavelength. In this paper, I studied about the reflection phenomena in elastic wave which considering interference from thin layer reservoir and transmission wave. I applied Zoeppritz equation for modeling reflected wave of top reservoir, reflected wave of bottom reservoir, and also transmission elastic wave of reservoir. Results show that the phenomena of AVA in thin layer reservoir are frequency dependent. Thin layer reservoir causes interference between reflected wave of top reservoir and reflected wave of bottom reservoir. These phenomena are frequently neglected, however, in real practices. Even though, the impact of inattention in interference phenomena caused by thin layer in AVA may cause inaccurate reservoir characterization. The relation between classes of AVA reservoir and reservoir’s character are different when effect of ones in thin reservoir and ones in thick reservoir are compared. In this paper, I present some AVA phenomena including its cross plot in various thin reservoir types based on some rock physics data of Indonesia

  6. Impact of Reservoir Operation to the Inflow Flood - a Case Study of Xinfengjiang Reservoir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, L.

    2017-12-01

    Building of reservoir shall impact the runoff production and routing characteristics, and changes the flood formation. This impact, called as reservoir flood effect, could be divided into three parts, including routing effect, volume effect and peak flow effect, and must be evaluated in a whole by using hydrological model. After analyzing the reservoir flood formation, the Liuxihe Model for reservoir flood forecasting is proposed. The Xinfengjiang Reservoir is studied as a case. Results show that the routing effect makes peak flow appear 4 to 6 hours in advance, volume effect is bigger for large flood than small one, and when rainfall focus on the reservoir area, this effect also increases peak flow largely, peak flow effect makes peak flow increase 6.63% to 8.95%. Reservoir flood effect is obvious, which have significant impact to reservoir flood. If this effect is not considered in the flood forecasting model, the flood could not be forecasted accurately, particularly the peak flow. Liuxihe Model proposed for Xinfengjiang Reservoir flood forecasting has a good performance, and could be used for real-time flood forecasting of Xinfengjiang Reservoir.Key words: Reservoir flood effect, reservoir flood forecasting, physically based distributed hydrological model, Liuxihe Model, parameter optimization

  7. A Study of the Optimal Planning Model for Reservoir Sustainable Management- A Case Study of Shihmen Reservoir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Y. Y.; Ho, C. C.; Chang, L. C.

    2017-12-01

    The reservoir management in Taiwan faces lots of challenge. Massive sediment caused by landslide were flushed into reservoir, which will decrease capacity, rise the turbidity, and increase supply risk. Sediment usually accompanies nutrition that will cause eutrophication problem. Moreover, the unevenly distribution of rainfall cause water supply instability. Hence, how to ensure sustainable use of reservoirs has become an important task in reservoir management. The purpose of the study is developing an optimal planning model for reservoir sustainable management to find out an optimal operation rules of reservoir flood control and sediment sluicing. The model applies Genetic Algorithms to combine with the artificial neural network of hydraulic analysis and reservoir sediment movement. The main objective of operation rules in this study is to prevent reservoir outflow caused downstream overflow, minimum the gap between initial and last water level of reservoir, and maximum sluicing sediment efficiency. A case of Shihmen reservoir was used to explore the different between optimal operating rule and the current operation of the reservoir. The results indicate optimal operating rules tended to open desilting tunnel early and extend open duration during flood discharge period. The results also show the sluicing sediment efficiency of optimal operating rule is 36%, 44%, 54% during Typhoon Jangmi, Typhoon Fung-Wong, and Typhoon Sinlaku respectively. The results demonstrate the optimal operation rules do play a role in extending the service life of Shihmen reservoir and protecting the safety of downstream. The study introduces a low cost strategy, alteration of operation reservoir rules, into reservoir sustainable management instead of pump dredger in order to improve the problem of elimination of reservoir sediment and high cost.

  8. The glaciogenic reservoir analogue studies project (GRASP)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moscariello, A.; Moreau, Julien; Vegt, P. van der

    Tunnel galleys are common features in Palaeozoic glacigenic succession in North Afrcica and Middle East and they are amongst the most challenging target for hydrocarbon exploration and developing drilling in these regions. Similarly, these buried valleys form important groundwater reservoirs...

  9. A Comparative Study of Reservoir Computing for Temporal Signal Processing

    OpenAIRE

    Goudarzi, Alireza; Banda, Peter; Lakin, Matthew R.; Teuscher, Christof; Stefanovic, Darko

    2014-01-01

    Reservoir computing (RC) is a novel approach to time series prediction using recurrent neural networks. In RC, an input signal perturbs the intrinsic dynamics of a medium called a reservoir. A readout layer is then trained to reconstruct a target output from the reservoir's state. The multitude of RC architectures and evaluation metrics poses a challenge to both practitioners and theorists who study the task-solving performance and computational power of RC. In addition, in contrast to tradit...

  10. The glaciogenic reservoir analogue studies project (GRASP)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moscariello, A.; Moreau, Julien; Vegt, P. van der

    increasing the risk associated with developing effectively these reservoirs. Therefore a analogue-based predictive stratigraphical and sedimentological model can help to steer drilling strategy and reduce uncertainties and associated risks. For this purpose the GRASP joint industry programme was established......Tunnel galleys are common features in Palaeozoic glacigenic succession in North Afrcica and Middle East and they are amongst the most challenging target for hydrocarbon exploration and developing drilling in these regions. Similarly, these buried valleys form important groundwater reservoirs...... in Quaternary glaciated areas and their nature and sediment composition is critical to drive a sustainable production strategy and assess their vulnerability. Seismic resolution however, often limits the understanding of channel valleys morphology, 3D geometry and internal reservoir distribution, thus...

  11. Comparative study of the wear resistance of Al2O3-coated MA956 superalloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canahua Loza, H.; Escudero rincon, M. L.; Ruiz Fernandez, J.

    2000-01-01

    Preoxidation of the MA956 superalloy, proposed as prosthetic biomaterial, generates a compact and inert α-alumina surface layer. The aim of this study is to assess the wear resistance provided by this alumina layer on the MA956 alloy in comparison with the same coated alloy and versus high density polyethylene. Comparative wear tests were carried out in both dry and wet conditions using the couples MA956/MA956, MA956/UHMWPE (ultra high molecular weight polyethylene) and 316LVM/UHMWPE. The results corresponding to the couples MA956/MA956, with and without alumina layer, show that the load has more significant effect than the rotation speed on the weight loss and on the roughness. On the other hand the alumina surface layer provides a clear wear protection. The weight losses of the MA956 specimen in this couple are ten times lower when testing under wet conditions than under dry conditions. The MA956/UHMWPE couple behaves much better than the 316LVM/UHMWPE, as it presents the lowest values of friction coefficient and weight losses of the MA956 specimen. These are only detectable after 70,000 cycles under a 70 MPa contact pressure. This couple offers the best guarantee of a prolonged service life for articulated parts in a prosthesis. (Author) 18 refs

  12. Isolation of MA-ACS Gene Family and Expression Study of MA-ACS1 Gene in Musa acuminata Cultivar Pisang Ambon Lumut

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LISTYA UTAMI KARMAWAN

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Musa acuminata cultivar pisang ambon lumut is a native climacteric fruit from Indonesia. Climacteric fruit ripening process is triggered by the gaseous plant hormone ethylene. The rate limiting enzyme involved in ethylene biosynthesis is ACC synthase (ACS which is encoded by ACS gene family. The objective of this study is to identify MA-ACS gene family in M. acuminata cultivar pisang ambon lumut and to study the MA-ACS1 gene expression. The result showed that there were nine M. acuminata ACS gene family members called MA-ACS1–9. Two of them (MA-ACS1 and MA-ACS2 were assessed using reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR for gene expression study and it was only MA-ACS1 correlated with fruit ripening. The MA-ACS1 gene fragment has been successfully isolated and characterized and it has three introns, four exons, and one stop codon. It also shows highest homology with MACS1 gene from M. acuminata cultivar Hsian Jien Chiao (GenBank accession number AF056164. Expression analysis of MA-ACS1 using quantitative PCR (qPCR showed that MA-ACS1 gene expression increased significantly in the third day, reached maximum at the fifth day, and then decreased in the seventh day after harvesting. The qPCR expression analysis result correlated with the result of physical analysis during fruit ripening.

  13. Studies of Reservoir Hosts for Marburg virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Swanepoel, Robert; Smit, Sheilagh B; Rollin, Pierre E

    2007-01-01

    To determine reservoir hosts for Marburg virus (MARV), we examined the fauna of a mine in northeastern Democratic Republic of the Congo. The mine was associated with a protracted outbreak of Marburg hemorrhagic fever during 1998-2000. We found MARV nucleic acid in 12 bats, comprising 3.0%-3.6% of 2...... species of insectivorous bat and 1 species of fruit bat. We found antibody to the virus in the serum of 9.7% of 1 of the insectivorous species and in 20.5% of the fruit bat species, but attempts to isolate virus were unsuccessful. ...

  14. Study of the oxidation kinetics of the MA 956 superalloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia-Alonso, M.C.; Gonzalez-Carrasco, J.L.; Escudero, M.L.

    1998-01-01

    This work deals with the oxidation kinetics of the MA 956 superalloy in the temperature range of 800-1,200 degree centigree for up to 200 h exposure. During oxidation the alloy develops a fine, compact and very well adhered α-alumina layer, the thickness of which increases with increasing time and temperature. The oxidation kinetics obeys a sub parabolic type behaviour. The scale growth seems to occur by two different oxidation mechanisms; above 1,050 degree centigree, the oxidation process would be controlled by α-alumina, and below 900 degree centigree by γ-alumina. (Author) 17 refs

  15. Reservoir engineering studies of the Cerro Prieto geothermal field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, K. P.; Lippmann, M. J.; Tsang, C. F.

    1982-09-01

    Reservoir engineering studies of the Cerro Prieto geothermal field began in 1978 under a five-year cooperative agreement between the US Department of Energy and the Comision Federal de Electricidad de Mexico, with the ultimate objective of simulating the reservoir to forecast its production capacity, energy longevity, and recharge capability under various production and injection scenarios. During the fiscal year 1981, attempts were made to collect information on the evolution history of the field since exploitation began; the information is to be used later to validate the reservoir model. To this end, wellhead production data were analyzed for heat and mass flow and also for changes in reservoir pressures, temperatures, and saturations for the period from March 1973 to November 1980.

  16. Challenges of reservoir properties and production history matching in a CHOPS reservoir study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alam, Mahbub [Department of Geoscience, University of Calgary (Canada)

    2011-07-01

    In order to meet increasing world energy demand, wells have to be drilled within very thin reservoir beds. This paper, we present one of the solutions for optimizing the reservoir characterization. Reservoir characterization is the process between the discovery of a property and the reservoir management phase. Principal data for reservoir modeling are: 4D Seismic interpretation, wireline log interpretation, core analysis, and petrophysical analysis. Reservoir conditions, perforation and completion technology are the key issues to the production rate of cold production. Reservoir modeling intends to minimize the risk factor, maximize production, and help determine the location for infill drillings. Cold heavy oil production with sand (CHOPS) is a method for enhancing primary production from heavy oil reservoirs. Gravitational forces, natural fluid pressure gradients and foamy oil flow phenomena are the major driving forces of the CHOPS mechanism. Finally, Reservoir characterization allows better understanding of permeability and porosity prediction.

  17. Estimation of Bank Erosion Due To Reservoir Operation in Cascade (Case Study: Citarum Cascade Reservoir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Legowo

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Sedimentation is such a crucial issue to be noted once the accumulated sediment begins to fill the reservoir dead storage, this will then influence the long-term reservoir operation. The sediment accumulated requires a serious attention for it may influence the storage capacity and other reservoir management of activities. The continuous inflow of sediment to the reservoir will decrease the capacity of reservoir storage, the reservoir value in use, and the useful age of reservoir. Because of that, the rate of the sediment needs to be delayed as possible. In this research, the delay of the sediment rate is considered based on the rate of flow of landslide of the reservoir slope. The rate of flow of the sliding slope can be minimized by way of each reservoir autonomous efforts. This effort can be performed through; the regulation of fluctuating rate of reservoir surface current that does not cause suddenly drawdown and upraising as well. The research model is compiled using the searching technique of Non Linear Programming (NLP.The rate of bank erosion for the reservoir variates from 0.0009 to 0.0048 MCM/year, which is no sigrificant value to threaten the life time of reservoir.Mean while the rate of watershed sediment has a significant value, i.e: 3,02 MCM/year for Saguling that causes to fullfill the storage capacity in 40 next years (from years 2008.

  18. Modeling Study of High Pressure and High Temperature Reservoir Fluids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Varzandeh, Farhad

    S-characterization combinations and 260 reservoir fluids. PC-SAFT with the new general characterization method is shown to give the lowest AAD% and maximum deviation in calculation of saturation pressure, density and STO density, among all the tested characterization methods for PC-SAFT. Application of the new characterization...... be highly rewarding if successfully produced. This PhD project is part of the NextOil (New Extreme Oil and Gas in the Danish North Sea) project which is intended to reduce the uncertainties in HPHT field development. The main focus of this PhD is on accurate description of the reservoir fluid behavior under...... HPHT conditions to minimize the production risks from these types of reservoirs. In particular, the study has thoroughly evaluated several non-cubic Equations of State (EoSs) which are considered promising for HPHT fluid modeling, showing their advantages and short comings based on an extensive...

  19. Experimental study of water adsorption on Geysers reservoir rocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shubo Shang; Horne, Roland N.; Ramey, Henry J., Jr.

    1993-01-28

    Experimental isotherms of water vapor adsorption/desorption on three geothermal reservoir rock samples have been measured at temperatures of 80, 100, 120 and 140°C. Initial surface status of the sample was found to influence the amount of water adsorbed. At low relative pressures, adsorption is the dominant process of water retention onto the rock samples. Adsorption/desorption hysteresis was observed to exist over the whole pressure range at all temperatures. Similar observations were made for all three samples. The results of this study suggest that adsorption is important in storing water in geothermal reservoir rocks not only in itself, but also in inducing capillary condensation.

  20. Study on holographic characteristics in ZnMA doped PQ-PMMA photopolymer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Dan; Liu, Hongpeng; Wang, Jian; Jiang, Yongyuan; Sun, Xiudong

    2011-06-01

    The holographic characteristics in phenanthrenequinone and Zinc methylacrylate doped poly-(methyl methacrylate) photopolymers are experimentally studied. The role of ZnMA molecules which is to accelerate the photochemical reaction in material is confirmed by experiment. The doping of ZnMA component results in a higher diffraction efficiency and photosensitivity than typical phenanthrenequinone doped poly-(methyl methacrylate) system. Moreover, the response region and dynamic range are obviously improved.

  1. study of ichtyofauna of daberam reservoir, katsina state 172

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    ABSTRACT. Research was carried out to explore the fish species diversity and study some aspects of the. Biology of fish of Daberam reservoir, Katsina state, for a period of three month from March to May. 2009. 66 Samples of fish were collected from commercial fishermen and experimental fishing gears, preserved in ...

  2. A chemical EOR benchmark study of different reservoir simulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goudarzi, Ali; Delshad, Mojdeh; Sepehrnoori, Kamy

    2016-09-01

    Interest in chemical EOR processes has intensified in recent years due to the advancements in chemical formulations and injection techniques. Injecting Polymer (P), surfactant/polymer (SP), and alkaline/surfactant/polymer (ASP) are techniques for improving sweep and displacement efficiencies with the aim of improving oil production in both secondary and tertiary floods. There has been great interest in chemical flooding recently for different challenging situations. These include high temperature reservoirs, formations with extreme salinity and hardness, naturally fractured carbonates, and sandstone reservoirs with heavy and viscous crude oils. More oil reservoirs are reaching maturity where secondary polymer floods and tertiary surfactant methods have become increasingly important. This significance has added to the industry's interest in using reservoir simulators as tools for reservoir evaluation and management to minimize costs and increase the process efficiency. Reservoir simulators with special features are needed to represent coupled chemical and physical processes present in chemical EOR processes. The simulators need to be first validated against well controlled lab and pilot scale experiments to reliably predict the full field implementations. The available data from laboratory scale include 1) phase behavior and rheological data; and 2) results of secondary and tertiary coreflood experiments for P, SP, and ASP floods under reservoir conditions, i.e. chemical retentions, pressure drop, and oil recovery. Data collected from corefloods are used as benchmark tests comparing numerical reservoir simulators with chemical EOR modeling capabilities such as STARS of CMG, ECLIPSE-100 of Schlumberger, REVEAL of Petroleum Experts. The research UTCHEM simulator from The University of Texas at Austin is also included since it has been the benchmark for chemical flooding simulation for over 25 years. The results of this benchmark comparison will be utilized to improve

  3. National Program for Inspection of Non-Federal Dams. Stony Brook Reservoir Dam MA 00293, Charles River Basin, Weston, Massachusetts. Phase I Inspection Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-06-01

    the dam along the west side of the reservoir. Water supply intakes and a low flow outlet are controlled from the gatehouse near the right end of the dam...face of the dam, the establishment of vegetation on bare areas, the repointing of joints at the spillway and gatehouse , the repair of an inoperative...Stony Brook Reservoir. The routing indicated that there is virtually no reduction of the peak inflow rate of 8,400 cfs into Stony Brook Reservoir and as a

  4. Iodine-129 chronological study of brines from an Ordovician paleokarst reservoir in the Lunnan oilfield, Tarim Basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Jian; Liu, Dayong; Peng, Ping'an; Ning, Chen; Xiaolin, Hou; Baoshou, Zhang; Zhongyao, Xiao

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that brines in an Ordovician paleokarst reservoir of the Lunnan oilfield in the Tarim Basin, China, are the product of mixing of paleo-evaporated seawater in the east with paleometeoric waters in the west. In order to put time constraints on the brine and related hydrocarbons in this field, 10 brine samples were collected, for which the iodine concentrations and 129 I/I ratios were measured and discussed. The iodine concentration (3.70–31.2 mg/L) and the 129 I/I ratio (189–897 × 10 −15 ) show that the iodine in the paleoseawater and meteoric water (MW) had different origins and 129 I characteristics. The paleoseawater has a high iodine content (∼31 mg/L), indicating that iodine was introduced into the reservoir along with thermally generated hydrocarbons, possibly in the Cretaceous, from the Caohu Sag in the eastern area. Based on consideration of all possible origins of iodine and 129 I in the brines, it is suggested that the meteoric water maintained its initial iodine content (0.01 mg/L) and 129 I/I ratio (1500 × 10 −15 ), whereas the iodine-enriched paloseawater (IPSW) exhibited a secular 129 I equilibrium (N sq  = 39 atom/μL) as a result of fissiogenic 129 I input in the reservoir over a long period of time. The model of brine evolution developed on that basis confirmed that meteoric water entered the reservoir in the Miocene at about 10 Ma, and partially mixed with the iodine-enriched paleoseawater. The movement of meteoric water was facilitated by faults created during the Himalayan orogeny, then became more dense after dissolving Paleogene halite and infiltrated into the reservoir at high pressure. The iodine and 129 I concentration in the brine contains information about the path and history of the fluid in the reservoir. This may be useful in oil exploration, since the movement of water was, to some extent, related to hydrocarbon migration. - Highlights: • A 129 I chronological study of deep oilfield

  5. Multidisciplinary benefits from biomonitoring studies of cooling reservoirs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowers, J.A.; Gladden, J.B.

    1990-01-01

    Therefore, biomonitoring studies of once-through cooling reservoirs for nuclear reactors not only provide field and laboratory information for environmental compliance, but also offer results which benefit lake and reservoir management constructs and limnetic community ecology. Biomonitoring programs have been performed at the Department of Energy's Savannah River Site to provide information fro compliance with Section 316a of the Clean Water Act. On Par Pond and Pond B comprehensive field efforts monitored nutrient chemistry, plankton populations, fisheries, benthic assemblages, and littoral zone biota from 1983 through 1985. A similar effort, begun in 1985 and continuing through 1992, is in progress on L Lake. Results have indicated that nonplanned whole-basin manipulations and the comprehensive intensity of monitoring studies offer new insights into how limnetic communities function

  6. PDVSA Petrolera Sinovensa reservoir engineering project and optimization study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campos, O. [PDVSA Petroleos de Venezuela SA, Caracas (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of). Petrolera Sinovensa; Patino, J. [Kizer Energy Inc., Katy, TX (United States); Chalifoux, G.V. [Petrospec Engineering Ltd., Edmonton, AB (Canada)

    2009-07-01

    This paper presented a development plan for an extra-heavy oil field in Venezuela's Orinoco belt involving cold heavy oil production (CHOP) as well as a thermal follow-up process to increase the ultimate recovery factor. A reservoir simulation model was used to model various reservoir formations in order to assess their oil recovery potential. Several thermal recovery processes were considered, such as steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD), horizontal alternate steam drive (HASD), cyclic steam stimulation (CSS), horizontal continuous steam drive, and combined drive drainage (CDD). A geological static model and dynamic reservoir model were coupled for the well optimization evaluation. Production data were used to identify trends related to specific geological conditions. The study also examined methods of improving slotted liner designs and evaluated the use of electric heating as a means of improving CHOP performance. Results of the study showed that CDD offered the highest recovery rates as a follow-up to CHOP. The CDD process allowed for the use of existing wells drilled in the field. New horizontal wells will be placed between the existing wells. It was concluded that a CDD pilot should be implemented in order to prepare for a commercial implementation plan. 8 refs., 2 tabs., 14 figs.

  7. Monitoring Reservoirs Using MERIS And LANDSAT Fused Images : A Case Study Of Polyfitos Reservoir - West Macedonia - Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefouli, M.; Charou, E.; Vasileiou, E.; Stathopoulos, N.; Perrakis, A.

    2012-04-01

    Research and monitoring is essential to assess baseline conditions in reservoirs and their watershed and provide necessary information to guide decision-makers. Erosion and degradation of mountainous areas can lead to gradual aggradation of reservoirs reducing their lifetime. Collected measurements and observations have to be communicated to the managers of the reservoirs so as to achieve a common / comprehensive management of a large watershed and reservoir system. At this point Remote Sensing could help as the remotely sensed data are repeatedly and readily available to the end users. Aliakmon is the longest river in Greece, it's length is about 297 km and the surface of the river basin is 9.210 km2.The flow of the river starts from Northwest of Greece and ends in Thermaikos Gulf. The riverbed is not natural throughout the entire route, because constructed dams restrict water and create artificial lakes, such as lake of Polyfitos, that prevent flooding. This lake is used as reservoir, for covering irrigational water needs and the water is used to produce energy from the hydroelectric plant of Public Power Corporation-PPC. The catchment basin of Polyfitos' reservoir covers an area of 847.76 km2. Soil erosion - degradation in the mountainous watershed of streams of Polyfitos reservoir is taking place. It has been estimated that an annual volume of sediments reaching the reservoir is of the order of 244 m3. Geomatic based techniques are used in processing multiple data of the study area. A data inventory was formulated after the acquisition of topographic maps, compilation of geological and hydro-geological maps, compilation of digital elevation model for the area of interest based on satellite data and available maps. It also includes the acquisition of various hydro-meteorological data when available. On the basis of available maps and satellite data, digital elevation models are used in order to delineate the basic sub-catchments of the Polyfytos basin as well as

  8. Application of multitracer technology to petroleum reservoir studies. Quarterly progress report, April 1--June 30, 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Senum, G.I.

    1992-09-01

    The objectives of this research program are to: Improve the assessment of the character of petroleum reservoirs using tracer technology for the monitoring and improvement of EOR techniques, specifically, (a) to apply the presently available multitracer perfluorocarbon tracer (PFI) technology to the study of petroleum reservoirs in characterizing reservoir bulk subsurface flow transport and dispersion rates; and (b) to demonstrate that PFTs with differing physical properties will interact with differing rates of adsorption and dispersion within such reservoirs, from which may be inferred difference in the character and/or extent of petroleum in those reservoirs. Develop additional tracers, and tracer injection, sampling and analyses methodologies for use in petroleum reservoir characterization experiments. Develop a data base of petroleum transport and dispersion properties from tracer experiments for use by modellers for developing, validating and extending petroleum reservoirs models used for characterizing petroleum reservoirs. Technical progress is discussed according to the three ongoing field experiments at the Naval Petroleum Reserve in California (NPRC).

  9. Application of multitracer technology to petroleum reservoir studies. [Perfluorocarbon tracer technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Senum, G.I.

    1992-09-01

    The objectives of this research program are to: Improve the assessment of the character of petroleum reservoirs using tracer technology for the monitoring and improvement of EOR techniques, specifically, (a) to apply the presently available multitracer perfluorocarbon tracer (PFI) technology to the study of petroleum reservoirs in characterizing reservoir bulk subsurface flow transport and dispersion rates; and (b) to demonstrate that PFTs with differing physical properties will interact with differing rates of adsorption and dispersion within such reservoirs, from which may be inferred difference in the character and/or extent of petroleum in those reservoirs. Develop additional tracers, and tracer injection, sampling and analyses methodologies for use in petroleum reservoir characterization experiments. Develop a data base of petroleum transport and dispersion properties from tracer experiments for use by modellers for developing, validating and extending petroleum reservoirs models used for characterizing petroleum reservoirs. Technical progress is discussed according to the three ongoing field experiments at the Naval Petroleum Reserve in California (NPRC).

  10. Feasibility study of autoignition process in heavy-oil reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Razaghi, S.; Kharrat, R. [Petroleum Univ. of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Price, D. [Bolton Univ. (United States); Vossoughi, S. [Kansas Univ., KS (United States); Rashtchian, D. [Sharif Univ. of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2005-11-01

    In situ combustion involves simultaneous heat and mass transfer in a multi-phase environment coupled with the chemical reactions of crude oil combustion. This study investigated the effect of oxygen content in order to determine optimal auto-ignition conditions for heavy oil reservoirs. Heavy oil samples mixed with silica sand or crushed carbonate rock and clay from southwest Iran were studied using a thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA) and differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) techniques. Non-isothermal experiments were carried out with various oxygen concentrations in the inlet gas. The oxygen concentration was stabilized at a level measured by an oxygen paramagnetic analyzer placed before the gas inlet. Oxygen concentrations in the exhaust gas of the TGA was measured. Another set of experiments showed the clay effect in the presence of silica sand on auto-ignition temperature, and a further set of experiments were conducted to show both carbonate and clay effect on auto-ignition temperatures. The initial reservoir temperature of the reservoir formation type and the percentage of oxygen content were the main parameters of the auto-ignition condition. It was noted that the presence of clay reduced the auto-ignition temperature for both carbonate and silica sand. It was suggested that this could have a major impact on front propagation in the matrix formation. It was concluded that auto-ignition was dependent on the percentage of oxygen in the oxygen-enriched air purge gas for both the silica sand and carbonate rock in the presence of clay. It was also noted that carbonate rock decomposed above 600 degrees C. It was determined that CO{sub 2} evolution observed above 600 degrees C in experiments in which carbonate rock was used as the substrate, was due to rock decomposition and not any residual oil or carbon residue reactions. 12 refs., 4 tabs., 18 figs.

  11. National Program for Inspection of Non-Federal Dams. Norton Reservoir Dam (MA 00815), Coastal Basin, Norton, Massachusetts. Phase I Inspection Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-08-01

    is the left abutment 0 . . and gatehouse . The right abutment shows signs of erosion and could well - be the first section to fail. Owing to the...its age of almost 80 years, is in fair condition. It is virtually impossible to , 0 ascertain where the embankment or fill behind the concrete wing...Appurtenant Structures. The only appurtenant structure, the gatehouse , is in fair condition. d. Reservoir Area. The banks are flat and wooded. There

  12. A comparative study of the corrosion resistance of incoloy MA 956 and PM 2000 superalloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maysa Terada

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Austenitic stainless steels, titanium and cobalt alloys are widely used as biomaterials. However, new medical devices require innovative materials with specific properties, depending on their application. The magnetic properties are among the properties of interest for some biomedical applications. However, due to the interaction of magnetic materials with Magnetic Resonance Image equipments they might used only as not fixed implants or for medical devices. The ferromagnetic superalloys, Incoloy MA 956 and PM 2000, produced by mechanical alloying, have similar chemical composition, high corrosion resistance and are used in high temperature applications. In this study, the corrosion resistance of these two ferritic superalloys was compared in a phosphate buffer solution. The electrochemical results showed that both superalloys are passive in this solution and the PM 2000 present a more protective passive film on it associated to higher impedances than the MA 956.

  13. Crosswell electromagnetic imaging for geothermal reservoir characterization - a feasibility study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samrock, Friedemann; Saar, Martin O.

    2016-04-01

    Most regions in the world do not have ready access to natural convective hydrothermal resources. To use deep geothermal heat as a viable energy resource in low-permeability formations, permeable fracture networks have to be created artificially to enable deep fluid circulation for advective heat transport to a production well. Such generation of enhanced geothermal systems (EGS) is studied in the "Deep Underground Geothermal (DUG)" laboratory at the Grimsel pass, Switzerland. Here, an underground experiment is conducted by hydraulically stimulating a pre-existing shear zone within crystalline rock. The objectives of this project are to better describe and understand the processes acting during reservoir generation. We perform a feasibility study to evaluate the capability of low-frequency crosswell electromagnetic (EM) tomography for mapping of stimulation-induced changes in electrical conductivity. First numerical results show that crosswell EM data are generally sensitive to the inter-well conductivity distribution, which is affected by properties such as interconnected porosity, permeability and the presence of fluids. It thereby provides important information for characterization of potential EGS reservoirs. We present a 3-D forward modeling and inversion study using synthetic data and under realistic conditions, these include the true borehole spacing and the observed electromagnetic noise level in the DUG laboratory. Based on these results we discuss the system requirements and the capability of crosswell EM to recover the inter-well structure and stimulation-induced changes. Besides the numerical study we report on the current status of instrumentation and realization of crosswell EM measurements at the DUG laboratory.

  14. Operational resilience of reservoirs to climate change, agricultural demand, and tourism: A case study from Sardinia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mereu, Simone; Sušnik, Janez; Trabucco, Antonio; Daccache, Andre; Vamvakeridou-Lyroudia, Lydia; Renoldi, Stefano; Virdis, Andrea; Savić, Dragan; Assimacopoulos, Dionysis

    2016-02-01

    Many (semi-) arid locations globally, and particularly islands, rely heavily on reservoirs for water supply. Some reservoirs are particularly vulnerable to climate and development changes (e.g. population change, tourist growth, hydropower demands). Irregularities and uncertainties in the fluvial regime associated with climate change and the continuous increase in water demand by different sectors will add new challenges to the management and to the resilience of these reservoirs. The resilience of vulnerable reservoirs must be studied in detail to prepare for and mitigate potential impacts of these changes. In this paper, a reservoir balance model is developed and presented for the Pedra e' Othoni reservoir in Sardinia, Italy, to assess resilience to climate and development changes. The model was first calibrated and validated, then forced with extensive ensemble climate data for representative concentration pathways (RCPs) 4.5 and 8.5, agricultural data, and with four socio-economic development scenarios. Future projections show a reduction in annual reservoir inflow and an increase in demand, mainly in the agricultural sector. Under no scenario is reservoir resilience significantly affected, the reservoir always achieves refill. However, this occurs at the partial expenses of hydropower production with implications for the production of renewable energy. There is also the possibility of conflict between the agricultural sector and hydropower sector for diminishing water supply. Pedra e' Othoni reservoir shows good resilience to future change mostly because of the disproportionately large basin feeding it. However this is not the case of other Sardinian reservoirs and hence a detailed resilience assessment of all reservoirs is needed, where development plans should carefully account for the trade-offs and potential conflicts among sectors. For Sardinia, the option of physical connection between reservoirs is available, as are alternative water supply measures

  15. Statistical study of seismicity associated with geothermal reservoirs in California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hadley, D.M.; Cavit, D.S.

    1982-01-01

    Statistical methods are outlined to separate spatially, temporally, and magnitude-dependent portions of both the random and non-random components of the seismicity. The methodology employed compares the seismicity distributions with a generalized Poisson distribution. Temporally related events are identified by the distribution of the interoccurrence times. The regions studied to date include the Imperial Valley, Coso, The Geysers, Lassen, and the San Jacinto fault. The spatial characteristics of the random and clustered components of the seismicity are diffuse and appear unsuitable for defining the areal extent of the reservoir. However, from the temporal characteristics of the seismicity associated with these regions a general discriminant was constructed that combines several physical parameters for identifying the presence of a geothermal system.

  16. Zhigang Ma

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Bulletin of Materials Science. Zhigang Ma. Articles written in Bulletin of Materials Science. Volume 35 Issue 4 August 2012 pp 575-578. Degradation and miscibility of poly(DL-lactic acid)/poly(glycolic acid) composite films: Effect of poly(DL-lactic-co-glycolic acid) · Zhigang Ma Na Zhao Chengdong Xiong.

  17. Twenty years of water-quality studies in the Cheney Reservoir Watershed, Kansas, 1996-2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Jennifer L.; Foster, Guy M.; Kramer, Ariele R.

    2017-03-31

    Since 1996, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the City of Wichita, has done studies in the Cheney Reservoir watershed to understand environmental effects on water-quality conditions. Early studies (1996–2001) determined subwatershed sources of contaminants, nutrient and sediment loading to Cheney Reservoir, changes in reservoir sediment quality over time, and watershed sources of phosphorus. Later studies (2001–present) focused on nutrient and sediment concentrations and mass transport from the watershed; the presence of cyanobacteria, cyanotoxins, and taste-and-odor compounds in the reservoir; and development of regression models for real-time computations of water-quality constituents of interest that may affect drinking-water treatment. This fact sheet summarizes key results from studies done by the USGS during 1996–2016 in the Cheney Reservoir watershed and Cheney Reservoir.

  18. Reservoir management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Satter, A.; Varnon, J.E.; Hoang, M.T.

    1992-01-01

    A reservoir's life begins with exploration leading to discovery followed by delineation of the reservoir, development of the field, production by primary, secondary and tertiary means, and finally to abandonment. Sound reservoir management is the key to maximizing economic operation of the reservoir throughout its entire life. Technological advances and rapidly increasing computer power are providing tools to better manage reservoirs and are increasing the gap between good and neutral reservoir management. The modern reservoir management process involves goal setting, planning, implementing, monitoring, evaluating, and revising plans. Setting a reservoir management strategy requires knowledge of the reservoir, availability of technology, and knowledge of the business, political, and environmental climate. Formulating a comprehensive management plan involves depletion and development strategies, data acquisition and analyses, geological and numerical model studies, production and reserves forecasts, facilities requirements, economic optimization, and management approval. This paper provides management, engineers geologists, geophysicists, and field operations staff with a better understanding of the practical approach to reservoir management using a multidisciplinary, integrated team approach

  19. Comparative study on plutonium and MA recycling in equilibrium burnup and standard burnup of PWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waris, Abdul; Kurniadi, Rizal; Su'ud, Zaki; Permana, Sidik

    2005-01-01

    The equilibrium burnup model is a powerful method since its can handle all possible generated nuclides in any nuclear system. Moreover, this method is a simple time independent method. Hence the equilibrium burnup method could be very useful for evaluating and forecasting the characteristics of any nuclear fuel cycle, even the strange one, e.g. all nuclides are confined in the reactor. However, this method needs to be verified since the method is not a standard tool. The present study aimed to compare the characteristics of plutonium recycling and plutonium and minor actinides (MA) recycling in PWR with the equilibrium burnup and the standard burnup. In order to become more comprehensive study, an influence of moderator-to-fuel volume ratio (MFR) changes by changing the pin-pitch of fuel cell has been evaluated. The MFR ranges from 0.5 to 4.0. For the equilibrium burnup we used equilibrium cell-burnup code. We have employed 1368 nuclides in the equilibrium calculation with 129 of them are heavy metals (HMs). For standard burnup, SRAC2002 code has been utilized with 26 HMs and 66 fission products (FPs). The JENDL 3.2 library has been employed for both burnup schemes. The uranium, plutonium and MA vector, which resulted from the equilibrium burnup are directly used as fuel input composition for the standard burnup calculation. Both burnup results demonstrate that plutonium recycling and plutonium and MA recycling can be conducted safer in tight lattice core. They are also show the similar trend in neutron spectrum, which become harder with the increasing number of recycled heavy nuclides as well as the decreasing of the MFR values. However, there are some discrepancy on the effective multiplication factor and the conversion ratio, especially for the reactor core for MFR ≥ 2.0. (author)

  20. Conflicting subcultures in M&A: a longitudinal study of integrating a radical internet firm into a bureaucratic telecoms firm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Marrewijk, A.H.

    2016-01-01

    Media and telecommunications companies face the problem of how to integrate diametrically opposite radical internet firms after acquisition. Extant mergers and acquisitions (M&A) studies report that differences in the organizational culture are important in the cultural integration process.

  1. Integrated seismic studies at the Rye Patch Geothermal Reservoir, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gritto, Roland; Daley, Thomas M.; Majer, Ernest L.

    2002-05-23

    A 3-D surface seismic reflection survey, covering an area of over 3 square miles, was conducted at the Rye Patch geothermal reservoir (Nevada) to explore the structural features that may control geothermal production in the area. In addition to the surface sources and receivers, a high-temperature three-component seismometer was deployed in a borehole at a depth of 3900 ft within the basement below the reservoir, which recorded the waves generated by all surface sources. A total of 1959 first-arrival travel times were determined out of 2134 possible traces. Two-dimensional ray tracing was performed to simulate wave propagation from the surface sources to the receiver at depth. Travel time differences between observed and calculated times were mapped to topographic changes in the elevation of the interface between the carbonate basement and the sedimentary and volcanic unit above. Results indicate the presence of two dominant geologic features. The first confirms the regional trend of the geologic units in the Basin and Range province with a north-south strike and dip to the west, as expected for normal faulting encountered in an extensional regime. The second is a local disturbance of this regional pattern in form of an elevation of the interface between the carbonate basement and the overlying sedimentary sequence, striking east-west. The geometry of the structure is corroborated by results from a seismic-reflection survey, and by results of tomographic studies conducted as part of the seismic survey. Seismic waves, generated from far-offset shots during the 3-D surface survey, exhibit a sudden decrease in amplitudes while propagating across the boundaries of the elevation high. This apparent boundary correlates spatially with the location of the Rye Patch fault as interpreted from the 3-D seismic reflection data. Finite-difference modeling of elastic wave propagation is performed to estimate the structural parameters of the fault. Questions to be answered are

  2. Full Waveform Inversion for Reservoir Characterization - A Synthetic Study

    KAUST Repository

    Zabihi Naeini, E.

    2017-05-26

    Most current reservoir-characterization workflows are based on classic amplitude-variation-with-offset (AVO) inversion techniques. Although these methods have generally served us well over the years, here we examine full-waveform inversion (FWI) as an alternative tool for higher-resolution reservoir characterization. An important step in developing reservoir-oriented FWI is the implementation of facies-based rock physics constraints adapted from the classic methods. We show that such constraints can be incorporated into FWI by adding appropriately designed regularization terms to the objective function. The advantages of the proposed algorithm are demonstrated on both isotropic and VTI (transversely isotropic with a vertical symmetry axis) models with pronounced lateral and vertical heterogeneity. The inversion results are explained using the theoretical radiation patterns produced by perturbations in the medium parameters.

  3. Studies Regarding the Safety in Operation of Ezer Reservoir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balan Isabela

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The dam of the non-permanent reservoir Ezer, located on Jijia river is an earth dam with a maximum height of 6.18 m, which provides a global retention to the canopy of 10.330 million cubic meters. The dam founded on weak, muddy soils suffered in the years 1989 and 1992 downstream slope failures of the fillings. It was found that hydrostatic levels were high in the piezometric wells and that consolidation of the foundation soil was reduced. This paper presents a brief history of the dam and aspects regarding the behaviour monitoring of Ezer non-permanent reservoir during the years 2000-2012.

  4. Barriers and motivators to attaining a school-based MA in\\ud Education: a case study

    OpenAIRE

    Etherington, Margaret

    2014-01-01

    A school-based master’s programme was provided for teachers at a comprehensive in the East End of London, UK. Two traditional barriers to doing an MA (cost and travelling time) were removed. The study explores the extent to which teachers’ workload, family commitments and other external factors impact on the retention of MA participants. It was found that heavy job and family obligations were not necessarily predictors of failure to complete the course, and that personal values and aspiration...

  5. Paleomagnetic study of 1765 Ma dyke swarm from the Singhbhum Craton: Implications to the paleogeography of India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shankar, Ravi; Srinivasa Sarma, D.; Ramesh Babu, N.; Parashuramulu, V.

    2018-05-01

    We report the first key paleopole as a result of paleomagnetic study on a precisely dated 1765.3 ± 1.0 Ma WNW-ESE trending dyke swarm from Singhbhum Craton. This pole has been used in this study to propose the paleogeographic reconstruction of India with Baltica Craton and North China Craton. Incremental alternating field (AF) and thermal demagnetization, isolated high coercivity components with north to north-westerly declination and shallow negative inclination from 9 sampling sites which are representing different individual dykes. The primary origin of the ChRM is supported by the positive baked contact test. The WNW-ESE trending dykes yield a mean paleomagnetic direction with a declination = 329.2° and an inclination = -22.8° (k = 31.6; α95 = 9.3°). The positive bake contact test proves the primary nature of remanence. The pole position of Singhbhum Craton at 1765 Ma is 45°N, 311°E (dp = 5.2 and dm = 9.9). Paleogeographic reconstruction at ca. 1770 Ma, supported by geological, tectonic and metallogenic evidences indicate that the Baltica Craton and India linkage can be stable for at least ∼370 Ma (∼1770-1400 Ma). There is also reasonable evidence in support of India-North China Craton spatial proximity at ∼1770 Ma.

  6. PRELIMINARY RESULTS OF QUALITY STUDY OF WATER FROM SMALL MICHALICE RESERVOIR ON WIDAWA RIVER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirosław Wiatkowski

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents an analysis of water quality of the small Michalice reservoir. A preliminary assessment of the reservoir water quality and its usability was made. The quality of water in the reservoir is particularly important as the main functions of the reservoir are agricultural irrigation, recreation and flood protection . The following physico-chemical parameters of the Widawa River were analyzed: NO3 -, NO2 -, NH4 +, PO4 3-, COD, water temperature, pH and electrolytic conductivity. Main descriptive statistical data were presented for the analyzed water quality indicators. The research results indicate that the reservoir contributed to the reduced concentrations of the following water quality indicators: nitrates, nitrites, phosphates, electrolytic conductivity and COD (in the outflowing water – St.3 in comparison to the water flowing into the reservoir – St.1. In the water flowing out of the Psurów reservoir higher values of the remaining indicators were observed if compared with the inflowing water. It was stated, as well, that analised waters are not vulnerable to nitrogen compounds pollution coming from the agricultural sources and are eutrophic. For purpose obtaining of the précised information about condition of Michalice reservoir water purity as well as river Widawa it becomes to continue the hydrological monitoring and water quality studies.

  7. Interdisciplinary study of reservoir compartments and heterogeneity. Final report, October 1, 1993--December 31, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Kirk, C.

    1998-01-01

    A case study approach using Terry Sandstone production from the Hambert-Aristocrat Field, Weld County, Colorado was used to document the process of integration. One specific project goal is to demonstrate how a multidisciplinary approach can be used to detect reservoir compartmentalization and improve reserve estimates. The final project goal is to derive a general strategy for integration for independent operators. Teamwork is the norm for the petroleum industry where teams of geologists, geophysicists, and petroleum engineers work together to improve profits through a better understanding of reservoir size, compartmentalization, and orientation as well as reservoir flow characteristics. In this manner, integration of data narrows the uncertainty in reserve estimates and enhances reservoir management decisions. The process of integration has proven to be iterative. Integration has helped identify reservoir compartmentalization and reduce the uncertainty in the reserve estimates. This research report documents specific examples of integration and the economic benefits of integration.

  8. Research Note:An approach to integrated assessement of reservoir siltation: the Joaquín Costa reservoir as a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Navas

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In 1932, the Esera river was dammed at the foothills of the Pyrenean External Ranges; since then, sedimentation has reduced its water storage capacity by a third. This study of the sediments in the Joaquín Costa reservoir has been based on detailed sedimentological examination and other analysis of mineralogy, grain size distribution and the chemical components of the materials accumulated at the bottom of the reservoir. Interpretations are based on results from four sediment cores collected at sites representative of the main environments in the reservoir. Records of known flood events and of reservoir management data have been combined with a 137Cs-derived chronology. Thus, it has been possible to ascribe the sedimentary record at the different reservoir environments to specific years, as well as some main changes in the facies types and sediment components. This methodology is a first approach to assessing siltation processes and dynamics in Mediterranean mountain reservoirs. Keywords: reservoir siltation, mineralogy, sedimentology,sedimentation rates, 137Cs, sediment tracing, mountain reservoir, central Spanish Pyrenees

  9. A Study of E+A Galaxies Through SDSS-MaNGA Integral Field Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wally, Muhammad; Weaver, Olivia A.; Anderson, Miguel Ricardo; Liu, Allen; Falcone, Julia; Wallack, Nicole Lisa; James, Olivia; Liu, Charles

    2017-01-01

    We outline the selection process and analysis of sixteen E+A galaxies observed by the Mapping Nearby Galaxies at the Apache Point Observatory (MaNGA) survey as a part of the fourth generation of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS-IV). We present their Integral field spectroscopy and analyze their spatial distribution of stellar ages, metallicities and other stellar population properties. We can potentially study the variation in these properties as a function of redshift. This work was supported by the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation via the SDSS-IV Faculty and Student Team (FAST) initiative, ARC Agreement #SSP483 to the CUNY College of Staten Island. This work was also supported by grants to The American Museum of Natural History, and the CUNY College of Staten Island through The National Science Foundation.

  10. Feasibility study on application of volume acid fracturing technology to tight gas carbonate reservoir development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nianyin Li

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available How to effectively develop tight-gas carbonate reservoir and achieve high recovery is always a problem for the oil and gas industry. To solve this problem, domestic petroleum engineers use the combination of the successful experiences of North American shale gas pools development by stimulated reservoir volume (SRV fracturing with the research achievements of Chinese tight gas development by acid fracturing to propose volume acid fracturing technology for fractured tight-gas carbonate reservoir, which has achieved a good stimulation effect in the pilot tests. To determine what reservoir conditions are suitable to carry out volume acid fracturing, this paper firstly introduces volume acid fracturing technology by giving the stimulation mechanism and technical ideas, and initially analyzes the feasibility by the comparison of reservoir characteristics of shale gas with tight-gas carbonate. Then, this paper analyzes the validity and limitation of the volume acid fracturing technology via the analyses of control conditions for volume acid fracturing in reservoir fracturing performance, natural fracture, horizontal principal stress difference, orientation of in-situ stress and natural fracture, and gives the solution for the limitation. The study results show that the volume acid fracturing process can be used to greatly improve the flow environment of tight-gas carbonate reservoir and increase production; the incremental or stimulation response is closely related with reservoir fracturing performance, the degree of development of natural fracture, the small intersection angle between hydraulic fracture and natural fracture, the large horizontal principal stress difference is easy to form a narrow fracture zone, and it is disadvantageous to create fracture network, but the degradable fiber diversion technology may largely weaken the disadvantage. The practices indicate that the application of volume acid fracturing process to the tight-gas carbonate

  11. RESEARCH STUDY ON THE BREEDING AVIFAUNA OF THE BASCOV RESERVOIR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Denisa Conete

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The author conducted an ornithological study in the Bascov Reservoir area (a square of 2x2 km and observed 102 breeding species; 83 (81% of them are certain breeding species and 19 (19% are probable breeding species. The results of the research were cumulated with those found in the Atlas of the breeding species of Romania. By relating them with the Atlas data, we noted that 83 of the 100 breeding species cited in the Atlas were again recorded during our study. Nineteen new breeding species were identified. Among the species dependent on wetlands, mention should be made of Ixobrychus minutus, Anas platyrhynchos, Fulica atra, Gallinula chloropus, Aythya ferina, etc., with relatively large numbers of individuals. The analysis showed a relatively larger number (66 of euconstant and constant species, which confirmed the wealth of food resources in the area during the nesting period. The specific richness on the Bascov Lake is represented by 119 species, a number that is consistent with the availability of the food resources and nesting places, as well as the somewhat fluctuating presence of predators (stray dogs, and the anthropocentric disturbance (sound and chemical pollution, etc.. The yearly increase in the number of reed clusters, the expansion of the surface of the islets, the emergence of bushes and trees, the ageing of the existing trees have led to a certain yearly increase in the number of breeding individuals in 45 species. But the anthropogenic influence in the area has eventually contributed to a decrease in the number of birds, both as a number of species and as a number of individuals. The study has also shown that in the farmland bird species the number of individuals is in decline. Most of the breeding species - 75 (representing 74% in the area under research are migratory. Eighteen breeding species (17.64% are listed in Annex I of the Birds Directive. The presence of the key breeding species in the area under research must be

  12. The MaCWAVE program to study gravity wave influences on the polar mesosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. A. Goldberg

    2006-07-01

    a slowing of the formation of polar mesospheric summer echoes (PMSE and noctilucent clouds (NLC. This was suggested to be due to enhanced planetary wave activity in the Southern Hemisphere and a surprising degree of inter-hemispheric coupling. The winter program was designed to study the upward propagation and penetration of mountain waves from northern Scandinavia into the MLT at a site favored for such penetration. As the major response was expected to be downstream (east of Norway, these motions were measured with similar rocket sequences to those used in the summer campaign, but this time at Esrange. However, a major polar stratospheric warming just prior to the rocket launch window induced small or reversed stratospheric zonal winds, which prevented mountain wave penetration into the mesosphere. Instead, mountain waves encountered critical levels at lower altitudes and the observed wave structure in the mesosphere originated from other sources. For example, a large-amplitude semidiurnal tide was observed in the mesosphere on 28 and 29 January, and appears to have contributed to significant instability and small-scale structures at higher altitudes. The resulting energy deposition was found to be competitive with summertime values. Hence, our MaCWAVE measurements as a whole are the first to characterize influences in the MLT region of planetary wave activity and related stratospheric warmings during both winter and summer.

  13. The MaCWAVE program to study gravity wave influences on the polar mesosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. A. Goldberg

    2006-07-01

    was suggested to be due to enhanced planetary wave activity in the Southern Hemisphere and a surprising degree of inter-hemispheric coupling. The winter program was designed to study the upward propagation and penetration of mountain waves from northern Scandinavia into the MLT at a site favored for such penetration. As the major response was expected to be downstream (east of Norway, these motions were measured with similar rocket sequences to those used in the summer campaign, but this time at Esrange. However, a major polar stratospheric warming just prior to the rocket launch window induced small or reversed stratospheric zonal winds, which prevented mountain wave penetration into the mesosphere. Instead, mountain waves encountered critical levels at lower altitudes and the observed wave structure in the mesosphere originated from other sources. For example, a large-amplitude semidiurnal tide was observed in the mesosphere on 28 and 29 January, and appears to have contributed to significant instability and small-scale structures at higher altitudes. The resulting energy deposition was found to be competitive with summertime values. Hence, our MaCWAVE measurements as a whole are the first to characterize influences in the MLT region of planetary wave activity and related stratospheric warmings during both winter and summer.

  14. Optimization of Multiple and Multipurpose Reservoir System Operations by Using Matrix Structure (Case Study: Karun and Dez Reservoir Dams.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Heydari

    Full Text Available Optimal operation of water resources in multiple and multipurpose reservoirs is very complicated. This is because of the number of dams, each dam's location (Series and parallel, conflict in objectives and the stochastic nature of the inflow of water in the system. In this paper, performance optimization of the system of Karun and Dez reservoir dams have been studied and investigated with the purposes of hydroelectric energy generation and providing water demand in 6 dams. On the Karun River, 5 dams have been built in the series arrangements, and the Dez dam has been built parallel to those 5 dams. One of the main achievements in this research is the implementation of the structure of production of hydroelectric energy as a function of matrix in MATLAB software. The results show that the role of objective function structure for generating hydroelectric energy in weighting method algorithm is more important than water supply. Nonetheless by implementing ε- constraint method algorithm, we can both increase hydroelectric power generation and supply around 85% of agricultural and industrial demands.

  15. Optimization of Multiple and Multipurpose Reservoir System Operations by Using Matrix Structure (Case Study: Karun and Dez Reservoir Dams).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heydari, Mohammad; Othman, Faridah; Taghieh, Mahmood

    2016-01-01

    Optimal operation of water resources in multiple and multipurpose reservoirs is very complicated. This is because of the number of dams, each dam's location (Series and parallel), conflict in objectives and the stochastic nature of the inflow of water in the system. In this paper, performance optimization of the system of Karun and Dez reservoir dams have been studied and investigated with the purposes of hydroelectric energy generation and providing water demand in 6 dams. On the Karun River, 5 dams have been built in the series arrangements, and the Dez dam has been built parallel to those 5 dams. One of the main achievements in this research is the implementation of the structure of production of hydroelectric energy as a function of matrix in MATLAB software. The results show that the role of objective function structure for generating hydroelectric energy in weighting method algorithm is more important than water supply. Nonetheless by implementing ε- constraint method algorithm, we can both increase hydroelectric power generation and supply around 85% of agricultural and industrial demands.

  16. A Cascade of Champions: A Qualitative Study about the MA-CORD Media Competition Implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaniece Criss

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available A media competition was part of the Massachusetts Childhood Obesity Research Demonstration (MA-CORD Study. Criss et al., previously outlined the development and implementation of the competition, including variation in reach and adoption of the intervention across schools and afterschool programs. In this qualitative study, we examine community, provider, and organizational factors that explain the variation of media competition reach in school and afterschool programs, and describe the awareness of the media competition across other community sectors. Durlak and DuPre’s ecological framework for understanding effective implementation provided the theoretical underpinnings for this study. Fifty-four key informant interviews were conducted, transcribed, and analyzed. Organizational capacity of committed teachers/staff and adaptability of the media competition seemed to be drivers for higher reach within school and afterschool programs. Salient themes that emerged as facilitators of effective implementation were having a cascade of champions and providing opportunity to participate in the media competition outside traditional class time. Clinics and coalitions were identified as additional sectors aware of the media competition. Specifically, our findings offer a new perspective on intervention design and a recommended direction for further study.

  17. Thermal mapping studies at Kadra reservoir near Kaiga generating station site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ravi, P.M.; Nayak, P.D.; Sudhakar, J.; Mishra, D.G.; Hegde, A.G.

    2007-01-01

    An inherent problem in nuclear and thermal power plants are the release of heat energy into the environment through cooling system to water bodies such as lakes, rivers, estuaries and oceans. Two NPPs of Kaiga Generating Station, discharge the thermal effluent to the nearby Kadra reservoir. This paper presents the results of three year long comprehensive thermal mapping studies conducted by ESL, KGS as part of the Thermal Ecological Studies sponsored by Board of Research in Nuclear Sciences (BRNS), Department of Atomic Energy. Present studies clearly demonstrate that the thermally influenced zone in the reservoir is limited to a small volume of the reservoir and is not likely to lead any irreversible adverse impact on the ecosystem of the reservoir. (author)

  18. Estimating irrigation water demand using an improved method and optimizing reservoir operation for water supply and hydropower generation: a case study of the Xinfengjiang reservoir in southern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yiping; Chen, Ji

    2013-01-01

    The ever-increasing demand for water due to growth of population and socioeconomic development in the past several decades has posed a worldwide threat to water supply security and to the environmental health of rivers. This study aims to derive reservoir operating rules through establishing a multi-objective optimization model for the Xinfengjiang (XFJ) reservoir in the East River Basin in southern China to minimize water supply deficit and maximize hydropower generation. Additionally, to enhance the estimation of irrigation water demand from the downstream agricultural area of the XFJ reservoir, a conventional method for calculating crop water demand is improved using hydrological model simulation results. Although the optimal reservoir operating rules are derived for the XFJ reservoir with three priority scenarios (water supply only, hydropower generation only, and equal priority), the river environmental health is set as the basic demand no matter which scenario is adopted. The results show that the new rules derived under the three scenarios can improve the reservoir operation for both water supply and hydropower generation when comparing to the historical performance. Moreover, these alternative reservoir operating policies provide the flexibility for the reservoir authority to choose the most appropriate one. Although changing the current operating rules may influence its hydropower-oriented functions, the new rules can be significant to cope with the increasingly prominent water shortage and degradation in the aquatic environment. Overall, our results and methods (improved estimation of irrigation water demand and formulation of the reservoir optimization model) can be useful for local watershed managers and valuable for other researchers worldwide.

  19. Study of MA Effect on Yield Strength and Ductility of X80 Linepipe Steels Weld

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huda, Nazmul; Lazor, Robert; Gerlich, Adrian P.

    2017-09-01

    Multipass GMAW (Gas Metal Arc Welding) welding was used to join X80 linepipe materials using two weld metals of slightly different compositions. Welding wires with diameters of 0.984 and 0.909 mm were used while applying the same heat input in each pass. The slight difference in the wire diameters resulted in different HAZ microstructures. The microstructures in the doubly reheated HAZ of both welds were found to contain bainite-ferrite. However, etching also revealed a difference in martensite-austenite (MA) fraction in these reheated zones. The MA exhibited twice the hardness of ferrite when measured by nanoindentation. Tensile testing from the reheated zone of both welds revealed a difference in yield strength, tensile strength and elongation of the transverse weld specimens. In the reheated zone of weld A, (produced with a 0.984 mm wire) a higher fraction of MA was observed, which resulted in higher strength but lower elongation compared to weld B. The ductility of weld A was found severely impaired (to nearly half of weld B) due to formation of closely spaced voids around the MA, along with debonding of MA from the matrix, which occurs just above the yield stress.

  20. A Study of Environmental Effects on Galaxy Spin Using MaNGA Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jong Chul; Hwang, Ho Seong; Chung, Haeun

    2018-03-01

    We investigate environmental effects on galaxy spin using the recent public data of MaNGA integral field spectroscopic survey containing ˜2800 galaxies. We measure the spin parameter of 1830 galaxies through the analysis of two-dimensional stellar kinematic maps within the effective radii, and obtain their large- (background mass density from 20 nearby galaxies) and small-scale (distance to and morphology of the nearest neighbour galaxy) environmental parameters for 1529 and 1767 galaxies, respectively. We first examine the mass dependence of galaxy spin, and find that the spin parameter of early-type galaxies decreases with stellar mass at log (M*/M⊙) ≳ 10, consistent with the results from previous studies. We then divide the galaxies into three subsamples using their stellar masses to minimize the mass effects on galaxy spin. The spin parameters of galaxies in each subsample do not change with background mass density, but do change with distance to and morphology of the nearest neighbour. In particular, the spin parameter of late-type galaxies decreases as early-type neighbours approach within the virial radius. These results suggest that the large-scale environments hardly affect the galaxy spin, but the small-scale environments such as hydrodynamic galaxy-galaxy interactions can play a substantial role in determining galaxy spin.

  1. Study on the enhancement of hydrocarbon recovery by characterization of the reservoir

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Tae-Jin; Kwak, Young-Hoon; Huh, Dae-Gee [Korea Institute of Geology Mining and Materials, Taejon (KR)] (and others)

    1999-12-01

    The reservoir geochemistry is to understand the origin of these heterogeneities and distributions of the bitumens within the reservoir and to use them not only for exploration but for the development of the petroleums. Methods and principles of the reservoir geochemistry, which are applicable to the petroleum exploration and development, are reviewed in the study. In addition, a case study was carried out on the gas, condensate, water and bitumen samples in the reservoir, taken from the Haenam, Pohang areas and the Ulleung Basin offshore Korea. Mineral geothermometers were studied to estimate the thermal history in sedimentary basins and successfully applied to the Korean onshore and offshore basins. The opal silica-to-quartz transformation was investigated in the Pohang basin as a geothermometer. In Korean basins, the smectite-to-illite changes indicate that smectite and illite can act as the geothermometer to estimate the thermal history of the basins. The albitization reaction was also considered as a temperature indicator. Naturally fractured reservoir is an important source of oil and gas throughout the world. The properties of matrix and fracture are the key parameters in predicting the performances of naturally fractured reservoirs. A new laboratory equipment has been designed and constructed by pressure pulse method to determine the properties, which are (1) the porosity of matrix, (2) the permeability of matrix, (3) the effective width of the fractures, and the permeability of the fractures. (author). 97 refs.

  2. CO2 storage in depleted gas reservoirs: A study on the effect of residual gas saturation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arshad Raza

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Depleted gas reservoirs are recognized as the most promising candidate for carbon dioxide storage. Primary gas production followed by injection of carbon dioxide after depletion is the strategy adopted for secondary gas recovery and storage practices. This strategy, however, depends on the injection strategy, reservoir characteristics and operational parameters. There have been many studies to-date discussing critical factors influencing the storage performance in depleted gas reservoirs while little attention was given to the effect of residual gas. In this paper, an attempt was made to highlight the importance of residual gas on the capacity, injectivity, reservoir pressurization, and trapping mechanisms of storage sites through the use of numerical simulation. The results obtained indicated that the storage performance is proportionally linked to the amount of residual gas in the medium and reservoirs with low residual fluids are a better choice for storage purposes. Therefore, it would be wise to perform the secondary recovery before storage in order to have the least amount of residual gas in the medium. Although the results of this study are useful to screen depleted gas reservoirs for the storage purpose, more studies are required to confirm the finding presented in this paper.

  3. Experimental studies of low salinity water flooding in carbonate reservoirs: A new promising approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zahid, Adeel; Shapiro, Alexander; Skauge, Arne

    2012-01-01

    Low salinity water flooding is well studied for sandstone reservoirs, both laboratory and field tests have showed improvement in the oil recovery in many cases. Up to very recently, the low salinity effect has been indeterminated for carbonates. Most recently, Saudi Aramco reported that substantial...... reservoirs. In this paper, we have experimentally investigated the oil recovery potential of low salinity water flooding for carbonate rocks. We used both reservoir carbonate and outcrop chalk core plugs. The flooding experiments were carried out initially with the seawater, and afterwards additional oil...... both at ambient and high temperature. No low salinity effect was observed for the reservoir carbonate core plug at the ambient temperature, but increase of the pressure drop over the core plug was detected. On the contrary, a significant increase in oil recovery was observed under low salinity flooding...

  4. New Approach for Evaluation of a Watershed Ecosystem Service for Avoiding Reservoir Sedimentation and Its Economic Value: A Case Study from Ertan Reservoir in Yalong River, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bilige Sude

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A model was established to simulate an ecosystem service of avoiding reservoir sedimentation and its economic value based on the process of sediment delivery in a watershed. The model included fabricating the watershed of the study reservoir. The sediment retention coefficient of different land cover types were used to simulate the spatial patterns of the annual quantity of the sediment that were prevented from entering the reservoir by the vegetation in each cell followed the flow path in watershed. The economic value of the ecosystem service in this model was determined by the marginal cost of reservoir desilting. This study took the Ertan reservoir as an example. The results showed that most eroded soil was intercepted by different types of ecosystems in the process of sediment delivery in a watershed. The region with a higher quantity of sediment retention was around the reservoir. The absolute quantity of average sediment retention in forestland was lower, so the sediment retention ability of forestland failed to be brought into fullest play in watershed.

  5. Bibliography of U.S. Geological Survey studies of lakes and reservoirs; the first 100 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, Thomas C.

    1982-01-01

    For more than 100 years, the U.S. Geological Survey has pursued its mission of assessing and mapping the earth resources of the United States, including assessment of the Nation's water resources. Although the Survey has never been a water-management or development agency, it has assisted agencies that are responsible for such developments, and commonly provides data and information for such purposes. Because reservoirs are an intergral part of most water-development projects, the Survey has been involved in reservoir-related studies since the 1880's. The largest and longest involvement has centered on providing information on streamflows and sediment transport related to existing and proposed reservoirs. During the late 1940's, the Survey greatly expanded its activities in evaporation research. More recently, ground water, including bank storage, has gained increased attention. Most of these studies were related primarily to questions of water quantity, and the Survey continues to be involved in studies of physical hydrology. In addition, in response to the increased concern with environmental quality during the past 20 years, the number of Survey studies of the chemical and biological aspects of lakes and reservoirs have increased considerably. Prompted by the recent Centennial (1879-1979) of the U.S. Geological Survey, it is appropriate to assess the Survey's contributions to the hydrology of lakes and reservoirs. Both natural lakes and manmade reservoirs are included in this report. 1 This report includes studies in which lakes or reservoirs are the principal topics. It does not include reports of general water resources of an area in which lakes are discussed as part of that area. This report also does not include data reports in which the data are merely tabulated. The types of reports listed herein include studies of existing or proposed water bodies and associated fluxes of water to and from these water bodies. This report does not include geological or

  6. A Study of Sedimentation at the River Estuary on the Change of Reservoir Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iskahar

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Estuary of the river that leads to the reservoir has characteristics include: relatively flat, there is a change in the increase of wet cross-sectional area and backwater. The backwater will cause the flow velocity to be reduced, so that the grains of sediment with a certain diameter carried by the flow will settle in the estuary of the river. The purpose of this research is to know the distribution and sedimentation pattern at the river estuary that leads to the reservoir with the change of water level in the reservoir storage, so the solution can be found to remove / reduce sediment before entering the reservoir. The method used is the experimental, by making the physical model of the river estuary leading to the reservoir. This study expects a solution to reduce sedimentation, so that sedimentation can be removed / minimized before entering the reservoir. This research tries to apply bypass channel to reduce the sedimentation at the river estuary. Bypass channels can be applied to overcome sedimentation at the river estuary, but in order for the sediment to be removed optimally, it is necessary to modify the mouth of bypass channel and channel angle.

  7. A Study of Sedimentation at the River Estuary on the Change of Reservoir Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iskahar; Suripin; Isdiyana

    2018-02-01

    Estuary of the river that leads to the reservoir has characteristics include: relatively flat, there is a change in the increase of wet cross-sectional area and backwater. The backwater will cause the flow velocity to be reduced, so that the grains of sediment with a certain diameter carried by the flow will settle in the estuary of the river. The purpose of this research is to know the distribution and sedimentation pattern at the river estuary that leads to the reservoir with the change of water level in the reservoir storage, so the solution can be found to remove / reduce sediment before entering the reservoir. The method used is the experimental, by making the physical model of the river estuary leading to the reservoir. This study expects a solution to reduce sedimentation, so that sedimentation can be removed / minimized before entering the reservoir. This research tries to apply bypass channel to reduce the sedimentation at the river estuary. Bypass channels can be applied to overcome sedimentation at the river estuary, but in order for the sediment to be removed optimally, it is necessary to modify the mouth of bypass channel and channel angle.

  8. Environmental-impact assessment of dams and reservoir projects (review and a case study)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shah, S.M.

    2009-01-01

    Dams and reservoirs are among one of the most sensitive of all development Project, in terms of pervasiveness of their influence in altering the environmental conditions and resources. In the present study, major dams and reservoir projects are reviewed, from the environmental point of view. Dams and Reservoir projects bring about major changes in the immediate environment, thus affecting public health, settlements, farmlands, roads and historical sites. Impacts on human population and wildlife may be profound. Tropical diseases, involving fresh-water hosts or vectors in their transmission, are often common around new reservoirs. Large lakes create limnological changes, excessive evaporation, seepage, disturbance in water-table and increased tendencies of landslides and earthquakes. Micro climatic changes are possible, such as fog formation, increased cloudiness and modified rainfall-patterns. Retention of sediment results in silting up of reservoirs. Water shortages on mountain rivers may leave unsightly dry river-beds below a dam. Sediment deposition and growth of vegetation in reservoir affects the water-extraction for navigation power-generation and fishing. Various dams and reservoir projects in the world are critically studied, in terms of creating environmental impacts. The Kala Bagh Dam project (Pakistan), which is ready for construction, has been analysed as a case study, by matrix method. Analyses show that adverse effects of this dam are less than the benefits. It is recommended that based on the experience, appropriate lines and strategies may be drawn up to evaluate the local projects. Multidisciplinary experts need to be involved, for assessing environmental impacts and suggesting mitigation measures, to combat the adverse effects. (author)

  9. INTEGRATED OUTCROP AND SUBSURFACE STUDIES OF THE INTERWELL ENVIRONMENT OF CARBONATE RESERVOIRS: CLEAR FORK (LEONARDIAN-AGE) RESERVOIRS, WEST TEXAS AND NEW MEXICO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    F. Jerry Lucia

    2002-01-31

    This is the final report of the project ''Integrated Outcrop and Subsurface Studies of the Interwell Environment of Carbonate Reservoirs: Clear Fork (Leonardian-Age) Reservoirs, West Texas and New Mexico'', Department of Energy contract no. DE-AC26-98BC15105 and is the third in a series of similar projects funded jointly by the U.S. Department of Energy and The University of Texas at Austin, Bureau of Economic Geology, Reservoir Characterization Research Laboratory for Carbonates. All three projects focus on the integration of outcrop and subsurface data for the purpose of developing improved methods for modeling petrophysical properties in the interwell environment. The first project, funded by contract no. DE-AC22-89BC14470, was a study of San Andres outcrops in the Algerita Escarpment, Guadalupe Mountains, Texas and New Mexico, and the Seminole San Andres reservoir, Permian Basin. This study established the basic concepts for constructing a reservoir model using sequence-stratigraphic principles and rock-fabric, petrophysical relationships. The second project, funded by contract no. DE-AC22-93BC14895, was a study of Grayburg outcrops in the Brokeoff Mountains, New Mexico, and the South Cowden Grayburg reservoir, Permian Basin. This study developed a sequence-stratigraphic succession for the Grayburg and improved methods for locating remaining hydrocarbons in carbonate ramp reservoirs. The current study is of the Clear Fork Group in Apache Canyon, Sierra Diablo Mountains, West Texas, and the South Wasson Clear Fork reservoir, Permian Basin. The focus was on scales of heterogeneity, imaging high- and low-permeability layers, and the impact of fractures on reservoir performance. In this study (1) the Clear Fork cycle stratigraphy is defined, (2) important scales of petrophysical variability are confirmed, (3) a unique rock-fabric, petrophysical relationship is defined, (4) a porosity method for correlating high-frequency cycles and defining rock

  10. Study on the enhancement of hydrocarbon recovery by characterization of the reservoir

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwak, Young Hoon; Son, Jin Dam; Oh, Jae Ho [Korea Institute of Geology Mining and Materials, Taejon (Korea)] [and others

    1998-12-01

    Three year project is being carried out on the enhancement of hydrocarbon recovery by the reservoir characterization. This report describes the results of the second year's work. This project deals with characterization of fluids, bitumen ad rock matrix in the reservoir. New equipment and analytical solutions for naturally fractured reservoir were also included in this study. Main purpose of the reservoir geochemistry is to understand the origin of fluids (gas, petroleum and water) and distribution of the bitumens within the reservoir and to use them not only for exploration but development of the petroleum. For the theme of reservoir geochemistry, methods and principles of the reservoir gas and bitumen characterization, which is applicable to the petroleum development, are studied. and case study was carried out on the gas, water and bitumen samples in the reservoir taken form Haenam area and Ulleung Basin offshore Korea. Gases taken form the two different wells indicate the different origin. Formation water analyses show the absence of barrier within the tested interval. With the sidewall core samples from a well offshore Korea, the analysis using polarizing microscope, scanning electron microscope with EDX and cathodoluminoscope was performed for the study on sandstone diagenesis. The I/S changes were examined on the cuttings samples from a well, offshore Korea to estimate burial temperature. Oxygen stable isotope is used to study geothermal history in sedimentary basin. Study in the field is rare in Korea and basic data are urgently needed especially in continental basins to determine the value of formation water. In the test analyses, three samples from marine basins indicate final temperature from 55 deg.C to 83 deg.C and one marine sample indicate the initial temperature of 36 deg.C. One sample from continental basin represented the final temperature from 53 and 80 deg.C. These temperatures will be corrected because these values were based on assumed

  11. High resolution taxonomic study of the late Eocene (~34 Ma) Florissant palynoflora, Colorado, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchal, J. M.

    2012-04-01

    The Florissant Fossil Beds National Monument is located in Teller County in central Colorado, at approximate latitude 38°54'N and longitude 105°13'. The lithologies of the Florissant Formation consist of coarse-grained arkosic and volcanoclastic sandstones and conglomerates, finer shale, and tuffaceus mudstone and siltstone. It is divided into six units, mostly of lacustrine and fluvial origin with volcanic sediments interfingering and topping the strata. Volcanic units have been dated using the 40Ar/39Ar single-crystal method, giving an absolute age of ca. 34 Ma for the upper fossiliferous sedimentary unit. This pinpoints the formation of the Florissant sediments at the end of the Eocene, providing fruitful insight into the changing palaeoecosystem of the region at the dawn of the Oligocene. The formation is very well known for its rich fossil insect fauna and well preserved plant macrofossils found in the shale units, and the silicified tree stumps occurring in the lower mudstone unit. The sample used for this study originates from the upper shale unit, the fifth unit from the base of the formation. Previous studies on the plant macrofossils, mesofossils and the palynoflora have shown that during the late Eocene the surroundings of Florissant palaeo-lake were covered by diverse mixed broad-leaved evergreen/deciduous and needle-leafed forests. Until now pollen from the Florissant Formation has mostly been described according to conventional morphological nomenclature, using light microscopy (LM) only. In this study the same individual pollen grains are investigated using both LM and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), by means of single grain technique. This provides best exploitable results concerning a more detailed resolution regarding taxonomy and more accurate identifications. The main goal of this study is to compile a well resolved taxonomic species list based on the palynoflora, to clarify the generic and species diversity of selected families (e

  12. Study on fine geological modelling of the fluvial sandstone reservoir in Daqing oilfield

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhoa Han-Qing [Daqing Research Institute, Helongjiang (China)

    1997-08-01

    These paper aims at developing a method for fine reservoir description in maturing oilfields by using close spaced well logging data. The main productive reservoirs in Daqing oilfield is a set of large fluvial-deltaic deposits in the Songliao Lake Basin, characterized by multi-layers and serious heterogeneities. Various fluvial channel sandstone reservoirs cover a fairly important proportion of reserves. After a long period of water flooding, most of them have turned into high water cut layers, but there are considerable residual reserves within them, which are difficult to find and tap. Making fine reservoir description and developing sound a geological model is essential for tapping residual oil and enhancing oil recovery. The principal reason for relative lower precision of predicting model developed by using geostatistics is incomplete recognition of complex distribution of fluvial reservoirs and their internal architecture`s. Tasking advantage of limited outcrop data from other regions (suppose no outcrop data available in oilfield) can only provide the knowledge of subtle changing of reservoir parameters and internal architecture. For the specific geometry distribution and internal architecture of subsurface reservoirs (such as in produced regions) can be gained only from continuous infilling logging well data available from studied areas. For developing a geological model, we think the first important thing is to characterize sandbodies geometries and their general architecture`s, which are the framework of models, and then the slight changing of interwell parameters and internal architecture`s, which are the contents and cells of the model. An excellent model should possess both of them, but the geometry is the key to model, because it controls the contents and cells distribution within a model.

  13. Experimental studies of low salinity water flooding in carbonate reservoirs: A new promising approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zahid, Adeel; Shapiro, Alexander; Skauge, Arne

    2012-01-01

    reservoirs. In this paper, we have experimentally investigated the oil recovery potential of low salinity water flooding for carbonate rocks. We used both reservoir carbonate and outcrop chalk core plugs. The flooding experiments were carried out initially with the seawater, and afterwards additional oil......Low salinity water flooding is well studied for sandstone reservoirs, both laboratory and field tests have showed improvement in the oil recovery in many cases. Up to very recently, the low salinity effect has been indeterminated for carbonates. Most recently, Saudi Aramco reported that substantial...... recovery was evaluated by sequential injection of various diluted seawater. The experiments applied stepwise increase in flow rate to eliminate the influence of possible capillary end effect. The total oil recovery, interaction of the different ions with the rock, and the wettability changes were studied...

  14. An experimental study of tracers for labelling of injection gas in oil reservoirs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dugstad, Oe.

    1992-01-01

    This work demonstrates the feasibility of the PMCP and PMCH as tracers in field experiments. These compounds have properties which make them as well suited for well to well studies as the more common tracers CH 3 T and 85 Kr. In an injection project carried out at the Gullfaks field in the North Sea the two PFCs verified communication between wells. This implies communication between different geological layers in the reservoir and also communication across faults within the same layers. Laboratory studies carried out have focused on the retention of the tracers in dynamic flooding experiments under conditions comparable with those in the petroleum reservoirs. Simultaneous injection of a variety of tracers has shown individual variations in tracer retention which are caused by important reservoir parameters as fluid saturation and rock properties. By proper design of field injection programs the tracers response may therefore be used to estimate fluid saturation if actual rock properties are known. 45 refs., 20 figs., 13 tabs

  15. Trophic State Evolution and Nutrient Trapping Capacity in a Transboundary Subtropical Reservoir: A 25-Year Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunha, Davi Gasparini Fernandes; Benassi, Simone Frederigi; de Falco, Patrícia Bortoletto; do Carmo Calijuri, Maria

    2016-03-01

    Artificial reservoirs have been used for drinking water supply, other human activities, flood control and pollution abatement worldwide, providing overall benefits to downstream water quality. Most reservoirs in Brazil were built during the 1970s, but their long-term patterns of trophic status, water chemistry, and nutrient removal are still not very well characterized. We aimed to evaluate water quality time series (1985-2010) data from the riverine and lacustrine zones of the transboundary Itaipu Reservoir (Brazil/Paraguay). We examined total phosphorus and nitrogen, chlorophyll a concentrations, water transparency, and phytoplankton density to look for spatial and temporal trends and correlations with trophic state evolution and nutrient retention. There was significant temporal and spatial water quality variation ( P Itaipu and led to relatively low removal percentages. Our study suggested that water quality problems may be more pronounced immediately after the filling phase of the artificial reservoirs, associated with the initial decomposition of drowned vegetation at the very beginning of reservoir operation.

  16. Recycling of Clay Sediments for Geopolymer Binder Production. A New Perspective for Reservoir Management in the Framework of Italian Legislation: The Occhito Reservoir Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molino, Bruno; De Vincenzo, Annamaria; Ferone, Claudio; Messina, Francesco; Colangelo, Francesco; Cioffi, Raffaele

    2014-07-31

    Reservoir silting is an unavoidable issue. It is estimated that in Italy, the potential rate of silting-up in large reservoirs ranges from 0.1% to 1% in the presence of wooded river basins and intensive agricultural land use, respectively. In medium and small-sized reservoirs, these values vary between 0.3% and 2%. Considering both the types of reservoirs, the annual average loss of storage capacity would be of about 1.59%. In this paper, a management strategy aimed at sediment productive reuse is presented. Particularly, the main engineering outcomes of an extensive experimental program on geopolymer binder synthesis is reported. The case study deals with Occhito reservoir, located in Southern Italy. Clay sediments coming from this silted-up artificial lake were characterized, calcined and activated, by means of a wide set of alkaline activating solutions. The results showed the feasibility of this recovery process, optimizing a few chemical parameters. The possible reuse in building material production (binders, precast concrete, bricks, etc. ) represents a relevant sustainable alternative to landfill and other more consolidated practices.

  17. Recycling of Clay Sediments for Geopolymer Binder Production. A New Perspective for Reservoir Management in the Framework of Italian Legislation: The Occhito Reservoir Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Molino

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Reservoir silting is an unavoidable issue. It is estimated that in Italy, the potential rate of silting-up in large reservoirs ranges from 0.1% to 1% in the presence of wooded river basins and intensive agricultural land use, respectively. In medium and small-sized reservoirs, these values vary between 0.3% and 2%. Considering both the types of reservoirs, the annual average loss of storage capacity would be of about 1.59%. In this paper, a management strategy aimed at sediment productive reuse is presented. Particularly, the main engineering outcomes of an extensive experimental program on geopolymer binder synthesis is reported. The case study deals with Occhito reservoir, located in Southern Italy. Clay sediments coming from this silted-up artificial lake were characterized, calcined and activated, by means of a wide set of alkaline activating solutions. The results showed the feasibility of this recovery process, optimizing a few chemical parameters. The possible reuse in building material production (binders, precast concrete, bricks, etc. represents a relevant sustainable alternative to landfill and other more consolidated practices.

  18. Study on Transfer Rules of Coal Reservoir Pressure Drop Based on Coalbed Methane Well Drainage Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuhang, X.

    2017-12-01

    A pumping test was carried out to explore the transfer rules of pressure drop in coal reservoir during the drainage. The experiment was divided into three stages. In the first stage, the pump displacement of 3m3/h was used to reduce the bottom hole flowing pressure and stopped until the continuous gas phase was produced; Undertaking the first stage, in the second stage, when the gas phase was continuously produced, the pump was stopped immediately. As the bottom hole flowing pressure going up without gas phase, pumping started again for a week. In the third stage ,the well pumping was carried out at the bottom hole pressure drop rate of 30Kpa/d after two months' recovery. Combined with the data of regional geology and fractured well, taking the characteristics of macroscopic coal rocks, development of pore and fracture in coal and isothermal adsorption test as the background, the features of reservoir output in each stage of the experiment were analyzed and compared, and then the transfer rules of pressure drop contained in the differences of the output was studied further. In the first and third stage of the experiment, the output of liquid phase was much larger than the space volume of coal reservoir pore and fracture in the range of 100m2. In the second stage, the output of the continuous gas phase appeared around 0.7Mpa when the continuous gas phase appears below the critical desorption pressure of 0.25Mpa during the whole experiment. The results indicate that, the transfer of pressure drop in the coal reservoir of this well is mainly horizontal, and the liquid phase produced in the reservoir mainly comes from the recharge of the reservoir at the far end of the relative high pressure area; the adsorption space of coalbed methane in the coal matrix as well as the main migration channel of fluid in the reservoir doesn't belong to the same pressure system and there exists the communication barrier between them. In addition, the increasing of the effective stress

  19. Simulation study of huff-n-puff air injection for enhanced oil recovery in shale oil reservoirs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hu Jia

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper is the first attempt to evaluate huff-n-puff air injection in a shale oil reservoir using a simulation approach. Recovery mechanisms and physical processes of huff-n-puff air injection in a shale oil reservoir are investigated through investigating production performance, thermal behavior, reservoir pressure and fluid saturation features. Air flooding is used as the basic case for a comparative study. The simulation study suggests that thermal drive is the main recovery mechanism for huff-n-puff air injection in the shale oil reservoir, but not for simple air flooding. The synergic recovery mechanism of air flooding in conventional light oil reservoirs can be replicated in shale oil reservoirs by using air huff-n-puff injection strategy. Reducing huff-n-puff time is better for performing the synergic recovery mechanism of air injection. O2 diffusion plays an important role in huff-n-puff air injection in shale oil reservoirs. Pressure transmissibility as well as reservoir pressure maintenance ability in huff-n-puff air injection is more pronounced than the simple air flooding after primary depletion stage. No obvious gas override is exhibited in both air flooding and air huff-n-puff injection scenarios in shale reservoirs. Huff-n-puff air injection has great potential to develop shale oil reservoirs. The results from this work may stimulate further investigations.

  20. GHG budget in a young subtropical hydroelectric reservoir: Nam Theun 2 case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshmukh, C.; Guérin, F.; Serça, D.; Descloux, S.; Chanudet, V.; Guédant, P.

    2012-04-01

    Dynamics of major greenhouse gases (CO2, CH4 and N2O) has been studied in a new subtropical hydroelectric reservoir (impounded in 2009), Nam Theun 2 (NT2), in Lao PDR, Asia. The main pathways of emission were quantified, i.e., ebullition (bubbling), surface diffusion, downstream emissions (diffusion and degassing) and emissions from the drawdown area (up to 370 km2 for a 450km2 in the case of NT2). All presented results are coming from five field campaigns conducted from May 2009 to June 2011, and a monthly monitoring on 35 stations. Additional laboratory work in controlled conditions helped to assess production rates of CH4, CO2 and N2O, and aerobic CH4 oxidation rates. The ebullition of CH4 is in the same order as from other tropical reservoirs, varying with depth and atmospheric pressure. Measured diffusive fluxes of CH4 and CO2 cover the whole range of reported fluxes for other tropical reservoirs, depending on the season. Diffusive fluxes of N2O, and CH4 downstream (degassing and diffusion) emissions are in the lower range as reported before for tropical reservoirs. On the opposite, the drawdown area would represent a significant contribution to N2O emission. Our results for the year 2010 show that diffusive emission from the reservoir surface is the main contributor (46%) to total GHG emissions from the NT2 reservoir. With 25% and 19% of total GHG emissions, bubbling and drawdown area emissions also contributed significantly respectively. Downstream emissions from NT2 reservoir contributed around 10% of total GHG emissions, a percentage lower than reported for other reservoirs. With 963 Gg CO2eq yr-1 and 986 Gg CO2eq yr-1respectively, CH4 and CO2 have almost the same contributions (48 and 49%) of the total GHG budget, N2O accounting for less than 3% with 64 Gg CO2eq yr-1. With a total emissions from NT2 reservoir of 2013 Gg CO2eq yr-1, gross NT2 emission are about an order of magnitude higher than pre-impoundment emissions (276 Gg CO2eq yr-1). Net emission

  1. Simulation studies to evaluate the effect of fracture closure on the performance of fractured reservoirs; Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howrie, I.; Dauben, D.

    1994-03-01

    A three-year research program to evaluate the effect of fracture closure on the recovery of oil and gas from naturally fractured reservoirs has been completed. The overall objectives of the study were to: (1) evaluate the reservoir conditions for which fracture closure is significant, and (2) evaluate innovative fluid injection techniques capable of maintaining pressure within the reservoir. The evaluations of reservoir performance were made by a modern dual porosity simulator, TETRAD. This simulator treats both porosity and permeability as functions of pore pressure. The Austin Chalk in the Pearsall Field in of South Texas was selected as the prototype fractured reservoir for this work. During the first year, simulations of vertical and horizontal well performance were made assuming that fracture permeability was insensitive to pressure change. Sensitivity runs indicated that the simulator was predicting the effects of critical reservoir parameters in a logical and consistent manner. The results confirmed that horizontal wells could increase both rate of oil recovery and total oil recovery from naturally fractured reservoirs. In the second year, the performance of the same vertical and horizontal wells was reevaluated with fracture permeability treated as a function of reservoir pressure. To investigate sensitivity to in situ stress, differing loading conditions were assumed. Simulated natural depletions confirm that pressure sensitive fractures degrade well performance. The severity of degradation worsens when the initial reservoir pressure approaches the average stress condition of the reservoir, such as occurs in over pressured reservoirs. Simulations with water injection indicate that degradation of permeability can be counteracted when reservoir pressure is maintained and oil recovery can be increased when reservoir properties are favorable.

  2. Remote Sensing of Water Quality in Multipurpose Reservoirs: Case Study Applications in Indonesia, Mexico, and Uruguay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miralles-Wilhelm, F.; Serrat-Capdevila, A.; Rodriguez, D.

    2017-12-01

    This research is focused on development of remote sensing methods to assess surface water pollution issues, particularly in multipurpose reservoirs. Three case study applications are presented to comparatively analyze remote sensing techniquesforo detection of nutrient related pollution, i.e., Nitrogen, Phosphorus, Chlorophyll, as this is a major water quality issue that has been identified in terms of pollution of major water sources around the country. This assessment will contribute to a better understanding of options for nutrient remote sensing capabilities and needs and assist water agencies in identifying the appropriate remote sensing tools and devise an application strategy to provide information needed to support decision-making regarding the targeting and monitoring of nutrient pollution prevention and mitigation measures. A detailed review of the water quality data available from ground based measurements was conducted in order to determine their suitability for a case study application of remote sensing. In the first case study, the Valle de Bravo reservoir in Mexico City reservoir offers a larger database of water quality which may be used to better calibrate and validate the algorithms required to obtain water quality data from remote sensing raw data. In the second case study application, the relatively data scarce Lake Toba in Indonesia can be useful to illustrate the value added of remote sensing data in locations where water quality data is deficient or inexistent. The third case study in the Paso Severino reservoir in Uruguay offers a combination of data scarcity and persistent development of harmful algae blooms. Landsat-TM data was obteined for the 3 study sites and algorithms for three key water quality parameters that are related to nutrient pollution: Chlorophyll-a, Total Nitrogen, and Total Phosphorus were calibrated and validated at the study sites. The three case study applications were developed into capacity building/training workshops

  3. Vortices in dam reservoir: A case study of Karun III dam

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The present study focuses on the effect of vortex formation on plane velocities in a reservoir. Velocity measurements are performed in the hydraulic model of Karun III dam and hydropower plant. Different vortices were produced at the horizontal intake by changing the submerged depth. Tangential velocities were measured ...

  4. Study on detailed geological modelling for fluvial sandstone reservoir in Daqing oil field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao Hanqing; Fu Zhiguo; Lu Xiaoguang [Institute of Petroleum Exploration and Development, Daqing (China)

    1997-08-01

    Guided by the sedimentation theory and knowledge of modern and ancient fluvial deposition and utilizing the abundant information of sedimentary series, microfacies type and petrophysical parameters from well logging curves of close spaced thousands of wells located in a large area. A new method for establishing detailed sedimentation and permeability distribution models for fluvial reservoirs have been developed successfully. This study aimed at the geometry and internal architecture of sandbodies, in accordance to their hierarchical levels of heterogeneity and building up sedimentation and permeability distribution models of fluvial reservoirs, describing the reservoir heterogeneity on the light of the river sedimentary rules. The results and methods obtained in outcrop and modem sedimentation studies have successfully supported the study. Taking advantage of this method, the major producing layers (PI{sub 1-2}), which have been considered as heterogeneous and thick fluvial reservoirs extending widely in lateral are researched in detail. These layers are subdivided into single sedimentary units vertically and the microfacies are identified horizontally. Furthermore, a complex system is recognized according to their hierarchical levels from large to small, meander belt, single channel sandbody, meander scroll, point bar, and lateral accretion bodies of point bar. The achieved results improved the description of areal distribution of point bar sandbodies, provide an accurate and detailed framework model for establishing high resolution predicting model. By using geostatistic technique, it also plays an important role in searching for enriched zone of residual oil distribution.

  5. Depth limit of littoral vegetation in a storage reservoir: A case study of Lipno Reservoir (Czech Republic)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krolová, M.; Čížková, Hana; Hejzlar, Josef

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 42, č. 2 (2012), s. 165-174 ISSN 0075-9511 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA206/09/1764 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 244121 - REFRESH Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60170517; CEZ:AV0Z60870520 Keywords : macrophyte * littoral * reservoir * shore erosion * ecological potential * European Water Framework Directive Subject RIV: DA - Hydrology ; Limnology Impact factor: 1.565, year: 2012

  6. Report for MaRIE Drivers Workshop on needs for energetic material's studies.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Specht, Paul Elliott [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2018-01-01

    Energetic materials (i.e. explosives, propellants, and pyrotechnics) have complex mesoscale features that influence their dynamic response. Direct measurement of the complex mechanical, thermal, and chemical response of energetic materials is critical for improving computational models and enabling predictive capabilities. Many of the physical phenomena of interest in energetic materials cover time and length scales spanning several orders of magnitude. Examples include chemical interactions in the reaction zone, the distribution and evolution of temperature fields, mesoscale deformation in heterogeneous systems, and phase transitions. This is particularly true for spontaneous phenomena, like thermal cook-off. The ability for MaRIE to capture multiple length scales and stochastic phenomena can significantly advance our understanding of energetic materials and yield more realistic, predictive models.

  7. Bubble generation and venous air filtration by hard-shell venous reservoirs: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, S J; Willcox, T; Gorman, D F

    1997-09-01

    We have previously shown significant bubble formation in Medtronic Maxima hard-shell venous reservoirs (HSVRs). In the present study, we not only investigated the mechanism of this bubble formation, but also the extent of bubble clearance by membrane oxygenators and arterial line filters. In addition, we also compared the performance of five HSVRs with respect to bubble formation and venous air filtration. Salvaged clinical CPB circuits containing different HSVRs were studied by downstream Doppler monitoring under fixed flow-decreasing volume, fixed volume-increasing flow, and entrained venous air conditions. Bubbles formed in the Medtronic Maxima top entry HSVR at volumes below 800 ml and flows above 3.5 l min-1, and were incompletely removed by a membrane oxygenator and arterial line filter. Decreased bubbling was seen when the reservoir atmosphere was flushed with CO2, suggesting that these bubbles formed in a fountain at the venous inflow. The Medtronic Maxima Forte HSVR formed significantly fewer bubbles at low volumes, and filtered venous air effectively. Negligible bubble formation occurred in the Sorin, Terumo, or Baxter reservoirs. The minimum recommended operating volume for the Medtronic Maxima top entry reservoir should be reset at 600 ml and this device should always be used with an arterial filter. Bubble formation is substantially reduced in the new Medtronic Maxima Forte HSVR and this device is a good filter for venous air.

  8. Reservoir Simulation on the Cerro Prieto Geothermal Field: A Continuing Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castaneda, M.; Marquez, R.; Arellano, V.; Esquer, C.A.

    1983-12-15

    The Cerro Prieto geothermal field is a liquid-dominated geothermal reservoir of complex geological and hydrological structure. It is located at the southern end of the Salton-Mexicali trough which includes other geothermal anomalies as Heber and East Mesa. Although in 1973, the initial power plant installed capacity was 75 MW of electrical power, this amount increased to 180 MW in 1981 as field development continued. It is expected to have a generating capacity of 620 MW by the end of 1985, when two new plants will be completely in operation. Questions about field deliverability, reservoir life and ultimate recovery related to planned installations are being presently asked. Numerical modeling studies can give very valuable answers to these questions, even at the early stages in the development of a field. An effort to simulate the Cerro Prieto geothermal reservoir has been undergoing for almost two years. A joint project among Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE), Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) and Intercomp of Houstin, Texas, was created to perform reservoir engineering and simulation studies on this field. The final project objective is tosimulate the behavior of the old field region when production from additional wells located in the undeveloped field zones will be used for feeding the new power plants.

  9. A study of relations between physicochemical properties of crude oils and microbiological characteristics of reservoir microflora

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yashchenko, I. G.; Polishchuk, Yu. M.; Peremitina, T. O.

    2015-10-01

    The dependence of the population and activity of reservoir microflora upon the chemical composition and viscosity of crude oils has been investigated, since it allows the problem of improvement in the technologies and enhancement of oil recovery as applied to production of difficult types of oils with anomalous properties (viscous, heavy, waxy, high resin) to be solved. The effect of the chemical composition of the oil on the number, distribution, and activity of reservoir microflora has been studied using data on the microbiological properties of reservoir water of 16 different fields in oil and gas basins of Russia, Mongolia, China, and Vietnam. Information on the physicochemical properties of crude oils of these fields has been obtained from the database created at the Institute of Petroleum Chemistry, Siberian Branch on the physicochemical properties of oils throughout the world. It has been found that formation water in viscous oil reservoirs is char acterized by a large population of heterotrophic and sulfate reducing bacteria and the water of oil fields with a high paraffin content, by population of denitrifying bacteria.

  10. A study of well test data interpretation model for waterbearing reservoirs with phase redistribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Junxiang; Deng, Rui; Liang, Haipeng; Yang, Jing

    2017-05-01

    In China, plentiful marine reservoirs exist. Net pay thickness in individual gas reservoirs where partial penetration was performed can be hundreds of meters. Due to the influence of condensate water and formation, water phase separation phenomenon, where gas rose up and liquid moved down, and a morsel of water production emerged in some gas wells, which makes the build-up curves distorted and thus unable to be interpreted. On the basis of seepage theory and Laplace transformation, a seepage mathematical model and a well test interpretation model for gas wells with phase separation considered are developed to analyze the impact of such various elements as phase separation and partial penetration on the pressure and pressure derivative log-log plot. With practical data of well test in Xihu Sag, reliability analysis of the mathematical model mentioned above was demonstrated. Theoretical research results proposed in our study substantially improved the accuracy of well test interpretation for thick water-bearing gas reservoirs and laid a technical foundation of development of the similar oil & gas reservoirs.

  11. Estudo da mobilidade molecular das blendas aPA/SAN/MMA-MA usando relaxação dielétrica Molecular mobility study of aPA/SAN/MMA-MA using dielectric relaxation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Becker

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Blendas de poliamida amorfa (aPA com copolímero de estireno-acrilonitrila (SAN utilizando uma série de copolímeros de metil metacrilato-anidrido maleico (MMA-MA como agente compatibilizante foram preparadas. Estes copolímeros acrílicos são miscíveis com a fase SAN, e o anidrido maleico (MA é capaz de reagir com os grupos terminais da poliamida, levando a formação de um copolímero na interfase da blenda durante o processamento. Este estudo foca o efeito da massa molar e a concentração de anidrido maleico do compatibilizante nas propriedades de relaxação dielétrica. Os resultados mostram que tanto a concentração de anidrido maleico e a massa molar do compatibilizante influenciam a mobilidade molecular. Blendas com compatibilizantes com 5 e 10% de anidrido maleico apresentaram menor energia de ativação devido à alta mobilidade da fase SAN.Blends of amorphous polyamide (aPA with acrylonitrile/styrene copolymer (SAN using a series of methyl methacrylate-maleic anhydride (MMA-MA copolymers as compatibilizing agents were prepared. These acrylic copolymers were miscible with SAN, whereas the maleic anhydride units in the copolymers are capable to react with the polyamide end groups; this could lead to the formation of grafted copolymers at the blend interface during melt processing. This study focuses on the effects of molecular weight and concentration of the reactive maleic anhydride units of the compatibilizer on the dielectric relaxation properties. The results show that both maleic anhydride quantity and molecular weight of MMA MA influenced the dielectric relaxation properties. Blends with 5 and 10% of MA in the compatibilizer present lower activation energy due to the high mobility of SAN phase.

  12. Geothermal reservoir assessment case study: Northern Dixie Valley, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denton, J.M.; Bell, E.J.; Jodry, R.L.

    1980-11-01

    Two 1500 foot temperature gradient holes and two deep exploratory wells were drilled and tested. Hydrologic-hydrochemical, shallow temperature survey, structural-tectonic, petrologic alteration, and solid-sample geochemistry studies were completed. Eighteen miles of high resolution reflection seismic data were gathered over the area. The study indicates that a geothermal regime with temperatures greater than 400/sup 0/F may exist at a depth of approximately 7500' to 10,000' over an area more than ten miles in length.

  13. Paleomagnetism and geochronological studies on a 450 km long 2216 Ma dyke from the Dharwar craton, southern India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagaraju, E.; Parashuramulu, V.; Kumar, Anil; Srinivas Sarma, D.

    2018-01-01

    Paleomagnetic and geochronological studies were carried out on a ∼ 450 km long (from 17 sites) N-S striking Paleoproterozoic dyke swarm exposed along a natural crustal cross section of about 10 km (increasing from North to South) in the Dharwar Craton, to study the characteristics of paleomagnetism and geochronology in vertical dimension. U-Pb/Pb-Pb dating on baddeleyite gives a crystallisation age of 2216.0 ± 0.9 Ma for long dyke AKLD. Paleomagnetic data from this well dated ∼ 2216 Ma dyke swarm in Dharwar Craton are of excellent quality. High coercivity and high blocking temperature components are carried by single domain magnetite and show dual polarity remanence directions. Combined normal and reverse polarity remanences on AKLD and other N-S dykes define the most reliable paleomagnetic pole for ∼ 2216 Ma at latitude 36°S and longitude 312°E (A95 = 7°). Though paleomagnetic data is unavailable on other N-S dykes below the Cuddapah basin, high precision geochronology suggest that they are of similar age within errors. Though there is a variation in the crustal depth of Dharwar craton from north to south, consistent Pb-Pb/U-Pb baddeleyite geochronology and paleomagnetic studies along the AKLD established its continuity and preservation along its entire strike length. The virtual geomagnetic poles of these sites confirm a stable remanence and are almost identical to the previously reported paleomagnetic pole and also supported by positive reversal test. Positive paleomagnetic reversal test on these dykes signify that the remanent magnetization is primary and formed during initial cooling of the intrusions. Updated apparent polar wander path of Dharwar craton indicates relatively low drift rate during 2.21-2.08 Ga interval. Magnetogranulometry and SEM studies show that remanent magnetization in this dyke was carried by single domain magnetite residing within silicate minerals.

  14. Reservoir operation using El Niño forecasts-case study of Daule Peripa and Baba, Ecuador

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gelati, Emiliano; Madsen, Henrik; Rosbjerg, Dan

    2014-01-01

    Reservoir operation is studied for the Daule Peripa and Baba system in Ecuador, where El Niño events cause anomalously heavy precipitation. Reservoir inflow is modelled by a Markov-switching model using El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) indices as input. Inflow is forecast using 9-month lead time...

  15. Trap-efficiency study, Highland Creek flood-retarding reservoir near Kelseyville, California, water years 1966-77

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trujillo, L.F.

    1982-01-01

    This investigation is part of a nationwide study of trap efficiency of detention reservoirs. In this report, trap efficiency was computed from reservoir inflow and outflow sediment data and from reservoir survey and outflow data. Highland Creek Reservoir is a flood-retarding reservoir located in Lake County, near Kelseyville, California. This reservoir has a maximum storage capacity of 3,199 acre-feet and permanent pool storage of 921 acre-feet. Mean annual rainfall for the 14.1 square-mile drainage area above Highland Creek Dam was 29 inches during the December 1965 to September 1977 study period. Resultant mean annual runoff was 17,100 acre-feet. Total reservoir inflow for the 11.8 yea r study period was 202,000 acre-feet, transporting an estimated 126,000 tons (10,700 tons per year) of suspended sediment. Total reservoir outflow for the same period was 188,700 acre-feet, including 15 ,230 tons (1,290 tons per year) of sediment. Estimated trap efficiency for the study period was 88 percent, based on estimated sediment inflow and measured sediment outflow.

  16. Marine Vibrionaceae as a reservoir for bioprospecting and ecology studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giubergia, Sonia

    emerged as an untapped source of biodiversity, and this study investigated the marine bacterial family Vibrionaceae (“vibrios”) for its potential as reservoir of novel biodiversity and of species relevant for the ecology of the marine environment. The characterization of a novel species, Vibrio galatheae...... is required to elucidate whether they are produced to antagonize competitors or to communicate with other colonizers and/or a potential host. In conclusion, this PhD study adds to the knowledge of Vibrionaceae as an untapped reservoir of biodiversity and important players in the ecology of the marine...... environment. Studying microbial eco-physiology is important not only for the development of ecological models, but also as foundation for bioprospecting studies, where this knowledge may be used, for example, to elicit silent biosynthetic gene clusters during natural product discovery....

  17. PENDIDIKAN KARAKTER POLA MUHAMMADIYAH (Studi Kasus SMA Muhammadiyah 1 dan MA Muallimin Yogyakarta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuswono Kuswono

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to find out the sources of character education at Islamic schools, character- building values application and actualization. This research was conducted in SMA Mubammadiyah I Yogyakarta and MA Muallimin Muhammadiyah Yogyakarta.The result of research showed that teacher's perception on character education relied on Islamic precepts to create akhakul karimah-human beings. The sources of character education included Quran and as=Sunnah/Hadist as well as Ijtihad. The character value implantation was carried out through learning in the classroom, precedents from figures, teachers and peers, well-behaving familiarization in the presence of rule and order, personality report, and extracurricular activities in knowledge, skill, sport, art, and organization fields. The form of character-building values actualization emphasized more on the Islamic activities such as collectively shalat, reading and reciting Quran, social service, participating actively in IPM, hizbul wathan, and tapak suci organizational activities. In addition, there were kader inti/an, mubalig jumat, mubalig hijarah, fasting, Friday sermon, becoming the orator in pengajian, and flag ceremony. Such these activities reflected on religious, cooperative, leadership, loving-to-homeland, social care, environmental care, and creative values.Keywords: Education, Character, Muhammadiyah.

  18. Field Studies of Geothermal Reservoirs Rio Grande Rift, New Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James C Witcher

    2002-07-30

    The Rio Grande rift provides an excellent field laboratory to study the nature of geothermal systems in an extensional environment. Much of the geologic complexity that is found in the Basin and Range is absent because the rift is located on cratonic crust with a thin and well-characterized Phanerozoic stratigraphy and tectonic history. On the other hand, the Neogene thermo-tectonic history of the rift has many parallels with the Basin and Range to the west. The geology of the southern Rio Grande rift is among the best characterized of any rift system in the world. Also, most geologic maps for the region are rather unique in that detailed analyses of Quaternary stratigraphic and surficial unit are added in concert with the details of bedrock geology. Pleistocene to Holocene entrenchment of the Rio Grande and tributaries unroofs the alteration signatures and permeability attributes of paleo outflow plumes and upflow zones, associated with present-day, but hidden or ''blind,'' hydrothermal systems at Rincon and San Diego Mountain.

  19. [Thoughts and methods of study on acupuncture medical history: an example of Mr. MA Ji-Xing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Feng; Zhu, Ling

    2014-03-01

    Mr. MA Ji-xing has devoted himself into the study of acupuncture medical history for more than 70 years. As a result, a great work of Zhenjiuxue Tongshi (see text), History of Acupuncture-Moxibustion) has been completed. The author has expensively studied for history of acupuncture medicine in time and space. Base on abundant historical materials, deliberate textual research as well as strategically situated academic view, it is considered as a masterpiece of acupuncture on real significance. It is worthwhile to note that the book has a systematic and profound explanation on Bian-stone therapy, unearthed literature relics of acupuncture, the bronze figure or illustration of acupoint as well as special topics of Japan and Korea acupuncture history. Filled several gaps of the field, and explored some significant new paths of study, it laid the groundwork for the profound study and unscramble of traditional acupuncture theory as well as the investigation of the academic history, which is considered to have a profound and persistent influence. The careful sorting and profound digging of many distinguish thoughts and methods of Mr. MA Ji-xing in the study of acupuncture medical history has significant meaning in references and enlightenment of the future research on acupuncture medical history.

  20. Responses of spatial-temporal dynamics of bacterioplankton community to large-scale reservoir operation: a case study in the Three Gorges Reservoir, China

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Zhe; Lu, Lunhui; Guo, Jinsong; Yang, Jixiang; Zhang, Jiachao; He, Bin; Xu, Linlin

    2017-01-01

    Large rivers are commonly regulated by damming, yet the effects of such disruption on bacterioplankton community structures have not been adequately studied. The aim of this study was to explore the biogeographical patterns present under dam regulation and to uncover the major drivers structuring bacterioplankton communities. Bacterioplankton assemblages in the Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR) were analyzed using Illumina Miseq sequencing by comparing seven sites located within the TGR before and...

  1. Evaluation of sediment management strategies on reservoir storage depletion rate: a case study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ali, M.; Sterk, G.

    2010-01-01

    Sedimentation aspects have a major role during the design of new reservoir projects because life of the reservoir mainly depends upon sediment handling during reservoir operation. Therefore, proper sediment management strategies should be adopted to enhance the life span of reservoirs. Basha

  2. Manage Short-term Flood Events and Long-term Water Needs via Reservoir Operation: A Risk Analysis Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, W.; Hsu, N.; Wei, C.; Cheng, W.

    2010-12-01

    This study proposes a methodology to assess the risk of the water shortage during a drought period and the risk of the downstream over-levee flows during a flood period based on the reservoir operation rules for flood control. These rules are defined by upper limits (or flood control storage zone).Through a Monte Carlo simulation, a series of hydrographs are generated to represent the reservoir inflow during a flood period based on historic typhoon events. This series of generated hydrographs are then applied to a reservoir flood operation simulation model. The simulation model calculates the water levels of reservoir at the end of a flood period and the reservoir release during the typhoon the events. Reservoir release is used to calculate the water level at downstream control locations for evaluation of a short-term over-levee risk. The ending water level of the reservoir is used as the initial condition for a water distribution optimization model that evaluates drought conditions for long-term water supply. By applying risk analysis, an assessment is made on the risk of both the water shortage during a drought and over-levee flows during flooding seasons. Based on the results of the risk analysis, we evaluate the relationship among upper-limit sets, shortage risk, and over-levee risk and also provide reservoir operation suggestions based on the risk evaluation.

  3. The influences and outcomes of phonological awareness: a study of MA, PA and auditory processing in pre-readers with a family risk of dyslexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Jeremy M; Wouters, Jan; Ghesquière, Pol

    2017-09-01

    The direct influence of phonological awareness (PA) on reading outcomes has been widely demonstrated, yet PA may also exert indirect influence on reading outcomes through other cognitive variables such as morphological awareness (MA). However, PA's own development is dependent and influenced by many extraneous variables such as auditory processing, which could ultimately impact reading outcomes. In a group of pre-reading children with a family risk of dyslexia and low-risk controls, this study sets out to answer questions surrounding PA's relationship at various grain sizes (syllable, onset/rime and phoneme) with measures of auditory processing (frequency modulation (FM) and an amplitude rise-time task (RT)) and MA, independent of reading experience. Group analysis revealed significant differences between high- and low-risk children on measures of MA, and PA at all grain sizes, while a trend for lower RT thresholds of high-risk children was found compared with controls. Correlational analysis demonstrated that MA is related to the composite PA score and syllable awareness. Group differences on MA and PA were re-examined including PA and MA, respectively, as control variables. Results exposed PA as a relevant component of MA, independent of reading experience. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Managing Injected Water Composition To Improve Oil Recovery: A Case Study of North Sea Chalk Reservoirs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zahid, Adeel; Shapiro, Alexander; Stenby, Erling Halfdan

    2012-01-01

    imbibition, which has been applied in most of the previous studies. Two different flooding schemes (with and without aging) were used for flooding North Sea reservoir chalk samples. For comparison, two tests were also carried out with Stevns Klint core plugs. The flooding tests were carried out...... composition but also the formation water composition affected the oil recovery at high temperatures from the Stevns Klint chalk rock....

  5. Comparative study of the wear resistance of Al2O3-coated MA956 superalloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Canahua Loza, Hugo

    2000-10-01

    Full Text Available Preoxidation of the MA956 superalloy, proposed as a prosthetic biomaterial, generates a compact and inert a-alumina surface layer. The aim of this study is to assess the wear resistance provided by this alumina layer on the MA956 alloy in comparison with the same coated alloy and versus high density polyethylene. Comparative wear tests were carried out in both dry and wet conditions using the couples MA956/MA956, MA956/UHMWPE (ultra high molecular weight polyethylene and 316LVM/UHMWPE. The results corresponding to the couples MA956/MA956, with and without alumina layer, show that the load has more significant effect than the rotation speed on the weight loss and on the roughness. On the other hand the alumina surface layer provides a clear wear protection. The weight losses of the MA956 specimen in this couple are ten times lower when testing under wet conditions than under dry conditions. The MA956/UHMWPE couple behaves much better than the 316LVM/UHMWPE, as it presents the lowest values of friction coefíicient and weight losses of the MA956 specimen. These are only detectable after 70,000 cycles under a 70 MPa contact pressure. This couple offers the best guarantee of a prolonged service life for articulated parts in a prosthesis.

    La superaleación MA956, que se ha propuesto como biomaterial para prótesis osteoarticulares genera, mediante un adecuado tratamiento de preoxidación, una capa superficial, compacta e inerte, de alúmina alfa. El objetivo del presente trabajo es el estudio de la resistencia al desgaste de esta capa de alúmina, cuando se encuentra en contacto con la propia aleación recubierta y con polietileno de alta densidad. Se realizaron ensayos comparativos de desgaste, tanto en seco como en húmedo, con los pares MA956/MA956, MA956/UHMWPE (polietileno de muy elevado peso molecular y 316LVM/UHMWPE. Los resultados obtenidos con el par MA956/MA956, con y sin capa de alúmina, indican que la carga es el factor de mayor

  6. Preliminary Assessment on Autecological Studies of Beardless Barb, Cyclocheilichthys apogon (Valenciennes, 1842) from Muda Reservoir of Kedah, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosli, Nor Aziella Mohd; Zain, Khaironizam Md

    2016-11-01

    Like many other countries, reservoirs in Malaysia are primarily built for various functions such as hydroelectric power generation, drinking water supply, flood mitigation and irrigation for agricultural purposes. Artisanal fisheries activities were also performed in these reservoirs. The freshwater fish are a requisite source of protein for the rural population. Consequently, the fish resources in reservoirs should be carefully maintained at sustainable level. Present study elucidates the preliminary assessment on autecological studies of beardless barb, Cyclocheilichthys apogon as a model of fish biota in Muda Reservoir. This research investigates the growth pattern of C. apogon using length-weight relationship and their condition factor. A total of 307 specimens were captured using cast net for six consecutive months from March 2014 until August 2014. The growth coefficient (b) from the length-weight equation (W = aL b ) for male and female of C. apogon were 3.150 and 3.185, respectively, indicating positive allometric growth. The condition factor values of male and female of C. apogon were 1.023 ± 0.111 and 1.026 ± 0.100, respectively, suggesting that C. apogon is in good condition in Muda Reservoir. The paucity of research on the autecological study in the Muda Reservoir contributes to the main reason of performing this research. The findings will serve as baseline information of this species in Muda Reservoir, as well as for comparative study in the future.

  7. Game theory and fuzzy programming approaches for bi-objective optimization of reservoir watershed management: a case study in Namazgah reservoir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Üçler, N; Engin, G Onkal; Köçken, H G; Öncel, M S

    2015-05-01

    In this study, game theory and fuzzy programming approaches were used to balance economic and environmental impacts in the Namazgah reservoir, Turkey. The main goals identified were to maximize economic benefits of land use and to protect water quality of reservoir and land resources. Total phosphorous load (kg ha(-1) year(-1)) and economic income (USD ha(-1) year(-1)) from land use were determined as environmental value and economic value, respectively. The surface area of existing land use types, which are grouped under 10 headings according to the investigations on the watershed area, and the constraint values for the watershed were calculated using aerial photos, master plans, and basin slope map. The results of fuzzy programming approach were found to be very close to the results of the game theory model. It was concluded that the amount of fertilizer used in the current situation presents a danger to the reservoir and, therefore, unnecessary fertilizer use should be prevented. Additionally, nuts, fruit, and vegetable cultivation, instead of wheat and corn cultivation, was found to be more suitable due to their high economic income and low total phosphorus (TP) load. Apart from agricultural activities, livestock farming should also be considered in the area as a second source of income. It is believed that the results obtained in this study will help decision makers to identify possible problems of the watershed.

  8. Application Of Total Quality Management In Islamic Education: A Case Study Of Madrasah Aliyah (Ma) Al-hikmah, Karangmojo, Gunung Kidul, YOGYAKARTA

    OpenAIRE

    Sulistyorini, Siska

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines how Total Quality Management in Islamic School can fulfill market demands of quality graduates using Madrasah Aliyah (MA) Al-Hikmah Karangmojo Gunung Kidul Yogyakarta as a case study. Based on the research's findings, it will show that: (1) in terms of service management, MA al-Hikmah provides service to the customers –the students- by not charging them any fees for educational operational costs, accommodation, health assurance, and educational facilities such as books and...

  9. APPLICATION OF TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT IN ISLAMIC EDUCATION: A Case Study of Madrasah Aliyah (MA) Al-Hikmah, Karangmojo, Gunung Kidul, Yogyakarta

    OpenAIRE

    Sulistyorini, Siska

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines how Total Quality Management in Islamic School can fulfill market demands of quality graduates using Madrasah Aliyah (MA) Al-Hikmah Karangmojo Gunung Kidul Yogyakarta as a case study. Based on the research’s findings, it will show that: (1) in terms of service management, MA al-Hikmah provides service to the customers –the students- by not charging them any fees for educational operational costs, accommodation, health assurance, and educational facilities such as books and...

  10. Trap-efficiency study, Highland Creek flood retarding reservoir near Kelseyville, California, water years 1966-77

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trujillo, L.F.

    1980-01-01

    This investigation is part of a nationwide study of trap efficiency of detention reservoirs. In this report, trap efficiency was computed from reservoir inflow and outflow sediment data and from reservoir survey and outflow data. Highland Creek Reservoir is a flood retarding reservoir located in Lake County, near Kelseyville, California. This reservoir has a maximum storage capacity of 3,199 acre-feet and permanent pool storage of 921 acre-feet. Mean annual rainfall for the 14.1-square-mile drainage area above Highland Creek Dam was 29 inches during the December 1965 to September 1977 study period. Resultant mean annual runoff was 17,100 acre-feet. Total reservoir inflow for the 11.8-year study period was 202,000 acre-feet, transporting an estimated 126,000 tons (10,700 tons per year) of suspended sediment. Total reservoir outflow for the same period was 188,700 acre-feet, including 15,230 tons (1,290 tons per year) of sediment. Estimated trap efficiency for the study period was 88%, based on estimated sediment inflow and measured sediment outflow. Reservoir surveys made in December 1965 and April 1972 revealed a storage capacity loss of 35.8 acre-feet during the 6.3-year period. Computed by using an estimated specific weight, this loss represents 54,600 tons of deposited sediment. Sediment outflow during the same period was 8,890 tons. Trap efficiency for the survey period was 86%. (USGS)

  11. Anti-Ma and anti-Ma2-associated paraneoplastic neurological syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega Suero, G; Sola-Valls, N; Escudero, D; Saiz, A; Graus, F

    Analyse the clinical profile, associated tumour types, and response to treatment of paraneoplastic neurological syndromes associated with antibodies against Ma proteins. A retrospective study of patients with antibodies against Ma proteins identified in a neuroimmunology laboratory of reference. Of the 32 patients identified, 20 showed reactivity against Ma2 only (anti-Ma2 antibodies), 11 against Ma1 and Ma2 (anti-Ma antibodies), and 1 with reactivity against Ma1 only (anti-Ma1 antibodies). The most common clinical presentations were limbic encephalopathy, diencephalic dysfunction, or brainstem encephalopathy, frequently appearing as a combination of these features. Three patients had isolated cerebellar dysfunction with anti-Ma antibodies, and 2 exhibited peripheral nervous system syndrome with anti-Ma2 antibodies. Testicular tumours were the most common neoplasms (40%) in the anti-Ma2 cases. In the group associated with anti-Ma1 antibodies, the most common were lung tumours (36%), followed by testicular tumours. All idiopathic cases were reactive to Ma2. The clinical outcome was significantly better in the anti-Ma2 group. The patient with anti-Ma1 presented with limbic encephalitis and brainstem dysfunction associated with lymphoepithelioma of the bladder. Specifically determining the different reactivities of anti-Ma protein antibodies in order to differentiate between Ma1 and Ma2 antibodies is important because anti-Ma2-associated paraneoplastic syndromes have a better outcome. Lastly, this study is the first to confirm that there may be cases that react exclusively to antibodies against Ma1. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  12. Study of different factors affecting the electrical properties of natural gas reservoir rocks based on digital cores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, Liming; Sun, Jianmeng; Wang, Haitao; Liu, Xuefeng

    2011-01-01

    The effects of the wettability and solubility of natural gas in formation water on the electrical properties of natural gas reservoir rocks are studied using the finite element method based on digital cores. The results show that the resistivity index of gas-wet reservoir rocks is significantly higher than that of water-wet reservoir rocks in the entire range of water saturation. The difference between them increases with decreasing water saturation. The resistivity index of natural gas reservoir rocks decreases with increasing additional conduction of water film. The solubility of natural gas in formation water has a dramatic effect on the electrical properties of reservoir rocks. The resistivity index of reservoir rocks increases as the solubility of natural gas increases. The effect of the solubility of natural gas on the resistivity index is very obvious under conditions of low water saturation, and it becomes weaker with increasing water saturation. Therefore, the reservoir wettability and the solubility of natural gas in formation water should be considered in defining the saturation exponent

  13. Enhanced heavy oil recovery for carbonate reservoirs integrating cross-well seismic–a synthetic Wafra case study

    KAUST Repository

    Katterbauer, Klemens

    2015-07-14

    Heavy oil recovery has been a major focus in the oil and gas industry to counter the rapid depletion of conventional reservoirs. Various techniques for enhancing the recovery of heavy oil were developed and pilot-tested, with steam drive techniques proven in most circumstances to be successful and economically viable. The Wafra field in Saudi Arabia is at the forefront of utilizing steam recovery for carbonate heavy oil reservoirs in the Middle East. With growing injection volumes, tracking the steam evolution within the reservoir and characterizing the formation, especially in terms of its porosity and permeability heterogeneity, are key objectives for sound economic decisions and enhanced production forecasts. We have developed an integrated reservoir history matching framework using ensemble based techniques incorporating seismic data for enhancing reservoir characterization and improving history matches. Examining the performance on a synthetic field study of the Wafra field, we could demonstrate the improved characterization of the reservoir formation, determining more accurately the position of the steam chambers and obtaining more reliable forecasts of the reservoir’s recovery potential. History matching results are fairly robust even for noise levels up to 30%. The results demonstrate the potential of the integration of full-waveform seismic data for steam drive reservoir characterization and increased recovery efficiency.

  14. Assessment of knowledge on cardiovascular disease risk factors by postal survey in residents of Małopolska Voivodeship. Małopolska CArdiovascular PReventive Intervention Study (M-CAPRI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Waśniowska

    2017-05-01

    Using a postal questionnaire for the assessment of knowledge of CVD RFs in the population of Małopolska Voivodeship appeared to have serious limitations due to low participation in the study. Despite this, the results of the study indicate that knowledge on CVD RFs is insufficient. Female gender and higher education were related to more prevalent knowledge on RFs. Family history of CVD was related to better knowledge in women only. Male residents of rural areas and small towns had slightly less knowledge on CVD RFs

  15. Hydrodynamic influence on reservoir sustainability in semi-arid climate: A physicochemical and environmental isotopic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammar, Rawaa; Kazpard, Véronique; El Samrani, Antoine G; Amacha, Nabil; Saad, Zeinab; Chou, Lei

    2017-07-15

    Water scarcity and increasing water demand require the development of water management plans such as establishing artificial lakes and dams. Plans to meet water needs are faced by uprising challenges to improve water quality and to ensure the sustainability of hydro-projects. Environmental isotopes coupled to water physicochemical characteristics were investigated over a biennial cycle to assess both geomorphological and environmental impacts on the water quality of a reservoir situated in an intensively used agricultural watershed under a Mediterranean semi-arid climate. The particularity of the semi-arid climate and the diverse topography generate a continental and orographic rain effect on the isotopic composition of precipitation and the water recharged sources. The studied reservoir responds quickly to land-use activities and climatic changes as reflected by temporal and spatial variations of water chemistry and isotopic composition. Increasing changes in precipitation rate and dry periods significantly modified the water isotopic composition in the reservoir. During the first year, hydrogen (δD) and oxygen (δ 18 O) isotopes are depleted by 6 and 2‰ between dry and wet season, respectively. While a shift of -2‰ for δD and -1‰ for δ 18 O was detected during the second annual cycle. Environmental isotopic compositions demonstrate for the first time the occurrence of groundwater inflow to the central (Cz) and dam (Dz) zones of the Qaraaoun reservoir. The Cz and Dz can be considered as open water bodies subjected to dilution by groundwater inflow, which induces vertical mixing and reverse isotopic stratification of the water column. In the contrary, the river mouth zone acts as a closed system without groundwater intrusion, where heavy water accumulates and may act as a sink for contaminants during dry season. Groundwater influx acts as a dilution factor that renews the hypolimnion, and minimizes the perturbations induced by both internal

  16. Study on Dissipation of Landslide Generated Waves in Different Shape of Reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Y.; Liu, Q.

    2017-12-01

    The landslide generated waves are major risks for many reservoirs located in mountainous areas. As the initial wave is often very huge (e.g. 30m of the height in Xiaowan event, 2009, China), the dissipation of the wave, which is closely connected with the shape of the reservoir (e.g. channel type vs. lake type), is a crucial factor in risk estimation and prevention. While even for channel type reservoir, the wave damping also varies a lot due to details of the shape such as branches and turnings. Focusing on the influence of this shape details on the wave damping in channel type reservoir, we numerically studied two landslide generated wave events with both a triangle shape of the cross section but different longitudinal shape configurations (Xiaowan event in 2009 and an assuming event in real topography). The two-dimensional Saint-Venant equation and dry-wet boundary treatment method are used to simulate the wave generation and propagation processes. The simulation is based on an open source code called `Basilisk' and the adaptive mesh refinement technique is used to achieve enough precision with affordable computational resources. The sensitivity of the parameters representing bed drag and the vortex viscosity is discussed. We found that the damping is relatively not sensitive to the bed drag coefficient, which is natural as the water depth is large compared with wave height. While the vortex viscosity needs to be chosen carefully as it is related to cross sectional velocity distribution. It is also found that the longitudinal shape, i.e. the number of turning points and branches, is the key factor influencing the wave damping. The wave height at the far field could be only one seventh comparing with the initial wave in the case with complex longitudinal shape, while the damping is much weaker in the straight channel case. We guess that this phenomenon is due to the increasing sloshing at these abruptly changed positions. This work could provide a deeper

  17. STUDI KOLEKSI REFERENSI RESERVOIR PENYAKIT DI DAERAH ENZOOTIK PES DI JAWA BARAT DAN JAWA TIMUR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ristiyanto -

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available ENGLISHReservoir Reference Study Collection Disease, particularly rats have been conducted in several areas such as the enzootic plague area in the district of Nongkojajar, Pasuruan, East Java and Ciwidey district, Bandung regency, West Java. These were organized in May-October 2007. The method used for the collection and reference reservoir of disease is rodentia survey methods. Result of the reference collection reservoir of disease is the house rat Rattus tanezumi Nongkojajar found either in the of Pasuruan, East Java (3 rats and the District of Ciwidey (4 rats. Polynesian rat R. exulans, three rats were only found in the District Nongkojajar, whereas three rats R. tiomanicus, three rats were found in Ciwidey. In addition another types of mice were also found 1 Insectivora mice Suncus murinus in the District Ciwidey. Type of rats captured in habitat homes in the District Ciwidey Bandung regency, West Java and Pasuruan, East Java is the same type, namely house rat Rattus tanezumi. Types of mice caught in the habitat garden in the District Ciwidey Bandung regency, West Java (tiomanicus R. tree rats were different from mice found in Pasuruan, East Java (Polynesian rat R. exulans. Local environment in plague enzootic area in Pasuruan, East Java is mountainous and forest conservation area Bromo-Tengger, while District Ciwidey, Bandung is the highland tourism areas / mountainous and agricultural areas.INDONESIAKoleksi referensi reservoir penyakit khususnya tikus telah dilakukan di beberapa daerah enzootik pes seperti di Kecamatan Nongkojajar, Kabupaten Pasuruan, Jawa Timur dan Kecamatan Ciwidey, Kabupaten Bandung, Jawa Barat. Kegiatan tersebut dilaksanakan pada bulan Mei-Oktober 2007. Metode yang digunakan untuk koleksi dan referensi reservoir penyakit adalah metode survei rodensia. Hasil koleksi referensi reservoir penyakit adalah tikus rumah Rattus tanezumi ditemukan baik di Kecamatan Nongkojajar, Kabupaten Pasuruan, Jawa Timur (3 ekor maupun

  18. Genesis Analysis of High-Gamma Ray Sandstone Reservoir and Its Log Evaluation Techniques: A Case Study from the Junggar Basin, Northwest China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Wang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In the Junggar basin, northwest China, many high gamma-ray (GR sandstone reservoirs are found and routinely interpreted as mudstone non-reservoirs, with negative implications for the exploration and exploitation of oil and gas. Then, the high GR sandstone reservoirs’ recognition principles, genesis, and log evaluation techniques are systematically studied. Studies show that the sandstone reservoirs with apparent shale content greater than 50% and GR value higher than 110API can be regarded as high GR sandstone reservoir. The high GR sandstone reservoir is mainly and directly caused by abnormally high uranium enrichment, but not the tuff, feldspar or clay mineral. Affected by formation’s high water sensitivity and poor borehole quality, the conventional logs can not recognize reservoir and evaluate the physical property of reservoirs. Then, the nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR logs is proposed and proved to be useful in reservoir recognition and physical property evaluation.

  19. Surface Reservoir Characterization and Stratigraphic Studies Using Rock Magnetism and EPR in Venezuela: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldana, M.; Diaz, M.; Costanzo-Alvarez, V.

    2007-05-01

    During the last years, the Paleomagnetic and Rock Magnetic Laboratory at the Simon Bolivar University has incorporated studies of rock magnetism and non conventional techniques in geophysics (as Electronic Paramagnetic Resonance or EPR) to solve diverse problems at the Venezuelan oil industry. Particularly, surface reservoir characterization and EPR-Magnetostratigraphic studies have been performed. At some Venezuelan oil fields (Guafita, La Victoria and Furrial) rock magnetic properties studies (e.g. Magnetic Susceptibility (MS)), extractable organic matter (EOM) and organic matter free radical concentration (OMFRC obtained via EPR) analysis have been applied trying to identified, at shallow levels, the "oil magnetic signature" of subjacent reservoirs. The results obtained in non consolidated samples from the first 1500 m of producers and non producers wells, show the existence of MS, EOM and OMFRC anomalies at shallow levels that are associated with an underlying reservoir and/or oil migration. Authigenic spherical aggregates of submicronic FE-rich magnetic crystals, observed by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), are responsible for the detected MS anomalies. These studies allowed to establish a set of criteria (i.e. EPR, EOM and SEM) in order to link, with a minimum uncertainty, near-surface MS anomalies with the underlying reservoir. We have also explored the application of EPR, combined with petrographic, MS analysis, Qn and S-ratios, to characterize stratigraphic facies and identifying depositional environments at various sections in southwestern Venezuela. The different paramagnetic species that have been identified (e.g. manganese, free radicals and different Fe forms) together with the rock magnetic parameters, seem to give valuable information regarding the lithological characteristics of the studied sections. According to our results, as manganese content is related with the redox conditions, it can be used as a paleoenvironmental change index in

  20. Environmental Impact Assessment of reservoir construction: new perspectives for restoration economy, and development: the Belo Monte Power Plant case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tundisi, J G; Matsumura-Tundisi, T; Tundisi, J E M

    2015-08-01

    The Environmental Impact Assessment of reservoir construction can be viewed as a new strategic perspective for the economic development of a region. Based on the principles of a watershed approach a interdisciplinary and multidisciplinary systemic view including biogeophysiographical, economic and socio environmental studies the new vision of a EIA provides a basic substratum for the restoration economy and an advanced model for the true development much well ahead of the modernization aspects of the project of a reservoir construction.

  1. Local Water Management of Small Reservoirs: Lessons from Two Case Studies in Burkina Faso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilmy Sally

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Burkina Faso is actively pursuing the implementation of Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM in its development plans. Several policy and institutional mechanisms have been put in place, including the adoption of a national IWRM action plan (PAGIRE and the establishment so far of 30 local water management committees (Comités Locaux de l’Eau, or CLE. The stated purpose of the CLE is to take responsibility for managing water at sub-basin level. The two case studies discussed in this paper illustrate gaps between the policy objective of promoting IWRM on the one hand, and the realities associated with its practical on-the-ground implementation on the other. A significant adjustment that occurred in practice is the fact that the two CLE studied have been set up as entities focused on reservoir management, whereas it is envisioned that a CLE would constitute a platform for sub-basin management. This reflects a concern to minimise conflict and optimally manage the country’s primary water resource and illustrates the type of pragmatic actions that have to be taken to make IWRM a reality. It is also observed that the local water management committees have not been able to satisfactorily address questions regarding access to, and allocation of, water, which are crucial for the satisfactory functioning of the reservoirs. Water resources in the reservoirs appear to be controlled by the dominant user. In order to correct this trend, measures to build mutual trust and confidence among water users 'condemned' to work together to manage their common resource are suggested, foremost of which is the need to collect and share reliable data. Awareness of power relationships among water user groups and building on functioning, already existing formal or informal arrangements for water sharing are key determinants for successful implementation of the water reform process underway.

  2. Remedial investigation/feasibility study report for lower Watts Bar Reservoir Operable Unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-08-01

    This document is the combined Remedial Investigation and Feasibility Study Report for the Lower Watts Bar Reservoir (LWBR) Operable Unit (OU). The LWBR is located in Roane, Rhea, and Meigs counties, Tennessee, and consists of Watts Bar Reservoir downstream of the Clinch River. This area has received hazardous substances released over a period of 50 years from the U.S. Department of Energy's Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR), a National Priority List site established under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA). As required by this law, the ORR and all off-site areas that have received containments, including LWBR, must be investigated to determine the risk to human health and the environment resulting from these releases, the need for any remedial action to reduce these risks, and the remedial actions that are most feasible for implementation in this OU. Contaminants from the ORR are primarily transported to the LWBR via the Clinch River. Water-soluble contaminants released to ORR surface waters are rapidly diluted upon entering the Clinch River and then quickly transported downstream to the Tennessee River where further dilution occurs. Almost the entire quantity of these diluted contaminants rapidly flows through LWBR. In contrast, particle-associated contaminants tend to accumulate in the lower Clinch River and in LWBR in areas of sediment deposition. Those particle-associated contaminants that were released in peak quantities during the early years of ORR operations (e.g., mercury and 137 Cs) are buried under as much as 80 cm of cleaner sediment in LWBR. Certain contaminants, most notably polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), have accumulated in LWBR biota. The contamination of aquatic biota with PCBs is best documented for certain fish species and extends to reservoirs upstream of the ORR, indicating a contamination problem that is regional in scope and not specific to the ORR

  3. Rock Magnetic and Paleointensity Study of Eastern California's ~83 Ma Golden Bear and Coso Dikes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, M.; Raub, T. D.

    2009-12-01

    Extraordinary intermediate-composition (Kspar +/- quartz andesite porphyry) dikes are coincident with the end of Sierra Nevada magmatism and crop out on both the east and the west sides of Owens Valley, but offset dextrally by >60 km. If this offset represents ancient (possibly Cretaceous) strike-slip partitioning of Pacific-North America plate boundary strain, then at least one of the south- and east-sited Coso dikes might be expected to be paleomagnetically "identical" to its presumed paleo-contiguous, north- and west-sited Golden Bear partner. Accompanying a directional study by Pluhar and colleagues at CSU-Fresno, we are characterizing magnetic mineralogy, fabric, and thermal lability of Coso dikes and the Golden Bear dike. We are also applying the pTRM difference multi-specimen paleointensity technique to these samples, testing for across-Owens Valley correlation.

  4. Upper Khami reservoir study using microscopic thin sections, core and mud lost data and modeling, Bibi Hakimeh oil field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B., Soleimani,

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study is an evaluation of diagenetic processes and reservoir quality of the upper Khami Group in Bibi Hakimeh oil field. The Khami Group is divided into upper (Fahliyan, Gadvan and Dariyan formations and lower parts (Surmeh and Haith formations. Lithologically, Fahliyan and Dariyan formations and Khalij Member of the Gadvan Formation are carbonate and Gadvan Formation is shale. The determined diagenetic processes are dolomitization, glauconitization, anhydritization, mechanical compaction and stylolitization, chertification, pyritization in the upper Khami. Reservoir geological model for describing the structure and fault effects, iso-grade mud loss and fracture maps were constructed by reservoir management system (RMS software. The results revealed that fractures development and as well as the effect of diagenetic processes such as dolomitization and dissolution seem to have increased the reservoir quality. There is good development of fractures in this reservoir. In general, existence of fractures and effects of processes such as dolomitization and dissolution seem to increase the reservoir quality in this field.

  5. Model Studies on the Effectiveness of MBBR Reactors for the Restoration of Small Water Reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowak, Agata; Mazur, Robert; Panek, Ewa; Chmist, Joanna

    2018-02-01

    The authors present the Moving Bed Biofilm Reactor (MBBR) model with a quasi-continuous flow for small water reservoir restoration, characterized by high concentrations of organic pollutants. To determine the efficiency of wastewater treatment the laboratory analysis of physic-chemical parameters were conducted for the model on a semi-technical scale of 1:3. Wastewater treatment process was carried out in 24 h for 1 m3 for raw sewage. The startup period was 2 weeks for all biofilters (biological beds). Approximately 50% reduction in COD and BOD5 was obtained on average for the studied bioreactors. Significant improvements were achieved in theclarity of the treated wastewater, with the reduction of suspension by 60%. The oxygen profile has improved significantly in 7 to 9 hours of the process, and a diametric reduction in the oxidative reduction potential was recorded. A preliminary model of biological treatment effectiveness was determined based on the conducted studies. In final stages, the operation mode was set in real conditions of polluted water reservoirs.

  6. Study on fracture identification of shale reservoir based on electrical imaging logging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Zhou; Lai, Fuqiang; Xu, Lei; Liu, Lin; Yu, Tong; Chen, Junyu; Zhu, Yuantong

    2017-05-01

    In recent years, shale gas exploration has made important development, access to a major breakthrough, in which the study of mud shale fractures is extremely important. The development of fractures has an important role in the development of gas reservoirs. Based on the core observation and the analysis of laboratory flakes and laboratory materials, this paper divides the lithology of the shale reservoirs of the XX well in Zhanhua Depression. Based on the response of the mudstone fractures in the logging curve, the fracture development and logging Response to the relationship between the conventional logging and electrical imaging logging to identify the fractures in the work, the final completion of the type of fractures in the area to determine and quantify the calculation of fractures. It is concluded that the fracture type of the study area is high and the microstructures are developed from the analysis of the XX wells in Zhanhua Depression. The shape of the fractures can be clearly seen by imaging logging technology to determine its type.

  7. Study on Compatibility of Polymer Hydrodynamic Size and Pore Throat Size for Honggang Reservoir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan-Dan Yin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Long core flow experiment was conducted to study problems like excessive injection pressure and effective lag of oil wells during the polymer flooding in Honggang reservoir in Jilin oilfield. According to the changes in viscosity and hydrodynamic dimensions before and after polymer solution was injected into porous media, the compatibility of polymer hydrodynamic dimension and the pore throat size was studied in this experiment. On the basis of the median of radius R of pore throats in rocks with different permeability, dynamic light scattering method (DLS was adopted to measure the hydrodynamic size Rh of polymer solution with different molecular weights. The results state that three kinds of 1500 mg/L concentration polymer solution with 2000 × 104, 1500 × 104, and 1000 × 104 molecular weight matched well with the pore throat in rocks with permeability of 300 mD, 180 mD, and 75 mD in sequence. In this case, the ratios of core pore throat radius median to the size of polymer molecular clew R/Rh are 6.16, 5.74, and 6.04. For Honggang oil reservoir in Jilin, when that ratio ranges from 5.5 to 6.0, the compatibility of polymer and the pore structure will be relatively better.

  8. Design Study of Full Scale Accelerator Driven System (ADS, for Transmuting High Level Waste of MA/Pu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marsodi

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The ADS system used in this study consisting of a high intensity proton linear accelerator, a spallation target, and a sub-critical reactor core. The Pb-Bi spallation target is bombarded by high intensity protons coming from the accelerator. The fast neutrons generated from the spallation reaction were used to drive the sub-critical reactor core. In this ADS system, the neutron source is in the center of reactor core region, so that the neutron distribution was concentrated in the center of core region. In this case, the B/T of MA/Pu could be performed effectively in the center of core region. The neutron energy in the outer region of reactor core was decreased due to the moderation of fuel and coolant materials. Such condition gives a chance to perform Burning and/or Transmutation of LLFPs.The basic parameters of this system are shown in the form of neutronic design, neutron spectrum and B/T rate, including other aspects related to the safety operation system. Furthermore, the analysis of the ADS system was accomplished using ATRAS computer code of the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, JAERI[1]. Due to the complexity of the reactor calculation codes, the author has carried out only those calculations needed for analyzing the neutronics system and some parameters related to the safety system. Design study of the transmutation system was a full-scale power level system of 657.53 MWt sub-critical reactor for an accelerator-driven transmutation system. The liquid Pb-Bi was used together as the spallation target materials and coolant of the system, because of some advantages of Pb-Bi in the system concerning the comparison with the sodium coolant. Moreover, they have a possibility to achieve a hard neutron energy spectrum, avoid a positive void reactivity coefficient, allow much lower system operating temperatures, and are favorable for safety in the event of coolant leakage. The multiplication factor of sub-critical core design was adjusted

  9. Remedial investigation/feasibility study report for Lower Watts Bar Reservoir Operable Unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-03-01

    This document is the combined Remedial Investigation and Feasibility Study Report for the lower Watts Bar Reservoir (LWBR) Operable Unit (OU). The LWBR is located in Roane, Rhea, and Meigs counties, Tennessee, and consists of Watts Bar Reservoir downstream of the Clinch river. This area has received hazardous substances released over a period of 50 years from the US Department of Energy`s Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR), a National Priority List site established under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA). As required by this law, the ORR and all off-site areas that have received contaminants, including LWBR, must be investigated to determine the risk to human health and the environment resulting from these releases, the need for any remedial action to reduce these risks, and the remedial actions that are most feasible for implementation in this OU. Contaminants from the ORR are primarily transported to the LWBR via the Clinch River. There is little data regarding the quantities of most contaminants potentially released from the ORR to the Clinch River, particularly for the early years of ORR operations. Estimates of the quantities released during this period are available for most radionuclides and some inorganic contaminants, indicating that releases 30 to 50 years ago were much higher than today. Since the early 1970s, the release of potential contaminants has been monitored for compliance with environmental law and reported in the annual environmental monitoring reports for the ORR.

  10. Remedial investigation/feasibility study report for Lower Watts Bar Reservoir Operable Unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-03-01

    This document is the combined Remedial Investigation and Feasibility Study Report for the lower Watts Bar Reservoir (LWBR) Operable Unit (OU). The LWBR is located in Roane, Rhea, and Meigs counties, Tennessee, and consists of Watts Bar Reservoir downstream of the Clinch river. This area has received hazardous substances released over a period of 50 years from the US Department of Energy's Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR), a National Priority List site established under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA). As required by this law, the ORR and all off-site areas that have received contaminants, including LWBR, must be investigated to determine the risk to human health and the environment resulting from these releases, the need for any remedial action to reduce these risks, and the remedial actions that are most feasible for implementation in this OU. Contaminants from the ORR are primarily transported to the LWBR via the Clinch River. There is little data regarding the quantities of most contaminants potentially released from the ORR to the Clinch River, particularly for the early years of ORR operations. Estimates of the quantities released during this period are available for most radionuclides and some inorganic contaminants, indicating that releases 30 to 50 years ago were much higher than today. Since the early 1970s, the release of potential contaminants has been monitored for compliance with environmental law and reported in the annual environmental monitoring reports for the ORR

  11. Media Competition Implementation for the Massachusetts Childhood Obesity Research Demonstration Study (MA-CORD: Adoption and Reach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaniece Criss

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The Massachusetts Childhood Obesity Research Demonstration Study (MA-CORD was a multi-level, multi-sector community intervention with a media competition component to provide an overarching synergy and promote awareness of target behaviors to reduce childhood obesity. Students participating in the media competition were tasked with developing videos, song/rap lyrics, and artwork that reflected the goals. The aim of this study is to document the process used to develop and implement the media competition along with its reach and adoption. An adapted version of Neta and colleagues’ 2015 framework on dissemination and implementation was used to summarize the process by which the media competition was developed and implemented. Adoption was defined by whether eligible schools or afterschool programs decided to implement the media competition. Reach was defined by student participation rates within schools/programs and the number of votes cast for the finalists on the coalition website and students’ paper ballots. A total of 595 students participated in the media competition from 18 school and afterschool programs in two communities. Adoption of the media competitions ranged from 22% to 100% in programs and reach ranged from 3% to 33% of the student population. The documentation of the implementation should contribute to the replication of the media competition.

  12. Simulation of the mulltizones clastic reservoir: A case study of Upper Qishn Clastic Member, Masila Basin-Yemen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khamis, Mohamed; Marta, Ebrahim Bin; Al Natifi, Ali; Fattah, Khaled Abdel; Lashin, Aref

    2017-06-01

    The Upper Qishn Clastic Member is one of the main oil-bearing reservoirs that are located at Masila Basin-Yemen. It produces oil from many zones with different reservoir properties. The aim of this study is to simulate and model the Qishn sandstone reservoir to provide more understanding of its properties. The available, core plugs, petrophysical, PVT, pressure and production datasets, as well as the seismic structural and geologic information, are all integrated and used in the simulation process. Eclipse simulator was used as a powerful tool for reservoir modeling. A simplified approach based on a pseudo steady-state productivity index and a material balance relationship between the aquifer pressure and the cumulative influx, is applied. The petrophysical properties of the Qishn sandstone reservoir are mainly investigated based on the well logging and core plug analyses. Three reservoir zones of good hydrocarbon potentiality are indicated and named from above to below as S1A, S1C and S2. Among of these zones, the S1A zone attains the best petrophysical and reservoir quality properties. It has an average hydrocarbon saturation of more than 65%, high effective porosity up to 20% and good permeability record (66 mD). The reservoir structure is represented by faulted anticline at the middle of the study with a down going decrease in geometry from S1A zone to S2 zone. It is limited by NE-SW and E-W bounding faults, with a weak aquifer connection from the east. The analysis of pressure and PVT data has revealed that the reservoir fluid type is dead oil with very low gas liquid ratio (GLR). The simulation results indicate heterogeneous reservoir associated with weak aquifer, supported by high initial water saturation and high water cut. Initial oil in place is estimated to be around 628 MM BBL, however, the oil recovery during the period of production is very low (<10%) because of the high water cut due to the fractures associated with many faults. Hence, secondary and

  13. Limno-reservoirs as a new landscape, environmental and touristic resource: Pareja Limno-reservoir as a case of study (Guadalajara, Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Carrión, I.; Sastre-Merlín, A.; Martínez-Pérez, S.; Molina-Navarro, E.; Bienes-Allas, R.

    2012-04-01

    A limno-reservoir is a hydrologic infrastructure with the main goal of generating a body of water with a constant level in the riverine zone of a reservoir, building a dam that makes de limno-reservoir independent from the main body of water. This dam can be built in the main river supplying the reservoir or any tributary as well flowing into it. Despite its novel conception and design, around a dozen are already operative in some Spanish reservoirs. This infrastructure allows the new water body to be independent of the main reservoir management, so the water level stability is its main distinctive characteristic. It leads to the development of environmental, sports and cultural initiatives; which may be included in a touristic exploitation in a wide sense. An opinion poll was designed in 2009 to be carried out the Pareja Limno-reservoir (Entrepeñas reservoir area, Tajo River Basin, central Spain). The results showed that for both, Pareja inhabitants and occasional visitors, the limno-reservoir has become an important touristic resource, mainly demanded during summer season. The performance of leisure activities (especially swimming) are being the main brand of this novel hydraulic and environmental infrastructure, playing a role as corrective and/or compensatory action which is needed to apply in order to mitigate the environmental impacts of the large hydraulic constructions.

  14. Study Of Rock Physics And Seismic Attributes Of Hydrocarbon Reservoirs In Sabah Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    anak Penguang, Adelynna Shirley; Almanna Lubis, Luluan; Hermana, Maman; Deva Prasad Ghosh, Dr., Prof.

    2017-10-01

    Elastic moduli are known to discriminate fluid and lithology for effective reservoir characterization. However, in some cases, the elastic modulus can also show the same response for different type of fluid and lithology. In our study area, a few elastic moduli were used to evaluate the hydrocarbon sands, water sand and shale as identified based on well log response. Seismic attributes such as Relative Acoustic Impedance attribute and RMS amplitude attribute are also applied to confirm the well log analysis and investigate the seismic response. Based on the results, the effective elastic moduli for our study area is the Lambda-Mu-Rho, Velocity Ratio (Vp/Vs), Poisson's ratio and Scaled Inverse Quality (Q) Ratio. The seismic attributes such as the Relative Acoustic Impedance highlights the impedance difference between the formations while RMS amplitude shows the hydrocarbon presence. The workflow of this study is applicable for other areas for effective fluid and lithology delineation.

  15. Evaluation of Standard Concepts Design of Library Interior Physical Environment (Case Study at University of Ma Chung

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debri Haryndia Putri

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Currently the function of a room is not only used as a shelter, the function of the room itself to be increased as a refreshing or relaxation area for users to follow the development of creativity and technology in the field of design. The comfortable factor becomes the main factor that indicates a successful process of creating a space. No exception library. The nature of library seemed stiff because of its function as a place to read, now can be developed and made into more dynamic with the special design concepts or color patterns used. Libraries can be created a special concept that suits the characteristics of the users themselves. Most users of the library, especially in college libraries are teenagers. Naturally, teenagers like to gather with their friends and we have to facilitate this activity in our library design concept. In addition we can also determine the needs of users through research by questionnaire method. The answers of users can be mapped and drawn conclusions. To explore the research, the author reviewed some literature about library interior design and observed the library of Ma Chung University as a case study. The combined results of the method can be concluded and the discovery of ideal standards of physical environment. So, the library can be made as a comfortable reading environment so as to increased interest in reading behavior and the frequent visits of students in the library.

  16. Interactions of structurally modified surfactants with reservoir minerals: Calorimetric, spectroscopic and electrokinetic study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Somasundaran, P.; Sivakumar, A.; Xu, Q.

    1991-03-01

    The objective of this project is to elucidate mechanisms of adsorption of structurally modified surfactants on reservoir minerals and to develop a full understanding of the effect of the surfactant structure on the nature of the adsorbed layers at the molecular level. An additional aim is to study the adsorption of surfactant mixtures on simple well-characterized minerals and on complex minerals representing real conditions. The practical goal of these studies is the identification of the optimum surfactant structures and their combinations for micellar flooding. In this work, the experiments on adsorption were focussed on the position of sulfonate and methyl groups on the aromatic ring of alkyl xylene sulfonates. A multi-pronged approach consisting of calorimetry, electrokinetics, wettability and spectroscopy is planned to elucidate the adsorption mechanism of surfactants and their mixtures on minerals such as alumina and kaolinite. 32 refs., 15 figs., 7 tabs.

  17. Vortices in dam reservoir: A case study of Karun III dam

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Vertical anti-vortex walls and anti-vortex plates are usually considered to be among the effective means for eliminating a vortex. The possibility of vortex formation can be observed by its velocity in the reservoir, vθ , which is defined as the tangential velocity on an arbitrary point in the reservoir. As the tangential velocity of ...

  18. Lacustrine Environment Reservoir Properties on Sandstone Minerals and Hydrocarbon Content: A Case Study on Doba Basin, Southern Chad

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumery, N. F. Mohd; Lo, S. Z.; Salim, A. M. A.

    2017-10-01

    The contribution of lacustrine environment as the hydrocarbon reservoir has been widely known. However, despite its growing importance, the lacustrine petroleum geology has received far less attention than marine due to its sedimentological complexity. This study therefore aims in developing an understanding of the unique aspects of lacustrine reservoirs which eventually impacts the future exploration decisions. Hydrocarbon production in Doba Basin, particularly the northern boundary, for instance, has not yet succeeded due to the unawareness of its depositional environment. The drilling results show that the problems were due to the: radioactive sand and waxy oil/formation damage, which all are related to the lacustrine depositional environment. Detailed study of geological and petrophysical integration on wireline logs and petrographic thin sections analysis of this environment helps in distinguishing reservoir and non-reservoir areas and determining the possible mechanism causing the failed DST results. The interpretations show that the correlation of all types> of logs and rho matrix analysis are capable in identifying sand and shale bed despite of the radioactive sand present. The failure of DST results were due to the presence of arkose in sand and waxy oil in reservoir bed. This had been confirmed by the petrographic thin section analysis where the arkose has mineral twinning effect indicate feldspar and waxy oil showing bright colour under fluorescent light. Understanding these special lacustrine environment characteristics and features will lead to a better interpretation of hydrocarbon prospectivity for future exploration.

  19. A Percolation Study of Wettability Effect on the Electrical Properties of Reservoir Rocks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Dengen; Arbabi, Sepehr; Stenby, Erling Halfdan

    1997-01-01

    Measurements of the electrical resistivity of oil reservoirs are commonly used to estimate other properties of reservoirs, such as porosity and hydrocarbon reserves. However, the interpretation of the measurements is based on empirical correlations, because the underlying mechanisms that control...... the electrical properties of oil bearing rocks have not been well understood. In this paper, we employ percolation concepts to investigate the effect of wettability on the electrical conductivity of a reservoir formation. A three-dimensional simple cubic network is used to represent an ideal reservoir formation...... behavior of reservoir resistivities of different wettabilities. It demonstrates that the resistivity index depends on saturation history and wettability. For strongly oil-wet systems, significant hysteresis is expected, while there is little hysteresis for strongly water-wet systems, and some hysteresis...

  20. Preliminary study of a potential CO2 reservoir area in Hungary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sendula, Eszter; Király, Csilla; Szabó, Zsuzsanna; Falus, György; Szabó, Csaba; Kovács, István; Füri, Judit; Kónya, Péter; Páles, Mariann; Forray, Viktória

    2014-05-01

    Since the first international agreement in 1997 (the Kyoto Protocol) the reduction of greenhouse gas emission has a key role in the European Union's energy and climate change policy. Following the Directive 2009/31/EC we are experiencing a significant change in the Hungarian national activity. Since the harmonization procedure, which was completed in May 2012, the national regulation obligates the competent authority to collect and regularly update all geological complexes that are potential for CO2 geological storage. In Hungary the most abundant potential storage formations are mostly saline aquifers of the Great Hungarian Plain (SE-Hungary), with sandstone reservoir and clayey caprock. The Neogene basin of the Great Hungarian Plain was subsided and then filled by a prograding delta system from NW and NE during the Late Miocene, mostly in the Pannonian time. The most potential storage rock was formed as a fine-grained sandy turbidite interlayered by thin argillaceous beds in the deepest part of the basin. It has relatively high porosity, depth and more than 1000 m thickness. Providing a regional coverage for the sandy turbidite, a 400-500 m thick argillaceous succession was formed in the slope environment. The composition, thickness and low permeability is expected to make it a suitable, leakage-safe caprock of the storage system. This succession is underlain by argillaceous rocks that were formed in the basin, far from sediment input and overlain by interfingering siltstone, sandstone and claystone succession formed in delta and shoreline environments and in the alluvial plain. Core samples have been collected from the potential reservoir rock and its cap rock in the Great Hungarian Plain's succession. The water compositions of the studied depth were known from well-log database. Using the information, acquired from these archive documents, we have constructed input data for geochemical modeling in order to to study the effect of pCO2 injection in the potential

  1. Geochemical monitoring using noble gases and carbon isotopes: study of a natural reservoir

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeandel, E.

    2008-12-01

    To limit emissions of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere, CO 2 geological sequestration appears as a solution in the fight against climate change. The development of reliable monitoring tools to ensure the sustainability and the safety of geological storage is a prerequisite for the implementation of such sites. In this framework, a geochemical method using noble gas and carbon isotopes geochemistry has been tested on natural and industrial analogues. The study of natural analogues from different geological settings showed systematic behaviours of the geochemical parameters, depending on the containment sites, and proving the effectiveness of these tools in terms of leak detection and as tracers of the behaviour of CO 2 . Moreover, an experience of geochemical tracing on a natural gas storage has demonstrated that it is possible to identify the physical-chemical processes taking place in the reservoir to a human time scale, increasing interest in the proposed tool and providing general information on its use. (author)

  2. Reservoir engineering studies of the Gladys McCall geopressured-geothermal resource. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lea, C.M.; Lee, K.; Miller, M.A.

    1993-09-01

    Transient pressure analysis techniques have been used to evaluate the performance of the Gladys McCall geopressured-geothermal reservoir. A fault-controlled aquifer influx model has also been developed to account for pressure support observed during both reservoir depletion and recovery phases. The Gladys McCall No. 1 well was drilled and completed in the lower Miocene geopressured sandstones under the US Department of energy geopressured-geothermal research program. The well was shut in october 1987 after producing over 27 MMstb of brine and 676 MMscf gas since October 1983. Eight pressure transient tests were conducted in the well. Analysis of transient pressure data provided a quantitative evaluation of reservoir characteristics, including: (a) formation transmissibility and skin, (b) the size and possible shape of the main producing reservoir, (c) characteristics of the pressure support mechanism. The pressure behavior of 1983 Reservoir Limits Test (RLT) suggested that the Gladys McCall reservoir might have a long narrow shape with the well located off-center. An elongated numerical model developed accordingly was able to reproduce the pressure characteristics show in the test. During both the reservoir production and shut-in periods, pressure buildup tests indicated some degree of external pressure support. Aquifer recharging was believed to be the main source. Based on reservoir material-balance calculations, an aquifer influx model was derived from a conceptual model of water leakage through a partially sealing fault into the reservoir under steady-state conditions. Moreover, a match of the pressure history required that the conductivity of the fault be a function of the pressure difference between the supporting aquifer and the reservoir.

  3. Reservoir engineering studies of the Gladys McCall geopressured-geothermal resource; Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen-Min; Less, K.; Miller, M.A.

    1994-01-01

    Transient pressure analysis techniques have been used to evaluate the performance of the Gladys McCall geopressured-geothermal reservoir. A fault-controlled aquifer influx model has also been developed to account for pressure support observed during both reservoir depletion and recovery phases. The Gladys McCall No. 1 well was drilled and completed in the lower Miocene geopressured sandstones under the US Department of Energy geopressured-geothermal research program. The well was shut in October 1987 after producing over 27 MMstb of brine and 676 MMscf gas since October 1983. Eight pressure transient tests were conducted in the well. Analysis of transient pressure data provided a quantitative evaluation of reservoir characteristics, including: (a) formation transmissibility and skin, (b) the size and possible shape of the main producing reservoir, and (c) characteristics of the pressure support mechanism. The pressure behavior of 1983 Reservoir Limits Test (RLT) suggested that the Gladys McCall reservoir might have a long narrow shape with the well located off-center. An elongated numerical model developed accordingly was able to reproduce the pressure characteristics shown in the test. During both the reservoir production and shut-in periods, pressure buildup tests indicated some degree of external pressure support. Aquifer recharging was believed to be the main source. Based on reservoir material-balance calculations, an aquifer influx model was derived from a conceptual model of water leakage through a partially sealing fault into the reservoir under steady-state conditions. Moreover, a match of the pressure history required that the conductivity of the fault be a function of the pressure difference between the supporting aquifer and the reservoir.

  4. JU-MING MA

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    JU-MING MA. Articles written in Journal of Biosciences. Volume 42 Issue 2 June 2017 pp 209-218 Article. Genetic diagnosis of a Chinese multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2A family through whole genome sequencing · ZHEN-FANG DU PENG-FEI LI JIAN-QIANG ZHAO ZHI-LIE CAO FENG LI JU-MING MA XIAO-PING QI.

  5. Experimental study on the mechanism of hydraulic fracture growth in a glutenite reservoir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xinfang; Zou, Yushi; Li, Ning; Chen, Ming; Zhang, Yinuo; Liu, Zizhong

    2017-04-01

    Glutenite reservoirs are frequently significantly heterogeneous because of their unique depositional environment. The presence of gravel in this type of formation complicates the growth path of hydraulic fracture (HF). In this study, laboratory fracturing experiments were conducted on six large natural glutenite specimens (300 mm × 300 mm × 300 mm) using a true triaxial hydraulic fracturing system to investigate the growth law of HF in glutenite reservoirs. Before the experiments were performed, the rock properties of the gravel particles and matrix in the glutenite specimens were determined using various apparatuses. The effects of gravel size, horizontal differential stress, fracturing fluid type (or viscosity), and flow rate on the HF growth pattern, fracture width, and injection pressure were examined in detail. Similar to previous studies, four types of HF intersections with gravel particles, namely, termination, penetration, deflection, and attraction, were observed. The HF growth path in the glutenite specimens with large gravel (40 mm-100 mm) is likely branched and tortuous even under high horizontal differential stress. The HF growth path in the glutenite specimens with small gravel (less than 20 mm) is simple, but a process zone with multiple thin fractures may be created. Breakdown pressure may increase significantly when HF initiates from high-strength gravel particles, which are mainly composed of quartz. HF propagation is likely limited within high-strength gravel particles, thereby resulting in narrow fractures and even termination. The use of low-viscosity fluids, such as slickwater, and the low injection rate can further limit HF growth, particularly its width. As a response, high extension pressure builds up during fracturing.

  6. Teacher Students' MA Theses--A Gateway to Analytic Thinking about Teaching? A Case Study of Finnish Primary School Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maaranen, Katriina

    2010-01-01

    Finnish teacher education has been higher academic education since 1979. Thus, all primary school teachers graduate as Masters and they conduct an MA thesis. For this research 23 teachers were interviewed in order to determine their conceptions of reflection, teacher research and their future research intentions. These teacher students worked…

  7. Sensitivity analysis and economic optimization studies of inverted five-spot gas cycling in gas condensate reservoir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shams, Bilal; Yao, Jun; Zhang, Kai; Zhang, Lei

    2017-08-01

    Gas condensate reservoirs usually exhibit complex flow behaviors because of propagation response of pressure drop from the wellbore into the reservoir. When reservoir pressure drops below the dew point in two phase flow of gas and condensate, the accumulation of large condensate amount occurs in the gas condensate reservoirs. Usually, the saturation of condensate accumulation in volumetric gas condensate reservoirs is lower than the critical condensate saturation that causes trapping of large amount of condensate in reservoir pores. Trapped condensate often is lost due to condensate accumulation-condensate blockage courtesy of high molecular weight, heavy condensate residue. Recovering lost condensate most economically and optimally has always been a challenging goal. Thus, gas cycling is applied to alleviate such a drastic loss in resources. In gas injection, the flooding pattern, injection timing and injection duration are key parameters to study an efficient EOR scenario in order to recover lost condensate. This work contains sensitivity analysis on different parameters to generate an accurate investigation about the effects on performance of different injection scenarios in homogeneous gas condensate system. In this paper, starting time of gas cycling and injection period are the parameters used to influence condensate recovery of a five-spot well pattern which has an injection pressure constraint of 3000 psi and production wells are constraint at 500 psi min. BHP. Starting injection times of 1 month, 4 months and 9 months after natural depletion areapplied in the first study. The second study is conducted by varying injection duration. Three durations are selected: 100 days, 400 days and 900 days. In miscible gas injection, miscibility and vaporization of condensate by injected gas is more efficient mechanism for condensate recovery. From this study, it is proven that the application of gas cycling on five-spot well pattern greatly enhances condensate recovery

  8. Evaluating National Weather Service Seasonal Forecast Products in Reservoir Operation Case Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielson, A.; Guihan, R.; Polebistki, A.; Palmer, R. N.; Werner, K.; Wood, A. W.

    2014-12-01

    Forecasts of future weather and streamflow can provide valuable information for reservoir operations and water management. A challenge confronting reservoir operators today is how to incorporate both climate and streamflow products into their operations and which of these forecast products are most informative and useful for optimized water management. This study incorporates several reforecast products provided by the Colorado Basin River Forecast Center (CBRFC) which allows a complete retrospective analysis of climate forecasts, resulting in an evaluation of each product's skill in the context of water resources management. The accuracy and value of forecasts generated from the Climate Forecast System version 2 (CFSv2) are compared to the accuracy and value of using an Ensemble Streamflow Predictions (ESP) approach. Using the CFSv2 may offer more insight when responding to climate driven extremes than the ESP approach because the CFSv2 incorporates a fully coupled climate model into its forecasts rather than using all of the historic climate record as being equally probable. The role of forecast updating frequency will also be explored. Decision support systems (DSS) for both Salt Lake City Parley's System and the Snohomish County Public Utility Department's (SnoPUD) Jackson project will be used to illustrate the utility of forecasts. Both DSS include a coupled simulation and optimization model that will incorporate system constraints, operating policies, and environmental flow requirements. To determine the value of the reforecast products, performance metrics meaningful to the managers of each system are to be identified and quantified. Without such metrics and awareness of seasonal operational nuances, it is difficult to identify forecast improvements in meaningful ways. These metrics of system performance are compared using the different forecast products to evaluate the potential benefits of using CFSv2 seasonal forecasts in systems decision making.

  9. Construction of a carbonate reservoir model using pressure transient data : field case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taheri, S. [Petro-Iran, (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ghanizadeh, M. [Tehran Energy, (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Haghighi, M. [Tehran Univ., (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2004-07-01

    Pressure transient data was integrated with other reservoir information to create a geological model of a carbonate reservoir in the Salaman offshore field in Iran. The model was created using seismic and well log data as well as the interpretation of 99 well tests performed in this field. Several features such as sealing faults, aquifer, fracturing and layering systems were observed. Two faults were identified in the northern part of the reservoir. The distance between the major fault and well number 27 was less than predicted from seismic data. An active aquifer and minor fault were also identified near well number 6. A fracture system was identified around well number 22. Most well tests showed communication between different layers of the reservoirs, suggesting interconnected layers in terms of geology. All calculated permeabilities from the well tests were found to be significantly higher than those from core analysis, suggesting that discrete fractures exist throughout the reservoir. The northern region of the reservoir has the highest permeability values and the lowest values are observed in the central part of the reservoir. 18 refs., 6 figs.

  10. Numerical study of sediment and137Cs discharge out of reservoirs during various scale rainfall events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurikami, Hiroshi; Funaki, Hironori; Malins, Alex; Kitamura, Akihiro; Onishi, Yasuo

    2016-11-01

    Contamination of reservoirs with radiocesium is one of the main concerns in Fukushima Prefecture, Japan. We performed simulations using the three-dimensional finite volume code FLESCOT to understand sediment and radiocesium transport in generic models of reservoirs with parameters similar to those in Fukushima Prefecture. The simulations model turbulent water flows, transport of sediments with different grain sizes, and radiocesium migration both in dissolved and particulate forms. To demonstrate the validity of the modeling approach for the Fukushima environment, we performed a test simulation of the Ogaki Dam reservoir over Typhoon Man-yi in September 2013 and compared the results with field measurements. We simulated a set of generic model reservoirs systematically varying features such as flood intensity, reservoir volume and the radiocesium distribution coefficient. The results ascertain how these features affect the amount of sediment or 137 Cs discharge downstream from the reservoirs, and the forms in which 137 Cs is discharged. Silt carries the majority of the radiocesium in the larger flood events, while the clay-sorbed followed by dissolved forms are dominant in smaller events. The results can be used to derive indicative values of discharges from Fukushima reservoirs under arbitrary flood events. For example the generic model simulations indicate that about 30% of radiocesium that entered the Ogaki Dam reservoir over the flood in September 2015 caused by Typhoon Etau discharged downstream. Continued monitoring and numerical predictions are necessary to quantify future radiocesium migration in Fukushima Prefecture and evaluate possible countermeasures since reservoirs can be a sink of radiocesium. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Effect of pore structure on the seepage characteristics of tight sandstone reservoirs: A case study of Upper Jurassic Penglaizhen Fm reservoirs in the western Sichuan Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liqiang Sima

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Tight sandstone reservoirs are characterized by complex pore structures and strong heterogeneity, and their seepage characteristics are much different from those of conventional sandstone reservoirs. In this paper, the tight sandstone reservoirs of Upper Jurassic Penglaizhen Fm in western Sichuan Basin were analyzed in terms of their pore structures by using the data about physical property, mercury injection and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR tests. Then, the seepage characteristics and the gas–water two-phase migration mechanisms and distribution of tight sandstone reservoirs with different types of pore structures in the process of hydrocarbon accumulation and development were simulated by combining the relative permeability experiment with the visual microscopic displacement model. It is shown that crotch-like viscous fingering occurs in the process of gas front advancing in reservoirs with different pore structures. The better the pore structure is, the lower the irreducible water saturation is; the higher the gas-phase relative permeability of irreducible water is, the more easily the gas reservoir can be developed. At the late stage of development, the residual gas is sealed in reservoirs in the forms of bypass, cutoff and dead end. In various reservoirs, the interference between gas and water is stronger, so gas and water tends to be produced simultaneously. The sealed gas may reduce the production rate of gas wells significantly, and the existence of water phase may reduce the gas permeability greatly; consequently, the water-bearing low-permeability tight sandstone gas reservoirs reveal serious water production, highly-difficult development and low-recovery percentage at the late stage, which have adverse impacts on the effective production and development of gas wells.

  12. Thyroid autoantibodies in pregnancy are associated with hypertensive disorders of pregnancy: Ma'anshan Birth Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Yan; Mao, Lei-Jing; Ge, Xing; Huang, Kun; Yan, Shuang-Qin; Ren, Ling-Ling; Hong, Shu-Qing; Gao, Hui; Sheng, Jie; Xu, Yuan-Yuan; Pan, Wei-Jun; Zhu, Peng; Hao, Jia-Hu; Zhu, De-Fa; Tao, Fang-Biao

    2018-03-05

    Hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (HDP) have been associated with adverse health outcomes for both mothers and children. Previous studies examining associations of maternal thyroid autoantibodies with HDP indicate conflicting results. The objective of this study was to examine associations of maternal thyroid autoantibody positivity in the first and the second trimesters with the risk of HDP. In the Ma'anshan Birth Cohort study, a population-based prospective study in China, a total of 3474 pregnant women were enrolled between May 2013 and September 2014. Thyroid autoantibodies, including antithyroperoxidase autoantibody (TPOAb) and antithyroglobulin autoantibody (TgAb), as well as thyroid function tests, were measured in both the first and the second trimesters in 2893 pregnant women. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were conducted to calculate the odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) for the associations between thyroid autoantibodies and HDP. Multivariate logistic regression analyses showed that TPOAb positivity in the first trimester was associated with a 1.80 (95% CI = 1.17-2.78) increased odds of HDP after adjustment for confounders, which was mainly due to an increased risk of gestational hypertension (OR = 1.93, 95% CI = 1.17-3.18). In addition, TgAb positivity in the first trimester was associated with a higher risk of HDP (OR = 1.78, 95% CI = 1.16-2.73) after adjustment for confounders, which was mainly due to an increased risk of gestational hypertension (OR = 1.89, 95% CI = 1.15-3.11). These associations were also seen among euthyroid women. Women with positive TPOAb in the second trimester seemed to have a higher risk of gestational hypertension (OR = 1.87, 95% CI = 1.02-3.43) after adjustment for confounders. However, among euthyroid women, TPOAb positivity in the second trimester was not associated with HDP. The TgAb status in the second trimester was not associated with HDP. Our results show that TPOAb

  13. Reservoir Maintenance and Development Task Report for the DOE Geothermal Technologies Office GeoVision Study.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lowry, Thomas Stephen [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Finger, John T. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Carrigan, Charles R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Foris, Adam [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Kennedy, Mack B. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Corbet, Thomas F. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Doughty, Christine A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Pye, Steven [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Sonnenthal, Eric L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-09-01

    This report documents the key findings from the Reservoir Maintenance and Development (RM&D) Task of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE), Geothermal Technologies Office (GTO) Geothermal Vision Study (GeoVision Study). The GeoVision Study had the objective of conducting analyses of future geothermal growth based on sets of current and future geothermal technology developments. The RM&D Task is one of seven tasks within the GeoVision Study with the others being, Exploration and Confirmation, Potential to Penetration, Institutional Market Barriers, Environmental and Social Impacts, Thermal Applications, and Hybrid Systems. The full set of findings and the details of the GeoVision Study can be found in the final GeoVision Study report on the DOE-GTO website. As applied here, RM&D refers to the activities associated with developing, exploiting, and maintaining a known geothermal resource. It assumes that the site has already been vetted and that the resource has been evaluated to be of sufficient quality to move towards full-scale development. It also assumes that the resource is to be developed for power generation, as opposed to low-temperature or direct use applications. This document presents the key factors influencing RM&D from both a technological and operational standpoint and provides a baseline of its current state. It also looks forward to describe areas of research and development that must be pursued if the development geothermal energy is to reach its full potential.

  14. [Ethnics of the body - a study on the ethical meanings of body in Spinoza and Yi Jae-Ma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeo, I S

    1998-01-01

    Michel Foucault has brought some considerable changes in our way of seeing the human body. He argued that the body is not merely a natural object, but a medium of numerous social messages and even the most favorable habitat of power. According to him, the birth of social institutions, such as asylums, clinics, and jails, have been closely linked to the process of modernization and further that the very process through which the body becomes an object of social control has been an important part of our modernization. He proposed a new concept, viz., the social stigma carved on the body and provided us certain clues that makes us think newly of the boundary between nature and culture. Although his arguments opened a new perspective on our body, it did have a premise of so-called "the passivity of body" as its limitation. The body is not just a purely natural object, nor a purely social construction. It resides at both sides simultaneously and the disease, an incident happened within the body, reveals subtle relationship between these two. Those who see the body as an object of power as such or a medium of certain social messages tend to consider it only as an objective being, yet on the other side of this standpoint, the Cartesian dualism is hidden as a premise. Deleuze defined, in his book on Spinoza, the ethics of Spinoza as a practical study mainly dealing with the mode of existence. Provided that this definition is correct enough, we may term this practical study for the mode of existence of the body as the ethics of the body. Spinoza proposed a very unique view with regard to the body, which differs from that of the Cartesian Dualism. It is based on the entire system of his philosophy, viz., the system of the univocity of substance and the immanence of being which finally appears in the form of ethics. In the later half of this article, a very unique medicine whose starting point is none other than this kind of ethics, a practical study for the mode of existence

  15. Radioecological study of the open reservoirs of the North Kazakhstan area uranium-mining deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kazymbet, P.K.; Bakhtin, M.M.; Imasheva, B.S.; Bud'ko, O.G.

    2003-01-01

    In the paper the radiological data of open reservoirs in the former uranium-mining enterprise territory and settlements are given. The received data show, that both the Kutunguz river and reservoirs close to uranium-mining enterprise are polluted by radionuclides. On the received data it is possible to assume, that the essential contribution to the Kutunguz river contamination by radioactive substances the acting mine 11 water is giving. (author)

  16. A successful case study on development of a giant, highly fractured carbonate heavy-oil reservoir in Iran

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tabibi, M.; Mousavi Mirkalaei, S.M. [National Iranian Oil Co., Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2005-11-01

    Most Iranian heavy oil fields occur in carbonate reservoirs. Consequently, research from other types of reservoirs needs to be carefully tested and applied, as some in situ combustion methods can be dangerous and harmful to carbonate reservoirs. This paper presented results from a case study and planned pilot on an oil field with 3.6 billion barrels of oil in place. Pressure was 1408 psi at 1119 measured drilled depth. Details of previous studies in the field were presented, including a 3-D seismic and side view seismic location study. Details of a fracture study were also presented. A swabbing operation was conducted on a single well in order to identify rock and fluid properties. A progressing cavity pump (PCP) was planned for the well. Stimulation methods for enhanced oil recovery were reviewed, and included cold production such as gas lift or solvent treatment and thermal recovery such as steam injection and cyclic steam stimulation. It was estimated that the planned pilot study would last approximately 5 years. Results indicate that gas lifting methods are a suitable cold stimulation technique option for the carbonate reservoir. Challenges and technical considerations include a geological study; drilling operation; reservoir characterization and various techniques of production. Results gained from cores and surface studies have shown that the field was highly fractured, and that most of the fractures were vertical or sub-vertical. Results of the swabbing operation showed that the use of surface pumps would help to increase flow rate in continuous production.18 refs., 3 tabs., 6 figs.

  17. Sediment management for reservoir

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahman, A.

    2005-01-01

    All natural lakes and reservoirs whether on rivers, tributaries or off channel storages are doomed to be sited up. Pakistan has two major reservoirs of Tarbela and Managla and shallow lake created by Chashma Barrage. Tarbela and Mangla Lakes are losing their capacities ever since first impounding, Tarbela since 1974 and Mangla since 1967. Tarbela Reservoir receives average annual flow of about 62 MAF and sediment deposits of 0.11 MAF whereas Mangla gets about 23 MAF of average annual flows and is losing its storage at the rate of average 34,000 MAF annually. The loss of storage is a great concern and studies for Tarbela were carried out by TAMS and Wallingford to sustain its capacity whereas no study has been done for Mangla as yet except as part of study for Raised Mangla, which is only desk work. Delta of Tarbala reservoir has advanced to about 6.59 miles (Pivot Point) from power intakes. In case of liquefaction of delta by tremor as low as 0.12g peak ground acceleration the power tunnels I, 2 and 3 will be blocked. Minimum Pool of reservoir is being raised so as to check the advance of delta. Mangla delta will follow the trend of Tarbela. Tarbela has vast amount of data as reservoir is surveyed every year, whereas Mangla Reservoir survey was done at five-year interval, which has now been proposed .to be reduced to three-year interval. In addition suspended sediment sampling of inflow streams is being done by Surface Water Hydrology Project of WAPDA as also some bed load sampling. The problem of Chasma Reservoir has also been highlighted, as it is being indiscriminately being filled up and drawdown several times a year without regard to its reaction to this treatment. The Sediment Management of these reservoirs is essential and the paper discusses pros and cons of various alternatives. (author)

  18. Biotelemetry study of spring and summer habitat selection by striped bass in Cherokee Reservoir, Tennessee, 1978. [Morone saxatilis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaich, B.A.; Coutant, C.C.

    1980-08-01

    Habitat selection of 31 adult striped bass was monitored by temperature sensing ultrasonic and radio transmitters in Cherokee Reservoir, Tennessee, from March through October 1978. This study sought to corroborate summer data obtained by Waddle (1979) in 1977 and to examine mechanisms of habitat selection by observing establishment of the summer distribution. During the spring and early summer months the striped bass ranged throughout the study area in the downstream half of the reservoir. Fish stayed near the bottom at the preferred temperatures throughout the whole study, and no individuals were observed in open water. Movement rates of up to 2.6 km/day were estimated, and rates of 1 km/day were common in the spring. By late July they were apparently avoiding low dissolved oxygen (D.O.) concentrations (<3 mg/l) near the bottom of the main reservoir and epilimnion temperatures greater than 22/sup 0/C, and they moved into cool, oxygenated spring or creek channels (refuges). Low movement rates of 0 to 25 m/day within these refuges occurred. The rates of the few migrations between refuges could not be estimated. Tagged fish moved out of the refuges 3 to 4 weeks after the fall overturn when reservoir temperatures approximated 22 to 24/sup 0/C.

  19. DETERMINATION OF DIFFERENT STAKEHOLDER’S THOUGHT REGARDING THE FOREST RESOURCES AND FOREST RESOURCES SUSTAINABLE MANAGEMENT: A Case Study in Maçka State Forest Enterprise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atakan Öztürk

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to determine thoughts and views of stakeholders regarding the forest resources and management in Turkish Forestry. Maçka State Forest Enterprise under Trabzon Forest Regional Directorate was chosen as research area. Six different groups involving urban, rural, managerial, industrial, and recreational stakeholders as well as non-governmental organizations were determined. Interview and public survey methods and Khi-square test were used to attain the aim of the study. The main results were that the forest enterprise was perceived as the rich one with regard to forest existence and, it was put forward pessimistic though for forest future in the forest enterprise and, non-wood forest values were seen more important than the wood values by the stakeholders. The results of the study taken into account in forest resource planning would provide a contribution to sustainable forest resources management for the Maçka State Forest Enterprise.

  20. Hydrocarbon Potential in Sandstone Reservoir Isolated inside Low Permeability Shale Rock (Case Study: Beruk Field, Central Sumatra Basin)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diria, Shidqi A.; Musu, Junita T.; Hasan, Meutia F.; Permono, Widyo; Anwari, Jakson; Purba, Humbang; Rahmi, Shafa; Sadjati, Ory; Sopandi, Iyep; Ruzi, Fadli

    2018-03-01

    Upper Red Bed, Menggala Formation, Bangko Formation, Bekasap Formation and Duri Formationare considered as the major reservoirs in Central Sumatra Basin (CSB). However, Telisa Formation which is well-known as seal within CSB also has potential as reservoir rock. Field study discovered that lenses and layers which has low to high permeability sandstone enclosed inside low permeability shale of Telisa Formation. This matter is very distinctive and giving a new perspective and information related to the invention of hydrocarbon potential in reservoir sandstone that isolated inside low permeability shale. This study has been conducted by integrating seismic data, well logs, and petrophysical data throughly. Facies and static model are constructed to estimate hydrocarbon potential resource. Facies model shows that Telisa Formation was deposited in deltaic system while the potential reservoir was deposited in distributary mouth bar sandstone but would be discontinued bedding among shale mud-flat. Besides, well log data shows crossover between RHOB and NPHI, indicated that distributary mouth bar sandstone is potentially saturated by hydrocarbon. Target area has permeability ranging from 0.01-1000 mD, whereas porosity varies from 1-30% and water saturation varies from 30-70%. The hydrocarbon resource calculation approximates 36.723 MSTB.

  1. Coupling of a reservoir model and of a poro-mechanical model. Application to the study of the compaction of petroleum reservoirs and of the associated subsidence; Couplage d'un modele de gisement et d'un modele mecanique. Application a l'etude de la compaction des reservoirs petroliers et de la subsidence associee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bevillon, D.

    2000-11-30

    The aim of this study is to provide a better description of the rock contribution to fluid flows in petroleum reservoirs. The production of oil/gas in soft highly compacting reservoirs induces important reduction of the pore volume, which increases oil productivity. This compaction leads to undesirable effects such as surface subsidence or damage of well equipment. Analysis of compaction and subsidence can be performed using either engineering reservoir models or coupled poro-mechanical models. Poro-mechanical model offers a rigorous mechanical framework, but does not permit a complete description of the fluids. The reservoir model gives a good description of the fluid phases, but the description of the mechanic phenomenon is then simplified. To satisfy the set of equations (mechanical equilibrium and diffusivity equations), two simulators can be used together sequentially. Each of the two simulators solves its own system independently, and information passed both directions between simulators. This technique is usually referred to the partially coupled scheme. In this study, reservoir and hydro-mechanical simulations show that reservoir theory is not a rigorous framework to represent the evolution of the high porous rocks strains. Then, we introduce a partially coupled scheme that is shown to be consistent and unconditionally stable, which permits to describe correctly poro-mechanical theory in reservoir models. (author)

  2. Experiments with Interaction between the National Water Model and the Reservoir System Simulation Model: A Case Study of Russian River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, J.; Johnson, L.; Cifelli, R.; Chandra, C. V.; Gochis, D.; McCreight, J. L.; Yates, D. N.; Read, L.; Flowers, T.; Cosgrove, B.

    2017-12-01

    NOAA National Water Center (NWC) in partnership with the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP), the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) and other academic partners have produced operational hydrologic predictions for the nation using a new National Water Model (NWM) that is based on the community WRF-Hydro modeling system since the summer of 2016 (Gochis et al., 2015). The NWM produces a variety of hydrologic analysis and prediction products, including gridded fields of soil moisture, snowpack, shallow groundwater levels, inundated area depths, evapotranspiration as well as estimates of river flow and velocity for approximately 2.7 million river reaches. Also included in the NWM are representations for more than 1,200 reservoirs which are linked into the national channel network defined by the USGS NHDPlusv2.0 hydrography dataset. Despite the unprecedented spatial and temporal coverage of the NWM, many known deficiencies exist, including the representation of lakes and reservoirs. This study addresses the implementation of a reservoir assimilation scheme through coupling of a reservoir simulation model to represent the influence of managed flows. We examine the use of the reservoir operations to dynamically update lake/reservoir storage volume states, characterize flow characteristics of river reaches flowing into and out of lakes and reservoirs, and incorporate enhanced reservoir operating rules for the reservoir model options within the NWM. Model experiments focus on a pilot reservoir domain-Lake Mendocino, CA, and its contributing watershed, the East Fork Russian River. This reservoir is modeled using United States Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) HEC-ResSim developed for application to examine forecast informed reservoir operations (FIRO) in the Russian River basin.

  3. Methods for estimating petrophysical parameters from well logs in tight oil reservoirs: a case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Peiqiang; Zhuang, Wen; Mao, Zhiqiang; Tong, Zemin; Sun, Zhongchun; Wang, Zhenlin; Luo, Xingping

    2016-01-01

    Estimating petrophysical parameters from well logs plays a significant role in the exploration and development of tight oil resources, but faces challenges. What’s more, the methods for petrophysical parameters from well logs are paid little attention at present. In this paper, the typical tight oil reservoirs of Northwest China are used as an example. Based on the characteristics of mineralogy and fluids in the study field, the rock is assumed into five components which are clays, quartz and feldspar, carbonates, kerogen and pore fluids (porosity). The sum of kerogen content and porosity is defined as the apparent porosity. Then, two porosity log response equations are established. Once the clay content is determined by an individual method, the quartz and feldspar content, carbonate content and apparent porosity are calculated through the established equations. The kerogen content is the difference of the apparent porosity and porosity from nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) logs. This paper also presents a new approach that combines the complex refractive index method (CRIM) and pseudo Archie method to compute saturation from dielectric logs, which avoids selection for the dielectric constants of each of the minerals. The effectiveness and reliability of these methods are verified by the successful application in the study of the target tight oil play in Northwest China. (paper)

  4. Study of reservoir properties and operational parameters influencing in the steam assisted gravity drainage process in heavy oil reservoirs by numerical simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farshad Dianatnasab

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This study was originally aimed at suggesting a two-dimensional program for the Steam Assisted Gravity Drainage (SAGD process based on the correlations proposed by Heidari and Pooladi, using the MATLAB software. In fact, the work presented by Chung and Butler was used as the basis for this study. Since the steam chamber development process and the SAGD production performance are functions of reservoir properties and operational parameters, the new model is capable of analyzing the effects of parameters such as height variation at constant length, length variation at constant height, permeability variation, thermal diffusivity coefficient variation and well location on the production rate and the oil recovery among which, the most important one is the thermal diffusivity coefficient analysis. To investigate the accuracy and authenticity of the model outcomes, they were compared with the results obtained by Chung and Butler. The privilege of this method over that proposed by Heidari and Pooladi lies in its ability to investigate the effect of thermal diffusivity coefficient on recovery and analyzing the effect of temperature distribution changes on thickness diffusivity. Based on the observations, results reveal that the proposed model gives more accurate predictions compared to the old model proposed by Chung & Butler.

  5. Responses of spatial-temporal dynamics of bacterioplankton community to large-scale reservoir operation: a case study in the Three Gorges Reservoir, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhe; Lu, Lunhui; Guo, Jinsong; Yang, Jixiang; Zhang, Jiachao; He, Bin; Xu, Linlin

    2017-02-13

    Large rivers are commonly regulated by damming, yet the effects of such disruption on bacterioplankton community structures have not been adequately studied. The aim of this study was to explore the biogeographical patterns present under dam regulation and to uncover the major drivers structuring bacterioplankton communities. Bacterioplankton assemblages in the Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR) were analyzed using Illumina Miseq sequencing by comparing seven sites located within the TGR before and after impoundment. This approach revealed ecological and spatial-temporal variations in bacterioplankton community composition along the longitudinal axis. The community was dynamic and dominated by Proteobacteria and Actinobacteria phyla, encompassing 39.26% and 37.14% of all sequences, respectively, followed by Bacteroidetes (8.67%) and Cyanobacteria (3.90%). The Shannon-Wiener index of the bacterioplankton community in the flood season (August) was generally higher than that in the impoundment season (November). Principal Component Analysis of the bacterioplankton community compositions showed separation between different seasons and sampling sites. Results of the relationship between bacterioplankton community compositions and environmental variables highlighted that ecological processes of element cycling and large dam disturbances are of prime importance in driving the assemblages of riverine bacterioplankton communities.

  6. Study of gas production from shale reservoirs with multi-stage hydraulic fracturing horizontal well considering multiple transport mechanisms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaohua Guo

    Full Text Available Development of unconventional shale gas reservoirs (SGRs has been boosted by the advancements in two key technologies: horizontal drilling and multi-stage hydraulic fracturing. A large number of multi-stage fractured horizontal wells (MsFHW have been drilled to enhance reservoir production performance. Gas flow in SGRs is a multi-mechanism process, including: desorption, diffusion, and non-Darcy flow. The productivity of the SGRs with MsFHW is influenced by both reservoir conditions and hydraulic fracture properties. However, rare simulation work has been conducted for multi-stage hydraulic fractured SGRs. Most of them use well testing methods, which have too many unrealistic simplifications and assumptions. Also, no systematical work has been conducted considering all reasonable transport mechanisms. And there are very few works on sensitivity studies of uncertain parameters using real parameter ranges. Hence, a detailed and systematic study of reservoir simulation with MsFHW is still necessary. In this paper, a dual porosity model was constructed to estimate the effect of parameters on shale gas production with MsFHW. The simulation model was verified with the available field data from the Barnett Shale. The following mechanisms have been considered in this model: viscous flow, slip flow, Knudsen diffusion, and gas desorption. Langmuir isotherm was used to simulate the gas desorption process. Sensitivity analysis on SGRs' production performance with MsFHW has been conducted. Parameters influencing shale gas production were classified into two categories: reservoir parameters including matrix permeability, matrix porosity; and hydraulic fracture parameters including hydraulic fracture spacing, and fracture half-length. Typical ranges of matrix parameters have been reviewed. Sensitivity analysis have been conducted to analyze the effect of the above factors on the production performance of SGRs. Through comparison, it can be found that hydraulic

  7. Study of gas production from shale reservoirs with multi-stage hydraulic fracturing horizontal well considering multiple transport mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Chaohua; Wei, Mingzhen; Liu, Hong

    2018-01-01

    Development of unconventional shale gas reservoirs (SGRs) has been boosted by the advancements in two key technologies: horizontal drilling and multi-stage hydraulic fracturing. A large number of multi-stage fractured horizontal wells (MsFHW) have been drilled to enhance reservoir production performance. Gas flow in SGRs is a multi-mechanism process, including: desorption, diffusion, and non-Darcy flow. The productivity of the SGRs with MsFHW is influenced by both reservoir conditions and hydraulic fracture properties. However, rare simulation work has been conducted for multi-stage hydraulic fractured SGRs. Most of them use well testing methods, which have too many unrealistic simplifications and assumptions. Also, no systematical work has been conducted considering all reasonable transport mechanisms. And there are very few works on sensitivity studies of uncertain parameters using real parameter ranges. Hence, a detailed and systematic study of reservoir simulation with MsFHW is still necessary. In this paper, a dual porosity model was constructed to estimate the effect of parameters on shale gas production with MsFHW. The simulation model was verified with the available field data from the Barnett Shale. The following mechanisms have been considered in this model: viscous flow, slip flow, Knudsen diffusion, and gas desorption. Langmuir isotherm was used to simulate the gas desorption process. Sensitivity analysis on SGRs' production performance with MsFHW has been conducted. Parameters influencing shale gas production were classified into two categories: reservoir parameters including matrix permeability, matrix porosity; and hydraulic fracture parameters including hydraulic fracture spacing, and fracture half-length. Typical ranges of matrix parameters have been reviewed. Sensitivity analysis have been conducted to analyze the effect of the above factors on the production performance of SGRs. Through comparison, it can be found that hydraulic fracture

  8. [Studies on seasonal variation and sources of nitrogen and phosphorus in a canyon reservoir used as water source].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ting-lin; Qin, Chang-hai; Li, Xuan

    2013-09-01

    According to a continuous survey on Shibianyu Reservoir located north of the Qinling Mountains which lasted for about one and a half years and a simulation study in laboratory, conclusions were drawn as follows. The average concentrations of total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP) were 2. 67 mg x L(-1) and 0.04 mg x L(-1), respectively, and the highest values were recorded in the high flow period followed by the median water period, while the lowest values were found in the dry period. The reservoir was in severe eutrophication and the content of chlorophyll a and algal cell density reached 50 mg x m(-3) and 10,000 x 10(4) cells x L(-1), respectively. The yearly input and output of TN was respectively 203.1 t and 181.3 t, while the yearly input and output of TP was respectively 4. 2 t and 4.1 t. Exogenous pollution accounted for more than 90% of the total load. The sediment in reservoir showed an accumulation tendency all year round and the net annual accumulation of TN and TP was 20.2 t and 0. 8 t, respectively. The key of controlling reservoir pollution is to control the endogenous pollution.

  9. Geochemical assessment of a subtropical reservoir: a case study in curitiba, Southern Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Godoi, Ricardo Henrique Moreton; Hirata, Patricia Y.; Godoi, Ana F.L.; Cunha, Cynara L.N.; Soares, Ana P.K.; Gobbi, Eduardo F. [Environmental Engineering Department, Federal University of Parana/UFPR, Curitiba, Parana (Brazil); Bitterncourt, Andre V.L. [Department of Geology, Federal University of Parana/UFPR, Curitiba, Parana (Brazil); Jafelicci, Miguel Jr.; Santos, Francisco J. dos; Bini, Rafael [Chemistry Institute, Sao Paulo State University UNESP, Araraquara, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Zara, Liuz F.; Gardolinski, Jose E.F.C.; Reis Neto, Jose M. [University of Brasilia, Planaltina, DC (Brazil); Potgieter-Vermaak, Sanja [Division of Chemistry and Environmental Science, School of Science and the Environment, Manchester Metropolitan University, Manchester (United Kingdom); Department of Chemistry, Micro and Trace Analysis Centre, University of Antwerp, Antwerp (Belgium); Molecular Science Institute, School of Chemistry, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg (South Africa); Rotondo, Giuliana Gatto; Grieken, Rene van [Department of Chemistry, Micro and Trace Analysis Centre, University of Antwerp, Antwerp (Belgium)

    2012-04-15

    Suspended particles and dissolved substances in water provide reactive surfaces, influence metabolic activity and contribute to the net sediment deposition. It therefore plays an important part in the ecology and quality of the water mass. The water quality in reservoirs is crucial and it is naturally maintained by flushing and sedimentation, which continuously remove phosphorus from the water. In some reservoirs, however, these removal processes are countered by recycling of ions which could play a key role to start and/or maintain the eutrophic state. The combination of macro-, trace- and microanalysis techniques can be useful to trace pollution sources through a chemical fingerprint, whether be during an acute environmental disaster or a long-term release of pollutants. The water quality and total metal content of reservoir sediments were assessed in a reservoir, situated in the capital of the Parana State, in the South-Eastern part of Brazil. The goal of this paper was to determine the metal presence in the sediment and metal and ionic speciation in the Green River reservoir water. Water and bed sediment samples, collected from various sites during 2008 and 2009, were investigated using XRF, ICP-OES, ICP-MS, XRD and zeta potential measurements. Based on the results, the heavy metal concentration and chemical composition of the suspended matter in the water samples, as well as the sediment's chemical composition will be discussed. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  10. A combination of streamtube and geostatical simulation methodologies for the study of large oil reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chakravarty, A.; Emanuel, A.S.; Bernath, J.A. [Chevron Petroleum Technology Company, LaHabra, CA (United States)

    1997-08-01

    The application of streamtube models for reservoir simulation has an extensive history in the oil industry. Although these models are strictly applicable only to fields under voidage balance, they have proved to be useful in a large number of fields provided that there is no solution gas evolution and production. These models combine the benefit of very fast computational time with the practical ability to model a large reservoir over the course of its history. These models do not, however, directly incorporate the detailed geological information that recent experience has taught is important. This paper presents a technique for mapping the saturation information contained in a history matched streamtube model onto a detailed geostatistically derived finite difference grid. With this technique, the saturation information in a streamtube model, data that is actually statistical in nature, can be identified with actual physical locations in a field and a picture of the remaining oil saturation can be determined. Alternatively, the streamtube model can be used to simulate the early development history of a field and the saturation data then used to initialize detailed late time finite difference models. The proposed method is presented through an example application to the Ninian reservoir. This reservoir, located in the North Sea (UK), is a heterogeneous sandstone characterized by a line drive waterflood, with about 160 wells, and a 16 year history. The reservoir was satisfactorily history matched and mapped for remaining oil saturation. A comparison to 3-D seismic survey and recently drilled wells have provided preliminary verification.

  11. Study of Carrying Capacity Assesment for Natural Fisheries in Jatibarang Reservoir In Semarang City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sujono, Bambang; Anggoro, Sutrisno

    2018-02-01

    Jatibarang reservoir serves as water supply in dry season and controlling flood in Semarang City. This reservoir is stem Kreo River which cathment areas of 54 km2, pool of area 110 ha and volume is 20 billion m3. This reservoir is potential to develop as natural fisheries area. The goals of this research were to explore existing condition of physical, biological as well as chemical parameter; carrying capacity assessment for natural fisheries; determining appropriate fish species to be developed in Jatibarang reservoir. This research was done in descriptive explorative scheme. Field survey and laboratory analyses were conducted to identify physical, chemical and biological parameters of the water. Physical parameters measured were temperature and water brightness. Chemical parameters measured were pH, DO, phosphate, Ammonia, nitrites and nitrate, while biological parameter measured were chlorophyll-a concentration. Carrying capacity analyses was done referred to the Government Regulation Number 82, 2001 that regulate the management of water quality and water pollution control. Based on the research, it showed that the existing condition of physical, chemical and biological parameters were still good to be used for natural fisheries. Based on TSI index, it classified as eutrofic water. Furthermore, tilapia fish (Oreochromis mossambicus), nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) tawes (Barbonymus gonionotus) and carper fish (Cyprinus carpio) were considered as best species for natural fisheries in Jatibarang Reservoir.

  12. Analysis of effective and organ dose estimation in CT when using mA modulation: A single scanner pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tootell, A; Szczepura, K; Hogg, P

    2017-05-01

    Effective dose (ED) estimation in CT examinations can be obtained by combining dose length product (DLP) with published ED per DLP coefficients or performed using software. These methods do not account for tube current (mA) modulation which is influenced by patient size. The aim of the work was to compare different methods of organ and ED estimation to measured values when using mA modulation in CT chest, abdomen and pelvis examinations. Organ doses from CT of the chest, abdomen and pelvis were measured using digital dosimeters and a dosimetry phantom. ED was calculated. Six methods of estimating ED accounting for mA modulation were performed using ImPACT CTDosimetry and Dose Length Product to ED coefficients. Corrections for the phantom mass were applied resulting in 12 estimation methods. Estimated organ doses from ImPACT CTDosimtery were compared to measured values. Calculated EDs were; chest 12.35 mSv (±1.48 mSv); abdomen 8.74 mSv (±1.36 mSv) and pelvis 4.68 mSv (±0.75 mSv). There was over estimation in all three anatomical regions. Correcting for phantom mass improved agreement between measured and estimated ED. Organ doses showed overestimation of dose inside the scan range and underestimation outside the scan range. Reasonable estimation of effective dose for CT of the chest and abdomen can be obtained using ImPACT CTDosimetry software or k-coefficients. Further work is required to improve the accuracy of ED estimation from CT of the pelvis. Accuracy of organ dose estimation has been shown to depend on the inclusion or exclusion of the organ from the scan range. Copyright © 2017 The College of Radiographers. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Fault assessment for basement reservoir compartmentalization: Case study at Northeast Betara gas field, South Sumatra Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risyad, M.; Suta, I. N.; Haris, A.

    2017-07-01

    Northeast Betara field is situated on the northern part of prolific South Sumatra Basin. It has produced gas from Lower Talang Akar Formation sandstone and over 90 wells have been drilled. A 3D seismic data was acquired in 2000 and reprocessed in 2012 to enhance the subsurface image. In 2013 an exploratory well NEB Base-1 was drilled and made gas and condensate discovery from the subsequent pre-tertiary basement which is confirmed as granite. The well proved fractured basement reservoir play on paleo high of the structure. The absence of full-diameter conventional core prompts well logs and seismic data analysis by using a workstation. Main methods for fracture prediction have been seismic attributes extraction and structural geology studies of basement provided by image logs on a few exploration wells. Ant tracking attribute is widely employed to image seismic event discontinuities due to extensive faults which generated the natural fractures. Delineations well NEB Base-2 was drilled on second paleo high and unfortunately, it did not find any gas indication from pre-tertiary basement target. Seismic structural interpretation and seismic attributes are conducted to image distribution of event discontinuities related to faults or fracture. We found that compartmentalization on basement involved old faults and both paleo high have undergone different structural history and stress character which resulted in separated fractures distribution.

  14. HIV reservoirs and immune surveillance evasion cause the failure of structured treatment interruptions: a computational study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emiliano Mancini

    Full Text Available Continuous antiretroviral therapy is currently the most effective way to treat HIV infection. Unstructured interruptions are quite common due to side effects and toxicity, among others, and cannot be prevented. Several attempts to structure these interruptions failed due to an increased morbidity compared to continuous treatment. The cause of this failure is poorly understood and often attributed to drug resistance. Here we show that structured treatment interruptions would fail regardless of the emergence of drug resistance. Our computational model of the HIV infection dynamics in lymphoid tissue inside lymph nodes, demonstrates that HIV reservoirs and evasion from immune surveillance themselves are sufficient to cause the failure of structured interruptions. We validate our model with data from a clinical trial and show that it is possible to optimize the schedule of interruptions to perform as well as the continuous treatment in the absence of drug resistance. Our methodology enables studying the problem of treatment optimization without having impact on human beings. We anticipate that it is feasible to steer new clinical trials using computational models.

  15. Phytoplankton functional groups for ecological assessment in young sub-tropical reservoirs: case study of the Nam-Theun 2 Reservoir, Laos, South-East Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Martinet

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The early stages following the creation of reservoirs are typically physical and biological unstable periods due to the conversion from a lotic to a lentic ecosystem. The sub-tropical Nam Theun 2 Reservoir (Laos was impounded in 2008. Several limnological parameters were monitored from March 2009 to December 2011 in order to understand the evolution of the phytoplankton community. A strong inter annual variability of hydrodynamic pattern was observed. Rainfall and hydraulic balance were the main physical factors driving the community structure. Periods of highest hydraulic stability led to a phytoplankton biomasses increase. The first assemblages were dominated by the S-C-strategists reaching high biomasses but low diversity. Over the three years, phytoplankton became more diverse due to a diversification of ecological niches, mostly explained by a greater water transparency and a more stable thermal stratification. The applicability of functional groups for biomonitoring in this young sub-tropical reservoir was investigated and compared to a classical taxonomical approach. The dominant functional groups (Lo, A, E, F, N and P characterized the NT2 Reservoir as meso-oligotrophic with a tolerance to low nutrients supply. Our results support the hypothesis that a functional group approach is more informative than a species-based approach to assess trophic level and dissolved organic carbon concentrations in such reservoirs.

  16. Understanding and Mitigating Reservoir Compaction: an Experimental Study on Sand Aggregates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schimmel, M.; Hangx, S.; Spiers, C. J.

    2016-12-01

    Fossil fuels continue to provide a source for energy, fuels for transport and chemicals for everyday items. However, adverse effects of decades of hydrocarbons production are increasingly impacting society and the environment. Production-driven reduction in reservoir pore pressure leads to a poro-elastic response of the reservoir, and in many occasions to time-dependent compaction (creep) of the reservoir. In turn, reservoir compaction may lead to surface subsidence and could potentially result in induced (micro)seismicity. To predict and mitigate the impact of fluid extraction, we need to understand production-driven reservoir compaction in highly porous siliciclastic rocks and explore potential mitigation strategies, for example, by using compaction-inhibiting injection fluids. As a first step, we investigate the effect of chemical environment on the compaction behaviour of sand aggregates, comparable to poorly consolidated, highly porous sandstones. The sand samples consist of loose aggregates of Beaujean quartz sand, sieved into a grainsize fraction of 180-212 µm. Uniaxial compaction experiments are performed at an axial stress of 35 MPa and temperature of 80°C, mimicking conditions of reservoirs buried at three kilometres depth. The chemical environment during creep is either vacuum-dry or CO2-dry, or fluid-saturated, with fluids consisting of distilled water, acid solution (CO2-saturated water), alkaline solution (pH 9), aluminium solution (pH 3) and solution with surfactants (i.e., AMP). Preliminary results show that compaction of quartz sand aggregates is promoted in a wet environment compared to a dry environment. It is inferred that deformation is controlled by subcritical crack growth when dry and stress corrosion cracking when wet, both resulting in grain failure and subsequent grain rearrangement. Fluids inhibiting these processes, have the potential to inhibit aggregate compaction.

  17. Lithofacies paleogeography mapping and reservoir prediction in tight sandstone strata: A case study from central Sichuan Basin, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Zhong

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Sand-rich tight sandstone reservoirs are potential areas for oil and gas exploration. However, the high ratio of sandstone thickness to that of the strata in the formation poses many challenges and uncertainties to traditional lithofacies paleogeography mapping. Therefore, the prediction of reservoir sweet spots has remained problematic in the field of petroleum exploration. This study provides new insight into resolving this problem, based on the analyses of depositional characteristics of a typical modern sand-rich formation in a shallow braided river delta of the central Sichuan Basin, China. The varieties of sand-rich strata in the braided river delta environment include primary braided channels, secondary distributary channels and the distribution of sediments is controlled by the successive superposed strata deposited in paleogeomorphic valleys. The primary distributary channels have stronger hydrodynamic forces with higher proportions of coarse sand deposits than the secondary distributary channels. Therefore, lithofacies paleogeography mapping is controlled by the geomorphology, valley locations, and the migration of channels. We reconstructed the paleogeomorphology and valley systems that existed prior to the deposition of the Xujiahe Formation. Following this, rock-electro identification model for coarse skeletal sand bodies was constructed based on coring data. The results suggest that skeletal sand bodies in primary distributary channels occur mainly in the valleys and low-lying areas, whereas secondary distributary channels and fine deposits generally occur in the highland areas. The thickness distribution of skeletal sand bodies and lithofacies paleogeography map indicate a positive correlation in primary distributary channels and reservoir thickness. A significant correlation exists between different sedimentary facies and petrophysical properties. In addition, the degree of reservoir development in different sedimentary facies

  18. Assessment of Water Quality Improvements Using the Hydrodynamic Simulation Approach in Regulated Cascade Reservoirs: A Case Study of Drinking Water Sources of Shenzhen, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruixiang Hua

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Water quality safety is of critical importance in environmental improvement, particularly with respect to drinking water resources worldwide. As the main drinking water sources in Shenzhen, China, the cascade reservoirs comprising the Shiyan, Tiegang, and Xili Reservoirs are highly regulated and have experienced water quality deterioration in recent years. In this study, a three-dimensional hydrodynamic and water quality model was established using the Environmental Fluid Dynamics Code (EFDC for the cascade reservoirs. The relationships between water quality and improvement measures were quantified and the main pollution sources for individual reservoirs were identified. Results showed that the hydrodynamic and water quality model well captured the spatial and temporal variations of water level, the permanganate concentration index (CODMn, and total nitrogen (TN, with high resolution in the cascade reservoirs. The correlation coefficients between simulations and observations were close to 1.00 for water levels, and over 0.50 for CODMn and TN concentrations. The most effective methods for water quality improvement were the reduction of the runoff load for TN and transferred water load for CODMn in the Shiyan Reservoir, reduction of the transferred water load in the Tiegang Reservoir, and an increase in transfer water volume, especially in the flood season, in the Xili Reservoir. Internal pollution sources also played an important role in water pollution, and thus sedimentation should be cleaned up regularly. This study is expected to provide scientific support for drinking water source protection and promote the application of hydrodynamic model in water quality management.

  19. Stochastic reservoir optimization using El Niño information: case study of Daule Peripa, Ecuador

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gelati, Emiliano; Madsen, Henrik; Rosbjerg, Dan

    2011-01-01

    , each corresponding to a hidden climate state. Climatic information is used as exogenous input and to condition state transitions. We apply the model to the inflow of the Daule Peripa reservoir in western Ecuador, where El Niño events cause anomalously heavy rainfall. El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO...

  20. A welfare study into capture fisheries in cirata reservoir: a bio-economic model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anna, Z.; Hindayani, P.

    2018-04-01

    Capture fishery in inland such as reservoirs can be a source of food security and even the economy and public welfare of the surrounding community. This research was conducted on Cirata reservoir fishery in West Java, to see how far reservoir capture fishery can contribute economically in the form of resource rents. The method used is the bioeconomic model Copes, which can analyze the demand and supply functions to calculate the optimization of stakeholders’ welfare in various management regimes. The results showed that the management of capture fishery using Maximum Economic Yield regime (MEY) gave the most efficient result, where fewer inputs would produce maximum profit. In the MEY management, the producer surplus obtained is IDR 2,610.203.099, - per quarter and IDR 273.885.400,- of consumer surplus per quarter. Furthermore, researches showed that sustainable management regime policy MEY result in the government rent/surplus ofIDR 217.891,345, - per quarter with the average price of fish per kg being IDR 13.929. In open access fishery, it was shown that the producer surplus becomesIDR 0. Thus the implementation of the MEY-based instrument policy becomes a necessity for Cirata reservoir capture fishery.

  1. Vortices in dam reservoir: A case study of Karun III dam

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Typical problems may occur when free surface vortex is present in the reservoir which includes decreasing the efficiency of turbines and their vibration, increasing hydraulic losses at the entrance of power intakes, entraining debris which may cause blockage of trash racks, entraining air into the power tunnel, and reducing ...

  2. A National Probabilistic Study of Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers in Fish from US Lakes and Reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    National estimates were developed for polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in fish from lakes and reservoirs of the conterminous United States (excluding the Laurentian Great Lakes and Great Salt Lake) using an unequal probability design. Predator (fillet) and bottom-dweller (w...

  3. Application of Multispectral Sensors Carried on Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV to Trophic State Mapping of Small Reservoirs: A Case Study of Tain-Pu Reservoir in Kinmen, Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tung-Ching Su

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Multispectral, as well as multi-temporal, satellite images, coupled with measurements, in situ, have been widely applied to the water quality monitoring of reservoirs. However, the spatial resolutions of the current multispectral satellite imageries are inadequate for trophic state mapping of small reservoirs which merely cover several hectares. Moreover, the temporal gap between effective satellite imaging and measurements, in situ, is usually a few days or weeks; this time lag hampers the establishment of regression models between band ratios and water quality parameters. In this research, the RGB and NIR sensors carried on an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV were applied to the trophic state mapping of Tain-Pu reservoir, which is one of the small reservoirs in Kinmen, Taiwan. Due to the limited sampling points and the uncertainty of water fluidity, the average method and the matching pixel-by-pixel (MPP method were employed to search for the optimal regression models. The experimental results indicate that the MPP method can lead to better regression models than the average method, and the trophic state maps show that the averages of Chl-a, TP, and SD are 179.7 μg·L−1, 108.4 μg·L−1, and 1.4 m, respectively.

  4. Optimized reservoir operation model of regional wind and hydro power integration case study: Zambezi basin and South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gebretsadik, Yohannes; Fant, Charles; Strzepek, Kenneth; Arndt, Channing

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The study introduced reliability assessment method of integrated wind–hydropower operation. • The method identifies optimum target power operations that maximizes the firm generation. • We test the proposed method on interconnected system of reservoirs in Southern Africa region. • Results indicate that higher penetration of wind power can be achieved through the proposed frame work of operation. - Abstract: The present study develops a reliability assessment method of wind resource using optimum reservoir target power operations that maximizes the firm generation of integrated wind and hydropower. A combination of water resources model for a system of reservoirs that implements a demand–priority based linear programing algorithm and a single node power grid system model is implemented on hourly time step. This model was accompanied by a global genetic algorithm solver to determine optimum operation targets for each storage reservoir aiming at maximizing the 90th percentile power generation produced by the integration of wind and hydro over the entire simulation period. This model was applied on the reservoir storages and hydropower system in the Zambezi river basin to test if the storage reservoirs could be efficiently be used to offset wind power intermittence in South Africa subjected to the different physical and policy constraints. Based on the optimized target operation and hourly annual real data for the year 2010, the water resources system and power interconnection system were simulated together to assess the maximum firm generation of power as a result of the new wind and hydro combination target for storage hydropower plants. The result obtained indicates that high regulation of wind and hydro can be achieved as a result of combined operation and showed 45% increase in the level of wind penetration in South Africa’s power system over the reference scenario. The result also indicated a reduced level of coal power utilization and

  5. Evaluation of optimal reservoir prospectivity using acoustic-impedance model inversion: A case study of an offshore field, western Niger Delta, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kehinde D. Oyeyemi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The evaluation of economic potential of any hydrocarbon field involves the understanding of the reservoir lithofacies and porosity variations. This in turns contributes immensely towards subsequent reservoir management and field development. In this study, integrated 3D seismic data and well log data were employed to assess the quality and prospectivity of the delineated reservoirs (H1–H5 within the OPO field, western Niger Delta using a model-based seismic inversion technique. The model inversion results revealed four distinct sedimentary packages based on the subsurface acoustic impedance properties and shale contents. Low acoustic impedance model values were associated with the delineated hydrocarbon bearing units, denoting their high porosity and good quality. Application of model-based inverted velocity, density and acoustic impedance properties on the generated time slices of reservoirs also revealed a regional fault and prospects within the field. Keywords: Acoustic impedance, Reservoir characterization, Seismic inversion, Hydrocarbon exploration, Niger Delta

  6. Open System Models of Isotopic Evolution in Earth's Silicate Reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumari, S.; Paul, D.; Stracke, A.

    2016-12-01

    The present-day elemental and isotopic composition of Earth's terrestrial reservoirs can be used as geochemical constraints to study evolution of the crust-mantle system. A flexible open system evolutionary model of the Earth, comprising continental crust (CC), upper depleted mantle (UM) -source of mid-ocean ridge basalts (MORB), and lower mantle (LM) reservoir with an isolated reservoir-source of ocean island basalts (OIB), and incorporating key radioactive isotope systematics (Rb-Sr, Sm-Nd, and U-Th-Pb), is solved numerically at 1 Ma time step for 4.55 Ga, the age of the Earth. The best possible model-derived solution is the one that produces the present-day concentrations as well as isotopic ratios in terrestrial reservoirs, constrained from published data. Various crustal growth scenarios (continuous versus episodic and early versus late) and its effect on the evolution of isotope systematics in the silicate reservoirs have been evaluated. Modeling results suggest that a whole mantle that is compositionally similar to the present-day MORB source is not consistent with observational constraints. However, a heterogeneous mantle model, in which the present-day UM is 60% of the total mantle mass and a lower non-chondritic mantle, reproduces the estimated isotopic ratios and abundances in Earth's silicate reservoirs. Our results shows that mode of crustal growth strongly affects isotopic evolution of silicate Earth; only an exponential crustal growth pattern satisfactorily explains the chemical and isotopic evolution of the crust-mantle system. One notable feature of successful models is an early depletion of incompatible elements (and a rapid decrease in Th/U ratio, κ, in the UM) by the initial 500 Ma, as a result of early formation of continental crust. Assuming a slightly younger age of the Earth (4.45 Ga), our model better satisfies the Pb-isotope systematics in the respective silicate reservoirs, particularly in the UM, and explains the origin of several OIBs

  7. Preliminary study of the aquatic macrophytes of selected fish ponds and reservoirs in Makurdi, Benue State, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Okayi, R.G.; Abe, O.M.

    2003-01-01

    A five months survey was conducted to identify the aquatic macrophytes in fishponds and reservoirs in Makurdi (Benue State, Nigeria) between August and December 1999. A total of 3-prominent aquatic macrophytes were identified: Ipomoea aquatica, Nymphae lotus and Echinochloa pyramidalis at two-study sites (site 1, receives organic manure effluent from a cattle ranch, site 2, receives inorganic fertilizer through application). Ipomoea aquatica were found restricted to site l, while Nymphae lotu...

  8. Fundamental Study of Disposition and Release of Methane in a Shale Gas Reservoir

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yifeng [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Dept. of Nuclear Waste Disposal Research and Analysis; Xiong, Yongliang [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Dept. of Repository Performance; Criscenti, Louise J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Dept. of Geochemistry; Ho, Tuan Ahn [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Dept. of Geochemistry; Weck, Philippe F. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Storage and Transportation Technology; Ilgen, Anastasia G. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Dept. of Geochemistry; Matteo, Edward [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Dept. of Nuclear Waste Disposal Research and Analysis; Kruichak, Jessica N. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Dept. of Nuclear Waste Disposal Research and Analysis; Mills, Melissa M. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Dept. of Nuclear Waste Disposal Research and Analysis; Dewers, Thomas [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Dept. of Geomechanics; Gordon, Margaret E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Dept. of Materials, Devices and Energy Technologies; Akkutlu, Yucel [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States). Dept. of Petroleum Engineering

    2016-09-01

    simulations also indicate that a significant fraction (3 - 35%) of methane deposited in kerogen can potentially become trapped in isolated nanopores and thus not recoverable. We have successfully established experimental capabilities for measuring gas sorption and desorption on shale and model materials under a wide range of physical and chemical conditions. Both low and high pressure measurements show significant sorption of CH4 and CO2 onto clays, implying that methane adsorbed on clay minerals could contribute a significant portion of gas-in-place in an unconventional reservoir. We have also studied the potential impact of the interaction of shale with hydrofracking fluid on gas sorption. We have found that the CH4-CO2 sorption capacity for the reacted sample is systematically lower (by a factor of ~2) than that for the unreacted (raw) sample. This difference in sorption capacity may result from a mineralogical or surface chemistry change of the shale sample induced by fluid-rock interaction. Our results shed a new light on mechanistic understanding gas release and production decline in unconventional reservoirs.

  9. Implementation of personalized self-management support using the self-management screening questionnaire SeMaS; a study protocol for a cluster randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eikelenboom, Nathalie; van Lieshout, Jan; Wensing, Michel; Smeele, Ivo; Jacobs, Annelies E

    2013-10-17

    -management support using the SeMaS questionnaire in chronically ill patients in primary care. By carrying out this study, scientific evidence is built for the effectiveness of personalized self-management support. The Netherlands National Trial Register: NTR3960.

  10. A major upgrade of the sediment echosounder ATLAS PARASOUND and the digital acquisition software ParaDigMA for high-resolution sea floor studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerriets, A.; von Lom-Keil, H.; Spiess, V.; Zwanzig, C.; Bruns, R.

    2003-04-01

    The combination of the ATLAS PARASOUND sediment echosounder, designed by ATLAS Hydrographic, and the digital recording software package ParaDigMA (commercially available as ATLAS PARASTORE-3) for online digitisation, preprocessing and visualisation of recorded seismograms has proven to be a reliable system for high-resolution acoustic sea floor studies. During 10 years of successful operation aboard several research vessels, including R/V Meteor, R/V Sonne and R/V Polarstern, the system has been only slightly modified. Based on this experience, today's PARASOUND/ParaDigMA system has accomplished the step from DOS towards Windows platform and network capability. In cooperation of ATLAS Hydrographic and the Department of Earth Sciences, University of Bremen a major upgrade of the PARASOUND/ParaDigMA system has been developed that adds significant functionality for surveys of sediment structures and sea floor morphology. The innovations primarily concern the control section of the ATLAS PARASOUND echosounder and the ParaDigMA user front end. The previous analogue PARASOUND control terminal has been replaced by a small real time control PC responsible for the control of the echosounder as well as for the continuous digitisation of the data. The control PC communicates via standard network protocols metadata and data with client applications that can display and store the acquired data on different computers on the network. The new network capabilities of the system overcome former limitations and admit a high flexibility with respect to numbers and locations of operator and recording/display PCs. The system now offers a simultaneous parallel registration of the 2.5-5.5kHz parametric signal and the 18kHz NBS signal. This feature in combination with the recording of complete soundings including the entire water column provides the basis for evolving scientific research topics e. g. gas venting. The ParaDigMA recording software now operates on Windows platforms which

  11. [MaRS Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aruljothi, Arunvenkatesh

    2016-01-01

    The Space Exploration Division of the Safety and Mission Assurances Directorate is responsible for reducing the risk to Human Space Flight Programs by providing system safety, reliability, and risk analysis. The Risk & Reliability Analysis branch plays a part in this by utilizing Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) and Reliability and Maintainability (R&M) tools to identify possible types of failure and effective solutions. A continuous effort of this branch is MaRS, or Mass and Reliability System, a tool that was the focus of this internship. Future long duration space missions will have to find a balance between the mass and reliability of their spare parts. They will be unable take spares of everything and will have to determine what is most likely to require maintenance and spares. Currently there is no database that combines mass and reliability data of low level space-grade components. MaRS aims to be the first database to do this. The data in MaRS will be based on the hardware flown on the International Space Stations (ISS). The components on the ISS have a long history and are well documented, making them the perfect source. Currently, MaRS is a functioning excel workbook database; the backend is complete and only requires optimization. MaRS has been populated with all the assemblies and their components that are used on the ISS; the failures of these components are updated regularly. This project was a continuation on the efforts of previous intern groups. Once complete, R&M engineers working on future space flight missions will be able to quickly access failure and mass data on assemblies and components, allowing them to make important decisions and tradeoffs.

  12. Consequences of eutrophication in the management of water resources in Mediterranean reservoirs: A case study of Lake Cedrino (Sardinia, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bachisio Mario Padedda

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available One of the primary detrimental effects of eutrophication is the tendency of nuisance cyanobacterial species to increase in number and biomass in freshwater ecosystems. The aim of this study was to investigate possible management actions to control eutrophication and assure water use of a eutrophic deep Mediterranean climate reservoir, dominated by cyanobacteria. With this goal, we defined the trophic state of Lake Cedrino (Sardinia, Italy and studied its phytoplankton, paying particular attention to cyanobacteria, and to seasonal variation of phytoplankton in relation to seasonal variation of environmental variables. The water samples were collected monthly from September 2010 to August 2011 at differing depths from the surface of the water to the bottom at a station located in the deeper portion of the reservoir. Physical, chemical, nutrient, qualitative and quantitative analyses of phytoplankton were performed, and the trophic state was evaluated based on the Trophic State Index and the OECD model. Abundance of nutrients and phytoplankton (cell density, biomass and chlorophyll a indicated a eutrophic condition of the reservoir. In summer, phytoplankton species composition was dominated by nuisance cyanobacteria, particularly Aphanizomenon flosaquae, thereby requiring management plans for harmful blooms. On the base of lake features, we propose management actions at different scales and levels to resolve eutrophication and to allow water use: from nutrient load reduction in the watershed (primarily from point-sources to deep water aeration, to immediately face an attenuation of eutrophic effects. This study is the first explorative step in planning restoration of Lake Cedrino.

  13. Reservoir optimisation using El Niño information. Case study of Daule Peripa (Ecuador)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelati, Emiliano; Madsen, Henrik; Rosbjerg, Dan

    2010-05-01

    The optimisation of water resources systems requires the ability to produce runoff scenarios that are consistent with available climatic information. We approach stochastic runoff modelling with a Markov-modulated autoregressive model with exogenous input, which belongs to the class of Markov-switching models. The model assumes runoff parameterisation to be conditioned on a hidden climatic state following a Markov chain, whose state transition probabilities depend on climatic information. This approach allows stochastic modeling of non-stationary runoff, as runoff anomalies are described by a mixture of autoregressive models with exogenous input, each one corresponding to a climate state. We calibrate the model on the inflows of the Daule Peripa reservoir located in western Ecuador, where the occurrence of El Niño leads to anomalously heavy rainfall caused by positive sea surface temperature anomalies along the coast. El Niño - Southern Oscillation (ENSO) information is used to condition the runoff parameterisation. Inflow predictions are realistic, especially at the occurrence of El Niño events. The Daule Peripa reservoir serves a hydropower plant and a downstream water supply facility. Using historical ENSO records, synthetic monthly inflow scenarios are generated for the period 1950-2007. These scenarios are used as input to perform stochastic optimisation of the reservoir rule curves with a multi-objective Genetic Algorithm (MOGA). The optimised rule curves are assumed to be the reservoir base policy. ENSO standard indices are currently forecasted at monthly time scale with nine-month lead time. These forecasts are used to perform stochastic optimisation of reservoir releases at each monthly time step according to the following procedure: (i) nine-month inflow forecast scenarios are generated using ENSO forecasts; (ii) a MOGA is set up to optimise the upcoming nine monthly releases; (iii) the optimisation is carried out by simulating the releases on the

  14. Rapid differentiation in a sill-like magma reservoir: a case study from the campi flegrei caldera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappalardo, Lucia; Mastrolorenzo, Giuseppe

    2012-01-01

    In recent decades, geophysical investigations have detected wide magma reservoirs beneath quiescent calderas. However, the discovery of partially melted horizons inside the crust is not sufficient to put constraints on capability of reservoirs to supply cataclysmic eruptions, which strictly depends on the chemical-physical properties of magmas (composition, viscosity, gas content etc.), and thus on their differentiation histories. In this study, by using geochemical, isotopic and textural records of rocks erupted from the high-risk Campi Flegrei caldera, we show that the alkaline magmas have evolved toward a critical state of explosive behaviour over a time span shorter than the repose time of most volcanic systems and that these magmas have risen rapidly toward the surface. Moreover, similar results on the depth and timescale of magma storage were previously obtained for the neighbouring Somma-Vesuvius volcano. This consistency suggests that there might be a unique long-lived magma pool beneath the whole Neapolitan area. PMID:23050096

  15. An integrated study of the Grayburg/San Andres reservoir, Foster and South Cowden fields, Ector County, Texas, Class II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trentham, DGS, Robert C.; Robinson, M.S., William C.; Wider, Kevin; Weinbrandt, Ph.D.,PE, Richard

    2000-04-14

    A project to recover economic amounts of oil from a very mature oil field is being conducted by Laguna Petroleum Corporation of Midland, Texas, with partial funding from a U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) grant to study shallow carbonate rock reservoirs. The objectives of the project are to use modern engineering methods to optimize oil field management and to use geological and geophysical data to recover untapped potential within the petroleum reservoirs. The integration of data and techniques from these disciplines has yielded results greater than those achievable without their cooperation. The cost of successfully accomplishing these goals is to be low enough for even small independent operators to afford. This article is a report describing accomplishments for the fiscal year 1998-1999.

  16. An Integrated Study of the Grayburg/San Andres Reservoir, Foster and South Cowden Fields, Ector County, Texas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robinson, William C.; Trentham, Robert C.; Widner, Kevin; Wienbrandt, Richard

    1999-06-22

    A project to recover economic amounts of oil from a very mature oil field is being conducted by Laguna Petroleum Corporation of Midland, Texas, with partial funding from a U. S. Department of Energy grant to study shallow carbonate rock reservoirs. The objectives of the project are to use modern engineering methods to optimize oil field management and to use geological and geophysical data to recover untapped potential within the petroleum reservoirs. The integration of data and techniques from these disciplines has yielded results greater than those achievable without their cooperation. The cost of successfully accomplishing these goals is to be low enough for even small independent operators to afford. This article is a report describing accomplishments for the fiscal year 1997-1998.

  17. Retrospective study of malaria prevalence and Anopheles genus in the area of influence of the Binational Itaipu Reservoir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falavigna-Guilherme, Ana Lucia; Silva, Allan Martins da; Guilherme, Edson Valdemar; Morais, Dina Lúcia

    2005-01-01

    The importance of hydroelectric dams beside the human interchange in the maintenance of malarious foci and the occurrence of the Anopheles genus on the Binational Itaipu Reservoir were the main points of this retrospective study. Data were collected from existing registrations at National, State and Municipal Health Departments and literature systematic overview, from January 1984 to December 2003. The occurrence of some outbreak of malaria, mainly by Plasmodium vivax, and the prevalence of species of the Anopheles genus different from Anopheles darlingi in the region are discussed. The malaria in the left bank of Paraná River is a focal problem, which must be approached locally through health, educational and social actions to prevent the continuity of outbreaks in the area. Concomitantly, it is necessary to plan and apply effective surveillance measures in the influence area of the Itaipu Reservoir.

  18. Assessing the Habitat Suitability of Dam Reservoirs: A Quantitative Model and Case Study of the Hantan River Dam, South Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyeongsik Kang

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this study was to investigate ecologically healthy regions near a dam reservoir. This study developed a model for assessing habitat suitability as a proxy for the ecological value of reservoirs. Three main factors comprising nine assessment variables were selected and classified as having a habitat suitability (HS between 0 and 1: (1 geomorphic factors of altitude, slope steepness, and slope aspect; (2 vegetation factors of forest physiognomy, vegetation type, and tree age; and (3 ecological factors of land cover, ecological quality index, and environmental conservation value assessment. The spatial distribution of the nine HS indices was determined using geographic information systems and combined into one HS index value to determine ecologically healthy regions. The assessment model was applied to areas surrounding the Hantan River Dam, South Korea. To verify the model, wildlife location data from the national ecosystem survey of the Ministry of Environment were used. Areas with an HS index between 0.73 and 1 were found to contain 72% of observed wildlife locations. Ecologically healthy areas were identified by adding the indices of each variable. The methods shown here will be useful for establishing ecological restoration plans for dam reservoirs in South Korea.

  19. Comparative analysis of measures of viral reservoirs in HIV-1 eradication studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne Eriksson

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available HIV-1 reservoirs preclude virus eradication in patients receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART. The best characterized reservoir is a small, difficult-to-quantify pool of resting memory CD4(+ T cells carrying latent but replication-competent viral genomes. Because strategies targeting this latent reservoir are now being tested in clinical trials, well-validated high-throughput assays that quantify this reservoir are urgently needed. Here we compare eleven different approaches for quantitating persistent HIV-1 in 30 patients on HAART, using the original viral outgrowth assay for resting CD4(+ T cells carrying inducible, replication-competent viral genomes as a standard for comparison. PCR-based assays for cells containing HIV-1 DNA gave infected cell frequencies at least 2 logs higher than the viral outgrowth assay, even in subjects who started HAART during acute/early infection. This difference may reflect defective viral genomes. The ratio of infected cell frequencies determined by viral outgrowth and PCR-based assays varied dramatically between patients. Although strong correlations with the viral outgrowth assay could not be formally excluded for most assays, correlations achieved statistical significance only for integrated HIV-1 DNA in peripheral blood mononuclear cells and HIV-1 RNA/DNA ratio in rectal CD4(+ T cells. Residual viremia was below the limit of detection in many subjects and did not correlate with the viral outgrowth assays. The dramatic differences in infected cell frequencies and the lack of a precise correlation between culture and PCR-based assays raise the possibility that the successful clearance of latently infected cells may be masked by a larger and variable pool of cells with defective proviruses. These defective proviruses are detected by PCR but may not be affected by reactivation strategies and may not require eradication to accomplish an effective cure. A molecular understanding of the discrepancy

  20. A Molecular Epidemiological Study of var Gene Diversity to Characterize the Reservoir of Plasmodium falciparum in Humans in Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leliwa-Sytek, Aleksandra; Smith, Terry-Ann; Peterson, Ingrid; Brown, Stuart M.; Migot-Nabias, Florence; Deloron, Philippe; Kortok, Moses M.; Marsh, Kevin; Daily, Johanna P.; Ndiaye, Daouda; Sarr, Ousmane; Mboup, Souleymane; Day, Karen P.

    2011-01-01

    Background The reservoir of Plasmodium infection in humans has traditionally been defined by blood slide positivity. This study was designed to characterize the local reservoir of infection in relation to the diverse var genes that encode the major surface antigen of Plasmodium falciparum blood stages and underlie the parasite's ability to establish chronic infection and transmit from human to mosquito. Methodology/Principal Findings We investigated the molecular epidemiology of the var multigene family at local sites in Gabon, Senegal and Kenya which differ in parasite prevalence and transmission intensity. 1839 distinct var gene types were defined by sequencing DBLα domains in the three sites. Only 76 (4.1%) var types were found in more than one population indicating spatial heterogeneity in var types across the African continent. The majority of var types appeared only once in the population sample. Non-parametric statistical estimators predict in each population at minimum five to seven thousand distinct var types. Similar diversity of var types was seen in sites with different parasite prevalences. Conclusions/Significance Var population genomics provides new insights into the epidemiology of P. falciparum in Africa where malaria has never been conquered. In particular, we have described the extensive reservoir of infection in local African sites and discovered a unique var population structure that can facilitate superinfection through minimal overlap in var repertoires among parasite genomes. Our findings show that var typing as a molecular surveillance system defines the extent of genetic complexity in the reservoir of infection to complement measures of malaria prevalence. The observed small scale spatial diversity of var genes suggests that var genetics could greatly inform current malaria mapping approaches and predict complex malaria population dynamics due to the import of var types to areas where no widespread pre-existing immunity in the population

  1. Preliminary design study of underground pumped hydro and compressed-air energy storage in hard rock. Volume 8: Design approaches: UPH. Appendix A: Upper reservoir

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-04-01

    Overriding considerations including operating range, volume and lining of reservoir, embankment design, intake/outlet arrangements and filling and make up water provisions were studied within the context of minimizing facility costs and optimizing the plant layout. The study led to the selection of a reservoir formed by embankment of compacted rockfill together with an intake/outlet structure located in the embankment. The reservoir floor and upstream slopes of the embankment will have an asphalt lining to prevent leakage. The material and cost estimates presented are based on the requirements for a 2000 MW plant providing 20,000 MWh of storage with a nominal head of 4600 ft.

  2. Simulation study to determine the feasibility of injecting hydrogen sulfide, carbon dioxide and nitrogen gas injection to improve gas and oil recovery oil-rim reservoir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eid, Mohamed El Gohary

    This study is combining two important and complicated processes; Enhanced Oil Recovery, EOR, from the oil rim and Enhanced Gas Recovery, EGR from the gas cap using nonhydrocarbon injection gases. EOR is proven technology that is continuously evolving to meet increased demand and oil production and desire to augment oil reserves. On the other hand, the rapid growth of the industrial and urban development has generated an unprecedented power demand, particularly during summer months. The required gas supplies to meet this demand are being stretched. To free up gas supply, alternative injectants to hydrocarbon gas are being reviewed to support reservoir pressure and maximize oil and gas recovery in oil rim reservoirs. In this study, a multi layered heterogeneous gas reservoir with an oil rim was selected to identify the most optimized development plan for maximum oil and gas recovery. The integrated reservoir characterization model and the pertinent transformed reservoir simulation history matched model were quality assured and quality checked. The development scheme is identified, in which the pattern and completion of the wells are optimized to best adapt to the heterogeneity of the reservoir. Lateral and maximum block contact holes will be investigated. The non-hydrocarbon gases considered for this study are hydrogen sulphide, carbon dioxide and nitrogen, utilized to investigate miscible and immiscible EOR processes. In November 2010, re-vaporization study, was completed successfully, the first in the UAE, with an ultimate objective is to examine the gas and condensate production in gas reservoir using non hydrocarbon gases. Field development options and proces schemes as well as reservoir management and long term business plans including phases of implementation will be identified and assured. The development option that maximizes the ultimate recovery factor will be evaluated and selected. The study achieved satisfactory results in integrating gas and oil

  3. Ma(d)skulinitet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leer, Jonatan

    Når tv-kokke som Jamie Oliver, Gordon Ramsay og brødrene Price toner frem på skærmen, laver de ikke kun mad. De mixer også maskulinitet. For når en mand laver mad, laver maden også manden. Det mener postdoc Jonatan Leer, der i Ma(ds)kulinitet. Kønskamp i tv-køkkenet præsenterer, hvordan og hvorfor...

  4. MaTeam-projektet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Marikka; Damkjær, Helle Sejer; Højgaard, Tomas

    2011-01-01

    Projektet MaTeam beskrives med fokus på et toårigt forsøg hvor matematiklærerne på 4.-6. klassetrin på fire skoler i Silkeborg Kommune samarbejdede med forfatterne. Projektet handlede om udvikling af matematiklærerkompetencer med fokus på samarbejdet i de fire skolers matematiklærerfagteam. Hoved...

  5. Production Characteristics with Different Superimposed Modes Using Variogram: A Case Study of a Super-Giant Carbonate Reservoir in the Middle East

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chenji Wei

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Heterogeneity of permeability is an important factor affecting the production of a carbonate reservoir. How to correctly characterize the heterogeneity of permeability has become a key issue for carbonate reservoir development. In this study, the reservoirs were categorized into four superimposed modes based on the actual logging data from a super-giant heterogeneous carbonate reservoir in the Middle East. A modified permeability formula in terms of the variogram method was presented to reflect the heterogeneity of the reservoirs. Furthermore, the models of oil production and water cut were established and the analytical solutions were obtained. The calculation results show that the present model can predict the productivity of wells with different heterogeneous layers more accurately and rapidly. The larger the varigoram value, the stronger the heterogeneity of the reservoirs, and the faster the decline of production owing to a quicker reduction of formation pressure. With the increase in variogram value, the relative permeability of the oil phase is smaller and the water phase larger, and the water cut becomes larger. This study has provided a quick and reasonable prediction model for heterogeneous reservoir.

  6. Evaluation of mineral-aqueous chemical equilibria of felsic reservoirs with low-medium temperature: A comparative study in Yangbajing geothermal field and Guangdong geothermal fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiexiang; Sagoe, Gideon; Yang, Guang; Lu, Guoping

    2018-02-01

    Classical geothermometers are useful tools for estimating reservoir temperatures of geothermal systems. However, their application to low-medium temperature reservoirs is limited because large variations of temperatures calculated by different classical geothermometers are usually observed. In order to help choose the most appropriate classical geothermometer for calculating the temperatures of low-medium temperature reservoirs, this study evaluated the mineral-aqueous equilibria of typical low-medium temperature felsic reservoirs in the Yangbajing geothermal field and Guangdong geothermal fields. The findings of this study support that reservoirs in the Guangdong geothermal fields have no direct magma influence. Also, natural reservoirs may represent the intermediate steady state before reaching full equilibrium, which rarely occurs. For the low-medium temperature geothermal systems without the influence of magma, even with seawater intrusion, the process of minerals reaching mineral-aqueous equilibrium is sequential: chlorite and chalcedony are the first, then followed by K-feldspar, kaolinite and K-mica. Chlorite may reach equilibrium at varying activity values, and the equilibrium between K-feldspar and kaolinite or K-feldspar and K-mica can fix the contents of K and Al in the solutions. Although the SiO2 and Al attain equilibrium state, albite and laumontite remain unsaturated and thus may affect low-medium temperature calculations. In this study, the chalcedony geothermometer was found to be the most suitable geothermometer for low-medium temperature reservoirs. The results of K-Mg geothermometer may be useful to complement that of the chalcedony geothermometer in low-medium temperature reservoir systems. Na-K geothermometer will give unreliable results at low-medium temperatures; and Na-K-Ca will also be unsuitable to calculate reservoir temperatures lower than 180 °C, probably caused by the chemical imbalance of laumontite.

  7. Experimental study on magnetically insulated transmission line electrode surface evolution process under MA/cm current density

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, PengFei; Qiu, Aici; Hu, Yang; Yang, HaiLiang; Sun, Jiang; Wang, Liangping; Cong, Peitian

    2016-01-01

    The design of high-current density magnetically insulated transmission line (MITL) is a difficult problem of current large-scale Z-pinch device. In particular, a thorough understanding of the MITL electrode surface evolution process under high current density is lacking. On the “QiangGuang-I” accelerator, the load area possesses a low inductance short-circuit structure with a diameter of 2.85 mm at the cathode, and three reflux columns with a diameter of 3 mm and uniformly distributed circumference at the anode. The length of the high density MITL area is 20 mm. A laser interferometer is used to assess and analyze the state of the MITL cathode and anode gap, and their evolution process under high current density. Experimental results indicate that evident current loss is not observed in the current density area at pulse leading edge, and peak when the surface current density reaches MA/cm. Analysis on electrode surface working conditions indicates that when the current leading edge is at 71.5% of the peak, the total evaporation of MITL cathode structure can be realized by energy deposition caused by ohmic heating. The electrode state changes, and diffusion conditions are reflected in the laser interferometer image. The MITL cathode area mainly exists in metal vapor form. The metal vapor density in the cathode central region is higher than the upper limit of laser penetration density (∼4 × 10 21 /cm 3 ), with an expansion velocity of ∼0.96 km/s. The metal vapor density in the electrode outer area may lead to evident distortion of fringes, and its expansion velocity is faster than that in the center area (1.53 km/s).

  8. Study of the Effect of Clay Particles on Low Salinity Water Injection in Sandstone Reservoirs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sina Rezaei Gomari

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The need for optimal recovery of crude oil from sandstone and carbonate reservoirs around the world has never been greater for the petroleum industry. Water-flooding has been applied to the supplement primary depletion process or as a separate secondary recovery method. Low salinity water injection is a relatively new method that involves injecting low salinity brines at high pressure similar to conventional water-flooding techniques, in order to recover crude oil. The effectiveness of low salinity water injection in sandstone reservoirs depends on a number of parameters such as reservoir temperature, pressure, type of clay particle and salinity of injected brine. Clay particles present on reservoir rock surfaces adsorb polar components of oil and modify wettability of sandstone rocks to the oil-wet state, which is accountable for the reduced recovery rates by conventional water-flooding. The extent of wettability alteration caused by three low salinity brines on oil-wet sandstone samples containing varying clay content (15% or 30% and type of clay (kaolinite/montmorillonite were analyzed in the laboratory experiment. Contact angles of mica powder and clay mixture (kaolinite/montmorillonite modified with crude oil were measured before and after injection with three low salinity sodium chloride brines. The effect of temperature was also analyzed for each sample. The results of the experiment indicate that samples with kaolinite clay tend to produce higher contact angles than samples with montmorillonite clay when modified with crude oil. The highest degree or extent of wettability alteration from oil-wet to intermediate-wet state upon injection with low salinity brines was observed for samples injected with brine having salinity concentration of 2000 ppm. The increase in temperature tends to produce contact angles values lying in the higher end of the intermediate-wet range (75°–115° for samples treated at 50 °C, while their corresponding

  9. Assessment of Reservoir Water Quality Using Multivariate Statistical Techniques: A Case Study of Qiandao Lake, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing Gu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Qiandao Lake (Xin’an Jiang reservoir plays a significant role in drinking water supply for eastern China, and it is an attractive tourist destination. Three multivariate statistical methods were comprehensively applied to assess the spatial and temporal variations in water quality as well as potential pollution sources in Qiandao Lake. Data sets of nine parameters from 12 monitoring sites during 2010–2013 were obtained for analysis. Cluster analysis (CA was applied to classify the 12 sampling sites into three groups (Groups A, B and C and the 12 monitoring months into two clusters (April-July, and the remaining months. Discriminant analysis (DA identified Secchi disc depth, dissolved oxygen, permanganate index and total phosphorus as the significant variables for distinguishing variations of different years, with 79.9% correct assignments. Dissolved oxygen, pH and chlorophyll-a were determined to discriminate between the two sampling periods classified by CA, with 87.8% correct assignments. For spatial variation, DA identified Secchi disc depth and ammonia nitrogen as the significant discriminating parameters, with 81.6% correct assignments. Principal component analysis (PCA identified organic pollution, nutrient pollution, domestic sewage, and agricultural and surface runoff as the primary pollution sources, explaining 84.58%, 81.61% and 78.68% of the total variance in Groups A, B and C, respectively. These results demonstrate the effectiveness of integrated use of CA, DA and PCA for reservoir water quality evaluation and could assist managers in improving water resources management.

  10. Reservoir Simulations of Low-Temperature Geothermal Reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedre, Madhur Ganesh

    The eastern United States generally has lower temperature gradients than the western United States. However, West Virginia, in particular, has higher temperature gradients compared to other eastern states. A recent study at Southern Methodist University by Blackwell et al. has shown the presence of a hot spot in the eastern part of West Virginia with temperatures reaching 150°C at a depth of between 4.5 and 5 km. This thesis work examines similar reservoirs at a depth of around 5 km resembling the geology of West Virginia, USA. The temperature gradients used are in accordance with the SMU study. In order to assess the effects of geothermal reservoir conditions on the lifetime of a low-temperature geothermal system, a sensitivity analysis study was performed on following seven natural and human-controlled parameters within a geothermal reservoir: reservoir temperature, injection fluid temperature, injection flow rate, porosity, rock thermal conductivity, water loss (%) and well spacing. This sensitivity analysis is completed by using ‘One factor at a time method (OFAT)’ and ‘Plackett-Burman design’ methods. The data used for this study was obtained by carrying out the reservoir simulations using TOUGH2 simulator. The second part of this work is to create a database of thermal potential and time-dependant reservoir conditions for low-temperature geothermal reservoirs by studying a number of possible scenarios. Variations in the parameters identified in sensitivity analysis study are used to expand the scope of database. Main results include the thermal potential of reservoir, pressure and temperature profile of the reservoir over its operational life (30 years for this study), the plant capacity and required pumping power. The results of this database will help the supply curves calculations for low-temperature geothermal reservoirs in the United States, which is the long term goal of the work being done by the geothermal research group under Dr. Anderson at

  11. Session: Reservoir Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Renner, Joel L.; Bodvarsson, Gudmundur S.; Wannamaker, Philip E.; Horne, Roland N.; Shook, G. Michael

    1992-01-01

    This session at the Geothermal Energy Program Review X: Geothermal Energy and the Utility Market consisted of five papers: ''Reservoir Technology'' by Joel L. Renner; ''LBL Research on the Geysers: Conceptual Models, Simulation and Monitoring Studies'' by Gudmundur S. Bodvarsson; ''Geothermal Geophysical Research in Electrical Methods at UURI'' by Philip E. Wannamaker; ''Optimizing Reinjection Strategy at Palinpinon, Philippines Based on Chloride Data'' by Roland N. Horne; ''TETRAD Reservoir Simulation'' by G. Michael Shook

  12. Influence of Large Reservoir Operation on Water-Levels and Flows in Reaches below Dam: Case Study of the Three Gorges Reservoir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yunping; Zhang, Mingjin; Zhu, Lingling; Liu, Wanli; Han, Jianqiao; Yang, Yanhua

    2017-11-15

    The Three Gorges Project (TGP) is the world's largest water conservation project. The post-construction low-flow water level at the same discharge below the dam has declined, but there remains disagreement over whether the flood level has increased. Measured water levels and upstream and downstream flow data from 1955 to 2016 show that, post-construction: (1) the low-flow water level at the same discharge decreased, and the lowest water level increased due to dry-season reservoir discharge; (2) the decline of the low-flow water level below the dam was less than the undercutting value of the flow channel of the river; (3) the flood level at the same discharge below the dam was slightly elevated, although peak water levels decreased; (4) flood characteristics changed from a high discharge-high flood level to a medium discharge - high flood level; and (5) an expected decline in the flood level downstream was not observed. Channel erosion and the adjustment of rivers and lakes tend to reduce flood levels, while river bed coarsening, vegetation, and human activities downstream increase the flood level. Although the flood control benefits of the Three Gorges Dam (TGD) and the upstream reservoirs are obvious, increased elevation of the downstream flood level remains a concern.

  13. Environmental quality assessment of reservoirs impacted by Hg from chlor-alkali technologies: case study of a recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Faucheur, Séverine; Vasiliu, Dan; Catianis, Irina; Zazu, Mariana; Dranguet, Perrine; Beauvais-Flück, Rebecca; Loizeau, Jean-Luc; Cosio, Claudia; Ungureanu, Costin; Ungureanu, Viorel Gheorghe; Slaveykova, Vera I

    2016-11-01

    Mercury (Hg) pollution legacy of chlor-alkali plants will be an important issue in the next decades with the planned phase out of Hg-based electrodes by 2025 within the Minamata convention. In such a context, the present study aimed to examine the extent of Hg contamination in the reservoirs surrounding the Oltchim plant and to evaluate the possible improvement of the environmental quality since the closure of its chlor-alkali unit. This plant is the largest chlor-alkali plant in Romania, which partly switched to Hg-free technology in 1999 and definitely stopped the use of Hg electrolysis in May 2012. Total Hg (THg) and methylmercury (CH 3 Hg) concentrations were found to decrease in the surface waters and sediments of the reservoirs receiving the effluents of the chlor-alkali platform since the closure of Hg units. Hence, calculated risk quotients (RQ) indicated no adverse effect of Hg for aquatic organisms from the ambient water exposure. RQ of Hg in sediments were mostly all higher than 1, showing important risks for benthic organisms. However, ecotoxicity testing of water and sediments suggest possible impact of other contaminants and their mixtures. Hg hotspots were found in soils around the platform with RQ values much higher than 1. Finally, THg and CH 3 Hg concentrations in fish were below the food safety limit set by the WHO, which contrasts with previous measurements made in 2007 revealing that 92 % of the studied fish were of high risk of consumption. Discontinuing the use of Hg electrodes greatly improved the surrounding environment of chlor-alkali plants within the following years and led to the decrease environmental exposure to Hg through fish consumption. However, sediment and soil still remained highly contaminated and problematic for the river reservoir management. The results of this ecological risk assessment study have important implications for the evaluation of the benefits as well as limits of the Minamata Convention implementation.

  14. Assessment of Water Quality Improvements Using the Hydrodynamic Simulation Approach in Regulated Cascade Reservoirs: A Case Study of Drinking Water Sources of Shenzhen, China

    OpenAIRE

    Ruixiang Hua; Yongyong Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Water quality safety is of critical importance in environmental improvement, particularly with respect to drinking water resources worldwide. As the main drinking water sources in Shenzhen, China, the cascade reservoirs comprising the Shiyan, Tiegang, and Xili Reservoirs are highly regulated and have experienced water quality deterioration in recent years. In this study, a three-dimensional hydrodynamic and water quality model was established using the Environmental Fluid Dynamics Code (EFDC)...

  15. Will building new reservoirs always help increase the water supply reliability? - insight from a modeling-based global study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Y.; Tian, F.; Yigzaw, W.; Hejazi, M. I.; Li, H. Y.; Turner, S. W. D.; Vernon, C. R.

    2017-12-01

    More and more reservoirs are being build or planned in order to help meet the increasing water demand all over the world. However, is building new reservoirs always helpful to water supply? To address this question, the river routing module of Global Change Assessment Model (GCAM) has been extended with a simple yet physical-based reservoir scheme accounting for irrigation, flood control and hydropower operations at each individual reservoir. The new GCAM river routing model has been applied over the global domain with the runoff inputs from the Variable Infiltration Capacity Model. The simulated streamflow is validated at 150 global river basins where the observed streamflow data are available. The model performance has been significantly improved at 77 basins and worsened at 35 basins. To facilitate the analysis of additional reservoir storage impacts at the basin level, a lumped version of GCAM reservoir model has been developed, representing a single lumped reservoir at each river basin which has the regulation capacity of all reservoir combined. A Sequent Peak Analysis is used to estimate how much additional reservoir storage is required to satisfy the current water demand. For basins with water deficit, the water supply reliability can be improved with additional storage. However, there is a threshold storage value at each basin beyond which the reliability stops increasing, suggesting that building new reservoirs will not help better relieve the water stress. Findings in the research can be helpful to the future planning and management of new reservoirs.

  16. Quantification of pore size distribution in reservoir rocks using MRI logging: A case study of South Pars Gas Field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghojogh, Jalal Neshat; Esmaili, Mohammad; Noruzi-Masir, Behrooz; Bakhshi, Puyan

    2017-12-01

    Pore size distribution (PSD) is an important factor for controlling fluid transport through porous media. The study of PSD can be applicable in areas such as hydrocarbon storage, contaminant transport, prediction of multiphase flow, and analysis of the formation damage by mud infiltration. Nitrogen adsorption, centrifugation method, mercury injection, and X-ray computed tomography are commonly used to measure the distribution of pores. A core sample is occasionally not available because of the unconsolidated nature of reservoirs, high cost of coring operation, and program limitations. Magnetic resonance imaging logging (MRIL) is a proper logging technique that allows the direct measurement of the relaxation time of protons in pore fluids and correlating T 2 distribution to PSD using proper mathematical equations. It is nondestructive and fast and does not require core samples. In this paper, 8 core samples collected from the Dalan reservoir in South Pars Gas Field were studied by processing MRIL data and comparing them by PSD determined in the laboratory. By using the MRIL method, variation in PSD corresponding to the depth for the entire logged interval was determined. Moreover, a detailed mineralogical composition of the reservoir samples related to T 2 distribution was obtained. A good correlation between MRIL and mercury injection data was observed. High degree of similarity was also observed between T 2 distribution and PSD (R 2 = 0.85 to 0.91). Based on the findings from the MRIL method, the obtained values for clay bond water varied between 1E-6 and 1E-3µm, a range that is comprehended from an extra peak on the PSD curve. The frequent pore radius was determined to be 1µm. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Evaluation of optimal reservoir prospectivity using acoustic-impedance model inversion: A case study of an offshore field, western Niger Delta, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyeyemi, Kehinde D.; Olowokere, Mary T.; Aizebeokhai, Ahzegbobor P.

    2017-12-01

    The evaluation of economic potential of any hydrocarbon field involves the understanding of the reservoir lithofacies and porosity variations. This in turns contributes immensely towards subsequent reservoir management and field development. In this study, integrated 3D seismic data and well log data were employed to assess the quality and prospectivity of the delineated reservoirs (H1-H5) within the OPO field, western Niger Delta using a model-based seismic inversion technique. The model inversion results revealed four distinct sedimentary packages based on the subsurface acoustic impedance properties and shale contents. Low acoustic impedance model values were associated with the delineated hydrocarbon bearing units, denoting their high porosity and good quality. Application of model-based inverted velocity, density and acoustic impedance properties on the generated time slices of reservoirs also revealed a regional fault and prospects within the field.

  18. Support vector regression for porosity prediction in a heterogeneous reservoir: A comparative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Anazi, A. F.; Gates, I. D.

    2010-12-01

    In wells with limited log and core data, porosity, a fundamental and essential property to characterize reservoirs, is challenging to estimate by conventional statistical methods from offset well log and core data in heterogeneous formations. Beyond simple regression, neural networks have been used to develop more accurate porosity correlations. Unfortunately, neural network-based correlations have limited generalization ability and global correlations for a field are usually less accurate compared to local correlations for a sub-region of the reservoir. In this paper, support vector machines are explored as an intelligent technique to correlate porosity to well log data. Recently, support vector regression (SVR), based on the statistical learning theory, have been proposed as a new intelligence technique for both prediction and classification tasks. The underlying formulation of support vector machines embodies the structural risk minimization (SRM) principle which has been shown to be superior to the traditional empirical risk minimization (ERM) principle employed by conventional neural networks and classical statistical methods. This new formulation uses margin-based loss functions to control model complexity independently of the dimensionality of the input space, and kernel functions to project the estimation problem to a higher dimensional space, which enables the solution of more complex nonlinear problem optimization methods to exist for a globally optimal solution. SRM minimizes an upper bound on the expected risk using a margin-based loss function ( ɛ-insensitivity loss function for regression) in contrast to ERM which minimizes the error on the training data. Unlike classical learning methods, SRM, indexed by margin-based loss function, can also control model complexity independent of dimensionality. The SRM inductive principle is designed for statistical estimation with finite data where the ERM inductive principle provides the optimal solution (the

  19. unconventional natural gas reservoirs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Correa G, Tomas F; Osorio, Nelson; Restrepo R, Dora P

    2009-01-01

    This work is an exploration about different unconventional gas reservoirs worldwide: coal bed methane, tight gas, shale gas and gas hydrate? describing aspects such as definition, reserves, production methods, environmental issues and economics. The overview also mentioned preliminary studies about these sources in Colombia.

  20. Fracture density determination using a novel hybrid computational scheme: a case study on an Iranian Marun oil field reservoir

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nouri-Taleghani, Morteza; Mahmoudifar, Mehrzad; Shokrollahi, Amin; Tatar, Afshin; Karimi-Khaledi, Mina

    2015-01-01

    Most oil production all over the world is from carbonated reservoirs. Carbonate reservoirs are abundant in the Middle East, the Gulf of Mexico and in other major petroleum fields that are regarded as the main oil producers. Due to the nature of such reservoirs that are associated with low matrix permeability, the fracture is the key parameter that governs the fluid flow in porous media and consequently oil production. Conventional methods to determine the fracture density include utilizing core data and the image log family, which are both time consuming and costly processes. In addition, the cores are limited to certain intervals and there is no image log for the well drilled before the introduction of this tool. These limitations motivate petroleum engineers to try to find appropriate alternatives. Recently, intelligent systems on the basis of machine learning have been applied to various branches of science and engineering. The objective of this study is to develop a mathematical model to predict the fracture density using full set log data as inputs based on a combination of three intelligent systems namely, the radial basis function neural network, the multilayer perceptron neural network and the least square supported vector machine. The developed committee machine intelligent system (CMIS) is the weighted average of the individual results of each expert. Proper corresponding weights are determined using a genetic algorithm (GA). The other important feature of the proposed model is its generalization capability. The ability of this model to predict data that have not been introduced during the training stage is very good. (paper)

  1. Oxygen uptake during mineralization of photosynthesized carbon from phytoplankton of the Barra Bonita Reservoir: a mesocosm study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MB. Cunha-Santino

    Full Text Available This study aimed to discuss and describe the oxygen consumption during aerobic mineralization of organic products (cells and excretion products from five unialgal cultures: Cryptomonas sp., Microcystis aeruginosa, Anabaena spiroides, Thalassiosira sp. and Aulacoseira granulata. These species were isolated from Barra Bonita reservoir (22º 29’ S and 48º 34’ W and cultivated in the laboratory. From each culture, two decomposition chambers were prepared; each chamber contained about 130 mg.L-1 of carbon from water samples of the reservoir. The chambers were aerated and incubated in the dark at 20.0 ºC. The concentration of dissolved oxygen, pH values and electrical conductivity of the solutions were determined during a period of 10 days. The results indicated increases in oxygen consumption for all the solutions studied and also for electrical conductivity. The pH values presented a decreasing tendency throughout the experiment. Oxygen consumption varied from 43 (Aulacoseira granulata chamber to 345 mg O2 g-1 C (Anabaena spiroides chamber. Decrease in pH values was probably due to increase in CO2 concentration from microbial respiration. Increase in electrical conductivity might be due to the liberation of ions during decomposition. The results demonstrate the potentiality of the studied genera in influencing oxygen availability followed by a die-off event. It also indicates the possibility of changing of the electrical conductivity and pH values in the water column due the aerobic algae mineralization.

  2. Technical difficulties of logging while drilling in carbonate reservoirs and the countermeasures: A case study from the Sichuan Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shudong Zhang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In the Sichuan Basin, carbonate reservoirs are characterized by deep burial depth and strong heterogeneity, so it is difficult to conduct structure steering, pore space reservoir tracking and trajectory control in the process of geosteering logging while drilling. In this paper, a series of corresponding techniques for structure, reservoir and formation tracking were proposed after analysis was conducted on multiple series of carbonate strata in terms of their geologic and logging response characteristics. And investigation was performed on the adaptabilities of the following logging technologies to geosteering while drilling, including gamma ray imaging while drilling, resistivity imaging while drilling, density imaging while drilling, gamma ray logging while drilling, resistivity logging while drilling, neutron logging while drilling and density logging while drilling. After while drilling information was thoroughly analyzed, the logging suites for four common types of complicated reservoirs (thin layered reservoirs, thick massive reservoirs, denuded karst reservoirs and shale gas reservoirs were optimized, and five logging combinations suitable for different formations and reservoirs were proposed, including gamma ray logging + porosity + resistivity imaging, gamma ray logging + resistivity imaging, gamma ray logging + porosity + resistivity logging, gamma ray imaging + resistivity logging, and gamma ray logging. Field application indicates that it is of great reference and application value to use this method for the first time to summarize logging while drilling combinations for different types of carbonate reservoirs.

  3. Fault seal analysis to predict the compartmentalization of gas reservoir: Case study of Steenkool formation Bintuni Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginanjar, W. C. B.; Haris, A.; Riyanto, A.

    2017-07-01

    This study is aimed to analyze the mechanism of hydrocarbons trapping in the field on a relatively new play in the Bintuni basin particularly Steenkool formation. The first well in this field has been drilled with a shallow target in the Steenkool formation and the drilling is managed to find new gas reserves in the shale-sandstone layer. In the structure of this gas discovery, there is the potential barrier for compartmentalization that draws attention to analyze how the patterns of structural of fault become a part of reservoir compartment. In order to measure the risk associated with prospects on a field bounded by faults, it is important to understand the processes that contribute to fault seal. The method of Fault Seal Analysis (FSA) is one of the methods used for the analysis of the nature of a fault whether the fault is sealing or leaking the fluid flow in the reservoir. Trapping systems that are limited by faults play an important role in creating a trap of hydrocarbon. The ability of a fault to seal fluid is quantitatively reflected by the value of Shale Gouge Ratio (SGR). SGR is the calculation of the amount of fine-grained material that fills fault plane (fault gouge) as a result of the movement mechanism of fault. The result of this study is a valuable resource for the systematic evaluation of the analysis of hydrocarbon prospects in the field.

  4. A study of CO2 flooding on wave velocities in the Naharkatiya oil reservoir of Upper Assam Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subrata Borgohain Gogoi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the compressional-wave and shear-wave velocities in the laboratory in six conventional core plugs. These plugs were obtained from a depth of more than 3000 m from the producing horizons of Naharkatiya oil reservoir of Upper Assam Basin, India. The porosities of the conventional core plugs were from 9.67 to 25.8% and that of unconsolidated sand pack was 47%. These plugs and sand pack were saturated with n-hexadecane before CO2 flooding. It was observed that during flooding compressional-wave velocities decreased more than the shear wave velocities. These decreases in wave velocity depend on confining pressure, pore pressure, porosity and temperature of the plugs. Increasing pore pressure at constant confining pressure not only keeps the pores and cracks open but also reduces the confining pressure effect and increases the CO2 density. Higher pore pressures causes larger decrease in both compressional and shear wave velocities. In case of conventional core plugs which are consolidated, having lower porosities tends to decrease the CO2 effect. In unconsolidated sand pack the flooding effect is large even though porosity is high because the bulk modulus of the sand is low. The experimental and the theoretical analyses in this paper show that the decrease in compressional-wave velocities caused by CO2 flooding makes it possible to track CO2 front movements and monitor CO2 flooding process in the reservoir.

  5. Wild-Caught and Farm-Reared Amphibians are Important Reservoirs of Salmonella, A Study in North-East Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribas, A; Poonlaphdecha, S

    2017-03-01

    The role of amphibians as Salmonella reservoirs has not been as well studied as in reptiles, where the literature is abundant. Recent outbreaks of salmonellosis associated with exotic pet frogs have occurred in United States. Frog farming and wild frog harvesting have increased the international trade in these species. This necessitates a better understanding of the risk of salmonellosis transmission from amphibians to humans. We explored the presence of Salmonella in amphibians (frogs and toads) in Thailand, where farmed and wild frogs as well as toads are present. These live animals are easily found in the local markets and are used as food. Exportation of frog meat from Thailand is common. During March-June 2014, ninety-seven frogs were collected from several habitats, including frog farms, urban areas and protected natural areas. The collected amphibians were tested for the presence of Salmonella. The overall prevalence of Salmonella was 69.07% (90.00% in farm animals, 0% in urban area animals and 44.83% in protected area animals). Eight serovars of Salmonella were isolated: subsp. diarizonae ser. 50:k:z, Hvittingfoss, Muenchen, Newport, Stanley, Thompson, Panama and Wandsworth. Six of the identified serovars, Hvittingfoss, Newport, Panama, Stanley, Thompson and Wandsworth, have been detected in humans in Thailand. According to our results, amphibians are reservoirs of Salmonella and can be a public health concern when used as a source of protein for humans. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  6. USE OF POM AND ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORKS IN THE THREEDIMENSIONAL MODELING OF LAKES : GOKPINAR DAM RESERVOIR AS A CASE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmut FIRAT

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The circulation pattern in lakes and reservoirs varies according to many external factors. In situ measurement of the occuring flow pattern in every point of the lake is a very costly and hard task. For this reason, models determining the velocities and surface fluctuations are developed by using computers. The use of these models enables the generation of the foundation for the prediction of possible environmental problems and water pollution concentrations. Today, three dimensional models are widely used in the modelling of lakes and reservoirs. In this study, the velocity profiles and surface fluctuation values generated under various wind speed and directions at some sections in Gokpinar Lake in Denizli are obtained by applying artificial neural networks (ANN on the results of three dimensional hydrodynamic model of the lake made with Princeton Ocean Model (POM. The developed ANN model is applied to the same sections for different wind conditions and it is found that the results are in accordance with the results of POM. As a result of the comparisons of the models, the superiorities of the models on each other at the model generation and solution phases are determined and mentioned.

  7. Modelling earthquake location errors at a reservoir scale: a case study in the Upper Rhine Graben

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinnaert, X.; Gaucher, E.; Achauer, U.; Kohl, T.

    2016-08-01

    Earthquake absolute location errors which can be encountered in an underground reservoir are investigated. In such an exploitation context, earthquake hypocentre errors can have an impact on the field development and economic consequences. The approach using the state-of-the-art techniques covers both the location uncertainty and the location inaccuracy—or bias—problematics. It consists, first, in creating a 3-D synthetic seismic cloud of events in the reservoir and calculating the seismic traveltimes to a monitoring network assuming certain propagation conditions. In a second phase, the earthquakes are relocated with assumptions different from the initial conditions. Finally, the initial and relocated hypocentres are compared. As a result, location errors driven by the seismic onset time picking uncertainties and inaccuracies are quantified in 3-D. Effects induced by erroneous assumptions associated with the velocity model are also modelled. In particular, 1-D velocity model uncertainties, a local 3-D perturbation of the velocity and a 3-D geostructural model are considered. The present approach is applied to the site of Rittershoffen (Alsace, France), which is one of the deep geothermal fields existing in the Upper Rhine Graben. This example allows setting realistic scenarios based on the knowledge of the site. In that case, the zone of interest, monitored by an existing seismic network, ranges between 1 and 5 km depth in a radius of 2 km around a geothermal well. Well log data provided a reference 1-D velocity model used for the synthetic earthquake relocation. The 3-D analysis highlights the role played by the seismic network coverage and the velocity model in the amplitude and orientation of the location uncertainties and inaccuracies at subsurface levels. The location errors are neither isotropic nor aleatoric in the zone of interest. This suggests that although location inaccuracies may be smaller than location uncertainties, both quantities can have a

  8. Modeling Alpine hydropower reservoirs management to study the water-energy nexus under change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castelletti, A.; Giuliani, M.; Fumagalli, E.; Weber, E.

    2014-12-01

    Climate change and growing population are expected to severely affect freshwater availability by the end of 21th century. Many river basins, especially in the Mediterranean region, are likely to become more prone to periods of reduced water supply, risking considerable impacts on the society, the environment, and the economy, thus emphasizing the need to rethink the way water resources are distributed, managed, and used at the regional and river basin scale. This paradigm shift will be essential to cope with the undergoing global change, characterized by growing water demands and by increasingly uncertain hydrologic regimes. Most of the literature traditionally focused on predicting the impacts of climate change on water resources, while our understanding of the human footprint on the hydrological cycle is limited. For example, changes in the operation of the Alpine hydropower reservoirs induced by socio-economic drivers (e.g., development of renewable energy) were already observed over the last few years and produced relevant impacts on multiple water uses due to the altered distribution of water volumes in time and space. Modeling human decisions as well as the links between society and environmental systems becomes key to develop reliable projections on the co-evolution of the coupled human-water systems and deliver robust adaptation strategies This work contributes a preliminary model-based analysis of the behaviour of hydropower operators under changing energy market and climate conditions. The proposed approach is developed for the San Giacomo-Cancano reservoir system, Italy. The identification of the current operating policy is supported by input variable selection methods to select the most relevant hydrological and market based drivers to explain the observed release time series.. The identified model is then simulated under a set of future scenarios, accounting for both climate and socio-economic change (e.g. expansion of the electric vehicle sector, load

  9. Study of gas production from shale reservoirs with multi-stage hydraulic fracturing horizontal well considering multiple transport mechanisms

    OpenAIRE

    Guo, Chaohua; Wei, Mingzhen; Liu, Hong

    2018-01-01

    Development of unconventional shale gas reservoirs (SGRs) has been boosted by the advancements in two key technologies: horizontal drilling and multi-stage hydraulic fracturing. A large number of multi-stage fractured horizontal wells (MsFHW) have been drilled to enhance reservoir production performance. Gas flow in SGRs is a multi-mechanism process, including: desorption, diffusion, and non-Darcy flow. The productivity of the SGRs with MsFHW is influenced by both reservoir conditions and hyd...

  10. Effect of locally tailored labour management guidelines on intrahospital stillbirths and birth asphyxia at the referral hospital of Zanzibar: a quasi-experimental pre-post study (The PartoMa study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maaløe, N; Housseine, N; Meguid, T; Nielsen, B B; Jensen, Akg; Khamis, R S; Mohamed, A G; Ali, M M; Said, S M; van Roosmalen, J; Bygbjerg, I C

    2018-01-01

    To evaluate effect of locally tailored labour management guidelines (PartoMa guidelines) on intrahospital stillbirths and birth asphyxia. Quasi-experimental pre-post study investigating the causal pathway through changes in clinical practice. Tanzanian low-resource referral hospital, Mnazi Mmoja Hospital. Facility deliveries during baseline (1 October 2014 until 31 January 2015) and the 9th to 12th intervention month (1 October 2014 until 31 January 2015). Birth outcome was extracted from all cases of labouring women during baseline (n = 3690) and intervention months (n = 3087). Background characteristics and quality of care were assessed in quasi-randomly selected subgroups (n = 283 and n = 264, respectively). Stillbirths and neonates with 5-minute Apgar score ≤5. Stillbirth rate fell from 59 to 39 per 1000 total births (RR 0.66, 95% CI 0.53-0.82), and subanalyses suggest that this was primarily due to reduction in intrahospital stillbirths. Apgar scores between 1 and 5 fell from 52 to 28 per 1000 live births (RR 0.53, 95% CI 0.41-0.69). Median time from last fetal heart assessment till delivery (or fetal death diagnosis) fell from 120 minutes (IQR 60-240) to 74 minutes (IQR 30-130) (Mann-Whitney test for difference, P human resources and substandard care remain major challenges, PartoMa guidelines were associated with improvements in care, leading to reductions in stillbirths and birth asphyxia. Findings furthermore emphasise the central role of improved fetal surveillance and restricted intrapartum oxytocin use in safety at birth. TWEETABLE ABSTRACT: #PartoMa guidelines aided in reducing stillbirths and birth asphyxia at a Tanzanian low-resource hospital PLAIN LANGUAGE SUMMARY: PartoMa guidelines help birth attendants in Tanzania to save lives Every year, 3 million babies die on the day of birth. The vast majority of these deaths occur in the poorest countries. If their mothers had received better care during birth, most babies would have survived. At Mnazi

  11. Reservoir Cannulas for Pediatric Oxygen Therapy: A Proof-of-Concept Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grace Wu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Hypoxemia is a complication of pneumonia—the leading infectious cause of death in children worldwide. Treatment generally requires oxygen-enriched air, but access in low-resource settings is expensive and unreliable. We explored use of reservoir cannulas (RCs, which yield oxygen savings in adults but have not been examined in children. Toddler, small child, and adolescent breathing profiles were simulated with artificial lung and airway models. An oxygen concentrator provided flow rates of 0 to 5 L/min via a standard nasal cannula (NC or RC, and delivered oxygen fraction (FdO2 was measured. The oxygen savings ratio (SR and absolute flow savings (AFS were calculated, comparing NC and RC. We demonstrated proof-of-concept that pendant RCs could conserve oxygen during pediatric therapy. SR mean and standard deviation were 1.1±0.2 to 1.4±0.4, 1.1±0.1 to 1.7±0.3, and 1.3±0.1 to 2.4±0.3 for toddler, small child, and adolescent models, respectively. Maximum AFS observed were 0.3±0.3, 0.2±0.1, and 1.4±0.3 L/min for the same models. RCs have the potential to reduce oxygen consumption during treatment of hypoxemia in children; however, further evaluation of products is needed, followed by clinical analysis in patients.

  12. Millennium Ecosystem Assessment: MA Biodiversity

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Millennium Ecosystem Assessment: MA Biodiversity provides data and information on amphibians, disease agents (extent and distribution of infectious and parasitic...

  13. Millennium Ecosystem Assessment: MA Ecosystems

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Millennium Ecosystem Assessment: MA Ecosystems provides data and information on the extent and classification of ecosystems circa 2000, including coastal,...

  14. Millennium Ecosystem Assessment: MA Scenarios

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Millennium Ecosystem Assessment: MA Scenarios provide useful insight into the complex factors that drive ecosystem change, estimating the magnitude of regional...

  15. Reservoir Characterisation Using Wireline Evaluation And Poststack Seismic Inversion: A Lancelot Field, Southern North Sea, U.K. case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mojisola, A.

    2002-01-01

    Improved reservoir characterization has been a major factor in the worldwide gain in oil recovery efficiencies over the last decades. This is because inadequate reservoir characterization, usually due to lack of appropriate tools can cause significant errors in petroleum reservoir performance prediction thereby preventing the full potential of a reservoir from being achieved. This work employs the use of wireline logs and the seismic inversion process to characterize the reservoirs in the Lancelot field. An initial reservoir analysis was carried out using the wireline evaluation. Five potential reservoirs were delineated. Thereafter reservoir parameters such as porosity, water saturation, water saturation, net-to-gross ratio of the delineated reservoirs were estimated. The seismic inversion process depends on four factors; the wavelet, the tie between the well logs and the seismic, the inversion algorithm employed and the initial model. Therefore before the main inversion, parameter tests were carried out to determine the best wavelet extraction algorithm and best inversion algorithm suited for he available data. A wavelet with a length of 70ms and a taper length of 20ms gave a close approximation of a zero phase wavelet with a stable spectrum and high dominant frequency. Based on quantitative assessment of the available inversion algorithms, the constrained blocky inversion produced the best result. Acoustic impedance, velocity and porosity sections were produced from the inverted input seismic. By incorporating geological and wireline evaluation results as constraints, the output from the inversion process were analysed. The result shows lateral variation in the reservoirs qualities of the delineated reservoirs. The seismic inversion process confirmed the Rotliegend sandstone as a prospect with a range of porosity predicted from the inversion

  16. Discovery and utilization of sorghum genes (Ma5/Ma6)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullet, John E; Rooney, William L; Klein, Patricia E; Morishige, Daryl; Murphy, Rebecca; Brady, Jeff A

    2012-11-13

    Methods and composition for the production of non-flowering or late flowering sorghum hybrid. For example, in certain aspects methods for use of molecular markers that constitute the Ma5/Ma6 pathway to modulate photoperiod sensitivity are described. The invention allows the production of plants having improved productivity and biomass generation.

  17. Numerical Simulation Study on Steam-Assisted Gravity Drainage Performance in a Heavy Oil Reservoir with a Bottom Water Zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Ni

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In the Pikes Peak oil field near Lloydminster, Canada, a significant amount of heavy oil reserves is located in reservoirs with a bottom water zone. The properties of the bottom water zone and the operation parameters significantly affect oil production performance via the steam-assisted gravity drainage (SAGD process. Thus, in order to develop this type of heavy oil resource, a full understanding of the effects of these properties is necessary. In this study, the numerical simulation approach was applied to study the effects of properties in the bottom water zone in the SAGD process, such as the initial gas oil ratio, the thickness of the reservoir, and oil saturation of the bottom water zone. In addition, some operation parameters were studied including the injection pressure, the SAGD well pair location, and five different well patterns: (1 two corner wells, (2 triple wells, (3 downhole water sink well, (4 vertical injectors with a horizontal producer, and (5 fishbone well. The numerical simulation results suggest that the properties of the bottom water zone affect production performance extremely. First, both positive and negative effects were observed when solution gas exists in the heavy oil. Second, a logarithmical relationship was investigated between the bottom water production ratio and the thickness of the bottom water zone. Third, a non-linear relation was obtained between the oil recovery factor and oil saturation in the bottom water zone, and a peak oil recovery was achieved at the oil saturation rate of 30% in the bottom water zone. Furthermore, the operation parameters affected the heavy oil production performance. Comparison of the well patterns showed that the two corner wells and the triple wells patterns obtained the highest oil recovery factors of 74.71% and 77.19%, respectively, which are almost twice the oil recovery factors gained in the conventional SAGD process (47.84%. This indicates that the optimized SAGD process

  18. Selbstreguliertes und kooperatives Lernen mit digitalen Medien – Ergebnisse der SITE-Studie und der SelMa-Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renate Schulz-Zander

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Der vorliegende Beitrag stellt Ergebnisse zum selbstregulierten und kooperativen Lernen aus zwei vom Institut für Schulentwicklungsforschung der Universität Dortmund durchgeführten Studien vor. Es handelt sich um die deutschen Ergebnisse der Second Information Technology in Education Study – Module 2 (SITES M2 der International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement (IEA und der Evaluation des Modellversuchs „Selbstlernen in der gymnasialen Oberstufe – Mathematik (SelMa“.

  19. STUDIES OF CHANGES OF SOME BLOOD PARAMETERS AMONG WORKERS OF CEMENT OF EL MA EL ABIOD TEBESSA ALGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Aouimeur

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In Algeria, the industrial development engenders the appearance of the sanitary and environmental problems resulting from the pollution due to these certain industries such as the industry cimentière. With the aim of estimating the sanitary state of the workers of the cement works; a study was made for 30 workers of the cement works. This study is based on the determination of the values of 07 parameters hématologiques (red blood cells, haemoglobin, hématocrite, average spherical volume, The corpuscular concentration averages in haemoglobin, The corpuscular content averages in haemoglobin and the number of white blood cells and two parameters considered as markers premature of the inflammation (sedimentation speed and protein-C-reactive. These results are compared with two other populations, one of the inhabitants of the region and other one of the inhabitants far from the cement works avec 60 km. The statistical analyses are based on the comparison of the variances and the analysis in main constituent (ACP. The comparison of the variance of the various variable of the individuals show a resemblance between the workers and the inhabitants close to the cement works but significant differences appeared between both populations and those of the cement works for some parameters. The global analysis of these results with the ACP showed a general coherence. The observation of the groups allowed removing some peculiarities.This distribution shows the relation between the functional state and the variation of the parameters.

  20. Exploratory Simulation Studies of Caprock Alteration Induced byStorage of CO2 in Depleted Gas Reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gherardi, Fabrizio; Xu, Tianfu; Pruess, Karsten

    2005-11-23

    This report presents numerical simulations of isothermalreactive flows which might be induced in the caprock of an Italiandepleted gas reservoir by the geological sequestration of carbon dioxide.Our objective is to verify that CO2 geological disposal activitiesalready planned for the study area are safe and do not induce anyundesired environmental impact.Gas-water-rock interactions have beenmodelled under two different intial conditions, i.e., assuming that i)caprock is perfectly sealed, or ii) partially fractured. Field conditionsare better approximated in terms of the "sealed caprock model". Thefractured caprock model has been implemented because it permits toexplore the geochemical beahvior of the system under particularly severeconditions which are not currently encountered in the field, and then todelineate a sort of hypothetical maximum risk scenario.Major evidencessupporting the assumption of a sealed caprock stem from the fact that nogas leakages have been detected during the exploitation phase, subsequentreservoir repressurization due to the ingression of a lateral aquifer,and during several cycles of gas storage in the latest life of reservoirmanagement.An extensive program of multidisciplinary laboratory tests onrock properties, geochemical and microseismic monitoring, and reservoirsimulation studies is underway to better characterize the reservoir andcap-rock behavior before the performance of a planned CO2 sequestrationpilot test.In our models, fluid flow and mineral alteration are inducedin the caprock by penetration of high CO2 concentrations from theunderlying reservoir, i.e., it was assumed that large amounts of CO2 havebeen already injected at depth. The main focus is on the potential effectof these geochemical transformations on the sealing efficiency of caprockformations. Batch and multi-dimensional 1D and 2D modeling has been usedto investigate multicomponent geochemical processes. Our simulationsaccount for fracture-matrix interactions, gas

  1. Study of shale reservoir nanometer-sized pores in Member 1 of Shahejie Formation in JX area, Liaozhong sag

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yong; Zhang, Yu; Wen, Yiming

    2018-02-01

    The microscopic pore structure is the key of the shale reservoir study; however, traditional Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) methods cannot identify the irregular morphology caused by mechanical polishing. In this work, Scanning Electron Microscopy combined argon ion polishing technology was taken to study the characteristics of shale reservoir pores of Member 1 of Shahejie Formation (E3s1) located in JX1-1 area of Liaozhong Sag. The results show that pores between clay platelets, intraplatelet pores within clay aggregates and organic-matter pores are very rich in the area and with good pore connectivity, so these types of pores are of great significance for oil-gas exporation. Pores between clay platelets are formed by directional or semi-directional contact between edge and surface, edge and edge or surface and surface of laminated clay minerals, whose shapes are linear, mesh, and irregular with the size of 500 nm to 5 μm. The intraplatelet pores within clay aggregates are formed in the process of the transformation and compaction of clay minerals, whose shapes are usually linear with the width of 30 to 500 nm and the length of 2 to 50 μm. The organic-matter pores are from the process of the conversion from organic matters to the hydrocarbon under thermal evolution, whose shapes are gneissic, irregular, pitted and elliptical with the size of 100 nm to 2 μm. This study is of certain guiding significance to selecting target zones, evaluating resource potential and exploring & developing of shale gas in this region.

  2. Study of sustainable production in two-phase liquid dominated with steam cap underlying brine reservoir by numerical simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratama, Heru Berian; Miryani Saptadji, Nenny

    2017-12-01

    The main issue in the management of the two-phase liquid-dominated geothermal field is rapid decline pressure in the reservoir so that the supply of steam to the power plant cannot be fulfilled. To understanding that, modelling and numerical simulation used reservoir simulators. The model is developed on liquid-dominated geothermal fields are assessed in various scenarios of production strategies (focusing only steam cap, brine reservoir and a combination) and injection strategies (deep and shallow injection, centered and dispersed injection), with the calculation using separated steam cycle method. The simulation results of the model for sustainable production are production 25% from steam cap + 75% from brine reservoir, dispersed and deep reinjection with make-up wells from steam cap results 9 make-up well number. The implementation of production-injection strategy needs to be planned right from the beginning of exploitation so that the strategy can adapt to changes in reservoir characteristics.

  3. KURUMLARDA YARATICILIK ÜZERİNE BİR ÇALIŞMA - A STUDY ON CREATIVITY IN ORGANIZATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neslihan OKAKIN

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available ÖzetGünümüzde bilgiye kolay ulaşılmakla birlikte önemli olan, bilgiler arasında yeni bağlantılar kurmaktır. Bu yaratıcılığın en temel tanımını oluşturmaktadır. Yaratıcılık herkes tarafından sergilenemese dahi, yapılan araştırmalar herkesin yaratıcılığını geliştirebileceğini göstermektedir. Bu çalışmada yaratıcılık tanımından başlanarak, bireysel ve kurumsal yaratıcılığı etkileyen tüm faktörler üzerinde durulmuştur ve yaratıcılığı geliştiren teknikler detaylı olarak incelenmiştir. Araştırmanın konusunu kurumlarda yaratıcılığın nasıl uygulandığı ve teşvik edildiği oluşturmaktadır. Çalışmanın araştırma evrenini Capital Dergisi tarafından 2009 yılında belirlenen Türkiye’nin en inovatif yirmi şirketi oluşturmaktadır. Bu çalışmada kurumların yaratıcılık adına ne yaptıkları, neyi teşvik ettikleri ve daha başka nelerin yapılabileceğine ilişkin veriler sunularak tartışılmıştır.AbstractNowadays, it’s easy to access information, nonetheless the important part is to establish new connections between the information. This is the most basic definition of the creativity. In this study, the factors which affect individual and organizational creativity to be examined starting from the definition of the creativity and techniques which enhance individual and group creativity to be examined in detail. Finally, a research takes place expressing how creativity is implemented and promoted in the organizations. The research enviroment in this study is composed by Turkey’s most innovative twenty companies determined by Capital magazine in 2009. In this study, what the organizations do, promote and what else can be done in the name of creativity tobe discussed by presenting related data.

  4. KURUMLARDA YARATICILIK ÜZERİNE BİR ÇALIŞMA - A STUDY ON CREATIVITY IN ORGANIZATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neslihan OKAKIN

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available ÖzetGünümüzde bilgiye kolay ulaşılmakla birlikte önemli olan, bilgiler arasında yeni bağlantılar kurmaktır. Bu yaratıcılığın en temel tanımını oluşturmaktadır. Yaratıcılık herkes tarafından sergilenemese dahi, yapılan araştırmalar herkesin yaratıcılığını geliştirebileceğini göstermektedir. Bu çalışmada yaratıcılık tanımından başlanarak, bireysel ve kurumsal yaratıcılığı etkileyen tüm faktörler üzerinde durulmuştur ve yaratıcılığı geliştiren teknikler detaylı olarak incelenmiştir. Araştırmanın konusunu kurumlarda yaratıcılığın nasıl uygulandığı ve teşvik edildiği oluşturmaktadır. Çalışmanın araştırma evrenini Capital Dergisi tarafından 2009 yılında belirlenen Türkiye’nin en inovatif yirmi şirketi oluşturmaktadır. Bu çalışmada kurumların yaratıcılık adına ne yaptıkları, neyi teşvik ettikleri ve daha başka nelerin yapılabileceğine ilişkin veriler sunularak tartışılmıştır.AbstractNowadays, it’s easy to access information, nonetheless the important part is to establish new connections between the information. This is the most basic definition of the creativity. In this study, the factors which affect individual and organizational creativity to be examined starting from the definition of the creativity and techniques which enhance individual and group creativity to be examined in detail. Finally, a research takes place expressing how creativity is implemented and promoted in the organizations. The research enviroment in this study is composed by Turkey’s most innovative twenty companies determined by Capital magazine in 2009. In this study, what the organizations do, promote and what else can be done in the name of creativity tobe discussed by presenting related data.

  5. Air–water CO2 and CH4 fluxes along a river–reservoir continuum: Case study in the Pengxi River, a tributary of the Yangtze River in the Three Gorges Reservoir, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Water surface greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in freshwater reservoirs are closely related to limnological processes in the water column. Affected by both reservoir operation and seasonal changes, variations in the hydro-morphological conditions in the river–reservoir continuum will create distinctiv...

  6. Study of Corona Discharge on 160 KeV, 10 mA Electron Accelerator Facility Using FEM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghazali, Abu Bakar Mhd; Sobri, Rokiah Mohd

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes a method to verify the overall design of our electron accelerator. It is free from corona or spark discharge phenomenon. This locally designed electron accelerator facility is located at Nuclear Malaysia Complex, Bangi, Selangor. In this study, we describe the geometry of the pressure vessel filled with SF 6 gas at 2 atm to enclose the high voltage area of the accelerating tube. The Poisson's equation is used to calculate the contours of the electric field that is created between the cathode of -160 kV maximum and the wall of the vessel. The nearest sharp edge between the cathode and the pressure wall is 163 mm apart. The calculation is based on finite element method (FEM) for electrostatic charges in order to obtain an electric field contour in two-dimensional plane. We found that the surface charge density of the cathode is 1.1x10 -5 C/m 2 for the corona glowing seen at -90 kV. Moreover, the highest electric field near to (about 5 mm from) the sharp edge is about 2.7 MV/m, which is less than the dielectric strength of SF 6 gas, i.e. 6 MV/m and therefore, it proved that our design of the pressure vessel is save from corona or spark discharges

  7. The effect of maternal common mental disorders on infant undernutrition in Butajira, Ethiopia: the P-MaMiE study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medhin, Girmay; Hanlon, Charlotte; Dewey, Michael; Alem, Atalay; Tesfaye, Fikru; Lakew, Zufan; Worku, Bogale; Aray, Mesfin; Abdulahi, Abdulreshid; Tomlinson, Mark; Hughes, Marcus; Patel, Vikram; Prince, Martin

    2010-04-30

    Although maternal common mental disorder (CMD) appears to be a risk factor for infant undernutrition in South Asian countries, the position in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) is unclear A population-based cohort of 1065 women, in the third trimester of pregnancy, was identified from the demographic surveillance site (DSS) in Butajira, to investigate the effect of maternal CMD on infant undernutrition in a predominantly rural Ethiopian population. Participants were interviewed at recruitment and at two months post-partum. Maternal CMD was measured using the locally validated Self-Reported Questionnaire (score of > or = six indicating high levels of CMD). Infant anthropometry was recorded at six and twelve months of age. The prevalence of CMD was 12% during pregnancy and 5% at the two month postnatal time-point. In bivariate analysis antenatal CMD which had resolved after delivery predicted underweight at twelve months (OR = 1.71; 95% CI: 1.05, 2.50). There were no other statistically significant differences in the prevalence of underweight or stunted infants in mothers with high levels of CMD compared to those with low levels. The associations between CMD and infant nutritional status were not significant after adjusting for pre-specified potential confounders. Our negative finding adds to the inconsistent picture emerging from SSA. The association between CMD and infant undernutrition might be modified by study methodology as well as degree of shared parenting among family members, making it difficult to extrapolate across low- and middle-income countries.

  8. The effect of maternal common mental disorders on infant undernutrition in Butajira, Ethiopia: The P-MaMiE study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulahi Abdulreshid

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although maternal common mental disorder (CMD appears to be a risk factor for infant undernutrition in South Asian countries, the position in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA is unclear Methods A population-based cohort of 1065 women, in the third trimester of pregnancy, was identified from the demographic surveillance site (DSS in Butajira, to investigate the effect of maternal CMD on infant undernutrition in a predominantly rural Ethiopian population. Participants were interviewed at recruitment and at two months post-partum. Maternal CMD was measured using the locally validated Self-Reported Questionnaire (score of ≥ six indicating high levels of CMD. Infant anthropometry was recorded at six and twelve months of age. Result The prevalence of CMD was 12% during pregnancy and 5% at the two month postnatal time-point. In bivariate analysis antenatal CMD which had resolved after delivery predicted underweight at twelve months (OR = 1.71; 95% CI: 1.05, 2.50. There were no other statistically significant differences in the prevalence of underweight or stunted infants in mothers with high levels of CMD compared to those with low levels. The associations between CMD and infant nutritional status were not significant after adjusting for pre-specified potential confounders. Conclusion Our negative finding adds to the inconsistent picture emerging from SSA. The association between CMD and infant undernutrition might be modified by study methodology as well as degree of shared parenting among family members, making it difficult to extrapolate across low- and middle-income countries.

  9. Impact of maternal thyroid autoantibodies positivity on the risk of early term birth: Ma'anshan Birth Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Yan; Mao, Lei-Jing; Ge, Xing; Huang, Kun; Yan, Shuang-Qin; Ren, Ling-Ling; Hong, Shu-Qing; Gao, Hui; Sheng, Jie; Xu, Yuan-Yuan; Pan, Wei-Jun; Zhu, Peng; Hao, Jia-Hu; Zhu, De-Fa; Tao, Fang-Biao

    2018-05-01

    We aim to investigate associations of maternal serum anti-thyroperoxidase autoantibody (TPOAb) with duration of gestation. We aim to investigate whether maternal TPOAb positivity is associated with the risk of premature or early term birth. This was a prospective birth cohort study performed in an iodine sufficient area of China. Serum samples were collected from 2931 women at both the first and second trimesters of pregnancy. Thyrotropin (TSH), free thyroxine (FT4), and TPOAb levels were measured. Data on gestational age at birth was obtained from delivery records. The prevalence of early term birth was 23.8%, while the prevalence of premature birth was 4.2%. The prevalence of TPOAb positivity was 12.1% in the first trimester and was 7.2% in the second trimester. Gestational age at birth was inversely associated with lgTPOAb both in the first trimester (β, -0.283, 95% CI -0.408, -0.158; P < 0.001) and in the second trimester (β, -0.174, 95% CI -0.319, -0.030; P = 0.018), after adjustment for potential confounding factors. There was a positive association of TPOAb positivity with the risk of early term birth both in the first (OR = 1.691, 95% CI 1.302, 2.197) and second trimesters (OR = 1.644, 95% CI 1.193, 2.264), after adjustment for potential confounding factors. TPOAb positivity in the second trimester was associated with a 1.863-fold higher risk of premature birth (OR = 1.863, 95% CI 1.009, 3.441), after adjustment for potential confounding factors. Our results show that TPOAb is associated with shorter duration of gestation and with higher risk of premature and early term birth.

  10. Constraints on Water Reservoir Lifetimes From Catchment-Wide 10Be Erosion Rates—A Case Study From Western Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heineke, Caroline; Hetzel, Ralf; Akal, Cüneyt; Christl, Marcus

    2017-11-01

    The functionality and retention capacity of water reservoirs is generally impaired by upstream erosion and reservoir sedimentation, making a reliable assessment of erosion indispensable to estimate reservoir lifetimes. Widely used river gauging methods may underestimate sediment yield, because they do not record rare, high-magnitude events and may underestimate bed load transport. Hence, reservoir lifetimes calculated from short-term erosion rates should be regarded as maximum values. We propose that erosion rates from cosmogenic 10Be, which commonly integrate over hundreds to thousands of years, are useful to complement short-term sediment yield estimates and should be employed to estimate minimum reservoir lifetimes. Here we present 10Be erosion rates for the drainage basins of six water reservoirs in Western Turkey, which are located in a tectonically active region with easily erodible bedrock. Our 10Be erosion rates for these catchments are high, ranging from ˜170 to ˜1,040 t/km2/yr. When linked to reservoir volumes, they yield minimum reservoir lifetimes between 25 ± 5 and 1,650 ± 360 years until complete filling, with four reservoirs having minimum lifespans of ≤110 years. In a neighboring region with more resistant bedrock and less tectonic activity, we obtain much lower catchment-wide 10Be erosion rates of ˜33 to ˜95 t/km2/yr, illustrating that differences in lithology and tectonic boundary conditions can cause substantial variations in erosion even at a spatial scale of only ˜50 km. In conclusion, we suggest that both short-term sediment yield estimates and 10Be erosion rates should be employed to predict the lifetimes of reservoirs.

  11. The banana fruit Dof transcription factor MaDof23 acts as a repressor and interacts with MaERF9 in regulating ripening-related genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Bi-hong; Han, Yan-chao; Xiao, Yun-yi; Kuang, Jian-fei; Fan, Zhong-qi; Chen, Jian-ye; Lu, Wang-jin

    2016-04-01

    The DNA binding with one finger (Dof) proteins, a family of plant-specific transcription factors, are involved in a variety of plant biological processes. However, little information is available on their involvement in fruit ripening. We have characterized 25 MaDof genes from banana fruit (Musa acuminata), designated as MaDof1-MaDof25 Gene expression analysis in fruit subjected to different ripening conditions revealed that MaDofs were differentially expressed during different stages of ripening. MaDof10, 23, 24, and 25 were ethylene-inducible and nuclear-localized, and their transcript levels increased during fruit ripening. Moreover, yeast two-hybrid and bimolecular fluorescence complementation analyses demonstrated a physical interaction between MaDof23 and MaERF9, a potential regulator of fruit ripening reported in a previous study. We determined that MaDof23 is a transcriptional repressor, whereas MaERF9 is a transcriptional activator. We suggest that they might act antagonistically in regulating 10 ripening-related genes, including MaEXP1/2/3/5, MaXET7, MaPG1, MaPME3, MaPL2, MaCAT, and MaPDC, which are associated with cell wall degradation and aroma formation. Taken together, our findings provide new insight into the transcriptional regulation network controlling banana fruit ripening. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  12. Stonemeal of Amazon soils with sediments from reservoirs: a case study of remineralization of the Tucuruí degraded land for agroforest reclamation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theodoro, Suzi H; Leonardos, Othon H; Rocha, Eduardo; Macedo, Iris; Rego, Kleysson G

    2013-03-01

    This study suggests the employment of accumulated sediments in the reservoir of Tucuruí (Pará /Brazil) to remineralize the surrounding degraded soils. The approach was based on the principles of stonemeal technology. It suggests that the soil can be rejuvenated by crushed rocks rich in macro and micronutrients. Removal of the sediments for agricultural use will bring benefits to family farmers and increase the life cycle of the reservoir and, therefore, energy generation. Geochemical data on retained sediments, soils and rocks in the area of influence of the reservoir were evaluated regarding nutrient transport mechanisms and soil-fertility potential. Results show that sediments from the reservoir contain nutrients levels at least one order of magnitude greater than average Amazon region soils. Our data on soil use and occupation in the region show the degradation areas which could be recovered by stonemeal techniques. Thence, an Agroforestry System was installed, with 12 plots where different mixtures of sediments removed from the reservoir were used, along with crushed rock with or without the addition of NPK and manure. The experiments showed that maximum crop yield and plant growth were attained in the plots where a mixture of sediments, crushed rocks and manure were added.

  13. Stonemeal of amazon soils with sediments from reservoirs: a case study of remineralization of the tucuruí degraded land for agroforest reclamation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SUZI H. THEODORO

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This study suggests the employment of accumulated sediments in the reservoir of Tucuruí (Pará /Brazil to remineralize the surrounding degraded soils. The approach was based on the principles of stonemeal technology. It suggests that the soil can be rejuvenated by crushed rocks rich in macro and micronutrients. Removal of the sediments for agricultural use will bring benefits to family farmers and increase the life cycle of the reservoir and, therefore, energy generation. Geochemical data on retained sediments, soils and rocks in the area of influence of the reservoir were evaluated regarding nutrient transport mechanisms and soil-fertility potential. Results show that sediments from the reservoir contain nutrients levels at least one order of magnitude greater than average Amazon region soils. Our data on soil use and occupation in the region show the degradation areas which could be recovered by stonemeal techniques. Thence, an Agroforestry System was installed, with 12 plots where different mixtures of sediments removed from the reservoir were used, along with crushed rock with or without the addition of NPK and manure. The experiments showed that maximum crop yield and plant growth were attained in the plots where a mixture of sediments, crushed rocks and manure were added.

  14. Physical-chemical study of hydroxi-phosphates and associated minerals occurring in the Pirocaua Plateau (MA) and Jandia hill (PA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reymao, M. de F.F.

    1983-01-01

    A lateritic profile rich in alumino-calcic and aluminum hidroxi-phosphates (Pirocaua, MA), and another also rich in alumino-calcic and containning iron and calcium hidroxi-phosphates (Jandia, PA) has been investigated in order to elucidate the formation of the secondary minerals and the trace element behaviour during tropical weathering. For such purposes it was decided to use X-ray diffractometry and chemical analysis and it was pointed out the applicability of infrared absorption spectroscopy and differential thermal analysis for the mineral characterization. In order to relate the geochemical alterations it was included a theoretical thermodynamic study. Infrared absorption spectroscopy and differential thermal analysis have been demonstrated to be valuables methods for studying minerals. Results are presented which demonstrate the usefullness of these techniques. These studies show that it is now possible to correlate differential thermal analysis and infrared data with that from other techniques (chemical analysis, X-ray diffraction patterns) and that the methods yields valuable supplemental information. Theoretical calculations and the use of thermodynamic data (standard free energie and solubility products) reveal some important conclusions about chemical equilibria, mineral formation, solubility and stability relations. (Author) [pt

  15. Analysis of real-time reservoir monitoring : reservoirs, strategies, & modeling.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mani, Seethambal S.; van Bloemen Waanders, Bart Gustaaf; Cooper, Scott Patrick; Jakaboski, Blake Elaine; Normann, Randy Allen; Jennings, Jim (University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX); Gilbert, Bob (University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX); Lake, Larry W. (University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX); Weiss, Chester Joseph; Lorenz, John Clay; Elbring, Gregory Jay; Wheeler, Mary Fanett (University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX); Thomas, Sunil G. (University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX); Rightley, Michael J.; Rodriguez, Adolfo (University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX); Klie, Hector (University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX); Banchs, Rafael (University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX); Nunez, Emilio J. (University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX); Jablonowski, Chris (University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX)

    2006-11-01

    The project objective was to detail better ways to assess and exploit intelligent oil and gas field information through improved modeling, sensor technology, and process control to increase ultimate recovery of domestic hydrocarbons. To meet this objective we investigated the use of permanent downhole sensors systems (Smart Wells) whose data is fed real-time into computational reservoir models that are integrated with optimized production control systems. The project utilized a three-pronged approach (1) a value of information analysis to address the economic advantages, (2) reservoir simulation modeling and control optimization to prove the capability, and (3) evaluation of new generation sensor packaging to survive the borehole environment for long periods of time. The Value of Information (VOI) decision tree method was developed and used to assess the economic advantage of using the proposed technology; the VOI demonstrated the increased subsurface resolution through additional sensor data. Our findings show that the VOI studies are a practical means of ascertaining the value associated with a technology, in this case application of sensors to production. The procedure acknowledges the uncertainty in predictions but nevertheless assigns monetary value to the predictions. The best aspect of the procedure is that it builds consensus within interdisciplinary teams The reservoir simulation and modeling aspect of the project was developed to show the capability of exploiting sensor information both for reservoir characterization and to optimize control of the production system. Our findings indicate history matching is improved as more information is added to the objective function, clearly indicating that sensor information can help in reducing the uncertainty associated with reservoir characterization. Additional findings and approaches used are described in detail within the report. The next generation sensors aspect of the project evaluated sensors and packaging

  16. A paleomagnetic study from the Late Jurassic volcanics (155Ma), North China: Implications for the width of Mongol-Okhotsk Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pei, J.; Sun, Z.; Liu, J.; Yang, Z.; Zhao, Y.

    2011-12-01

    Existing paleomagnetic studies have demonstrated that the North China Block (NCB) and Amuria(AMU) should have formed a single entity since the late Permian, and then as one block completed the collision with the South China Block (SCB) during the middle Jurassic to late Jurassic. Jurassic-Cretaceous collision of an amalgamated NCB-AMU with Siberia Block (SIB) is widely believed to have accompanied closure of a Mongolo-Okhotsk sea more than 800-1000 km north of the Yanshan Belt. However, the final amalgamation of this United East Asia Block (UEAB, including AMU, NCB and SCB) and the SIB is not well defined. A new paleomagnetic study has been carried out on the Tiaojishan Formation effusives in the Chengde area, North China Block (NCB). The age of the Tiaojishan Formation volcanics was recently dated from 153 Ma to 161 Ma by U-Pb and 40Ar-39Ar. A total of 154 samples from 16 sites within the Tiaojishan Formation was collected. Rock magnetic experiments are designed to identify the magnetic minerals within the rocks. Isothermal Remanent Magnetization (IRM) and three-axis thermal demagnetization of IRMs were conducted in the Paleomagnetic Laboratory of the Institute of Geomechanics in Beijing. Fields of 2.4 T, 0.4 T and 0.12 T were applied along the Z, Y and X axes of the specimens, respectively. Then, stepwise thermal demagnetization up to 680°C was performed. IRM were measured using the IM-10 impulse magnetizer and the JR-6 magnetometer. These experiments indicate that magnetite is the main magnetic carrier in the Tiaojishan Formation, but hematite probably exists in some parts of the rocks. All samples were subsequently subjected to progressive thermal demagnetization up to 600°C or 680°C in 12-14 steps using an ASC-Scientific TD-48 thermal demagnetizer with an interval residual field lower than 10 nT. The Natural Remanent Magnetization (NRM) were measured on a JR-6 spinner magnetometer due to their high NRM intensities. Detailed stepwise thermal demagnetization

  17. Work reservoirs in thermodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anacleto, Joaquim

    2010-05-01

    We stress the usefulness of the work reservoir in the formalism of thermodynamics, in particular in the context of the first law. To elucidate its usefulness, the formalism is then applied to the Joule expansion and other peculiar and instructive experimental situations, clarifying the concepts of configuration and dissipative work. The ideas and discussions presented in this study are primarily intended for undergraduate students, but they might also be useful to graduate students, researchers and teachers.

  18. Structural Equation Modelling with Three Schemes Estimation of Score Factors on Partial Least Square (Case Study: The Quality Of Education Level SMA/MA in Sumenep Regency)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anekawati, Anik; Widjanarko Otok, Bambang; Purhadi; Sutikno

    2017-06-01

    Research in education often involves a latent variable. Statistical analysis technique that has the ability to analyze the pattern of relationship among latent variables as well as between latent variables and their indicators is Structural Equation Modeling (SEM). SEM partial least square (PLS) was developed as an alternative if these conditions are met: the theory that underlying the design of the model is weak, does not assume a certain scale measurement, the sample size should not be large and the data does not have the multivariate normal distribution. The purpose of this paper is to compare the results of modeling of the educational quality in high school level (SMA/MA) in Sumenep Regency with structural equation modeling approach partial least square with three schemes estimation of score factors. This paper is a result of explanatory research using secondary data from Sumenep Education Department and Badan Pusat Statistik (BPS) Sumenep which was data of Sumenep in the Figures and the District of Sumenep in the Figures for the year 2015. The unit of observation in this study were districts in Sumenep that consists of 18 districts on the mainland and 9 districts in the islands. There were two endogenous variables and one exogenous variable. Endogenous variables are the quality of education level of SMA/MA (Y1) and school infrastructure (Y2), whereas exogenous variable is socio-economic condition (X1). In this study, There is one improved model which represented by model from path scheme because this model is a consistent, all of its indicators are valid and its the value of R-square increased which is: Y1=0.651Y2. In this model, the quality of education influenced only by the school infrastructure (0.651). The socio-economic condition did not affect neither the school infrastructure nor the quality of education. If the school infrastructure increased 1 point, then the quality of education increased 0.651 point. The quality of education had an R2 of 0

  19. 3D Sedimentological and geophysical studies of clastic reservoir analogs: Facies architecture, reservoir properties, and flow behavior within delta front facies elements of the Cretaceous Wall Creek Member, Frontier Formation, Wyoming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christopher D. White

    2009-12-21

    Significant volumes of oil and gas occur in reservoirs formed by ancient river deltas. This has implications for the spatial distribution of rock types and the variation of transport properties. A between mudstones and sandstones may form baffles that influence productivity and recovery efficiency. Diagenetic processes such as compaction, dissolution, and cementation can also alter flow properties. A better understanding of these properties and improved methods will allow improved reservoir development planning and increased recovery of oil and gas from deltaic reservoirs. Surface exposures of ancient deltaic rocks provide a high-resolution view of variability. Insights gleaned from these exposures can be used to model analogous reservoirs, for which data is sparser. The Frontier Formation in central Wyoming provides an opportunity for high-resolution models. The same rocks exposed in the Tisdale anticline are productive in nearby oil fields. Kilometers of exposure are accessible, and bedding-plane exposures allow use of high-resolution ground-penetrating radar. This study combined geologic interpretations, maps, vertical sections, core data, and ground-penetrating radar to construct geostatistical and flow models. Strata-conforming grids were use to reproduce the observed geometries. A new Bayesian method integrates outcrop, core, and radar amplitude and phase data. The proposed method propagates measurement uncertainty and yields an ensemble of plausible models for calcite concretions. These concretions affect flow significantly. Models which integrate more have different flow responses from simpler models, as demonstrated an exhaustive two-dimensional reference image and in three dimensions. This method is simple to implement within widely available geostatistics packages. Significant volumes of oil and gas occur in reservoirs that are inferred to have been formed by ancient river deltas. This geologic setting has implications for the spatial distribution of

  20. Human leptospirosis in Seychelles: A prospective study confirms the heavy burden of the disease but suggests that rats are not the main reservoir.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leon Biscornet

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Leptospirosis is a bacterial zoonosis caused by pathogenic Leptospira for which rats are considered as the main reservoir. Disease incidence is higher in tropical countries, especially in insular ecosystems. Our objectives were to determine the current burden of leptospirosis in Seychelles, a country ranking first worldwide according to historical data, to establish epidemiological links between animal reservoirs and human disease, and to identify drivers of transmission.A total of 223 patients with acute febrile symptoms of unknown origin were enrolled in a 12-months prospective study and tested for leptospirosis through real-time PCR, IgM ELISA and MAT. In addition, 739 rats trapped throughout the main island were investigated for Leptospira renal carriage. All molecularly confirmed positive samples were further genotyped.A total of 51 patients fulfilled the biological criteria of acute leptospirosis, corresponding to an annual incidence of 54.6 (95% CI 40.7-71.8 per 100,000 inhabitants. Leptospira carriage in Rattus spp. was overall low (7.7% but dramatically higher in Rattus norvegicus (52.9% than in Rattus rattus (4.4%. Leptospira interrogans was the only detected species in both humans and rats, and was represented by three distinct Sequence Types (STs. Two were novel STs identified in two thirds of acute human cases while noteworthily absent from rats.This study shows that human leptospirosis still represents a heavy disease burden in Seychelles. Genotype data suggests that rats are actually not the main reservoir for human disease. We highlight a rather limited efficacy of preventive measures so far implemented in Seychelles. This could result from ineffective control measures of excreting animal populations, possibly due to a misidentification of the main contaminating reservoir(s. Altogether, presented data stimulate the exploration of alternative reservoir animal hosts.

  1. Effect of reservoir heterogeneity on air injection performance in a light oil reservoir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hu Jia

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Air injection is a good option to development light oil reservoir. As well-known that, reservoir heterogeneity has great effect for various EOR processes. This also applies to air injection. However, oil recovery mechanisms and physical processes for air injection in heterogeneous reservoir with dip angle are still not well understood. The reported setting of reservoir heterogeneous for physical model or simulation model of air injection only simply uses different-layer permeability of porous media. In practice, reservoir heterogeneity follows the principle of geostatistics. How much of contrast in permeability actually challenges the air injection in light oil reservoir? This should be investigated by using layered porous medial settings of the classical Dykstra-Parsons style. Unfortunately, there has been no work addressing this issue for air injection in light oil reservoir. In this paper, Reservoir heterogeneity is quantified based on the use of different reservoir permeability distribution according to classical Dykstra-Parsons coefficients method. The aim of this work is to investigate the effect of reservoir heterogeneity on physical process and production performance of air injection in light oil reservoir through numerical reservoir simulation approach. The basic model is calibrated based on previous study. Total eleven pseudo compounders are included in this model and ten complexity of reactions are proposed to achieve the reaction scheme. Results show that oil recovery factor is decreased with the increasing of reservoir heterogeneity both for air and N2 injection from updip location, which is against the working behavior of air injection from updip location. Reservoir heterogeneity sometimes can act as positive effect to improve sweep efficiency as well as enhance production performance for air injection. High O2 content air injection can benefit oil recovery factor, also lead to early O2 breakthrough in heterogeneous reservoir. Well

  2. Model for Analysis of the Energy Demand (MAED) users' manual for version MAED-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-09-01

    This manual is organized in two major parts. The first part includes eight main sections describing how to use the MAED-1 computer program and the second one consists of five appendices giving some additional information about the program. Concerning the main sections of the manual, Section 1 gives a summary description and some background information about the MAED-1 model. Section 2 extends the description of the MAED-1 model in more detail. Section 3 introduces some concepts, mainly related to the computer requirements imposed by the program, that are used throughout this document. Sections 4 to 7 describe how to execute each of the various programs (or modules) of the MAED-1 package. The description for each module shows the user how to prepare the control and data cards needed to execute the module and how to interpret the printed output produced. Section 8 recapitulates about the use of MAED-1 for carrying out energy and electricity planning studies, describes the several phases normally involved in this type of study and provides the user with practical hints about the most important aspects that need to be verified at each phase while executing the various MAED modules

  3. Pilot study of using UAV to reveal spatial patterns of indicator bacteria concentrations in ponds and reservoirs used for irrigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Determination of indicator bacteria concentrations in irrigation water recently became mandatory for farmers. These concentrations are known to have large spatial variability in ponds and reservoirs. This variability is partially attributed to affinity of indicator bacteria to algae accumulations. W...

  4. The role of anthropogenic water reservoirs within the landscapes of mining areas – a case study from the western part of the Upper Silesian Coal Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaruchiewicz Ewelina

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available A few thousand anthropogenic water reservoirs can be found in the area of the Upper Silesian Coal Basis (USCB located in southern Poland. In this paper the role of such anthropogenic lakes in the landscape of the western part of the USCB was presented and illustrated with the example of Knurów, a mining city, and its immediate surrounding area. The study of landscape changes in this area was carried out on the basis of archival and contemporary cartographic materials, historical sources, and interviews with inhabitants and direct field observations. It was found that the origin of the majority of the water reservoirs is related to hard coal, clay and sand mining. They were created primarily as a result of filling subsidence basins and post-mining excavations with water, as well as being the result of the construction of various hydro-technical facilities (settling ponds, fire protection water reservoirs, etc. In the study area the anthropogenic water reservoirs are of different sizes, shapes and durability and play different roles in the environment. Between 1884 and 2001 their number increased 25-fold, while at the same time their total surface area increased more than 8-fold. The role of the newly created water reservoirs in the landscape primarily involves the transformation of the existing terrestrial ecosystems into wetland ecosystems. The agro-forestry landscape of the late 19th century was transformed into a typically anthropogenic landscape with a dominant share of water reservoirs, settlement ponds and mining waste heaps. The most common species of plants around the water reservoirs are Phragmites australis, Typha latifolia, Ceratophyllum demersum, Elodea canadensis, Potamogeton natans, Lemna sp., Acorus calamus, Myriophyllum verticillatum, Sagittaria sagittifolia, Alisma plantago-aquatica and Glyceria aquatica. The most valuable elements of the flora include Trapa natans and Ruppia maritima, species recognized in Poland as threatened

  5. A Numerical Study on the Effects of Initial Water Saturation of a Geothermal Reservoir on Well Characteristics

    OpenAIRE

    Khasani; Itoi, Ryuichi; Tanaka, Toshiaki; Fukuda, Michihiro

    2004-01-01

    The effects of initial water saturation on well characteristics in two-phase geothermal reservoirs were evaluated. A vertical wellbore model of uniform diameter coupled with a radial horizontal flow in a reservoir of uniform thickness was employed. The momentum equation for two-phase flow in a wellbore was numerically evaluated with a method introduced by Orkiszewski. The energy equation in the wellbore was assumed to be isenthalpic. Mass flow rate and pressure at a feed zone of the well were...

  6. Application of integrated petroleum reservoir study for intervention and field development program in western onshore field, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijai Kumar Baskaran

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In this research, an integrated reservoir study is performed in the J#Field (J-Oil Field of western onshore, India to evaluate its additional reserves expectations and implement field developments plan using waterflood pilot program. The target strata includes two formations of Paleogene, which is about 3600 ft, namely G#Fm (G-Formation of the Eocene and T#Fm (T-Formation of Oligocene, subdivided into 11 zones. Based on these results, an attempt was made to construct of an optimization plan to exploit it, taking into account that the field is producing since 1947, with a cumulative production of 183.5 MMbbl and an overall recovery factor of 28% until January 2016. On the basis of the potential evaluation and geological modeling, blocks J48 and J45 were simulated, and the remaining oil distribution characteristics in two blocks were studied after history match. The work includes the stratigraphic studies, seismic study, logging interpretation, sedimentary facies modeling, three dimensional geological modeling, simulations for waterflooding, and future field development plans.

  7. Millennium Ecosystem Assessment: MA Population

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Millennium Ecosystem Assessment: MA Population data sets provide baseline population information as one of the drivers of ecosystem change. The data helped in...

  8. Fabrication technology for ODS Alloy MA957

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ML Hamilton; DS Gelles; RJ Lobsinger; MM Paxton; WF Brown

    2000-01-01

    A successful fabrication schedule has been developed at Carpenter Technology Corporation for the production of MA957 fuel and blanket cladding. Difficulties with gun drilling, plug drawing and recrystallization were overcome to produce a pilot lot of tubing. This report documents the fabrication efforts of two qualified vendors and the support studies performed at WHC to develop the fabrication-schedule

  9. Landslide susceptibility modeling applying machine learning methods: A case study from Longju in the Three Gorges Reservoir area, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Chao; Yin, Kunlong; Cao, Ying; Ahmed, Bayes; Li, Yuanyao; Catani, Filippo; Pourghasemi, Hamid Reza

    2018-03-01

    Landslide is a common natural hazard and responsible for extensive damage and losses in mountainous areas. In this study, Longju in the Three Gorges Reservoir area in China was taken as a case study for landslide susceptibility assessment in order to develop effective risk prevention and mitigation strategies. To begin, 202 landslides were identified, including 95 colluvial landslides and 107 rockfalls. Twelve landslide causal factor maps were prepared initially, and the relationship between these factors and each landslide type was analyzed using the information value model. Later, the unimportant factors were selected and eliminated using the information gain ratio technique. The landslide locations were randomly divided into two groups: 70% for training and 30% for verifying. Two machine learning models: the support vector machine (SVM) and artificial neural network (ANN), and a multivariate statistical model: the logistic regression (LR), were applied for landslide susceptibility modeling (LSM) for each type. The LSM index maps, obtained from combining the assessment results of the two landslide types, were classified into five levels. The performance of the LSMs was evaluated using the receiver operating characteristics curve and Friedman test. Results show that the elimination of noise-generating factors and the separated modeling of each landslide type have significantly increased the prediction accuracy. The machine learning models outperformed the multivariate statistical model and SVM model was found ideal for the case study area.

  10. Reservoir fisheries of Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, S.S. De.

    1990-01-01

    At a workshop on reservoir fisheries research, papers were presented on the limnology of reservoirs, the changes that follow impoundment, fisheries management and modelling, and fish culture techniques. Separate abstracts have been prepared for three papers from this workshop

  11. Multiobjective reservoir operating rules based on cascade reservoir input variable selection method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Guang; Guo, Shenglian; Liu, Pan; Li, Liping; Xu, Chongyu

    2017-04-01

    The input variable selection in multiobjective cascade reservoir operation is an important and difficult task. To address this problem, this study proposes the cascade reservoir input variable selection (CIS) method that searches for the most valuable input variables for decision making in multiple-objectivity cascade reservoir operations. From a case study of Hanjiang cascade reservoirs in China, we derive reservoir operating rules based on the combination of CIS and Gaussian radial basis functions (RBFs) methods and optimize the rules through Pareto-archived dynamically dimensioned search (PA-DDS) with two objectives: to maximize both power generation and water supply. We select the most effective input variables and evaluate their impacts on cascade reservoir operations. From the simulated trajectories of reservoir water level, power generation, and water supply, we analyze the multiobjective operating rules with several input variables. The results demonstrate that the CIS method performs well in the selection of input variables for the cascade reservoir operation, and the RBFs method can fully express the nonlinear operating rules for cascade reservoirs. We conclude that the CIS method is an effective and stable approach to identifying the most valuable information from a large number of candidate input variables. While the reservoir storage state is the most valuable information for the Hanjiang cascade reservoir multiobjective operation, the reservoir inflow is the most effective input variable for the single-objective operation of Danjiangkou.

  12. Comparative study of microflora in Rhizospheric soils of Argania spinosa and Acacia raddiana of the arid zone from Oued El Ma (Tindouf)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tissouras, Fatiha; Habib, Semira; Missoum, Malika; Louacini, Braim Kamel

    2016-04-01

    Desert soils occupy a large area in Algeria (80Moreover, exploitation of the Saharan soil microorganisms has several interests and especially in maintaining the ecological equilibrium of ecosystems. Unfortunately, few of microbiological studies have been conducted so far about the Saharan soil Algerian, with the exception of some work done on the desert soils in the region of Beni Ounif. This work falls within the framework of Project CNEPRU F02320100009. The study focuses on an evaluation of the main germs rhizosphere soils from Argania spinosa and Acacia raddiana of the region of Oued El-ma (wilaya of Tindouf), located in southwest Algeria, followed by physicochemical analysis of some parameters (soil texture, pH, moisture content, organic matter). The results reveal that both rhizosphere soils have a sandy silt texture of alkali pH, with very low water content slightly different. Organic material of the rate varies from 0.2 to 1The type of vegetation influences positively the quantity and the dynamics of microbial population. Indeed, the two soils have an interesting microbial diversity, with densities of azotobacters, fungi, aerobic bacteria and actinomycetes are very high, followed germs ammonifiants, nitrifying and denitrifying. In the presence of Argania spinosa the microbial growth is most important (6.53 × 107 germs /g soil), compared with Acacia raddiana (3.13 × 107 germs /g). This shows the stimulating effect of the vegetation on the increase in the rate of these microorganisms in the soil. Well as the strong Fitness of adaptation the microbial biomass to drought. Keywords: Argania spinoza; Acacia raddiana; rhizospheric soil; microbiology evaluation.

  13. The Influences and Outcomes of Phonological Awareness: A Study of MA, PA and Auditory Processing in Pre-Readers with a Family Risk of Dyslexia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Jeremy M.; Wouters, Jan; Ghesquière, Pol

    2017-01-01

    The direct influence of phonological awareness (PA) on reading outcomes has been widely demonstrated, yet PA may also exert indirect influence on reading outcomes through other cognitive variables such as morphological awareness (MA). However, PA's own development is dependent and influenced by many extraneous variables such as auditory…

  14. Large reservoirs: Chapter 17

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Leandro E.; Bettoli, Phillip William

    2010-01-01

    Large impoundments, defined as those with surface area of 200 ha or greater, are relatively new aquatic ecosystems in the global landscape. They represent important economic and environmental resources that provide benefits such as flood control, hydropower generation, navigation, water supply, commercial and recreational fisheries, and various other recreational and esthetic values. Construction of large impoundments was initially driven by economic needs, and ecological consequences received little consideration. However, in recent decades environmental issues have come to the forefront. In the closing decades of the 20th century societal values began to shift, especially in the developed world. Society is no longer willing to accept environmental damage as an inevitable consequence of human development, and it is now recognized that continued environmental degradation is unsustainable. Consequently, construction of large reservoirs has virtually stopped in North America. Nevertheless, in other parts of the world construction of large reservoirs continues. The emergence of systematic reservoir management in the early 20th century was guided by concepts developed for natural lakes (Miranda 1996). However, we now recognize that reservoirs are different and that reservoirs are not independent aquatic systems inasmuch as they are connected to upstream rivers and streams, the downstream river, other reservoirs in the basin, and the watershed. Reservoir systems exhibit longitudinal patterns both within and among reservoirs. Reservoirs are typically arranged sequentially as elements of an interacting network, filter water collected throughout their watersheds, and form a mosaic of predictable patterns. Traditional approaches to fisheries management such as stocking, regulating harvest, and in-lake habitat management do not always produce desired effects in reservoirs. As a result, managers may expend resources with little benefit to either fish or fishing. Some locally

  15. Understanding the True Stimulated Reservoir Volume in Shale Reservoirs

    KAUST Repository

    Hussain, Maaruf

    2017-06-06

    Successful exploitation of shale reservoirs largely depends on the effectiveness of hydraulic fracturing stimulation program. Favorable results have been attributed to intersection and reactivation of pre-existing fractures by hydraulically-induced fractures that connect the wellbore to a larger fracture surface area within the reservoir rock volume. Thus, accurate estimation of the stimulated reservoir volume (SRV) becomes critical for the reservoir performance simulation and production analysis. Micro-seismic events (MS) have been commonly used as a proxy to map out the SRV geometry, which could be erroneous because not all MS events are related to hydraulic fracture propagation. The case studies discussed here utilized a fully 3-D simulation approach to estimate the SRV. The simulation approach presented in this paper takes into account the real-time changes in the reservoir\\'s geomechanics as a function of fluid pressures. It is consisted of four separate coupled modules: geomechanics, hydrodynamics, a geomechanical joint model for interfacial resolution, and an adaptive re-meshing. Reservoir stress condition, rock mechanical properties, and injected fluid pressure dictate how fracture elements could open or slide. Critical stress intensity factor was used as a fracture criterion governing the generation of new fractures or propagation of existing fractures and their directions. Our simulations were run on a Cray XC-40 HPC system. The studies outcomes proved the approach of using MS data as a proxy for SRV to be significantly flawed. Many of the observed stimulated natural fractures are stress related and very few that are closer to the injection field are connected. The situation is worsened in a highly laminated shale reservoir as the hydraulic fracture propagation is significantly hampered. High contrast in the in-situ stresses related strike-slip developed thereby shortens the extent of SRV. However, far field nature fractures that were not connected to

  16. Soil erosion and sediment fluxes analysis: a watershed study of the Ni Reservoir, Spotsylvania County, VA, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pope, Ian C; Odhiambo, Ben K

    2014-03-01

    Anthropogenic forces that alter the physical landscape are known to cause significant soil erosion, which has negative impact on surface water bodies, such as rivers, lakes/reservoirs, and coastal zones, and thus sediment control has become one of the central aspects of catchment management planning. The revised universal soil loss equation empirical model, erosion pins, and isotopic sediment core analyses were used to evaluate watershed erosion, stream bank erosion, and reservoir sediment accumulation rates for Ni Reservoir, in central Virginia. Land-use and land cover seems to be dominant control in watershed soil erosion, with barren land and human-disturbed areas contributing the most sediment, and forest and herbaceous areas contributing the least. Results show a 7 % increase in human development from 2001 (14 %) to 2009 (21.6 %), corresponding to an increase in soil loss of 0.82 Mg ha(-1) year(-1) in the same time period. (210)Pb-based sediment accumulation rates at three locations in Ni Reservoir were 1.020, 0.364, and 0.543 g cm(-2) year(-1) respectively, indicating that sediment accumulation and distribution in the reservoir is influenced by reservoir configuration and significant contributions from bedload. All three locations indicate an increase in modern sediment accumulation rates. Erosion pin results show variability in stream bank erosion with values ranging from 4.7 to 11.3 cm year(-1). These results indicate that urban growth and the decline in vegetative cover has increased sediment fluxes from the watershed and poses a significant threat to the long-term sustainability of the Ni Reservoir as urbanization continues to increase.

  17. Study on Zipingpu reservoir induced multi-scale porous flows related to 2008 Wenchuan Ms 8.0 earthquake by parallel CPU and GPU computation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Y.; Zhu, B.

    2010-12-01

    Coulomb failure assumption is used to evaluate the earthquake trigger, and pore pressures play an important part in triggering the earthquake slip. Based on the parallel CPU computation and GPU visualization technology, the relationship between the pore stress accumulation on Zipingpu reservoir and the trigging and propagation mechanism of the Longmenshan coseismic fault slip have been studied on different length scales [Scale I: 30.976E_31.105E, 103.45N_103.577N;Scale II: 30.7E_31.3E, 103.05N_103.76N; Scale III: 29E_33E, 101N_105N]. Longmenshan fault slip of 2008 Wenchuan Ms 8.0 earthquake is obtained by GPS & InSAR inversion technique, it composed with two slips and cross-wised Zipingpu reservoir zone. The relationship between the pore stress accumulation of Zipingpu reservoir and the trigging and propagation of the Longmenshan coseismic fault slip because very important for it direction effect the dynamic real-time security evaluation and monitor of Zipingpu key water control project. Zipingpu reservoir is located on the upstream of Minjiang river, the maximum reservoir storage capacity is 11×109 m3, the adjustable reservoir storage capacity is 8×109 m3, the normal impounded level is 877m, the dam top altitude is 894m and the dam bottom altitude is 728m.The key water control project began Mar.3.2001, stop flow time is Nov.1.2002, storage time is Dec.1.2004 and completed at Dec.1.2006. The total pore stress accumulation time before Wenchuan Ms 8.0 Earthquake (May.12.2008) is 3~4 years. In our physical model, we use the 15000 time steps (10 ts/day) to describe the effect of pore stress of reservoir to the Longmenshan fault slip. From the GPS&InSAR inversion technology, the Longmenshan earthquake fault slip is divided into 673 parts. The results show that the relationship between extended pore strain and stress on Zipingpu reservoir and Longmenshan coseismic fault slip on Scale I under 20000ts. The pore stress accumulation value level is 0.3Mp. The relationship

  18. Assessing spatial uncertainty in reservoir characterization for carbon sequestration planning using public well-log data: A case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venteris, E.R.; Carter, K.M.

    2009-01-01

    Mapping and characterization of potential geologic reservoirs are key components in planning carbon dioxide (CO2) injection projects. The geometry of target and confining layers is vital to ensure that the injected CO2 remains in a supercritical state and is confined to the target layer. Also, maps of injection volume (porosity) are necessary to estimate sequestration capacity at undrilled locations. Our study uses publicly filed geophysical logs and geostatistical modeling methods to investigate the reliability of spatial prediction for oil and gas plays in the Medina Group (sandstone and shale facies) in northwestern Pennsylvania. Specifically, the modeling focused on two targets: the Grimsby Formation and Whirlpool Sandstone. For each layer, thousands of data points were available to model structure and thickness but only hundreds were available to support volumetric modeling because of the rarity of density-porosity logs in the public records. Geostatistical analysis based on this data resulted in accurate structure models, less accurate isopach models, and inconsistent models of pore volume. Of the two layers studied, only the Whirlpool Sandstone data provided for a useful spatial model of pore volume. Where reliable models for spatial prediction are absent, the best predictor available for unsampled locations is the mean value of the data, and potential sequestration sites should be planned as close as possible to existing wells with volumetric data. ?? 2009. The American Association of Petroleum Geologists/Division of Environmental Geosciences. All rights reserved.

  19. A Study of the Fruit Bat (Rousettus sp Brain Anatomy as Natural Reservoir Wild Animal for the Rabies Virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Mayang Sari

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Rousettus sp. (Fruit bat is one type of fruit bats in Indonesia and act as a natural reservoir of rabies. Rabies is caused by a virus from genus Lyssavirus, family Rhabdoviridae, which attack central nervous system (CNS.The brain is an organ that is sensitive to rabies infection. The purpose of this study was to determine the anatomical structure of the fruit bat brain macroscopically. Five fruit bat were used in this study, they were anaesthetized using ketamine and xylazin. Animals were perfused using physiological saline and 10% buffered formalin. Brains were taken using tweezers after all the bones of the skull were separated. Analysis of macroscopic brain was done descriptively. The results showed that the fruit bat brain were generally divided into cerebrum, cerebellum and brain stem. Gyrus, sulcus and the paraflokulus lobes of the fruit bat brain were less developed than that of the dogs brain.

  20. The association between hematological parameters and insulin resistance is modified by body mass index - results from the North-East Italy MoMa population study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocco Barazzoni

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Increments in red blood cell count (RBC, hemoglobin (Hb and hematocrit (Ht levels are reportedly associated with higher insulin resistance (IR. Obesity may cause IR, but underlying factors remain incompletely defined, and interactions between obesity, hematological parameters and IR are incompletely understood. We therefore determined whether: 1 BMI and obesity per se are independently associated with higher RBC, hemoglobin and hematocrit; 2 hematological parameters independently predict insulin resistance in obese individuals. DESIGN AND METHODS: We investigated the associations between BMI, hematological parameters and insulin resistance as reflected by homeostasis model assessment (HOMA in a general population cohort from the North-East Italy MoMa epidemiological study (M/F = 865/971, age = 49 ± 1. RESULTS: In all subjects, age-, sex- and smoking-adjusted hematological parameters were positively associated with BMI in linear regression (P<0.05, but not after adjustment for HOMA or waist circumference (WC and potential metabolic confounders. No associations were found between hematological parameters and BMI in lean, overweight or obese subgroups. Associations between hematological parameters and HOMA were conversely independent of BMI in all subjects and in lean and overweight subgroups (P<0.01, but not in obese subjects alone. CONCLUSIONS: In a North-East Italy general population cohort, obesity per se is not independently associated with altered RBC, Hb and Ht, and the association between BMI and hematological parameters is mediated by their associations with abdominal fat and insulin resistance markers. High hematological parameters could contribute to identify insulin resistance in non-obese individual, but they do not appear to be reliable insulin resistance biomarkers in obese subjects.

  1. An environmental data base for all Hydro-Quebec reservoirs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demers, C.

    1988-01-01

    Hydro-Quebec has created two management positions specifically for reservoirs, namely Reservoir Ecology Advisor and Reservoir Management Advisor. To assist management decisions, a means was required of bringing together all existing environmental information for each reservoir operated by Hydro-Quebec, including storage reservoirs, auxiliary reservoirs and forebays. A relational database using Reflex software was developed on a network of Macintosh computers. The database contains five blocks of information: general information, and physical, physiochemical, biologic and socioeconomic characteristics for each reservoir. Data will be collected on over 100 sites, and the tool will form the basis for developing a medium-range study program on reservoir ecology. The program must take into account the physical, biological and socioeconomic aspects of the environment, as well as the concerns of management personnel operating the reservoirs, the local population, reservoir users, and various government departments. 2 figs

  2. Staphylococcus aureus reservoirs and transmission routes in a Portuguese Neonatal Intensive Care Unit: a 30-month surveillance study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conceição, Teresa; Aires de Sousa, Marta; Miragaia, Maria; Paulino, Elsa; Barroso, Rosalina; Brito, Maria João; Sardinha, Teresa; Sancho, Luísa; Carreiro, Helena; de Sousa, Germano; Machado, Maria do Céu; de Lencastre, Hermínia

    2012-04-01

    Although Staphylococcus aureus is a major cause of outbreaks in neonatal intensive care units (NICUs), there are no studies on the epidemiology of S. aureus isolates responsible for infection in Portuguese NICUs. Between July 2005 and December 2007, a total of 54 methicillin susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) isolates were recovered from 16 infected infants, parents, health care workers (HCWs), and the environment in a level III NICU. Isolates were characterized by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), spa typing, and multilocus sequence typing. Virulence determinants were detected by multiplex polymerase chain reaction. Three major MSSA clones were endemic in the NICU, representing 70% (n=38) of the isolates: PFGE type A-ST5 (n=17); type B-ST30 (n=12); and type C-ST1 (n=9). Leukotoxins and hemolysins were present in all isolates, although none of them carried PVL. HCWs, plastic folders protecting clinical files, and mothers' nipples were identified as potential reservoirs and/or vehicles of dissemination of S. aureus. Consequently, additional infection control measures were implemented in this NICU.

  3. Use of bias correction techniques to improve seasonal forecasts for reservoirs - A case-study in northwestern Mediterranean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcos, Raül; Llasat, Ma Carmen; Quintana-Seguí, Pere; Turco, Marco

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, we have compared different bias correction methodologies to assess whether they could be advantageous for improving the performance of a seasonal prediction model for volume anomalies in the Boadella reservoir (northwestern Mediterranean). The bias correction adjustments have been applied on precipitation and temperature from the European Centre for Middle-range Weather Forecasting System 4 (S4). We have used three bias correction strategies: two linear (mean bias correction, BC, and linear regression, LR) and one non-linear (Model Output Statistics analogs, MOS-analog). The results have been compared with climatology and persistence. The volume-anomaly model is a previously computed Multiple Linear Regression that ingests precipitation, temperature and in-flow anomaly data to simulate monthly volume anomalies. The potential utility for end-users has been assessed using economic value curve areas. We have studied the S4 hindcast period 1981-2010 for each month of the year and up to seven months ahead considering an ensemble of 15 members. We have shown that the MOS-analog and LR bias corrections can improve the original S4. The application to volume anomalies points towards the possibility to introduce bias correction methods as a tool to improve water resource seasonal forecasts in an end-user context of climate services. Particularly, the MOS-analog approach gives generally better results than the other approaches in late autumn and early winter. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Stream, Lake, and Reservoir Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Jingjing; Mei, Ying; Chang, Chein-Chi

    2017-10-01

    This review on stream, lake, and reservoir management covers selected 2016 publications on the focus of the following sections: Stream, lake, and reservoir management • Water quality of stream, lake, and reservoirReservoir operations • Models of stream, lake, and reservoir • Remediation and restoration of stream, lake, and reservoir • Biota of stream, lake, and reservoir • Climate effect of stream, lake, and reservoir.

  5. Integrated seismic study of naturally fractured tight gas reservoirs. Final report, September 1991--January 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mavko, G.; Nur, A.

    1995-01-01

    The approach in this project has been to integrate the principles of rock physics into a quantitative processing and interpretation scheme that exploits, where possible, the broader spectrum of fracture zone signatures: (1) anomalous compressional and shear wave velocity; (2) Q and velocity dispersion; (3) increased velocity anisotropy; (4) amplitude vs. offset (AVO) response, and (5) variations in frequency content. As part of this the authors have attempted to refine some of the theoretical rock physics tools that should be applied in any field study to link the observed seismic signatures to the physical/geologic description of the fractured rock. The project had 3 key elements: (1) rock physics studies of the anisotropic viscoelastic signatures of fractured rocks, (2) acquisition and processing of seismic reflection field data, and (3) interpretation of seismic and well log data. The study site is in a producing field operated by Amoco and Arco at the southern boundary of the Powder River basin in Wyoming. During the winter of 1992--1993 the authors collected about 50 km of 9-component reflection seismic data and obtained existing log data from several wells in the vicinity. The paper gives background information on laboratory studies, seismic field studies of fracture anisotropy, and the problem of upscaling from the laboratory to the field. It discusses fluid effects on seismic anisotropy and a method for predicting stress-induced seismic anisotropy. Then results from the field experiment are presented and discussed: regional geologic framework and site description; seismic data acquisition; shear wave data and validation; and P-wave data analysis. 106 refs., 52 figs.

  6. Status of Wheeler Reservoir

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-09-01

    This is one in a series of status reports prepared by the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) for those interested in the conditions of TVA reservoirs. This overview of Wheeler Reservoir summarizes reservoir purposes and operation, reservoir and watershed characteristics, reservoir uses and use impairments, and water quality and aquatic biological conditions. The information presented here is from the most recent reports, publications, and original data available. If no recent data were available, historical data were summarized. If data were completely lacking, environmental professionals with special knowledge of the resource were interviewed. 12 refs., 2 figs.

  7. A Study on the Reservoir Capacity to Control Mud Flood Derived from Mud Volcano: A Phenomenon in Sidoarjo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sholihin Sholihin

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper is an extended research of Coastal Zone Management of Sidoarjo mud phenomenon. The idea is to find special concept of management to control mud flood using reservoir system. This method, in the mud fluid, is intentionally used to make separation of the solid materials from water. The concept is to calculate sediment velocity in order to find the time of sedimentation then to estimate the volume of mud. Therefore, the reservoir will be determined from this calculation. The result of this research is the dimension of the reservoir: area of 3,704,144.36 m2, the depth of 5.94 m, and the volume 22.018.856.07 m3. The time of sedimentation is calculated of 28.33 hours for 42.2 % of material volume sedimentation. Consequently, the suspension material is 57.8 %. The correction of calculation is depending on the calculation of the velocity of sedimentation, about 2 %.

  8. Study to determine the feasibility of obtaining true samples of oil and gas reservoirs. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ward, C.E.; Sinclair, A.R.

    1977-10-01

    The study concludes that a feasible solution is possible which would provide up to about 90 percent information accuracy under many operating conditions, well within the economic range for most oil and gas operations. The study also concludes that there is potential feasibility for the development of systems to approach 100 percent information accuracy under many operating situations. However, the cost of such a system is far beyond those considered practical within the economics of the competitive oil and gas industry. The justification of such a system has been likened to that of a ''moon shot'' approach and would take several years of development before true feasibility and probability of success could be assessed.

  9. Qualitative simulation of bathymetric changes due to reservoir sedimentation: A Japanese case study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Bilal

    Full Text Available Sediment-dynamics modeling is a useful tool for estimating a dam's lifespan and its cost-benefit analysis. Collecting real data for sediment-dynamics analysis from conventional field survey methods is both tedious and expensive. Therefore, for most rivers, the historical record of data is either missing or not very detailed. Available data and existing tools have much potential and may be used for qualitative prediction of future bathymetric change trend. This study shows that proxy approaches may be used to increase the spatiotemporal resolution of flow data, and hypothesize the river cross-sections and sediment data. Sediment-dynamics analysis of the reach of the Tenryu River upstream of Sakuma Dam in Japan was performed to predict its future bathymetric changes using a 1D numerical model (HEC-RAS. In this case study, only annually-averaged flow data and the river's longitudinal bed profile at 5-year intervals were available. Therefore, the other required data, including river cross-section and geometry and sediment inflow grain sizes, had to be hypothesized or assimilated indirectly. The model yielded a good qualitative agreement, with an R2 (coefficient of determination of 0.8 for the observed and simulated bed profiles. A predictive simulation demonstrated that the useful life of the dam would end after the year 2035 (±5 years, which is in conformity with initial detailed estimates. The study indicates that a sediment-dynamic analysis can be performed even with a limited amount of data. However, such studies may only assess the qualitative trends of sediment dynamics.

  10. Periodontal pocket as a potential reservoir of high risk human papilloma virus: A pilot study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dayakar, Manjunath Mundoor; Shipilova, Anna; Gupta, Dinesh

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Human papilloma viruses (HPVs) are small DNA viruses that have been identified in periodontal pocket as well as gingival sulcus. High risk HPVs are also associated with a subset of head and neck carcinomas. HPV detection in periodontium has previously involved DNA detection. This study attempts to: (a) Detect the presence or absence of high risk HPV in marginal periodontiun by identifying E6/E7 messenger RNA (mRNA) in cells from samples obtained by periodontal pocket scraping. (b) Detect the percentage of HPV E6/E7 mRNA in cells of pocket scrapings, which is responsible for producing oncoproteins E6 and E7. Materials and Methods: Pocket scrapings from the periodontal pockets of eight subjects with generalized chronic periodontitis were taken the detection of presence or absence of E6, E7 mRNA was performed using in situ hybridization and flow cytometry. Results: HPV E6/E7 mRNA was detected in four of the eight samples. Conclusion: Presence of high risk human papillomaviruses in periodontal pockets patients of diagnosed with chronic periodontitis, not suffering from head and neck squamous cell carcinoma in the present day could link periodontitis to HPV related squamous cell carcinoma. Prevalence studies are needed detecting the presence of HPV in marginal periodontium as well as prospective studies of HPV positive periodontitis patients are required to explore this possible link. PMID:27143823

  11. Periodontal pocket as a potential reservoir of high risk human papilloma virus: A pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manjunath Mundoor Dayakar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Human papilloma viruses (HPVs are small DNA viruses that have been identified in periodontal pocket as well as gingival sulcus. High risk HPVs are also associated with a subset of head and neck carcinomas. HPV detection in periodontium has previously involved DNA detection. This study attempts to: (a Detect the presence or absence of high risk HPV in marginal periodontiun by identifying E6/E7 messenger RNA (mRNA in cells from samples obtained by periodontal pocket scraping. (b Detect the percentage of HPV E6/E7 mRNA in cells of pocket scrapings, which is responsible for producing oncoproteins E6 and E7. Materials and Methods: Pocket scrapings from the periodontal pockets of eight subjects with generalized chronic periodontitis were taken the detection of presence or absence of E6, E7 mRNA was performed using in situ hybridization and flow cytometry. Results: HPV E6/E7 mRNA was detected in four of the eight samples. Conclusion: Presence of high risk human papillomaviruses in periodontal pockets patients of diagnosed with chronic periodontitis, not suffering from head and neck squamous cell carcinoma in the present day could link periodontitis to HPV related squamous cell carcinoma. Prevalence studies are needed detecting the presence of HPV in marginal periodontium as well as prospective studies of HPV positive periodontitis patients are required to explore this possible link.

  12. Periodontal pocket as a potential reservoir of high risk human papilloma virus: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dayakar, Manjunath Mundoor; Shipilova, Anna; Gupta, Dinesh

    2016-01-01

    Human papilloma viruses (HPVs) are small DNA viruses that have been identified in periodontal pocket as well as gingival sulcus. High risk HPVs are also associated with a subset of head and neck carcinomas. HPV detection in periodontium has previously involved DNA detection. This study attempts to: (a) Detect the presence or absence of high risk HPV in marginal periodontiun by identifying E6/E7 messenger RNA (mRNA) in cells from samples obtained by periodontal pocket scraping. (b) Detect the percentage of HPV E6/E7 mRNA in cells of pocket scrapings, which is responsible for producing oncoproteins E6 and E7. Pocket scrapings from the periodontal pockets of eight subjects with generalized chronic periodontitis were taken the detection of presence or absence of E6, E7 mRNA was performed using in situ hybridization and flow cytometry. HPV E6/E7 mRNA was detected in four of the eight samples. Presence of high risk human papillomaviruses in periodontal pockets patients of diagnosed with chronic periodontitis, not suffering from head and neck squamous cell carcinoma in the present day could link periodontitis to HPV related squamous cell carcinoma. Prevalence studies are needed detecting the presence of HPV in marginal periodontium as well as prospective studies of HPV positive periodontitis patients are required to explore this possible link.

  13. Elastostatic effects around a magma reservoir and pathway due to historic earthquakes: a case study of Mt. Fuji, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosono, Masaki; Mitsui, Yuta; Ishibashi, Hidemi; Kataoka, Jun

    2016-12-01

    We discuss elastostatic effects on Mt. Fuji, the tallest volcano in Japan, due to historic earthquakes in Japan. The 1707 Hoei eruption, which was the most explosive historic eruption of Mt. Fuji, occurred 49 days after the Hoei earthquake (Mw 8.7) along the Nankai Trough. It was previously suggested that the Hoei earthquake induced compression of a basaltic magma reservoir and unclamping of a dike-intruded region at depth, possibly triggering magma mixing and the subsequent Plinian eruption. Here, we show that the 1707 Hoei earthquake was a special case of induced volumetric strain and normal stress changes around the magma reservoir and pathway of Mt. Fuji. The 2011 Tohoku earthquake (Mw 9), along the Japan Trench, dilated the magma reservoir. It has been proposed that dilation of a magma reservoir drives the ascent of gas bubbles with magma and further depressurization, leading to a volcanic eruption. In fact, seismicity notably increased around Mt. Fuji during the first month after the 2011 Tohoku earthquake, even when we statistically exclude aftershocks, but the small amount of strain change (< 1 μ strain) may have limited the ascent of magma. For many historic earthquakes, the magma reservoir was compressed and the magma pathway was wholly clamped. This type of interaction has little potential to mechanically trigger the deformation of a volcano. Thus, Mt. Fuji may be less susceptible to elastostatic effects because of its location relative to the sources of large tectonic earthquakes. As an exception, a possible local earthquake in the Fujikawa-kako fault zone could induce a large amount of magma reservoir dilation beneath the southern flank of Mt. Fuji.

  14. Evaluating the Implications of Climate Phenomenon Indices in Supporting Reservoir Operation Using the Artificial Neural Network and Decision-Tree Methods: A Case Study on Trinity Lake in Northern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, T.; Akbari Asanjan, A.; Gao, X.; Sorooshian, S.

    2016-12-01

    Reservoirs are fundamental human-built infrastructures that collect, store, and deliver fresh surface water in a timely manner for all kinds of purposes, including residential and industrial water supply, flood control, hydropower, and irrigation, etc. Efficient reservoir operation requires that policy makers and operators understand how reservoir inflows, available storage, and discharges are changing under different climatic conditions. Over the last decade, the uses of Artificial Intelligence and Data Mining (AI & DM) techniques in assisting reservoir management and seasonal forecasts have been increasing. Therefore, in this study, two distinct AI & DM methods, Artificial Neural Network (ANN) and Random Forest (RF), are employed and compared with respect to their capabilities of predicting monthly reservoir inflow, managing storage, and scheduling reservoir releases. A case study on Trinity Lake in northern California is conducted using long-term (over 50 years) reservoir operation records and 17 known climate phenomenon indices, i.e. PDO and ENSO, etc., as predictors. Results show that (1) both ANN and RF are capable of providing reasonable monthly reservoir storage, inflow, and outflow prediction with satisfactory statistics, and (2) climate phenomenon indices are useful in assisting monthly or seasonal forecasts of reservoir inflow and outflow. It is also found that reservoir storage has a consistent high autocorrelation effect, while inflow and outflow are more likely to be influenced by climate conditions. Using a Gini diversity index, RF method identifies that the reservoir discharges are associated with Southern Oscillation Index (SOI) and reservoir inflows are influenced by multiple climate phenomenon indices during different seasons. Furthermore, results also show that, during the winter season, reservoir discharges are controlled by the storage level for flood-control purposes, while, during the summer season, the flood-control operation is not as

  15. SURVEY, BARNSTABLE COUNTY, MA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Survey data includes spatial datasets and data tables necessary to digitally represent data collected in the survey phase of the study. (Source: FEMA Guidelines and...

  16. Integrated Outcrop and Subsurface Studies of the Interwell Environment of Carbonate Reservoirs: Clear Fork (Leonaradian Age) Reservoirs, West Texas and New Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucia, F.J.; Ruppel, S.C.

    2001-01-01

    Characterization of cycle and facies architecture on lower Clear Fork and lowermost upper Clear Fork equivalent outcrops in Apache Canyon of Sierra Diablo was complete. The focus of detailed study in Apache Canyon has been the upper Clear Fork section because this interval contains the productive interval in South Wasson field, the preliminary subsurface study area. Parts of three high-frequency sequences (HFS), each 60 to 100 ft thick, are present on the south wall of Apache Canyon. HFS's display an upper-deepening or backstepping pattern associated with longer-term sea level rise. Each HFS is composed of upward-shallowing cycles whose thickness, facies composition, and continuity vary within and between HFS's

  17. Impacts of boreal hydroelectric reservoirs on seasonal climate and precipitation recycling as simulated by the CRCM5: a case study of the La Grande River watershed, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irambona, C.; Music, B.; Nadeau, D. F.; Mahdi, T. F.; Strachan, I. B.

    2018-02-01

    Located in northern Quebec, Canada, eight hydroelectric reservoirs of a 9782-km2 maximal area cover 6.4% of the La Grande watershed. This study investigates the changes brought by the impoundment of these reservoirs on seasonal climate and precipitation recycling. Two 30-year climate simulations, corresponding to pre- and post-impoundment conditions, were used. They were generated with the fifth-generation Canadian Regional Climate Model (CRCM5), fully coupled to a 1D lake model (FLake). Seasonal temperatures and annual energy budget were generally well reproduced by the model, except in spring when a cold bias, probably related to the overestimation of snow cover, was seen. The difference in 2-m temperature shows that reservoirs induce localized warming in winter (+0.7 ± 0.02 °C) and cooling in the summer (-0.3 ± 0.02 °C). The available energy at the surface increases throughout the year, mostly due to a decrease in surface albedo. Fall latent and sensible heat fluxes are enhanced due to additional energy storage and availability in summer and spring. The changes in precipitation and runoff are within the model internal variability. At the watershed scale, reservoirs induce an additional evaporation of only 5.9 mm year-1 (2%). We use Brubaker's precipitation recycling model to estimate how much of the precipitation is recycled within the watershed. In both simulations, the maximal precipitation recycling occurs in July (less than 6%), indicating weak land-atmosphere coupling. Reservoirs do not seem to affect this coupling, as precipitation recycling only decreased by 0.6% in July.

  18. Study on temperature distribution along wellbore of fracturing horizontal wells in oil reservoir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junjun Cai

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The application of distributed temperature sensors (DTS to monitor producing zones of horizontal well through a real-time measurement of a temperature profile is becoming increasingly popular. Those parameters, such as flow rate along wellbore, well completion method, skin factor, are potentially related to the information from DTS. Based on mass-, momentum-, and energy-balance equations, this paper established a coupled model to study on temperature distribution along wellbore of fracturing horizontal wells by considering skin factor in order to predict wellbore temperature distribution and analyze the factors influencing the wellbore temperature profile. The models presented in this paper account for heat convective, fluid expansion, heat conduction, and viscous dissipative heating. Arriving temperature and wellbore temperature curves are plotted by computer iterative calculation. The non-perforated and perforated sections show different temperature distribution along wellbore. Through the study on the sensitivity analysis of skin factor and flow rate, we come to the conclusion that the higher skin factor generates larger temperature increase near the wellbore, besides, temperature along wellbore is related to both skin factors and flow rate. Temperature response type curves show that the larger skin factor we set, the less temperature augmenter from toe to heel could be. In addition, larger flow rate may generate higher wellbore temperature.

  19. Geo-Chemo-Mechanical Studies for Permanent CO{sub 2} Storage in Geologic Reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelemen, Peter; Park, Ah-hyung; Matter, Jurg; Gadikota, Greeshma; Lisabeth, Harrison; Zhu, Wenlu

    2013-09-30

    This two-pronged study investigated the rates and mechanisms of formation of Ca and Mg carbonate minerals via reaction of aqueous fluids with silicate minerals and rocks, and the geomechanical effects of such reactions. The kinetic studies focused on the separation of variables, following from previous studies demonstrating rapid formation of carbonates via reaction of the mineral olivine with aqueous fluids rich in NaHCO{sub 3} (plus KHCO{sub 3} and RbHCO{sub 3}) and NaCl at a high partial pressure of CO{sub 2}. We wished to separate and quantify the effects of NaHCO{sub 3} and NaCl, and to investigate whether bicarbonate-rich, aqueous fluids would also cause rapid formation of carbonates via reaction with other minerals and rocks. Further, we wished to improve upon previous work by adding precise characterization of grain size distributions and surface area, and their changes as a result of reaction. We confirmed previous reports of very rapid olivine carbonation. We found that at a given temperature and CO{sub 2} partial pressure the previously observed rate enhancement in olivine carbonation is due mainly to NaHCO{sub 3}, and not to dissolved NaCl. Further, though reaction of the mineral plagioclase, and two rock compositions, were all faster in the presence of NaHCO{sub 3}-rich fluids, compared with saline and de-ionized water, they were all much slower than reaction of olivine. In the experiments showing the fastest reaction rate, average grain size tended to increase during experiments, presumably due to dissolution of small reactant grains plus growth of product phases on reactant surfaces. Porosity/surface area of grains tended to change with reaction progress, due to the formation of dissolution pits and irregular growth of product phases on reactant grain surfaces. Development of a passivating phase (e.g., a layer of silica) due to incongruent dissolution of solid reactants and/or precipitation of solid products was detected, but was relatively minor and

  20. An Integrated Study of the Grayburg/San Andres Reservoir, Foster and South Cowden Fields, Ector County, Texas, Class II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trentham, Robert C.; Weinbrandt, Richard; Robinson, William C.; Widner, Kevin

    2001-05-03

    The objectives of the project were to: (1) Thoroughly understand the 60-year history of the field. (2) Develop a reservoir description using geology and 3D seismic. (3) Isolate the upper Grayburg in wells producing from multiple intervals to stop cross flow. (4) Re-align and optimize the upper Grayburg waterflood. (5) Determine well condition, identify re-frac candidates, evaluate the effectiveness of well work and obtain bottom hole pressure data for simulation utilizing pressure transient testing field wide. (6) Quantitatively integrate all the data to guide the field operations, including identification of new well locations utilizing reservoir simulation.

  1. Large area imaging of forensic evidence with MA-XRF

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Langstraat, Kirsten; Knijnenberg, Alwin; Edelman, Gerda; Van De Merwe, Linda; van Loon, A.; Dik, J.; van Asten, Arian C.

    2017-01-01

    This study introduces the use of macroscopic X-ray fluorescence (MA-XRF) for the detection, classification and imaging of forensic traces over large object areas such as entire pieces of clothing and wall paneling. MA-XRF was sufficiently sensitive and selective to detect human biological traces

  2. Large area imaging of forensic evidence with MA-XRF

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Langstraat, K.; Knijnenberg, A.; Edelman, G.; van de Merwe, L.; van Loon, A.; Dik, J.; van Asten, A.

    2017-01-01

    This study introduces the use of macroscopic X-ray fluorescence (MA-XRF) for the detection, classification and imaging of forensic traces over large object areas such as entire pieces of clothing and wall paneling. MA-XRF was sufficiently sensitive and selective to detect human biological traces

  3. The experimental study of heat extraction of supercritical CO2 in the geothermal reservoir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Cyun-Jie

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The heat transfer phenomena of supercritical CO2 are experimentally investigated in a horizontal tube for improving the efficiency of CO2-EGS.This study discuss the experimental verification of the numerical simulations. The experiment is conducted for the pressure, the flow rate, and particle size 1.54mm. In addition, the experiment and simulation that the maximum heat extraction is occurred at the 9MPa pressure and mass flow rate of 0.00109 kg/s. The maximum specific heat extraction at 9MPa and flow rate of 0.00082 kg/s. The results show that the numerical model has been experimentally verified of the feasibility. Furthermore, the pseudo-critical point had a significant influence on the heat extraction, temperature difference and specific heat extraction.

  4. Geochemical monitoring using noble gases and carbon isotopes: study of a natural reservoir; Monitoring geochimique par couplage entre les gaz rares et les isotopes du carbone: etude d'un reservoir naturel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeandel, E

    2008-12-15

    To limit emissions of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere, CO{sub 2} geological sequestration appears as a solution in the fight against climate change. The development of reliable monitoring tools to ensure the sustainability and the safety of geological storage is a prerequisite for the implementation of such sites. In this framework, a geochemical method using noble gas and carbon isotopes geochemistry has been tested on natural and industrial analogues. The study of natural analogues from different geological settings showed systematic behaviours of the geochemical parameters, depending on the containment sites, and proving the effectiveness of these tools in terms of leak detection and as tracers of the behaviour of CO{sub 2}. Moreover, an experience of geochemical tracing on a natural gas storage has demonstrated that it is possible to identify the physical-chemical processes taking place in the reservoir to a human time scale, increasing interest in the proposed tool and providing general information on its use. (author)

  5. Ma-rc-h

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    eographed journal of the Society christened 'The. Botanica', and a weekly colloquium - all three organized entirely ... culture techniques in studies of embryology. At his hands, embryology grew rapidly into an ex- perimental ... with genuine child-like happiness. Maheshwari was an able administrator; his method of working ...

  6. Large-scale global convection in the mantle beneath Australia from 55 Ma to now

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, M.

    1999-01-01

    reservoir beneath most of the Gondwana lithosphere and that the westward migration of the Pacific MORB source may have been associated with the Tasman Sea opening (ca 85-60 Ma) along a broad front southeast of the Australian continent. Independent dynamic modelling by Gurnis et al. (1998) produced a west-pointing V-shaped boundary between l-MORB and P-MORB in the Southern Ocean, consistent with the data from this study, and explains the present-day geochemical and geophysical characteristics of the Australia Antarctic Discordance (AAD) in the Southern Ocean. Copyright (1999) Geological Society of Australia

  7. Geothermal reservoir management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scherer, C.R.; Golabi, K.

    1978-02-01

    The optimal management of a hot water geothermal reservoir was considered. The physical system investigated includes a three-dimensional aquifer from which hot water is pumped and circulated through a heat exchanger. Heat removed from the geothermal fluid is transferred to a building complex or other facility for space heating. After passing through the heat exchanger, the (now cooled) geothermal fluid is reinjected into the aquifer. This cools the reservoir at a rate predicted by an expression relating pumping rate, time, and production hole temperature. The economic model proposed in the study maximizes discounted value of energy transferred across the heat exchanger minus the discounted cost of wells, equipment, and pumping energy. The real value of energy is assumed to increase at r percent per year. A major decision variable is the production or pumping rate (which is constant over the project life). Other decision variables in this optimization are production timing, reinjection temperature, and the economic life of the reservoir at the selected pumping rate. Results show that waiting time to production and production life increases as r increases and decreases as the discount rate increases. Production rate decreases as r increases and increases as the discount rate increases. The optimal injection temperature is very close to the temperature of the steam produced on the other side of the heat exchanger, and is virtually independent of r and the discount rate. Sensitivity of the decision variables to geohydrological parameters was also investigated. Initial aquifer temperature and permeability have a major influence on these variables, although aquifer porosity is of less importance. A penalty was considered for production delay after the lease is granted.

  8. Investigation of temperature dynamics in small and shallow reservoirs, case study : Lake Binaba, Upper East Region of Ghana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abbasi, A.; Annor, F.O.; van de Giesen, N.C.

    2016-01-01

    An unsteady fully three-dimensional model of Lake Binaba (a shallow small reservoir) in semi-arid Upper East Region of Ghana has been developed to simulate its temperature dynamics. The model developed is built on the Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations, utilizing the Boussinesq

  9. Gravimetric monitoring of water influx into a gas reservoir: A numerical study based on the ensemble kalman filter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Glegola, M.; Ditmar, P.; Hanea, R.G.; Vossepoel, F.C.; Arts, R.; Klees, R.

    2012-01-01

    Water influx into gas fields can reduce recovery factors by 10-40%. Therefore, information about the magnitude and spatial distribution of water influx is essential for efficient management of waterdrive gas reservoirs. Modern geophysical techniques such as gravimetry may provide a direct measure of

  10. Spatio-temporal study of phytoplankton cell viability in a eutrophic reservoir using SYTOX Green nucleic acid stain

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rychtecký, Pavel; Znachor, Petr; Nedoma, Jiří

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 740, č. 1 (2014), s. 177-189 ISSN 0018-8158 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP504/11/2177; GA ČR(CZ) GAP504/11/2182 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : phytoplankton * reservoir * cell death * SYTOX Green Subject RIV: DA - Hydrology ; Limnology Impact factor: 2.275, year: 2014

  11. A multi-scale case study of natural fracture systems in outcrops and boreholes with applications to reservoir modelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Taal-van Koppen, J.K.J.

    2008-01-01

    Fractured reservoirs are notoriously difficult to characterize because the resolution of seismic data is too low to detect fractures whereas borehole data is detailed but sparse. Therefore, outcrops can be of great support in gaining knowledge of the three-dimensional geometry of fracture networks,

  12. Studies and support for the EGS reservoirs at Soultz-sous-Forets. April 2004 - May 2009. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Portier, S.; Vuataz, F.-D. [Centre de Recherche en Geothermie (CREGE), Neuchatel (Switzerland)

    2009-08-15

    This comprehensive final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) takes a look at the activities carried out during the period from April 2004 up to May 2009 at Soultz-sous-Forets, France, in connection with the enhanced geothermal systems (EGS) at that location. The report describes the work performed by the Swiss EGS Research and Development group involved in the Soultz project. The principal target set was to install and operate a power plant, enabling the deep reservoir/heat exchanger to be operated, evaluated and improved under realistic conditions. The Swiss contributors have been participating in several work packages: Short and long term tests and medium-term tests of the three-well reservoir/heat exchanger system, development and up-scaling, technical and economic design of larger, industrial, EGS units and the development of stimulation methodology for EGS. The exchange of findings obtained during this project phase is discussed, as is the state-of-the-art of EGS stimulation methods, the interpretation of logging data. Also, seismic /-hydraulic factors, the evaluation of the production/injection performance of the boreholes and reservoir development strategies are discussed as are the modelling of geochemical impact of forced fluid circulation in the deep geothermal reservoir and the results of chemical stimulation tests performed on site.

  13. Consistent lithological units and its influence on geomechanical stratification in shale reservoir: case study from Baltic Basin, Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pachytel, Radomir; Jarosiński, Marek; Bobek, Kinga

    2017-04-01

    Geomechanical investigations in shale reservoir are crucial to understand rock behavior during hydraulic fracturing treatment and to solve borehole wall stability problem. Anisotropy should be considered as key mechanical parameter while trying to characterize shale properties in variety of scales. We are developing a concept of step-by-step approach to characterize and upscale the Consistent Lithological Units (CLU) at several scales of analysis. We decided that the most regional scale model, comparable to lithostratigraphic formations, is too general for hydraulic fracture propagation study thus a more detailed description is needed. The CLU's hierarchic model aims in upscale elastic properties with their anisotropy based on available data from vertical borehole. For the purpose of our study we have an access to continuous borehole core profile and full set of geophysical logging from several wells in the Pomeranian part of the Ordovician and Silurian shale complex belongs to the Baltic Basin. We are focused on shale properties that might be crucial for mechanical response to hydraulic fracturing: mineral components, porosity, density, elastic parameters and natural fracture pattern. To prepare the precise CLU model we compare several methods of determination and upscaling every single parameter used for consistent units secretion. Mineralogical data taken from ULTRA log, GEM log, X-ray diffraction and X-ray fluorescence were compared with Young modulus from sonic logs and Triaxial Compressive Strength Tests. The results showed the impact of clay content and porosity increase on Young's modulus reduction while carbonates (both calcite and dolomite) have stronger impact on elastic modulus growth, more than quartz, represented here mostly by detrital particles. Comparing the shales of similar composition in a few wells of different depths we concluded that differences in diagenesis and compaction due to variation in formation depth in a range of 1 km has negligible

  14. Sedimentological and geophysical studies of clastic reservoir analogs: Methods, applications and developments of ground-penetrating radar for determination of reservoir geometries in near-surface settings. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McMechan, G.A.; Soegaard, K.

    1998-05-25

    An integrated sedimentologic and GPR investigation has been carried out on a fluvial channel sandstone in the mid-Cretaceous Ferron Sandstone at Coyote Basin along the southwestern flank of the San Rafael Uplift in east-central Utah. This near-surface study, which covers a area of 40 {times} 16.5 meters to a depth of 15 meters, integrates detailed stratigraphic data from outcrop sections and facies maps with multi-frequency 3-D GPR surveys. The objectives of this investigation are two-fold: (1) to develop new ground-penetrating radar (GPR) technology for imaging shallow subsurface sandstone bodies, and (2) to construct an empirical three-dimensional sandstone reservoir model suitable for hydrocarbon flow-simulation by imaging near-surface sandstone reservoir analogs with the use of GPR. The sedimentological data base consists of a geologic map of the survey area and a detailed facies map of the cliff face immediately adjacent to the survey area. Five vertical sections were measured along the cliff face adjacent to the survey area. In addition, four wells were cored within the survey area from which logs were recorded. In the sections and well logs primary sedimentary structures were documented along with textural information and permeability data. Gamma-ray profiles were also obtained for all sections and core logs. The sedimentologic and stratigraphic information serves as the basis from which much of the processing and interpretation of the GPR data was made. Three 3-D GPR data sets were collected over the survey area at frequencies of 50 MHZ, 100 MHZ, and 200 MHZ.

  15. Preliminary design study of underground pumped hydro and compressed-air energy storage in hard rock. Volume 8: Design approaches. UPH. Appendix E: Lower reservoir

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-04-01

    Operational, construction, and geotechnical requirements were examined. Overriding considerations including operating range, volume, construction methods, cavern cross section and reservoir layout were studied within the context of minimizing facility costs and optimizing the plant layout. The study led to a preliminary arrangement of fourteen parallel caverns, each 60 ft wide by 85 ft high in cross section and 3610 ft in length. The requirements for and preliminary design of the intermediate reservoir in the case of a two step UPH facility is also described. The design and the cost estimates presented are based on the requirements for a 2000 MW plant providing 20,000 MWh of storage at a nominal head of 4600 ft.

  16. Reservoir-induced seismicity at Castanhao reservoir, NE Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, B.; do Nascimento, A.; Ferreira, J.; Bezerra, F.

    2012-04-01

    Our case study - the Castanhão reservoir - is located in NE Brazil on crystalline rock at the Borborema Province. The Borborema Province is a major Proterozoic-Archean terrain formed as a consequence of convergence and collision of the São Luis-West Africa craton and the São Francisco-Congo-Kasai cratons. This reservoir is a 60 m high earth-filled dam, which can store up to 4.5 billion m3 of water. The construction begun in 1990 and finished in October 2003.The first identified reservoir-induced events occurred in 2003, when the water level was still low. The water reached the spillway for the first time in January 2004 and, after that, an increase in seismicity occured. The present study shows the results of a campaign done in the period from November 19th, 2009 to December 31th, 2010 at the Castanhão reservoir. We deployed six three-component digital seismographic station network around one of the areas of the reservoir. We analyzed a total of 77 events which were recorded in at least four stations. To determine hypocenters and time origin, we used HYPO71 program (Lee & Lahr, 1975) assuming a half-space model with following parameters: VP= 5.95 km/s and VP/VS=1.73. We also performed a relocation of these events using HYPODD (Waldhauser & Ellsworth, 2000) programme. The input data used we used were catalogue data, with all absolute times. The results from the spatio-temporal suggest that different clusters at different areas and depths are triggered at different times due to a mixture of: i - pore pressure increase due to diffusion and ii - increase of pore pressure due to the reservoir load.

  17. Development of gas and gas condensate reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-01

    In the study of gas reservoir development, the first year topics are restricted on reservoir characterization. There are two types of reservoir characterization. One is the reservoir formation characterization and the other is the reservoir fluid characterization. For the reservoir formation characterization, calculation of conditional simulation was compared with that of unconditional simulation. The results of conditional simulation has higher confidence level than the unconditional simulation because conditional simulation considers the sample location as well as distance correlation. In the reservoir fluid characterization, phase behavior calculations revealed that the component grouping is more important than the increase of number of components. From the liquid volume fraction with pressure drop, the phase behavior of reservoir fluid can be estimated. The calculation results of fluid recombination, constant composition expansion, and constant volume depletion are matched very well with the experimental data. In swelling test of the reservoir fluid with lean gas, the accuracy of dew point pressure forecast depends on the component characterization. (author). 28 figs., 10 tabs.

  18. Studies of fracture network geometry of reservoir outcrop analogues from terrestrial lidar data: attempts to quantify spatial variations of fracture characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vsemirnova, E. A.; Jones, R. R.; McCaffrey, K. J. W.

    2012-04-01

    We describe studies analysing terrestrial lidar datasets of fracture systems from a range of reservoir analogues in clastic and carbonate lithologies that represent geological analogues of offshore hydrocarbon reservoirs for the UK continental shelf. As fracture networks (observed here from centimetre to kilometre scale) can significantly affect the permeability of a fractured reservoir, the definition of fracture network geometry at various scales has become an important goal of structural analysis. The main aim of the study has been to extend the investigation of fracture networks in order to quantify spatial variations in fracture parameters in a variety of lithologies. The datasets were pre-processed using RiSCAN PRO software, and then re-sampled and filtered to derive characteristics which are traditionally measured from outcrops, including size distributions, fracture spacing and clustering statistics. This type of analysis can significantly reduce the uncertainty associated with some field fracture network measurements. The digitised fracture networks datasets are then used to investigate various aspects of spatial heterogeneity. A series of fracture maps (joints and faults) were generated at different scales, and fracture trends were studied to test scale dependency of fracture orientations. Multiscale trend analysis was then applied to describe the trend structure of the fracture networks.

  19. Phase B - final definition and preliminary design study for the initial Atmospheric Cloud Physics Laboratory (ACPL): A spacelab mission payload. Work breakdown structure for phase C/D DR-MA-06 (preliminary issue)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-01-01

    The Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) and Dictionary (DR-MA-06) for initial and subsequent flights of the Atmospheric Cloud Physics Laboratory (ACPL) is presented. An attempt is made to identify specific equipment and components in each of the eleven subsystems; they are listed under the appropriate subdivisions of the WBS. The reader is cautioned that some of these components are likely to change substantially during the course of the study, and the list provided should only be considered representative.

  20. Serological study of vaccinia virus reservoirs in areas with and without official reports of outbreaks in cattle and humans in São Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peres, Marina Gea; Bacchiega, Thais Silva; Appolinário, Camila Michele; Vicente, Acácia Ferreira; Allendorf, Susan Dora; Antunes, João Marcelo Azevedo Paula; Moreira, Sabrina Almeida; Legatti, Emerson; Fonseca, Clóvis Rinaldo; Pituco, Edviges Maristela; Okuda, Liria Hiromi; Pantoja, José Carlos de Figueiredo; Ferreira, Fernando; Megid, Jane

    2013-12-01

    Vaccinia virus (VACV), the etiological agent of an exanthematic disease, has been associated with several bovine outbreaks in Brazil since the end of the global vaccination campaign against smallpox. It was previously believed that the vaccine virus used for the WHO global campaign had adapted to an unknown wild reservoir and was sporadically re-emerging in outbreaks in cattle and milkers. At present, it is known that Brazilian VACV is phylogenetically different from the vaccinia virus vaccinal strain, but its origin remains unknown. This study assessed the seroprevalence of orthopoxviruses in domestic and wild animals and farmers from 47 farms in three cities in the southwest region of the state of São Paulo with or without official reports of outbreaks in cattle or humans. Our data indicate a low seroprevalence of antibodies in wild animals and raise interesting questions about the real potential of wild rodents and marsupials as VACV reservoirs, suggesting other routes through which VACV can be spread.

  1. A Comparative Study between a Pseudo-Forward Equation (PFE and Intelligence Methods for the Characterization of the North Sea Reservoir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Mojeddifar

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a comparative study between three versions of adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS algorithms and a pseudo-forward equation (PFE to characterize the North Sea reservoir (F3 block based on seismic data. According to the statistical studies, four attributes (energy, envelope, spectral decomposition and similarity are known to be useful as fundamental attributes in porosity estimation. Different ANFIS models were constructed using three clustering methods of grid partitioning (GP, subtractive clustering method (SCM and fuzzy c-means clustering (FCM. An experimental equation, called PFE and based on similarity attributes, was also proposed to estimate porosity values of the reservoir. When the validation set derived from training wells was used, the R-square coefficient between two variables (actual and predicted values was obtained as 0.7935 and 0.7404 for the ANFIS algorithm and the PFE model, respectively. But when the testing set derived from testing wells was used, the same coefficients decreased to 0.252 and 0.5133 for the ANFIS algorithm and the PFE model, respectively. According to these results, and the geological characteristics observed in the F3 block, it seems that the ANFIS algorithms cannot estimate the porosity acceptably. By contrast, in the outputs of PFE, the ability to detect geological structures such as faults (gas chimney, folds (salt dome, and bright spots, alongside the porosity estimation of sandstone reservoirs, could help in determining the drilling target locations. Finally, this work proposes that the developed PFE could be a good technique for characterizing the reservoir of the F3 block.

  2. An Error Analysis of Using Plural Nouns in English Sentences” A Case Study of the Second Year Students of MA Al-Manar Tengaran in the Academic Year 2003/2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustaidah Mustaidah

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available By doing this research, the writer hopes that the results will be helpful to the English learner in order to be more careful in using plural nouns in English sentences. The subject of research is the second year students of MA Al- Manar Tengaran in the academic year 2003/2004.The writer uses random sampling by lottery method to get the sample of research. The writer analyses the data by making the observation of all collected data, Categorizing the data by giving codes for cash data, categorizing the data by giving codes for cash data, and interpreting data info substantive theory. The result of the study shows that there are dominant errors which are made by students of second years of MA Al- Manar to use plural nouns in English.

  3. Tres Marias Reservoir, Minas Gerais State: Study of the dispersion of suspended sediments in surface waters using orbital images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dejesusparada, N. (Principal Investigator); Sausen, T. M.

    1980-01-01

    Computer compatible tapes from LANDSAT were used to compartmentalize the Ires Marias reservoir according to respective grey level spectral response. Interactive and automatic, supervised classification, was executed from the IMAGE-100 system. From the simple correlation analysis and graphic representation, it is shown that grey tone levels are inversely proportional to Secchi Depth values. It is further shown that the most favorable period to conduct an analysis of this type is during the rainy season.

  4. Ichthyofauna of the reservoirs of Central Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A. Stolbunov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Species composition, distribution and abundance of fish in the pelagic and littoral zone of four reservoirs of Central Vietnam (Suoi Chau, Kam Lam, Da Ban and Suoi Dau were studied first. According to the research data the fish community of the reservoirs is represented by 43 species of 19 fish families.

  5. South Asia as a Reservoir for the Global Spread of Ciprofloxacin-Resistant Shigella sonnei: A Cross-Sectional Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham Thanh, Duy; De Lappe, Niall; Cormican, Martin; Howden, Benjamin P.; Wangchuk, Sonam; Bodhidatta, Ladaporn; Nguyen Thi Nguyen, To; Thompson, Corinne N.; Phu Huong Lan, Nguyen; Voong Vinh, Phat; Ha Thanh, Tuyen; Turner, Paul; Sar, Poda; Thwaites, Guy; Thomson, Nicholas R.; Holt, Kathryn E.; Baker, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    Background Antimicrobial resistance is a major issue in the Shigellae, particularly as a specific multidrug-resistant (MDR) lineage of Shigella sonnei (lineage III) is becoming globally dominant. Ciprofloxacin is a recommended treatment for Shigella infections. However, ciprofloxacin-resistant S. sonnei are being increasingly isolated in Asia and sporadically reported on other continents. We hypothesized that Asia is a primary hub for the recent international spread of ciprofloxacin-resistant S. sonnei. Methods and Findings We performed whole-genome sequencing on a collection of 60 contemporaneous ciprofloxacin-resistant S. sonnei isolated in four countries within Asia (Vietnam, n = 11; Bhutan, n = 12; Thailand, n = 1; Cambodia, n = 1) and two outside of Asia (Australia, n = 19; Ireland, n = 16). We reconstructed the recent evolutionary history of these organisms and combined these data with their geographical location of isolation. Placing these sequences into a global phylogeny, we found that all ciprofloxacin-resistant S. sonnei formed a single clade within a Central Asian expansion of lineage III. Furthermore, our data show that resistance to ciprofloxacin within S. sonnei may be globally attributed to a single clonal emergence event, encompassing sequential gyrA-S83L, parC-S80I, and gyrA-D87G mutations. Geographical data predict that South Asia is the likely primary source of these organisms, which are being regularly exported across Asia and intercontinentally into Australia, the United States and Europe. Our analysis was limited by the number of S. sonnei sequences available from diverse geographical areas and time periods, and we cannot discount the potential existence of other unsampled reservoir populations of antimicrobial-resistant S. sonnei. Conclusions This study suggests that a single clone, which is widespread in South Asia, is likely driving the current intercontinental surge of ciprofloxacin-resistant S. sonnei and is capable of establishing

  6. South Asia as a Reservoir for the Global Spread of Ciprofloxacin-Resistant Shigella sonnei: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Chung The

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Antimicrobial resistance is a major issue in the Shigellae, particularly as a specific multidrug-resistant (MDR lineage of Shigella sonnei (lineage III is becoming globally dominant. Ciprofloxacin is a recommended treatment for Shigella infections. However, ciprofloxacin-resistant S. sonnei are being increasingly isolated in Asia and sporadically reported on other continents. We hypothesized that Asia is a primary hub for the recent international spread of ciprofloxacin-resistant S. sonnei.We performed whole-genome sequencing on a collection of 60 contemporaneous ciprofloxacin-resistant S. sonnei isolated in four countries within Asia (Vietnam, n = 11; Bhutan, n = 12; Thailand, n = 1; Cambodia, n = 1 and two outside of Asia (Australia, n = 19; Ireland, n = 16. We reconstructed the recent evolutionary history of these organisms and combined these data with their geographical location of isolation. Placing these sequences into a global phylogeny, we found that all ciprofloxacin-resistant S. sonnei formed a single clade within a Central Asian expansion of lineage III. Furthermore, our data show that resistance to ciprofloxacin within S. sonnei may be globally attributed to a single clonal emergence event, encompassing sequential gyrA-S83L, parC-S80I, and gyrA-D87G mutations. Geographical data predict that South Asia is the likely primary source of these organisms, which are being regularly exported across Asia and intercontinentally into Australia, the United States and Europe. Our analysis was limited by the number of S. sonnei sequences available from diverse geographical areas and time periods, and we cannot discount the potential existence of other unsampled reservoir populations of antimicrobial-resistant S. sonnei.This study suggests that a single clone, which is widespread in South Asia, is likely driving the current intercontinental surge of ciprofloxacin-resistant S. sonnei and is capable of establishing endemic transmission in new

  7. Studies on the Optimal behavior of Energy Storage in Reservoirs of a Hydroelectric system; Estudios sobre el comportamiento optimo del almacenamiento de energia en embalses de sistema hidroelectrico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macedo Faria, Breno; Franco Barbosa, Paulo Sergio [Universidad Estatal de Campinas (Brazil)

    2002-09-01

    This work aims at studying the results of an optimisation model applied to the Paranaiba river basin, Brazil. This system is made by the junction of three river branches located in a region with a well-defined seasonal hydrological behavior. The ratio between the total energy storage in the system and the active storage for every reservoir is evaluated from the optimal operational results. This relationship allows recognizing systematic patterns on the relative use for every reservoir, when compared to the entire system. The main parameters that define reservoir behavior are identified, with highlights on the position of the power station in the cascade, the relationship between the river flow and the active storage, and the installed capacity of the power station. In addition, the parameter hydrological scenario is also another factor that defines the relative use of the reservoirs. [Spanish] El modelo del presente trabajo tiene como objetivo estudiar los resultados de una optimizacion para el sistema hidroelectrico de la cuenca del rio Paranaiba, Brasil, la cual esta formada por la confluencia de tres rios en una region de distribucion de lluvias bien definidas en terminos hidrologicos. Se analiza la relacion entre la energia total almacenada en el sistema y el volumen util de cada embalse a partir de los resultados operativos optimos. Esta relacion permite identificar resultados sistematicos en lo que se refiere a la utilizacion de cada embalse, en comparacion con el uso del sistema como un todo. Se identifican los principales parametros responsables por el comportamiento de los embalses, destacando la influencia de la posicion de la central hidroelectrica en la cascada, de la relacion caudal/volumen util y de la potencia de central. Ademas, el parametro escenario hidrologico tambien es otro factor determinante en el uso relativo de los embalses.

  8. Mechanism study on a plague outbreak driven by the construction of a large reservoir in southwest china (surveillance from 2000-2015.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Wang

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Plague, a Yersinia pestis infection, is a fatal disease with tremendous transmission capacity. However, the mechanism of how the pathogen stays in a reservoir, circulates and then re-emerges is an enigma.We studied a plague outbreak caused by the construction of a large reservoir in southwest China followed 16-years' surveillance.The results show the prevalence of plague within the natural plague focus is closely related to the stability of local ecology. Before and during the decade of construction the reservoir on the Nanpan River, no confirmed plague has ever emerged. With the impoundment of reservoir and destruction of drowned farmland and vegetation, the infected rodent population previously dispersed was concentrated together in a flood-free area and turned a rest focus alive. Human plague broke out after the enzootic plague via the flea bite. With the construction completed and ecology gradually of human residential environment, animal population and type of vegetation settling down to a new balance, the natural plague foci returned to a rest period. With the rodent density decreased as some of them died, the flea density increased as the rodents lived near or in local farm houses where had more domestic animals, and human has a more concentrated population. In contrast, in the Himalayan marmot foci of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau in the Qilian Mountains. There are few human inhabitants and the local ecology is relatively stable; plague is prevalence, showing no rest period. Thus the plague can be significantly affected by ecological shifts.

  9. Two-phase flow visualization under reservoir conditions for highly heterogeneous conglomerate rock: A core-scale study for geologic carbon storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kue-Young; Oh, Junho; Han, Weon Shik; Park, Kwon Gyu; Shinn, Young Jae; Park, Eungyu

    2018-03-20

    Geologic storage of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) is considered a viable strategy for significantly reducing anthropogenic CO 2 emissions into the atmosphere; however, understanding the flow mechanisms in various geological formations is essential for safe storage using this technique. This study presents, for the first time, a two-phase (CO 2 and brine) flow visualization under reservoir conditions (10 MPa, 50 °C) for a highly heterogeneous conglomerate core obtained from a real CO 2 storage site. Rock heterogeneity and the porosity variation characteristics were evaluated using X-ray computed tomography (CT). Multiphase flow tests with an in-situ imaging technology revealed three distinct CO 2 saturation distributions (from homogeneous to non-uniform) dependent on compositional complexity. Dense discontinuity networks within clasts provided well-connected pathways for CO 2 flow, potentially helping to reduce overpressure. Two flow tests, one under capillary-dominated conditions and the other in a transition regime between the capillary and viscous limits, indicated that greater injection rates (potential causes of reservoir overpressure) could be significantly reduced without substantially altering the total stored CO 2 mass. Finally, the capillary storage capacity of the reservoir was calculated. Capacity ranged between 0.5 and 4.5%, depending on the initial CO 2 saturation.

  10. Evaluation of Three Evaporation Estimation Techniques In A Semi-Arid Region (Omar El Mukhtar Reservoir Sluge, Libya- As a case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lubna s. Ben Taher

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In many semi-arid countries in the world like Libya, drinking water supply is dependent on reservoirs water storage. Since the evaporation rate is very high in semi-arid countries, estimates and forecasts of reservoir evaporation rate can be useful in the management of major water source. Many researchers have been investigating the suitability of estimates evaporation rates methods in many climatic settings, infrequently of which were in an arid setting. This paper presents the modeling results of evaporation from Omar El Mukhtar Reservoir, Libya. Three techniques namely (artificial neural networks (ANN, Multiple linear regression (MLR and response surface methods (RSM were developed, to assess the estimation of monthly evaporation records from 2001 to 2009; their relative performance were compared using the coefficient of determination(E, mean absolute percentage error (MAPE%, and 95% confidence interval. The key variables used to develop and validate the models were: monthly (precipitation Rf., average temperature Temp., relative humidity Rh., sunshine hours Sh., atmospheric pressure Pa. and wind speed Ws.. The encouraging results approved that the models with more inputs generally had better accuracies and the ANN model performed superior to the other models in predicting monthly Evp with high E=0.86 and low MAPE%= 13.9 and the predicted mean within the range of observed 95CI%. In summary, it is revealed in this study that the ANN and RSM models are appropriate for predicting Evp using climatic inputs in semi-arid climate.

  11. Volume 4: Characterization of representative reservoirs -- Gulf of Mexico field, U-8 reservoir

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koperna, G.J. Jr.; Johnson, H.R. [BDM Federal, Inc., McLean, VA (United States); Salamy, S.P.; Reeves, T.K. [BDM-Oklahoma, Inc., Bartlesville, OK (United States); Sawyer, W.K. [Mathematical and Computer Services, Inc., Danville, VA (United States); Kimbrell, W.C.; Schenewerk, P.A. [Louisiana State Univ., Baton Rouge, LA (United States). Dept. of Petroleum Engineering

    1998-07-01

    A reservoir study was performed using a publicly available black oil simulator to history match and predict the performance of a Gulf of Mexico reservoir. The first objective of this simulation study was to validate the Black Oil Applied Simulation Tool version three for personal computers (BOAST3-PC) model to ensure the integrity of the simulation runs. Once validation was completed, a field history match for the Gulf of Mexico U-8 oil reservoir was attempted. A verbal agreement was reached with the operator of this reservoir to blindcode the name and location of the reservoir. In return, the operator supplied data and assistance in regards to the technical aspects of the research. On the basis of the best history match, different secondary recovery techniques were simulated as a predictive study for enhancing the reservoir productivity.

  12. Reservoir engineering and hydrogeology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1983-01-01

    Summaries are included which show advances in the following areas: fractured porous media, flow in single fractures or networks of fractures, hydrothermal flow, hydromechanical effects, hydrochemical processes, unsaturated-saturated systems, and multiphase multicomponent flows. The main thrust of these efforts is to understand the movement of mass and energy through rocks. This has involved treating fracture rock masses in which the flow phenomena within both the fractures and the matrix must be investigated. Studies also address the complex coupling between aspects of thermal, hydraulic, and mechanical processes associated with a nuclear waste repository in a fractured rock medium. In all these projects, both numerical modeling and simulation, as well as field studies, were employed. In the theoretical area, a basic understanding of multiphase flow, nonisothermal unsaturated behavior, and new numerical methods have been developed. The field work has involved reservoir testing, data analysis, and case histories at a number of geothermal projects

  13. Pacifiers: a microbial reservoir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comina, Elodie; Marion, Karine; Renaud, François N R; Dore, Jeanne; Bergeron, Emmanuelle; Freney, Jean

    2006-12-01

    The permanent contact between the nipple part of pacifiers and the oral microflora offers ideal conditions for the development of biofilms. This study assessed the microbial contamination on the surface of 25 used pacifier nipples provided by day-care centers. Nine were made of silicone and 16 were made of latex. The biofilm was quantified using direct staining and microscopic observations followed by scraping and microorganism counting. The presence of a biofilm was confirmed on 80% of the pacifier nipples studied. This biofilm was mature for 36% of them. Latex pacifier nipples were more contaminated than silicone ones. The two main genera isolated were Staphylococcus and Candida. Our results confirm that nipples can be seen as potential reservoirs of infections. However, pacifiers do have some advantages; in particular, the potential protection they afford against sudden infant death syndrome. Strict rules of hygiene and an efficient antibiofilm cleaning protocol should be established to answer the worries of parents concerning the safety of pacifiers.

  14. Thin-bed reservoir characterization using integrated three-dimensional seismic and well log data: A case study of the central Boonsville Field, Fort Worth basin, north-central Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Deyi

    This dissertation is designed to resolve two problems using seismic attributes to: (1) delineate thin-bed reservoirs, and (2) distinguish thin-bed sandstone reservoirs from thin-bed non-reservoir carbonates where they appear similar at seismic scale. I evaluated some widely used techniques, developed new approaches for better imaging of thin-bed reservoirs, and found optimal attributes for thin-bed reservoir characterization. These techniques were then tested on the Pennsylvanian Caddo sequence of the Boonsville Field, Texas using public domain data. The main results found through this study are: (1) A new pattern recognition model has been developed to recognize the subtle geological and geophysical features of a thin-bed sequence based on cross-correlation of seismic traces with one or more traces believed to represent specific depositional environments. This algorithm has been proven, via the case study, to be robust and promising in defining seismic facies for subtle geological features and predicting thin-bed reservoirs. (2) Examination of the conventional thin-bed tuning model reveals that it works well only if one single thin-bed is developed or multiple thin beds are widely spaced in the sequence of interest. In other words, the model does not work for multiple closely-spaced thin-beds because of significant destructive interference. (3) A statistical inversion method was developed using the generalized regression neural network (GRNN). For a comparison study, two commercial packages were applied to the Boonsville Field data set. This study shows that all three models were able to identify the thicker reservoir sandstones and non-reservoir limestones. However, the resulting details for the thin beds vary. The GRNN method predicted the thin beds at 13 out of 20 wells with less noise and can be very useful in detecting thin-bed reservoirs in existing fields where a number of wells are available.

  15. Integrated petrophysical and sedimentological study of the Middle Miocene Nullipore Formation (Ras Fanar Field, Gulf of Suez, Egypt): An approach to volumetric analysis of reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afife, Mohamed M.; Sallam, Emad S.; Faris, Mohamed

    2017-10-01

    This study aims to integrate sedimentological, log and core analyses data of the Middle Miocene Nullipore Formation at the Ras Fanar Field (west central Gulf of Suez, Egypt) to evaluate and reconstruct a robust petrophysical model for this reservoir. The Nullipore Formation attains a thickness ranging from 400 to 980 ft and represents a syn-rift succession of the Middle Miocene marine facies. It consists of coralline-algal-reefal limestone, dolomitic limestone and dolostone facies, with few clay and anhydrite intercalations. Petrographically, seven microfacies types (MF1 to MF7) have been recognized and assembled genetically into three related facies associations (FA1 to FA3). These associations accumulated in three depositional environments: 1) peritidal flat, 2) restricted lagoon, and 3) back-shoal environments situated on a shallow inner ramp (homoclinal) setting. The studied rocks have been influenced by different diagenetic processes (dolomitization, cementation, compaction, authigenesis and dissolution), which led to diminishing and/or enhancing the reservoir quality. Three superimposed 3rd-order depositional sequences are included in the Nullipore succession displaying both retrogradational and aggradational packages of facies. Given the hydrocarbon potential of the Nullipore Formation, conventional well logs of six boreholes and core analyses data from one of these wells (RF-B12) are used to identify electrofacies zones of the Nullipore Formation. The Nullipore Formation has been subdivided into three electrofacies zones (the Nullipore-I, Nullipore-II, and Nullipore-III) that are well-correlated with the three depositional sequences. Results of petrographical studies and log analyses data have been employed in volumetric calculations to estimate the amount of hydrocarbon-in-place and then the ultimate recovery of the Nullipore reservoir. The volumetric calculations indicate that the total volume of oil-in-place is 371 MMSTB at 50% probability (P50), whereas

  16. Transport of reservoir fines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yuan, Hao; Shapiro, Alexander; Stenby, Erling Halfdan

    Modeling transport of reservoir fines is of great importance for evaluating the damage of production wells and infectivity decline. The conventional methodology accounts for neither the formation heterogeneity around the wells nor the reservoir fines’ heterogeneity. We have developed an integral...

  17. SILTATION IN RESERVOIRS

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Calls have been made to the government through various media to assist its populace in combating this nagging problem. It was concluded that sediment maximum accumulation is experienced in reservoir during the periods of maximum flow. Keywords: reservoir model, siltation, sediment, catchment, sediment transport. 1.

  18. Dynamic reservoir well interaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sturm, W.L.; Belfroid, S.P.C.; Wolfswinkel, O. van; Peters, M.C.A.M.; Verhelst, F.J.P.C.M.

    2004-01-01

    In order to develop smart well control systems for unstable oil wells, realistic modeling of the dynamics of the well is essential. Most dynamic well models use a semi-steady state inflow model to describe the inflow of oil and gas from the reservoir. On the other hand, reservoir models use steady

  19. Reservoir Engineering Management Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howard, J.H.; Schwarz, W.J.

    1977-12-14

    The Reservoir Engineering Management Program being conducted at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory includes two major tasks: 1) the continuation of support to geothermal reservoir engineering related work, started under the NSF-RANN program and transferred to ERDA at the time of its formation; 2) the development and subsequent implementation of a broad plan for support of research in topics related to the exploitation of geothermal reservoirs. This plan is now known as the GREMP plan. Both the NSF-RANN legacies and GREMP are in direct support of the DOE/DGE mission in general and the goals of the Resource and Technology/Resource Exploitation and Assessment Branch in particular. These goals are to determine the magnitude and distribution of geothermal resources and reduce risk in their exploitation through improved understanding of generically different reservoir types. These goals are to be accomplished by: 1) the creation of a large data base about geothermal reservoirs, 2) improved tools and methods for gathering data on geothermal reservoirs, and 3) modeling of reservoirs and utilization options. The NSF legacies are more research and training oriented, and the GREMP is geared primarily to the practical development of the geothermal reservoirs. 2 tabs., 3 figs.

  20. The freshwater reservoir effect in radiocarbon dating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Philippsen, Bente

    2013-01-01

    effect on radiocarbon dating in an estuarine environment is examined. Here, freshwater influence causes reservoir ages to vary between 250 and 700 14C years during the period 5400 BC - AD 700. The examples in this study show clearly that the freshwater reservoir effect can seriously corrupt radiocarbon......The freshwater reservoir effect can result in anomalously old radiocarbon ages of samples from lakes and rivers. This includes the bones of people whose subsistence was based on freshwater fish, and pottery in which fish was cooked. Water rich in dissolved ancient calcium carbonates, commonly known...... as hard water, is the most common reason for the freshwater reservoir effect. It is therefore also called hardwater effect. Although it has been known for more than 60 years, it is still less well-recognized by archaeologists than the marine reservoir effect. The aim of this study is to examine the order...

  1. Reduction of the HIV-1 reservoir in resting CD4+ T-lymphocytes by high dosage intravenous immunoglobulin treatment: a proof-of-concept study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karlsson Annika C

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The latency of HIV-1 in resting CD4+ T-lymphocytes constitutes a major obstacle for the eradication of virus in patients on antiretroviral therapy (ART. As yet, no approach to reduce this viral reservoir has proven effective. Methods Nine subjects on effective ART were included in the study and treated with high dosage intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG for five consecutive days. Seven of those had detectable levels of replication-competent virus in the latent reservoir and were thus possible to evaluate. Highly purified resting memory CD4+ T-cells were activated and cells containing replication-competent HIV-1 were quantified. HIV-1 from plasma and activated memory CD4+ T-cells were compared with single genome sequencing (SGS of the gag region. T-lymphocyte activation markers and serum interleukins were measured. Results The latent HIV-1 pool decreased with in median 68% after IVIG was added to effective ART. The reservoir decreased in five, whereas no decrease was found in two subjects with detectable virus. Plasma HIV-1 RNA ≥ 2 copies/mL was detected in five of seven subjects at baseline, but in only one at follow-up after 8–12 weeks. The decrease of the latent HIV-1 pool and the residual plasma viremia was preceded by a transitory low-level increase in plasma HIV-1 RNA and serum interleukin 7 (IL-7 levels, and followed by an expansion of T regulatory cells. The magnitude of the viral increase in plasma correlated to the size of the latent HIV-1 pool and SGS of the gag region showed that viral clones from plasma clustered together with virus from activated memory T-cells, pointing to the latent reservoir as the source of HIV-1 RNA in plasma. Conclusion The findings from this uncontrolled proof-of-concept study suggest that the reservoir became accessible by IVIG treatment through activation of HIV-1 gene expression in latently-infected resting CD4+ T-cells. We propose that IVIG should be further evaluated as an adjuvant

  2. FRACTURED PETROLEUM RESERVOIRS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abbas Firoozabadi

    1999-06-11

    The four chapters that are described in this report cover a variety of subjects that not only give insight into the understanding of multiphase flow in fractured porous media, but they provide also major contribution towards the understanding of flow processes with in-situ phase formation. In the following, a summary of all the chapters will be provided. Chapter I addresses issues related to water injection in water-wet fractured porous media. There are two parts in this chapter. Part I covers extensive set of measurements for water injection in water-wet fractured porous media. Both single matrix block and multiple matrix blocks tests are covered. There are two major findings from these experiments: (1) co-current imbibition can be more efficient than counter-current imbibition due to lower residual oil saturation and higher oil mobility, and (2) tight fractured porous media can be more efficient than a permeable porous media when subjected to water injection. These findings are directly related to the type of tests one can perform in the laboratory and to decide on the fate of water injection in fractured reservoirs. Part II of Chapter I presents modeling of water injection in water-wet fractured media by modifying the Buckley-Leverett Theory. A major element of the new model is the multiplication of the transfer flux by the fractured saturation with a power of 1/2. This simple model can account for both co-current and counter-current imbibition and computationally it is very efficient. It can be orders of magnitude faster than a conventional dual-porosity model. Part II also presents the results of water injection tests in very tight rocks of some 0.01 md permeability. Oil recovery from water imbibition tests from such at tight rock can be as high as 25 percent. Chapter II discusses solution gas-drive for cold production from heavy-oil reservoirs. The impetus for this work is the study of new gas phase formation from in-situ process which can be significantly

  3. Sweet spot identification and smart development -An integrated reservoir characterization study of a posidonia shale of a posidonia shale outcrop analogue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veen, J.H. ten; Verreussel, R.M.C.H.; Ventra, D.; Zijp, M.H.A.A.

    2014-01-01

    Shale gas reservoir stimulation procedures (e.g. hydraulic fracturing) require upfront prediction and planning that should be supported by a comprehensive reservoir characterization. Therefore, understanding shale depositional processes and associated vertical and lateral sedimentological

  4. Fracture-network analysis of the Latemar Platform (northern Italy): integrating outcrop studies to constrain the hydraulic properties of fractures in reservoir models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boro, H.; Rosero, E.; Bertotti, G.V.

    2014-01-01

    Fractures in subsurface reservoirs are known to have significant impacts on reservoir productivity. Quantifying their importance, however, is challenged by limited subsurface observations, and intense computations for modelling and upscaling. In this paper, we present a workflow to construct and

  5. 42 CFR 495.202 - Identification of qualifying MA organizations, MA-EPs and MA-affiliated eligible hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... qualifying MA-affiliated eligible hospitals under the MA EHR incentive program are required to identify...-EPs and MA-affiliated eligible hospitals. 495.202 Section 495.202 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE... STANDARDS FOR THE ELECTRONIC HEALTH RECORD TECHNOLOGY INCENTIVE PROGRAM Requirements Specific to Medicare...

  6. Infection control: point prevalence study versus incidence study in Polish long-term care facilities in 2009-2010 in the Małopolska Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wójkowska-Mach, J; Gryglewska, B; Czekaj, J; Adamski, P; Grodzicki, T; Heczko, P B

    2013-02-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the epidemiology of infection in Polish long-term care facilities (LTCFs) and to analyse the capabilities and legitimacy of implementing continuous targeted surveillance. The study investigated the relationship between the presence of infection and health status, tested using a point prevalence study (PPS) and incidence study. A 1-day PPS was carried out in October 2009, with prospective continuous surveillance between December 2009 and November 2010. Infections were defined according to McGeer's criteria. The surveillance encompassed 193 people. The prevalence was 14.0 % in residential homes (RHs) and 18.7 % in the nursing home (NH). Various types of infections (in the PPS) were observed significantly more frequently in patients with asthma, wounds, atherosclerosis of lower extremities, tracheotomy tubes and conditions in patients hospitalised in intensive care units (ICUs) up to 1 year before the PPS day. The incidence rate was 2.7/1,000 patient days (pds). The factors determined to be important for the risk of infection (in the continuous study) include the general status of patients, expressed using Barthel, abbreviated mental and Katz scales, as well as limited physical activity, stool incontinence and urinary catheterisation. In the PPS study, only a slight relationship was shown between the general status of residents and the risk of infection. None of the general status scales used clinically were shown to be helpful in estimating that risk, similarly to the five-point physical activity scale. Prospective continuous surveillance shows a possibility of limiting the range of infection control in the LTCFs within targeted surveillance in a population of patients that requires intensive nursing procedures. As a marker, one could point to the low score in the Barthel or Katz scales or low physical activity/bedridden persons.

  7. Electromagnetic Heating Methods for Heavy Oil Reservoirs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahni, A.; Kumar, M.; Knapp, R.B.

    2000-01-01

    The most widely used method of thermal oil recovery is by injecting steam into the reservoir. A well-designed steam injection project is very efficient in recovering oil, however its applicability is limited in many situations. Simulation studies and field experience has shown that for low injectivity reservoirs, small thickness of the oil-bearing zone, and reservoir heterogeneity limits the performance of steam injection. This paper discusses alternative methods of transferring heat to heavy oil reservoirs, based on electromagnetic energy. They present a detailed analysis of low frequency electric resistive (ohmic) heating and higher frequency electromagnetic heating (radio and microwave frequency). They show the applicability of electromagnetic heating in two example reservoirs. The first reservoir model has thin sand zones separated by impermeable shale layers, and very viscous oil. They model preheating the reservoir with low frequency current using two horizontal electrodes, before injecting steam. The second reservoir model has very low permeability and moderately viscous oil. In this case they use a high frequency microwave antenna located near the producing well as the heat source. Simulation results presented in this paper show that in some cases, electromagnetic heating may be a good alternative to steam injection or maybe used in combination with steam to improve heavy oil production. They identify the parameters which are critical in electromagnetic heating. They also discuss past field applications of electromagnetic heating including technical challenges and limitations

  8. Digital technologies of geoprocessing as support to studies of greenhouse gas effects (GEE) at hydroelectric reservoirs; Tecnologias digitais de geoprocessamento como suporte a estudos de GEE em reservatorios hidreletricos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Corbiniano; Pereira, Victor Cesar Ribeiro; Santos, Ednaldo Oliveira dos [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (IVIG/COPPE/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao de Engenharia. Inst. Internacional de Mudancas Globais], Emails: corbiniano@gmail.com, victor.cesar.pereira@gmail.com, ednaldo@ppe.ufrj.br; Santos, Marco Aurelio; Rosa, Luiz Pinguelli [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (PPE/COPPE/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao de Engenharia. Programa de Planejamento Energetico], Emails: aurelio@ppe.ufrj.br, lpr@adc.coppe.ufrj.br

    2010-07-01

    The development of specific methodologies using geo technologies are contributing in complementary analyses implemented in the studies performed at hydroelectric reservoirs, a part of the research developed in the frame of the Project of Carbon Balance at Hydroelectric Reservoirs of Furnas Electric Power plants. The areas approached in this work integrates the reservoirs of Corumba, Itumbiara, Serra da Mesa, Manso, Estreito, Peixoto and Funil. The incorporation of practices supported by techniques of geo processing was important for the studied specific areas, where it was possible, based on data comparison previous and posterior to the flood of reservoirs, the application of methods which allowed to measure and to obtain significant information of such enterprises, for support the studies performed on the contribution of greenhouse gases in environment of that nature.

  9. A feasibility study on the expected seismic AVA signatures of deep fractured geothermal reservoirs in an intrusive basement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aleardi, Mattia; Mazzotti, Alfredo

    2014-01-01

    The deep geothermal reservoirs in the Larderello-Travale field (southern Tuscany) are found in intensively fractured portions of intrusive/metamorphic rocks. Therefore, the geothermal exploration has been in search of possible fracture signatures that could be retrieved from the analysis of geophysical data. In the present work we assess the feasibility of finding seismic markers in the pre-stack domain which may pinpoint fractured levels. Thanks to the availability of data from boreholes that ENEL GreenPower drilled in the deep intrusive basement of this geothermal field, we derived the expected amplitude versus angle (AVA) responses of the vapour reservoirs found in some intensely, but very localized, fractured volumes within the massive rocks. The information we have available limit us to build 1D elastic and isotropic models only and thus anisotropy effects related to the presence of fractures cannot be properly modelled. We analysed the velocities and the density logs pertaining to three wells which reached five deep fractured zones in the basement. The AVA response of the fractured intervals is modelled downscaling the log data to seismic scale and comparing the analytical AVA response (computed with the Aki and Richards approximation) and the AVA extracted from a synthetic common mid point (calculated making use of a reflectivity algorithm). The results show that the amplitude of the reflections from the fractured level is characterized by negative values at vertical incidence and by decreasing absolute amplitudes with the increase of the source to receiver offset. This contrasts with many observations from hydrocarbon exploration in clastic reservoirs where gas-sand reflections often exhibit negative amplitudes at short offsets but increasing absolute amplitudes for increasing source to receiver offsets. Thereby, some common AVA attributes considered in silicoclastic lithologies would lead to erroneous fracture localization. For this reason we propose a

  10. Decoherence of Two-qubits Coupled with Reservoirs Studied with New Ket-Bra Entangled State Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Yi-Chong; Fan, Hong-Yi

    2016-04-01

    For the first time we define a so-called Ket-Bra Entangled State (KBES) for two-qubits coupled with reservoirs by introduce an extra fictitious mode vector, and convert the corresponding master equation into Schrödinger-like equation by virtue of this state. Via this approach we concisely obtain the dynamic evolution of two uncoupled qubits each immersed in local thermal noise. Based on this, the decoherence evolution for the extended Werner-like states is derived and how purity and temperature influence the concurrence is analyzed. This KBES method may also be applied to tackling master equations of limited atomic level systems.

  11. Bacterial single-cell activities along the nutrient availability gradient in a canyon-shaped reservoir: a seasonal study

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Horňák, Karel; Jezbera, Jan; Šimek, Karel

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 60, č. 3 (2010), s. 215-225 ISSN 0948-3055. [Congress of the International Limnological Society /31./. Kapské Město, 15.08.2010-20.08.2010] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA206/08/0015; GA ČR(CZ) GAP504/10/1534 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60170517 Keywords : reservoir * bacterial activity * leucine and glucose incorporation * HNA and LNA cells Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 2.089, year: 2010

  12. Stratigraphy, sedimentology, and geothermal reservoir potential of the volcaniclastic Cura-Mallín succession at Lonquimay, Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedroza, Viviana; Le Roux, Jacobus P.; Gutiérrez, Néstor M.; Vicencio, Vladimir E.

    2017-08-01

    The Tolhuaca Volcano near Lonquimay in south-central Chile has been the subject of several studies due to its geothermal manifestations, but little is known about the stratigraphy and reservoir potential of the Cura-Mallín Formation forming its basement. Field work and U-Pb dating of detrital zircons allow us to redefine this succession as the Cura-Mallín Group, consisting of the volcano-sedimentary Guapitrío Formation, sedimentary Río Pedregoso Formation, and volcano-sedimentary Mitrauquén Formation. The Río Pedregoso Formation can be subdivided into three formal units, namely the Quilmahue Member, Rucañanco Member, and Bío-Bío Member. The base of the Quilmahue Member interfingers laterally with the base of the Guapitrío Formation, for which a previous K/Ar date of 22.0 ± 0.9 Ma was apparently discarded by the original authors. However, this date is consistent with the stratigraphic position of the Quilmahue Member and new zircon dates from the overlying units, also coinciding with the initiation of an extensional phase in the Bíobío-Aluminé Basin. Deposition of the Quilmahue Member continued throughout the early Miocene, as confirmed by dates of 17.5 Ma reported by previous authors and 16.5 Ma obtained in this study. The Rucañanco Member was deposited during the Serravalian around 12.6 Ma, whereas the Bío-Bío Member was dated at the Serravalian-Tortonian limit (11.6 Ma). Although all three members were deposited in a fluvio-lacustrine environment, they were dominated respectively by flood plains with crevasse splays, lake margins with distributary mouth bars and Gilbert-type deltas, and distal braided and meandering rivers. Whereas the Quilmahue Member was deposited during basin extension, the Rucañanco Member was formed during a period of basin inversion and compression. Temporary tectonic quiescence during deposition of the Bío-Bío Member allowed denudation of the landscape, but around 9.5 Ma tectonism was renewed again during deposition of

  13. Study of the relation between soil use, vegetation coverage, and the discharge of sediments from artificial reservoirs using MSS/LANDSAT images. Example: The Tres Marias reservoir and its supply basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dejesusparada, N. (Principal Investigator); Sausen, T. M.

    1981-01-01

    The land use and types of vegetation in the region of the upper Sao Francisco River, Brazil, are identified. This region comprises the supply basin of the Tres Marias reservoir. Imagery from channels 5 and 7 of the LANDSAT multispectral band scanner during wet and rainy seasons and ground truth data were employed to characterize and map the vegetation, land use, and sedimentary discharges from the reservoir. Agricultural and reforested lands, meadows, and forests are identified. Changes in land use due to human activity are demonstrated.

  14. Analysis of Fluvial Sediment Discharges into Kubanni Reservoir ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The sediment discharges into the Kubanni Reservoir (KR) has been measured and analysed in this study. The predominant sandy-clay sediment in the reservoir has an estimated total sediment load of 20,387,000 kg/year. The depth and area coverage of the reservoir was surveyed using a defined distributed grid line ...

  15. Numerical investigation of the efficiency of emission reduction and heat extraction in a sedimentary geothermal reservoir: a case study of the Daming geothermal field in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xuyang; Song, Hongqing; Killough, John; Du, Li; Sun, Pengguang

    2018-02-01

    The utilization of geothermal energy is clean and has great potential worldwide, and it is important to utilize geothermal energy in a sustainable manner. Mathematical modeling studies of geothermal reservoirs are important as they evaluate and quantify the complex multi-physical effects in geothermal reservoirs. However, previous modeling efforts lack the study focusing on the emission reduction efficiency and the deformation at geothermal wellbores caused by geothermal water extraction/circulation. Emission efficiency is rather relevant in geothermal projects introduced in areas characterized by elevated air pollution where the utilization of geothermal energy is as an alternative to burning fossil fuels. Deformation at geothermal wellbores is also relevant as significant deformation caused by water extraction can lead to geothermal wellbore instability and can consequently decrease the effectiveness of the heat extraction process in geothermal wells. In this study, the efficiency of emission reduction and heat extraction in a sedimentary geothermal reservoir in Daming County, China, are numerically investigated based on a coupled multi-physical model. Relationships between the efficiency of emission reduction and heat extraction, deformation at geothermal well locations, and geothermal field parameters including well spacing, heat production rate, re-injection temperature, rock stiffness, and geothermal well placement patterns are analyzed. Results show that, although large heat production rates and low re-injection temperatures can lead to decreased heat production in the last 8 years of heat extraction, they still improve the overall heat production capacity and emission reduction capacity. Also, the emission reduction capacity is positively correlated with the heat production capacity. Deformation at geothermal wellbore locations is alleviated by smaller well spacing, lower heat production rates, and smaller numbers of injectors in the well pattern, and by

  16. MaNGA: Mapping Nearby Galaxies at Apache Point Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weijmans, A.-M.; MaNGA Team

    2016-10-01

    MaNGA (Mapping Nearby Galaxies at APO) is a galaxy integral-field spectroscopic survey within the fourth generation Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS-IV). It will be mapping the composition and kinematics of gas and stars in 10,000 nearby galaxies, using 17 differently sized fiber bundles. MaNGA's goal is to provide new insights in galaxy formation and evolution, and to deliver a local benchmark for current and future high-redshift studies.

  17. Evaluation of an Empirical Reservoir Shape Function to Define Sediment Distributions in Small Reservoirs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogusław Michalec

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Understanding and defining the spatial distribution of sediment deposited in reservoirs is essential not only at the design stage but also during the operation. The majority of research concerns the distribution of sediment deposition in medium and large water reservoirs. Most empirical methods do not provide satisfactory results when applied to the determination of sediment deposition in small reservoirs. Small reservoir’s volumes do not exceed 5 × 106 m3 and their capacity-inflow ratio is less than 10%. Long-term silting measurements of three small reservoirs were used to evaluate the method described by Rahmanian and Banihashemi for predicting sediment distributions in small reservoirs. Rahmanian and Banihashemi stated that their model of distribution of sediment deposition in water reservoir works well for a long duration operation. In the presented study, the silting rate was used in order to determine the long duration operation. Silting rate is a quotient of volume of the sediment deposited in the reservoir and its original volume. It was stated that when the silting rate had reached 50%, the sediment deposition in the reservoir may be described by an empirical reservoir depth shape function (RDSF.

  18. Application of integrated reservoir management and reservoir characterization to optimize infill drilling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-04-01

    This project has used a multi-disciplinary approach employing geology, geophysics, and engineering to conduct advanced reservoir characterization and management activities to design and implement an optimized infill drilling program at the North Robertson (Clearfork) Unit in Gaines County, Texas. The activities during the first Budget Period consisted of developing an integrated reservoir description from geological, engineering, and geostatistical studies, and using this description for reservoir flow simulation. Specific reservoir management activities were identified and tested. The geologically targeted infill drilling program currently being implemented is a result of this work. A significant contribution of this project is to demonstrate the use of cost-effective reservoir characterization and management tools that will be helpful to both independent and major operators for the optimal development of heterogeneous, low permeability shallow-shelf carbonate (SSC) reservoirs. The techniques that are outlined for the formulation of an integrated reservoir description apply to all oil and gas reservoirs, but are specifically tailored for use in the heterogeneous, low permeability carbonate reservoirs of West Texas.

  19. A simulation of mud invasion and characteristics of array laterolog responses in a low-permeability gas reservoir: a case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yanjiao; Sun, Jianmeng; Gao, Jianshen; Zhang, Pengyun; Cui, Jiangman

    2017-06-01

    Mud invasion is a complex problem in reservoir evaluation. The original distribution of formation fluid and resistivity near the wellbore changes when mud filtrate invades the permeability formations, and the electric logging response always shows distortion. In this study, the influencing factors in mud invasion analysis are investigated for a low-permeability gas reservoir based on a numerical simulation method. These factors include overbalance pressure, formation permeability, initial water saturation, and relative permeability, and we acquire the law of mud invasion and the main controlling factors of the invasion. Based on the simulation results, the array laterolog responses of different invasion situations are calculated by a three-dimensional finite element method, and we hold the opinion that the characteristics of these responses and the separation differences of the curves at different investigation depths are affected by the depth of the mud invasion. Furthermore, combined with the logging data and invasion simulation results, the calculation relation of the invasion depth is established using physical property parameters and array laterolog responses. This method effectively hides the influencing factors of invasion time and has good applications regarding the logging data of different invasion moments. In a low-invasion well case, the calculated result is in accordance with the actual situation and verifies the reliability of the method. The research shows that the combination of mud invasion characteristics and array laterolog responses can be applied to the prediction and evaluation of mud invasion depth in the study area. Furthermore, it can provide a service for fluid property evaluation and resistivity correction, as well as improve the reliability of reservoir evaluation by electrical logging.

  20. Reservoir inflow forecasting with a modified coactive neuro-fuzzy inference system: a case study for a semi-arid region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allawi, Mohammed Falah; Jaafar, Othman; Mohamad Hamzah, Firdaus; Mohd, Nuruol Syuhadaa; Deo, Ravinesh C.; El-Shafie, Ahmed

    2017-10-01

    Existing forecast models applied for reservoir inflow forecasting encounter several drawbacks, due to the difficulty of the underlying mathematical procedures being to cope with and to mimic the naturalization and stochasticity of the inflow data patterns. In this study, appropriate adjustments to the conventional coactive neuro-fuzzy inference system (CANFIS) method are proposed to improve the mathematical procedure, thus enabling a better detection of the high nonlinearity patterns found in the reservoir inflow training data. This modification includes the updating of the back propagation algorithm, leading to a consequent update of the membership rules and the induction of the centre-weighted set rather than the global weighted set used in feature extraction. The modification also aids in constructing an integrated model that is able to not only detect the nonlinearity in the training data but also the wide range of features within the training data records used to simulate the forecasting model. To demonstrate the model's efficacy, the proposed CANFIS method has been applied to forecast monthly inflow data at Aswan High Dam (AHD), located in southern Egypt. Comparative analyses of the forecasting skill of the modified CANFIS and the conventional ANFIS model are carried out with statistical score indicators to assess the reliability of the developed method. The statistical metrics support the better performance of the developed CANFIS model, which significantly outperforms the ANFIS model to attain a low relative error value (23%), mean absolute error (1.4 BCM month-1), root mean square error (1.14 BCM month-1), and a relative large coefficient of determination (0.94). The present study ascertains the better utility of the modified CANFIS model in respect to the traditional ANFIS model applied in reservoir inflow forecasting for a semi-arid region.

  1. Reservoir characterization of Pennsylvanian sandstone reservoirs. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelkar, M.

    1995-02-01

    This final report summarizes the progress during the three years of a project on Reservoir Characterization of Pennsylvanian Sandstone Reservoirs. The report is divided into three sections: (i) reservoir description; (ii) scale-up procedures; (iii) outcrop investigation. The first section describes the methods by which a reservoir can be described in three dimensions. The next step in reservoir description is to scale up reservoir properties for flow simulation. The second section addresses the issue of scale-up of reservoir properties once the spatial descriptions of properties are created. The last section describes the investigation of an outcrop.

  2. Fault features and enrichment laws of narrow-channel distal tight sandstone gas reservoirs: A case study of the Jurassic Shaximiao Fm gas reservoir in the Zhongjiang Gas Field, Sichuan Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhongping Li

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The Jurassic Shaximiao Fm gas reservoir in the Zhongjiang Gas Field, Sichuan Basin, is the main base of Sinopec Southwest Oil & Gas Company for gas reserves and production increase during the 12th Five-Year Plan. However, its natural gas exploration and development process was restricted severely, since the exploration wells cannot be deployed effectively in this area based on the previous gas accumulation and enrichment pattern of “hydrocarbon source fault + channel sand body + local structure”. In this paper, the regional fault features and the gas accumulation and enrichment laws were discussed by analyzing the factors like fault evolution, fault elements, fault-sand body configuration (the configuration relationship between hydrocarbon source faults and channel sand bodies, trap types, and reservoir anatomy. It is concluded that the accumulation and enrichment of the Shaximiao Fm gas reservoir in this area is controlled by three factors, i.e., hydrocarbon source, sedimentary facies and structural position. It follows the accumulation laws of source controlling region, facies controlling zone and position controlling reservoir, which means deep source and shallow accumulation, fault-sand body conductivity, multiphase channel, differential accumulation, adjusted enrichment and gas enrichment at sweet spots. A good configuration relationship between hydrocarbon source faults and channel sand bodies is the basic condition for the formation of gas reservoirs. Natural gas accumulated preferentially in the structures or positions with good fault-sand body configuration. Gas reservoirs can also be formed in the monoclinal structures which were formed after the late structural adjustment. In the zones supported by multiple faults or near the crush zones, no gas accumulation occurs, but water is dominantly produced. The gas-bearing potential is low in the area with undeveloped faults or being 30 km away from the hydrocarbon source faults. So

  3. Feeding of Acestrorhynchus lacustris (Characidae: a post impoundment studies on Itaipu reservoir, upper Paraná River, PR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norma Segatti Hahn

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available With objective to know feeding spectrum of Acestrorhynchus lacustris (Reinhardt, 1874, a middle size predator in different places of influence area of Itaipu reservoir, stomach contents were analyzed. Samples were collected from March 1984 to February 1989 from Itaipu Reservoir and its adjacent areas. Its fed mainly on fishes, but it was an opportunistic (consumed 17 species of prey. Despite of the wide feeding spectrum, few preys were dominant in the diet, according to the different habitats sampled. As a result, it significant spatial differences in the diet was observed. Was observed through "Detrented Correspondence Analysis" (DCA these were divided into three groups in relation with diet: preys from upstream, with higher scores; preys from the reservoir, with intermediate scores; and preys from a tributary with smaller scores. This discrimination may be a function of prey availability in each habitat. The mean size of preys consumed increased with the size of the predator, as well as the variance, i. e. the largest fish also consumed small preys.Com o objetivo de conhecer o espectro alimentar de Acestrorhynchus lacustris (Reinhardt, 1874, um predador de médio porte, em diferentes locais da área de influência do reservatório de Itaipu, foram analisados conteúdos estomacais coletados no período de março/84 a fevereiro/89. Os dados evidenciaram tratar-se de uma espécie exclusivamente piscívora, porém oportunista, visto que consumiu 17 espécies de peixes-presa. Apesar do amplo espectro alimentar, poucas presas se destacaram nos distintos ambientes amostrados, resultando em diferenças significativas entre suas dietas. A análise de correspondência (DCA discriminou espacialmente três grupos; montante, com maiores escores; reservatório, com valores intermediários e tributário com menores valores, provavelmente em função dos tipos de presas disponíveis em cada ambiente. O tamanho das presas ingeridas aumenta com o crescimento do

  4. Surfactant loss control in chemical flooding spectroscopic and calorimetric study of adsorption and precipitation on reservoir minerals. Annual report, September 30, 1992--September 30 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casteel, J. [Bartlesville Project Office, OK (United States)

    1996-07-01

    The aim of this research project was to investigate mechanisms governing adsorption and surface precipitation of flooding surfactants on reservoir minerals. Effects of surfactant structure, surfactant combinations, various inorganic and polymeric species, and solids mineralogy have been determined. A multi-pronged approach consisting of micro & nano spectroscopy, electrokinetics, surface tension and wettability is used in this study. The results obtained should help in controlling surfactant loss in chemical flooding and in developing optimum structures and conditions for efficient chemical flooding processes. During the three years contract period, adsorption of single surfactants and select surfactant mixtures was studied at the solid-liquid and gas-liquid interfaces. Alkyl xylene sulfonates, polyethoxylated alkyl phenols, octaethylene glycol mono n-decyl ether, and tetradecyl trimethyl ammonium chloride were the surfactants studied. Adsorption of surfactant mixtures of varying composition was also investigated. The microstructure of the adsorbed layer was characterized using fluorescence spectroscopy. Changes in interfacial properties such as wettability, electrokinetics and stability of reservoir minerals were correlated with the amounts of reagent adsorbed. Strong effects of the structure of the surfactant and position of functional groups were revealed. Changes of microstructure upon dilution (desorption) were also studied. Presence of the nonionic surfactants in mixed aggregate leads to shielding of the charge of ionic surfactants which in turn promotes aggregation but reduced electrostatic attraction between the charged surfactant and the mineral surface. Strong consequences of surfactant interactions in solution on adsorption as well as correlations between monomer concentration in mixtures and adsorption were revealed.

  5. Using underground gas storage to replace the swing capacity of the giant natural gas field of Groningen in the Netherlands. A reservoir performance feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juez-Larre, Joaquim; Remmelts, Gijs; Breunese, Jaap; Van Gessel, Serge; Leeuwenburgh, Olwijn

    2017-04-01

    In this study we probe the ultimate potential Underground Gas Storage (UGS) capacity of the Netherlands by carrying out a detailed feasibility study on inflow performances of all available onshore natural gas reservoirs. The Netherlands is one of the largest natural gas producers in Western Europe. The current decline of its national production and looming production restrictions on its largest field of Groningen -owing to its induced seismicity- have recently made necessary to upgrade the two largest UGS of Norg and Grijpskerk. The joined working volume of these two UGS is expected to replace the swing capacity of the Groningen field to continue guaranteeing the security of supply of low calorific natural gas. The question is whether the current UGS configuration will provide the expected working storage capacity unrestricted by issues on reservoir performances and/or induced seismicity. This matter will be of paramount importance in the near future when production restrictions and/or the advance state of depletion of the Groningen field will turn the Netherlands into a net importer of high calorific natural gas. By then, the question will be whether the current UGS will still be economically attractive to continue operating, or if additional/alternative types of UGS will be needed?. Hence the characterization and ranking of the best potential reservoirs available today is of paramount importance for future UGS developments. We built an in-house automated module based on the application of the traditional inflow performance relationship analysis to screen the performances of 156 natural gas reservoirs in onshore Netherlands. Results enable identifying the 72 best candidates with an ultimate total working volume capacity of 122±30 billion Sm3. A detailed sensitivity analysis shows the impact of variations in the reservoir properties or wellbore/tubing configurations on withdrawal performances and storage capacity. We validate our predictions by comparing them to

  6. First assessment of the ecological status of Karaoun reservoir, Lebanon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fadel, A.; Lemaire, B.; Vinc on Leite, B.; Tassin, B.; Amacha, N.; Slim, K.; Atoui, A.

    2014-01-01

    Many reservoirs have been constructed throughout the world during the 20th century, with many also suffering from eutrophication. The resulting increased phytoplankton biomass in reservoirs impairs their use. Except for Lake Kinneret, the environmental status of lakes and reservoirs in the Middle East is poorly documented. Karaoun reservoir, also known as Qaroun, Qaraoun or Qarun, is the largest water body in Lebanon, having been constructed for irrigation and hydropower production. This present study reviews Karaoun reservoir, including its characteristics, uses, water quality and phytoplankton succession, to assess the environmental status of the reservoir on the basis of the few existing previous publications about the reservoir. Since 2004, which is 39 years after its construction, the reservoir is considered to be hypereutrophic, with low phytoplankton biodiversity and regular blooms of toxic cyanobacteria. The nutrient and trace metal concentrations would not prevent use of the reservoir for a drinking water supply for Beirut, as is currently being planned, although not all the micropollutants in the lake were documented. Karaoun reservoir is compared to other monitored lakes and reservoirs around the Mediterranean Sea. They share annual toxic cyanobacteria blooms of Aphanizomenon ovalisporum and of Microcystis aeruginosa. The phytoplankton composition and succession of Karaoun reservoir is more similar to El Gergal reservoir (Spain) than nearby natural lakes such as Lake Kinneret (Israel) and Lake Trichonis (Greece). Phytoplankton diversity in Karaoun reservoir was the lowest, due to higher nutrient concentrations and a larger decrease in water level in the dry season. Karaoun reservoir represents an interesting example of the potential response of the phytoplankton community in other lakes and reservoirs during the drought periods expected to occur as a result of global climate change. (author)

  7. Geothermal reservoir assessment case study, Northern Basin and Range Province. Final Report, 1 October 1978-30 September 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-10-01

    Campbell E No. 2 well in the Humboldt House geothermal field in central Pershing County, Nevada was drilled to a depth of 8061 ft in order to confirm the existence of a commercial reservoir. This well offsets the field discovery well which was drilled in 1977 and completed to a depth of only 1835 ft. Desert Peak B-23-1 well was likewise drilled in order to help evaluate a previously discovered geothermal field located in northwestern Churchill County, Nevada. The Desert Peak B-23-1 well was drilled to a depth of 9641 ft as compared to the deepest of three earlier wells drilled to 7662 ft. The drilling and completion of both these wells are described, including the daily drilling reports, drill bit records, descriptions of the casing and cementing programs, drilling fluid descriptions including methods of combating lost circulation, wellhead equipment descriptions, and logging programs.

  8. Sensitivity Studies on Productivity Performance from 3D Heterogeneous Reservoir Model Based on the L-Pad Gas Hydrate Accumulation in Prudhoe Bay Unit, North Slope Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myshakin, E. M.; Ajayi, T.; Seol, Y.; Boswell, R.

    2016-12-01

    Three-dimensional reservoir model of the "L-Pad" hydrate deposit located in the Prudhoe Bay region of the Alaska's North Slope was created including four stratigraphic units; silty shale overburden, hydrate-bearing D sand, inter-reservoir silty shale, hydrate-bearing C sand, and silty shale underburden. The model incorporates the actual geological settings, accounts for the presence of faults, reservoir dip, the hydrate-water contact in the C sand. Geostatistical porosity distributions in D and C sands conditioned to log data from 78 wells drilled in the vicinity of the Prudhoe Bay "L-pad" were developed providing vertical and lateral 3D heterogeneity in porosity and porosity-dependent hydrate saturation and intrinsic permeability. Gas production potential was estimated using a conventional vertical wellbore completion and a deviated toe-down wellbore perforated through both sand units to induce hydrate depressurization at a constant bottom-hole pressure. The results have shown the greater performance of the deviated well design over the vertical one. The scenarios involving simultaneous and sequential hydrate dissociation in sand units were explored and the effect of the underlying aquifer in the C sand was estimated. Sensitivity analysis has demonstrated that hydraulic communication with over- and underlying shale units affects production in the beginning of depressurization due to competitive water influx into producing mobile flow and could suppress efficient hydrate decomposition resulting in production lag. Another important factor greatly influencing the productivity performance is the effective permeability of hydrate-bearing sediment controlled by the relative permeability function. The results call for the necessity of thorough fundamental studies to understand multi-phase flow in hydrate-bearing sediments with different hydrate precipitation habits.

  9. ) Re-evaluation of A Compartmentalised Reservoir Leads To A Better Estimation of Oil in-Place (OIP): Etim Field Case Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akewusola, Taye; Etim Simon Mobil Producing Nigeria Unlimited, Lagos

    2003-01-01

    The Etim Field is located in OML-67 offshore southeastern Niger Delta on NNOC/MPN joint venture asset operated by Mobil Producing Nigeria. It was discovered in 1968 and had its first production in 1972. Thirty-three wells have been drilled to date on a stratigraphic-faulted anticlinal feature. Water depth in the field is 110 feet.The production performance of the Etim field Biafra reservoirs had indicated that its initial reserves estimate has been overproduced. Non-uniform pressure drop and irregular water movements characterized some of the early completions in the reservoir.Updated petrophysical evaluation has been calibrated to core and indicates net-to-gross ration and porosity range of 0.10-0.88 and 0.22-0.31 respectively. This suggests potential heterogeneity of the Biafra reservoir. RFT analysis also suggests the existence of barriers/baffles across the Biafra units and different oil-water contacts for individual units as opposed to a single contact for the whole formation.A new geologic framework was built integrating 3D seismic, core description and well data. Pressure and production performance data were also incorporated in an attempt to explain why cumulative production has exceeded initial estimated reserves.Results from this work suggest that the original oil in place (OIIP) was initially under-estimated and was at least twice the initial estimates.The field is now positioned for a redevelopment program based on the opportunities identified in this study. This will provide production uplift, eliminated or reduce water cut and optimize recovery

  10. Feasibility study of surveying an offshore gas reservoir by using low-frequency electromagnetic sounding: example of Shtokman deposit at Barents Sea (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velikhov, E.; Zhdanov, M. S.

    2009-12-01

    We have studied the feasibility of using a low-frequency electromagnetic (EM) survey to search for hydrocarbons deposits in the prospective offshore anticline structures. Our study was based on an example of the well known Shtokman gas deposit. The problem was solved using three-dimensional numerical modeling of the EM field by the integral equation method. The different sources of the low-frequency EM field were considered. We calculated all six components of the electromagnetic field in the points located at the bottom of the sea within the area above the anticline for various frequencies in a range from 0.01Hz to 10 Hz. The computer simulation was done for a case where hydrocarbons were present in the reservoir and for a case where there were no hydrocarbons. The main goal of this computer simulation was to establish if there were detectable variations in the resistivity of a thin hydrocarbon-containing layer and that of the host rock to detect the presence of a deposit. We also investigated what are the most informative components of the EM field and what are the optimal parameters of the source (transmitter type, orientation, frequency, distance) for a hydrocarbon reservoir discovery. The results of this study demonstrate the effectiveness of the marine controlled-source EM method for offshore hydrocarbon exploration. These results can be used for the optimal marine EM survey design as well.

  11. Study of the reactive processes during CO2 injection into sedimentary reservoirs: Experimental quantification of the processes at meso-scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luquot, L.

    2008-11-01

    In order to minimize CO 2 atmospheric concentration, a solution consists in sequestrating CO 2 in geological reservoirs. To estimate long term risks, it is necessary to quantify the couplings between reaction processes as well as structural and hydrodynamical modifications. We realised two experimental benches enabling injecting CO 2 -enriched-brine in conditions corresponding to in situ storage (T ≤ 200 C and P ≤ 200 bar) and developed an experimental protocol using X-Ray microtomography and fluid and rock analyses in order to measure the variations of physical and chemical parameters. The study of carbonated reservoirs near the injection well, allows quantifying different k-phi relationships depending on the dissolution processes and triggered by the local fluid chemical composition and initials conditions. Away from the injection well, we observe carbonate precipitation decreasing the permeability. The study of fractured cap-rock samples shows that alternative percolation of CO 2 -enriched-brine and CO 2 gas increases the fracture permeability. The study of silicated rocks indicates carbonate precipitation in zeolite sandstone and sintered dunite grains. Nevertheless, in zeolite sandstone we also observe the precipitation of clay particles located in the fluid pathways which decrease strongly the permeability. (author)

  12. Surfactant loss control in chemical flooding: Spectroscopic and calorimetric study of adsorption and precipitation on reservoir minerals. Annual report, September 30, 1992--September 30, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Somasundaran, P.

    1994-07-01

    The aim of this research project is to investigate mechanisms underlying adsorption and surface precipitation of flooding surfactants on reservoir minerals. Effects of surfactant structure, surfactant combinations, various inorganic and polymeric species, and solids mineralogy will be determined. A multi-pronged approach consisting of micro & nano spectroscopy, microcalorimetry, electrokinetics, surface tension and wettability; is used in this study. The results obtained should help in controlling surfactant loss in chemical flooding and in developing optimum structures and conditions for efficient chemical flooding processes. During the first year of this three year contract, adsorption of single surfactants and select surfactant mixtures was studied at the solid-liquid and gas-liquid interfaces. Surfactants studied include alkyl xylene sulfonates, polyethoxylated alkyl phenols, octaethylene glycol mono n-decyl ether, and tetradecyl trimethyl ammonium chloride. Adsorption of surfactant mixtures of varying composition was also investigated. The microstructure of the adsorbed layer was characterized using fluorescence spectroscopy. Changes interfacial properties such as wettability, electrokinetics and stability of reservoir minerals were correlated with the amount of reagent adsorbed. Strong effects of the structure of the surfactant and position of functional groups were revealed.

  13. A record of aerobic methane oxidation in tropical Africa over the last 2.5 Ma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer-Jones, Charlotte L.; Wagner, Thomas; Talbot, Helen M.

    2017-12-01

    Methane and CO2 are climatically active greenhouse gases (GHG) and are powerful drivers of rapid global warming. Comparable to the Arctic, the tropics store large volumes of labile sedimentary carbon that is vulnerable to climate change. However, little is known about this labile carbon reservoir, in particular the behaviour of high methane-producing environments (e.g. wetlands), and their role in driving or responding to past periods of global climate change. In this study, we use a microbial biomarker approach that traces continental aerobic methane oxidation (AMO) from sedimentary organic matter in deep-sea fan sediments off the Congo River to reconstruct the link between central African methane cycling and continental export during key periods of global Pleistocene warmth. We use 35-amino bacteriohopanepolyols (BHPs), specifically aminobacteriohopane-31,32,33,34-tetrol (aminotetrol) and 35-aminobacteriohopane-30,31,32,33,34-pentol (aminopentol) as diagnostic molecular markers for AMO (CH4 oxidation markers) and the prevalence of continental wetland environments. BHPs were analysed in sediments from the Congo fan (ODP 1075) dated to 2.5 Ma. High resolution studies of key warm marine isotope stages (MIS) 5, 11 and 13 are included to test the relationship between CH4 oxidation markers in sediments at different levels of elevated global atmospheric GHG. This study presents the oldest reported occurrence, to date, of 35-amino BHPs up to 200 m below sea floor (∼2.5 Ma) with no strong degradation signature observed. Low concentrations of CH4 oxidation markers identified between 1.7 Ma and 1 Ma suggest a reduction in wetland extent in tropical Africa in response to more arid environmental conditions. Correlation of high resolution CH4 oxidation marker signatures with global atmospheric GHG concentrations during MIS 5, 11 and 13 further emphasize periods of enhanced tropical C cycling. However, subsequent analysis would be required to further extrapolate the relative

  14. Beyond the replication-competent HIV reservoir: transcription and translation-competent reservoirs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baxter, Amy E; O'Doherty, Una; Kaufmann, Daniel E

    2018-02-02

    Recent years have seen a substantial increase in the number of tools available to monitor and study HIV reservoirs. Here, we discuss recent technological advances that enable an understanding of reservoir dynamics beyond classical assays to measure the frequency of cells containing provirus able to propagate a spreading infection (replication-competent reservoir). Specifically, we focus on the characterization of cellular reservoirs containing proviruses able to transcribe viral mRNAs (so called transcription-competent) and translate viral proteins (translation-competent). We suggest that the study of these alternative reservoirs provides complementary information to classical approaches, crucially at a single-cell level. This enables an in-depth characterization of the cellular reservoir, both following reactivation from latency and, importantly, directly ex vivo at baseline. Furthermore, we propose that the study of cellular reservoirs that may not contain fully replication-competent virus, but are able to produce HIV mRNAs and proteins, is of biological importance. Lastly, we detail some of the key contributions that the study of these transcription and translation-competent reservoirs has made thus far to investigations into HIV persistence, and outline where these approaches may take the field next.

  15. Design philosophy and practice of asymmetrical 3D fracturing and random fracturing: A case study of tight sand gas reservoirs in western Sichuan Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianchun Guo

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available At present two technical models are commonly taken in tight gas reservoir stimulation: conventional massive fracturing and SRV fracturing, but how to select a suitable fracturing model suitable for reservoir characteristics is still a question waiting to be answered. In this paper, based on the analysis of geological characteristics and seepage mechanism of tight gas and shale gas reservoirs, the differences between stimulation philosophy of tight gas reservoirs and shale reservoirs are elucidated, and the concept that a suitable stimulation model should be selected based on reservoir geological characteristics and seepage mechanism aiming at maximally improving the seepage capability of a reservoir. Based on this concept, two fracturing design methods were proposed for two tight gas reservoirs in western Sichuan Basin: asymmetrical 3D fracturing design (A3DF for the middle-shallow Upper Jurassic Penglaizhen Fm stacked reservoirs in which the hydraulic fractures can well match the sand spatial distribution and seepage capability of the reservoirs; SRV fracturing design which can increase fracture randomness in the sandstone and shale laminated reservoirs for the 5th Member of middle-deep Upper Triassic Xujiahe Fm. Compared with that by conventional fracturing, the average production of horizontal wells fractured by A3DF increased by 41%, indicating that A3DF is appropriate for gas reservoir development in the Penglaizhen Fm; meanwhile, the average production per well of the 5th Member of the Xujiahe Fm was 2.25 × 104 m3/d after SRV fracturing, showing that the SRV fracturing is a robust technical means for the development of this reservoir.

  16. The freshwater reservoir effect in radiocarbon dating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Philippsen, Bente

    case studies will show the degree of variability of the freshwater reservoir effect over short and long timescales. Radiocarbon dating of recent water samples, aquatic plants and animals, shows that age differences of up to 2000 years can occur within one river. In the Limfjord, freshwater influence...... caused reservoir ages to vary between 250 and 700 years during the period 5400 BC - AD 700. Finally, I will discuss the implications of the freshwater reservoir effect for radiocarbon dating of Mesolithic pottery from inland sites of the Ertebølle culture in Northern Germany....

  17. Obama vu de ma banlieue.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Stanislawska

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Une petite brocante est organisée tous les jeudis sur une place proche de la Basilique de Saint-Denis. On y vend des livres, des bibelots, des bijoux fantaisies et des masques africains. L’un des vendeurs a visiblement décidé de bénéficier de l’effet Obama. J’ai pris la photo de ma fenêtre, située au dessus de ce marché. J’ai adoré ce stand, mais ce n’est qu’une fois sur l’écran de mon ordinateur que j’ai vu les petites images Banania... ! Si j’avais su, je serais ...

  18. Neuroprotective Effect of Gui Zhi (Ramulus Cinnamomi on Ma Huang- (Herb Ephedra- Induced Toxicity in Rats Treated with a Ma Huang-Gui Zhi Herb Pair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang-hao Zheng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Herb Ephedra (Ma Huang in Chinese and Ramulus Cinnamomi (Gui Zhi in Chinese are traditional Chinese herbs, often used together to treat asthma, nose and lung congestion, and fever with anhidrosis. Due to the adverse effects of ephedrine, clinical use of Ma Huang is restricted. However, Gui Zhi extract has been reported to decrease spontaneous activity in rats and exert anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective effects. The present study explored the possible inhibitory effect of Gui Zhi on Ma Huang-induced neurotoxicity in rats when the two herbs were used in combination. All Ma Huang and Ma Huang-Gui Zhi herb pair extracts were prepared using methods of traditional Chinese medicine and were normalized based on the ephedrine content. Two-month-old male Sprague-Dawley rats (n=6 rats/group were administered Ma Huang or the Ma Huang-Gui Zhi herb pair extracts for 7 days (ephedrine = 48 mg/kg, and locomotor activity was measured. After 7 days, oxidative damage in the prefrontal cortex was measured. Gui Zhi decreased hyperactivity and sensitization produced by repeated Ma Huang administration and attenuated oxidative stress induced by Ma Huang. The results of this study demonstrate the neuroprotective potential of Gui Zhi in Ma Huang-induced hyperactivity and oxidative damage in the prefrontal cortex of rats when used in combination.

  19. Stochastic Reservoir Characterization Constrained by Seismic Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eide, Alfhild Lien

    1999-07-01

    In order to predict future production of oil and gas from a petroleum reservoir, it is important to have a good description of the reservoir in terms of geometry and physical parameters. This description is used as input to large numerical models for the fluid flow in the reservoir. With increased quality of seismic data, it is becoming possible to extend their use from the study of large geologic structures such as seismic horizons to characterization of the properties of the reservoir between the horizons. Uncertainties because of the low resolution of seismic data can be successfully handled by means of stochastic modeling, and spatial statistics can provide tools for interpolation and simulation of reservoir properties not completely resolved by seismic data. This thesis deals with stochastic reservoir modeling conditioned to seismic data and well data. Part I presents a new model for stochastic reservoir characterization conditioned to seismic traces. Part II deals with stochastic simulation of high resolution impedance conditioned to measured impedance. Part III develops a new stochastic model for calcite cemented objects in a sandstone background; it is a superposition of a marked point model for the calcites and a continuous model for the background.

  20. Land-use effects on erosion, sediment yields, and reservoir sedimentation: a case study in the Lago Loiza Basin, Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gellis, A.C.; Webb, R.M.T.; McIntyre, S.C.; Wolfe, W.J.

    2006-01-01

     Lago Loíza impounded in 1953 to supply San Juan, Puerto Rico, with drinking water; by 1994, it had lost 47% of its capacity. To characterize sedimentation in Lago Loíza, a study combining land-use history, hillslope erosion rates, and subbasin sediment yields was conducted. Sedimentation rates during the early part of the reservoir’s operation (1953– 1963) were slightly higher than the rates during 1964–1990. In the early history of the reservoir, cropland comprised 48% of the basin and erosion rates were high. Following economic shifts during the 1960s, cropland was abandoned and replaced by forest, which increased from 7.6% in 1950 to 20.6% in 1987. These land-use changes follow a pattern similar to the northeastern United States. Population in the Lago Loíza Basin increased 77% from 1950 to 1990, and housing units increased 194%. Sheetwash erosion measured from 1991 to 1993 showed construction sites had the highest sediment concentration (61,400 ppm), followed by cropland (47,400 ppm), pasture (3510 ppm), and forest (2050 ppm). This study illustrates how a variety of tools and approaches can be used to understand the complex interaction between land use, upland erosion, fluvial sediment transport and storage, and reservoir sedimentation. 

  1. A comparison of single- and multi-site calibration and validation: a case study of SWAT in the Miyun Reservoir watershed, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Jianwen; Shen, Zhenyao; Yan, Tiezhu

    2017-09-01

    An essential task in evaluating global water resource and pollution problems is to obtain the optimum set of parameters in hydrological models through calibration and validation. For a large-scale watershed, single-site calibration and validation may ignore spatial heterogeneity and may not meet the needs of the entire watershed. The goal of this study is to apply a multi-site calibration and validation of the Soil andWater Assessment Tool (SWAT), using the observed flow data at three monitoring sites within the Baihe watershed of the Miyun Reservoir watershed, China. Our results indicate that the multi-site calibration parameter values are more reasonable than those obtained from single-site calibrations. These results are mainly due to significant differences in the topographic factors over the large-scale area, human activities and climate variability. The multi-site method involves the division of the large watershed into smaller watersheds, and applying the calibrated parameters of the multi-site calibration to the entire watershed. It was anticipated that this case study could provide experience of multi-site calibration in a large-scale basin, and provide a good foundation for the simulation of other pollutants in followup work in the Miyun Reservoir watershed and other similar large areas.

  2. Geochemical characteristics of crude oil from a tight oil reservoir in the Lucaogou Formation, Jimusar Sag, Junggar Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Z.

    2015-12-01

    Jimusar Sag, which lies in the Junggar Basin,is one of the most typical tight oil study areas in China. However, the properties and origin of the crude oil and the geochemical characteristics of the tight oil from the Lucaogou Formation have not yet been studied. In the present study, 23 crude oilsfrom the Lucaogou Formation were collected for analysis, such as physical properties, bulk composition, saturated hydrocarbon gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), and the calculation of various biomarker parameters. In addition,source rock evaluation and porosity permeability analysis were applied to the mudstones and siltstones. Biomarkers of suitable source rocks (TOC>1, S1+S2>6mg/g, 0.7%reservoir is a typical in situ reservoir. The mudstones over or beneath the sweet spot bodies consisted of natural caprocks and prevented the vertical movement of oil by capillary forces. Despite being thicker, the thick-bedded mudstone between the upper and lower sweet spots had no obvious contribution to

  3. Assembling evidence for identifying reservoirs of infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mafalda, Viana; Rebecca, Mancy; Roman, Biek; Sarah, Cleaveland; Cross, Paul C.; James O, Lloyd-Smith; Daniel T, Haydon

    2014-01-01

    Many pathogens persist in multihost systems, making the identification of infection reservoirs crucial for devising effective interventions. Here, we present a conceptual framework for classifying patterns of incidence and prevalence, and review recent scientific advances that allow us to study and manage reservoirs simultaneously. We argue that interventions can have a crucial role in enriching our mechanistic understanding of how reservoirs function and should be embedded as quasi-experimental studies in adaptive management frameworks. Single approaches to the study of reservoirs are unlikely to generate conclusive insights whereas the formal integration of data and methodologies, involving interventions, pathogen genetics, and contemporary surveillance techniques, promises to open up new opportunities to advance understanding of complex multihost systems.

  4. MIKROMITSETY- MIGRANTS IN MINGECHEVIR RESERVOIR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Salmanov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. It is hardly possible to predict the continued stability of the watercourse ecosystems without the study of biological characteristics and composition of organisms inhabiting them. In the last 35-40 years, environmental conditions of the Mingachevir reservoir are determined by the stationary anthropogenic pressure. It was found that such components of plankton as algae, bacteria and fungi play a leading role in the transformation and migration of pollutants. The role of the three groups of organisms is very important in maintaining the water quality by elimination of pollutants. Among the organisms inhabiting the Mingachevir Reservoir, micromycetes have not yet been studied. Therefore, the study of the species composition and seasonal dynamics, peculiarities of their growth and development in the environment with the presence of some of the pollutants should be considered to date.Methods. In order to determine the role of micromycetes-migrants in the mineralization of organic substrates, as an active participant of self-purification process, we used water samples from the bottom sediments as well as decaying and skeletonized stalks of cane, reeds, algae, macrophytes, exuvia of insects and fish remains submerged in water.Findings. For the first time, we obtained the data on the quality and quantity of microscopic mycelial fungi in freshwater bodies on the example of the Mingachevir water reservoir; we also studied the possibilities for oxygenating the autochthonous organic matter of allochthonous origin with micromycetes-migrants.Conclusions. It was found that the seasonal development of micromycetes-migrants within the Mingachevir reservoir is characterized by an increase in the number of species in the summer and a gradual reduction in species diversity in the fall. 

  5. Reflection Phenomena in Underground Pumped Storage Reservoirs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Pummer

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Energy storage through hydropower leads to free surface water waves in the connected reservoirs. The reason for this is the movement of water between reservoirs at different elevations, which is necessary for electrical energy storage. Currently, the expansion of renewable energies requires the development of fast and flexible energy storage systems, of which classical pumped storage plants are the only technically proven and cost-effective technology and are the most used. Instead of classical pumped storage plants, where reservoirs are located on the surface, underground pumped storage plants with subsurface reservoirs could be an alternative. They are independent of topography and have a low surface area requirement. This can be a great advantage for energy storage expansion in case of environmental issues, residents’ concerns and an unusable terrain surface. However, the reservoirs of underground pumped storage plants differ in design from classical ones for stability and space reasons. The hydraulic design is essential to ensure their satisfactory hydraulic performance. The paper presents a hybrid model study, which is defined here as a combination of physical and numerical modelling to use the advantages and to compensate for the disadvantages of the respective methods. It shows the analysis of waves in ventilated underground reservoir systems with a great length to height ratio, considering new operational aspects from energy supply systems with a great percentage of renewable energies. The multifaceted and narrow design of the reservoirs leads to complex free surface flows; for example, undular and breaking bores arise. The results show excessive wave heights through wave reflections, caused by the impermeable reservoir boundaries. Hence, their knowledge is essential for a successful operational and constructive design of the reservoirs.

  6. Essential role for the dimerization domain of NuMA-RARalpha in its oncogenic activities and localization to NuMA sites within the nucleus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Shuo; Qiu, Jihui; Stenoien, David L; Brinkley, William R; Mancini, Michael A; Tweardy, David J

    2003-02-13

    Nuclear mitotic apparatus protein-retinoic acid receptor alpha (NuMA-RARalpha) is the fourth of five fusion proteins identified in acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) patients. The molecular basis for its oncogenic activity has not been delineated. In gel-shift assays, NuMA-RARalpha bound to retinoic acid response elements (RAREs) both as a homodimer and as a heterodimer with RXRalpha. The binding profile of NuMA-RARalpha to a panel of RAREs was very similar to PML-RARalpha and PLZF-RARalpha. In transient transfection assays using HepG2 cells, NuMA-RARalpha inhibited wild-type RARalpha transcriptional activity, while it augmented STAT3 transcriptional activity. In GST-pull down experiments, NuMA-RARalpha formed a complex with the corepressor SMRT, was released from the NuMA-RARalpha/SMRT complexes by all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) at 10(-7)-10(-6) M and became associated with the coactivator TRAM-1 at 10(-8) M ATRA. Studies comparing NuMA-RARalpha with NuMA-RARalpha(deltaCC) demonstrated that the dimerization or alpha-helical coiled-coil domain of NuMA was required for homodimer formation, transcriptional repression of wild-type RARalpha, transcriptional activation of STAT3, and stability of the NuMA-RARalpha/SMRT complex. Confocal fluorescent microscopy of HeLa cells was performed following transient expression of cyan fluorescent protein (CFP)-tagged proteins and incubation of cells with or without ATRA. Within the nucleus, CFP-NuMA-RARalpha exhibited a speckled pattern identical to that observed in cells transfected with CFP-NuMA. Furthermore, CFP-NuMA-RARalpha colocalized with yellow fluorescent protein-tagged (YFP)-NuMA. In contrast, CFP-NuMA-RARalpha(deltaCC) exhibited a diffuse granular pattern within the nucleus, similar to RARalpha. These results indicate that the dimerization domain of NuMA-RARalpha is critical for each of the known oncogenic activities of NuMA fusion proteins as well as its sequestration to nuclear sites normally occupied by NuMA and is

  7. Studying methane migration mechanisms at Walker Ridge, Gulf of Mexico, via 3D methane hydrate reservoir modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nole, Michael [University of Texas at Austin; Daigle, Hugh [University of Texas at Austin; Mohanty, Kishore [University of Texas at Austin; Cook, Ann [Ohio State University; Hillman, Jess [Ohio State University

    2015-12-15

    We have developed a 3D methane hydrate reservoir simulator to model marine methane hydrate systems. Our simulator couples highly nonlinear heat and mass transport equations and includes heterogeneous sedimentation, in-situ microbial methanogenesis, the influence of pore size contrast on solubility gradients, and the impact of salt exclusion from the hydrate phase on dissolved methane equilibrium in pore water. Using environmental parameters from Walker Ridge in the Gulf of Mexico, we first simulate hydrate formation in and around a thin, dipping, planar sand stratum surrounded by clay lithology as it is buried to 295mbsf. We find that with sufficient methane being supplied by organic methanogenesis in the clays, a 200x pore size contrast between clays and sands allows for a strong enough concentration gradient to significantly drop the concentration of methane hydrate in clays immediately surrounding a thin sand layer, a phenomenon that is observed in well log data. Building upon previous work, our simulations account for the increase in sand-clay solubility contrast with depth from about 1.6% near the top of the sediment column to 8.6% at depth, which leads to a progressive strengthening of the diffusive flux of methane with time. By including an exponentially decaying organic methanogenesis input to the clay lithology with depth, we see a decrease in the aqueous methane supplied to the clays surrounding the sand layer with time, which works to further enhance the contrast in hydrate saturation between the sand and surrounding clays. Significant diffusive methane transport is observed in a clay interval of about 11m above the sand layer and about 4m below it, which matches well log observations. The clay-sand pore size contrast alone is not enough to completely eliminate hydrate (as observed in logs), because the diffusive flux of aqueous methane due to a contrast in pore size occurs slower than the rate at which methane is supplied via organic methanogenesis

  8. Smart Waterflooding in Carbonate Reservoirs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zahid, Adeel

    During the last decade, smart waterflooding has been developed into an emerging EOR technology both for carbonate and sandstone reservoirs that does not require toxic or expensive chemicals. Although it is widely accepted that different salinity brines may increase the oil recovery for carbonate...... reservoirs, understanding of the mechanism of this increase is still developing. To understand this smart waterflooding process, an extensive research has been carried out covering a broad range of disciplines within surface chemistry, thermodynamics of crude oil and brine, as well as their behavior...... that a heavy oil (that with a large fraction of heavy components) exhibited viscosity reduction in contact with brine, while a light crude oil exhibited emulsion formation. Most of reported high salinity waterflooding studies were carried out with outcrop chalk core plugs, and by performing spontaneous...

  9. Risk Analysis of Extreme Rainfall Effects on the Shihmen Reservoir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Y.; Lien, W.; Tung, C.

    2009-12-01

    Typhoon Morakot intruded Taiwan during 7th and 8th of August 2009, brought about 2,700 mm of total rainfall which caused serious flood and debris to the southern region of Taiwan. One of the serious flooded areas is in the downstream of Zengwen reservoir. People believed that the large amount of floodwater released from Zengwen reservoir led to the severe inundation. Therefore, the Shihmen reservoir is one of the important reservoirs in northern Taiwan. The Taipei metropolis, which is in downstream of Shihmen reservoir, is the political and economical center of Taiwan. If heavy rainfall as those brought by Typhoon Marakot falls in the Shihmen reservoir watershed, it may create a bigger disaster. This study focused on the impacts of a typhoon, like Morakot, in Shihmen reservoir. The hydrological model is used to simulate the reservoir inflows under different rainfall conditions. The reservoir water balance model is developed to calculate reservoir’s storage and outflows under the inflows and operational rules. The ability of flood mitigation is also evaluated. Besides, the released floodwater from reservoir and the inflows from different tributaries are used to determine whether or not the river stage will overtop levee. Also, the maximum released floodwater and other inflows which could lead to damages will be stated. Lastly, the criteria of rainfall conditions and initial stages of reservoir will be analyzed in this study.

  10. Roadmap to MaRIE March 2015

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnes, Cris William [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-03-30

    Los Alamos National Laboratory’s proposed MaRIE facility is slated to introduce the world’s highest energy hard x-ray free electron laser (XFEL). As the light source for the Matter-Radiation Interactions in Extremes experimental facility (MaRIE), the 42-keV XFEL, with bursts of x-ray pulses at gigahertz repetition for studying fast dynamical processes, will help accelerate discovery and design of the advanced materials needed to meet 21st-century national security and energy security challenges. Yet the science of free-electron lasers has a long and distinguished history at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), where for nearly four decades Los Alamos scientists have been performing research, design, development, and collaboration work in FEL science. The work at Los Alamos has evolved from low-gain amplifier and oscillator FEL development to highbrightness photoinjector development, and later, self-amplified spontaneous emission (SASE) and high-gain amplifier FEL development.

  11. Preliminary study of discharge characteristics of slim holes compared to production wells in liquid-dominated geothermal reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pritchett, J.W. [S-Cubed, La Jolla, CA (United States)

    1993-06-01

    There is current interest in using slim holes for geothermal exploration and reservoir assessment. A major question that must be addressed is whether results from flow or injection testing of slim holes can be scaled to predict large diameter production well performance. This brief report describes a preliminary examination of this question from a purely theoretical point of view. The WELBOR computer program was used to perform a series of calculations of the steady flow of fluid up geothermal boreholes of various diameters at various discharge rates. Starting with prescribed bottomhole conditions (pressure, enthalpy), the WELBOR code integrates the equations expressing conservation of mass, momentum and energy (together with fluid constitutive properties obtained from the steam tables) upwards towards the wellhead using numerical techniques. This results in computed profiles of conditions (pressure, temperature, steam volume fraction, etc.) as functions of depth within the flowing well, and also in a forecast of wellhead conditions (pressure, temperature, enthalpy, etc.). From these results, scaling rules are developed and discussed.

  12. A new approach to improve reservoir characterization using intelligent systems - a case study: Toldado field in Colombia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soto B, Rodolfo; Bernal, Maria C.; Silva, Bernardo; Bejarano, Aristobulo; Cobaleda, Gloria [Ecopetrol S.A., Bogota (Colombia)]|[Instituto Colombiano del Petroleo, Bogota (Colombia); Arango, Sandro; Torres, Freddy

    2000-07-01

    This paper presents a new technique to improve reservoir characterization. We integrated concepts of multivariate statistical analysis and soft computing to get better petrophysical models. We applied the proposed technique to model permeability for the highly heterogeneous cretaceous Caballos formation in Toldado field, Colombia. First, we evaluated the permeability model developed by D. K. Davies in this field. His method is based fundamentally on the identification of rock types (intervals of rock with unique pore geometry). We think this a good approach to improve the prediction of permeability. However, Davies gets traditional models (Log permeability vs. porosity) for each rock type. We found a 78% of average absolute error in his model for Toldado field. Using of multivariate statistical analysis, we found that the dominant independent variables to predict the permeability for Toldado field were porosity, index of the effective photo-electric absorption cross section of the formation, and gamma ray logs. Our neural network permeability model has an average absolute error less than 8%. Finally, we validated the neural network permeability model by applying the concept of the hydraulic interwell connectivity index (HICI). These models helped us to improve the history match and make recommendations to increase the oil production by about 500 bopd. (author)

  13. Rhyolite thermobarometry and the shallowing of the magma reservoir, Coso volcanic field, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manley, C.R.; Bacon, C.R.

    2000-01-01

    The compositionally bimodal Pleistocene Coso volcanic field is located at the western margin of the Basin and Range province ~ 60 km north of the Garlock fault. Thirty-nine nearly aphyric high-silica rhyolite domes were emplaced in the past million years: one at 1 Ma from a transient magma reservoir, one at ~ 0.6 Ma, and the rest since ~ 0.3 Ma. Over the past 0.6 My, the depth from which the rhyolites erupted has decreased and their temperatures have become slightly higher. Pre-eruptive conditions of the rhyolite magmas, calculated from phenocryst compositions using the two-oxide thermometer and the Al-in-hornblende barometer, ranged from 740??C and 270 MPa (2.7 kbar; ~ 10 km depth) for the ~ 0.6 Ma magma, to 770??C and 140 MPa (1.4 kbar; ~ 5.5 km) for the youngest (~ 0.04 Ma) magma. Results are consistent with either a single rhyolitic reservoir moving upward through the crust, or a series of successively shallower reservoirs. As the reservoir has become closer to the surface, eruptions have become both more frequent and more voluminous.

  14. Optimising reservoir operation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ngo, Long le

    Anvendelse af optimeringsteknik til drift af reservoirer er blevet et væsentligt element i vandressource-planlægning og -forvaltning. Traditionelt har reservoirer været styret af heuristiske procedurer for udtag af vand, suppleret i en vis udstrækning af subjektive beslutninger. Udnyttelse af...... reservoirer involverer en lang række interessenter med meget forskellige formål (f.eks. kunstig vanding, vandkraft, vandforsyning mv.), og optimeringsteknik kan langt bedre lede frem til afbalancerede løsninger af de ofte modstridende interesser. Afhandlingen foreslår en række tiltag, hvormed traditionelle...... driftsstrategier kan erstattes af optimale strategier baseret på den nyeste udvikling indenfor computer-baserede beregninger. Hovedbidraget i afhandlingen er udviklingen af et beregningssystem, hvori en simuleringsmodel er koblet til en model for optimering af nogle udvalgte beslutningsvariable, der i særlig grad...

  15. Quantification of Libby Reservoir Levels Needed to Maintain or Enhance Reservoir Fisheries, 1983-1987 Methods and Data Summary.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chisholm, Ian

    1989-12-01

    Libby Reservoir was created under an International Columbia River Treaty between the United States and Canada for cooperative water development of the Columbia River Basin. The authorized purpose of the dam is to provide power, flood control, and navigation and other benefits. Research began in May 1983 to determine how operations of Libby dam impact the reservoir fishery and to suggest ways to lessen these impacts. This study is unique in that it was designed to accomplish its goal through detailed information gathering on every trophic level in the reservoir system and integration of this information into a quantitative computer model. The specific study objectives are to: quantify available reservoir habitat, determine abundance, growth and distribution of fish within the reservoir and potential recruitment of salmonids from Libby Reservoir tributaries within the United States, determine abundance and availability of food organisms for fish in the reservoir, quantify fish use of available food items, develop relationships between reservoir drawdown and reservoir habitat for fish and fish food organisms, and estimate impacts of reservoir operation on the reservoir fishery. 115 refs., 22 figs., 51 tabs.

  16. Geothermal reservoir engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Grant, Malcolm Alister

    2011-01-01

    As nations alike struggle to diversify and secure their power portfolios, geothermal energy, the essentially limitless heat emanating from the earth itself, is being harnessed at an unprecedented rate.  For the last 25 years, engineers around the world tasked with taming this raw power have used Geothermal Reservoir Engineering as both a training manual and a professional reference.  This long-awaited second edition of Geothermal Reservoir Engineering is a practical guide to the issues and tasks geothermal engineers encounter in the course of their daily jobs. The bo

  17. Change management in bank M&A

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kontić Ljiljana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the issues of change management in merger and acquisitions (M&As using the mixed method research approach. The research setting consisted of a foreign bank that operates in Serbia. The main aim of this study is to examine willingness for change in bank M&A. The qualitative data about the bank were sourced from publicly available information about the bank. The standardized questionnaire is used to assess bank's willingness for change. Based on managers structure, the representative sample of middle managers has been interviewed in this study. The research findings revealed possible practical implementation of the questionnaire in the Serbian banking sector. The results revealed that changes in bank should be led top down. The findings add to the existing literature on success factors in cross-border mergers and acquisitions. The study limitation are suggested.

  18. Simulation of California's Major Reservoirs Outflow Using Data Mining Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, T.; Gao, X.; Sorooshian, S.

    2014-12-01

    The reservoir's outflow is controlled by reservoir operators, which is different from the upstream inflow. The outflow is more important than the reservoir's inflow for the downstream water users. In order to simulate the complicated reservoir operation and extract the outflow decision making patterns for California's 12 major reservoirs, we build a data-driven, computer-based ("artificial intelligent") reservoir decision making tool, using decision regression and classification tree approach. This is a well-developed statistical and graphical modeling methodology in the field of data mining. A shuffled cross validation approach is also employed to extract the outflow decision making patterns and rules based on the selected decision variables (inflow amount, precipitation, timing, water type year etc.). To show the accuracy of the model, a verification study is carried out comparing the model-generated outflow decisions ("artificial intelligent" decisions) with that made by reservoir operators (human decisions). The simulation results show that the machine-generated outflow decisions are very similar to the real reservoir operators' decisions. This conclusion is based on statistical evaluations using the Nash-Sutcliffe test. The proposed model is able to detect the most influential variables and their weights when the reservoir operators make an outflow decision. While the proposed approach was firstly applied and tested on California's 12 major reservoirs, the method is universally adaptable to other reservoir systems.

  19. Hydrological ensemble predictions for reservoir inflow management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zalachori, Ioanna; Ramos, Maria-Helena; Garçon, Rémy; Gailhard, Joel

    2013-04-01

    Hydrologic forecasting is a topic of special importance for a variety of users with different purposes. It concerns operational hydrologists interested in forecasting hazardous events (eg., floods and droughts) for early warning and prevention, as well as planners and managers searching to optimize the management of water resources systems at different space-time scales. The general aim of this study is to investigate the benefits of using hydrological ensemble predictions for reservoir inflow management. Ensemble weather forecasts are used as input to a hydrologic forecasting model and daily ensemble streamflow forecasts are generated up to a lead time of 7 days. Forecasts are then integrated into a heuristic decision model for reservoir management procedures. Performance is evaluated in terms of potential gain in energy production. The sensitivity of the results to various reservoir characteristics and future streamflow scenarios is assessed. A set of 11 catchments in France is used to illustrate the added value of ensemble streamflow forecasts for reservoir management.

  20. Measuring the latent reservoir in vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massanella, Marta; Richman, Douglas D.

    2016-01-01

    Current efforts toward achieving a cure for HIV are focused on developing strategies to eliminate latently infected CD4+ T cells, which represent the major barrier to virus eradication. Sensitive, precise, and practical assays that can reliably characterize and measure this HIV reservoir and can reliably measure the impact of a candidate treatment strategy are essential. PCR-based procedures for detecting integrated HIV DNA will overestimate the size of the reservoir by detecting replication-incompetent proviruses; however, viral outgrowth assays underestimate the size of the reservoir. Here, we describe the attributes and limitations of current procedures for measuring the HIV reservoir. Characterizing their relative merits will require rigorous evaluation of their performance characteristics (sensitivity, specificity, reproducibility, etc.) and their relationship to the results of clinical studies. PMID:26829625

  1. Investigation of Temperature Dynamics in Small and Shallow Reservoirs, Case Study: Lake Binaba, Upper East Region of Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Abbasi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available An unsteady fully three-dimensional model of Lake Binaba (a shallow small reservoir in semi-arid Upper East Region of Ghana has been developed to simulate its temperature dynamics. The model developed is built on the Reynolds Averaged Navier–Stokes (RANS equations, utilizing the Boussinesq approach. As the results of the model are significantly affected by the physical conditions on the boundaries, allocating appropriate boundary conditions, particularly over a water surface, is essential in simulating the lake’s thermal structure. The thermal effects of incoming short-wave radiation implemented as a heat source term in the temperature equation, while the heat fluxes at the free water surface, which depend on wind speed, air temperature, and atmospheric stability conditions are considered as temperature boundary condition. The model equations were solved using OpenFOAM CFD toolbox. As the flow is completely turbulent, which is affected by the complex boundary conditions, a new heat transfer solver and turbulence model were developed to investigate the spatial and temporal distribution of temperature in small and shallow inland water bodies using improved time-dependent boundary conditions. The computed temperature values were compared with four days of observed field data. Simulated and observed temperature profiles show reasonable agreement where the root mean square error (RMSE over the simulation period ranges from 0.11 to 0.44 °C in temporal temperature profiles with an average value of 0.33 °C. Results indicate that the model is able to simulate the flow variables and the temperature distribution in small inland water bodies with complex bathymetry.

  2. Drone photogrammetry for geological research: field digital stratigraphic logs for turbiditic reservoir analog studies in Calabria, Southern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillois, Maxime; Brocheray, Sandra; Paron, Paolo

    2017-04-01

    Drone technology combined with new algorithms like Structure from Motion (SfM) has revived and expanded the uses of photogrammetry bringing new flexibility and the capacity to carry on close range photogrammetry to inaccessible areas. This characteristics are particularly appealing in field geology offering the option to reconstruct continuous digital outcrop models of vertical or difficult to reach outcrops. In this light we present the results of a digital outcrop modelling of a Miocene turbiditic system (mainly sandstone) in Calabria (Southern Italy) generated through field data collected by means of a light-weight commercial drone, a detailed geological field survey and cloud point photogrammetric analyses comparing different software for this purpose (Agisoft Photoscan, Drone deploy, Arc3D). The geological model has been used as an input for preliminary reservoir modelling. We generated digital geological sections (stratigraphic logs) of 1,200 m of sections using expert digital image and terrain model interprepation from the DTM generated with drone data, with the goal to reconstruct the real thickness of each layer. We then compared the results with previously created detailed field geological cross sections. The comparison between drone-derived sections and field-survey sections shows a global accuracy of the thickness ranging between 1% to 10%. Although this new methodology still has to be validated in other morpho-lithological context it already demonstrating its usefulness for preliminary geological outcrop investigation and modelling in remote areas. We also compared the different softwares used and we made recommendations for future deployment. This research has been made possible thanks to a collaboration between UNESCO-IHE, The Netherlands, and UniLaSalle Beauvais, France.

  3. Water in chalk reservoirs: 'friend or foe?'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hjuler, Morten Leth

    2004-01-01

    Most of the petroleum fields in the Norwegian sector of the North Sea are sandstone reservoirs; the oil and gas are trapped in different species of sandstone. But the Ekofisk Field is a chalk reservoir, which really challenges the operator companies. When oil is produced from chalk reservoirs, water usually gets in and the reservoir subsides. The subsidence may be expensive for the oil companies or be used to advantage by increasing the recovery rate. Since 60 per cent of the world's petroleum reserves are located in carbonate reservoirs, it is important to understand what happens as oil and gas are pumped out. Comprehensive studies at the Department of Petroleum Technology and Applied Geophysics at Stavanger University College in Norway show that the mechanical properties of chalk are considerably altered when the pores in the rock become saturated with oil/gas or water under different stress conditions. The processes are extremely complex. The article also maintains that the effects of injecting carbon dioxide from gas power plants into petroleum reservoirs should be carefully studied before this is done extensively

  4. The pollution of the 'iron gate' reservoir

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babic-Mladenovic, M.; Varga, S; Popovic, L.; Damjanovic, M.

    2002-01-01

    The paper presents the characteristics of the Iron Gate I (the Djerdap) Water Power and Navigational System, one of the largest in Europe (completed in 1972 by joint efforts of Yugoslavia and Romania). In this paper the attention is devoted to review of the sediment monitoring program and impacts of reservoir sedimentation, as well as to the investigations of water and sediment quality. Special consideration is paid to the issue of sediment pollution research needs. Namely, the hot spot of the 'Iron Gate' sedimentation represents a scarcely known pollution of sediment deposits. The present pollution probably is considerable, since the 'Iron Gate' reservoir drains about 577000 km 2 , with over 80 million inhabitants, and developed municipal and industrial infrastructure. Therefore, in the thirty-year reservoir life various types of sediment-bound pollutants entered and deposited within it. Especially severe incidents happened during 1999 (as a result of NATO bombing campaign) and 2000 (two accidental pollutions in the Tisza river catchment). The study of the 'Iron Gate' reservoir pollution should be prepared in order to enlighten the present state of reservoir sedimentation and pollution. The main objectives of the study are to enhance the government and public awareness of the present environmental state of the 'Iron Gate' reservoir and to serve as a baseline for all future actions. (author)

  5. Producing Gas-Oil Ratio Performance of Conventional and Unconventional Reservoirs

    OpenAIRE

    Lei, Guowen

    2012-01-01

    This study presents a detailed analysis of producing gas-oil ratio performance characteristics from conventional reservoir to unconventional reservoir. Numerical simulations of various reservoir fluid systems are included for comparison. In a wide sense of the word, the term of unconventional reservoir is including tight gas sand, coal bed methane, gas hydrate deposits, heavy oil gas shale and etc. In this study we specify the unconventional reservoir to only mean the low and ultra low permea...

  6. The Banana Fruit SINA Ubiquitin Ligase MaSINA1 Regulates the Stability of MaICE1 to be Negatively Involved in Cold Stress Response

    OpenAIRE

    Zhong-Qi Fan; Jian-Ye Chen; Jian-Fei Kuang; Wang-Jin Lu; Wei Shan

    2017-01-01

    The regulation of ICE1 protein stability is important to ensure effective cold stress response, and is extensively studied in Arabidopsis. Currently, how ICE1 stability in fruits under cold stress is controlled remains largely unknown. Here, we reported the possible involvement of a SEVEN IN ABSENTIA (SINA) ubiquitin ligase MaSINA1 from banana fruit in affecting MaICE1 stability. MaSINA1 was identified based on a yeast two-hybrid screening using MaICE1 as bait. Further yeast two-hybrid, pull-...

  7. Estimation of small reservoir storage capacities in a semi-arid environment : A case study in the Upper East Region of Ghana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liebe, J.; Van de Giesen, N.; Andreini, M.

    2005-01-01

    In semi-arid regions at the margins of the Sahel, large numbers of small reservoirs capture surface runoff during the rainy season, making water available during the dry season. For the local population, small reservoirs are important water sources which help them cope with droughts. The lack of

  8. Multiunit water resource systems management by decomposition, optimization and emulated evolution : a case study of seven water supply reservoirs in Tunisia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Milutin, D.

    1998-01-01

    Being one of the essential elements of almost any water resource system, reservoirs are indispensable in our struggle to harness, utilize and manage natural water resources. Consequently, the derivation of appropriate reservoir operating strategies draws significant attention in water

  9. Study of the impact of the uncertainties in petroleum reservoir behavior; Estudo do impacto de incertezas no desempenho de reservatorios de petroleo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loschiavo, Roberto [PETROBRAS S.A., SE/AL (Brazil). Exploracao e Producao]. E-mail: rloschiavo@ep-seal.petrobras.com.br; Schiozer, Denis J. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Centro de Estudo do Petroleo (CEPETRO)]. E-mail: denis@cepetro.unicamp.br; Steagall, Daniel Escobar [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Mecanica]. E-mail: steagall@dep.fem.unicamp.br

    2000-07-01

    Economic evaluation of a project as well as facilities design for oil exploitation is, in general, based on production forecasts. Since production forecast depends on several parameters that are not completely known, one should take a probabilistic approach for reservoir modeling and numerical flow simulation. With this research we propose a procedure to estimate probabilistic production forecasts profiles based on the decision tree technique. The most influencing parameters of a reservoir model are identified and combined to generate a number of realizations of the reservoirs. The combination of each branch of the decision tree defines the probability associated to each reservoir model. A computer program was developed to automatically generate the reservoir models, submit them to the numerical simulator, and process the results. Parallel computing was used to improve the performance of the procedure. (author)

  10. Parallel reservoir simulator computations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hemanth-Kumar, K.; Young, L.C.

    1995-01-01

    The adaptation of a reservoir simulator for parallel computations is described. The simulator was originally designed for vector processors. It performs approximately 99% of its calculations in vector/parallel mode and relative to scalar calculations it achieves speedups of 65 and 81 for black oil and EOS simulations, respectively on the CRAY C-90

  11. 33 CFR 80.135 - Hull, MA to Race Point, MA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hull, MA to Race Point, MA. 80... INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Atlantic Coast § 80.135 Hull, MA to Race Point, MA. (a... position latitude 42°16.7′ N., longitude 70°52.6′ W., to Race Point on Cape Cod. (b) A line drawn from...

  12. M&A Negotiations and Lawyer Expertise

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karsten, C.; Malmendier, U.; Sautner, Z.

    2013-01-01

    We use proprietary data to look into the "black box" of M&A negotiations and to shed light on the effects of lawyer expertise on M&A contract design, the bargaining process, and acquisition pricing. Measuring the effects of buyer relative to seller lawyer expertise, we document that more expertise

  13. Evaluation of input output efficiency of oil field considering undesirable output —A case study of sandstone reservoir in Xinjiang oilfield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shuying; Wu, Xuquan; Li, Deshan; Xu, Yadong; Song, Shulin

    2017-06-01

    Based on the input and output data of sandstone reservoir in Xinjiang oilfield, the SBM-Undesirable model is used to study the technical efficiency of each block. Results show that: the model of SBM-undesirable to evaluate its efficiency and to avoid defects caused by traditional DEA model radial angle, improve the accuracy of the efficiency evaluation. by analyzing the projection of the oil blocks, we find that each block is in the negative external effects of input redundancy and output deficiency benefit and undesirable output, and there are greater differences in the production efficiency of each block; the way to improve the input-output efficiency of oilfield is to optimize the allocation of resources, reduce the undesirable output and increase the expected output.

  14. Flow of a stream through a reservoir

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sauerwein, K.

    1967-01-01

    If a reservoir is fed from a single source, which may not always be pure, the extent to which the inflowing stream mixes with the water in the reservoir is important for the quality of the water supplied by the reservoir. This question was investigated at the Lingese Reservoir, containing between one and two million cubic metres of water, in the Bergisches Land (North Rhine-Westphalia). The investigation was carried out at four different seasons so that the varying effects of the stream-water temperatures could be studied in relation to the temperature of the reservoir water. The stream was radioactively labelled at the point of inflow into the reservoir, and its flow through the reservoir was measured in length and depth from boats, by means of 1-m-long Geiger counters. In two cases the radioactivity of the outflowing water was also measured at fixed points. A considerable variety of intermixing phenomena were observed; these were mainly of limnological interest. The results of four experiments corresponding to the four different seasons are described in detail. They were as follows: (1) The mid-October experiment where the stream, with a temperature of 8.0 deg. C, was a good 5 deg. C colder than the water of the reservoir, whose temperature was almost uniform, ranging from 13.2 deg. C at the bed to 13.6 deg. C at the surface. (2) The spring experiment (second half of March), when the stream temperature was only 0.3 deg. C below that of the reservoir surface (7.8 deg. C), while the temperature of the bed was 5.8 deg. C. (3) The winter experiment (early December) where at first the temperature of the stream was approximately the same as that of the surface so that, once again, the stream at first flowed 1/2 - 1 m below the surface. During the almost wind-free night a sudden fall in temperature occurred, and the air temperature dropped from 0 deg. C to -12 deg. C. (4) The summer experiment (end of July to mid-August) when the stream was nearly 1 deg. C colder than

  15. Characterization of the pore system in an over-mature marine shale reservoir: A case study of a successful shale gas well in Southern Sichuan Basin, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Yang

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available During the past two years the shale gas exploration in Southern Sichuan basin received some exciting achievements. Data of a new appraisal well showed that the gas producrtions of vertical well and horizontal well are ∼1.5 × 104 m3/day/well (with maximum ∼3.5 × 104 m3/day/well and ∼12.5 × 104 m3/day/well (with maximum ∼40 × 104 m3/day/well, respectively, indicating a good gas potential in this area. Eight core samples from the reservoir were investigated by using a carbon sulfur analyzer, microphotometry, x-ray diffractometry, field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM, mercury injection porosimetry (MIP, and low-pressure nitrogen adsorption to obtain a better understanding of the reservoir characteristics of the Upper Ordovician–Lower Silurian organic-rich shale. Results show that the total organic carbon (TOC content ranges from 0.5% to 5.9%, whereas the equivalent vitrinite reflectance (VRr is between 2.8% and 3.0%. Pores in the studied samples were observed in three modes of occurrence, namely, interparticle pores, intraparticle pores, and intraparticle organic pores. The total porosity (P ranges from 1.6% to 5.3%, and MIP data sets suggest that pores with throats larger than 20 nm contribute little to the pore volume. Low-pressure N2 adsorption isotherms indicate that the total specific surface area (SBET ranges from 9.6 m2/g to 18.9 m2/g, and the pore volume (V ranges from 0.011 cm3/g to 0.020 cm3/g. The plot of dV/dW versus W shows that the fine mesopores (pore size(BJH 2% are more than 3.0 m3/ton. The observation can be a good reference for the future exploration and evaluation of reservoir in this area.

  16. Radiographic study of the prevalence of apical periodontitis and endodontic tratment in the adult population of São Luís, MA, Brazil Estudo radiográfico da prevalência de periodontite apical e tratamento endodôntico na população adulta de São Luís, MA, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Analúcia Guerra Terças

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the prevalence of apical periodontitis (AP and its association with endodontically treated teeth in residents of São Luís, MA, Brazil. Two-hundred complete series of periapical radiographs taken over a 10-year period (1993-2003 were retrieved from the files of four prosthesists and five periodontists. The Periapical Index (PAI was used and the age range, sex, tooth groups, location and association with endodontic treatment (ET were also analyzed. The Cohen Kappa and Chi-square tests were used for statistical analysis. Out of 200 patients, 135 presented at least one case of AP, which corresponds to a prevalence of 67.5%. Of the 5008 teeth examined, 296 had AP and 553 had ET. Therefore, considering the total number of teeth, AP and ET prevalences were 5.9% and 11%, respectively. Of the 553 endodontically treated teeth, 235 (42.5% were associated with AP. Chi-square test showed a strong correlation between AP and ET (p0.05. The maxillary incisors were the most affected group of teeth (pO objetivo deste estudo foi investigar a prevalência de Periodontite Apical (PA e sua associação com dentes tratados endodonticamente em residentes de São Luís, MA, Brasil. Foram selecionadas 200 séries completas de radiografias periapicais de arquivos de quatro protesistas e cinco periodontistas dos últimos 10 anos (1993-2003. O Índice Periapical (PAI foi utilizado e a faixa etária, sexo, grupos dentais, localização de maior prevalência e associação aos dentes com tratamento endodôntico (TE foram analisados. Os testes Cohen Kappa e qui-quadrado foram utilizados para análise estatística. Dos registros de 200 pacientes, 135 apresentavam algum caso de PA, resultando numa prevalência de 67,5%. Do total de 5008 dentes, 296 tinham PA e 553 tinham TE. Desse modo, a prevalência de PA foi de 5.8% e de TE foi de 11%. Dos 553 casos de dentes tratados endodonticamente, 235 (42.5% estavam associados com PA. A faixa etária de 40 anos

  17. Risk Analysis of Reservoir Operations Considering Short-Term Flood Control and Long-Term Water Supply: A Case Study for the Da-Han Creek Basin in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Ming Cheng

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This study applies an integrated methodology to assess short-term over-levee risk and long-term water shortage risk in the Da-Han Creek basin, which is the most important flood control and water storage system in northern Taiwan. An optimization model for reservoir flood control and water supply is adopted, to determine reservoir releases based on synthetic inflow hydrographs during typhoons, which are generated by Monte Carlo simulations. The release is then used to calculate the water level at a downstream control point using a novel developed back-propagation neural network-based model, to reduce computational complexity and achieve automatic-efficient risk evaluation. The calculated downstream water levels and final reservoir water levels after a typhoon event are used to evaluate the mapped over-levee risk and water shortage risk, respectively. The results showed that the different upper limit settings for the reservoir have a significant influence on the variation of 1.19 × 10−5% to 75.6% of the water shortage risk. This occurs because of the insufficient inflow and narrow storage capacity of the Shih-Men Reservoir during drought periods. However, the upper limit settings have a minor influence (with a variation of only 0.149% to 0.157% on the over-levee risk in typhoon periods, because of the high protection standards for the downstream embankment.

  18. Improved characterization of reservoir behavior by integration of reservoir performances data and rock type distributions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davies, D.K.; Vessell, R.K. [David K. Davies & Associates, Kingwood, TX (United States); Doublet, L.E. [Texas A& M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)] [and others

    1997-08-01

    An integrated geological/petrophysical and reservoir engineering study was performed for a large, mature waterflood project (>250 wells, {approximately}80% water cut) at the North Robertson (Clear Fork) Unit, Gaines County, Texas. The primary goal of the study was to develop an integrated reservoir description for {open_quotes}targeted{close_quotes} (economic) 10-acre (4-hectare) infill drilling and future recovery operations in a low permeability, carbonate (dolomite) reservoir. Integration of the results from geological/petrophysical studies and reservoir performance analyses provide a rapid and effective method for developing a comprehensive reservoir description. This reservoir description can be used for reservoir flow simulation, performance prediction, infill targeting, waterflood management, and for optimizing well developments (patterns, completions, and stimulations). The following analyses were performed as part of this study: (1) Geological/petrophysical analyses: (core and well log data) - {open_quotes}Rock typing{close_quotes} based on qualitative and quantitative visualization of pore-scale features. Reservoir layering based on {open_quotes}rock typing {close_quotes} and hydraulic flow units. Development of a {open_quotes}core-log{close_quotes} model to estimate permeability using porosity and other properties derived from well logs. The core-log model is based on {open_quotes}rock types.{close_quotes} (2) Engineering analyses: (production and injection history, well tests) Material balance decline type curve analyses to estimate total reservoir volume, formation flow characteristics (flow capacity, skin factor, and fracture half-length), and indications of well/boundary interference. Estimated ultimate recovery analyses to yield movable oil (or injectable water) volumes, as well as indications of well and boundary interference.

  19. AN EXPLORATORY STUDY ON THE DIMENSIONS OF EMPLOYER BRANDING - İŞVEREN MARKALAŞMASININ BOYUTLARI ÜZERİNE KEŞİFSEL BİR ÇALIŞMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aslı KUŞÇU

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract:This paper aims to be a fresh view to employerbranding, which is a new concept in the business, marketingand HR worlds and in Turkey. This study aims to make a briefcomparison between the viewpoints of Turkish professionalsand university students to the dimensions of attractiveness inemployer branding. The results of this exploratory study willhave preliminary findings that will be important for manycompanies aiming to attract and maintain talent in order tobuild a corporate brand name and satisfy their stakeholders.The difference between undergraduate students’ andprofessionals’ perceptions about dimensions of employerattractiveness is investigated in this study. In macro senses,this paper is an example of marketing being amultidisciplinary science. It does not only serve for branding aproduct but it also has implications in human resourcemanagement or in finance or other departments of thecompany.Özet:Bu çalışma pazarlama ve insan kaynakları dünyasındayeni bir konu olan işveren markalaşmasının boyutlarınıincelemektedir. Literatüre yeni girmekte olan konudaTürkiye’den henüz çok fazla çalışma bulunmaması, buçalışmanın önemini arttırmaktadır. Bu keşifsel çalışma, işyaşamındaki profesyoneller ile üniversite öğrencilerininişveren markalaşmasının boyutlarını algılayış farklılıklarınıgöstermeyi amaçlamaktadır. Yeditepe Üniversitesi’nde İşletmeYüksek Lisansı yapan profesyoneller ile yine aynı üniversitedelisans eğitimi alan son sınıf ve üçüncü sınıf öğrencileri denekolarak seçilmiş ve bu iki grubun farklı bakış açıları analizedilmiştir. Y jenerasyonunun özelliklerine de değinen buçalışmanın sonuçları yetenekli çalışanı kendine çekmek veelinde tutmak amacında olan ve bir şirket markası oluşturarakyarardaşlarını memnun etmek isteyen birçok işverene ışıktutacaktır. Disiplinler arası bilimin önem kazandığı dönemde,bu çalışma

  20. Large area imaging of forensic evidence with MA-XRF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langstraat, Kirsten; Knijnenberg, Alwin; Edelman, Gerda; van de Merwe, Linda; van Loon, Annelies; Dik, Joris; van Asten, Arian

    2017-11-08

    This study introduces the use of macroscopic X-ray fluorescence (MA-XRF) for the detection, classification and imaging of forensic traces over large object areas such as entire pieces of clothing and wall paneling. MA-XRF was sufficiently sensitive and selective to detect human biological traces like blood, semen, saliva, sweat and urine on fabric on the basis of Fe, Zn, K, Cl and Ca elemental signatures. With MA-XRF a new chemical contrast is introduced for human stain detection and this can provide a valuable alternative when the evidence item is challenging for conventional techniques. MA-XRF was also successfully employed for the chemical imaging and classification of gunshot residues (GSR). The full and non-invasive elemental mapping (Pb, Ba, Sr, K and Cl) of intact pieces of clothing allows for a detailed shooting incident reconstruction linking firearms and ammunition to point of impact and providing information on the shooting angle. In high resolution mode MA-XRF can even be used to provide information on the shooting order of different ammunition types. Finally, by using the surface penetration of X-rays we demonstrate that the lead signature of a bullet impact can be easily detected even if covered by multiple layers of wall paint or human blood.

  1. APPLICATION OF INTEGRATED RESERVOIR MANAGEMENT AND RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jack Bergeron; Tom Blasingame; Louis Doublet; Mohan Kelkar; George Freeman; Jeff Callard; David Moore; David Davies; Richard Vessell; Brian Pregger; Bill Dixon; Bryce Bezant

    2000-03-01

    Reservoir performance and characterization are vital parameters during the development phase of a project. Infill drilling of wells on a uniform spacing, without regard to characterization does not optimize development because it fails to account for the complex nature of reservoir heterogeneities present in many low permeability reservoirs, especially carbonate reservoirs. These reservoirs are typically characterized by: (1) large, discontinuous pay intervals; (2) vertical and lateral changes in reservoir properties; (3) low reservoir energy; (4) high residual oil saturation; and (5) low recovery efficiency. The operational problems they encounter in these types of reservoirs include: (1) poor or inadequate completions and stimulations; (2) early water breakthrough; (3) poor reservoir sweep efficiency in contacting oil throughout the reservoir as well as in the nearby well regions; (4) channeling of injected fluids due to preferential fracturing caused by excessive injection rates; and (5) limited data availability and poor data quality. Infill drilling operations only need target areas of the reservoir which will be economically successful. If the most productive areas of a reservoir can be accurately identified by combining the results of geological, petrophysical, reservoir performance, and pressure transient analyses, then this ''integrated'' approach can be used to optimize reservoir performance during secondary and tertiary recovery operations without resorting to ''blanket'' infill drilling methods. New and emerging technologies such as geostatistical modeling, rock typing, and rigorous decline type curve analysis can be used to quantify reservoir quality and the degree of interwell communication. These results can then be used to develop a 3-D simulation model for prediction of infill locations. The application of reservoir surveillance techniques to identify additional reservoir ''pay'' zones

  2. Sensitivity Analysis of Methane Hydrate Reservoirs: Effects of Reservoir Parameters on Gas Productivity and Economics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, B. J.; Gaddipati, M.; Nyayapathi, L.

    2008-12-01

    This paper presents a parametric study on production rates of natural gas from gas hydrates by the method of depressurization, using CMG STARS. Seven factors/parameters were considered as perturbations from a base-case hydrate reservoir description based on Problem 7 of the International Methane Hydrate Reservoir Simulator Code Comparison Study led by the Department of Energy and the USGS. This reservoir is modeled after the inferred properties of the hydrate deposit at the Prudhoe Bay L-106 site. The included sensitivity variables were hydrate saturation, pressure (depth), temperature, bottom-hole pressure of the production well, free water saturation, intrinsic rock permeability, and porosity. A two-level (L=2) Plackett-Burman experimental design was used to study the relative effects of these factors. The measured variable was the discounted cumulative gas production. The discount rate chosen was 15%, resulting in the gas contribution to the net present value of a reservoir. Eight different designs were developed for conducting sensitivity analysis and the effects of the parameters on the real and discounted production rates will be discussed. The breakeven price in various cases and the dependence of the breakeven price on the production parameters is given in the paper. As expected, initial reservoir temperature has the strongest positive effect on the productivity of a hydrate deposit and the bottom-hole pressure in the production well has the strongest negative dependence. Also resulting in a positive correlation is the intrinsic permeability and the initial free water of the formation. Negative effects were found for initial hydrate saturation (at saturations greater than 50% of the pore space) and the reservoir porosity. These negative effects are related to the available sensible heat of the reservoir, with decreasing productivity due to decreasing available sensible heat. Finally, we conclude that for the base case reservoir, the break-even price (BEP

  3. MULTIDISCIPLINARY IMAGING OF ROCK PROPERTIES IN CARBONATE RESERVOIRS FOR FLOW-UNIT TARGETING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephen C. Ruppel

    2005-02-01

    Despite declining production rates, existing reservoirs in the US contain large quantities of remaining oil and gas that constitute a huge target for improved diagnosis and imaging of reservoir properties. The resource target is especially large in carbonate reservoirs, where conventional data and methodologies are normally insufficient to resolve critical scales of reservoir heterogeneity. The objectives of the research described in this report were to develop and test such methodologies for improved imaging, measurement, modeling, and prediction of reservoir properties in carbonate hydrocarbon reservoirs. The focus of the study is the Permian-age Fullerton Clear Fork reservoir of the Permian Basin of West Texas. This reservoir is an especially appropriate choice considering (a) the Permian Basin is the largest oil-bearing basin in the US, and (b) as a play, Clear Fork reservoirs have exhibited the lowest recovery efficiencies of all carbonate reservoirs in the Permian Basin.

  4. SEISMIC DETERMINATION OF RESERVOIR HETEROGENEITY; APPLICATION TO THE CHARACTERIZATION OF HEAVY OIL RESERVOIRS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matthias G. Imhof; James W. Castle

    2003-11-01

    The objective of the project is to examine how seismic and geologic data can be used to improve characterization of small-scale heterogeneity and their parameterization in reservoir models. The study is performed at West Coalinga Field in California. We continued our investigation on the nature of seismic reactions from heterogeneous reservoirs. We began testing our algorithm to infer parameters of object-based reservoir models from seismic data. We began integration of seismic and geologic data to determine the deterministic limits of conventional seismic data interpretation. Lastly, we began integration of seismic and geologic heterogeneity using stochastic models conditioned both on wireline and seismic data.

  5. Impact of a Thermocline on Water Dynamics in Reservoirs – Dobczyce Reservoir Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hachaj Paweł S.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available While modeling water dynamics in dam reservoirs, it is usually assumed that the flow involves the whole water body. It is true for shallow reservoirs (up to several meters of depth but may be false for deeper ones. The possible presence of a thermocline creates an inactive bottom layer that does not move, causing all the discharge to be carried by the upper strata. This study compares the results of hydrodydynamic simulations performed for the whole reservoir to the ones carried out for the upper strata only. The validity of a non-stratified flow approximation is then discussed.

  6. Simulation of Reservoir Sediment Flushing of the Three Gorges Reservoir Using an Artificial Neural Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xueying Li

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Reservoir sedimentation and its effect on the environment are the most serious world-wide problems in water resources development and utilization today. As one of the largest water conservancy projects, the Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR has been controversial since its demonstration period, and sedimentation is the major concern. Due to the complex physical mechanisms of water and sediment transport, this study adopts the Error Back Propagation Training Artificial Neural Network (BP-ANN to analyze the relationship between the sediment flushing efficiency of the TGR and its influencing factors. The factors are determined by the analysis on 1D unsteady flow and sediment mathematical model, mainly including reservoir inflow, incoming sediment concentration, reservoir water level, and reservoir release. Considering the distinguishing features of reservoir sediment delivery in different seasons, the monthly average data from 2003, when the TGR was put into operation, to 2011 are used to train, validate, and test the BP-ANN model. The results indicate that, although the sample space is quite limited, the whole sediment delivery process can be schematized by the established BP-ANN model, which can be used to help sediment flushing and thus decrease the reservoir sedimentation.

  7. Changing the Safety and Mission Assurance (S and MA) Paradigm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malone, Roy W.; Safie, Fayssal M.

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the change in the work and impact of the Safety and Mission Assurance directorate at Marshall Space Flight Center. It reviews the background and the reasons given for a strong Safety & Mission Assurance presence in all planning for space flight. This was pointed out by the Rogers Commission Report after the Space Challenger accident, by the Columbia Accident Investigation Board (CAIB) and by a 2006 NASA Exploration Safety Study (NESS) Team. The overall objective of the work in this area was to improve and maintain S&MA expertise and skills. Training for this work was improved and the S&MA organization was reorganized. This has resulted in a paradigm shift for NASA's safety efforts, which is described. The presentation then reviews the impact of the new S&MA work in the Ares I design and development.

  8. Interaction between RB protein and NuMA is required for proper alignment of spindle microtubules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchida, Chiharu; Hattori, Takayuki; Takahashi, Hirotaka; Yamamoto, Naoki; Kitagawa, Masatoshi; Taya, Yoichi

    2014-02-01

    Retinoblastoma protein (pRB) controls cell cycle progression and cell cycle exit through interactions with cellular proteins. Many pRB-binding proteins, which function in gene transcription or modulation of chromatin structure, harbor LXCXE motifs in their binding domain for pRB. In this study, we found that nuclear mitotic apparatus protein (NuMA), a mitotic spindle organizer, interacts with pRB through LSCEE sequences located in its C-terminal region. siRNA-mediated down-regulation of pRB caused aberrant distribution of NuMA and alignment of spindle microtubules in mitotic cells. Abnormal organization of spindle microtubules was also accompanied by misalignment of an over-expressed NuMA mutant (mut-NuMA) with a defect in pRB binding caused by an LSGEK mutation. The mut-NuMA-over-expressing cells showed lower potency for survival than wild-type NuMA (wt-NuMA)-over-expressing cells during 2 weeks of culture. Interestingly, knockdown of pRB reduced the population of wt-NuMA-over-expressing cells to the same level as mut-NuMA cells after 2 weeks. Taken together, pRB may have a novel function in regulating the mitotic function of NuMA and spindle organization, which are required for proper cell cycle progression. © 2013 The Authors Genes to Cells © 2013 by the Molecular Biology Society of Japan and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  9. Imaging fluid/solid interactions in hydrocarbon reservoir rocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uwins, P J; Baker, J C; Mackinnon, I D

    1993-08-01

    The environmental scanning electron microscope (ESEM) has been used to image liquid hydrocarbons in sandstones and oil shales. Additionally, the fluid sensitivity of selected clay minerals in hydrocarbon reservoirs was assessed via three case studies: HCl acid sensitivity of authigenic chlorite in sandstone reservoirs, freshwater sensitivity of authigenic illite/smectite in sandstone reservoirs, and bleach sensitivity of a volcanic reservoir containing abundant secondary chlorite/corrensite. The results showed the suitability of using ESEM for imaging liquid hydrocarbon films in hydrocarbon reservoirs and the importance of simulating in situ fluid-rock interactions for hydrocarbon production programmes. In each case, results of the ESEM studies greatly enhanced prediction of reservoir/borehole reactions and, in some cases, contradicted conventional wisdom regarding the outcome of potential engineering solutions.

  10. Mrica Reservoir Sedimentation: Current Situation and Future Necessary Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puji Utomo

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Mrica Reservoir is one of many reservoirs located in Central Java that experienced a considerably high sedimentation during the last ten years. This condition has caused a rapid decrease in reservoir capacity. Various countermeasures have been introduced to reduce the rate of the reservoir sedimentation through catchment management and reservoir operation by means of flushing and/or dredging. However, the sedimentation remains intensive so that the fulfillment of water demand for electrical power generation was seriously affected. This paper presents the results of evaluation on the dynamics of the purpose of this research is to evaluate the sediment balance of the Mrica Reservoir based on two different scenarios, i.e. the existing condition and another certain type of reservoir management. The study on sediment balance was carried out by estimating the sediment inflow applying sheet erosion method in combination with the analysis of sediment rating curve. The measurement of the deposited sediment rate in the reservoir was conducted through the periodic echo sounding, whereas identification of the number of sediment that has been released from the reservoir was carried out through the observation on both flushing and dredging activities. The results show that during the last decade, the rate of the sediment inflow was approximately 5.869 MCM/year, whereas the released sediment from the reservoir was 4.097 MCM/year. In order to maintain the reservoir capacity, therefore, at least 1.772 MCM/year should be released from the reservoir by means of either flushing or dredging. Sedimentation management may prolong the reservoir’s service life to exceed the design life. Without sediment management, the lifetime of the reservoir would have finished by 2016, whereas with the proper management the lifetime may be extended to 2025.

  11. A THEORETICAL STUDY UPON LEARNER AUTONOMY- ÖĞRENCİ ÖZERKLİĞİ KAVRAMI ÜZERİNE KURAMSAL BİR ÇALIŞMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Üzeyir SÜĞÜMLÜ

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to determine the existance, definition, content, properties, stages of learner autonomy and the features related to learner autonomy. Another aim of the study is to raise awareness about the learner autonomy in our country. In consequence of literature review upon learner autonomy; the existance of learner autonomy, its becoming an important feature in education, the definition of it, its content, properties, principles, stages and related features are presented and also learner autonomy is tried to determine comprehensively. With this study; we achieve the results such as learner autonomy is becoming a content which takes attentions on; it has become a part and an aim of general education and defined as learner’s taking learning responsibility with all aspects which is gained to learners by definite principles and steps; it is perceived as an important skill for learners and it is related with the teacher autonomy, motivation and attitude.

  12. Mundo mortus ses, sed Deo vivas? : en osteologisk studie med avsikt att bedöma klostret i Ny Varbergs karaktär

    OpenAIRE

    Andersson, Johanna

    2011-01-01

    The main aim of this study is to determine whether the monastery in Ny Varberg has been used as a hospital during its active years. The second aim has been to investigate weather the buried individuals at the monastery at Ny Varberg exclusively are deceased monks. Only individuals from the monastery's active years has been included in this study. A total of 16 inhumated individuals was analysed. Both men, women and children was shown to be present, as well as wide spread of children and adult...

  13. DEVELOPMENT OF RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION TECHNIQUES AND PRODUCTION MODELS FOR EXPLOITING NATURALLY FRACTURED RESERVOIRS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael L. Wiggins; Raymon L. Brown; Faruk Civan; Richard G. Hughes

    2002-12-31

    For many years, geoscientists and engineers have undertaken research to characterize naturally fractured reservoirs. Geoscientists have focused on understanding the process of fracturing and the subsequent measurement and description of fracture characteristics. Engineers have concentrated on the fluid flow behavior in the fracture-porous media system and the development of models to predict the hydrocarbon production from these complex systems. This research attempts to integrate these two complementary views to develop a quantitative reservoir characterization methodology and flow performance model for naturally fractured reservoirs. The research has focused on estimating naturally fractured reservoir properties from seismic data, predicting fracture characteristics from well logs, and developing a naturally fractured reservoir simulator. It is important to develop techniques that can be applied to estimate the important parameters in predicting the performance of naturally fractured reservoirs. This project proposes a method to relate seismic properties to the elastic compliance and permeability of the reservoir based upon a sugar cube model. In addition, methods are presented to use conventional well logs to estimate localized fracture information for reservoir characterization purposes. The ability to estimate fracture information from conventional well logs is very important in older wells where data are often limited. Finally, a desktop naturally fractured reservoir simulator has been developed for the purpose of predicting the performance of these complex reservoirs. The simulator incorporates vertical and horizontal wellbore models, methods to handle matrix to fracture fluid transfer, and fracture permeability tensors. This research project has developed methods to characterize and study the performance of naturally fractured reservoirs that integrate geoscience and engineering data. This is an important step in developing exploitation strategies for

  14. The Loneliness of the Long-Distance Learner: Social Networking and Student Support. A Case Study of the Distance-Learning MA in Translation at Bristol University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duranton, Helene; Mason, Adrienne

    2012-01-01

    Using the translation programme at the University of Bristol as a case study, we shall argue in this paper that distance delivery can have a very positive impact on recruitment but that the quality of the students' experience depends upon the capacity of the organisation to support course development and delivery, both in terms of instructional…

  15. Clinical Research in Dermatology and Venereology in Spanish Research Centers in 2005 Through 2014: Results of the MaIND Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina-Leyva, A; Descalzo, M A; García-Doval, I

    Bibliometric indicators provide a useful measure of the number of clinical research articles published in scientific journals and their quality. This study aimed to assess the amount and quality of research carried out in Spanish dermatology centers and to describe the research topics. Bibliometric study of clinical research articles that met the inclusion criteria and had a definitive publication date between 2005 and 2014 in MEDLINE or Embase in which the corresponding author's affiliation was a Spanish hospital dermatology department or other center. Of 8,617 articles found, 1,104 (12.81%) met the inclusion criteria. The main reason for excluding articles was that they did not have an evidence level of 4 or better. The main vehicle for reporting was the journal Actas Dermosifiliográficas, which published 326 articles (29.53%). Melanoma, the disease the researchers studied most often, accounted for 134 articles (12.13%). A limitation to bear in mind when interpreting the results is that we relied on the corresponding author's affiliation to identify articles reflecting research from a Spanish dermatology center. Thus, studies in which dermatologists participated would not be recognized if they were directed by other specialists. Only a small portion of articles published from Spanish dermatology centers can be considered clinical research, mainly because many publications provide a low level of scientific evidence. Most publications are case reports. Copyright © 2017 AEDV. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  16. How to Conduct a Practice-Based Study. Problems and Methods. By Silvia Gherardi, University of Trento, Italy. Edward Elgar, Cheltenham, UK, Northampton, MA, USA, 2012, 241 pages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Iben

    2015-01-01

    The aim of Silvia Gherardi’s book is to develop the readers’ methodological sensibility. She does so through a presentation and discussion of the work of scholars, who use a practice-based approach in organization studies. In order to develop this methodological sensibility, she poses four basic ...

  17. Mathematical models of a liquid filtration from reservoirs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anvarbek Meirmanov

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This article studies the filtration from reservoirs into porous media under gravity. We start with the exact mathematical model at the microscopic level, describing the joint motion of a liquid in reservoir and the same liquid and the elastic solid skeleton in the porous medium. Then using a homogenization procedure we derive the chain of macroscopic models from the poroelasticity equations up to the simplest Darcy's law in the porous medium and hydraulics in the reservoir.

  18. Advantageous Reservoir Characterization Technology in Extra Low Permeability Oil Reservoirs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yutian Luo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper took extra low permeability reservoirs in Dagang Liujianfang Oilfield as an example and analyzed different types of microscopic pore structures by SEM, casting thin sections fluorescence microscope, and so on. With adoption of rate-controlled mercury penetration, NMR, and some other advanced techniques, based on evaluation parameters, namely, throat radius, volume percentage of mobile fluid, start-up pressure gradient, and clay content, the classification and assessment method of extra low permeability reservoirs was improved and the parameter boundaries of the advantageous reservoirs were established. The physical properties of reservoirs with different depth are different. Clay mineral variation range is 7.0%, and throat radius variation range is 1.81 μm, and start pressure gradient range is 0.23 MPa/m, and movable fluid percentage change range is 17.4%. The class IV reservoirs account for 9.56%, class II reservoirs account for 12.16%, and class III reservoirs account for 78.29%. According to the comparison of different development methods, class II reservoir is most suitable for waterflooding development, and class IV reservoir is most suitable for gas injection development. Taking into account the gas injection in the upper section of the reservoir, the next section of water injection development will achieve the best results.

  19. Surfactant loss control in chemical flooding spectroscopic and calorimetric study of adsorption and precipitation on reservoir minerals. Annual report, September 30, 1993--September 30, 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Somasundaran, P.

    1995-06-01

    The aim of this project is to elucidate the mechanisms underlying adsorption and surface precipitation of flooding surfactants on reservoir minerals. Effect of surfactant structure, surfactant combinations, other inorganic and polymeric species is being studied. A multi-pronged approach consisting of micro and nano spectroscopy, microcalorimetry, electrokinetics, surface tension and wettability is used to achieve the goals. The results of this study should help in controlling surfactant loss in chemical flooding and also in developing optimum structures and conditions for efficient chemical flooding processes. During the second year of this three year contract, adsorption/desorption of single surfactants and select surfactant mixtures on alumina and silica was studied. Surfactants studied include the anionic sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), cationic tetradecyl trimethyl ammonium chloride (TTAC), nonionic pentadecylethoxylated nonyl phenol (NP-15) and the nonionic octaethylene glycol n-dodecyl ether (C{sub 12}EO{sub 8}) of varying hydrocarbon chain length. The microstructure of the adsorbed layer in terms of micropolarity and aggregation numbers was probed using fluorescence spectroscopy. Changes of microstructure upon dilution (desorption) were also studied. Presence of the nonionic surfactant in the mixed aggregate led to shielding of the charge of the ionic surfactant which in-turn promoted aggregation but reduced electrostatic attraction between the charged surfactant and the mineral surface. Strong consequences of surfactant interactions in solution upon adsorption as well as correlations between monomer concentrations in mixtures and adsorption were revealed.

  20. Re-evaluating the possible link between the Zipingpu reservoir and 2008 Ww7.9 Wenchuan earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Z.; Yao, D.; Su, J.; Ruan, X.; Long, F.; Meng, X.

    2017-12-01

    The 12 May 2008 Mw7.9 Wenchuan earthquake ruptured 300 km unilaterally along the Longmenshan Fault Zone (LMSF), which straddles the Tibetan Plateau to the northwest and Sichuan Basin to the southeast. Currently the possible link between the Wenchuan mainshock and the impoundment of Zipingpu reservoir since September 2005 is still under debate. Many studies have indicated that the initiation hypo-central depth could be the key factor to determine the triggering relationship. We first relocate the mainshock hypocenter by carefully picking the P and S phases recorded by 7 short-period stations within 30km in the Zipingpu Reservoir Seismic Network (ZRSN). We find that the Wenchuan earthquake started as a magnitude 5 event at a depth shallower than 10 km, where the Coulomb stress changes from the Zipingpu reservoir was on the order of several tens of kPa, suggesting a possible triggering relationship [e.g., Ge et al., 2009; Ma et al., 2011; Lei, 2012]. We hypothesize that the reservoir directly induced a M 5 event near Shuimo where intensive earthquake swarms have occurred at shallow depth, which in turn dynamically triggered main rupture along the Yinxiu-Beichuan fault. In addition, we conduct a systematic detection and relocation of the long-term seismic behavior preceding the mainshock. Specifically, We first apply a waveform matching method to detect microseismicity using catalog events and available continuous data from Oct 2004 to Dec 2009 recorded by ZRSN. We further relocate all events to examine spatio-temporal evolution of long-term seismicity and its relation to the water level change. We also identify repeating earthquakes with high waveform cross-correlations and use them to monitor temporal variation of seismic velocity before, during and after the mainshock. We hope to better understand the relationship among the impoundment and subsequent changes in water level of the Zipingpu reservoir, background seismicimity and the Wenchuan mainshock. Updated results

  1. Comprehensive analysis of NuMA variation in breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kilpivaara, Outi; Rantanen, Matias; Tamminen, Anitta; Aittomäki, Kristiina; Blomqvist, Carl; Nevanlinna, Heli

    2008-01-01

    A recent genome wide case-control association study identified NuMA region on 11q13 as a candidate locus for breast cancer susceptibility. Specifically, the variant Ala794Gly was suggested to be associated with increased risk of breast cancer. In order to evaluate the NuMa gene for breast cancer susceptibility, we have here screened the entire coding region and exon-intron boundaries of NuMa in 92 familial breast cancer patients and constructed haplotypes of the identified variants. Five missense variants were further screened in 341 breast cancer cases with a positive family history and 368 controls. We examined the frequency of Ala794Gly in an extensive series of familial (n = 910) and unselected (n = 884) breast cancer cases and controls (n = 906), with a high power to detect the suggested breast cancer risk. We also tested if the variant is associated with histopathologic features of breast tumors. Screening of NuMA resulted in identification of 11 exonic variants and 12 variants in introns or untranslated regions. Five missense variants that were further screened in breast cancer cases with a positive family history and controls, were each carried on a unique haplotype. None of the variants, or the haplotypes represented by them, was associated with breast cancer risk although due to low power in this analysis, very low risk alleles may go unrecognized. The NuMA Ala794Gly showed no difference in frequency in the unselected breast cancer case series or familial case series compared to control cases. Furthermore, Ala794Gly did not show any significant association with histopathologic characteristics of the tumors, though Ala794Gly was slightly more frequent among unselected cases with lymph node involvement. Our results do not support the role of NuMA variants as breast cancer susceptibility alleles

  2. Comprehensive analysis of NuMA variation in breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilpivaara, Outi; Rantanen, Matias; Tamminen, Anitta; Aittomäki, Kristiina; Blomqvist, Carl; Nevanlinna, Heli

    2008-03-10

    A recent genome wide case-control association study identified NuMA region on 11q13 as a candidate locus for breast cancer susceptibility. Specifically, the variant Ala794Gly was suggested to be associated with increased risk of breast cancer. In order to evaluate the NuMa gene for breast cancer susceptibility, we have here screened the entire coding region and exon-intron boundaries of NuMa in 92 familial breast cancer patients and constructed haplotypes of the identified variants. Five missense variants were further screened in 341 breast cancer cases with a positive family history and 368 controls. We examined the frequency of Ala794Gly in an extensive series of familial (n = 910) and unselected (n = 884) breast cancer cases and controls (n = 906), with a high power to detect the suggested breast cancer risk. We also tested if the variant is associated with histopathologic features of breast tumors. Screening of NuMA resulted in identification of 11 exonic variants and 12 variants in introns or untranslated regions. Five missense variants that were further screened in breast cancer cases with a positive family history and controls, were each carried on a unique haplotype. None of the variants, or the haplotypes represented by them, was associated with breast cancer risk although due to low power in this analysis, very low risk alleles may go unrecognized. The NuMA Ala794Gly showed no difference in frequency in the unselected breast cancer case series or familial case series compared to control cases. Furthermore, Ala794Gly did not show any significant association with histopathologic characteristics of the tumors, though Ala794Gly was slightly more frequent among unselected cases with lymph node involvement. Our results do not support the role of NuMA variants as breast cancer susceptibility alleles.

  3. Comprehensive analysis of NuMA variation in breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aittomäki Kristiina

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A recent genome wide case-control association study identified NuMA region on 11q13 as a candidate locus for breast cancer susceptibility. Specifically, the variant Ala794Gly was suggested to be associated with increased risk of breast cancer. Methods In order to evaluate the NuMa gene for breast cancer susceptibility, we have here screened the entire coding region and exon-intron boundaries of NuMa in 92 familial breast cancer patients and constructed haplotypes of the identified variants. Five missense variants were further screened in 341 breast cancer cases with a positive family history and 368 controls. We examined the frequency of Ala794Gly in an extensive series of familial (n = 910 and unselected (n = 884 breast cancer cases and controls (n = 906, with a high power to detect the suggested breast cancer risk. We also tested if the variant is associated with histopathologic features of breast tumors. Results Screening of NuMA resulted in identification of 11 exonic variants and 12 variants in introns or untranslated regions. Five missense variants that were further screened in breast cancer cases with a positive family history and controls, were each carried on a unique haplotype. None of the variants, or the haplotypes represented by them, was associated with breast cancer risk although due to low power in this analysis, very low risk alleles may go unrecognized. The NuMA Ala794Gly showed no difference in frequency in the unselected breast cancer case series or familial case series compared to control cases. Furthermore, Ala794Gly did not show any significant association with histopathologic characteristics of the tumors, though Ala794Gly was slightly more frequent among unselected cases with lymph node involvement. Conclusion Our results do not support the role of NuMA variants as breast cancer susceptibility alleles.

  4. Novel composite sorbent AAm/MA hydrogels containing starch and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ethylene glycol)diacrylate as a crosslinker. Surface ...... Partition coefficients of TB between dye solution and AAm/MA, AAm/MA/St,. AAm/MA/K and AAm/MA/St/K hydrogel systems contain- ing 60 mg MA and 1·0% K were calculated, and are shown.

  5. Clot dynamics and mortality: The MA-R ratio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savage, Stephanie A; Zarzaur, Ben L; Pohlman, Timothy H; Brewer, Brian L; Magnotti, Louis J; Croce, Martin A; Lim, Garrett H; Martin, Ali C

    2017-10-01

    The coagulopathy of trauma, illustrated by a short R-time, is common and well understood. The physiology behind this may be early thrombin burst with rapid clot formation. Rapid consumption of fibrinogen, however, may result in weak clot and substrate depletion, resulting in low MA. While these characteristics are interesting, utilizing thromboelastography (TEG) to identify those at risk of subsequent bleeding diathesis, especially in those who do not demonstrate early signs of physiologic derangement, is challenging. We have developed a novel ratio utilizing TEG values to describe patients at specific risk of traumatic coagulopathy. The purpose of this study was to create a single TEG value, which would reflect both the hypercoagulability and hypocoagulability of TIC. We hypothesized that this ratio, at admission, would be indicative of TIC and predictive of both blood product transfusion volumes and subsequent mortality. Patients admitted via the highest activation criteria at one of two Level I trauma centers were included if they received at least 1 unit of packed red blood cells in the first 24 hours of admission. The admission TEG was collected, and a ratio was calculated by dividing the MA by the R-time (MA-R). MA-R quartiles were developed, and multivariable logistic regression was utilized to determine odds of mortality. Three hundred thirty patients with admission TEG were included. In all patients, median age was 35 years (interquartile range, 25-54 years), Injury Severity Score (ISS) was 20 (interquartile range, 13-29), 76% were male, and 43% had penetrating trauma. The MA-R groups were based on quartiles. Multivariable analysis, controlling for mechanism of injury, ISS, and admission pH, showed that increasing ratios were associated with decreased odds of death. The lowest MA-R ratios were also significantly associated with higher ISS, higher rates of blunt injury, and higher plasma utilization without a significant difference in packed red blood cell

  6. A Bayesian approach for evaluation of the effect of water quality model parameter uncertainty on TMDLs: A case study of Miyun Reservoir

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liang, Shidong, E-mail: emblembl@sina.com [School of Environment, Tsinghua University, 1 Qinghuayuan, Haidian District, Beijing 100084 (China); Jia, Haifeng, E-mail: jhf@tsinghua.edu.cn [School of Environment, Tsinghua University, 1 Qinghuayuan, Haidian District, Beijing 100084 (China); Xu, Changqing, E-mail: 2008changqing@163.com [School of Environment, Tsinghua University, 1 Qinghuayuan, Haidian District, Beijing 100084 (China); Xu, Te, E-mail: xt_lichking@qq.com [School of Environment, Tsinghua University, 1 Qinghuayuan, Haidian District, Beijing 100084 (China); Melching, Charles, E-mail: steve.melching17@gmail.com [Melching Water Solutions, 4030 W. Edgerton Avenue, Greenfield, WI 53221 (United States)

    2016-08-01

    Facing increasingly serious water pollution, the Chinese government is changing the environmental management strategy from solely pollutant concentration control to a Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) program, and water quality models are increasingly being applied to determine the allowable pollutant load in the TMDL. Despite the frequent use of models, few studies have focused on how parameter uncertainty in water quality models affect the allowable pollutant loads in the TMDL program, particularly for complicated and high-dimension water quality models. Uncertainty analysis for such models is limited by time-consuming simulation and high-dimensionality and nonlinearity in parameter spaces. In this study, an allowable pollutant load calculation platform was established using the Environmental Fluid Dynamics Code (EFDC), which is a widely applied hydrodynamic-water quality model. A Bayesian approach, i.e. the DiffeRential Evolution Adaptive Metropolis (DREAM) algorithm, which is a high-efficiency, multi-chain Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) method, was applied to assess the effects of parameter uncertainty on the water quality model simulations and its influence on the allowable pollutant load calculation in the TMDL program. Miyun Reservoir, which is the most important surface drinking water source for Beijing, suffers from eutrophication and was selected as a case study. The relations between pollutant loads and water quality indicators are obtained through a graphical method in the simulation platform. Ranges of allowable pollutant loads were obtained according to the results of parameter uncertainty analysis, i.e. Total Organic Carbon (TOC): 581.5–1030.6 t·yr{sup −1}; Total Phosphorus (TP): 23.3–31.0 t·yr{sup −1}; and Total Nitrogen (TN): 480–1918.0 t·yr{sup −1}. The wide ranges of allowable pollutant loads reveal the importance of parameter uncertainty analysis in a TMDL program for allowable pollutant load calculation and margin of safety (MOS

  7. Ma olin Saddami poeg / Latif Jahija

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Jahija, Latif

    1995-01-01

    Järg Jan/21.,28. lk. 7,5. L. Jahija sensatsiooniline raamat "Ma olin Saddami poeg", milles ta pajatab kuidas ta a. 1987-1991 oli Iraagi presidendi vanema poja teisik. Lühikokkuvõte sellest jutustusest

  8. The study of permeabilities, measured at various scales, of a fluviatile sandstone reservoir. Development and application of a well test numerical simulator; Etude des permeabilites mesurees a differentes echelles d`un reservoir greseux fluviatile. Developpement et application d`un simulateur numerique de tests de puits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacquin, T.

    1997-10-10

    The general problem of a single phase fluid flow through heterogenous porous media, is studied, focusing on well test data interpretation in the context of reservoir characterization; a 3D finite volume code, with capacity of local refinement, is developed to simulate well tests. After a review of traditional techniques used to interpret well test data, and their extension to heterogenous media using a weighting function that depends upon the flow geometry, an analysis is carried out for 2D correlated lognormal permeability distributions: it compares well to numerical well tests performed on low variance permeability distributions but needs further investigation for high variance. For 3D heterogenous permeability fields, well bore pressure cannot be estimated by analytical means; therefore a more empirical approach is used to study the permeability field of a reservoir used by Gaz de France as an underground gas storage. Simulated well tests are performed on a reservoir model based upon core measurements and log analysis. The numerical investigation reveals inconsistencies in the treatment of available data, which can be corrected so geology is better taken into account

  9. Relationship between knowledge of cardiovascular disease risk factors and watching educational television materials. Małopolska CArdiovascular PReventive Intervention Study (M-‑CAPRI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waśniowska, Anna; Kopeć, Grzegorz; Podolec, Jakub; Kozela, Magdalena; Sarnecka, Agnieszka; Knap, Klaudia; Szafraniec, Krystyna; Pająk, Andrzej; Podolec, Piotr

    2017-09-29

    INTRODUCTION The current guidelines on cardiovascular disease (CVD) prevention in clinical practice emphasizes the importance of education in the media for population-‑based approaches. OBJECTIVES The aim of the study was to assess the relationship between knowledge of CVD risk factors and watching educational television materials in the adult population. PATIENTS AND METHODS After 22 months of repeated broadcasting of educational television materials, which addressed problems related to CVD, a postal survey was conducted on a random sample of 5000 persons aged 18 years or older. The questionnaire included information on demographics, personal and family history of CVD, educational materials, and knowledge of the risk factors. A multivariate logistic regression was used to assess the relationship between the knowledge of each risk factor and watching educational materials. RESULTS A total of 1129 questionnaires were sent back and used for the analysis. There were 208 participants (18%) who watched the educational materials. The median number of the risk factors listed was 4 (interquartile range, 2-5) for persons who watched the materials and 2 (interquartile range, 0-4) for those who did not watch them. After adjustment for age, sex, education, place of residence, and personal and family history of CVD, the participants who watched the educational materials were 2 to 5 times more likely to have knowledge on particular risk factors, with the exception of hypercholesterolemia for which the relationship was not significant. CONCLUSIONS A strong, plausible relationship revealed by our study supports the idea that in the adult population, better knowledge of CVD risk factors was the effect of watching educational materials.

  10. Post mortem magnetic resonance imaging in the fetus, infant and child: A comparative study with conventional autopsy (MaRIAS Protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thayyil Sudhin

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Minimally invasive autopsy by post mortem magnetic resonance (MR imaging has been suggested as an alternative for conventional autopsy in view of the declining consented autopsy rates. However, large prospective studies rigorously evaluating the accuracy of such an approach are lacking. We intend to compare the accuracy of a minimally invasive autopsy approach using post mortem MR imaging with that of conventional autopsy in fetuses, newborns and children for detection of the major pathological abnormalities and/or determination of the cause of death. Methods/Design We recruited 400 consecutive fetuses, newborns and children referred for conventional autopsy to one of the two participating hospitals over a three-year period. We acquired whole body post mortem MR imaging using a 1.5 T MR scanner (Avanto, Siemens Medical Solutions, Enlargen, Germany prior to autopsy. The total scan time varied between 90 to 120 minutes. Each MR image was reported by a team of four specialist radiologists (paediatric neuroradiology, paediatric cardiology, paediatric chest & abdominal imaging and musculoskeletal imaging, blinded to the autopsy data. Conventional autopsy was performed according to the guidelines set down by the Royal College of Pathologists (UK by experienced paediatric or perinatal pathologists, blinded to the MR data. The MR and autopsy data were recorded using predefined categorical variables by an independent person. Discussion Using conventional post mortem as the gold standard comparator, the MR images will be assessed for accuracy of the anatomical morphology, associated lesions, clinical usefulness of information and determination of the cause of death. The sensitivities, specificities and predictive values of post mortem MR alone and MR imaging along with other minimally invasive post mortem investigations will be presented for the final diagnosis, broad diagnostic categories and for specific diagnosis of each system

  11. Numerical simulation of hydraulic fracture propagation in heterogeneous unconventional reservoir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chunting; Li, Mingzhong; Hao, Lihua; Hu, Hang

    2017-10-01

    The distribution of the unconventional reservoir fracture network is influenced by many factors. For the natural fracture undeveloped reservoir, the reservoir heterogeneity, construction factors (fracturing fluid flow rate, fluid viscosity, perforation clusters spacing), horizontal stress difference and stress different coefficient are the main factors that affect the fracture propagation. In the study, first, calculate the reservoir physics mechanics parameters that affect the fracture propagation on the base of the logging date from one actual horizontal well. Set the formation parameters according to the calculation that used to simulate the reservoir heterogeneity. Then, using damage mechanics method, the 2D fracture propagation model with seepage-stress-damage coupling of multi-fracture tight sand reservoir was established. Study the influences of different fracturing ways (open whole fracturing and oriented perforation fracturing) and the position of the perforation clusters to the fracture propagation for heterogeneity reservoir. Analyze the effects of flow rate, fracturing fluid viscosity, perforation clusters spacing, horizontal stress difference and stress different coefficient to fracture morphology for the heterogeneity reservoir and contrast with the homogeneous reservoir. The simulation results show that: the fracture morphology is more complexity formed by oriented perforation crack than open whole crack; For natural fracture undeveloped reservoir, as the flow rate or the fracturing fluid viscosity increases within a certain range, the fracture network tends to be more complexity and the effect is more obvious to heterogeneous reservoir than homogeneous reservoir; As the perforation clusters spacing decreases, the interaction of each fracture will increase, it tends to form more complexity fracture network but with short major fracture; If the horizontal stress difference and stress different coefficient is large (The stress different coefficient >0

  12. KONTAMINASI LOGAM BERAT DI SEDIMEN: STUDI KASUS PADA WADUK SAGULING JAWA BARAT (Heavy Metals Contamination in Sediment: Saguling Reservoir Case Study West Java, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoyok Sudarso

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAK Waduk Saguling merupakan salah satu waduk cascade yang berlokasi di Jawa Barat, yang sekarang ini mengalami beberapa permasalahan antara lain: proses sedimentasi yangtinggi, korositas turbin, penurunan kualitas air akibat blooming alga, polusi organik, pestisida, dan logam-logam berat yang berasal dari buangan limbah domestik, industri, aktivitas gunung berapi, dan sebagainya. Logam berat di ekosistem akuatik mempunyai kecenderungan untuk berikatan dengan sedimen yang mampu bertindak sebagai sumber polusi sekunder ke kolom air. Penelitian pada tahun 2004 ini bertujuan untuk mengungkap kontaminasi logam berat Cu, Cd, dan Pb pada sedimen Waduk Saguling. Sampling dilakukan tiga kali mulai bulan Juni hingga September 2004 dengan l3 titik stasiun pengamatan. Hasil kontaminasi logam berat pada sedimen di setiap stasiun pengamatan menunjukkan adanya perbedaan yang sangat signifikan diantara masing-masing stasiun pengamatan yaitu: untuk logam Cd (F: 17,803 dan p = 0,00001, Pb (F= 154,343 dan p < 0,01, dan Cu (F:36,499, P<0,000001. Konsentrasi logam berat hasil pengamatan dibandingkan dengan guideline dari kementrian lingkungan Ontario, SEPA, ERL, ERM, PEL, SEL, dan TEL, secara umum menunjukkan bahwa kontaminasi logam Pb dan Cu yang paling berpotensi menimbulkan gangguan pada ekosistem perairan, sedangkan logam Cd masih dibawah ambang batas dari guideline tersebut diatas. Khusus untuk guideline yang berasal dari US-EPAregion Y Great lakes ke tiga logam tersebut diatas sudah masuk dalam kategori terpolusi berat dari St. Gunung Wayang hingga Stasiun Rajamandala.   ABSTRACT Saguling reservoir is one of three cascade reservoirs, which is located in West Java. Nowadays, the reservoir has some serious problems such as: high sedimentation rate, turbine corrosity, water quality depletion caused by blooming algae, organic pollution, pesticide, and heavy metals which are resulted from domestic and industrial wastes, as well as teaching from volcano

  13. Towards an HIV-1 cure: measuring the latent reservoir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruner, Katherine M.; Hosmane, Nina N.; Siliciano, Robert F.

    2015-01-01

    The latent reservoir of HIV-1 in resting memory CD4+ T cells serves as a major barrier to curing HIV-1 infection. While many PCR- and culture-based assays have been used to measure the size of the latent reservoir, correlation between results of different assays is poor and recent studies indicate that no available assay provides an accurate measurement of reservoir size. The discrepancies between assays are a hurdle to clinical trials that aim to measure the efficacy of HIV-1 eradication strategies. Here we describe the advantages and disadvantages of various approaches to measure the latent reservoir. PMID:25747663

  14. Overtopping of Rubble Mound Breakwaters with Front Reservoir

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burcharth, Hans F.; Andersen, Thomas Lykke

    2007-01-01

    The design and performance of breakwaters with front reservoir are discussed on the basis of physical 2-D model tests with a number of cross sections, in which vertopping discharge and spatial distribution, wave forces on inner parapet walls, and stability of reservoir armour were studied....... The sensitivity of these quantities to the width of the reservoir is discussed. It is demonstrated that front reservoir solutions are more economical than conventional cross section solutions, such as bermed structures and mild slope structures, in cases where low crests and small overtopping discharges...

  15. Analysis of the influence of reservoirs utilization to water quality profiles in Indonesia (Saguling - Jatiluhur) and Malaysia (Temengor - Chenderoh) with special references to cascade reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subehi, Luki; Norasikin Ismail, Siti; Ridwansyah, Iwan; Hamid, Muzzalifah Abd; Mansor, Mashhor

    2018-02-01

    Tropical reservoir is the one ecosystem which is functioning in both ecological and economical services. As the settling of water volume, it harbors many species of fish. The objective of this study is to analyze the utilization and management of reservoirs related to their water quality conditions, represent by tropical reservoirs from Indonesia and Malaysia. Survey at Jatiluhur and Saguling (Indonesia) was conducted in March 2014 and September 2015, respectively while in Temengor and Chenderoh (Malaysia), the survey was done in January 2014 and April 2017, respectively. Based on elevation, Saguling and Temengor are upstream reservoirs. On the contrary, Jatiluhur and Chenderoh are downstream reservoirs. The results of the surveys in Jatiluhur and Saguling reservoirs showed that the average depths are 32.9m and 17.9m, respectively. On the other hand, Temengor and Chenderoh reservoirs are 100m and 16.2m, respectively. All of them play multi-functional roles including as a source of power plant, fisheries and tourism, as well as water sources for irrigation. In addition, Saguling and Temengor reservoirs are relatively dendritic in shape. In Indonesia, there are three consecutive reservoirs along Citarum River, whereas in Malaysia there are four consecutive reservoirs along Perak River. The results showed the potential impact of fish cages as pollutant, especially at Indonesian reservoirs. In addition, these tropical reservoirs have become famous tourism getaway. The capabilities of economic values of these reservoirs and ecosystem should be balanced. Basic ecological information is necessary for the next study.

  16. Application of the indirect fluorescent antibody assay in the study of malaria infection in the Yangtze River Three Gorges Reservoir, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang Zheng

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background China Yangtze Three Gorges Project (TGP is one of the biggest construction projects in the world. The areas around the Three Gorge Dam has a history of tertian malaria and subtertian malaria epidemic, but there are no overall data about malaria epidemics before the completion of the project. The objective of this study was to get a reliable baseline on malaria infection in the Yangtze River Three Gorges reservoir area and to provide reference data for future studies about the impact of the project on malaria epidemics. Methods Two surveys of malaria infection were carried out in area, at six-month intervals in May and October 2008. About 3,600 dual specimens blood film samples for parasite diagnosis and filter paper blood spots for serology (using the immunofluorescence antibody test were collected from the general population, including school populations, whenever possible. Results The overall percentage of positive response of the same population during post-transmission periods was about twice (1.40/0.72 of that in pre-transmission. Positive individuals under 15 years of age were detected in all the localities. Conclusion A certain extent of malaria infection existed in this area. Additional studies are needed to determine the length of malaria experience, and chemotherapeutic intervention as well as the distribution of main vectors for transmission in this area.

  17. A comparative study on long term stability of self-healing epoxy coating with different inorganic nanotubes as healing agent reservoirs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. P. Vijayan

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Self-healing epoxy coatings were prepared with different nanotubes as reservoirs for epoxy monomer (healing agent. The nanotubes selected for the current study were TiO2 nanotubes with two different tube diameter (TNT1 and TNT2 and naturally occurring hallyosite nanotubes (HNT. These self-healing coatings were subjected to accelerated weathering exposure. The weathering stability of the coatings were observed. The surface morphology, chemical changes and surface roughness were studied as a function of weathering exposure period. These studies confirmed that the long term stability of the coatings highly depend on the nanotube parameters such as nature, surface area and diameter. It was found that the photocatalytic degradation of epoxy matrix with TiO2 nanotubes was prominent in TNT1 filled coating compared with their TNT2 variant. The higher possibility of exposure of epoxy monomer encapsulated inside both HNT and TNT2 facilitated the cure reaction with UV light to create new chains during weathering.

  18. 42 CFR 495.204 - Incentive payments to qualifying MA organizations for MA-EPs and MA-affiliated eligible hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... for MA-EPs and MA-affiliated eligible hospitals. 495.204 Section 495.204 Public Health CENTERS FOR... CERTIFICATION STANDARDS FOR THE ELECTRONIC HEALTH RECORD TECHNOLOGY INCENTIVE PROGRAM Requirements Specific to...-EPs and MA-affiliated eligible hospitals. (a) General rule. A qualifying MA organization receives an...

  19. NuMA and nuclear lamins behave differently in Fas-mediated apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taimen, Pekka; Kallajoki, Markku

    2003-02-01

    NuMA is a nuclear matrix protein that has an essential function in the organization of the mitotic spindle. Here we have studied the fate of NuMA in Fas-treated apoptotic Jurkat T and HeLa cells. We show that in both cell lines NuMA is an early target protein for caspases and that NuMA is cleaved coincidently with poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1) and nuclear lamin B. NuMA is cleaved differently in Jurkat T and HeLa cells, suggesting that different sets of caspases are activated in these cell lines. The normal diffuse intranuclear distribution of NuMA changed during apoptosis: first NuMA condensed, then concentrated in the center of the nucleus and finally encircled the nuclear fragments within the apoptotic bodies. NuMA seems to be preferentially cleaved by caspase-3 in vivo since it was not cleaved in staurosporine-treated caspase-3-null MCF-7 breast cancer cells. The cleavage of NuMA, lamin B and PARP-1 was inhibited in the presence of three different caspase inhibitors: z-DEVD-FMK, z-VEID-FMK and z-IETD-FMK. Furthermore, in the presence of caspase inhibitors approximately 5-10% of the cells showed atypical apoptotic morphology. These cells had convoluted nuclei, altered chromatin structure and additionally, they were negative for NuMA and lamins. Since caspase-8, -3 and -7 were not activated and PARP was not cleaved in these cells as judged by western blotting and immunofluorescence studies, it is likely that this is an atypical form of programmed cell death owing to a proteinase(s) independent of caspases. These results characterize the role of NuMA in programmed cell death and suggest that cleavage of NuMA plays a role in apoptotic nuclear breakdown.

  20. [Hydrogeochemistry of reservoirs of Imfout, Daourat and Sidi Maâchou dams (Morocco)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benzha, F; Hilali, A; Zidane, F

    2009-08-01

    Monitoring of the physico-chemical parameters of the water, nutriments and chlorophyll was carried out. Also, of the grading and physico-chemical characteristic of the sediment. Tests of fixation and salting out of phosphor were undertaken. Fluctuations were noted in the physico-chemical parameters, the functional reports, the involvement of the mineral fraction in the mobility of the phosphor in the water-sediment interface, the impact of the pH and an internal dynamic of the phosphor in the sediment.

  1. Petrophysical Charaterization of the Kwale Field Reservoir Sands ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Similarly, the average permeability values vary between 3.2 and 28.0 mD. This study is a first attempt to make available Petrophysical data for the reservoir sands in the Kwale field of the Niger delta basin. The results of this study will also enhance the proper characterization of the reservoir sands. However, other sources of ...

  2. Pelagic behaviour of reservoir fishes: sinusoidal swimming and associated behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    JAROLÍM, Oldřich

    2009-01-01

    Annotation Long-term fixed-location hydroacoustic study with uplooking transducer was performed during 2005 in Římov reservoir, Czech Republic. It dealt mainly with fish behaviour in the open water of reservoir, especially with sinusoidal swimming behaviour. The dependence of pelagic fish behaviour on environmental conditions was also studied.

  3. The Role of Rainfall Variability in Reservoir Storage Management at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bheema

    The objective is to develop functional hydrological relationship between (rainfall, inflow, reservoir storage and turbine releases) over the dam. This will provide scientific basis for operational decisions which can lead to optimum power plant utilization. 1.1. The Study Area. The study area is the Shiroro dam reservoir.

  4. Advances in photonic reservoir computing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van der Sande, Guy; Brunner, Daniel; Soriano, Miguel C.

    2017-05-01

    We review a novel paradigm that has emerged in analogue neuromorphic optical computing. The goal is to implement a reservoir computer in optics, where information is encoded in the intensity and phase of the optical field. Reservoir computing is a bio-inspired approach especially suited for processing time-dependent information. The reservoir's complex and high-dimensional transient response to the input signal is capable of universal computation. The reservoir does not need to be trained, which makes it very well suited for optics. As such, much of the promise of photonic reservoirs lies in their minimal hardware requirements, a tremendous advantage over other hardware-intensive neural network models. We review the two main approaches to optical reservoir computing: networks implemented with multiple discrete optical nodes and the continuous system of a single nonlinear device coupled to delayed feedback.

  5. Physical Model-Based Investigation of Reservoir Sedimentation Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Chia Huang

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Sedimentation is a serious problem in the operations of reservoirs. In Taiwan, the situation became worse after the Chi-Chi Earthquake recorded on 21 September 1999. The sediment trap efficiency in several regional reservoirs has been sharply increased, adversely affecting the operations on water supplies. According to the field record, the average annual sediment deposition observed in several regional reservoirs in Taiwan has been increased. For instance, the typhoon event recorded in 2008 at the Wushe Reservoir, Taiwan, produced a 3 m sediment deposit upstream of the dam. The remaining storage capacity in the Wushe Reservoir was reduced to 35.9% or a volume of 53.79 million m3 for flood water detention in 2010. It is urgent that research should be conducted to understand the sediment movement in the Wushe Reservoir. In this study, a scale physical model was built to reproduce the flood flow through the reservoir, investigate the long-term depositional pattern, and evaluate sediment trap efficiency. This allows us to estimate the residual life of the reservoir by proposing a modification of Brune’s method. It can be presented to predict the lifespan of Taiwan reservoirs due to higher applicability in both the physical model and the observed data.

  6. Constrained genetic algorithms for optimizing multi-use reservoir operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Li-Chiu; Chang, Fi-John; Wang, Kuo-Wei; Dai, Shin-Yi

    2010-08-01

    To derive an optimal strategy for reservoir operations to assist the decision-making process, we propose a methodology that incorporates the constrained genetic algorithm (CGA) where the ecological base flow requirements are considered as constraints to water release of reservoir operation when optimizing the 10-day reservoir storage. Furthermore, a number of penalty functions designed for different types of constraints are integrated into reservoir operational objectives to form the fitness function. To validate the applicability of this proposed methodology for reservoir operations, the Shih-Men Reservoir and its downstream water demands are used as a case study. By implementing the proposed CGA in optimizing the operational performance of the Shih-Men Reservoir for the last 20 years, we find this method provides much better performance in terms of a small generalized shortage index (GSI) for human water demands and greater ecological base flows for most of the years than historical operations do. We demonstrate the CGA approach can significantly improve the efficiency and effectiveness of water supply capability to both human and ecological base flow requirements and thus optimize reservoir operations for multiple water users. The CGA can be a powerful tool in searching for the optimal strategy for multi-use reservoir operations in water resources management.

  7. In-filled reservoirs serving as sediment archives to analyse soil organic carbon erosion - A case study from the Karoo rangelands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krenz, Juliane; Greenwood, Philip; Heckrath, Goswin; Kuhn, Brigitte; Kuhn, Nikolaus

    2017-04-01

    Covering about 41 % of the Earth's Land Surface drylands provide a range of ecosystem services for more than one third of the world population. Threatened by climate change and incorrect land use their natural land cover is changing and land degradation is one of their major problems. The semi-arid rangelands of the Great Karoo region in South Africa are just one example of a region that has experienced a number of environmental changes. After European farmers settled in the late 18th century agricultural activities increased, leading to overgrazing and probably representing a trigger to land degradation. As a consequence of a higher water demand and shifting rainfall patterns many dams and small reservoirs have been constructed to provide drinking water for cattle or to facilitate irrigation during dry periods. High erosion rates lead to a fast filling-up of reservoirs and thereby reduced their storage capacities. Thus, most of the dams are nowadays dry (filled with sediment) or even breached. In this ongoing project, a combination of analytical methods that include drone imagery, landscape mapping, erosion modelling and sediment analysis have been employed to determine whether land degradation in the Karoo has resulted in the reversion from a net sink of C to a net source of C. Sediment deposits from three silted-up reservoirs were analysed for varying physicochemical parameters, in order to analyse and reconstruct erosional and depositional patterns. A sharp decrease in total carbon content with decreasing depth for two reservoirs suggests that land degradation during and after the post-European settlement most likely triggered erosion of the relatively fertile surface soils, which presumably in-filled the reservoirs. It is assumed that the carbon-rich bottom layers of the dam deposits originate from these eroded surface soils. Low organic Carbon (OC) content in the top layers of the reservoir in-fill, and in the eroded source areas, supports the assumption that

  8. Cell cycle-regulated membrane binding of NuMA contributes to efficient anaphase chromosome separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Zhen; Wan, Qingwen; Meixiong, Gerry; Du, Quansheng

    2014-03-01

    Accurate and efficient separation of sister chromatids during anaphase is critical for faithful cell division. It has been proposed that cortical dynein-generated pulling forces on astral microtubules contribute to anaphase spindle elongation and chromosome separation. In mammalian cells, however, definitive evidence for the involvement of cortical dynein in chromosome separation is missing. It is believed that dynein is recruited and anchored at the cell cortex during mitosis by the α subunit of heterotrimeric G protein (Gα)/mammalian homologue of Drosophila Partner of Inscuteable/nuclear mitotic apparatus (NuMA) ternary complex. Here we uncover a Gα/LGN-independent lipid- and membrane-binding domain at the C-terminus of NuMA. We show that the membrane binding of NuMA is cell cycle regulated-it is inhibited during prophase and metaphase by cyclin-dependent kinase 1 (CDK1)-mediated phosphorylation and only occurs after anaphase onset when CDK1 activity is down-regulated. Further studies indicate that cell cycle-regulated membrane association of NuMA underlies anaphase-specific enhancement of cortical NuMA and dynein. By replacing endogenous NuMA with membrane-binding-deficient NuMA, we can specifically reduce the cortical accumulation of NuMA and dynein during anaphase and demonstrate that cortical NuMA and dynein contribute to efficient chromosome separation in mammalian cells.

  9. Entanglement backflow under the composite effect of two non-Markovian reservoirs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Jun-Gang; Zou, Jian; Shao, Bin

    2012-01-01

    The entanglement backflow of two qubits coupled to two independent reservoirs is investigated. It is found that under the collective effects of the two independent reservoirs, the entanglement backflow of the qubits does not always increase with the increase of the non-Markovianity of one of the reservoirs but demonstrates an intricate behavior. Interestingly, the action of one reservoir can affect the other reservoir's contribution to the entanglement backflow even when the two reservoirs are independent. -- Highlights: ► We study entanglement backflow of two qubits coupled to two independent reservoirs. ► We find that the entanglement backflow demonstrates an intricate behavior. ► The action of one reservoir can affect the contribution of the other reservoir.

  10. Hydro-mechanically coupled finite-element analysis of the stability of a fractured-rock slope using the equivalent continuum approach: a case study of planned reservoir banks in Blaubeuren, Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Jie; Dong, Mei; Koltuk, Serdar; Hu, Hui; Zhang, Luqing; Azzam, Rafig

    2017-12-01

    Construction works associated with the building of reservoirs in mountain areas can damage the stability of adjacent valley slopes. Seepage processes caused by the filling and drawdown operations of reservoirs also affect the stability of the reservoir banks over time. The presented study investigates the stability of a fractured-rock slope subjected to seepage forces in the lower basin of a planned pumped-storage hydropower (PSH) plant in Blaubeuren, Germany. The investigation uses a hydro-mechanically coupled finite-element analyses. For this purpose, an equivalent continuum model is developed by using a representative elementary volume (REV) approach. To determine the minimum required REV size, a large number of discrete fracture networks are generated using Monte Carlo simulations. These analyses give a REV size of 28 × 28 m, which is sufficient to represent the equivalent hydraulic and mechanical properties of the investigated fractured-rock mass. The hydro-mechanically coupled analyses performed using this REV size show that the reservoir operations in the examined PSH plant have negligible effect on the adjacent valley slope.