Hassan, Mo'awia M.; Osman, Omran F.; El-Raba'a, Fathi Ma; Schallig, Henk Dfh; Elnaiem, Dia-Eldin A.
The study aims to determine the role of domestic dogs in transmission of visceral leishmaniasis in eastern Sudan. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 10 villages along the River Rahad in eastern Sudan to elucidate the role of domestic dogs (Canis familiaris, Linnaeus, 1758) as a reservoir host
Hassan, Mo'awia M; Osman, Omran F; El-Raba'a, Fathi Ma; Schallig, Henk Dfh; Elnaiem, Dia-Eldin A
The study aims to determine the role of domestic dogs in transmission of visceral leishmaniasis in eastern Sudan. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 10 villages along the River Rahad in eastern Sudan to elucidate the role of domestic dogs (Canis familiaris, Linnaeus, 1758) as a reservoir host of Leishmania donovani. In this study, 87 dogs were screened for infection by Leishmania donovani. Blood and lymph node samples were taken from 87 and 33 dogs respectively and subsequently screened by the Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) and Direct Agglutination Test (DAT) test. Additional lymph node smears were processed for microscopy and parasite culture. Host preference of the visceral leishmaniasis (VL) vector in the area, Phlebotomus orientalis, and other sandflies for the Nile rat (Arvicanthis niloticus, E. Geoffrey, 1803), the genet (Genetta genetta, Linnaeus, 1758), the mongoose (Herpeistes ichneumon, Linnaeus, 1758), and the domestic dog were determined by counting numbers of sand flies attracted to CDC traps that were baited by these animals. DAT on blood samples detected anti-Leishmania antibodies in 6 samples (6.9%). Two out of 87 (2.3%) blood samples tested were PCR positive, giving an amplification product of 560 bp. The two positive samples by PCR were also positive by DAT. However, none of the 33 lymph nodes aspirates were Leishmania positive when screened by microscopy, culture and genus-specific PCR. The dog-baited trap significantly attracted the highest number of P. orientalis and sand fly species (P < 0.001). This was followed by the Egyptian mongoose baited trap and less frequently by the genet baited trap. It is concluded that the results obtained from host attraction studies indicate that dog is more attractive for P. orientalis than Egyptian mongoose, common genet and Nile rat.
Schallig Henk DFH
Full Text Available Abstract Background The study aims to determine the role of domestic dogs in transmission of visceral leishmaniasis in eastern Sudan. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 10 villages along the River Rahad in eastern Sudan to elucidate the role of domestic dogs (Canis familiaris, Linnaeus, 1758 as a reservoir host of Leishmania donovani. In this study, 87 dogs were screened for infection by Leishmania donovani. Blood and lymph node samples were taken from 87 and 33 dogs respectively and subsequently screened by the Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR and Direct Agglutination Test (DAT test. Additional lymph node smears were processed for microscopy and parasite culture. Host preference of the visceral leishmaniasis (VL vector in the area, Phlebotomus orientalis, and other sandflies for the Nile rat (Arvicanthis niloticus, É. Geoffrey, 1803, the genet (Genetta genetta, Linnaeus, 1758, the mongoose (Herpeistes ichneumon, Linnaeus, 1758, and the domestic dog were determined by counting numbers of sand flies attracted to CDC traps that were baited by these animals. Results DAT on blood samples detected anti-Leishmania antibodies in 6 samples (6.9%. Two out of 87 (2.3% blood samples tested were PCR positive, giving an amplification product of 560 bp. The two positive samples by PCR were also positive by DAT. However, none of the 33 lymph nodes aspirates were Leishmania positive when screened by microscopy, culture and genus-specific PCR. The dog-baited trap significantly attracted the highest number of P. orientalis and sand fly species (P Conclusion It is concluded that the results obtained from host attraction studies indicate that dog is more attractive for P. orientalis than Egyptian mongoose, common genet and Nile rat.
Hassan, M.M.; Osman, O.F.; El-Raba'a, F.M.A.; Schallig, H.D.F.H.; Elnaiem, D.E.A.
Background: The study aims to determine the role of domestic dogs in transmission of visceral leishmaniasis in eastern Sudan. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 10 villages along the River Rahad in eastern Sudan to elucidate the role of domestic dogs (Canis familiaris, Linnaeus, 1758) as a
Arathy D S Nair
Full Text Available Ehrlichia chaffeensis, transmitted from Amblyomma americanum ticks, causes human monocytic ehrlichiosis. It also infects white-tailed deer, dogs and several other vertebrates. Deer are its reservoir hosts, while humans and dogs are incidental hosts. E. chaffeensis protein expression is influenced by its growth in macrophages and tick cells. We report here infection progression in deer or dogs infected intravenously with macrophage- or tick cell-grown E. chaffeensis or by tick transmission in deer. Deer and dogs developed mild fever and persistent rickettsemia; the infection was detected more frequently in the blood of infected animals with macrophage inoculum compared to tick cell inoculum or tick transmission. Tick cell inoculum and tick transmission caused a drop in tick infection acquisition rates compared to infection rates in ticks fed on deer receiving macrophage inoculum. Independent of deer or dogs, IgG antibody response was higher in animals receiving macrophage inoculum against macrophage-derived Ehrlichia antigens, while it was significantly lower in the same animals against tick cell-derived Ehrlichia antigens. Deer infected with tick cell inoculum and tick transmission caused a higher antibody response to tick cell cultured bacterial antigens compared to the antibody response for macrophage cultured antigens for the same animals. The data demonstrate that the host cell-specific E. chaffeensis protein expression influences rickettsemia in a host and its acquisition by ticks. The data also reveal that tick cell-derived inoculum is similar to tick transmission with reduced rickettsemia, IgG response and tick acquisition of E. chaffeensis.
CALZADA, JOS? E.; SALDA?A, AZAEL; GONZ?LEZ, KADIR; RIGG, CHYSTRIE; PINEDA, VANESSA; SANTAMAR?A, ANA MAR?A; RODR?GUEZ, INDRA; GOTTDENKER, NICOLE L.; LAURENTI, MARCIA D.; CHAVES, LUIS F.
SUMMARY American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL) is a complex disease with a rich diversity of animal host species. This diversity imposes a challenge, since understanding ACL transmission requires the adequate identification of reservoir hosts, those species able to be a source of additional infections. In this study we present results from an ACL cross-sectional serological survey of 51 dogs (Canis familiaris), where we used diagnostic tests that measure dog's exposure to Leishmania spp. para...
Calzada, José E; Saldaña, Azael; González, Kadir; Rigg, Chystrie; Pineda, Vanessa; Santamaría, Ana María; Rodríguez, Indra; Gottdenker, Nicole L; Laurenti, Marcia D; Chaves, Luis F
American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL) is a complex disease with a rich diversity of animal host species. This diversity imposes a challenge, since understanding ACL transmission requires the adequate identification of reservoir hosts, those species able to be a source of additional infections. In this study we present results from an ACL cross-sectional serological survey of 51 dogs (Canis familiaris), where we used diagnostic tests that measure dog's exposure to Leishmania spp. parasites. We did our research in Panamá, at a village that has undergone significant ecosystem level transformations. We found an ACL seroprevalence of 47% among dogs, and their exposure was positively associated with dog age and abundance of sand fly vectors in the houses of dog owners. Using mathematical models, which were fitted to data on the proportion of positive tests as function of dog age, we estimated a basic reproductive number (R 0 ± s.e.) of 1·22 ± 0·09 that indicates the disease is endemically established in the dogs. Nevertheless, this information by itself is insufficient to incriminate dogs as ACL reservoirs, given the inability to find parasites (or their DNA) in seropositive dogs and previously reported failures to experimentally infect vectors feeding on dogs with ACL parasites.
Swanepoel, Robert; Smit, Sheilagh B; Rollin, Pierre E
To determine reservoir hosts for Marburg virus (MARV), we examined the fauna of a mine in northeastern Democratic Republic of the Congo. The mine was associated with a protracted outbreak of Marburg hemorrhagic fever during 1998-2000. We found MARV nucleic acid in 12 bats, comprising 3.0%-3.6% of 2...... species of insectivorous bat and 1 species of fruit bat. We found antibody to the virus in the serum of 9.7% of 1 of the insectivorous species and in 20.5% of the fruit bat species, but attempts to isolate virus were unsuccessful. ...
Gürtler, Ricardo E; Cardinal, M V
We review the epidemiological role of domestic and commensal hosts of Trypanosoma cruzi using a quantitative approach, and compiled >400 reports on their natural infection. We link the theory underlying simple mathematical models of vector-borne parasite transmission to the types of evidence used for reservoir host identification: mean duration of infectious life; host infection and infectiousness; and host-vector contact. The infectiousness of dogs or cats most frequently exceeded that of humans. The host-feeding patterns of major vectors showed wide variability among and within triatomine species related to their opportunistic behavior and variable ecological, biological and social contexts. The evidence shows that dogs, cats, commensal rodents and domesticated guinea pigs are able to maintain T. cruzi in the absence of any other host species. They play key roles as amplifying hosts and sources of T. cruzi in many (peri)domestic transmission cycles covering a broad diversity of ecoregions, ecotopes and triatomine species: no other domestic animal plays that role. Dogs comply with the desirable attributes of natural sentinels and sometimes were a point of entry of sylvatic parasite strains. The controversies on the role of cats and other hosts illustrate the issues that hamper assessing the relative importance of reservoir hosts on the basis of fragmentary evidence. We provide various study cases of how eco-epidemiological and genetic-marker evidence helped to unravel transmission cycles and identify the implicated hosts. Keeping dogs, cats and rodents out of human sleeping quarters and reducing their exposure to triatomine bugs are predicted to strongly reduce transmission risks. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Ghaffari, Daryoush; Hakimi Parizi, Maryam; Yaghoobi Ershadi, Mohammad Reza; Sharifi, Iraj; Akhavan, Amir Ahmad
In the Old World, cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is zoonoses and natural vertebrate hosts of CL parasites are mammals. This study was carried out on natural infection rates of Leishmania parasites in reservoir hosts in one new focus of zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis (ZCL) and in suspected reservoir in an old focus of ACL in Iran. The sampling of rodents using Sherman traps was carried out and PCR technique was used for detection and identification of Leishmania species in Bahreman district, Kerman province, southeast of Iran. In addition, the smears were taken from suspicious lesions in stray dogs in the city of Kerman, the center of Kerman province. Simultaneously, pieces of lesion (1 × 1×1 cm) were taken for further histopathological examination. Overall, 25 rodents were collected and identified, including Meriones libycus and Rhombomys opimus. Amastigotes were observed in 33 % of the R. opimus by microscopic examination and indentified as Leishmania major by PCR technique. Four suspicious dogs out of 391 stray dogs showed no Leishmania species. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first isolation and identification of L. major from R. opimus in Kerman province, where ZCL has been present in recent years. Therefore, R. opimus is considered as the main animal reservoir host in Bahreman ZCL focus. In ACL focus such as the city of Kerman, dogs had no role in CL infection as reservoir host.
Gambian trypanosomosis (Sleeping Sickness) is a complex and debilitating disease of man. For many years the disease has been ravaging in several parts of sub-saharan Africa despite decades of therapeutic control. Although animal reservoir hosts are believed to be associated with the disease, not much evidences have ...
Dereure, Jacques; El-Safi, Sayda Hassan; Bucheton, Bruno; Boni, Mickaël; Kheir, Musa Mohamed; Davoust, Bernard; Pratlong, Francine; Feugier, Eric; Lambert, Monique; Dessein, Alain; Dedet, Jean Pierre
In 1996, an epidemic outbreak of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) started in Barbar el Fugara, a village in Gedarif State (eastern Sudan). From 1997 to 2000, regular epidemiological studies were carried out in the human population, as well as in mammals and sand flies. In symptomatic patients, 46/69 lymph node, 6/20 post kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL) and 1/4 cutaneous cultures in NNN medium were positive. In 69 dogs, 23/79 lymph node cultures were positive. In other mammals (47 rodents, five donkeys, one mongoose and one monkey) spleen and/or blood cultures were negative. Characterization of isolated strains (by starch gel electrophoresis and isoelectrofocusing) identified three zymodemes of Leishmania donovani, two of L. infantum and two of L. archibaldi complexes from patient samples and three zymodemes of L. donovani, three of L. infantum and two of L. archibaldi complexes from dog samples. Five of them were present in both man and dog. For the first time, a strain from a PKDL case was identified as L. infantum, and a child had the same L. infantum zymodeme in VL and in subsequent PKDL. Blood samples from dogs were studied by immunofluorescent antibody test (IFAT). The seroprevalence in dogs was 72.5%, 74.3% and 42.9% in 1998, 1999 and 2000, respectively. By using CDC miniature light traps 12 745 sand flies were collected and then identified. Phlebotomus papatasi (7%) and P. orientalis (5%) were sympatric, mainly inside homes (85% and 75%, respectively). These results, the relative stability of seroprevalence in dogs and the intradomiciliar presence of P. orientalis, known as a vector of VL in Sudan, suggest several hypotheses: (i) man is responsible for the disease in dogs, (ii) the dog is the reservoir of VL, (iii) the dog is an intermediate host between a possible sylvatic cycle and the anthroponotic cycle. More extensive studies are needed to assess the transmission cycle of VL in this area of Sudan.
Anh, Nguyen Thi Lan; Madsen, Henry; Dalsgaard, Anders; Phuong, Nguyen Thi; Thanh, Dao Thi Ha; Murrell, K Darwin
Fishborne zoonotic trematodes (FZT) are widespread in Vietnam and Southeast Asia. It is now recognized that the risk of being infected from eating raw fish dishes applies not only to humans, but also to domestic animals (e.g., cats, dogs, and pigs) and fish-eating birds. The role of ducks and chicken, commonly raised on fish farms, as reservoir hosts, however, has not been adequately investigated. To study this question, chickens and ducks from integrated poultry-fish farms in Nghia Lac and Nghia Phu communes, Nam Dinh province, Vietnam were surveyed for FZT infections. A total of 50 ducks and 50 chickens from each commune were examined. Results revealed that 12% of chickens and 30% of ducks were infected with various species of trematodes, including two zoonotic species, Centrocestus formosanus and Echinostoma cinetorchis. Both occurred in chickens whereas only E. cinetorchis was found in ducks. Prevalence of these zoonotic species was 12% and 7% in ducks and chickens, respectively. Among other trematodes, Hypoderaeum conoideum, also a zoonotic fluke, was the most prevalent (20-30%). The feeding of snails and fish remains to poultry, either intentionally or by discharge of waste from the slaughter of ducks and chickens into the ponds, was identified as risk factors for trematode infection. The FZT species and low prevalence found in poultry in these communes indicate their role as reservoir hosts is minor. (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Andersen-Ranberg, Emilie U.; Pipper, Christian Bressen; Jensen, Per Moestrup
leptospirosis requires more detailed information on animal reservoirs that are the source of human infection. We evaluated the prevalence of Leptospira in vertebrates worldwide and its association with taxonomy, geographic region, host biology, ambient temperature, and precipitation patterns. A multivariate...... regression analysis with a meta-analysis-like approach was used to analyze compiled data extracted from 300 Leptospira-related peer reviewed papers. A fairly uniform Leptospira infection prevalence of about 15% was found in the majority of mammalian families. Higher prevalence was frequently associated...... with species occupying urban habitats, and this may explain why climatic factors were not significantly correlated with prevalence as consistently as expected. Across different approaches of the multiple regression analyses, the variables most frequently correlated with Leptospira infection prevalence were...
Andersen-Ranberg, Emilie U; Pipper, Christian; Jensen, Per M
Leptospirosis is a widespread emerging bacterial zoonosis. As the transmission is believed to be predominantly waterborne, human incidence is expected to increase in conjunction with global climate change and associated extreme weather events. Providing more accurate predictions of human leptospirosis requires more detailed information on animal reservoirs that are the source of human infection. We evaluated the prevalence of Leptospira in vertebrates worldwide and its association with taxonomy, geographic region, host biology, ambient temperature, and precipitation patterns. A multivariate regression analysis with a meta-analysis-like approach was used to analyze compiled data extracted from 300 Leptospira-related peer reviewed papers. A fairly uniform Leptospira infection prevalence of about 15% was found in the majority of mammalian families. Higher prevalence was frequently associated with species occupying urban habitats, and this may explain why climatic factors were not significantly correlated with prevalence as consistently as expected. Across different approaches of the multiple regression analyses, the variables most frequently correlated with Leptospira infection prevalence were the host's ability to swim, minimum ambient temperature, and methodologic quality of the study. Prevalence in carnivores was not associated with any climatic variable, and the importance of environmental risk factors were indicated to be of lesser consequence in nonhuman mammals. The dataset is made available for further analysis.
Goessling, Lisa S.; Storch, Gregory A.; Thach, Robert E.
Efforts to identify wildlife reservoirs for tick-borne pathogens are frequently limited by poor understanding of tick–host interactions and potentially transient infectivity of hosts under natural conditions. To identify reservoir hosts for lone star tick (Amblyomma americanum)–associated pathogens, we used a novel technology. In field-collected ticks, we used PCR to amplify a portion of the 18S rRNA gene in remnant blood meal DNA. Reverse line blot hybridization with host-specific probes was then used to subsequently detect and identify amplified DNA. Although several other taxa of wildlife hosts contribute to tick infection rates, our results confirm that the white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) is a reservoir host for several A. americanum–associated pathogens. Identification of host blood meal frequency and reservoir competence can help in determining human infection rates caused by these pathogens. PMID:20202418
Cattle are the reservoir hosts of Leptospira borgpetersenii serovar Hardjo, and also be reservoir hosts of other Leptospira species such as L. kirschneri, and L. interrogans. As a reservoir host, cattle shed Leptospira, infecting other animals, including humans. Previous studies with human and murin...
Full Text Available Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL is an emerging disease in Suriname, with at least 200 cases per year. Little is known about the biology of CL in the country. The most important parasite species is Leishmania Viannia guyanensis, but possible vectors and reservoirs are hardly incriminated. In the present study, it was investigated whether the dog could possibly be a zoonotic reservoir for the disease in Suriname. Forty-seven dogs were examined for overt clinical signs of leishmaniasis, and blood samples were collected on filter paper for serology (direct agglutination test and molecular biology (by polymerase chain reaction. Three dogs had clinical signs that could be compatible with canine cutaneous leishmaniosis: dermatitis (two or nasal lesion (one. Two dogs were seropositive with DAT (titre > 1 : 1600, and three animals had a borderline titre (1 : 800. All other animals (n=42 were DAT negative. PCR analysis found Leishmania DNA equivalent to 1 parasite per mL in only one dog at a first round of analysis, but this animal was negative after retesting. The clinical, serological, and molecular data show some preliminary lines of evidence that canine leishmaniosis is present in Suriname, but further studies are needed to incriminate the reservoir, including a possible sylvatic cycle.
Full Text Available Due to novel, improved and high-throughput detection methods, there is a plethora of newly identified viruses within the genus Hantavirus. Furthermore, reservoir host species are increasingly recognized besides representatives of the order Rodentia, now including members of the mammalian orders Soricomorpha/Eulipotyphla and Chiroptera. Despite the great interest created by emerging zoonotic viruses, there is still a gross lack of in vitro models, which reflect the exclusive host adaptation of most zoonotic viruses. The usually narrow host range and genetic diversity of hantaviruses make them an exciting candidate for studying virus-host interactions on a cellular level. To do so, well-characterized reservoir cell lines covering a wide range of bat, insectivore and rodent species are essential. Most currently available cell culture models display a heterologous virus-host relationship and are therefore only of limited value. Here, we review the recently established approaches to generate reservoir-derived cell culture models for the in vitro study of virus-host interactions. These successfully used model systems almost exclusively originate from bats and bat-borne viruses other than hantaviruses. Therefore we propose a parallel approach for research on rodent- and insectivore-borne hantaviruses, taking the generation of novel rodent and insectivore cell lines from wildlife species into account. These cell lines would be also valuable for studies on further rodent-borne viruses, such as orthopox- and arenaviruses.
Michele Podaliri Vulpiani
Full Text Available Leishmania infantum is a protozoan parasite causing severe vector-borne visceral diseases both in humans and dogs. The latter are the most important natural reservoir and therefore should be the main target of control measures. The real efficacy of seropositive dogs culling as a direct control method is still debated, and the new sensitivity of large part of population considers ethically unacceptable this kind of approach. Treatment of infectious dogs with one of the available therapeutic protocols is recommendable as it allows to reduce parasite burdens and therefore the possibility of transmission of Leishmania infantum to vectors. Vaccination has been proven to be a very effective control tool, but the absence of a commonly recognized diagnostic method able to distinguish vaccinate from seropositive individuals is still an important limit. Concerning indirect control methods, a number of studies have demonstrated the efficacy of topical insecticides treatment (collars, spot-on, and sprays in reducing incidence and prevalence of L. infantum. Also, the reduction of the odds of seroconversion in humans in endemic areas has been reported after the application of indirect control measures on dogs. The contemporary use of direct and indirect methods is even more effective in reducing seroprevalence in dogs.
de Oliveira Filho, Jaires Gomes; Ferreira, Lorena Lopes; Sarria, André Lucio Franceschini; Pickett, John A; Birkett, Michael A; Mascarin, Gabriel Moura; de León, Adalberto A Pérez; Borges, Lígia Miranda Ferreira
Domestic dog breeds are hosts for the brown dog tick, Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato, but infestation levels vary among breeds. Beagles are less susceptible to tick infestations than English cocker spaniels due to enhanced production of 2-hexanone and benzaldehyde that act as volatile tick repellents. We report the use of prototype slow-release formulations of these compounds to reduce the burden of R. sanguineus s. l. on English cocker spaniel dogs. Twelve dogs were randomly assigned to two groups with six dogs each. The treated group received collars with slow-release formulations of the compounds attached, while the control group received collars with clean formulations attached. Five environmental infestations were performed, with the number of ticks (at all stages) on the dogs being counted twice a day for 45days. The counts on the number of tick stages found per dog were individually fitted to linear mixed effects models with repeated measures and normal distribution for errors. The mean tick infestation in the treated group was significantly lower than in the control group. For larvae and nymphs, a decrease in tick infestation was observed at the fifth count, and for adults, lower average counts were observed in all counts. The compounds did not interfere with the distribution of the ticks on the body of the dogs, as a similar percentage of ticks was found on the anterior half of the dogs (54.5% for the control group and 56.2% for the treated group). The biological and reproductive parameters of the ticks were not affected by the repellents. This study highlights for the first time the potential use of a novel allomone (repellent)-based formulation for reduction of tick infestation on susceptible dogs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.
21. sept. raadioeetrisse tulevast Dave Stewarti ja Jimmy Cliffi kirjutatud rahulaulust. Eksperimentaalsest instrumentaalloost "Carnival of Light" biitlite loomingus. Indias lavstatud muusikaliversioonist Quentin Tarantino filmile "Reservoir Dogs"
Irwin Peter J
Full Text Available Abstract Background Hippobosca longipennis (the 'dog louse fly' is a blood sucking ectoparasite found on wild carnivores such as cheetahs and lions and domesticated and feral dogs in Africa, the Middle East and Asia, including China. Known as an intermediate host for Acanthocheilonema dracunculoides and a transport host for Cheyletiella yasguri, it has also been suggested that H. longipennis may be a vector for other pathogens, including Acanthocheilonema sp.? nov., which was recently reported to infect up to 48% of dogs in northern India where this species of fly is known to commonly infest dogs. To test this hypothesis, hippoboscid flies feeding on dogs in Ladakh in northern India were collected and subjected to microscopic dissection. Results A total of 12 infective larvae were found in 10 out of 65 flies dissected; 9 from the head, 2 from the thorax and 1 from the abdomen. The larvae averaged 2, 900 (± 60 μm in length and 34 (± 5 μm in width and possessed morphological features characteristic of the family Onchocercidae. Genetic analysis and comparison of the 18S, ITS-2, 12S and cox-1 genes confirmed the identity of the larvae as the Acanthocheilonema sp.? nov. reported in dogs in Ladakh. Conclusion This study provides evidence for a potential intermediate host-parasite relationship between H. longipennis and the canine Acanthocheilonema sp.? nov. in northern India.
Gholamrezaei, Mostafa; Mohebali, Mehdi; Hanafi-Bojd, Ahmad Ali; Sedaghat, Mohammad Mehdi; Shirzadi, Mohammad Reza
Zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis (ZCL), caused by Leishmania major, is a common zoonotic vector-borne disease in Iran. Close contact with infected reservoir hosts increases the probability of transmission of Leishmania parasite infections to susceptible humans. Four gerbil species (Rodentia: Gerbillidae) serve as the main reservoir hosts for ZCL in different endemic foci of Iran. These species include Rhombomys opimus, Meriones libycus, Meriones hurrianae and Tatera indica; while notable infection has been reported in Nesokia indica as well. The purpose of this study is to model the distribution of these reservoirs to identify the risk areas of ZCL. A data bank was developed including all published data during the period of 1970-2015. Maximum entropy model was used to find the most appropriate ecological niches for each species. The areas under curve obtained were 0.961, 0.927, 0.922, 0.997 and 0.899, instead of 1, for training test in R. opimus, M. libycus, T. indica, M. hurrianae and N. indica, respectively. The environmental variable with the highest gain when used in isolation was slope for R. opimus and N. indica, annual mean temperature for M. libycus, and seasonal precipitation for T. indica and M. hurrianae. Summation of presence probabilities for three main species, i.e., R. opimus, M. libycus and T. indica revealed favorable ecological niches in wide areas of 16 provinces. This is the first study to predict the distribution of ZCL reservoir hosts in Iran. Climatology and topography variables had high contributions toward the prediction of potential distribution of the main reservoir species; therefore, as climate changes, the models should be updated periodically with novel data, and the results should be used in disease-monitoring programs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Garbacz, Katarzyna; Żarnowska, Sabina; Piechowicz, Lidia; Haras, Krystyna
The aim of this study was to compare the spread of multidrug-resistant (MDR) and methicillin-resistant (MR) staphylococci in healthy dogs and in dogs with evident symptoms of infection. The samples from 172 healthy and 197 infected dogs were examined. The staphylococci were identified with conventional methods and by means of the polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) method (MboI). Susceptibility to 15 antibiotics from 10 different antimicrobial classes was tested. Resistance to methicillin was confirmed by the presence of Staphylococcus aureus mecA and S. sciuri mecA genes. Multidrug resistance was defined as resistance to three or more antimicrobial classes. The oral mucosa to be the most frequent site of staphylococcal colonization (55.8 %), followed by nasal cavity (44.2 %), and anus (32.6 %). The prevalence of MDR staphylococci in infected dogs was significantly higher than in the healthy animals (74/137 vs. 34/95, P = 0.006). The MR strains of S. pseudintermedius (2.9 %) originated solely from infected dogs. In contrast, the MR coagulase-negative strains (7.4 %) were isolated solely from healthy dogs. S. aureus strains originated from nasal swabs, MRSA strains were not isolated. MDR staphylococci and MR S. pseudintermedius are more common among infected dogs, but coagulase-negative staphylococci (mostly S. sciuri) seem to be a reservoir of methicillin resistance in healthy dogs.
Lesniak, Ines; Franz, Mathias; Heckmann, Ilja; Greenwood, Alex D; Hofer, Heribert; Krone, Oliver
Understanding how closely related wildlife species and their domesticated counterparts exchange or share parasites, or replace each other in parasite life cycles, is of great interest to veterinary and human public health, and wildlife ecology. Grey wolves ( Canis lupus ) host and spread endoparasites that can either directly infect canid conspecifics or their prey serving as intermediate hosts of indirectly transmitted species. The wolf recolonization of Central Europe represents an opportunity to study parasite transmission dynamics between wildlife and domestic species for cases when a definitive host returns after local extinction - a situation equivalent to a 'removal experiment'. Here we investigate whether the re-appearance of wolves has increased parasite pressure on hunting dogs - a group of companion animals of particular interest as they have a similar diet to wolves and flush wolf habitats when hunting. We compared prevalence (P) and species richness (SR) of helminths and the protozoan Sarcocystis to determine whether they were higher in hunting dogs from wolf areas (n dogs = 49) than a control area (n dogs = 29) without wolves. Of particular interest were S. grueneri and S. taeniata , known as 'wolf specialists'. Five helminth and 11 Sarcocystis species were identified, of which all helminths and eight Sarcocystis species were shared between dogs and wolves. Overall prevalence and species richness of helminths (P:38.5% vs . 24.1%; SR mean :0.4 vs. 0.3 species) and Sarcocystis (P:63.3% vs . 65.5%, SR mean :2.1 vs . 1.8 species) did not differ between study sites. However, hunting dogs were significantly more likely to be infected with S. grueneri in wolf areas (P:45.2% vs . 10.5%; p = 0.035). The findings suggest that wolves indirectly increase S. grueneri infection risk for hunting dogs since cervids are intermediate hosts and occasionally fed to dogs. Furthermore, a periodic anthelminthic treatment of hunting dogs may be an effective
Gabriel G Perron
Full Text Available The population genetics of pathogenic bacteria has been intensively studied in order to understand the spread of disease and the evolution of virulence and drug resistance. However, much less attention has been paid to bacterial carriage populations, which inhabit hosts without producing disease. Since new virulent strains that cause disease can be recruited from the carriage population of bacteria, our understanding of infectious disease is seriously incomplete without knowledge on the population structure of pathogenic bacteria living in an asymptomatic host. We report the first extensive survey of the abundance and diversity of a human pathogen in asymptomatic animal hosts. We have found that asymptomatic swine from livestock productions frequently carry populations of Salmonella enterica with a broad range of drug-resistant strains and genetic diversity greatly exceeding that previously described. This study shows how agricultural practice and human intervention may lead and influence the evolution of a hidden reservoir of pathogens, with important implications for human health.
Full Text Available Understanding how closely related wildlife species and their domesticated counterparts exchange or share parasites, or replace each other in parasite life cycles, is of great interest to veterinary and human public health, and wildlife ecology. Grey wolves (Canis lupus host and spread endoparasites that can either directly infect canid conspecifics or their prey serving as intermediate hosts of indirectly transmitted species. The wolf recolonization of Central Europe represents an opportunity to study parasite transmission dynamics between wildlife and domestic species for cases when a definitive host returns after local extinction – a situation equivalent to a ‘removal experiment’.Here we investigate whether the re–appearance of wolves has increased parasite pressure on hunting dogs – a group of companion animals of particular interest as they have a similar diet to wolves and flush wolf habitats when hunting. We compared prevalence (P and species richness (SR of helminths and the protozoan Sarcocystis to determine whether they were higher in hunting dogs from wolf areas (ndogs = 49 than a control area (ndogs = 29 without wolves. Of particular interest were S. grueneri and S. taeniata, known as ‘wolf specialists’.Five helminth and 11 Sarcocystis species were identified, of which all helminths and eight Sarcocystis species were shared between dogs and wolves. Overall prevalence and species richness of helminths (P:38.5% vs. 24.1%; SRmean:0.4 vs. 0.3 species and Sarcocystis (P:63.3% vs. 65.5%, SRmean:2.1 vs. 1.8 species did not differ between study sites. However, hunting dogs were significantly more likely to be infected with S. grueneri in wolf areas (P:45.2% vs. 10.5%; p = 0.035. The findings suggest that wolves indirectly increase S. grueneri infection risk for hunting dogs since cervids are intermediate hosts and occasionally fed to dogs. Furthermore, a periodic anthelminthic treatment of hunting dogs may be an
Full Text Available An explanation of the endemic nature and/or the resurgence of Human African Trypanosomiasis (HAT in the historic foci in West and Central Africa may be the existence of an animal reservoir. In some HAT foci, pigs were found infected by Trypanosoma brucei gambiense but the implication of the other domestic animals was not quite evaluated. This study aims to determine the prevalence of T. b. gambiense in domestic animal species (goat, sheep, pig and dog commonly found in the four active HAT foci in Cameroon (Bipindi, Fontem, Campo and Doumé. Blood samples were collected from 307 pigs, 264 goats, 267 sheep and 37 dogs and used for parasitological (QBC, immunological (LiTat 1.3 CATT and molecular (PCR analyses. QBC detected trypanosomes in 3.88 % domestic animals while 22.7 % were sero-positive with LiTat 1.3 CATT tests. Of the 875 animals analysed, 174 (19.88 % harboured T. brucei s.l. DNA, found in each of the four types of animal and in the four localities. The infection rate significantly differed among the animal species (p < 0.0001 and localities (p < 0.0001. The PCR also revealed T. b. gambiense group 1 DNA in 27 (3.08 % domestic animals. The specific infection rates were as follows: sheep (6.74 %, goats (3.08 %, pigs (0.32 % and dogs (0 %. T. b. gambiense was found in 8 (3.92 % animals from Bipindi, 15 (4.83 % from Campo, 4 (2.59 % from Fontem-Center and none from Doumé. The infection rates significantly differed between the localities, and correlated with the intensity of HAT transmission in the foci.
Mariën, J.; Borremans, B.; Gryseels, S.; Soropogui, B.; De Bruyn, L.; Ngiala Bongo, G.; Becker-Ziaja, B.; Goüy de Bellocq, Joëlle; Günther, S.; Magassouba, N.; Leirs, H.; Fichet-Calvet, E.
Roč. 10, č. 1 (2017), č. článku 210. ISSN 1756-3305 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Arenavirus * Lassa virus * Morogoro virus * Gairo virus * Mastomys natalensis * Rodent-borne disease * Host-pathogen interaction * Reservoir host Subject RIV: EG - Zoology OBOR OECD: Parasitology Impact factor: 3.080, year: 2016
Jean Michel Hily
Full Text Available Identification of the determinants of pathogen reservoir potential is central to understand disease emergence. It has been proposed that host lifespan is one such determinant: short-lived hosts will invest less in costly defenses against pathogens, so that they will be more susceptible to infection, more competent as sources of infection and/or will sustain larger vector populations, thus being effective reservoirs for the infection of long-lived hosts. This hypothesis is sustained by analyses of different hosts of multihost pathogens, but not of different genotypes of the same host species. Here we examined this hypothesis by comparing two genotypes of the plant Arabidopsis thaliana that differ largely both in life-span and in tolerance to its natural pathogen Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV. Experiments with the aphid vector Myzus persicae showed that both genotypes were similarly competent as sources for virus transmission, but the short-lived genotype was more susceptible to infection and was able to sustain larger vector populations. To explore how differences in defense against CMV and its vector relate to reservoir potential, we developed a model that was run for a set of experimentally-determined parameters, and for a realistic range of host plant and vector population densities. Model simulations showed that the less efficient defenses of the short-lived genotype resulted in higher reservoir potential, which in heterogeneous host populations may be balanced by the longer infectious period of the long-lived genotype. This balance was modulated by the demography of both host and vector populations, and by the genetic composition of the host population. Thus, within-species genetic diversity for lifespan and defenses against pathogens will result in polymorphisms for pathogen reservoir potential, which will condition within-population infection dynamics. These results are relevant for a better understanding of host-pathogen co-evolution, and of
Sprong, H.; Wielinga, P.R.; Fonville, M.; Reusken, C.; Brandenburg, A.H.; Borgsteede, F.H.M.
Background - Hard ticks have been identified as important vectors of rickettsiae causing the spotted fever syndrome. Tick-borne rickettsiae are considered to be emerging, but only limited data are available about their presence in Western Europe, their natural life cycle and their reservoir hosts.
Leonie Philipp, Sonja; Reyer, Dorothea; Meier, Silke; Bauer, Johanna F.; Afşar, Filiz
Fault zones commonly have great effects on fluid transport in geothermal reservoirs. During fault slip all the pores and small fractures that meet with the slip plane become interconnected so that the inner part of the fault, the fault core, consisting of breccia or gouge, may suddenly develop a very high permeability. This is evidenced, for example by networks of mineral veins in deeply eroded fault zones in palaeogeothermal fields. Inactive faults, however, may have low permeabilities and even act as flow barriers. In natural and man-made geothermal reservoirs, the orientation of fault zones in relation to the current stress field and their internal structure needs be known as accurately as possible. One reason is that the activity of the fault zone depends on its angle to the principal stress directions. Another reason is that the outer part of a fault zone, the damage zone, comprises numerous fractures of various sizes. Here we present field examples of faults, and associated joints and mineral veins, in palaeogeothermal fields, and potential host rocks for man-made geothermal reservoirs, respectively. We studied several localities of different stratigraphies, lithologies and tectonic settings: (1) 58 fault zones in 22 outcrops from Upper Carboniferous to Upper Cretaceous in the Northwest German Basin (siliciclastic, carbonate and volcanic rocks); (2) 16 fault zones in 9 outcrops in Lower Permian to Middle Triassic (mainly sandstone, limestone and granite) in the Upper Rhine Graben; and (3) 74 fault zones in two coastal sections of Upper Triassic and Lower Jurassic age (mudstones and limestone-marl alternations) in the Bristol Channel Basin, UK. (1) and (2) are outcrop analogues of geothermal reservoir horizons, (3) represent palaeogeothermal fields with mineral veins. The field studies in the Northwest German Basin (1) show pronounced differences between normal-fault zones in carbonate and clastic rocks. In carbonate rocks clear damage zones occur that are
Full Text Available Abstract Background Hard ticks have been identified as important vectors of rickettsiae causing the spotted fever syndrome. Tick-borne rickettsiae are considered to be emerging, but only limited data are available about their presence in Western Europe, their natural life cycle and their reservoir hosts. Ixodes ricinus, the most prevalent tick species, were collected and tested from different vegetation types and from potential reservoir hosts. In one biotope area, the annual and seasonal variability of rickettsiae infections of the different tick stages were determined for 9 years. Results The DNA of the human pathogen R. conorii as well as R. helvetica, R. sp. IRS and R. bellii-like were found. Unexpectedly, the DNA of the highly pathogenic R. typhi and R. prowazekii and 4 other uncharacterized Rickettsia spp. related to the typhus group were also detected in I. ricinus. The presence of R. helvetica in fleas isolated from small rodents supported our hypothesis that cross-infection can occur under natural conditions, since R. typhi/prowazekii and R. helvetica as well as their vectors share rodents as reservoir hosts. In one biotope, the infection rate with R. helvetica was ~66% for 9 years, and was comparable between larvae, nymphs, and adults. Larvae caught by flagging generally have not yet taken a blood meal from a vertebrate host. The simplest explanation for the comparable prevalence of R. helvetica between the defined tick stages is, that R. helvetica is vertically transmitted through the next generation with high efficiency. The DNA of R. helvetica was also present in whole blood from mice, deer and wild boar. Conclusion Besides R. helvetica, unexpected rickettsiae are found in I. ricinus ticks. We propose that I. ricinus is a major reservoir host for R. helvetica, and that vertebrate hosts play important roles in the further geographical dispersion of rickettsiae.
Gil, Horacio; Escudero, Raquel; Pons, Inmaculada; Rodríguez-Vargas, Manuela; García-Esteban, Coral; Rodríguez-Moreno, Isabel; García-Amil, Cristina; Lobo, Bruno; Valcárcel, Félix; Pérez, Azucena; Jiménez, Santos; Jado, Isabel; Juste, Ramón; Segura, Ferrán; Anda, Pedro
We have studied the diversity of B. henselae circulating in patients, reservoir hosts and vectors in Spain. In total, we have fully characterized 53 clinical samples from 46 patients, as well as 78 B. henselae isolates obtained from 35 cats from La Rioja and Catalonia (northeastern Spain), four positive cat blood samples from which no isolates were obtained, and three positive fleas by Multiple Locus Sequence Typing and Multiple Locus Variable Number Tandem Repeats Analysis. This study represents the largest series of human cases characterized with these methods, with 10 different sequence types and 41 MLVA profiles. Two of the sequence types and 35 of the profiles were not described previously. Most of the B. henselae variants belonged to ST5. Also, we have identified a common profile (72) which is well distributed in Spain and was found to persist over time. Indeed, this profile seems to be the origin from which most of the variants identified in this study have been generated. In addition, ST5, ST6 and ST9 were found associated with felines, whereas ST1, ST5 and ST8 were the most frequent sequence types found infecting humans. Interestingly, some of the feline associated variants never found on patients were located in a separate clade, which could represent a group of strains less pathogenic for humans. PMID:23874563
Eads, David A.; Biggins, Dean E.; Doherty, Paul F.; Gage, Kenneth L.; Huyvaert, Kathryn P.; Long, Dustin H.; Antolin, Michael F.
Ectoparasites are often difficult to detect in the field. We developed a method that can be used with occupancy models to estimate the prevalence of ectoparasites on hosts, and to investigate factors that influence rates of ectoparasite occupancy while accounting for imperfect detection. We describe the approach using a study of fleas (Siphonaptera) on black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus). During each primary occasion (monthly trapping events), we combed a prairie dog three consecutive times to detect fleas (15 s/combing). We used robust design occupancy modeling to evaluate hypotheses for factors that might correlate with the occurrence of fleas on prairie dogs, and factors that might influence the rate at which prairie dogs are colonized by fleas. Our combing method was highly effective; dislodged fleas fell into a tub of water and could not escape, and there was an estimated 99.3% probability of detecting a flea on an occupied host when using three combings. While overall detection was high, the probability of detection was always dogs, flea occupancy was heightened in old/natural colonies of prairie dogs, and on hosts that were in poor condition. Occupancy was initially low in plots with high densities of prairie dogs, but, as the study progressed, the rate of flea colonization increased in plots with high densities of prairie dogs in particular. Our methodology can be used to improve studies of ectoparasites, especially when the probability of detection is low. Moreover, the method can be modified to investigate the co-occurrence of ectoparasite species, and community level factors such as species richness and interspecific interactions.
Canine leishmaniasis and American trypanosomiasis (AT) are caused by related hemoflagellated parasites, Leishmania spp. and Trypanosoma cruzi, which share several common host species. Dogs are reservoirs for human infections with both pathogens. We determined the prevalence of antibodies to Leishman...
Damborg, Peter Panduro; Top, Janetta; Hendrickx, Antoni P.A.
complex 17 (CC17), including those of sequence types ST-78 and ST-192, which are widespread in European and Asian hospitals. Longitudinal screening of 18 healthy humans living in contact with 13 of the dogs under study resulted in the identification of a single, intermittent CC17 carrier. This person...... generally differed from those previously described for clinical human isolates. The results indicate that dogs are frequent carriers of CC17-related lineages and may play a role in the spread of this nosocomial pathogen. The distinctive virulence and antimicrobial resistance profiles observed among canine......Ampicillin resistance is a marker for hospital-associated Enterococcus faecium. Feces from 208 dogs were selectively screened for the occurrence of ampicillin-resistant E. faecium (AREF). AREF was detected in 42 (23%) of 183 dogs screened in a cross-sectional study in the United Kingdom and in 19...
Rassi, Yavar; Oshaghi, Mohammad Ali; Azani, Sadegh Mohammadi; Abaie, Mohammad Reza; Rafizadeh, Sina; Mohebai, Mehdi; Mohtarami, Fatemeh; Zeinali, Mohammad kazem
An epidemiological study was carried out on the vectors and reservoirs of cutaneous leishmaniasis in rural areas of Damghan district, Semnan province, central Iran, during 2008-2009. Totally, 6110 sand flies were collected using sticky papers and were subjected to molecular methods for detection of Leishmania parasite. Phlebotomus papatasi Scopoli was the common species in outdoor and indoor resting places. Polymerase chain reaction technique showed that 24 out of 218 P. papatasi (11%) and 4 out of 62 Phlebotomus caucasicus Marzinovskyi (6.5%) were positive for parasites Leishmania major Yakimoff and Schokhor. Twenty-one rodent reservoir hosts captured using Sherman traps were identified as Rhombomys opimus Lichtenstein (95%) and Meriones libycus Lichtenstein (5%). Microscopic investigation on blood smear of the animals for amastigote parasites revealed 8 (40%) rodents infected with R. opimus. L. major infection in these animals was then confirmed by polymerase chain reaction against internal transcribed spacer ribosomal DNA (rDNA) loci of the parasite followed by restriction fragment length polymorphism. Further, sequence analysis of 297 bp of ITS1-rDNA loci revealed the presence of L. major and Leishmania turanica in P. papatasi, and L. major in R. opimus. This is the first molecular report of L. major infection in both vectors (P. papatasi and P. caucasicus) and reservoir host (R. opimus) in this region. The results indicated that P. papatas was the primary vector of the disease and circulating the parasite between human and reservoirs, and P. caucasicus could be considered as a secondary vector. Further, our study showed that R. opimus is the most important host reservoir for maintenance of the parasite source in the area.
L. I. Shendrik
Full Text Available It has been confirmed the untoward epizootic condition concerning helminthiasis of the cattle in village of Andreevka (Novomoskovsk district, Dnipropetrovsk province. Seven nematode species of the genera Strongуloides, Dictyocaulus, Bunostomum, Haemonchus, Oesophagostomum, Chabertia and Nematodirus were determined. It has been proved that the larvae of some species of suborders Strongylata and Rhabditata used the coprophilous road beetles (genus Philonthus Curt as a transit reservoir host.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Infectious diseases have contributed to the decline and local extinction of several wildlife species, including African wild dogs (Lycaon pictus. Mitigating such disease threats is challenging, partly because uncertainty about disease dynamics makes it difficult to identify the best management approaches. Serious impacts on susceptible populations most frequently occur when generalist pathogens are maintained within populations of abundant (often domestic "reservoir" hosts, and spill over into less abundant host species. If this is the case, disease control directed at the reservoir host might be most appropriate. However, pathogen transmission within threatened host populations may also be important, and may not be controllable by managing another host species. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We investigated interspecific and intraspecific transmission routes, by comparing African wild dogs' exposure to six canine pathogens with behavioural measures of their opportunities for contact with domestic dogs and with other wild dogs. Domestic dog contact was associated with exposure to canine parvovirus, Ehrlichia canis, Neospora caninum and perhaps rabies virus, but not with exposure to canine distemper virus or canine coronavirus. Contact with other wild dogs appeared not to increase the risk of exposure to any of the pathogens. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These findings, combined with other data, suggest that management directed at domestic dogs might help to protect wild dog populations from rabies virus, but not from canine distemper virus. However, further analyses are needed to determine the management approaches--including no intervention--which are most appropriate for each pathogen.
REITHINGER, RICHARD; CEBALLOS, LEONARDO; STARIOLO, RAÚL; DAVIES, CLIVE R.; GÜRTLER, RICARDO E.
Dogs are domestic reservoir hosts of Trypanosoma cruzi, the etiological agent of Chagas disease. We evaluated the effect of deltamethrin-treated dog collars (DTDCs) over time on the population dynamics of Triatoma infestans, a main T. cruzi vector. Forty founder bugs of mixed life stages were allowed to colonize mud-thatched experimental huts and exposed continuously to either uncollared control dogs (N = 3) or dogs wearing DTDCs (N = 7) for a period of up to 196 days. When compared with bugs...
Zinsstag, J.; Dürr, S.; Penny, M. A.; Mindekem, R.; Roth, F.; Gonzalez, S. Menendez; Naissengar, S.; Hattendorf, J.
Human rabies in developing countries can be prevented through interventions directed at dogs. Potential cost-savings for the public health sector of interventions aimed at animal-host reservoirs should be assessed. Available deterministic models of rabies transmission between dogs were extended to include dog-to-human rabies transmission. Model parameters were fitted to routine weekly rabid-dog and exposed-human cases reported in N′Djaména, the capital of Chad. The estimated transmission rate...
Schallig, Henk D. F. H.; da Silva, Eduardo S.; van der Meide, Wendy F.; Schoone, Gerard J.; Gontijo, Celia M. F.
Identification of the zoonotic reservoir is important for leishmaniasis control program. A number of (wild) animal species may serve as reservoir hosts, including the opossum Didelphis marsupialis. A survey carried out in Didelphis specimens (n = 111) from the metropolitan region of Belo Horizonte,
Jalilnavaz, Mohammad Reza; Abai, Mohammad Reza; Vatandoost, Hassan; Mohebali, Mehdi; Akhavan, Amir Ahmad; Zarei, Zabihollah; Rafizadeh, Sayena; Bakhshi, Hassan; Rassi, Yaver
Background: Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is one of the most important parasitic zoonotic diseases in the world. Domestic dogs are the main domestic reservoirs of VL in endemic foci of Iran. Various methods, including vaccination, treatment of dogs, detection and removal of infected dogs have different results around the world. General policy on control of canine visceral leishmaniasis is protection of them from sand fly bites. The aim of this study was evaluation of pour-on application of flumethrin on dogs against blood-feeding and mortality of field-caught sand flies. Methods: Once every 20 days from May untill September 2013, the treated and control dogs were exposed with field caught sandflies for 2 hours under bed net traps. After the exposure time, both alive and dead sand flies were transferred in netted cups to the laboratory. The mortality rate of them was assessed after 24 hours. The blood-fed or unfed conditions were determined 2 hours after exposure to the dogs under stereomicroscope. Results: The blood feeding index was varied from 12.0 to 25.0 % and 53.0 to 58.0 % for treated and control dogs respectively (Psand flies. PMID:27047974
Jalilnavaz, Mohammad Reza; Abai, Mohammad Reza; Vatandoost, Hassan; Mohebali, Mehdi; Akhavan, Amir Ahmad; Zarei, Zabihollah; Rafizadeh, Sayena; Bakhshi, Hassan; Rassi, Yaver
Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is one of the most important parasitic zoonotic diseases in the world. Domestic dogs are the main domestic reservoirs of VL in endemic foci of Iran. Various methods, including vaccination, treatment of dogs, detection and removal of infected dogs have different results around the world. General policy on control of canine visceral leishmaniasis is protection of them from sand fly bites. The aim of this study was evaluation of pour-on application of flumethrin on dogs against blood-feeding and mortality of field-caught sand flies. Once every 20 days from May untill September 2013, the treated and control dogs were exposed with field caught sandflies for 2 hours under bed net traps. After the exposure time, both alive and dead sand flies were transferred in netted cups to the laboratory. The mortality rate of them was assessed after 24 hours. The blood-fed or unfed conditions were determined 2 hours after exposure to the dogs under stereomicroscope. The blood feeding index was varied from 12.0 to 25.0 % and 53.0 to 58.0 % for treated and control dogs respectively (Pflies.
Kent, Alida; Ramkalup, Prakash; Mans, Dennis; Schallig, Henk
Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is an emerging disease in Suriname, with at least 200 cases per year. Little is known about the biology of CL in the country. The most important parasite species is Leishmania Viannia guyanensis, but possible vectors and reservoirs are hardly incriminated. In the present
Fiorello, Christine V; Straub, Mary H; Schwartz, Laura M; Liu, James; Campbell, Amanda; Kownacki, Alexa K; Foley, Janet E
Nicaragua's Bosawás Biosphere Reserve is a vast forested area inhabited largely by indigenous Mayangna and Miskitu people. Most Bosawás residents rely on subsistence hunting and swidden agriculture, and hunting dogs are important for finding and securing wild game. We investigated the health of hunting dogs in three communities differing in location, size, and economy. Dogs in all communities were nutritionally compromised and experienced a heavy burden of disease. Seroprevalence of canine distemper, canine parvovirus, Rickettsia rickettsii, and Leptospira spp. exceeded 50% of dogs. At least one dog was actively shedding leptospires in urine, and many dogs were anemic and/or dehydrated. These dogs interact with wildlife in the forest and humans and domestic livestock in the communities, and may therefore serve as sources of zoonotic and wildlife diseases. Bosawás represents one of the largest intact tracts of habitat for jaguars (Panthera onca) in Central America, and given that these communities are located within the forest, jaguars may be at risk from disease spillover from hunting dogs. Dog owners reported that four of 49 dogs had been attacked and killed by jaguars in the past year, and that retaliatory killing of jaguars was sometimes practiced. Disease spillover from dogs to wildlife could occur both in the course of dogs' hunting activities as well as during jaguar attacks. A better understanding of dog depredation by jaguars, pathogen exposure in jaguars, and a management strategy for the hunting dog population, are urgently needed to mitigate these dual threats to jaguars, improve the lives of hunting dogs, and safeguard the health of their owners. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Background: Visceral leishmaniasis (VL is one of the most important parasitic zoonotic diseases in the world. Domestic dogs are the main domestic reservoirs of VL in endemic foci of Iran. Various methods, including vaccination, treatment of dogs, detection and removal of infected dogs have different results around the world. General policy on control of canine visceral leishmaniasis is protection of them from sand fly bites. The aim of this study was evaluation of pour-on application of flumethrin on dogs against blood-feeding and mortality of field-caught sand flies.Methods: Once every 20 days from May untill September 2013, the treated and control dogs were exposed with field caught sandflies for 2 hours under bed net traps. After the exposure time, both alive and dead sand flies were transferred in netted cups to the laboratory. The mortality rate of them was assessed after 24 hours. The blood-fed or unfed conditions were determined 2 hours after exposure to the dogs under stereomicroscope.Results: The blood feeding index was varied from 12.0 to 25.0 % and 53.0 to 58.0 % for treated and control dogs respectively (P< 0.0001. The blood feeding inhibition was 75.0–87.0 % and 41.0–46.0 % for the control and treated dogs (P< 0.0001, respectively.The total mortality rate was 94.0–100 % and 19.0–58.0 % respectively for the treated and control groups (P< 0.001.Conclustion: Application of pour-on flumethrin on dogs caused 90–100 % mortality until 2.5 month and inhibited the blood-feeding of sand flies.
The global distribution of leishmaniasis is rapidly expanding into new geographic regions. Dogs are the primary reservoir hosts for human visceral leishmaniasis (VL) caused by infection with Leishmania infantum. Natural infections with other Leishmania species can occur in dogs, but their role as re...
Jennifer H Wilson-Welder
Full Text Available Cattle are the reservoir hosts of Leptospira borgpetersenii serovar Hardjo, and can also be reservoir hosts of other Leptospira species such as L. kirschneri, and L. interrogans. As a reservoir host, cattle shed Leptospira, infecting other animals, including humans. Previous studies with human and murine neutrophils have shown activation of neutrophil extracellular trap or NET formation, and upregulation of inflammatory mediators by neutrophils in the presence of Leptospira. Humans, companion animals and most widely studied models of Leptospirosis are of acute infection, hallmarked by systemic inflammatory response, neutrophilia and septicemia. In contrast, cattle exhibit chronic infection with few outward clinical signs aside from reproductive failure. Taking into consideration that there is host species variation in innate immunity, especially in pathogen recognition and response, the interaction of bovine peripheral blood polymorphonuclear cells (PMNs and several Leptospira strains was evaluated. Studies including bovine-adapted strains, human pathogen strains, a saprophyte and inactivated organisms. Incubation of PMNs with Leptospira did induce slight activation of neutrophil NETs, greater than unstimulated cells but less than the quantity from E. coli P4 stimulated PMNs. Very low but significant from non-stimulated, levels of reactive oxygen peroxides were produced in the presence of all Leptospira strains and E. coli P4. Similarly, significant levels of reactive nitrogen intermediaries (NO2 was produced from PMNs when incubated with the Leptospira strains and greater quantities in the presence of E. coli P4. PMNs incubated with Leptospira induced RNA transcripts of IL-1β, MIP-1α, and TNF-α, with greater amounts induced by live organisms when compared to heat-inactivated leptospires. Transcript for inflammatory cytokine IL-8 was also induced, at similar levels regardless of Leptospira strain or viability. However, incubation of
Morelli, R.M.; Creaser, R.A.; Selby, D.; Kelley, K.D.; Leach, D.L.; King, A.R.
The Red Dog sediment-hosted deposit in the De Long Mountains of northern Alaska is the largest Zn producer in the world. Main stage mineralization is characterized by massive sulfide ore and crosscutting subvertical veins. Although the vein mineralization is clearly younger than the massive ore, the exact temporal relationship between the two is unclear. Re-Os geochronology of pyrite is used to determine the absolute age of main stage ore at Red Dog. A 10-point isochron on both massive and vein pyrite yields an age of 338.3 ?? 5.8 Ma and is interpreted to represent the age of main stage ore. The Re-Os data indicate that both massive and vein ore types are coeval within the resolution of the technique. Formation of the Red Dog deposit was associated with extension along a passive continental margin, and therefore the Re-Os age of main stage ore constrains the timing of rifting as well as the age of the host sedimentary rocks. Sphalerite from both massive and vein ore yields imprecise ages and shows a high degree of scatter compared to pyrite. We suggest that the Re-Os systematics of sphalerite can be disturbed and that this mineral is not reliable for Re-Os geochronology. ?? 2004 by Economic Geology.
Nemchin, Alexander A; Whitehouse, Martin J; Menneken, Martina; Geisler, Thorsten; Pidgeon, Robert T; Wilde, Simon A
The recent discovery of diamond-graphite inclusions in the Earth's oldest zircon grains (formed up to 4,252 Myr ago) from the Jack Hills metasediments in Western Australia provides a unique opportunity to investigate Earth's earliest known carbon reservoir. Here we report ion microprobe analyses of the carbon isotope composition of these diamond-graphite inclusions. The observed delta(13)C(PDB) values (expressed using the PeeDee Belemnite standard) range between -5 per mil and -58 per mil with a median of -31 per mil. This extends beyond typical mantle values of around -6 per mil to values observed in metamorphic and some eclogitic diamonds that are interpreted to reflect deep subduction of low-delta(13)C(PDB) biogenic surface carbon. Low delta(13)C(PDB) values may also be produced by inorganic chemical reactions, and therefore are not unambiguous evidence for life on Earth as early as 4,250 Myr ago. Regardless, our results suggest that a low-delta(13)C(PDB) reservoir may have existed on the early Earth.
Hodžić, Adnan; Alić, Amer; Klebić, Ismar; Kadrić, Mirsad; Brianti, Emanuele; Duscher, Georg Gerhard
Red fox (Vulpes vulpes) is considered as reservoir of different cardiorespiratory parasites of veterinary and medical importance. Since data on cardiorespiratory parasites in foxes in Bosnia and Herzegovina are still lacking, the aims of the present study were to (i) investigate the prevalence and geographical distribution of these parasites, (ii) determine genetic diversity of detected parasite species, and (iii) to estimate the role of foxes in the transmission cycle to companion animals and humans. Four species, morphologically and molecularly identified as Eucoleus boehmi (64.6%; 51/79), Eucoleus aerophilus (69.7%; 154/221), Crenosoma vulpis (45.7%; 101/221) and Linguatula serrata (1.3%; 1/79) were retrieved from nasal cavity and lungs in 184 (83.3%) animals. The occurrence of heartworms, Angiostrongylus vasorum and Dirofilaria immitis was not detected by necropsy or PCR. Furthermore, three distinct haplotypes of E. aerophilus (I, III, XV) and two of C. vulpis (I, II) previously reported in pet animals and wild carnivores were confirmed in this study. A new haplotype of C. vulpis (designated as haplotype V) was also identified based on 12S rRNA gene for the first time. The present study indicates a high prevalence and wide distribution of nasal and lung nematodes in fox population in Bosnia and Herzegovina, and supports the existence of transmission patterns between wildlife and pet animals. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Christina L Hutson
Full Text Available Monkeypox is a zoonotic disease endemic to central and western Africa, where it is a major public health concern. Although Monkeypox virus (MPXV and monkeypox disease in humans have been well characterized, little is known about its natural history, or its maintenance in animal populations of sylvatic reservoir(s. In 2003, several species of rodents imported from Ghana were involved in a monkeypox outbreak in the United States with individuals of three African rodent genera (Cricetomys, Graphiurus, Funisciurus shown to be infected with MPXV. Here, we examine the course of MPXV infection in Cricetomys gambianus (pouched Gambian rats and this rodent species' competence as a host for the virus. We obtained ten Gambian rats from an introduced colony in Grassy Key, Florida and infected eight of these via scarification with a challenge dose of 4X104 plaque forming units (pfu from either of the two primary clades of MPXV: Congo Basin (C-MPXV: n = 4 or West African (W-MPXV: n = 4; an additional 2 animals served as PBS controls. Viral shedding and the effect of infection on activity and physiological aspects of the animals were measured. MPXV challenged animals had significantly higher core body temperatures, reduced activity and increased weight loss than PBS controls. Viable virus was found in samples taken from animals in both experimental groups (C-MPXV and W-MPXV between 3 and 27 days post infection (p.i. (up to 1X108 pfu/ml, with viral DNA found until day 56 p.i. The results from this work show that Cricetomys gambianus (and by inference, probably the closely related species, Cricetomys emini can be infected with MPXV and shed viable virus particles; thus suggesting that these animals may be involved in the maintenance of MPXV in wildlife mammalian populations. More research is needed to elucidate the epidemiology of MPXV and the role of Gambian rats and other species.
Full Text Available There has been limited knowledge on spatio-temporal epidemiology of zoonotic arctic fox rabies among countries bordering the Arctic, in particular Greenland. Previous molecular epidemiological studies have suggested the occurrence of one particular arctic rabies virus (RABV lineage (arctic-3, but have been limited by a low number of available samples preventing in-depth high resolution phylogenetic analysis of RABVs at that time. However, an improved knowledge of the evolution, at a molecular level, of the circulating RABVs and a better understanding of the historical perspective of the disease in Greenland is necessary for better direct control measures on the island. These issues have been addressed by investigating the spatio-temporal genetic diversity of arctic RABVs and their reservoir host, the arctic fox, in Greenland using both full and partial genome sequences. Using a unique set of 79 arctic RABV full genome sequences from Greenland, Canada, USA (Alaska and Russia obtained between 1977 and 2014, a description of the historic context in relation to the genetic diversity of currently circulating RABV in Greenland and neighboring Canadian Northern territories has been provided. The phylogenetic analysis confirmed delineation into four major arctic RABV lineages (arctic 1-4 with viruses from Greenland exclusively grouping into the circumpolar arctic-3 lineage. High resolution analysis enabled distinction of seven geographically distinct subclades (3.I - 3.VII with two subclades containing viruses from both Greenland and Canada. By combining analysis of full length RABV genome sequences and host derived sequences encoding mitochondrial proteins obtained simultaneously from brain tissues of 49 arctic foxes, the interaction of viruses and their hosts was explored in detail. Such an approach can serve as a blueprint for analysis of infectious disease dynamics and virus-host interdependencies. The results showed a fine-scale spatial population
DiLeo, M V; Bostock, R M; Rizzo, D M
California bay laurel trees (Umbellularia californica) play a crucial role in the reproduction and survival of Phytophthora ramorum in coastal California forests by supporting sporulation during the rainy season and by providing a means for the pathogen to survive the dry, Mediterranean summer. While bay laurel is thus critical to the epidemiology of sudden oak death and other P. ramorum diseases in California, the relatively minor symptoms observed on this reservoir host suggest that it may not sustain ecologically significant injury itself. The long-term role that P. ramorum will play in California forests will depend in part on the extent to which this pathogen decreases the ecological fitness of bay laurel. Despite the importance of this question, no study has yet investigated in detail the physiological impact that ramorum blight imposes on bay laurel. This experimental study quantifies the impact that P. ramorum has on artificially inoculated bay laurel seedlings with measurements that integrate the full injury that infection with an oomycete may cause: photosynthetic efficiency, total photosynthetic area, and growth. Leaf area and leaf mass were not impacted significantly by infection of P. ramorum. Photosynthetic efficiency was mildly depressed in symptomatic, but not asymptomatic leaves, despite unnaturally high levels of necrosis that were imposed on the seedlings. These results demonstrate that bay laurel trees suffer only minor injury from ramorum blight beyond visible necrotic symptoms. Consequently, it is highly likely that bay laurel will continue to be widely available as a host for P. ramorum in California forests, which has long-term implications for the composition of these forests.
Valentin-Weigand, Peter; Heesemann, Jürgen; Dersch, Petra
Enteropathogenic Yersinia enterocolitica bioserotype 4/O:3 are the most frequent cause of human yersiniosis worldwide with symptoms ranging from mild diarrhea to severe complications of mesenteric lymphadenitis, liver abscesses and postinfectious extraintestinal sequelae. The main reservoir host of 4/O:3 strains are pigs, which represent a substantial disease-causing potential for humans, as they are usually asymptomatic carriers. Y. enterocolitica O:3 initiates infections by tight attachment to the intestinal mucosa. Colonization of the digestive tract is frequently followed by invasion of the intestinal layer primarily at the follicle-associated epithelium, allowing the bacteria to propagate in the lamina propria and disseminate into deeper tissues. Molecular characterization of Y. enterocolitica O:3 isolates led to the identification of (i) alternative virulence and fitness factors and (ii) small genetic variations which cause profound changes in their virulence gene expression pattern (e.g. constitutive expression of the primary invasion factor InvA). These changes provoke a major difference in the virulence properties, i.e. reduced colonization of intestinal tissues in mice, but improved long-term colonization in the pig intestine. Y. enterocolitica O:3 strains cause also a considerably lower level of proinflammatory cytokine IL-8 and higher levels of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 in porcine primary macrophages, as compared to murine macrophages, which could contribute to limiting inflammation, immunopathology and severity of the infection in pigs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.
Schaake, Julia; Drees, Anna; Grüning, Petra; Uliczka, Frank; Pisano, Fabio; Thiermann, Tanja; von Altrock, Alexandra; Seehusen, Frauke
In this study, an oral minipig infection model was established to investigate the pathogenicity of Yersinia enterocolitica bioserotype 4/O:3. O:3 strains are highly prevalent in pigs, which are usually symptomless carriers, and they represent the most common cause of human yersiniosis. To assess the pathogenic potential of the O:3 serotype, we compared the colonization properties of Y. enterocolitica O:3 with O:8, a highly mouse-virulent Y. enterocolitica serotype, in minipigs and mice. We found that O:3 is a significantly better colonizer of swine than is O:8. Coinfection studies with O:3 mutant strains demonstrated that small variations within the O:3 genome leading to higher amounts of the primary adhesion factor invasin (InvA) improved colonization and/or survival of this serotype in swine but had only a minor effect on the colonization of mice. We further demonstrated that a deletion of the invA gene abolished long-term colonization in the pigs. Our results indicate a primary role for invasin in naturally occurring Y. enterocolitica O:3 infections in pigs and reveal a higher adaptation of O:3 than O:8 strains to their natural pig reservoir host. PMID:24343656
Gottlieb, M.; Strober, S.; Hoppe, R.T.; Grumet, F.C.; Kaplan, H.S.
We achieved long-term engraftment of unmatched bone marrow (BM) in dogs without graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) using a regimen of total lymphoid irradiation (TLI) which could be applied clinically. Twelve normal adult mongrel dogs were given TLI in 18 fractions of 100 rad each (total dose, 1800 rad) over 4 weeks to mantle and abdominal fields in continuity. Nine of the 12 were transfused with one or two random donor whole blood transfusions during the irradiation regimen to determine the risk of sensitization after the onset of immunosuppression. A mean (+- SD) of 0.71 +- 0.54 x 10 9 BM cells/kg of recipient body weight from unrelated sex-mismatched donors was infused within 24 h of the 18th irradiation fraction. Engraftment was assessed by demonstration of donor-type sex chromosomes in spontaneous metaphase spreads of recipient marrow aspirates, and by the appearance of donor-type red blood cells antigens (DEA) in the recipients' blood. Three untransfused and nine transfused recipients were shown to be stable mixed BM chimeras during a followup period of 2 to 11 months after transplantation. Blood transfusion during TLI did not result in graft rejection. We observed no clinical signs of acute or chronic GVHD. TLI has minimal toxicity when compared with conditioning regimens currently used in BM transplantation for aplastic anemia. Potential advantages of the TLI regimen include the opportunity to use unmatched marrow donors and protection from GVHD
Sackett, Loren C; Collinge, Sharon K; Martin, Andrew P
Introduced diseases can cause dramatic declines in-and even the loss of-natural populations. Extirpations may be followed by low recolonization rates, leading to inbreeding and a loss of genetic variation, with consequences on population viability. Conversely, extirpations may create vacant habitat patches that individuals from multiple source populations can colonize, potentially leading to an influx of variation. We tested these alternative hypotheses by sampling 15 colonies in a prairie dog metapopulation during 7 years that encompassed an outbreak of sylvatic plague, providing the opportunity to monitor genetic diversity before, during and after the outbreak. Analysis of nine microsatellite loci revealed that within the metapopulation, there was no change in diversity. However, within extirpated colonies, patterns varied: In half of the colonies, allelic richness after recovery was less than the preplague conditions, and in the other half, richness was greater than the preplague conditions. Finally, analysis of variation within individuals revealed that prairie dogs present in recolonized colonies had higher heterozygosity than those present before plague. We confirmed plague survivorship in six founders; these individuals had significantly higher heterozygosity than expected by chance. Collectively, our results suggest that high immigration rates can maintain genetic variation at a regional scale despite simultaneous extirpations in spatially proximate populations. Thus, virulent diseases may increase genetic diversity of host populations by creating vacant habitats that allow an influx of genetic diversity. Furthermore, even highly virulent diseases may not eliminate individuals randomly; rather, they may selectively remove the most inbred individuals. © 2013 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Hutson, Christina L.; Nakazawa, Yoshinori J.; Self, Joshua; Olson, Victoria A.; Regnery, Russell L.; Braden, Zachary; Weiss, Sonja; Malekani, Jean; Jackson, Eddie; Tate, Mallory; Karem, Kevin L.; Rocke, Tonie E.; Osorio, Jorge E.; Damon, Inger K.; Carroll, Darin S.
Monkeypox is a zoonotic disease endemic to central and western Africa, where it is a major public health concern. Although Monkeypox virus (MPXV) and monkeypox disease in humans have been well characterized, little is known about its natural history, or its maintenance in animal populations of sylvatic reservoir(s). In 2003, several species of rodents imported from Ghana were involved in a monkeypox outbreak in the United States with individuals of three African rodent genera (Cricetomys, Graphiurus, Funisciurus) shown to be infected with MPXV. Here, we examine the course of MPXV infection in Cricetomys gambianus (pouched Gambian rats) and this rodent species’ competence as a host for the virus. We obtained ten Gambian rats from an introduced colony in Grassy Key, Florida and infected eight of these via scarification with a challenge dose of 4X104 plaque forming units (pfu) from either of the two primary clades of MPXV: Congo Basin (C-MPXV: n = 4) or West African (W-MPXV: n = 4); an additional 2 animals served as PBS controls. Viral shedding and the effect of infection on activity and physiological aspects of the animals were measured. MPXV challenged animals had significantly higher core body temperatures, reduced activity and increased weight loss than PBS controls. Viable virus was found in samples taken from animals in both experimental groups (C-MPXV and W-MPXV) between 3 and 27 days post infection (p.i.) (up to 1X108pfu/ml), with viral DNA found until day 56 p.i. The results from this work show that Cricetomys gambianus (and by inference, probably the closely related species, Cricetomys emini) can be infected with MPXV and shed viable virus particles; thus suggesting that these animals may be involved in the maintenance of MPXV in wildlife mammalian populations. More research is needed to elucidate the epidemiology of MPXV and the role of Gambian rats and other species.
Marston, Denise A; Horton, Daniel L; Nunez, Javier; Ellis, Richard J; Orton, Richard J; Johnson, Nicholas; Banyard, Ashley C; McElhinney, Lorraine M; Freuling, Conrad M; Fırat, Müge; Ünal, Nil; Müller, Thomas; de Lamballerie, Xavier; Fooks, Anthony R
Host shift events play an important role in epizootics as adaptation to new hosts can profoundly affect the spread of the disease and the measures needed to control it. During the late 1990s, an epizootic in Turkey resulted in a sustained maintenance of rabies virus (RABV) within the fox population. We used Bayesian inferences to investigate whole genome sequences from fox and dog brain tissues from Turkey to demonstrate that the epizootic occurred in 1997 (±1 year). Furthermore, these data indicated that the epizootic was most likely due to a host shift from locally infected domestic dogs, rather than an incursion of a novel fox or dog RABV. No evidence was observed for genetic adaptation to foxes at consensus sequence level and dN/dS analysis suggested purifying selection. Therefore, the deep sequence data were analysed to investigate the sub-viral population during a host shift event. Viral heterogeneity was measured in all RABV samples; viruses from the early period after the host shift exhibited greater sequence variation in comparison to those from the later stage, and to those not involved in the host shift event, possibly indicating a role in establishing transmission within a new host. The transient increase in variation observed in the new host species may represent virus replication within a new environment, perhaps due to increased replication within the CNS, resulting in a larger population of viruses, or due to the lack of host constraints present in the new host reservoir.
Salkeld, Daniel J; Leonhard, Sarah; Girard, Yvette A; Hahn, Nina; Mun, Jeomhee; Padgett, Kerry A; Lane, Robert S
We investigated the role of the western gray squirrel (Sciurus griseus) as a reservoir host of the Lyme disease spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi. A survey of 222 western gray squirrels in California showed an overall prevalence of B. burgdorferi infection of 30%, although at a county level, prevalence of infection ranged from 0% to 50% by polymerase chain reaction. Laboratory trials with wild-caught western gray squirrels indicated that squirrels were competent reservoir hosts of the Lyme disease bacterium and infected up to 86% of feeding Ixodes pacificus larvae. Infections were long-lasting (up to 14 months), which demonstrated that western gray squirrels can maintain B. burgdorferi trans-seasonally. Non-native eastern gray squirrels (Sciurus carolinensis) and fox squirrels (Sciurus niger) were infrequently infected with B. burgdorferi.
Akhoundi, Mohammad; Mohebali, Mehdi; Asadi, Mina; Mahmodi, Mohamad Reza; Amraei, Kamyar; Mirzaei, Asad
Zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis (ZCL) is an expanding disease and a public health issue in Iran. In the present study, rate of natural infection of rodent populations with Leishmania was investigated in six endemic foci including 28 villages in Golestan, Esfahan, Yazd, Fars, Khuzestan and Ilam provinces. A total of 593 rodents were captured and identified as Rhombomys opimus (n = 325), Meriones libycus (n = 171), Meriones persicus (n = 27), Tatera indica (n = 37), Nesokia indica (n = 12), Rattus rattus (n = 13) and Mus musculus (n = 8). Microscopic examinations of Giemsa-stained smears showed that 108 out of 593 (18.2%) rodents were infected with Leishmania spp., whereas infection of 186 out of 593 (31.4%) rodents with Leishmania was then confirmed by ITS1-PCR. The highest rate of infection was found in R. opimus (prevalence of 35%) and M. libycus (31%). Based on Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (RFLP), 145 (78%) of 186 samples detected as Leishmania DNA were identified as L. major, 8 (4%) samples as L. turanica and 33 (18%) as mixed infection (L. major and L. turanica). Samples from infected rodents were inoculated subcutaneously at tail base of BALB/c mice. In 35 of them, nodules and ulcers containing amastigotes appeared at the inoculation site. The samples prepared from infected rodents were cultured in NNN medium and only two samples werepositive. Rhombomys opimus, M. libycus, M. persicus, T. indica and N. indica were confirmed as reservoir hosts of ZCL in the studied regions. Leishmania major infection was usually accompanied L. turanica in naturally infected gerbils (R. opimus and M. libycus) in Golestan, Esfahan and Fars provinces.
El Najjar, Farah; Lampe, Levi; Baker, Michelle L.; Wang, Lin-Fa; Dutch, Rebecca Ellis
Bats of different species play a major role in the emergence and transmission of highly pathogenic viruses including Ebola virus, SARS-like coronavirus and the henipaviruses. These viruses require proteolytic activation of surface envelope glycoproteins needed for entry, and cellular cathepsins have been shown to be involved in proteolysis of glycoproteins from these distinct virus families. Very little is currently known about the available proteases in bats. To determine whether the utilization of cathepsins by bat-borne viruses is related to the nature of proteases in their natural hosts, we examined proteolytic processing of several viral fusion proteins in cells derived from two fruit bat species, Pteropus alecto and Rousettus aegyptiacus. Our work shows that fruit bat cells have homologs of cathepsin and furin proteases capable of cleaving and activating both the cathepsin-dependent Hendra virus F and the furin-dependent parainfluenza virus 5 F proteins. Sequence analysis comparing Pteropus alecto furin and cathepsin L to proteases from other mammalian species showed a high degree of conservation; however significant amino acid variation occurs at the C-terminus of Pteropus alecto furin. Further analysis of furin-like proteases from fruit bats revealed that these proteases are catalytically active and resemble other mammalian furins in their response to a potent furin inhibitor. However, kinetic analysis suggests that differences may exist in the cellular localization of furin between different species. Collectively, these results indicate that the unusual role of cathepsin proteases in the life cycle of bat-borne viruses is not due to the lack of active furin-like proteases in these natural reservoir species; however, differences may exist between furin proteases present in fruit bats compared to furins in other mammalian species, and these differences may impact protease usage for viral glycoprotein processing. PMID:25706132
Farah El Najjar
Full Text Available Bats of different species play a major role in the emergence and transmission of highly pathogenic viruses including Ebola virus, SARS-like coronavirus and the henipaviruses. These viruses require proteolytic activation of surface envelope glycoproteins needed for entry, and cellular cathepsins have been shown to be involved in proteolysis of glycoproteins from these distinct virus families. Very little is currently known about the available proteases in bats. To determine whether the utilization of cathepsins by bat-borne viruses is related to the nature of proteases in their natural hosts, we examined proteolytic processing of several viral fusion proteins in cells derived from two fruit bat species, Pteropus alecto and Rousettus aegyptiacus. Our work shows that fruit bat cells have homologs of cathepsin and furin proteases capable of cleaving and activating both the cathepsin-dependent Hendra virus F and the furin-dependent parainfluenza virus 5 F proteins. Sequence analysis comparing Pteropus alecto furin and cathepsin L to proteases from other mammalian species showed a high degree of conservation; however significant amino acid variation occurs at the C-terminus of Pteropus alecto furin. Further analysis of furin-like proteases from fruit bats revealed that these proteases are catalytically active and resemble other mammalian furins in their response to a potent furin inhibitor. However, kinetic analysis suggests that differences may exist in the cellular localization of furin between different species. Collectively, these results indicate that the unusual role of cathepsin proteases in the life cycle of bat-borne viruses is not due to the lack of active furin-like proteases in these natural reservoir species; however, differences may exist between furin proteases present in fruit bats compared to furins in other mammalian species, and these differences may impact protease usage for viral glycoprotein processing.
NODA, Ryoji; NODA, Syusaku
The immature adults of Toxocara canis, which were acquired prenatally, inhabiting in two litters 10 and 11.5 days old, when starved for 8 and 10 days, respectively, were not eliminated as were those in the starved hosts, but showed the marked inhibited growth as compared with the latters. On the contrary, the mature adults, composed mostly of the prenatally acquired, inhabiting in four litters 34 to 58 days old, were eliminated from both the starved and unstarved hosts, though a little less a...
Massussi, Jacques Anselme; Djieto-Lordon, Champlain; Njiokou, Flobert; Laveissière, Claude; van der Ploeg, Jan Douwe
To evaluate the role of wildlife in the resurgence and perenisation of human African trypanosomiasis (HAT), we investigated the influence of habitat and seasonal variations on the diversity and spatial distribution of wild mammals, with special reference to those recognised as potential host-reservoirs of Trypanosoma brucei gambiense in Bipindi (southwestern Cameroon). To achieve this, we carried out transect surveys in four habitat types over two years. A total of 31 mammal species were recorded, of which 14 occurred in the undisturbed forest, 9 in cocoa plantations, 11 in farmlands and 11 in village-adjacent gallery forests. Among them, six species (Cephalophus monticola, Cephalophus dorsalis, Atherurus africanus, Cricetomys emini, Nandinia binotata and Cercopithecus nictitans), known as reservoir hosts of T. b. gambiense, occurred in all kinds of habitats suitable or unsuited to Glossina palpalis palpalis and in all seasons. These species are the most involved in the transmission cycle (human being/tsetse flies/wild animals). Cercopithecus cephus, Miopithecus talapoin and Heliosciurus rufobrachium host Trypanosoma brucei spp.; however, only C. cephus does not occur permanently in the suitable habitat of G. palpalis palpalis. In general, some species (C. monticola, Tragelaphus spekei and C. emini) showed a slight density increase from the long dry to the heavy rainy season within the undisturbed and farmland habitats, and a slight decrease within cocoa plantations and village-adjacent forests in the same period. The density of A. africanus increased greatly from the long dry season to the heavy rainy season in the undisturbed forest while, the density of primates in this habitat decreased slightly from the long dry season to the heavy rainy season. These variations indicate a permanent movement of wild mammal reservoir or feeding hosts from one biotope to another over the seasons. Thryonomys swinderianus needs to be investigated because it occurs permanently in
Some physio-graphical keys to interpret reservoirs-traps, hosts of uranium-bearing mineralizations; Quelques clefs physiographiques pour interpreter les reservoirs-pieges, hotes des mineralisations uraniferes
Parize, O.; Feybesse, J.L.; Wattinne-Morice, A.; Benedicto, A.; Richard, Y.; Sol, R.; Milesi, J.P. [AREVA NC - BU Mines - Direction des Geosciences, 92 - Paris - La Defense (France); Duchemin, Ch.; James, O. [AREVA NC Niger, Niamey (Niger); Girard, Ch. [COMINAK, Akokan (Niger)
As an approach in the search for silici-clastic formations which are reservoirs-traps hosting uranium-bearing mineralizations, the authors describe the use of facies sedimentology to describe successive deposits the arrangement of which determines the sequences according to which mineralisation will preferentially concentrate. They describe the use of sequential stratigraphy and how uranium had moved and deposited in successive eras and formations. They illustrate this approach by discussing different uranium-bearing deposits located in Niger and in France. They show how diagenesis, tectonics and sedimentology are combined to analyse these sites, and even to reassess them while exploiting them
Gallusová, Martina; Qablan, Moneeb A; D'Amico, Gianluca; Oborník, Miroslav; Petrželková, Klára J; Mihalca, Andrei D; Modrý, David
Rural areas of Romania, particularly the localities covering Danube Delta, are still not sufficiently explored in terms of epidemiological aspects, despite the large density of domestic animals living in close contact with people and natural environment of the Danube Delta Biosphere Reserve. Between 2010 and 2012, a survey on equine piroplasmids species was performed in this area, using a total of 178 horses, 15 donkeys and 177 dogs from 18 localities inside and outside the Danube Delta. None of the sampled hosts showed any clinical symptoms typical for equine piroplasmoses. A 25.4% overall prevalence for both equine species of piroplasmids was detected by PCR. Detection by "catch-all" primers followed by multiplex PCR revealed 20.3% prevalence of T. equi, beside 2.2% of B. caballi and 3.0% of mixed infections for all examined animals. Based on sequencing of 67 PCR amplicons of 18S rRNA gene of T. equi, four genotypes (A, C, D and E) were detected, whereas four B. caballi sequences clustered within a single genotype (A). A single dog infected with T. equi was found and confirmed by sequencing, clustering within genotype D. Our study further proved limited host specificity of piroplasmid. Higher prevalence was revealed inside the Danube delta, presumably caused by different environmental conditions, different tick densities and lower availability of veterinary services. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Kerr, Charlotte L; Bhattacharyya, Tapan; Xavier, Samanta C C; Barros, Juliana H; Lima, Valdirene S; Jansen, Ana M; Miles, Michael A
Trypanosoma cruzi, the agent of Chagas disease in humans, has a vast reservoir of mammalian hosts in the Americas, and is classified into six genetic lineages, TcI-TcVI, with a possible seventh, TcBat. Elucidating enzootic cycles of the different lineages is important for understanding the ecology of this parasite, the emergence of new outbreaks of Chagas disease and for guiding control strategies. Direct lineage identification by genotyping is hampered by limitations of parasite isolation and culture. An indirect method is to identify lineage-specific serological reactions in infected individuals; here we describe its application with sylvatic Brazilian primates. Synthetic peptides representing lineage-specific epitopes of the T. cruzi surface protein TSSA were used in ELISA with sera from Atlantic Forest Leontopithecus chrysomelas (golden-headed lion tamarin), L. rosalia (golden lion tamarin), Amazonian Sapajus libidinosus (black-striped capuchin) and Alouatta belzebul (red-handed howler monkey). The epitope common to lineages TcII, TcV and TcVI was recognised by sera from 15 of 26 L. chrysomelas and 8 of 13 L. rosalia. For 12 of these serologically identified TcII infections, the identity of the lineage infection was confirmed by genotyping T. cruzi isolates. Of the TcII/TcV/TcVI positive sera 12 of the 15 L. chrysomelas and 2 of the 8 L. rosalia also reacted with the specific epitope restricted to TcV and TcVI. Sera from one of six S. libidinous recognised the TcIV/TcIII epitopes. This lineage-specific serological surveillance has verified that Atlantic Forest primates are reservoir hosts of at least TcII, and probably TcV and TcVI, commonly associated with severe Chagas disease in the southern cone region of South America. With appropriate reagents, this novel methodology is readily applicable to a wide range of mammal species and reservoir host discovery.
Gürtler, R E; Cecere, M C; Lauricella, M A; Cardinal, M V; Kitron, U; Cohen, J E
The reservoir capacity of domestic cats and dogs for Trypanosoma cruzi infection and the host-feeding patterns of domestic Triatoma infestans were assessed longitudinally in 2 infested rural villages in north-western Argentina. A total of 86 dogs and 38 cats was repeatedly examined for T. cruzi infection by serology and/or xenodiagnosis. The composite prevalence of infection in dogs (60%), but not in cats, increased significantly with age and with the domiciliary density of infected T. infestans. Dogs and cats had similarly high forces of infection, prevalence of infectious hosts (41-42%), and infectiousness to bugs at a wide range of infected bug densities. The infectiousness to bugs of seropositive dogs declined significantly with increasing dog age and was highly aggregated. Individual dog infectiousness to bugs was significantly autocorrelated over time. Domestic T. infestans fed on dogs showed higher infection prevalence (49%) than those fed on cats (39%), humans (38%) or chickens (29%) among 1085 bugs examined. The basic reproduction number of T. cruzi in dogs was at least 8.2. Both cats and dogs are epidemiologically important sources of infection for bugs and householders, dogs nearly 3 times more than cats.
Anna Y. Georgieva
Full Text Available Background The 152 extant species of kissing bug include important vectors of the debilitating, chronic, and often fatal Chagas disease, which affects several million people mainly in Central and South America. An understanding of the natural hosts of this speciose group of blood-feeding insects has and will continue to aid ongoing efforts to impede the spread of Chagas disease. However, information on kissing bug biology is piecemeal and scattered, developed using methods with varying levels of accuracy over more than 100 years. Existing host records are heavily biased towards well-studied primary vector species and are derived from primarily three different types of observations, associational, immunological or DNA-based, with varying reliability. Methods We gather a comprehensive and unparalleled number of sources reporting host associations via rigorous targeted searches of publication databases to review all known natural, or sylvatic, host records including information on how each record was collected. We integrate this information with novel host records obtained via attempted amplification and sequencing of a ∼160 base pair (bp region of the vertebrate 12S mitochondrial gene from the gastrointestinal tract of 64 archival specimens of Triatominae representing 19 species collected primarily in sylvatic habitats throughout the southern United States and Central and South America during the past 10 years. We show the utility of this method for uncovering novel and under-studied groups of Triatominae hosts, as well as detecting the presence of the Chagas disease pathogen via Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR of a ∼400 bp sequence of the trypanosome 18S gene. Results New host associations for several groups of arboreal mammals were determined including sloths, New World monkeys, coatis, arboreal porcupines and, for the first time as a host of any Triatominae, tayras. A thorough review of previously documented sylvatic hosts, organized by
Georgieva, Anna Y; Gordon, Eric R L; Weirauch, Christiane
The 152 extant species of kissing bug include important vectors of the debilitating, chronic, and often fatal Chagas disease, which affects several million people mainly in Central and South America. An understanding of the natural hosts of this speciose group of blood-feeding insects has and will continue to aid ongoing efforts to impede the spread of Chagas disease. However, information on kissing bug biology is piecemeal and scattered, developed using methods with varying levels of accuracy over more than 100 years. Existing host records are heavily biased towards well-studied primary vector species and are derived from primarily three different types of observations, associational, immunological or DNA-based, with varying reliability. We gather a comprehensive and unparalleled number of sources reporting host associations via rigorous targeted searches of publication databases to review all known natural, or sylvatic, host records including information on how each record was collected. We integrate this information with novel host records obtained via attempted amplification and sequencing of a ∼160 base pair (bp) region of the vertebrate 12S mitochondrial gene from the gastrointestinal tract of 64 archival specimens of Triatominae representing 19 species collected primarily in sylvatic habitats throughout the southern United States and Central and South America during the past 10 years. We show the utility of this method for uncovering novel and under-studied groups of Triatominae hosts, as well as detecting the presence of the Chagas disease pathogen via Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) of a ∼400 bp sequence of the trypanosome 18S gene. New host associations for several groups of arboreal mammals were determined including sloths, New World monkeys, coatis, arboreal porcupines and, for the first time as a host of any Triatominae, tayras. A thorough review of previously documented sylvatic hosts, organized by triatomine species and the type of observation
Xu, Zheng-Min; Li, Ling; Wu, Xiao-Ying; Zhao, Han-Fen; Du, Ai-Ping; Hu, Sheng-Mei; Tao, Yong-Ping; Sun, Li; Tang, Yu-Cheng; Li, Ming-Hua; Zhang, Zhi-Yong; Li, Zhi-Shan
Freshwater crabs (Sinopotamon denticulatum) were examined for metacercariae. Cats and dogs were also examined for Paragonimus infection. Questionnairing was carried out on health knowledge and behaviors among local residents in a village of Baokang County, Hubei Province. Results showed that the infection rate of Paragonimus skrjabini metacercariae in Sinopotamon denticulatum was 20.5% (46/214), with 15.6% (20/128) in a mining area and 30.2% (26/86) for the non-mining area respectively (chi2 = 6.5, P 0.05). Questionnairing showed that dogs and cats were with the habit of foraging and defecating at streams and children had the habits of eating raw or under-cooked crabs. The natural and ecological environments are in favor of the life cycle of P. skrjabini.
Borges, Lígia Miranda Ferreira; de Oliveira Filho, Jaires Gomes; Ferreira, Lorena Lopes; Louly, Carla Cristina Braz; Pickett, John A; Birkett, Michael A
Studies have shown that the brown dog tick, Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato, when fed on the beagle breed of dog, Canis lupus familiaris, development negatively affected in comparison with tick development after feeding on the English cocker spaniel breed. Thus leading to the suggestion that beagle dogs are be tick-resistant dogs. Behavioural studies have demonstrated that more ticks are attracted by extracts from cocker spaniels than from beagles and that the odour of beagles is a repellent. To test the hypothesis that resistant hosts produce repellent compounds, we undertook comparative chemical analysis on beagle odour and cocker spaniel extracts using coupled high-resolution gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and also used Petri-dish and olfactometer behavioural assays to assess the response of ticks to identified non-host compounds. The beagle odour extracts contained almost three times as many chemical compounds as cocker spaniel samples. Several non-host compounds were identified, i.e. 2-hexanone, benzaldehyde, nonane, decane and undecane. In Petri-dish assays, 2-hexanone was repellent at 30 min at concentrations of 0.200 and 0.050 mg cm(-2), whilst at 10 min, the 0.100 mg cm(-2) concentration was repellent. Benzaldehyde repelled ticks at 30 min (0.200 mg cm(-2)) and at 5 min (0.050 mg cm(-2)). Undecane was repellent for R. sanguineus s.l. ticks for the first 5 min at the highest concentration tested. Nonane and decane did not show any significant repellency at any concentration or time evaluated. When 2-hexanone and benzaldehyde were combined, an increase in the repellency rate was observed, with activity comparable or better than N,N-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide (DEET). In olfactometer bioassays, a 1:1 mixture of 2-hexanone:benzaldehyde and DEET were repellent for R. sanguineus s.l. adults at the concentration of 0.200 mg cm(-2). This study identified non-host semiochemicals that mediate avoidance of the beagle dog breed by R. sanguineus s
Charlotte L. Kerr
Full Text Available Abstract Background Trypanosoma cruzi, the agent of Chagas disease in humans, has a vast reservoir of mammalian hosts in the Americas, and is classified into six genetic lineages, TcI-TcVI, with a possible seventh, TcBat. Elucidating enzootic cycles of the different lineages is important for understanding the ecology of this parasite, the emergence of new outbreaks of Chagas disease and for guiding control strategies. Direct lineage identification by genotyping is hampered by limitations of parasite isolation and culture. An indirect method is to identify lineage-specific serological reactions in infected individuals; here we describe its application with sylvatic Brazilian primates. Methods Synthetic peptides representing lineage-specific epitopes of the T. cruzi surface protein TSSA were used in ELISA with sera from Atlantic Forest Leontopithecus chrysomelas (golden-headed lion tamarin, L. rosalia (golden lion tamarin, Amazonian Sapajus libidinosus (black-striped capuchin and Alouatta belzebul (red-handed howler monkey. Results The epitope common to lineages TcII, TcV and TcVI was recognised by sera from 15 of 26 L. chrysomelas and 8 of 13 L. rosalia. For 12 of these serologically identified TcII infections, the identity of the lineage infection was confirmed by genotyping T. cruzi isolates. Of the TcII/TcV/TcVI positive sera 12 of the 15 L. chrysomelas and 2 of the 8 L. rosalia also reacted with the specific epitope restricted to TcV and TcVI. Sera from one of six S. libidinous recognised the TcIV/TcIII epitopes. Conclusions This lineage-specific serological surveillance has verified that Atlantic Forest primates are reservoir hosts of at least TcII, and probably TcV and TcVI, commonly associated with severe Chagas disease in the southern cone region of South America. With appropriate reagents, this novel methodology is readily applicable to a wide range of mammal species and reservoir host discovery.
Shevenell, Lisa [ATLAS Geosciences, Inc., Reno, NV (United States); Coolbaugh, Mark [ATLAS Geosciences, Inc., Reno, NV (United States); Hinz, Nick [Univ. of Nevada, Reno, NV (United States); Stelling, Pete [Western Washington Univ., Bellingham, WA (United States); Melosh, Glenn [GEODE, Santa Rosa, CA (United States); Cumming, William [Cumming Geoscience, Santa Rosa, CA (United States)
This project brings a global perspective to volcanic arc geothermal play fairway analysis by developing statistics for the occurrence of geothermal reservoirs and their geoscience context worldwide in order to rank U.S. prospects. The focus of the work was to develop play fairways for the Cascade and Aleutian arcs to rank the individual volcanic centers in these arcs by their potential to host electricity grade geothermal systems. The Fairway models were developed by describing key geologic factors expected to be indicative of productive geothermal systems in a global training set, which includes 74 volcanic centers world-wide with current power production. To our knowledge, this is the most robust geothermal benchmark training set for magmatic systems to date that will be made public.
Michałowski, M. J.; Gentile, G.; Hjorth, J.
Long gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), among the most energetic events in the Universe, are explosions of massive and short-lived stars, so they pinpoint locations of recent star formation. However, several GRB host galaxies have recently been found to be deficient in molecular gas (H2), believed......, implying high levels of atomic hydrogen (HI), which suggests that the connection between atomic gas and star formation is stronger than previously thought. In this case, it is possible that star formation is directly fuelled by atomic gas (or that the H1-to-H2 conversion is very efficient, which rapidly...... to be the fuel of star formation. Moreover, optical spectroscopy of GRB afterglows implies that the molecular phase constitutes only a small fraction of the gas along the GRB line of sight. Here we report the first ever 21 cm line observations of GRB host galaxies, using the Australia Telescope Compact Array...
Sabry, Abdel-Hameed A; Morsy, Ayman T A; Morsy, Tosson A
A zoonosis is an animal disease that is transmissible to humans. Humans are usually an accidental host that acquires disease through close contact with an infected animal, who may or may not be symptomatic. Children are at highest risk for infection because they are more likely to have close contact with pets. Dogs are responsible for transmission of an extensive array of bacterial and parasitic zoonotic pathogens. The route of transmission can be through the feces, urine, saliva (eg, bites or contaminated scratches), or respiratory secretions of the animal, or by the dog or cat acting as a vehicle and source of tick or flea exposure or reservoir for vector borne disease. Although dogs have been implicated in transmission of zoonoses to their owners, risk of transmission from contact with dogs is low and may be further reduced by simple precautions.
Lovy, Jan; Piesik, P.; Hershberger, P.K.; Garver, K.A.
In British Columbia, Canada (BC), aquaculture of finfish in ocean netpens has the potential for pathogen transmission between wild and farmed species due to the sharing of an aquatic environment. Viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) is enzootic in BC and causes serious disease in wild Pacific herring, Clupea pallasii, which often enter and remain in Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar, netpens. Isolation of VHSV from farmed Atlantic salmon has been previously documented, but the effects on the health of farmed salmon and the wild fish sharing the environment are unknown. To determine their susceptibility, Atlantic salmon were exposed to a pool of 9 isolates of VHSV obtained from farmed Atlantic salmon in BC by IP-injection or by waterborne exposure and cohabitation with diseased Pacific herring. Disease intensity was quantified by recording mortality, clinical signs, histopathological changes, cellular sites of viral replication, expression of interferon-related genes, and viral tissue titers. Disease ensued in Atlantic salmon after both VHSV exposure methods. Fish demonstrated gross disease signs including darkening of the dorsal skin, bilateral exophthalmia, light cutaneous hemorrhage, and lethargy. The virus replicated within endothelial cells causing endothelial cell necrosis and extensive hemorrhage in anterior kidney. Infected fish demonstrated a type I interferon response as seen by up-regulation of genes for IFNα, Mx, and ISG15. In a separate trial infected salmon transmitted the virus to sympatric Pacific herring. The results demonstrate that farmed Atlantic salmon can develop clinical VHS and virus can persist in the tissues for at least 10 weeks. Avoiding VHS epizootics in Atlantic salmon farms would limit the potential of VHS in farmed Atlantic salmon, the possibility for further host adaptation in this species, and virus spillback to sympatric wild fishes.
Mgode, Georgies F.; Machang’u, Robert S.; Mhamphi, Ginethon G.; Katakweba, Abdul; Mulungu, Loth S.; Durnez, Lies; Leirs, Herwig; Hartskeerl, Rudy A.; Belmain, Steven R.
The burden of leptospirosis in humans and animals in Africa is higher than that reported from other parts of the world. However, the disease is not routinely diagnosed in the continent. One of major factors limiting diagnosis is the poor availability of live isolates of locally circulating Leptospira serovars for inclusion in the antigen panel of the gold standard microscopic agglutination test (MAT) for detecting antibodies against leptospirosis. To gain insight in Leptospira serovars and their natural hosts occurring in Tanzania, concomitantly enabling the improvement of the MAT by inclusion of fresh local isolates, a total of 52 Leptospira isolates were obtained from fresh urine and kidney homogenates, collected between 1996 and 2006 from small mammals, cattle and pigs. Isolates were identified by serogrouping, cross agglutination absorption test (CAAT), and molecular typing. Common Leptospira serovars with their respective animal hosts were: Sokoine (cattle and rodents); Kenya (rodents and shrews); Mwogolo (rodents); Lora (rodents); Qunjian (rodent); serogroup Grippotyphosa (cattle); and an unknown serogroup from pigs. Inclusion of local serovars particularly serovar Sokoine in MAT revealed a 10-fold increase in leptospirosis prevalence in Tanzania from 1.9% to 16.9% in rodents and 0.26% to 10.75% in humans. This indicates that local serovars are useful for diagnosis of human and animal leptospirosis in Tanzania and other African countries. PMID:26624890
Mgode, Georgies F; Machang'u, Robert S; Mhamphi, Ginethon G; Katakweba, Abdul; Mulungu, Loth S; Durnez, Lies; Leirs, Herwig; Hartskeerl, Rudy A; Belmain, Steven R
The burden of leptospirosis in humans and animals in Africa is higher than that reported from other parts of the world. However, the disease is not routinely diagnosed in the continent. One of major factors limiting diagnosis is the poor availability of live isolates of locally circulating Leptospira serovars for inclusion in the antigen panel of the gold standard microscopic agglutination test (MAT) for detecting antibodies against leptospirosis. To gain insight in Leptospira serovars and their natural hosts occurring in Tanzania, concomitantly enabling the improvement of the MAT by inclusion of fresh local isolates, a total of 52 Leptospira isolates were obtained from fresh urine and kidney homogenates, collected between 1996 and 2006 from small mammals, cattle and pigs. Isolates were identified by serogrouping, cross agglutination absorption test (CAAT), and molecular typing. Common Leptospira serovars with their respective animal hosts were: Sokoine (cattle and rodents); Kenya (rodents and shrews); Mwogolo (rodents); Lora (rodents); Qunjian (rodent); serogroup Grippotyphosa (cattle); and an unknown serogroup from pigs. Inclusion of local serovars particularly serovar Sokoine in MAT revealed a 10-fold increase in leptospirosis prevalence in Tanzania from 1.9% to 16.9% in rodents and 0.26% to 10.75% in humans. This indicates that local serovars are useful for diagnosis of human and animal leptospirosis in Tanzania and other African countries.
Zinsstag, J; Dürr, S; Penny, M A; Mindekem, R; Roth, F; Menendez Gonzalez, S; Naissengar, S; Hattendorf, J
Human rabies in developing countries can be prevented through interventions directed at dogs. Potential cost-savings for the public health sector of interventions aimed at animal-host reservoirs should be assessed. Available deterministic models of rabies transmission between dogs were extended to include dog-to-human rabies transmission. Model parameters were fitted to routine weekly rabid-dog and exposed-human cases reported in N'Djaména, the capital of Chad. The estimated transmission rates between dogs (beta(d)) were 0.0807 km2/(dogs x week) and between dogs and humans (beta(dh)) 0.0002 km2/(dogs x week). The effective reproductive ratio (R(e)) at the onset of our observations was estimated at 1.01, indicating low-level endemic stability of rabies transmission. Human rabies incidence depended critically on dog-related transmission parameters. We simulated the effects of mass dog vaccination and the culling of a percentage of the dog population on human rabies incidence. A single parenteral dog rabies-mass vaccination campaign achieving a coverage of least 70% appears to be sufficient to interrupt transmission of rabies to humans for at least 6 years. The cost-effectiveness of mass dog vaccination was compared to postexposure prophylaxis (PEP), which is the current practice in Chad. PEP does not reduce future human exposure. Its cost-effectiveness is estimated at US $46 per disability adjusted life-years averted. Cost-effectiveness for PEP, together with a dog-vaccination campaign, breaks even with cost-effectiveness of PEP alone after almost 5 years. Beyond a time-frame of 7 years, it appears to be more cost-effective to combine parenteral dog-vaccination campaigns with human PEP compared to human PEP alone.
Charles, Roxanne A; Kjos, Sonia; Ellis, Angela E; Barnes, John C; Yabsley, Michael J
Trypanosoma cruzi, the causative agent of Chagas' disease, is an important public health and veterinary pathogen. Although human cases are rare in the United States, infections in wildlife, and in some areas domestic dogs, are common. In 2008 and 2010, we investigated T. cruzi prevalence in possible vertebrate reservoirs in southern Texas, with an emphasis on southern plains woodrats (Neotoma micropus). Infection status was determined using a combination of culture isolation, polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and serologic testing. Based on PCR and/or culture, T. cruzi was detected in 35 of 104 (34%) woodrats, 3 of 4 (75%) striped skunks (Mephitis mephitis), 12 of 20 (60%) raccoons (Procyon lotor), and 5 of 28 (18%) other rodents including a hispid cotton rat (Sigmodon hispidus), rock squirrel (Otospermophilus variegatus), black rat (Rattus rattus), and two house mice (Mus musculus). Additionally, another Trypanosoma species was detected in 41 woodrats, of which 27 were co-infected with T. cruzi. Genetic characterization of T. cruzi revealed that raccoon, rock squirrel, and cotton rat isolates were genotype TcIV, while woodrats and skunks were infected with TcI and TcIV. Based on the Chagas Stat-Pak assay, antibodies were detected in 27 woodrats (26%), 13 raccoons (65%), 4 skunks (100%), and 5 other rodents (18%) (two white-ankled mice [Peromyscus pectoralis laceianus], two house mice, and a rock squirrel). Seroprevalence based on indirect immunofluorescence antibody testing was higher for both woodrats (37%) and raccoons (90%), compared with the Chagas Stat-Pak. This is the first report of T. cruzi in a hispid cotton rat, black rat, rock squirrel, and white-ankled mouse. These data indicate that based on culture and PCR testing, the prevalence of T. cruzi in woodrats is comparable with other common reservoirs (i.e., raccoons and opossums) in the United States. However, unlike raccoons and opossums, which tend to be infected with a particular genotype, southern
Busch, Joseph D.; Van Andel, Roger; Cordova, Jennifer; Colman, Rebecca E.; Keim, Paul; Rocke, Tonie E.; Leid, Jeff G.; Van Pelt, William E.; Wagner, David M.
Over the past 40 yr, epizootics of plague (Yersinia pestis) in northern Arizona have reduced populations of the Gunnison’s prairie dog (Cynomys gunnisoni), with the exception of a large population found in the Aubrey Valley (AV). To examine potential mechanisms accounting for their survival, we collected prairie dog serum samples in 2005–2006 from AV and a neighboring population near Seligman (SE), Arizona. We quantified gene expression at 58 diverse immune proteins using a multiplexed enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay panel. We found a subset of proteins important in coagulation and inflammation (tissue factor [TF], calbindin [Cal], and thrombopoietin [TPO]) and T-cell responses (CD40L and CD40) that were present in AV at levels two to eight times greater than SE. These results suggest that AV and SE animals might differ in their ability to mount an immune response.
Shirani Bidabadi, L; Nilforoushzadeh, M A; Akhavan, A A; Abdoli, H; Siadat, A H; Jaffary, F; Hejazi, S H; Shareghi, N; Ghanei, M; Arandian, M; Moradi, S H
Rodents belonging to Gerbillinae subfamily are the main reservoir hosts of zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis (ZCL) in Iran. Regarding the important role of these rodents in the maintenance of Leishmania major in the nature, their identification with morphometric, cytogenetic and molecular methods seems to be essential. The karyotype study of these species, captured from a new focus of zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis located in the south of Isfahan Province was carried out in 2007. Twenty specimens containing seventeen Meriones persicus and three Nesokia indica were captured from Mobarakeh rural district south of Isfahan. Giemsa-stained karyotypes of these two species were prepared from bone marrow chromosome preparations. Systematic important characters of the body and cranium (incisors, molars, occipitonasal, condylobasal, zygomatic, tympanic bullae, etc.) of these rodents were studied. Cranium size was measured using a Vernier calipers. Specimens of M. persicus and N. indica had 2n = 42. The karyotype study of these species included metacentric, sub-metacentric and acrocentric chromosomes. Morphological studies were completely matched with the reported characters of these species and further confirmed the diagnoses. Based on the results of this study, M. persicus and N. indica are two completely differentiated rodents species that were collected from a new focus and they can also be differentiated morphologically.
Astorga, F; Escobar, L E; Poo-Muñoz, D A; Medina-Vogel, G
Rabies is a viral infectious disease that affects all mammals, including humans. Factors associated with the incidence of rabies include the presence and density of susceptible hosts and potential reservoirs. Currently, Chile is declared free of canine-related rabies, but there is an overpopulation of dogs within the country and an emergence of rabies in bats. Our objectives are to determine potential areas for bat-borne rabies spillover into dog populations expressed as a risk map, and to explore some key features of dog ownership, abundance, and management in Chile. For the risk map, our variables included a dog density surface (dog/km(2)) and a distribution model of bat-borne rabies presence. From literature review, we obtained dog data from 112 municipalities, which represent 33% of the total municipalities (339). At country level, based on previous studies the median human per dog ratio was 4.8, with 64% of houses containing at least one dog, and a median of 0.9 dog per house. We estimate a national median of 5.3 dog/km(2), and a median of 3680 dogs by municipality, from which we estimate a total population of 3.5×10(6) owned dogs. The antirabies vaccination presented a median of 21% of dogs by municipality, and 29% are unrestricted to some degree. Human per dog ratio have a significant (but weak) negative association with human density. Unrestricted dogs have a negative association with human density and income, and a positive association with the number of dogs per house. Considering dog density by municipality, and areas of potential bat-borne rabies occurrence, we found that 163 (∼48%) of Chilean municipalities are at risk of rabies spillover from bats to dogs. Risk areas are concentrated in urban settlements, including Santiago, Chile's capital. To validate the risk map, we included cases of rabies in dogs from the last 27 years; all fell within high-risk areas of our map, confirming the assertive risk prediction. Our results suggest that the use of
Maia, Carla; Alwassouf, Sulaf; Cristóvão, José Manuel; Ayhan, Nazli; Pereira, André; Charrel, Remi N; Campino, Lenea
Phlebotomine sand fly-borne diseases such as leishmanioses and phleboviruses are emerging threats to animal and public health. Canine leishmaniosis caused by Leishmania infantum is an endemic zoonosis in Portugal. Antibodies to Toscana virus (TOSV) and sand fly fever Sicilian virus (SFSV) were also reported in dogs from the south of the country. The aim of this work was to evaluate a possible association between exposure to L. infantum, TOSV and SFSV in sheltered dogs from the south of Portugal. Seventy-six (13.1%) out of 581 dogs were seropositive for L. infantum, 327 (56.3%) for SFSV and 36 (6.2%) for TOSV. Six dogs were co-exposed with L. infantum and TOSV, 51 with L. infantum and SFSV and 25 with TOSV and SFSV. One dog had antibodies to the three pathogens. Leishmania infantum seroprevalence was significantly higher in pure breed dogs than in mongrels and in dogs with clinical signs while SFSV positivity was significantly higher in males, in pure and cross-breed dogs than in mongrels and in those not treated with insecticides. Seroprevalence for both viruses was significantly higher in dogs over than 7 years-old than in those aged 1-7. A significant association was observed between the presence of antibodies to L. infantum and SFSV. The presence of antibodies to several phlebotomine sand fly-borne pathogens in dogs, reinforces the need to implement efficient prophylactic measures to prevent infection among vertebrate hosts including humans. The results also indicate that dogs are good sentinels for assessing human exposure to TOSV and SFSV. Further studies must be performed to elucidate the role of dogs in the dynamics of transmission and if they can play a role as amplifying or reservoir hosts in the natural cycle of these viruses. Public and animal health impacts of these phleboviruses in Portugal should be addressed via serological and virological studies on both phlebotomine sand flies and vertebrate hosts, especially on humans.
Bemm, Felix M.; Schär, Fabian; Khieu, Virak; Muth, Sinuon; Odermatt, Peter; Lok, James B.
Strongyloidiasis is a much-neglected soil born helminthiasis caused by the nematode Strongyloides stercoralis. Human derived S. stercoralis can be maintained in dogs in the laboratory and this parasite has been reported to also occur in dogs in the wild. Some authors have considered strongyloidiasis a zoonotic disease while others have argued that the two hosts carry host specialized populations of S. stercoralis and that dogs play a minor role, if any, as a reservoir for zoonotic S. stercoralis infections of humans. We isolated S. stercoralis from humans and their dogs in rural villages in northern Cambodia, a region with a high incidence of strongyloidiasis, and compared the worms derived from these two host species using nuclear and mitochondrial DNA sequence polymorphisms. We found that in dogs there exist two populations of S. stercoralis, which are clearly separated from each other genetically based on the nuclear 18S rDNA, the mitochondrial cox1 locus and whole genome sequence. One population, to which the majority of the worms belong, appears to be restricted to dogs. The other population is indistinguishable from the population of S. stercoralis isolated from humans. Consistent with earlier studies, we found multiple sequence variants of the hypervariable region I of the 18 S rDNA in S. stercoralis from humans. However, comparison of mitochondrial sequences and whole genome analysis suggest that these different 18S variants do not represent multiple genetically isolated subpopulations among the worms isolated from humans. We also investigated the mode of reproduction of the free-living generations of laboratory and wild isolates of S. stercoralis. Contrary to earlier literature on S. stercoralis but similar to other species of Strongyloides, we found clear evidence of sexual reproduction. Overall, our results show that dogs carry two populations, possibly different species of Strongyloides. One population appears to be dog specific but the other one is
Tegegn G Jaleta
Full Text Available Strongyloidiasis is a much-neglected soil born helminthiasis caused by the nematode Strongyloides stercoralis. Human derived S. stercoralis can be maintained in dogs in the laboratory and this parasite has been reported to also occur in dogs in the wild. Some authors have considered strongyloidiasis a zoonotic disease while others have argued that the two hosts carry host specialized populations of S. stercoralis and that dogs play a minor role, if any, as a reservoir for zoonotic S. stercoralis infections of humans. We isolated S. stercoralis from humans and their dogs in rural villages in northern Cambodia, a region with a high incidence of strongyloidiasis, and compared the worms derived from these two host species using nuclear and mitochondrial DNA sequence polymorphisms. We found that in dogs there exist two populations of S. stercoralis, which are clearly separated from each other genetically based on the nuclear 18S rDNA, the mitochondrial cox1 locus and whole genome sequence. One population, to which the majority of the worms belong, appears to be restricted to dogs. The other population is indistinguishable from the population of S. stercoralis isolated from humans. Consistent with earlier studies, we found multiple sequence variants of the hypervariable region I of the 18 S rDNA in S. stercoralis from humans. However, comparison of mitochondrial sequences and whole genome analysis suggest that these different 18S variants do not represent multiple genetically isolated subpopulations among the worms isolated from humans. We also investigated the mode of reproduction of the free-living generations of laboratory and wild isolates of S. stercoralis. Contrary to earlier literature on S. stercoralis but similar to other species of Strongyloides, we found clear evidence of sexual reproduction. Overall, our results show that dogs carry two populations, possibly different species of Strongyloides. One population appears to be dog specific but
Jaleta, Tegegn G; Zhou, Siyu; Bemm, Felix M; Schär, Fabian; Khieu, Virak; Muth, Sinuon; Odermatt, Peter; Lok, James B; Streit, Adrian
Strongyloidiasis is a much-neglected soil born helminthiasis caused by the nematode Strongyloides stercoralis. Human derived S. stercoralis can be maintained in dogs in the laboratory and this parasite has been reported to also occur in dogs in the wild. Some authors have considered strongyloidiasis a zoonotic disease while others have argued that the two hosts carry host specialized populations of S. stercoralis and that dogs play a minor role, if any, as a reservoir for zoonotic S. stercoralis infections of humans. We isolated S. stercoralis from humans and their dogs in rural villages in northern Cambodia, a region with a high incidence of strongyloidiasis, and compared the worms derived from these two host species using nuclear and mitochondrial DNA sequence polymorphisms. We found that in dogs there exist two populations of S. stercoralis, which are clearly separated from each other genetically based on the nuclear 18S rDNA, the mitochondrial cox1 locus and whole genome sequence. One population, to which the majority of the worms belong, appears to be restricted to dogs. The other population is indistinguishable from the population of S. stercoralis isolated from humans. Consistent with earlier studies, we found multiple sequence variants of the hypervariable region I of the 18 S rDNA in S. stercoralis from humans. However, comparison of mitochondrial sequences and whole genome analysis suggest that these different 18S variants do not represent multiple genetically isolated subpopulations among the worms isolated from humans. We also investigated the mode of reproduction of the free-living generations of laboratory and wild isolates of S. stercoralis. Contrary to earlier literature on S. stercoralis but similar to other species of Strongyloides, we found clear evidence of sexual reproduction. Overall, our results show that dogs carry two populations, possibly different species of Strongyloides. One population appears to be dog specific but the other one is
Shalaby, H A; Abdel-Shafy, S; Derbala, A A
The dog's role as a definitive host for a number of zoonotic parasites has been widely studied and recognized as being a significant public health problem worldwide. This study aimed to report, for the first time, our investigation into the role of dogs as a biological transmitter for Ascaris lumbricoides, via necropsy of a sample of rural stray dogs in a developing community in Giza governorate, Egypt, where promiscuous defecation by human was common, and examination for A. lumbricoides worms as well as other ascaridiod nematodes of dogs. The recovered worms were identified in the laboratory after observing cephalic alae and egg morphology under a microscope, as well as scanning electron microscopy of their anterior ends. Of the 25 dogs examined, 14 were infected with Toxocara canis (56.0%), two with Toxascaris leonina (8.0%), and two with A. lumbricoides (8.0%). One dog was co-infected with T. canis and T. leonina. A. lumbricoides eggs were shown to be viable and 75-80% of eggs embryonated following 3 weeks of incubation at 28 degrees C. The present study suggested that dogs could act as reservoir hosts of A. lumbricoides and environmental contaminators that increase risk of infection in humans.
Full Text Available Leishmaniasis has reemerged in recent years showing a wider geographic distribution and increased global incidence of human and canine disease than previously known. Dogs are the main domestic/peridomestic reservoir hosts of zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania infantum. Since the evolution of leishmaniasis and clinical appearance is a consequence of complex interactions between the parasite and host immune response, a profound knowledge about the immune profile developed in dog's infection is crucial for vaccine and immunomodulatory therapy design. The main goal of this paper is to compile the recent advances made on cytokine and phenotypic cell profiles in different tissues and organs of dogs infected with L. infantum. This paper also stressed that the knowledge of the immune responses developed, namely, in liver, lymph node, and spleen is very limited. All data emphasizes that more research on canine leishmaniasis is necessary for the development of new and efficacious tools to control zoonotic leishmaniasis.
Starkey, L A; Barrett, A W; Beall, M J; Chandrashekar, R; Thatcher, B; Tyrrell, P; Little, S E
Ehrlichia ewingii, which causes disease in dogs and people, is the most common Ehrlichia spp. infecting dogs in the United States, but little is known about how long E. ewingii infection persists in dogs. To evaluate the persistence of natural infection with E. ewingii in dogs. Four Class A Beagles; no previous exposure to ticks or tick-borne infectious agents. Dogs were exposed to ticks by weekly walks through tick habitat in north central Oklahoma; dogs positive for infection with Ehrlichia spp. by sequence-confirmed PCR and peptide-specific serology were evaluated for 733 days (D). Whole blood was collected once weekly for PCR, and serum was collected once monthly for detection of antibodies to Ehrlichia canis (peptide p16), Ehrlichia chaffeensis (indirect fluorescence antibody [IFA] and variable-length PCR target [VLPT]), and E. ewingii (peptide p28). All dogs (4/4) became infected with Ehrlichia spp. as evidenced by seroconversion on IFA to E. chaffeensis (4/4); PCR detection of E. ewingii (4/4) and E. chaffeensis (2/4) DNA using both nested and real-time assays; and presence of specific antibodies to E. ewingii (4/4) and E. chaffeensis (2/4). Infection with E. chaffeensis was not detected after D55. Intermittent E. ewingii rickettsemia persisted in 3 of 4 dogs for as long as 733 days. Our data demonstrate that dogs infected with E. ewingii from tick feeding are capable of maintaining infection with this pathogen long-term, and may serve as a reservoir host for the maintenance of E. ewingii in nature. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL is caused by Leishmania infantum in all Mediterranean countries. The Leishmania parasite is transmitted by the bite of a corresponding sand fly vector and primarily maintained in nature by wild and domestic reservoirs, including dogs, foxes and jackals. Infected dogs are the primary reservoir host in endemic regions and are the most significant risk disposing humans to infection. The present study aimed at assessing the prevalence of infection with Leishmania and identification of Leishmania infantum in domestic dogs in the West Bank, Palestine. Methods The infection rate among domestic dogs collected from seven districts in the Palestinian West Bank was investigated by examination of parasites in culture from the buffy coat using serological and molecular methods; based on ELISA, internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1 and cysteine protease (CPB PCR. Results Out of 215 dogs examined for Leishmania, 36 (16.7% were positive in at least one method. Twenty three animals (11.5% were positive for Leishmania DNA, whereas, ELISA and culture revealed 16 (7.5%, and 4 (1.5% respectively. CPB-PCR on one of three culture-positive isolates revealed Leishmania infantum as the causative agent for Leishmania infection in dogs. Conclusions Our study showed that canine leishmania infection is prevalent with varying degrees in all the seven studied districts in Palestine despite the absence of human VL cases in 4 of these districts. The causative agent was confirmed to be Leishmania infantum.
Szabó, B.; Schubert, F.; Toth, T.M.; Steinbach, Gabor
Roč. 69, č. 3 (2016), s. 281-293 ISSN 1330-030X Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : fractured basalt reservoir * Pannonian Basin * zeolite minerals Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 0.595, year: 2016
Cafarchia, C; Latrofa, M S; Figueredo, L A; da Silva Machado, M L; Ferreiro, L; Guillot, J; Boekhout, T; Otranto, D
Three lipid-dependent Malassezia isolates (here named 114A, 114B and 114C) recovered from a dog with skin lesions were phenotypically and genotypically characterized. All presented ovoid cells and buds formed on a narrow base. Most of the results from physiological tests were consistent with those of Malassezia furfur. The phylogenetic analysis of ITS-1 and LSU nucleotide sequences was concordant in placing all three clinical Malassezia isolates close to M. furfur. However, the phylogenetic data on the chs-2 sequence revealed that clinical isolate 114A is distinct from M. furfur and was closely affiliated to the sequence of M. pachydermatis with high nodal support. In particular, lipid-dependent isolates 114A displayed chs-2 sequences similar (100%) to that of the non-lipid dependent species Malassezia pachydermatis. The presence of the genetic and physiological polymorphisms detected in these three isolates of M. furfur could have resulted from a process of adaptation of this anthropophilic species to a new host.
Abstract Delegates from around the world met at the University of Lincoln on June 11 and 12 for the third annual UK Dog Bite Prevention and Behaviour conference. The conference, hosted by dog trainer Victoria Stilwell, brings together dog behaviour experts to discuss possible solutions to this public health issue. Rachel Orritt, who has been examining the perceptions, assessment and management of human-directed aggressive behaviour in dogs for her PhD, reports.
Brod, Claudiomar Soares; Aleixo, José Antonio Guimarães; Jouglard, Sandra Denise Dorneles; Fernandes, Cláudia Pinho Hartleben; Teixeira, José Luís Rodrigues; Dellagostin, Odir Antônio
Canine leptospirosis has been known as Stuttgart disease since 1898, and dogs are considered to be the second principal source of infection in man. The isolation of a pathogenic serovar from dog urine that was diagnosed clinically and laboratorial as having leptospirosis and its utilization to test serological samples of human and canine cases of leptospirosis, has demonstrated its importance to the ecosystem of the southern region of Brazil. The results of the serological microscopic agglutination test indicated that 100% of human serum samples from 12 patients from the serum bank of 2001 at the Center for Control of Zoonoses, that had titers between 25 and 3,200 with the canicola serovar, and 72% of 105 canine serum samples from the same serum bank, also reacted with the new isolate. The mean and median titers of the human serum samples tested with the battery of antigens recommended by WHO was 630 and 100 respectively, and when tested with the isolate it was 1,823 and 400. In the dog sera, the values were respectively 347 and 100 with the battery, and 1,088 and 200 with the isolate.
Poché, David M; Hartman, Daniel; Polyakova, Larisa; Poché, Richard M
Bubonic plague (Yersinia pestis) is a deadly zoonosis with black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus) as a reservoir host in the United States. Systemic insecticides are a promising means of controlling the vectors, Oropsylla spp. fleas, infesting these prairie dogs, subsequently disrupting the Y. pestis cycle. The objective of this study was to conduct a field trial evaluating the efficacy of a grain rodent bait containing fipronil (0.005%) against fleas infesting prairie dogs. The study was performed in Larimer County, CO, where bait was applied to a treatment area containing a dense prairie dog population, three times over a three-week period. Prairie dogs were captured and combed for fleas during four study periods (pre-, mid-, 1 st post-, and 2 nd post-treatment). Results indicated the use of bait containing fipronil significantly reduced flea burden. The bait containing fipronil was determined to reduce the mean number of fleas per prairie dog >95% for a minimum of 52 days post-initial treatment application and 31 days post-final treatment application. These results suggest the potential for this form of treatment to reduce flea population density on prairie dogs, and subsequently plague transmission, among mammalian hosts across the United States and beyond. © 2017 The Society for Vector Ecology.
Full Text Available Leishmaniasis is an important metazoonosis caused by protozoa of the genus Leishmania and has a heteroxenic life cycle involving invertebrate and vertebrate hosts. Transmission occurs during the blood meal of infected phlebotomine sand flies in wild species, domestic animals, and humans. The dog is a reservoir for the parasite causing visceral leishmaniasis (VL, whereas in American tegumentary leishmaniasis (ATL, dogs are erratic hosts that are accidentally infected, as in humans. Dogs are considered an important indicator of the parasite and its vectors in the environment, thus highlighting the importance of diagnosis in these animals. This study aimed to assess the seroepidemiology of Leishmania spp. in dogs in the municipality of Telêmaco Borba that were part of a castration campaign. Blood samples from 191 dogs were collected, and their owners were surveyed on various epidemiological variables. Serological analysis was performed using indirect immunofluorescence (IIF and rapid immunochromatography (DPP®. Screening by IIF identified 13 (6.81% positive animals, none of which were positive for the DPP® test, which is specific for VL. Statistical analysis of the questionnaire responses indicated a significant association between seropositivity and the presence of stacked or composting leaves in the backyard (p = 0.0498, forest areas (squares, woods, parks near the residence (p = 0.0015, and poorly healing ulcerated or nodular epidermal lesions in the dog (p = 0.0138. This study revealed the presence of anti-Leishmania spp. IgG antibodies in dogs residing in Telêmaco Borba, suggesting the presence of the parasite and vector in the environment. In addition, the existence of stacked or composting leaves in the backyard, forest areas near the residence, and epidermal lesions in dogs are factors associated with Leishmania spp. infection in pet dogs.
Full Text Available Although the biology and ecology of the arthropod vectors are different, some factors, such as global warming, the increasing abundance of mosquitoes, the movement of domestic hosts, and the abundance of wild reservoirs, can act as favourable factors for the distribution of infections. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of Dirofilaria immitis infection in shepherd dogs living in the high altitude of mountainous area (i.e.1200 meters above the sea level. The study group was comprised of 160 shepherd dogs living in 4 mountainous regions (Targavar, Margavar, Kolshin and Hovarchin of west Azerbaijan where continuous movement of sheep and goat flocks resulted to have a little information about shepherd dogs in these regions. Additionally, arduous pathways have made impossible any access by car to some territories of these areas. The dogs were mostly mixed raced with different ages (from 1 to 10 years and sexes (male = 136, female = 24. Blood samples were collected from cephalic vein. Direct thin and thick blood smears and modified knott’s technique were used for detecting D.immitis microfilariae and other blood parasites. The results indicated that 40 (25 % of dogs were infected with D. immitis microfilariae. In examination of the dogs, no severe life threatening feature of the disease was diagnosed. There were no significant differences (P > 0.05 of Dirrofilaria infection among gender, age groups and geographical areas. High prevalence of asymptomatic Dirrofilariasis in shepherd dogs in this area highlights the need of controlling and preventive programs.
Miotto, Bruno Alonso; Moreno, Luisa Zanolli; Guilloux, Aline Gil Alves; Sousa, Gisele Oliveira de; Loureiro, Ana Paula; Moreno, Andrea Micke; Lilenbaum, Walter; Vasconcellos, Silvio Arruda; Heinemann, Marcos Bryan; Hagiwara, Mitika Kuribayashi
Leptospirosis is a zoonotic disease of global importance caused by pathogenic Leptospira species. Dogs can become asymptomatically infected, acting like reservoir hosts for pathogenic Leptospira, notably Leptospira interrogans serovar Canicola. Identification of such individuals and characterization of leptospires involved in chronic infections may unravel the role of dogs in the epidemiology of particular leptospiral strains. The aim of the present work was to describe the first Leptospira santarosai strain isolated from a dog. The dog was kept in a public shelter in São Paulo city, Brazil, and presented asymptomatic urinary shedding detected by PCR. Prospective evaluation was performed to fully characterize its chronic carrier state. The dog did not present anti-Leptospira titles or clinical/laboratorial abnormalities during the evaluations; nevertheless long-term urinary shedding was confirmed by PCR and leptospires were recovered from two occasions. The isolated strain was molecularly characterized by partial 16S rRNA and secY gene sequencing and MLST analysis. Serogroup identification was performed using polyclonal antibodies. The strain was identified as Leptospira santarosai, serogroup Sejroe. This is the first evidence in the literature of the isolation of L. santarosai in dogs. Our findings show that dogs can persistently harbor leptospires other than L. interrogans. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Ambily, V R; Pillai, Usha Narayana; Arun, R; Pramod, S; Jayakumar, K M
Human filariasis caused by Brugia malayi is still a public health problem in many countries of Asia including India, Indonesia, Malaysia and Thailand. The World Health Organization (WHO) has targeted to eliminate filariasis by the year 2020 by Mass annual single dose Diethylcarbamazine Administration (MDA). Results of the MDA programme after the first phase was less satisfactory than expected. Malayan filariasis caused by B. malayi is endemic in the south of Thailand where domestic cat serves as the major reservoir host. There is no report about the occurrence of B. malayi in dogs. The present work was carried out to find out the incidence of microfilariasis in dogs and also to detect the presence of human filarial infection in dogs, if any. One hundred dogs above 6 months of age presented to the veterinary college Hospital, Mannuthy, Kerala, with clinical signs suggestive of microfilariasis - fever, anorexia, conjunctivitis, limb and scrotal oedema - were screened for microfilariae by wet film examination. Positive cases were subjected to Giemsa staining, histochemical staining and molecular techniques. Results of the study showed that 80% of dogs had microfilariasis; out of which 20% had sheathed microfilaria. Giemsa and histochemical staining character, PCR and sequencing confirmed it as B. malayi. High prevalence of B. malayi in dogs in this study emphasized the possible role of dogs in transmission of human filariasis. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Fish-borne zoonotic trematodes (FZT infections including liver- and minute intestinal flukes are common in Southeast Asia in both humans and domestic animals eating raw fish and since 2010, the liver flukes are recognised as neglected tropical diseases by WHO. Mass drug treatment with praziquantel is advised for humans, but no recommendations for control of the FZT in the reservoir hosts exist. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A study was conducted to assess the ability of praziquantel treatment for control of FZT in farm dogs in an endemic area in Northern Vietnam. Initially, 101 dogs from 73 households were examined for small trematode eggs in their faeces. Forty seven copro-positive dogs were included in the study. Thirty eight dogs received treatment with a single dose of 40 mg/kg of praziquantel. A group of nine dogs were left untreated. Coprological examination for small trematode eggs was performed on day 0, 3, 10, 30, 60, 90 and 120 post treatment. Farmers were questioned about dog keeping practises. All dogs were copro-negative for small trematode eggs on both day 3 and 10 post treatment. From day 30 onwards previously negative dogs became positive again. The reinfection rates were 26.3% (day 30, 45.5% (day 60, 53.1% (day 90, 61.3% (day 120.The nine untreated dogs remained positive throughout the study period. There was no difference in the intensity of infection at day 0 and 120 neither in the treated or untreated group. CONCLUSION: Dogs had easy access to raw fish and did not receive treatment against flukes by their owner. More than 50% of the dogs were reinfected 3 months post treatment. We do not recommend controlling FZT infections in dogs by anthelmintic treatment alone since reinfection occurs fast under the existing farm management systems.
Identification of Ixodes ricinus blood meals using an automated protocol with high resolution melting analysis (HRMA) reveals the importance of domestic dogs as larval tick hosts in Italian alpine forests.
Collini, Margherita; Albonico, Francesca; Rosà, Roberto; Tagliapietra, Valentina; Arnoldi, Daniele; Conterno, Lorenza; Rossi, Chiara; Mortarino, Michele; Rizzoli, Annapaola; Hauffe, Heidi Christine
In Europe, Ixodes ricinus L. is the main vector of a variety of zoonotic pathogens, acquired through blood meals taken once per stage from a vertebrate host. Defining the main tick hosts in a given area is important for planning public health interventions; however, until recently, no robust molecular methods existed for blood meal identification from questing ticks. Here we improved the time- and cost-effectiveness of an HRMA protocol for blood meal analysis and used it to identify blood meal sources of sheep tick larvae from Italian alpine forests. Nine hundred questing nymphs were collected using blanket-dragging in 18 extensive forests and 12 forest patches close to rural villages in the Province of Trento. Total DNA was either extracted manually, with the QIAamp DNA Investigator kit, or automatically using the KingFisher™ Flex Magnetic Particle Processors (KingFisher Cell and Tissue DNA Kit). Host DNA was amplified with six independent host group real-time PCR reactions and identified by means of HRMA. Statistical analyses were performed in R to assess the variables important for achieving successful identification and to compare host use in the two types of forest. Automating DNA extraction improved time- and cost-effectiveness of the HRMA protocol, but identification success fell to 22.4% (KingFisher™) from 55.1% (QIAamp), with larval hosts identified in 215 of 848 questing nymphs; 23 mixed blood meals were noted. However, the list of hosts targeted by our primer sets was extended, improving the potential of the method. Host identification to species or genus level was possible for 137 and 102 blood meals, respectively. The most common hosts were Rodentia (28.9%) and, unexpectedly, Carnivora (28.4%), with domestic dogs accounting for 21.3% of all larval blood meals. Overall, Cetartiodactyla species fed 17.2% of larvae. Passeriformes (14.6%) fed a significantly higher proportion of larvae in forest patches (22.3%) than in extensive forest (9.6%), while
Baneth, Gad; Nachum-Biala, Yaarit; Shabat Simon, Maytal; Brenner, Ori; Gaier, Sarit; Rojas, Alicia; Yasur-Landau, Daniel
Leishmania major is a main cause of cutaneous leishmaniasis in humans in an area that stretches from India through Central Asia, the Middle East, to North and West Africa. In Israel, it is a common infection of humans with rodents as the reservoir hosts and Phlebotomus papatasi as its sand fly vector. A 6 months old spayed female mixed breed dog was referred to the Hebrew University Veterinary Teaching Hospital with a large ulcerative dermal lesion on the muzzle, and lesions in the foot pads and left hind leg. Histopathology of a skin biopsy found chronic lymphohistiocytic dermatitis with the presence of Leishmania spp. amastigotes in the muzzle. Physical examination indicated that the dog was overall in a good clinical condition and the main findings were the skin lesions and enlarged prescapular lymph nodes. Complete blood count and serum biochemistry profile were within reference ranges. Serology by ELISA was positive for Leishmania spp. and PCR of the prescapular lymph node was positive by an ITS1 region PCR-high resolution melt analysis. However, the melt curve and subsequent DNA sequencing indicated that infection was caused by L. major and not L. infantum, which is the main causative agent of canine leishmaniosis in the Mediterranean region. DNA was extracted from the paraffin embedded muzzle biopsy and PCR with sequencing also indicated L. major. The dog's young age and the absence of hyperglobulinemia and anemia were not typical of L. infantum infection. The dog was treated with allopurinol and the skin lesions improved and later disappeared when the dog was re-evaluated. This is the first molecularly-confirmed case of L. major infection in a dog. Two previous reports of L. major in dogs originated from Saudi-Arabia and Egypt in 1985 and 1987 were confirmed by enzymatic biochemical techniques. Serology for L. infantum was positive probably due to the well documented serological cross-reactivity between Leishmania spp. Although dogs and wild carnivores are
Akter, Shirin; Alam, Mohammad Zahangir; Nakao, Ryo; Yasin, Golam; Kato, Hirotomo; Katakura, Ken
Visceral leishmaniasis (VL), or kala-azar, is mainly caused by two closely related Leishmania species, Leishmania infantum and Leishmania donovani Leishmania infantum is responsible for zoonotic VL, with dogs as the main reservoir host in the Mediterranean, the Middle East, Asia, and South America. In the Indian subcontinent, VL is caused by L. donovani and is considered anthroponotic, although the only known vector, the sand fly, is zoophilic in nature. The role of domestic and stray dogs in VL transmission is still unclear in this area. We screened 50 stray dogs from VL-endemic areas of Bangladesh for serological and molecular evidence of Leishmania infection. We detected anti-Leishmania antibodies in six (12%) dog serum samples using rK39 immunochromatographic tests. We observed Leishmania kinetoplast DNA in 10 (20%) buffy coat DNA samples by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR), five of which were positive based on internal transcribed spacer 1-PCR. A sequencing analysis of the amplified products confirmed that the parasitic DNA was derived from L. donovani Our findings support the hypothesis that stray dogs are an animal reservoir for L. donovani in this endemic region. Further studies are required to determine the precise role of dogs in the epidemiology of VL in Bangladesh. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.
Bruno L. Travi
Full Text Available Introduction. Although canine cutaneous leishmaniasis has been reported in several foci of South America, no published information from Colombia is available. Objective. We report on two cases found in the Pacific coast region of this country, which presented as a single scrotal ulcer in one dog, and two ulcers on the external surface of the ear in a second dog. Materials and methods. Parasites were isolated by culture in Senekjies culture medium and identified using monoclonal antibodies. The capacity of these dogs to transmit the parasites to sand fly vectors (Lutzomyia trapidoi, Lutzomyia gomezi, Lutzomyia longipalpis, Lutzomyia youngi was tested by allowing the flies to feed on the lesion borders. Results. Both isolates were identified as Leishmania (Viannia braziliensis. No infections were detected upon dissection of engorged flies. A single peri-and sub-lesional injection of 1-2 ml of pentavalent antimony in the dog with ear lesions resulted in clinical cure 6 weeks post-treatment. Conclusions. These observations suggest that although dogs are susceptible to L. braziliensis, their reservoir competence could be low. However, if further studies indicate that canines are capable reservoir hosts of L. Viannia spp., the local treatment of lesions could become a feasible approach to diminish the risk of human infection in the peridomestic setting, without sacrificing infected dogs.
Fung, H L; Calzada, J; Saldaña, A; Santamaria, A M; Pineda, V; Gonzalez, K; Chaves, L F; Garner, B; Gottdenker, N
Dogs play an important role in infectious disease transmission as reservoir hosts of many zoonotic and wildlife pathogens. Nevertheless, unlike wildlife species involved in the life cycle of pathogens, whose health status might be a direct reflection of their fitness and competitive abilities, dog health condition could be sensitive to socio-economic factors impacting the well-being of their owners. Here, we compare several dog health indicators in three rural communities of Panama with different degrees of socio-economic deprivation. From a total of 78 individuals, we collected blood and fecal samples, and assessed their body condition. With the blood samples, we performed routine hematologic evaluation (complete blood counts) and measured cytokine levels (Interferon-γ and Interleukin-10) through enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. With the fecal samples we diagnosed helminthiases. Dogs were also serologically tested for exposure to Trypanosoma cruzi and canine distemper virus, and molecular tests were done to assess T. cruzi infection status. We found significant differences between dog health measurements, pathogen prevalence, parasite richness, and economic status of the human communities where the dogs lived. We found dogs that were less healthy, more likely to be infected with zoonotic pathogens, and more likely to be seropositive to canine distemper virus in the communities with lower economic status. This study concludes that isolated communities of lower economic status in Panama may have less healthy dogs that could become major reservoirs in the transmission of diseases to humans and sympatric wildlife. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Maia, Carla; Cardoso, Luís
Leishmania infantum is the etiological agent of canine leishmaniosis (CanL) in Europe, where it is endemic in the Mediterranean region, with dogs being considered the major reservoir of the parasite for humans and other mammalian hosts. The main transmission mode of Leishmania is by the bite of infected phlebotomine sand fly insects (genus Phlebotomus), which are the only proven vectors of this zoonotic protozoan. Less common, non-vectorial transmission between dogs include infection through transfused blood products from infected donors, transplacental and venereal transmission. CanL has exhibited an expansion to new locations in Europe, mainly northwards, either by territorial contiguity, often in association with global warming that favours vectorial transmission, or by the long-distance importation of infected dogs. The increasing incidence of CanL in countries where the disease is not endemic is challenging owners, veterinarians and government authorities. Most infected dogs in these new areas have been relocated from or travelled with their owners to endemic regions, but in some cases transmission might have also been autochthonous. In the absence of prophylactic measures, the introduction of infected dogs in areas previously free of endemic CanL but which have competent sand fly vectors can result in a potential persistence of L. infantum. The spread of L. infantum in Europe is reviewed with a focus on transmission, epidemiology and geographic distribution of endemic and non-endemic CanL, infection and disease in humans and animal hosts other than dogs, together with prevention and additional control strategies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Leung, Tiffany; Davis, Stephen A.
The role of stray dogs in the persistence of domestic dog rabies, and whether removal of such dogs is beneficial, remains contentious issues for control programs seeking to eliminate rabies. While a community might reach the WHO vaccination target of 70% for dogs that can be handled, the stray or neighborhood dogs that are too wary of humans to be held are a more problematic population to vaccinate. Here, we present a method to estimate vaccination targets for stray dogs when the dog population is made up of stray, free-roaming, and confined dogs, where the latter two types are considered to have an identifiable owner. The control effort required for stray dogs is determined by the type-reproduction number, T1, the number of stray dogs infected by one rabid stray dog either directly or via any chain of infection involving owned dogs. Like the basic reproduction number R0 for single host populations, T1 determines the vaccination effort required to control the spread of disease when control is targeted at one host type, and there is a mix of host types. The application of T1 to rabies in mixed populations of stray and owned dogs is novel. We show that the outcome is sensitive to the vaccination coverage in the owned dog population, such that if vaccination rates of owned dogs were too low then no control effort targeting stray dogs is able to control or eliminate rabies. The required vaccination level also depends on the composition of the dog population, where a high proportion of either stray or free-roaming dogs implies unrealistically high vaccination levels are required to prevent rabies. We find that the required control effort is less sensitive to continuous culling that increases the death rate of stray dogs than to changes in the carrying capacity of the stray dog population. PMID:28451589
Leung, Tiffany; Davis, Stephen A
The role of stray dogs in the persistence of domestic dog rabies, and whether removal of such dogs is beneficial, remains contentious issues for control programs seeking to eliminate rabies. While a community might reach the WHO vaccination target of 70% for dogs that can be handled, the stray or neighborhood dogs that are too wary of humans to be held are a more problematic population to vaccinate. Here, we present a method to estimate vaccination targets for stray dogs when the dog population is made up of stray, free-roaming, and confined dogs, where the latter two types are considered to have an identifiable owner. The control effort required for stray dogs is determined by the type-reproduction number, T 1 , the number of stray dogs infected by one rabid stray dog either directly or via any chain of infection involving owned dogs. Like the basic reproduction number R 0 for single host populations, T 1 determines the vaccination effort required to control the spread of disease when control is targeted at one host type, and there is a mix of host types. The application of T 1 to rabies in mixed populations of stray and owned dogs is novel. We show that the outcome is sensitive to the vaccination coverage in the owned dog population, such that if vaccination rates of owned dogs were too low then no control effort targeting stray dogs is able to control or eliminate rabies. The required vaccination level also depends on the composition of the dog population, where a high proportion of either stray or free-roaming dogs implies unrealistically high vaccination levels are required to prevent rabies. We find that the required control effort is less sensitive to continuous culling that increases the death rate of stray dogs than to changes in the carrying capacity of the stray dog population.
Inpankaew, Tawin; Murrell, Kenneth Darwin; Pinyopanuwat, Nongnuch
common zoonotic parasite (30.0%) followed by Ascaris suum (13.3%). This study provides baseline data on gastrointestinal parasites in dogs and pigs from Cambodia and underscores the importance of domestic animals as reservoir hosts for human parasites for Cambodian veterinary and public health agencies....... Follow-up studies are required to further taxonomically characterize these dog and pig parasites and to determine their role in human parasites in this community.......There is little information available on parasites of zoonotic significance in Cambodia. In 2011, in an effort to obtain data on potentially zoonotic gastrointestinal parasites in domestic animals, 50 dogs and 30 pigs residing in 38 households located in Ang Svay Check village, Takeo province...
Satter, A.; Varnon, J.E.; Hoang, M.T.
A reservoir's life begins with exploration leading to discovery followed by delineation of the reservoir, development of the field, production by primary, secondary and tertiary means, and finally to abandonment. Sound reservoir management is the key to maximizing economic operation of the reservoir throughout its entire life. Technological advances and rapidly increasing computer power are providing tools to better manage reservoirs and are increasing the gap between good and neutral reservoir management. The modern reservoir management process involves goal setting, planning, implementing, monitoring, evaluating, and revising plans. Setting a reservoir management strategy requires knowledge of the reservoir, availability of technology, and knowledge of the business, political, and environmental climate. Formulating a comprehensive management plan involves depletion and development strategies, data acquisition and analyses, geological and numerical model studies, production and reserves forecasts, facilities requirements, economic optimization, and management approval. This paper provides management, engineers geologists, geophysicists, and field operations staff with a better understanding of the practical approach to reservoir management using a multidisciplinary, integrated team approach
Evaluation of a rapid immunochromatographic dipstick test for detection of antibodies to Trypanosoma cruzi in dogs experimentally infected with isolates obtained from opossums (Didelphis virginiana), armadillos (Dasypus novemcinctus), and dogs (Canis familiaris) from the United States.
Rosypal, Alexa C; Hill, Roderick; Lewis, Samantha; Barr, Stephen C; Valadas, Samantha; Gennari, Solange Maria; Lindsay, David S
Dogs are reservoir hosts for Trypanosoma cruzi , the causative agent of American trypanosomiasis. A rapid immunochromatographic dipstick test (ICT) is available commercially for canine serological testing. The ICT was developed with the use of sera from South American dogs, but it is not routinely used in the United States. We evaluated the utility of the ICT in detecting anti-T. cruzi antibodies in dogs from the United States. Dogs (N = 64) were experimentally infected with United States' isolates of T. cruzi from an opossum (Didelphis virginiana), an armadillo (Dasypus novemcinctus), and a domestic dog (Canis familiaris), and were tested after experimental infection. Sera from uninfected United States dogs (n = 79; hemaculture negative) were used as negative controls. In a blind study, sera were tested by the ICT and compared to the indirect immunofluorescent antibody test with the use of Brazil-strain epimastigotes as antigen. The sensitivity of the ICT was 91% and the specificity was 98% in dogs experimentally infected with United States isolates. Our study indicates that the ICT could be a useful screening tool for serological surveillance of canine T. cruzi exposure in the United States.
Piekarska, Jolanta; Bajzert, Joanna; Gorczykowski, Michał; Kantyka, Magdalena; Podkowik, Magdalena
Giardia duodenalis (G. intestinalis) is a common protozoan causing gastrointestinal disorders in many species of mammals. The genus of Giardia has high molecular diversity. Dogs and cats, in addition to their typical infection with assemblages C, D and F, may be a reservoir of zoonotic assemblages (A and B). The aim of this study was a genetic characteristic of Giardia isolates of dogs and cats from the area of Wroclaw (Poland). A total of 128 and 33 faecal samples from dogs and cats, respectively, were analyzed by routine coprological methods. The animals were diagnosed on the presence of G. duodenalis antigens in faeces soluble with the use of SNAP Giardia (IDEXX Laboratories) immunosorbent assay. 27 DNA isolates of Giardia were subjected to molecular identification (PCR-RFLP). The prevalence of G. duodenalis was 21.1% (27/128) in dogs and 15.1% (5/33) in cats. In dogs, C assemblage was present in 18 (81%) positive stool samples, D assemblage in 2 (9%) samples, B assemblage present in one (4.5%), and mixed assemblages (C and D) occurred in one (4.5%) sample. F assemblage was found in 4 (80%) cats' positive stool samples and A assemblage occurred in one case (20%). Confirmation of the presence of A and B zoonotic assemblages suggests that infected pets can be a threat to human health. This study describes for the first time the presence of mixed infections within host-specific C and D assemblages in dogs in Poland.
Zinsstag, J; Dürr, S; Penny, M A; Mindekem, R; Roth, F; Menendez Gonzalez, S; Naissengar, S; Hattendorf, J
Control of human rabies in developing countries depends on prevention in dogs. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the cost-saving potential for the public health sector of intervention to control rabies in animal-host reservoirs. An existing deterministic model was adapted to allow study of dog-to-human rabies transmission. Model parameters were fitted to data from routine weekly reports on the number of rabid dogs and human rabies exposures in N'Djamena, Chad. At the onset of study, the estimated effective reproductive ratio (Re) was 1.01 indicating stable low-level endemic rabies transmission. Simulations were performed to determine what effects mass vaccination and culling of dogs would have on the incidence of human rabies. Findings showed that a mass campaign allowing single parenteral vaccination of at least 70% of the canine population would be sufficient to interrupt transmission of rabies to humans for at least 6 years. The cost-effectiveness of mass dog vaccination was compared to that of "postexposure prophylaxis" (PEP) which would not reduce future human exposure. Results showed that a sustained 5-year PEP program together with a dog-vaccination campaign would be as cost-effective as PEP alone. Beyond a time-frame of 7 years, combining parenteral dog vaccination campaigns with human PEP appeared to be more cost-effective than human PEP alone.
Cafarchia, C.; Latrofa, M.S.; Figueredo, L.A.; da Silva Machado, M.L.; Ferreiro, L.; Guillot, J.; Boekhout, T.; Otranto, D.
Three lipid-dependent Malassezia isolates (here named 114A, 114B and 114C) recovered from a dog with skin lesions were phenotypically and genotypically characterized. All presented ovoid cells and buds formed on a narrow base. Most of the results from physiological tests were consistent with those
Clark, Nicholas J; Seddon, Jennifer M; Šlapeta, Jan; Wells, Konstans
Spillover of parasites at the domestic animal - wildlife interface is a pervasive threat to animal health. Cat and dog fleas (Ctenocephalides felis and C. canis) are among the world's most invasive and economically important ectoparasites. Although both species are presumed to infest a diversity of host species across the globe, knowledge on their distributions in wildlife is poor. We built a global dataset of wild mammal host associations for cat and dog fleas, and used Bayesian hierarchical models to identify traits that predict wildlife infestation probability. We complemented this by calculating functional-phylogenetic host specificity to assess whether fleas are restricted to hosts with similar evolutionary histories, diet or habitat niches. Over 130 wildlife species have been found to harbour cat fleas, representing nearly 20% of all mammal species sampled for fleas. Phylogenetic models indicate cat fleas are capable of infesting a broad diversity of wild mammal species through ecological fitting. Those that use anthropogenic habitats are at highest risk. Dog fleas, by contrast, have been recorded in 31 mammal species that are primarily restricted to certain phylogenetic clades, including canids, felids and murids. Both flea species are commonly reported infesting mammals that are feral (free-roaming cats and dogs) or introduced (red foxes, black rats and brown rats), suggesting the breakdown of barriers between wildlife and invasive reservoir species will increase spillover at the domestic animal - wildlife interface. Our empirical evidence shows that cat fleas are incredibly host-generalist, likely exhibiting a host range that is among the broadest of all ectoparasites. Reducing wild species' contact rates with domestic animals across natural and anthropogenic habitats, together with mitigating impacts of invasive reservoir hosts, will be crucial for reducing invasive flea infestations in wild mammals.
Marta S. Alves
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine antibiotic resistance (AR dissemination in coastal water, considering the contribution of different sources of faecal contamination. Samples were collected in Berlenga, an uninhabited island classified as Natural Reserve and visited by tourists for aquatic recreational activities. To achieve our aim, AR in Escherichia coli isolates from coastal water was compared to AR in isolates from two sources of faecal contamination: human-derived sewage and seagull faeces. Isolation of E. coli was done on Chromocult agar. Based on genetic typing 414 strains were established. Distribution of E. coli phylogenetic groups was similar among isolates of all sources. Resistances to streptomycin, tetracycline, cephalothin and amoxicillin were the most frequent. Higher rates of AR were found among seawater and faeces isolates, except for last-line antibiotics used in human medicine. Multi-resistance rates in isolates from sewage and seagull faeces (29% and 32% were lower than in isolates from seawater (39%. Seawater AR profiles were similar to those from seagull faeces and differed significantly from sewage AR profiles. Nucleotide sequences matching resistance genes blaTEM, sul1, sul2, tet(A and tet(B, were present in isolates of all sources. Genes conferring resistance to 3rd generation cephalosporins were detected in seawater (blaCTX-M-1 and blaSHV-12 and seagull faeces (blaCMY-2. Plasmid-mediated determinants of resistance to quinolones were found: qnrS1 in all sources and qnrB19 in seawater and seagull faeces. Our results show that seawater is a relevant reservoir of AR and that seagulls are an efficient vehicle to spread human-associated bacteria and resistance genes. The E. coli resistome recaptured from Berlenga coastal water was mainly modulated by seagulls-derived faecal pollution. The repertoire of resistance genes covers antibiotics critically important for humans, a potential risk for human health.
Munday, B L; Barker, I K; Rickard, M D
Twelve dogs were fed mutton containing small sarcocysts, and killed 1, 3, 4, 6, 7, 10, 15, 16, 17 days after infection (DAI). Beginning 13-15 DAI sporocysts 14.7 times 9.0 mum were passed in the faeces of the dogs killed 15-17 DAI. Histological examination showed that developing stages were most numerous in the subepithelial tissue at the tips of villi in the proximal third of the small intestine. Macrogametes containing tiny PAS + granules, and microgametocytes with peripheral developing microgametes were present 1 DAI. By 4 DAI oocysts, with a small nucleus and vacuolate cytoplasm were seen. Sporulation was observed 7-10 DAI. The first nuclear division resulted in 2 polar nuclei which divided laterally, resulting in 2 sporocysts each with 2 polar nuclei. This process was repeated once more to produce 4 nucleated sporozoites in each of 2 sporocysts. PAS + granules were seen at the periphery of sporulating oocysts and sporocysts. There was a large PAS + granule in the mid zone of sporozoites, with a smaller granule at one tip. Numerous sporulated sporocyst pairs were present beneath the epithelium at the tips of villi in dogs killed during patency. Four lambs were inoculated orally with sporocysts passed by dogs following feeding of infected mutton. Fifteen DAI schizonts were seen in the endothelium of arteries and arterioles in many organs, but not brain. Twenty-four DAI, smaller schizonts were seen in capillary endothelium in many organs, including brain. The two other lambs died 42 and 104 DAI, after an illness characterized by anaemia and ill-thrift. Mature schizonts were found in cells in the brain 42 DAI, associated with nonsuppurative meningoencephalitis. Developing sarcocysts were found in muscle, associated with myositis. Sarcocysts in muscle 104 DAI were mature. In the brain there were degenerate cysts and mature sarcocysts, and nonsuppirative meningoencephalitis.
Wodecka, Beata; Michalik, Jerzy; Lane, Robert S; Nowak-Chmura, Magdalena; Wierzbicka, Anna
European badgers and raccoon dogs and their associated ticks and lice were assayed for the presence of Lyme borreliosis and relapsing fever-group spirochete DNA in western Poland. Analyses of blood, ear-biopsy and liver samples revealed that 25% of 28 raccoon dogs and 12% of 34 badgers were PCR positive for borreliae. Borrelia garinii was the dominant species in raccoon dogs (62.5%), followed by B. afzelii (25%) and B. valaisiana (12.5%). PCR-positive badgers were infected only with B. afzelii. A total of 351 attached ticks was recovered from 23 (82%) of the raccoon dogs and 13 (38%) of the badgers. Using a nested PCR targeting the ITS2 fragments of Ixodes DNA, four Ixodes species were identified: I. ricinus, I. canisuga, I. hexagonus, and one provisionally named I. cf. kaiseri. Ixodes canisuga and I. ricinus prevailed on both host species. The highest infection prevalence was detected in I. ricinus, followed by I. canisuga and I. cf. kaiseri. Borrelia garinii and B. afzelii accounted for 61.6% and 30.1% of the infections detected in all PCR-positive ticks, respectively. Four other Borrelia species (B. burgdorferi sensu stricto, B. valaisiana, B. lusitaniae and B. miyamotoi) were detected only in I. ricinus from raccoon dogs. Moreover, Borrelia DNA, mostly B. garinii, was detected in 57 (81.4%) of 70 Trichodectes melis lice derived from 12 badgers. The detection of B. afzelii in one-half of PCR-positive biopsies reconfirms previous associations of this species with mammalian hosts, whereas the high prevalence of B. garinii in feeding lice and I. ricinus ticks (including larvae) demonstrates that both carnivores serve as hosts for B. garinii. The lack of B. garinii DNA in the tissues of badgers versus its prevalence in raccoon-dog biopsies, however, incriminates only the latter carnivore as a potential reservoir host. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.
Kahn, Noah D; Walgenbach, J F; Kennedy, G G
In North Carolina, Tomato spotted wilt tospovirus (family Bunyaviridae, genus Tospovirus, TSWV) is vectored primarily by the tobacco thrips, Frankliniella fusca (Hinds), and the western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae). TSWV overwinters in winter annual weeds from which it is spread to susceptible crops in spring. Because most susceptible crops are destroyed after harvest before winter weeds emerge in the fall, infected summer weeds are thought to be the principal source for spread of TSWV to winter annual weeds in fall. A survey of summer weeds associated with TSWV-susceptible crops in the coastal plain of North Carolina conducted between May and October revealed that relatively few species were commonly infected with TSWV and supported populations of F. fusca or F. occidentalis. F. occidentalis made up > 75% of vector species collected from 15 summer weed species during 2002. The number of F. occidentalis and F. fusca immatures collected from plant samples varied significantly among plant species. Ipomoea purpurea (L.) Roth, Mollugo verticillata L., Cassia obtusifolia L., and Amaranthus palmeri S. Wats supported the largest numbers of immature F. occidentalis. Richardia scabra L., M. verticillata, and Ipomoea hederacea (L.) supported the largest numbers of F. fusca immatures. TSWV was present at 16 of 17 locations, and naturally occurring infections were found in 14 of 29 weed species tested. Five of the TSWV-infected species have not previously been reported as hosts of TSWV (A. palmeri, Solidago altissima L., Ipomoea lacunosa L., I. purpurea, and Phytolacca americana L.). Estimated rates of infection were highest in I. purpurea (6.8%), M. verticillata (5.3%), and I. hederacea (1.9%). When both the incidence of infection by TSWV and the populations of F. occidentalis and F. fusca associated with each weed species are considered, the following summer weed species have the potential to act as significant sources for
Full Text Available Visceral Leishmaniasis (Kala-azar is a serious health problem in some northern and south western parts of Iran. The incidence of kala-azar caused by Leishmania infantum has recently increased in Nourabad-Mamassani district of Fars Province, in the south of the country. This study was designed to determine the role of asymptomatic dogs as host reservoir of L. infantum in this new formed focus and detection of prevalence of infection near them. A total of 20 as¬ymptomatic stray and sheep dogs were randomly sampled. The Buffy coat layer of their peripheral blood was used for DNA extraction and PCR. A species specific seminested PCR was used for DNA amplification using LINR4, LIN17 and LIN19 primers. These primers amplified variable area of the minicircle kDNA of Leishmania parasites. Of the 20 sampled dogs checked for leishmanial kDNA, six (30% were found naturally infected. It is concluded that, dogs (Canis familiaris even if asympto¬matic, is considered as the domestic host reservoir of kala-azar in this endemic focus.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Anaplasma phagocytophilum is the causative agent of tick-borne fever, a disease with high economic impact for domestic ruminants in Europe. Epidemiological cycles of this species are complex, and involve different ecotypes circulating in various host species. To date, these epidemiological cycles are poorly understood, especially in Europe, as European reservoir hosts (i.e. vertebrate hosts enabling long-term maintenance of the bacterium in the ecosystem, of the bacterium have not yet been clearly identified. In this study, our objective was to explore the presence, the prevalence, and the genetic diversity of A. phagocytophilum in wild animals, in order to better understand their implications as reservoir hosts of this pathogen. Methods The spleens of 101 wild animals were collected from central France and tested for the presence of A. phagocytophilum DNA by msp2 qPCR. Positive samples were then typed by multi-locus variable-number tandem repeat (VNTR analysis (MLVA, and compared to 179 previously typed A. phagocytophilum samples. Results Anaplasma phagocytophilum DNA was detected in 82/101 (81.2% animals including 48/49 red deer (98%, 20/21 roe deer (95.2%, 13/29 wild boars (44.8%, and 1/1 red fox. MLVA enabled the discrimination of two A. phagocytophilum groups: group A contained the majority of A. phagocytophilum from red deer and two thirds of those from cattle, while group B included a human strain and variants from diverse animal species, i.e. sheep, dogs, a horse, the majority of variants from roe deer, and the remaining variants from cattle and red deer. Conclusions Our results suggest that red deer and roe deer are promising A. phagocytophilum reservoir host candidates. Moreover, we also showed that A. phagocytophilum potentially circulates in at least two epidemiological cycles in French cattle. The first cycle may involve red deer as reservoir hosts and cattle as accidental hosts for Group A strains, whereas the
Ecology of phlebotomine sandflies and putative reservoir hosts of leishmaniasis in a border area in Northeastern Mexico: implications for the risk of transmission of Leishmania mexicana in Mexico and the USA.
Rodríguez-Rojas, Jorge J; Rodríguez-Moreno, Ángel; Berzunza-Cruz, Miriam; Gutiérrez-Granados, Gabriel; Becker, Ingeborg; Sánchez-Cordero, Victor; Stephens, Christopher R; Fernández-Salas, Ildefonso; Rebollar-Téllez, Eduardo A
Leishmaniases are a group of important diseases transmitted to humans through the bite of sandfly vectors. Several forms of leishmaniases are endemic in Mexico and especially in the Southeast region. In the Northeastern region, however, there have only been isolated reports of cases and scanty records of sandfly vectors. The main objective of this study was to analyze the diversity of sandflies and potential reservoir hosts of Leishmania spp. in the states of Nuevo León and Tamaulipas. Species richness and abundances of sandflies and rodents were recorded. A fraction of the caught sandflies was analyzed by PCR to detect Leishmania spp. Tissues from captured rodents were also screened for infection. Ecological Niche Models (ENMs) were computed for species of rodent and their association with crop-growing areas. We found 13 species of sandflies, several of which are first records for this region. Medically important species such as Lutzomyia anthophora, Lutzomyia diabolica, Lutzomyia cruciata, and Lutzomyia shannoni were documented. Leishmania spp. infection was not detected in sandflies. Nine species of rodents were recorded, and Leishmania (Leishmania) mexicana infection was found in four species of Peromyscus and Sigmodon. ENMs showed that potential distribution of rodent pest species overlaps with allocated crop areas. This shows that Leishmania (L.) mexicana infection is present in the Northeastern region of Mexico, and that previously unrecorded sandfly species occur in the same areas. These findings suggest a potential risk of transmission of Leishmania (L.) mexicana. © J. Rodríguez-Rojas et al., published by EDP Sciences, 2017.
Ecology of phlebotomine sandflies and putative reservoir hosts of leishmaniasis in a border area in Northeastern Mexico: implications for the risk of transmission of Leishmania mexicana in Mexico and the USA
Rodríguez-Rojas, Jorge J.; Rodríguez-Moreno, Ángel; Berzunza-Cruz, Miriam; Gutiérrez-Granados, Gabriel; Becker, Ingeborg; Sánchez-Cordero, Victor; Stephens, Christopher R.; Fernández-Salas, Ildefonso; Rebollar-Téllez, Eduardo A.
Leishmaniases are a group of important diseases transmitted to humans through the bite of sandfly vectors. Several forms of leishmaniases are endemic in Mexico and especially in the Southeast region. In the Northeastern region, however, there have only been isolated reports of cases and scanty records of sandfly vectors. The main objective of this study was to analyze the diversity of sandflies and potential reservoir hosts of Leishmania spp. in the states of Nuevo León and Tamaulipas. Species richness and abundances of sandflies and rodents were recorded. A fraction of the caught sandflies was analyzed by PCR to detect Leishmania spp. Tissues from captured rodents were also screened for infection. Ecological Niche Models (ENMs) were computed for species of rodent and their association with crop-growing areas. We found 13 species of sandflies, several of which are first records for this region. Medically important species such as Lutzomyia anthophora, Lutzomyia diabolica, Lutzomyia cruciata, and Lutzomyia shannoni were documented. Leishmania spp. infection was not detected in sandflies. Nine species of rodents were recorded, and Leishmania (Leishmania) mexicana infection was found in four species of Peromyscus and Sigmodon. ENMs showed that potential distribution of rodent pest species overlaps with allocated crop areas. This shows that Leishmania (L.) mexicana infection is present in the Northeastern region of Mexico, and that previously unrecorded sandfly species occur in the same areas. These findings suggest a potential risk of transmission of Leishmania (L.) mexicana. PMID:28825400
Kim, Jae-Hoon; Kang, Min-Soo; Lee, Byung-Chun; Hwang, Woo-Suk; Lee, Chang-Woo; So, Byung-Jae; Dubey, J. P.
Neospora caninum is an important cause of abortion in cattle, and dogs are its only known definitive host. Its seroprevalence among domestic urban and rural dogs and feral raccoon dogs (Nyctereutes procyonoides koreensis) in Korea was studied by indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT) and by the neospora agglutination test (NAT), respectively. Antibodies to N. caninum were found in 8.3% of urban dogs and in 21.6% of dogs at dairy farms. Antibody titers ranged from 1:50 to 1:400. Antibodies to N. caninum were found in six (23%) of 26 raccoon dogs. However, the potential role of raccoon dogs as a source of horizontal transmission of bovine neosporosis needs further investigation. The results of this study suggest that there is a close relationship between N. caninum infection among dairy farm dogs and cattle in Korea. This study reports for the first time upon the seroprevalence of N. caninum infection in raccoon dogs in Korea. PMID:14699266
The Swiss Permanent Mission in Geneva has requested CERN to inform the members of its personnel that a notice relating to Swiss legislation on dog ownership has been published on-line at the following address: http://www.eda.admin.ch/eda/en/home/topics/intorg/un/unge/gepri/pet.html This legislation is applicable to all international civil servants who own a dog. Relations with the Host States Service mailto:email@example.com http://www.cern.ch/relations/
Stapp, Paul; Salkeld, Daniel J; Eisen, Rebecca J; Pappert, Ryan; Young, John; Carter, Leon G; Gage, Kenneth L; Tripp, Daniel W; Antolin, Michael F
Plague, caused by the bacterium Yersinia pestis, causes die-offs of colonies of prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus). It has been argued that other small rodents are reservoirs for plague, spreading disease during epizootics and maintaining the pathogen in the absence of prairie dogs; yet there is little empirical support for distinct enzootic and epizootic cycles. Between 2004 and 2006, we collected blood from small rodents captured in colonies in northern Colorado before, during, and for up to 2 yr after prairie dog epizootics. We screened 1,603 blood samples for antibodies to Y. pestis, using passive hemagglutination and inhibition tests, and for a subset of samples we cultured blood for the bacterium itself. Of the four species of rodents that were common in colonies, the northern grasshopper mouse (Onychomys leucogaster) was the only species with consistent evidence of plague infection during epizootics, with 11.1-23.1% of mice seropositive for antibody to Y. pestis during these events. Seropositive grasshopper mice, thirteen-lined ground squirrels (Spermophilus tridecemlineatus), and deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus) were captured the year following epizootics. The appearance of antibodies to Y. pestis in grasshopper mice coincided with periods of high prairie dog mortality; subsequently, antibody prevalence rates declined, with no seropositive individuals captured 2 yr after epizootics. We did not detect plague in any rodents off of colonies, or on colonies prior to epizootics, and found no evidence of persistent Y. pestis infection in blood cultures. Our results suggest that grasshopper mice could be involved in epizootic spread of Y. pestis, and possibly, serve as a short-term reservoir for plague, but provide no evidence that the grasshopper mouse or any small rodent acts as a long-term, enzootic host for Y. pestis in prairie dog colonies.
Calvopiña, Manuel; Cevallos, William; Atherton, Richard; Saunders, Matthew; Small, Alexander; Kumazawa, Hideo; Sugiyama, Hiromu
Background Amphimerus sp. is a liver fluke which recently has been shown to have a high prevalence of infection among an indigenous group, Chachi, who reside in a tropical rainforest in the northwestern region of Ecuador. Since it is unknown which animals can act as a reservoir and/or definitive hosts for Amphimerus sp. in this endemic area, a study was done to determine the prevalence of infection in domestic cats and dogs. This information is important to understand the epidemiology, life cycle and control of this parasite. Methodology/Findings In July 2012, three Chachi communities located on Rio Cayapas, province of Esmeraldas, were surveyed. A total of 89 of the 109 registered households participated in the study. Of the 27 cats and 43 dogs found residing in the communities, stool samples were collected from 14 cats and 31 dogs (total of 45 animals) and examined microscopically for the presence of Amphimerus eggs. The prevalence of infection was 71.4% in cats and 38.7% in dogs, with similar rates of infection in all three communities. Significantly more cats were infected than dogs (p = 0.042). Conclusions/Significance The data show a high rate of Amphimerus sp. infection in domestic cats and dogs residing in Chachi communities. It can be concluded that these animals act as definitive and reservoir hosts for this liver fluke and that amphimeriasis is a zoonotic disease. These findings provide important epidemiological data which will aid in the development and implementation of control strategies against the transmission of Amphimerus. PMID:25647171
Liesner, Jana M; Krücken, Jürgen; Schaper, Roland; Pachnicke, Stefan; Kohn, Barbara; Müller, Elisabeth; Schulze, Christoph; von Samson-Himmelstjerna, Georg
N. mikurensis for the second time. In spleen samples of red foxes with 47.5% a high prevalence of piroplasms was found. Sequencing of 11 samples identified 10 as Theileria annae. Despite the high prevalence of this pathogen in its reservoir host, it was absent in dog samples. In one dog (0.1%), Babesia canis was detected but there was no further information about the dog's origin. Evaluation of the questionnaire identified a high proportion of dogs (74.2%, n=233) which was not protected by ectoparasiticides. Moreover, 21.2% (n=236) of the dogs originated from inland or abroad shelters, and therefore might potentially come from areas endemic for dirofilariosis or babesiosis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Morganti, Giulia; Gavaudan, Stefano; Canonico, Cristina; Ravagnan, Silvia; Olivieri, Emanuela; Diaferia, Manuela; Marenzoni, Maria Luisa; Antognoni, Maria Teresa; Capelli, Gioia; Silaghi, Cornelia; Veronesi, Fabrizia
Dogs are a common feeding hosts for Ixodes ricinus and may act as reservoir hosts for zoonotic tick-borne pathogens (TBPs) and as carriers of infected ticks into human settings. The aim of this work was to evaluate the presence of several selected TBPs of significant public health concern by molecular methods in I. ricinus recovered from dogs living in urban and suburban settings in central Italy. A total of 212 I. ricinus specimens were collected from the coat of domestic dogs. DNA was extracted from each specimen individually and tested for Rickettsia spp., Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, Babesia spp., and Anaplasma phagocytophilum, using real-time and conventional PCR protocols, followed by sequencing. Sixty-one ticks (28.8%) tested positive for TBPs; 57 samples were infected by one pathogen, while four showed coinfections. Rickettsia spp. was detected in 39 specimens (18.4%), of which 32 were identified as Rickettsia monacensis and seven as Rickettsia helvetica. Twenty-two samples (10.4%) tested positive for A. phagocytophilum; Borrelia lusitaniae and Borrelia afzelii were detected in two specimens and one specimen, respectively. One tick (0.5%) was found to be positive for Babesia venatorum (EU1). Our findings reveal the significant exposure of dogs to TBPs of public health concern and provide data on the role of dogs in the circulation of I. ricinus-borne pathogens in central Italy.
Bannoehr, Jeanette; Guardabassi, Luca
The dog is the natural host of Staphylococcus pseudintermedius. Many research efforts are currently being undertaken to expand our knowledge and understanding of this important canine commensal and opportunistic pathogen. The objective of this review is to summarize the current knowledge of the s......The dog is the natural host of Staphylococcus pseudintermedius. Many research efforts are currently being undertaken to expand our knowledge and understanding of this important canine commensal and opportunistic pathogen. The objective of this review is to summarize the current knowledge...... consequences for clinical practice. Staphylococcus pseudintermedius carriage in the dog is more frequent and genetically heterogeneous compared with that of Staphylococcus aureus in man. It appears that these staphylococcal species have evolved separately through adaptation to their respective natural hosts...
Moskvina, T. V.; Ermolenko, A. V.
Dogs are the hosts for a wide helminth spectrum including tapeworms, flatworms, and nematodes. These parasites affect the dog health and cause morbidity and mortality, especially in young and old animals. Some species, as Toxocara canis, Ancylostoma caninum, Dipylidium caninum, and Echinococcus spp. are well-known zoonotic parasites worldwide, resulting in high public health risks. Poor data about canine helminth species and prevalence are available in Russia, mainly due to the absence of official guidelines for the control of dog parasites. Moreover, the consequent low quality of veterinary monitoring and use of preventive measures, the high rate of environmental contamination by dog feces and the increase of stray dog populations, make the control of the environmental contamination by dog helminths very difficult in this country. This paper reviews the knowledge on canine helminth fauna and prevalence in Russia. Practical aspects related to diagnosis, treatment, and control of parasitic diseases of dogs in Russia are discussed. PMID:27956777
Guinan, E. F.
(Abstract only) HD 189733A is an eighth mag K1.5V star that has attracted much attention because it hosts a short period, transiting, hot-Jupiter planet. This planet, HD 189733b, has one of the shortest known orbital periods (P = 2.22 days) and is only 0.031 AU from its host star. Because the system undergoes eclipses and is bright, HD 189733 has been extensively studied. The planet's atmosphere has been found to contain water vapor, methane, CO2, and sodium and possible haze. Spitzer IR observations indicate planet temperature, varying ~970 K to ~1,200 K over its surface (Tinetti (2007). Based on measurements of the K-star's P(rot) from starspot modulations of ~11.95 d, strong coronal X-ray emission and chromospheric Ca II-HK emission indicate a young age of ~0.7 Gyr. But this apparent young age is discrepant with a much older age (> 4 Gyr) inferred from the star's very low Lithium abundance. However, the age of the HD 189733 system can be independently determined by the presence of a faint dM4 companion (HD 189733B) some 12" away. Our Age-Activity relations for this star (no detectable coronal X-ray emission and no H-alpha emission) indicate an age > 4 Gyr (and behavior - in that close-in hot Jupiter size planets appear to be physically interacting with their host stars. This work is supported by NSF/RUI grant AST-1009903.
Thongyuan, Suporn; Kittayapong, Pattamaporn
domestic dogs can be infected with dengue virus strains circulating in dengue endemic areas. The role of domestic dogs in dengue transmission needs to be further investigated, i.e., whether they are potential reservoirs or incidental hosts of dengue viruses.
Gravino, A E
Leishmaniasis is a zoonosis caused by an intracellular parasite belonging to the genus Leishmania. In Europe, Africa, South America and China, visceral leishmaniasis is caused by L. infantum. The vectors of leishmaniasis are phlebotomine sandflies belonging to the genera Phlebotomus. According to the World Health Organization there are 2 million new cases each year and 1/10 of the world's population is at risk of infection. Leishmaniasis is considered a zoonosis and human are generally accidental hosts. The animal reservoir includes rodents, dog and other mammals. Several studies have indicate that half of the dogs with antileishmanial antibodies have no signs of disease although, animal with subclinical infections are potentially infectious to sand flies. The factors determining susceptibility or resistence to visceral leishmaniasis remain unclear, but the genetics of the host may play a major role. Clinical signs are: intermittent fever, hepatosplenomegaly, skin lesions and ulcers, alopecia, onychogryphosis, anemia, thrombocytopenia and hypergammaglobulinemia. In mice, the outcome of infection depends on the polarized activation of one of two subsets of CD4+ T cells, Th1 or Th2, the subdivision into Th1 and Th2 cells is based on the pattern of cytokines that they produce. Th1 cells produce gamma interferon (IFN-gamma) and interleukin -2 (IL-2), whereas Th2 cells produce IL-4, IL-5, and IL-10. An important difference between susceptible and resistant mice is that the resistant mice are able to switch to a Th1 profile and control the disease. An important factor in the "decision" to form a Th1 or Th2 phenotype is the early cytokine environment, and IL-12 is one of the cytokines that contributes significantly to the establishment of the Th1 phenotype. Canine leishmaniosis is endemic in the Mediterranean basin and, in most cases is caused by the parasite Leishmania infantum. The main clinical findings are skin lesions, local or generalized lymphoadenopathy, loss of
Dellarupe, A; Regidor-Cerrillo, J; Jiménez-Ruiz, E; Schares, G; Unzaga, J M; Venturini, M C; Ortega-Mora, L M
In a previous study we have shown that the in vitro invasion rate (IR) and tachyzoite yield (TY) are associated with the virulence phenotypes of Neospora caninum isolates of bovine origin. In addition, we recently observed marked differences in virulence when canine isolates were compared in a pregnant BALB/c mouse model. In this study, we investigated whether invasion and proliferation capacities could be used as virulence-related N. caninum phenotypic traits. Of the isolates compared in mice, four canine isolates obtained from oocysts (Nc-Ger2, Nc-Ger3, Nc-Ger-6, Nc-6 Arg) had shown a low-moderate virulence, and two further isolates obtained from dogs with neurological signs (Nc-Bahia, Nc-Liv) were highly virulent. The IR for each isolate was determined by a plaque assay and the counting of immunofluorescence-labeled parasitophorous vacuoles at 3 days post-inoculation (p.i.). The TY was determined by the quantification of tachyzoites at 56 h p.i. by real-time PCR. Most of the canine isolates showed similar IR values under controlled invasion conditions for 4h and 72 h p.i., indicating a limited time period for invasion similar to that observed for bovine isolates. The Nc-Ger3, Nc-Bahia, and Nc-Liv isolates showed a significantly higher IR and TY than the Nc-Ger2 and Nc-Ger6 isolates (P0.885, P0.8117, P<0.058) in mice. These results demonstrate the importance both the invasive and proliferative capacities have on the virulence of canine N. caninum isolates. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Inpankaew, Tawin; Murrell, K Darwin; Pinyopanuwat, Nongnuch; Chhoun, Chamnan; Khov, Kuong; Sem, Tharin; Sorn, San; Muth, Sinuon; Dalsgaard, Anders
There is little information available on parasites of zoonotic significance in Cambodia. In 2011, in an effort to obtain data on potentially zoonotic gastrointestinal parasites in domestic animals, 50 dogs and 30 pigs residing in 38 households located in Ang Svay Check village, Takeo province, Cambodia were examined for parasites from faecal samples. The samples were processed using the formalin-ethyl acetate concentration technique (FECT). Hookworms were the most common zoonotic parasite found in dogs (80.0%) followed by Echinostomes (18.0%). While, in pigs, Fasciolopsis buski was the most common zoonotic parasite (30.0%) followed by Ascaris suum (13.3%). This study provides baseline data on gastrointestinal parasites in dogs and pigs from Cambodia and underscores the importance of domestic animals as reservoir hosts for human parasites for Cambodian veterinary and public health agencies. Follow-up studies are required to further taxonomically characterize these dog and pig parasites and to determine their role in human parasites in this community.
Rapaport, F.T.; Bachvaroff, R.J.; Dicke, K.; Santos, G.
These results point to the capacity of suprelethal total-body irradiation and autologous bone marrow replacement to produce in the host a time-dependent privileged phase of immunologic reactivity during which exposure to alloantigens is more likely to produce unresponsiveness, rather than sensitization. The mechanisms implicated in the mediation of this phenomenon are not clear. Regardless of hypothetical interpretations, however, the current growing interest in total-body irradiation and autologous bone marrow replacement in clinical medicine, and the ease with which this approach appears to produce allogenic unresponsiveness in large mammals, raise the possibility that this method may constitute a highly promising approach to the facilitation of survival of vital transplanted organs in man. This possibility is further supported by the long-term record of the world's longest surviving renal allograft recipient, whose preoperative preparation consisted of total-body irradiation 24 hr before a kidney transplant.
Hansen, Katrine Hartung; Bortolaia, Valeria; Nielsen, Christine Ahl; Nielsen, Jesper Boye; Schønning, Kristian; Agersø, Yvonne; Guardabassi, Luca
CMY-2 is the most common plasmid-mediated AmpC β-lactamase in Escherichia coli isolates of human and animal origin. The aim of this study was to elucidate the epidemiology of CMY-2-producing E. coli in Denmark. Strain and plasmid relatedness was studied in 93 CMY-2-producing clinical and commensal E. coli isolates collected from 2006 to 2012 from humans, retail poultry meat, broilers, and dogs. Multilocus sequence typing (MLST), antimicrobial susceptibility testing, and conjugation were performed in conjunction with plasmid replicon typing, plasmid multilocus sequence typing (pMLST), restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP), and sequencing of selected blaCMY-2-harboring plasmids. MLST revealed high strain diversity, with few E. coli lineages occurring in multiple host species and sample types. blaCMY-2 was detected on plasmids in 83 (89%) isolates. Most (75%) of the plasmids were conjugative and did not (96%) cotransfer resistance to antimicrobials other than cephalosporins. The main replicon types identified were IncI1-Iγ (55%) and IncK (39%). Isolates from different host species mainly carried distinct plasmid subtypes. Seven of the 18 human isolates harbored IncI1-Iγ/sequence type 2 (ST2), IncI1-Iγ/ST12, or IncK plasmids highly similar to those found among animal isolates, even though highly related human and animal plasmids differed by nonsynonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) or insertion sequence elements. This study clearly demonstrates that the epidemiology of CMY-2 can be understood only by thorough plasmid characterization. To date, the spread of this β-lactam resistance determinant in Denmark is mainly associated with IncK and IncI1-Iγ plasmids that are generally distributed according to host-specific patterns. These baseline data will be useful to assess the consequences of the increasing human exposure to CMY-2-producing E. coli via animal sources. CMY-2 is the most common plasmid-mediated AmpC β-lactamase in Escherichia coli
Host derived chemical cues are an important aspect of arthropod attraction to potential hosts. Host cues that act over longer distances include CO2, heat, and water vapor, while cues such as volatile organic compounds (VOCs) act over closer distances. Domestic dogs are important hosts for disease cy...
Malheiros, J; Costa, M M; do Amaral, R B; de Sousa, K C M; André, M R; Machado, R Z; Vieira, M I B
Dogs and cats are often infected with vector-borne pathogens and play a crucial role as reservoirs and hosts in their life cycles. The aim of the present study was to investigate the occurrence of vector-borne pathogens among dogs and cats in the northwestern region of Rio Grande do Sul (RS) State, Brazil. One hundred and ten blood samples were collected from dogs (n=80) and cats (n=30). Laboratory analysis were carried out through stained blood smears, indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for Babesia vogeli and Ehrlichia canis (only for dogs) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) aiming the detection of pathogens. The following pathogens were screened by PCR among dogs and cats: Babesia spp. and Hepatozoon spp. (18S rRNA gene), Anaplasma spp. (16S rRNA gene), and Ehrlichia spp. (dsb gene for dogs and 16S rRNA gene for cats) and Bartonella spp. (nuoG gene only for cats). Using blood smears structures morphologically compatible with piroplasms were found in 5.45% (6/110) of the samples. Anti-B. vogeli and anti-E. canis antibodies were detected in 91% (73/80) and 9% (7/80) of the dogs, respectively. All the seropositive dogs to E. canis were also to B. vogeli. Nineteen (17.3%) animals were positive to hemoparasites by PCR. After sequencing Rangelia vitalii 6/80 (7.5%), B. vogeli 3/80 (4%), Hepatozoon spp. 1/80 (1%), and Anaplasma spp. 1/80 (1%) were found in the dogs, and B. vogeli 2/30 (7%) and Bartonella spp. 6/30 (20%) were detected in the screened cats. No sample was positive for genes dsb and 16S rRNA of Ehrlichia spp. Only those animals which were positive for R. vitalii showed findings compatible with rangeliosis, such as anemia (100%), thrombocytopenia (67%), jaundice (50%), external bleeding (50%), and anorexia (50%). This is the first time that B. vogeli detected among cats in Southern Brazil. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.
Hashiguchi, Yoshihisa; Gomez L, Eduardo A; Cáceres, Abraham G; Velez, Lenin N; Villegas, Nancy V; Hashiguchi, Kazue; Mimori, Tatsuyuki; Uezato, Hiroshi; Kato, Hirotomo
The vector Lutzomyia sand flies and reservoir host mammals of the Leishmania parasites, causing the Andean cutaneous leishmaniasis (Andean-CL, uta) in Peru and Ecuador were thoroughly reviewed, performing a survey of literatures including our unpublished data. The Peruvian L. (V.) peruviana, a principal Leishmania species causing Andean-CL in Peru, possessed three Lutzomyia species, Lu. peruensis, Lu. verrucarum and Lu. ayacuchensis as vectors, while the Ecuadorian L. (L.) mexicana parasite possessed only one species Lu. ayacuchensis as the vector. Among these, the Ecuadorian showed a markedly higher rate of natural Leishmania infections. However, the monthly and diurnal biting activities were mostly similar among these vector species was in both countries, and the higher rates of infection (transmission) reported, corresponded to sand fly's higher monthly-activity season (rainy season). The Lu. tejadai sand fly participated as a vector of a hybrid parasite of L. (V.) braziliensis/L. (V.) peruviana in the Peruvian Andes. Dogs were considered to be principal reservoir hosts of the L. (V.) peruviana and L. (L.) mexicana parasites in both countries, followed by other sylvatic mammals such as Phyllotis andium, Didelphis albiventris and Akodon sp. in Peru, and Rattus rattus in Ecuador, but information on the reservoir hosts/mammals was extremely poor in both countries. Thus, the Peruvian disease form demonstrated more complicated transmission dynamics than the Ecuadorian. A brief review was also given to the control of vector and reservoirs in the Andes areas. Such information is crucial for future development of the control strategies of the disease. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Jaimes-Dueñez, Jeiczon; Triana-Chávez, Omar; Cantillo-Barraza, Omar; Hernández, Carolina; Ramírez, Juan David; Góngora-Orjuela, Agustín
Chagas disease is a zoonotic infection widely distributed in tropical and subtropical regions of America, including more than 50% of the Colombian territory. In the last years, an increase of outbreaks of acute Chagas disease has been observed in the east of the country due to environmental changes and mammal movements toward human settlements. Given the importance of dogs (Canis lupus familiaris) as reservoir hosts and sentinels of Trypanosoma cruzi infection across different regions of America, in this study we reported a serological and molecular detection of T. cruzi infection in 242 dogs from an endemic area of Meta department (East of Colombia), with recent emergence of acute Chagas disease outbreaks. The distribution of T. cruzi infection in dogs was not homogeneous, ranging from 0-41.4% and 0-5.1% in different sampling sectors, through serological (ELISA/IFAT) and molecular methods (conventional and real time PCR), respectively. Statistical analysis indicated that dog infection was associated with specific sampling sectors. Our results show a moderate seroprevalence of infection and active circulation of T. cruzi in dogs from this zone, which suggest areas with potential risk of infection to human that must be taken into consideration when Chagas disease control programs need to be implemented. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
The ultimate goal of oil and gas exploration is to find the oil or gas reservoirs with industrial mining value. Therefore, the core task of modern oil and gas exploration is to identify oil or gas reservoirs on the seismic profiles. Traditionally, the reservoir is identify by seismic inversion of a series of physical parameters such as porosity, saturation, permeability, formation pressure, and so on. Due to the heterogeneity of the geological medium, the approximation of the inversion model and the incompleteness and noisy of the data, the inversion results are highly uncertain and must be calibrated or corrected with well data. In areas where there are few wells or no well, reservoir identification based on seismic inversion is high-risk. Reservoir identification is essentially a classification issue. In the identification process, the underground rocks are divided into reservoirs with industrial mining value and host rocks with non-industrial mining value. In addition to the traditional physical parameters classification, the classification may be achieved using one or a few comprehensive features. By introducing the concept of seismic-print, we have developed a new reservoir identification method based on seismic-print analysis. Furthermore, we explore the possibility to use deep leaning to discover the seismic-print characteristics of oil and gas reservoirs. Preliminary experiments have shown that the deep learning of seismic data could distinguish gas reservoirs from host rocks. The combination of both seismic-print analysis and seismic deep learning is expected to be a more robust reservoir identification method. The work was supported by NSFC under grant No. 41430323 and No. U1562219, and the National Key Research and Development Program under Grant No. 2016YFC0601
Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — A list of dog license dates, dog breeds, and dog name by zip code. Currently this dataset does not include City of Pittsburgh dogs.
Van Kesteren, Freya; Mastin, Alexander; Mytynova, Bermet; Ziadinov, Iskender; Boufana, Belgees; Torgerson, Paul R; Rogan, Michael T; Craig, Philip S
Echinococcosis is a re-emerging zoonotic disease in Kyrgyzstan, and the incidence of human infection has increased substantially since the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991. Domestic dogs are hosts of Echinococcus spp. and play an important role in the transmission of these parasites. The demography, ecology and behaviour of dogs are therefore relevant in studying Echinococcus spp. transmission. Dog demographics, roles of dogs, dog movements and faecal environmental contamination were assessed in four rural communities in the Alay Valley, southern Kyrgyzstan. Arecoline purge data revealed for the first time that E. granulosus, E. canadensis and E. multilocularis were present in domestic dogs in the Alay Valley. Surveys revealed that many households had dogs and that dogs played various roles in the communities, as pets, guard dogs or sheep dogs. Almost all dogs were free to roam, and GPS data revealed that many moved outside their communities, thus being able to scavenge offal and consume rodents. Faecal environmental contamination was high, presenting a significant infection risk to the local communities.
Alabi, Olaniran; Nguku, Patrick; Chukwukere, Silvester; Gaddo, Ayika; Nsubuga, Peter; Umoh, Joliath
Dogs are the major reservoir of rabies virus in Nigeria; transmission to humans is via a bite by rabid dog. Between 2006 and 2008 National Veterinary Research Institute (NVRI) rabies laboratory reported increased numbers of rabies in dogs and human dog bites. The objective of the study was to use veterinary and health records to develop a profile of bite victims and recommend appropriate public health actions. We used the dog brain specimen result register of Rabies Laboratory of NVRI, from "January, 2006" to "December, 2008" and traced dog bite cases. Structured questionnaires were administered to persons who reported dog bite incident and could be traced. We reviewed records from Evangelical Churches of West Africa (ECWA) clinic from "January, 2006" to "December, 2008" to collect detailed profiles of bite victims. Bite victims linked to positive dog samples were traced to "ECWA clinic" from "January, 2006" to "December, 2008". Most bite victims were dogs were housed and unvaccinated. This study provided important information on the profile of dog bite victims and highlights the need for a sustained awareness and education of children on the dangers of dog bite. It has shown lack of enforcement of regulations for licensing of dogs and rabies vaccination.
Nathan E Stone
Full Text Available Nosocomial acquisition of Clostridium difficile is well documented, yet recent studies have highlighted the importance of community acquired infections and identified community associated reservoirs for this pathogen. Multiple studies have implicated companion pets and farm animals as possible sources of community acquired C. difficile infections in humans. To explore the potential role of pet dogs in human C. difficile infections we systematically collected canine fecal samples (n = 197 in Flagstaff, AZ. Additionally, nineteen fecal samples were collected at a local veterinary clinic from diarrheic dogs. We used these combined samples to investigate important questions regarding C. difficile colonization in pet canines: 1 What is the prevalence and diversity of C. difficile in this companion pet population, and 2 Do C. difficile isolates collected from canines genetically overlap with isolates that cause disease in humans? We used a two-step sequence typing approach, including multilocus sequence typing to determine the overall genetic diversity of C. difficile present in Flagstaff canines, and whole-genome sequencing to assess the fine-scale diversity patterns within identical multilocus sequence types from isolates obtained within and among multiple canine hosts. We detected C. difficile in 17% of the canine fecal samples with 10% containing toxigenic strains that are known to cause human disease. Sequencing analyses revealed similar genotypes in dogs and humans. These findings suggest that companion pets are a potential source of community acquired C. difficile infections in humans.
Caraco, Thomas; Cizauskas, Carrie A; Wang, Ing-Nang
Groups of chronically infected reservoir-hosts contaminate resource patches by shedding a parasite׳s free-living stage. Novel-host groups visit the same patches, where they are exposed to infection. We treat arrival at patches, levels of parasite deposition, and infection of the novel host as stochastic processes, and derive the expected time elapsing until a host-jump (initial infection of a novel host) occurs. At stationarity, mean parasite densities are independent of reservoir-host group size. But within-patch parasite-density variances increase with reservoir group size. The probability of infecting a novel host declines with parasite-density variance; consequently larger reservoir groups extend the mean waiting time for host-jumping. Larger novel-host groups increase the probability of a host-jump during any single patch visit, but also reduce the total number of visits per unit time. Interaction of these effects implies that the waiting time for the first infection increases with the novel-host group size. If the reservoir-host uses resource patches in any non-uniform manner, reduced spatial overlap between host species increases the waiting time for host-jumping. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Ricardo E. Gurtler
Full Text Available A new cross-sectional survey of household- associated mongrel dogs as well as follow-up of previously parasitemic individuals was carried out in 1984 toy means of xenodiagnosis and serologic techniques to get a deeper insight into the relationship of T. cruzi parasitemia and age among canine hosts in a rural area of Argentina. Persistence of detectable parasitemia was age-independent, or at most, loosely related to age, confirming the pattern observed in 1982. Similarly no significant age-decreasing effect was recorded among seropositive dogs in: a the probability of detecting parasites in a 2-year follow-up; b their intensity of infectiousness (=infective force for T. infestans 3rd-4th instar nymphs, as measured by the percentage of infected bugs observed in each dog xenodiagnosis. Moreover, not only was the infective force of seropositive dogs for bugs approximately constant through lifetime, but it was significantly higher than the one recorded for children in the present survey, and for human people by other researchers. Therefore, and since T. infestans field populations show high feeding frequencies on dogs, the latter are expected to make the greatest contribution to the pool of infected vectors in the rural household of Argentina. This characteristic should be sufficient to involve canine reservoirs definitely as a risk factor for human people residing in the same house. The increased severity of parasitemia observed among dogs in this survey may be related to the acute undernutrition characteristic of canine populations of poor rural areas in our country, which is expected to affect the ability of the host to manage the infection.
Craven, Melanie; Recordati, Camilla; Gualdi, Valentina; Pengo, Graziano; Luini, Mario; Scanziani, Eugenio; Simpson, Kenneth W
To determine the Helicobacter spp present in the oral cavity of dogs and the relationship of those organisms with gastric Helicobacter spp to better define the potential for dog-human and dog-dog transmission. Saliva and dental plaque from 28 dogs and gastric biopsy specimens from a subset of 8 dogs. PCR-based screening for Helicobacter spp was conducted on samples obtained from the oral cavity of 28 dogs. Comparative analysis was conducted on Helicobacteraceae 16S rDNA clone libraries from the oral cavity and stomach of a subset of 8 dogs (5 vomiting and 3 healthy) that had positive PCR results for Helicobacter spp. Helicobacteraceae DNA was identified in the oral cavity of 24 of 28 dogs. Analysis of cloned 16S rDNA amplicons from 8 dogs revealed that Wolinella spp was the most common (8/8 dogs) and abundant (52/57 [91%] clones) member of the Helicobacteraceae family in the oral cavity. Only 2 of 8 dogs harbored Helicobacter spp in the oral cavity, and 1 of those was coinfected with Helicobacter heilmannii and Helicobacter felis in samples obtained from the stomach and saliva. Evaluation of oral cavity DNA with Wolinella-specific PCR primers yielded positive results for 16 of 20 other dogs (24/28 samples were positive for Wolinella spp). Wolinella spp rather than Helicobacter spp were the predominant Helicobacteraceae in the oral cavity of dogs. The oral cavity of dogs was apparently not a zoonotically important reservoir of Helicobacter spp that were non-Helicobacter pylori organisms.
Silva, S.S. De.
At a workshop on reservoir fisheries research, papers were presented on the limnology of reservoirs, the changes that follow impoundment, fisheries management and modelling, and fish culture techniques. Separate abstracts have been prepared for three papers from this workshop
Ravindra N. Sharma
Full Text Available Aim: This serological survey was undertaken to estimate the prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in two populations of dogs (stray and owned dogs in Grenada. Dogs get infected with oocysts voided from cats, definitive hosts of T. gondii. In dogs, T. gondii causes subclinical to clinical disease. Earlier studies conducted in Grenada on a small population of owned dogs showed evidence of exposure to T. gondii. Materials and Methods: Antibodies to T. gondii were determined in serum samples from 625 dogs (368 stray and 257 owned dogs from around all six parishes in Grenada, West Indies, using an indirect enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. Results: Antibodies to T. gondii were found in 123 (33.4%; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 28.58-38.22% of stray dogs and in 64 (25%; 95% CI: 19.71-30.29% of the owned dogs. Seropositivity was higher in stray dogs than in pet dogs (p=0.026. Whereas, there was no sex predisposition to seropositivity in owned dogs (p=1.0, female stray dogs showed a higher prevalence than male stray dogs (p=0.04. Conclusion: These results support previous findings that T. gondii is prevalent in Grenada. In this study, overall seropositivity for T. gondii in dogs in Grenada is lower than noted in 2008, but is still higher in stray dogs than in owned dogs.
Miranda, Leandro E.; Bettoli, Phillip William
Large impoundments, defined as those with surface area of 200 ha or greater, are relatively new aquatic ecosystems in the global landscape. They represent important economic and environmental resources that provide benefits such as flood control, hydropower generation, navigation, water supply, commercial and recreational fisheries, and various other recreational and esthetic values. Construction of large impoundments was initially driven by economic needs, and ecological consequences received little consideration. However, in recent decades environmental issues have come to the forefront. In the closing decades of the 20th century societal values began to shift, especially in the developed world. Society is no longer willing to accept environmental damage as an inevitable consequence of human development, and it is now recognized that continued environmental degradation is unsustainable. Consequently, construction of large reservoirs has virtually stopped in North America. Nevertheless, in other parts of the world construction of large reservoirs continues. The emergence of systematic reservoir management in the early 20th century was guided by concepts developed for natural lakes (Miranda 1996). However, we now recognize that reservoirs are different and that reservoirs are not independent aquatic systems inasmuch as they are connected to upstream rivers and streams, the downstream river, other reservoirs in the basin, and the watershed. Reservoir systems exhibit longitudinal patterns both within and among reservoirs. Reservoirs are typically arranged sequentially as elements of an interacting network, filter water collected throughout their watersheds, and form a mosaic of predictable patterns. Traditional approaches to fisheries management such as stocking, regulating harvest, and in-lake habitat management do not always produce desired effects in reservoirs. As a result, managers may expend resources with little benefit to either fish or fishing. Some locally
Reichel, M P; Ellis, J T; Dubey, J P
The dog is a definitive host of the protozoan parasite Neospora caninum, and in many parts of the world, infection is relatively common as determined by serology. Reported seroprevalences usually range from 0 to 20 per cent, however, reports of clinically affected dogs are infrequent. Affected dogs are generally less than six months old and predominantly have signs of an ascending hindleg paralysis, with the associated lesions of polyradiculoneuritis and granulomatous polymyositis. Although any organ may be affected, infections are more common in the central nervous system, muscles, lungs and skin. Ante-mortem diagnosis is difficult but serology and cytology can aid diagnosis. The diagnosis can be confirmed by histology, immunohistochemistry, the use of molecular techniques on biopsy material, or on post-mortem examination. Neospora caninum oocysts are rarely found in faeces and must be differentiated from oocysts of related coccidians such as Hammondia heydorni and Toxoplasma gondii. Hammondia heydorni can cause diarrrhoea in immunosuppressed dogs. Neosporosis should be suspected in young pups with an ascending paralysis of the hindlegs. Treatment with clindamycin and potentiated sulphonamides may be useful in cases where muscular atrophy and fibrosis are absent. Feeding of raw meat is a potential risk factor for infection of dogs and should be discouraged.
Full Text Available Trypanosoma evansi, the agent of “surra,” is a salivarian trypanosome, originating from Africa. It is thought to derive from Trypanosoma brucei by deletion of the maxicircle kinetoplastic DNA (genetic material required for cyclical development in tsetse flies. It is mostly mechanically transmitted by tabanids and stomoxes, initially to camels, in sub-Saharan area. The disease spread from North Africa towards the Middle East, Turkey, India, up to 53° North in Russia, across all South-East Asia, down to Indonesia and the Philippines, and it was also introduced by the conquistadores into Latin America. It can affect a very large range of domestic and wild hosts including camelids, equines, cattle, buffaloes, sheep, goats, pigs, dogs and other carnivores, deer, gazelles, and elephants. It found a new large range of wild and domestic hosts in Latin America, including reservoirs (capybaras and biological vectors (vampire bats. Surra is a major disease in camels, equines, and dogs, in which it can often be fatal in the absence of treatment, and exhibits nonspecific clinical signs (anaemia, loss of weight, abortion, and death, which are variable from one host and one place to another; however, its immunosuppressive effects interfering with intercurrent diseases or vaccination campaigns might be its most significant and questionable aspect.
Kachani, Malika; Heath, David
Cystic and alveolar hydatid disease of humans caused by infection with Echinococcus granulosus or Echinococcus multilocularis are significant zoonoses in developing countries. For human infections, the main definitive host is the dog, and reduction in the population of unwanted dogs, together with anthelmintic treatment of wanted dogs, are recommended control procedures for these zoonoses. Both owned and unowned dogs have been shown to be a major source of Echinococcus spp. infection in developing countries. Unowned dogs are the most challenging category in dog population management for the control of major zoonotic diseases. Unowned dogs are those dogs that do not have an owner, and those dogs whose owner cannot readily be identified. Control of numbers of unowned dogs can be done in various ways if funds are available. Fertility control and humane euthanasia are likely to be the most effective procedures in developing countries. Fertility control requires significant funding, and where resources are scarce humane euthanasia may be the most effective option. Both procedures are ongoing events, with no predictable end point. This paper examines the sociology and technology for the population management of owned and unowned dogs, specifically for the reduction of human hydatid disease. Examples are given for developing and developed countries. Although a "One Health" approach is desirable, the technology for hydatid control is different from that for rabies, and FAO Animal Welfare recommendations for dog population management should be adjusted accordingly. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Vaniscotte, A; Raoul, F; Poulle, M L; Romig, T; Dinkel, A; Takahashi, K; Guislain, M H; Moss, J; Tiaoying, L; Wang, Q; Qiu, J; Craig, P S; Giraudoux, P
On the Eastern Tibetan Plateau region (Sichuan province, China) dogs are regarded as important definitive hosts of Echinococcus multilocularis. We studied dog spatial behaviour in 4 Tibetan villages in order to determine the role of dogs in environmental contamination and their potential interactions with small mammal intermediate hosts. We identified definitive host species and Echinococcus spp. infection status of feces collected in the field by PCR methods and analysed the spatial distribution of canid feces. Nocturnal space utilization of GPS collared dogs in and around villages was also undertaken. E. multilocularis DNA was amplified in 23% of dog feces (n=142) and in 15% of fox feces (n=13) but this difference was not significant. However, dog feces were more frequently observed (78% of collected feces) than fox feces and are therefore assumed to largely contribute to human environment contamination. Feces were mainly distributed around houses of dog owners (0-200 m) where collared dogs spent the majority of their time. Inside villages, the contamination was aggregated in some micro-foci where groups of dogs defecated preferentially. Finally, small mammal densities increased from the dog core areas to grasslands at the periphery of villages occasionally used by dogs; male dogs moving significantly farther than females. This study constitutes a first attempt to quantify in a spatially explicit way the role of dogs in E. multilocularis peri-domestic cycles and to identify behavioural parameters required to model E. multilocularis transmission in this region.
Dai, Jingjing; Mei, Ying; Chang, Chein-Chi
This review on stream, lake, and reservoir management covers selected 2016 publications on the focus of the following sections: Stream, lake, and reservoir management • Water quality of stream, lake, and reservoir • Reservoir operations • Models of stream, lake, and reservoir • Remediation and restoration of stream, lake, and reservoir • Biota of stream, lake, and reservoir • Climate effect of stream, lake, and reservoir.
This is one in a series of status reports prepared by the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) for those interested in the conditions of TVA reservoirs. This overview of Wheeler Reservoir summarizes reservoir purposes and operation, reservoir and watershed characteristics, reservoir uses and use impairments, and water quality and aquatic biological conditions. The information presented here is from the most recent reports, publications, and original data available. If no recent data were available, historical data were summarized. If data were completely lacking, environmental professionals with special knowledge of the resource were interviewed. 12 refs., 2 figs.
... Emergency Care Animal Welfare Veterinary Careers Public Health Dog Bite Emergencies What do I do if I’ ... vaccination records. What do I do if my dog bites someone? Dog bites are scary for everyone ...
Full Text Available Hantaviruses are hosted by rodents, insectivores and bats. Several rodent-borne hantaviruses cause two diseases that share many features in humans, hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome in Eurasia or hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome in the Americas. It is thought that the immune response plays a significant contributory role in these diseases. However, in reservoir hosts that have been closely examined, little or no pathology occurs and infection is persistent despite evidence of adaptive immune responses. Because most hantavirus reservoirs are not model organisms, it is difficult to conduct meaningful experiments that might shed light on how the viruses evade sterilizing immune responses and why immunopathology does not occur. Despite these limitations, recent advances in instrumentation and bioinformatics will have a dramatic impact on understanding reservoir host responses to hantaviruses by employing a systems biology approach to identify important pathways that mediate virus/reservoir relationships.
Eken Asp, Helena
The absolute majority of dogs are kept as companion animals. Dogs kept as family pets are frequently exposed to noisy and crowded environments, and often have to interact with unfamiliar dogs and humans. In Sweden, we have a long history of recording behaviour in dogs on a large scale. The Swedish Working Dog Association (SBK) has, since 1989, carried out a standardized behavioural test called Dog Mentality Assessment (DMA). Results from the DMA can be condensed into five personality traits: ...
Smith, Anya F; Semeniuk, Christina A D; Kutz, Susan J; Massolo, Alessandro
In urban parks, dogs, wildlife and humans can be sympatric, introducing the potential for inter- and intra-specific transmission of pathogens among hosts. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of zoonotic and non-zoonotic gastrointestinal parasites in dogs in Calgary city parks, and assess if dog-walking behaviour, park management, history of veterinary care, and dog demographics were associated with parasitism in dogs From June to September 2010, 645 questionnaires were administered to dog owners in nine city parks to determine behavioural and demographic factors, and corresponding feces from 355 dogs were collected. Dog feces were analyzed for helminth and some protozoan species using a modified sugar flotation technique and microscopic examination, a subsample was analyzed for Giardia spp. and Cryptosporidium spp. using a direct immunofluorescence assay. Descriptive and multivariate statistics were conducted to determine associations among behaviours, demographics, and parasite prevalence and infection intensities Parasite prevalence was 50.2%. Giardia spp. (24.7%), Cryptosporidium spp. (14.7%), and Cystoisospora spp. (16.8%) were the most prevalent parasites. Helminth prevalence was low (4.1%). Presence of Giardia spp. was more likely in intact and young dogs; and infection with any parasite and Giardia spp. intensity were both positively associated with dogs visiting multiple parks coupled with a high frequency of park use and off-leash activity, and with being intact and young. Cryptosporidium spp. intensity was associated with being intact and young, and having visited the veterinarian within the previous year Our results indicate a higher overall prevalence of protozoa in dogs than previously found in Calgary. The zoonotic potential of some parasites found in park-attending dogs may be of interest for public health. These results are relevant for informing park managers, the public health sector, and veterinarians.
Gil, Horacio; Cano, Lourdes; de Lucio, Aida; Bailo, Begoña; de Mingo, Marta Hernández; Cardona, Guillermo A; Fernández-Basterra, José A; Aramburu-Aguirre, Juan; López-Molina, Nuria; Carmena, David
Domestic dogs and cats may act as natural reservoirs of a large number of zoonotic pathogens, including the enteric parasites Giardia duodenalis and Cryptosporidium spp., the most relevant protozoan species causing gastrointestinal disease worldwide. A cross-sectional epidemiological study aiming to assess the prevalence and molecular diversity of G. duodenalis and Cryptosporidium spp. was conducted in an animal rescue centre in the province of Álava (Northern Spain). A total of 194 and 65 faecal dropping samples from individual dogs and cats, respectively, were collected between November 2013 and June 2016. G. duodenalis cysts and Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts were detected by direct fluorescence microscopy and PCR-based methods targeting the small subunit ribosomal RNA gene of these parasites. Overall, G. duodenalis and Cryptosporidium spp. were detected in 33% (63/194) and 4.1% (8/194) of dogs, and 9.2% (6/65) and 4.6% (3/65) of cats, respectively. G. duodenalis and Cryptosporidium co-infections were observed in 1.5% (3/194) of dogs, but not in cats. No significant differences in infection rates could be demonstrated among dogs or cats according to their sex, age group, status, or geographical origin. Multi-locus sequence-based genotyping of the glutamate dehydrogenase and β-giardin genes of G. duodenalis allowed the characterization of 19 canine isolates that were unambiguously assigned to sub-assemblages AII (n=7), BIII (n=1), and BIV (n=7), and assemblages C (n=3) and D (n=1). Two feline isolates were genotyped as assemblages A and F, respectively. No mixed assemblage or sub-assemblage infections were identified. C. canis (n=5) and C. hominis (n=1) were the Cryptosporidium species found in dogs, whereas C. felis (n=1) was identified in cats. The finding of G. duodenalis sub-assemblages AII, BIII, and BIV circulating in dogs (but not cats) may have zoonotic potential, although most of the AII and BIV isolates sub-genotyped corresponded to genetic variants not
Full Text Available During this study, 109 faecal Escherichia coli samples isolated from 61 dogs and 48 humans were characterised according to phylogenetic group, extraintestinal virulence factors and antibiotic resistance. The isolates from dogs were predominantly distributed within phylogroup B1 (36%, while the majority of human strains belonged to phylogroup B2 (54%. The prevalence of cnf1, hlyA, papC and sfa virulence genes was significantly associated with the group B2. Canine isolates showed multidrug resistance (MDR more frequently than human strains. Since group B2 contains most of the strains that cause extraintestinal infections, all 46 B2 faecal strains were confronted against an addition population of 57 urinary E. coli strains belonging to the same phylogroup. The comparison shows that there was no significant difference in the occurrence of virulence factors or in the distribution of antibiotic resistance between faecal and urinary E. coli isolates fromd dogs. At the same time, a highly significant association was detected between multiple resistence and the source of the strains and between MDR and E. coli isolated from urine in human. This study highlighted similar features of E. coli isolated across sources and hosts. The data suggest a high prevalence of antibiotic resistance in faecal strains, which may represent a serious health risk since these strains can function as a reservoir for uropathogenic E. coli.
Nazir, Muhammad Mudasser; Maqbool, Azhar; Akhtar, Masood; Ayaz, Mazhar; Ahmad, Atif Nisar; Ashraf, Kamran; Ali, Asif; Alam, Muhammad Azhar; Ali, Muhammad Amjad; Khalid, Abdur Rauf; Lindsay, David S
Neospora caninum is an important cause of abortion in dairy cattle worldwide. Dogs are important in the epidemiology of N. caninum because they act as definitive hosts shedding oocysts in the environment. Vertical transmission of the parasite is well recognized as an important aspect of the epidemiology of the parasite but the importance of horizontal transmission has been less studied. A N. caninum competitive ELISA was used to examine serum samples from 600 dogs that were raised under 4 different living conditions. Samples from 138 dogs living on 24 dairies with a prevalence (0-70%) of anti-N. caninum antibodies in the cattle, 294 pet dogs without neurological signs, 76 from pet dogs exhibiting neurological signs, and 92 stray dogs were examined. The overall seroprevalence of N. caninum was 23.5% (95% CI = ± 2.99) in the 600 dogs. Significant (P 0.05). The prevalence of N. caninum antibodies was not significantly (P>0.05) different in dogs based on breed. These findings suggest a relationship between N. caninum infection of dogs from dairies and cattle on these dairies. However, further research is required to determine what is the most important way dogs acquire infection and how to prevent dogs from shedding oocysts. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
... Wellness Staying Healthy Pets and Animals Cat and Dog Bites Cat and Dog Bites Share Print Cat and dog bites are common injuries. A family pet or ... bites. Path to safety If a cat or dog bites you, you should: Wash the wound gently ...
Skovgaard, Christoffer; Thomsen, Josephine Raun; Verdezoto, Nervo
This paper presents DogPulse, an ambient awareness system to support the coordination of dog walking among family members at home. DogPulse augments a dog collar and leash set to activate an ambient shape-changing lamp and visualize the last time the dog was taken for a walk. The lamp gradually...... changes its form and pulsates its lights in order to keep the family members aware of the dog walking activity. We report the iterative prototyping of DogPulse, its implementation and its preliminary evaluation. Based on our initial findings, we present the limitations and lessons learned as well...
Matias Pablo Juan Szabó
Full Text Available Tick-bite naive experimental groups of dogs, hamsters and guinea pigs were infested three times with adult ticks Rhipicephalus sanguineus and the acquired resistance, based on the variation of some biological parameters of the female tick was compared. The results showed that hamsters and mainly guinea pigs develop a very efficient immunity to this tick species as demonstrated by a very significant drop in the efficiency rate of female ticks in converting their food reservoir to eggs and larvae from the first to the second and third infestations. At the same time, dogs were unable to display such a resistance. Female tick performance was similar throughout the infestations in this host; there was even a tendency of improvement of the performance with the succession of infestations. These results underline the need of comparative studies on the acquired resistance to ticks involving natural and unnatural hosts as a way of putting in evidence defence mechanisms which might be altered or hidden in natural host - parasite relationships.
Yuan, Hao; Shapiro, Alexander; Stenby, Erling Halfdan
Modeling transport of reservoir fines is of great importance for evaluating the damage of production wells and infectivity decline. The conventional methodology accounts for neither the formation heterogeneity around the wells nor the reservoir fines’ heterogeneity. We have developed an integral...
Calls have been made to the government through various media to assist its populace in combating this nagging problem. It was concluded that sediment maximum accumulation is experienced in reservoir during the periods of maximum flow. Keywords: reservoir model, siltation, sediment, catchment, sediment transport. 1.
Sturm, W.L.; Belfroid, S.P.C.; Wolfswinkel, O. van; Peters, M.C.A.M.; Verhelst, F.J.P.C.M.
In order to develop smart well control systems for unstable oil wells, realistic modeling of the dynamics of the well is essential. Most dynamic well models use a semi-steady state inflow model to describe the inflow of oil and gas from the reservoir. On the other hand, reservoir models use steady
Howard, J.H.; Schwarz, W.J.
The Reservoir Engineering Management Program being conducted at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory includes two major tasks: 1) the continuation of support to geothermal reservoir engineering related work, started under the NSF-RANN program and transferred to ERDA at the time of its formation; 2) the development and subsequent implementation of a broad plan for support of research in topics related to the exploitation of geothermal reservoirs. This plan is now known as the GREMP plan. Both the NSF-RANN legacies and GREMP are in direct support of the DOE/DGE mission in general and the goals of the Resource and Technology/Resource Exploitation and Assessment Branch in particular. These goals are to determine the magnitude and distribution of geothermal resources and reduce risk in their exploitation through improved understanding of generically different reservoir types. These goals are to be accomplished by: 1) the creation of a large data base about geothermal reservoirs, 2) improved tools and methods for gathering data on geothermal reservoirs, and 3) modeling of reservoirs and utilization options. The NSF legacies are more research and training oriented, and the GREMP is geared primarily to the practical development of the geothermal reservoirs. 2 tabs., 3 figs.
Joly-Mascheroni, Ramiro M.; Senju, Atsushi; Shepherd, Alex J.
This study is the first to demonstrate that human yawns are possibly contagious to domestic dogs (Canis familiaris). Twenty-nine dogs observed a human yawning or making control mouth movements. Twenty-one dogs yawned when they observed a human yawning, but control mouth movements did not elicit yawning from any of them. The presence of contagious yawning in dogs suggests that this phenomenon is not specific to primate species and may indicate that dogs possess the capacity for a rudimentary f...
King, Jessica S; Brown, Graeme K; Jenkins, David J; Ellis, John T; Fleming, Peter J S; Windsor, Peter A; Slapeta, Jan
Canines are definitive hosts of Neospora caninum (Apicomplexa). For horizontal transmission from canines to occur, viable oocysts of N. caninum must occur in the environment of susceptible intermediate hosts. Canids in Australia include wild dogs and Aboriginal community dogs. Wild dogs are those dogs that are not dependent on humans for survival and consist of the dingo, feral domestic dog and their hybrid genotypes. Aboriginal community dogs are dependent on humans, domesticated and owned by a family, but are free-roaming and have free access throughout the community. In this study the extent of N. caninum infection was determined in a total of 374 dogs (75 wild dogs and 299 Aboriginal community dogs) using a combination of microscopic, molecular and serological techniques. Oocysts of N. caninum were observed in the faeces of two juvenile Aboriginal community dogs (2/132; 1.5%). To estimate N. caninum prevalence, a new optimised cut-off of 18.5% inhibition for a commercial competitive ELISA was calculated using a two-graph receiver-operating characteristic (TG-ROC) analysis and IFAT as the gold standard resulting in equal sensitivity and specificity of 67.8%. Of the 263 dog sera tested the true prevalence of N. caninum antibodies was 27.0% (95% confidence limit: 10.3-44.1%). The association between the competitive ELISA results in dogs less than 12 month old and older dogs was significant (P=0.042). To our knowledge this is the first large scale parasitological survey of the Aboriginal community dogs and wild dogs from Australia. The high prevalence of N. caninum infection in Aboriginal community dogs illustrates that horizontal transmission of N. caninum is occurring in Australia. These results demonstrated that N. caninum in dogs is widespread, including the semi-arid to arid regions of north-western New South Wales and the Northern Territory. The populations of free-ranging dogs are likely to be important contributors to the sylvatic life cycle of N. caninum
Ribeiro, R. A. N.; Teixeira-Neto, R. G.; Belo, V. S.; Ferreira, E. C.; Schallig, H. D. F. H.; Silva, E. S.
Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a serious chronic disease with a lethality rate of up to 10 % in humans. In urban areas of Brazil, dogs are the main reservoirs of the etiological agent (Leishmania infantum) of VL, and the Brazilian Ministry of Health recommends the euthanasia of animals that are
Davatzes, N. C.; Laboso, R. C.; Layland-Bachmann, C. E.; Feigl, K. L.; Foxall, W.; Tabrez, A. R.; Mellors, R. J.; Templeton, D. C.; Akerley, J.
Crustal permeability can be strongly influenced by developing connected networks of open fractures. However, the detailed evolution of a fracture network, its extent, and the persistence of fracture porosity are difficult to analyze. Even in fault-hosted geothermal systems, where heat is brought to the surface from depth along a fault, hydrothermal flow is heterogeneously distributed. This is presumably due to variations in fracture density, connectivity, and attitude, as well as variations in fracture permeability caused by sealing of fractures by precipitated cements or compaction. At the Brady Geothermal field in Nevada, we test the relationship between the modeled local stress state perturbed by dislocations representing fault slip or volume changes in the geothermal reservoir inferred from surface deformation measured by InSAR and the location of successful geothermal wells, hydrothermal activity, and seismicity. We postulate that permeability is favored in volumes that experience positive Coulomb stress changes and reduced compression, which together promote high densities of dilatant fractures. Conversely, permeability can be inhibited in locations where Coulomb stress is reduced, compression promotes compaction, or where the faults are poorly oriented in the stress field and consequently slip infrequently. Over geologic time scales spanning the development of the fault system, these local stress states are strongly influenced by the geometry of the fault network relative to the remote stress driving slip. At shorter time scales, changes in fluid pressure within the fracture network constituting the reservoir cause elastic dilations and contractions. We integrate: (1) direct observations of stress state and fractures in boreholes and the mapped geometry of the fault network; (2) evidence of permeability from surface hydrothermal features, production/injection wells and surface deformations related to pumping history; and (3) seismicity to test the
All natural lakes and reservoirs whether on rivers, tributaries or off channel storages are doomed to be sited up. Pakistan has two major reservoirs of Tarbela and Managla and shallow lake created by Chashma Barrage. Tarbela and Mangla Lakes are losing their capacities ever since first impounding, Tarbela since 1974 and Mangla since 1967. Tarbela Reservoir receives average annual flow of about 62 MAF and sediment deposits of 0.11 MAF whereas Mangla gets about 23 MAF of average annual flows and is losing its storage at the rate of average 34,000 MAF annually. The loss of storage is a great concern and studies for Tarbela were carried out by TAMS and Wallingford to sustain its capacity whereas no study has been done for Mangla as yet except as part of study for Raised Mangla, which is only desk work. Delta of Tarbala reservoir has advanced to about 6.59 miles (Pivot Point) from power intakes. In case of liquefaction of delta by tremor as low as 0.12g peak ground acceleration the power tunnels I, 2 and 3 will be blocked. Minimum Pool of reservoir is being raised so as to check the advance of delta. Mangla delta will follow the trend of Tarbela. Tarbela has vast amount of data as reservoir is surveyed every year, whereas Mangla Reservoir survey was done at five-year interval, which has now been proposed .to be reduced to three-year interval. In addition suspended sediment sampling of inflow streams is being done by Surface Water Hydrology Project of WAPDA as also some bed load sampling. The problem of Chasma Reservoir has also been highlighted, as it is being indiscriminately being filled up and drawdown several times a year without regard to its reaction to this treatment. The Sediment Management of these reservoirs is essential and the paper discusses pros and cons of various alternatives. (author)
Mendonça, Ivete Lopes de; Batista, Joilson Ferreira; Schallig, Henk; Cruz, Maria do Socorro Pires E.; Alonso, Diego Peres; Ribolla, Paulo Eduardo Martins; Costa, Dorcas Lamounier; Costa, Carlos Henrique Nery
Dogs are considered the main reservoir of Leishmania infantum. This protozoan causes visceral leishmaniasis (VL), an uncontrolled urban zoonosis in Brazil. Serological tests and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) on peripheral blood were performed to identify infected dogs in scenarios of higher and
Burger, Ben V; Marx, Brenda; Le Roux, Maritha; Oelofsen, Burger W
During its natural life cycle, the yellow dog tick, Haemaphysalis leachi, has three hosts, and it has to spend enough time on each of them to complete a blood meal. When irritated, the females of this tick species produce a cuticular secretion that contains a dog-repelling allomone. This improves the tick's chances of survival by deterring the dog from biting the tick off its body. Employing response-guided isolation techniques in conjunction with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, the defensive allomone of H. leachi was found to consist of the six homologous aliphatic aldehydes from hexanal to undecanal. A mixture of synthetic versions of these six aldehydes in quantities corresponding to those secreted by one tick elicited strong aversion reactions in the majority of dogs of various breeds.
Matsuyama, Ryota; Yabusaki, Toshihiro; Kuninaga, Naotoshi; Morimoto, Tomoya; Okano, Tsukasa; Suzuki, Masatsugu; Asano, Makoto
Sarcoptes scabiei is the causal agent of sarcoptic mange in domestic/companion dogs (Canis lupus familiaris) and raccoon dogs (Nyctereutes procyonoides). Although there have been successful cases of experimental transmission of S. scabiei from mangy wild Canidae hosts to healthy dogs, and suspected cases of transmission between raccoon dogs and companion dogs, no clear-cut evidence has been obtained. In the present study, the genetic relationships between Sarcoptes mites from raccoon dogs and companion dogs living in the same region were elucidated.One hundred and thirty Sarcoptes mites from 22 raccoon dogs and 5 companion dogs were collected from the Gifu area in Japan. Using 9 microsatellite markers, the genotypes were compared, and the genetic structure of these mites was analyzed. In 6 pairs of companion dog- and raccoon dog-derived mites, 17 out of the 18 alleles analyzed were identical. Using a Bayesian approach, these 130 mites were separated into at least two groups, and companion dog- and raccoon dog-derived mites were segregated into both groups. In addition, comparatively large numbers of alleles at these loci were revealed by comparison with data from past studies. These results demonstrated that the host specificity at the 9 microsatellite-level could not be confirmed, strongly suggesting the transmission of Sarcoptes mites between raccoon dogs and companion dogs. This is the first report to provide a genetic evidence of Sarcoptes transmission between domestic and wild mammals in the natural environment. The possibility of a prior introduction of mites with novel genotypes (e.g., spillover of sarcoptic mange from domestic/companion dogs to raccoon dogs) could not be eliminated when considering the cause of the large number of alleles, and the coexistence of 2 mite groups in sympatric raccoon dogs and companion dogs in this local area. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
This final report summarizes the progress during the three years of a project on Reservoir Characterization of Pennsylvanian Sandstone Reservoirs. The report is divided into three sections: (i) reservoir description; (ii) scale-up procedures; (iii) outcrop investigation. The first section describes the methods by which a reservoir can be described in three dimensions. The next step in reservoir description is to scale up reservoir properties for flow simulation. The second section addresses the issue of scale-up of reservoir properties once the spatial descriptions of properties are created. The last section describes the investigation of an outcrop.
Jaworski, Deborah C; Cheng, Chuanmin; Nair, Arathy D S; Ganta, Roman R
Monocytic ehrlichiosis in people caused by the intracellular bacterium, Ehrlichia chaffeensis, is an emerging infectious disease transmitted by the lone star tick, Amblyomma americanum. Tick transmission disease models for ehrlichiosis require at least two hosts and two tick blood feeding episodes to recapitulate the natural transmission cycle. One blood feeding is necessary for the tick to acquire the infection from an infected host and the next feeding is needed to transmit the bacterium to a naïve host. We have developed a model for E. chaffeensis transmission that eliminates the entire tick acquisition stage while still producing high numbers of infected ticks that are also able to transmit infections to naïve hosts. Fully engorged A. americanum nymphs were ventrally needle-infected, possibly into the midgut, and following molting, the unfed adult ticks were used to infect naive deer and dogs. We have also described using the ticks infected by this method the transmission of both wild-type and transposon mutants of E. chaffeensis to its primary reservoir host, white tailed deer and to another known host, dog. The infection progression and IgG antibody responses in deer were similar to those observed with transmission feeding of ticks acquiring infection by natural blood feeding. The pathogen infections acquired by natural tick transmission and by feeding needle-infected ticks on animals were also similar to intravenous infections in causing persistent infections. Needle-infected ticks having the ability to transmit pathogens will be a valuable resource to substantially simplify the process of generating infected ticks and to study infection systems in vertebrate hosts where interference of other pathogens could be avoided. Copyright Â© 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.
Deplazes, Peter; van Knapen, Frans; Schweiger, Alexander; Overgaauw, Paul A M
The close emotional tie between people and companion animals is a beneficial relation known as the human-animal bond. However, pet dogs and cats can play an important role in the transmission of helminthic zoonotic agents such as the tapeworms Echinococcus and the roundworms Toxocara which are directly transmitted from pets to the human environment without the involvement of vectors or intermediate hosts. In humans, echinococcosis has emerged in Europe and toxocarosis is still persisting in large endemic areas despite the availability of highly efficient anthelminthics for dogs and cats. Ecological changes significantly contributed to these trends: the high wild fox populations and the high density of freely roaming dogs and cats maintain a permanent infection pressure of these and other parasites. Further, the establishment of urban recreational environments closer to natural ecological systems boosted vole populations that represent urban reservoirs for zoonotic helminths. A good understanding of the parasites' biology and epidemiology including the transmission to humans is required for planning and implementing effective prevention strategies. The continuous education of veterinarians and the information of the pet owners by providing uniform recommendations are of priority importance. A close collaboration between veterinary and public health professionals in a 'One Health' concept is required. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
... Reports Tools for K-12 Educators Circovirus in Dogs FAQ November 22, 2013 Update November 22, 2013: ... information. Canine circovirus infections have been documented in dogs with vomiting and diarrhea. The distribution of the ...
Sotiriadou, Isaia; Pantchev, Nikola; Gassmann, Doreen; Karanis, Panagiotis
The aim of the present study was to diagnose the presence of Giardia cysts and Cryptosporidium oocysts in household animals using nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and sequence analysis. One hundred faecal samples obtained from 81 dogs and 19 cats were investigated. The Cryptosporidium genotypes were determined by sequencing a fragment of the small subunit (SSU) rRNA gene, while the Giardia Assemblages were determined through analysis of the glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) locus. Isolates from five dogs and two cats were positive by PCR for the presence of Giardia, and their sequences matched the zoonotic Assemblage A of Giardia. Cryptosporidium spp. isolated from one dog and one cat were both found to be C. parvum. One dog isolate harboured a mixed infection of C. parvum and Giardia Assemblage A. These findings support the growing evidence that household animals are potential reservoirs of the zoonotic pathogens Giardia spp. and Cryptosporidium spp. for infections in humans. PMID:23477297
Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to diagnose the presence of Giardia cysts and Cryptosporidium oocysts in household animals using nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR and sequence analysis. One hundred faecal samples obtained from 81 dogs and 19 cats were investigated. The Cryptosporidium genotypes were determined by sequencing a fragment of the small subunit (SSU rRNA gene, while the Giardia Assemblages were determined through analysis of the glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH locus. Isolates from five dogs and two cats were positive by PCR for the presence of Giardia, and their sequences matched the zoonotic Assemblage A of Giardia. Cryptosporidium spp. isolated from one dog and one cat were both found to be C. parvum. One dog isolate harboured a mixed infection of C. parvum and Giardia Assemblage A. These findings support the growing evidence that household animals are potential reservoirs of the zoonotic pathogens Giardia spp. and Cryptosporidium spp. for infections in humans.
Be Your Dog is about establishing relationships beyond the hierarchies of pet and owner. This saw participants and their dogs attend workshops over two consecutive weekends to learn how to establish empathy, equality and connection. This included learning strategies for dog and human to ‘be’ equals with each other. A concluding public event was staged at KARST (Plymouth) following the workshops on 6 November 2016 where all participants, human and dog, performed as collaborators. This proj...
Full Text Available Disease can cause declines in wildlife populations and significantly threaten their survival. Recent expansion of human and domestic animal populations has made wildlife more susceptible to transmission of pathogens from domestic animal hosts. We conducted a pathogen surveillance and mortality survey for the population of African wild dogs (Lycaon pictus in KwaZulu-Natal (KZN, South Africa, from January 2006–February 2007. Samples were obtained from 24 wild dogs for canine distemper virus (CDV and canine parvovirus (CPV serological testing. Data were collected on the presence of CDV, CPV, and rabies virus in the KZN domestic dog (Canis familiaris population from 2004–06. The presence of these pathogens was confirmed in domestic dogs throughout KZN. Wild dogs exhibited 0% and 4.2% prevalence for CDV and CPV antibodies, respectively. In 2006 the largest wild dog pack in KZN was reduced from 26 individuals to a single animal; disease due to rabies virus was considered the most probable cause. This study provides evidence that CDV, CPV and rabies are potential threats to African wild dog conservation in KZN. The most economical and practical way to protect wild dogs from canine pathogens may be via vaccination of sympatric domestic dogs; however, such programmes are currently limited.
Young children (less than 11 years old) are a particular risk group for dog bites. Dog bites commonly occur from the family pet. Alsatian or alsatian mixes are the biggest group in the study causing dog bites. Alsations are a popular breed. By comparison Retrievers (Labrador and Golden), also a popular breed, caused few bites.
Cui, Jing-An; Chen, Fangyuan; Fan, Shengjie
Most emerging zoonotic pathogens originate from animals. They can directly infect humans through natural reservoirs or indirectly through intermediate hosts. As a bridge, an intermediate host plays different roles in the transmission of zoonotic pathogens. In this study, we present three types of pathogen transmission to evaluate the effect of intermediate hosts on emerging zoonotic diseases in human epidemics. These types are identified as follows: TYPE 1, pathogen transmission without an intermediate host for comparison; TYPE 2, pathogen transmission with an intermediate host as an amplifier; and TYPE 3, pathogen transmission with an intermediate host as a vessel for genetic variation. In addition, we established three mathematical models to elucidate the mechanisms underlying zoonotic disease transmission according to these three types. Stability analysis indicated that the existence of intermediate hosts increased the difficulty of controlling zoonotic diseases because of more difficult conditions to satisfy for the disease to die out. The human epidemic would die out under the following conditions: TYPE 1: [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text]; TYPE 2: [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text], and [Formula: see text]; and TYPE 3: [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text], and [Formula: see text] Simulation with similar parameters demonstrated that intermediate hosts could change the peak time and number of infected humans during a human epidemic; intermediate hosts also exerted different effects on controlling the prevalence of a human epidemic with natural reservoirs in different periods, which is important in addressing problems in public health. Monitoring and controlling the number of natural reservoirs and intermediate hosts at the right time would successfully manage and prevent the prevalence of emerging zoonoses in humans.
Otranto, Domenico; Dantas-Torres, Filipe; Mihalca, Andrei D; Traub, Rebecca J; Lappin, Michael; Baneth, Gad
Sheltered and stray dogs, exposed to zoonotic parasites, including protozoa, helminths, and arthropods, may represent a major threat to public health. Resources for addressing health problems in these animals are not on the priority list of veterinary and public health authorities. Thus, dogs continue to represent an important reservoir for zoonotic parasites. In this article, we review the importance of sheltered and stray dogs as reservoirs of zoonotic parasites in different parts of the world, especially in the context of the current global political and economic crisis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Barandiaran, Soledad; Martínez Vivot, Marcela; Falzoni, Elvira; Marfil, María J; Pérez Tort, Gabriela; Rovatti, Paula; Fernández, Mónica; Iachini, Ricardo; Satek, Fernanda; Duchene, Adriana; Zumárraga, Martín J
Mycobacterioses can produce nonspecific clinical signs in dogs and cats that make diagnosis difficult. Furthermore, the full characterization of mycobacterial agents is not always possible or practical. We characterized mycobacteria detected through cytology in 12 dogs and 7 cats with generalized clinical signs from the province of Buenos Aires in Argentina. In dogs, molecular testing confirmed the presence of Mycobacterium avium subsp. hominissuis (MAH) in 8 cases and M. fortuitum in 1 case. All dogs were Miniature Schnauzers, suggesting that this breed may be more susceptible to M. avium than other dog breeds. The cat isolates were 2 M. bovis, 1 M. fortuitum, and 1 MAH. Mycobacterial interspersed repetitive unit-variable-number tandem repeat patterns suggested possible links with cattle, swine, and humans studied previously in Argentina. The results show that pets may act as susceptible hosts with the potential risk of transmitting the infection to humans and other animals.
Höllmer, M.; Willesen, J. L.; Tolver, A.
stroke volume increased, whereas LA reservoir and contractile function decreased with increasing disease severity. A maximal LA volume heart failure in dogs with chronic MMVD with a sensitivity of 96% and a specificity of 100......%. An active LA emptying fraction heart failure in dogs with chronic MMVD with a sensitivity of 77% and a specificity of 89% and a sensitivity of 82% and a specificity of 82%, respectively. CONCLUSION: Dogs with MMVD appear to have larger LA...... of cardiac compensation. Left atrial function in dogs with naturally occurring MMVD remains largely unexplored. The objective of this study was to evaluate LA volume and function in dogs with naturally occurring MMVD. ANIMALS: This prospective study included 205 client-owned dogs of different breeds, 114...
Salkeld, Daniel J; Stapp, Paul
Plague, the disease caused by the bacterium Yersinia pestis, can have devastating impacts on black-tailed prairie dog (Cynomys ludovicianus) colonies. One suggested mechanism behind sporadic prairie dog die-offs involves an alternative mammal host, such as the deer mouse (Peromyscus maniculatus), which often inhabits prairie dog colonies. We examined the flea populations of deer mice to investigate the potential of flea-borne transmission of plague between deer mice and prairie dogs in northern Colorado, where plague is active in prairie dog colonies. Deer mice were predominantly infested with the flea Aetheca wagneri, and were rarely infested with prairie dog fleas, Oropsylla hirsuta. Likelihood of flea infestation increased with average monthly temperature, and flea loads were higher in reproductive animals. These results suggest that the deer mouse is an unlikely maintenance host of plague in this region.
van de Maele, I; Claus, A; Haesebrouck, F; Daminet, S
Leptospirosis is a bacterial disease affecting several mammalian species, including human beings. In dogs, it is spread mainly by rodents that act as a maintenance host for several Leptospira serovars. Until recently, the most common signs observed in affected dogs consisted of icterus and haemorrhagic diathesis, but today the most prevalent clinical signs are attributed to acute renal failure. The current literature gives a good review of leptospirosis in dogs in the USA and Canada, but less information is available about its occurrence in Europe. This review considers the clinical signs, diagnosis, treatment and prevention of this emerging zoonotic disease.
Michaela Šedivá; Petr Řezáč; Eva Jeřábková
The objective of the study was to examine sniffing behavior in male and female dogs in open places. It was observed 468 dogs. Female dogs more often sniffed the head of another dog than male dogs. Male dogs more frequently sniffed the backside of another dog than female dogs. Female dogs more often sniffed the belly of another dog than male dogs. Further research is needed to understand the dog’s sniffing behavior on walks.
Ngo, Long le
Anvendelse af optimeringsteknik til drift af reservoirer er blevet et væsentligt element i vandressource-planlægning og -forvaltning. Traditionelt har reservoirer været styret af heuristiske procedurer for udtag af vand, suppleret i en vis udstrækning af subjektive beslutninger. Udnyttelse af...... reservoirer involverer en lang række interessenter med meget forskellige formål (f.eks. kunstig vanding, vandkraft, vandforsyning mv.), og optimeringsteknik kan langt bedre lede frem til afbalancerede løsninger af de ofte modstridende interesser. Afhandlingen foreslår en række tiltag, hvormed traditionelle...... driftsstrategier kan erstattes af optimale strategier baseret på den nyeste udvikling indenfor computer-baserede beregninger. Hovedbidraget i afhandlingen er udviklingen af et beregningssystem, hvori en simuleringsmodel er koblet til en model for optimering af nogle udvalgte beslutningsvariable, der i særlig grad...
Breen, P H; Isserles, S A
In gas exchange studies addressing the storage and transport of CO2 in dogs, a model in which cardiac output (QT) can be precisely controlled and measured would be beneficial. We identified problems with described extracorporeal circuits and implemented right atrial bypass (RAB) in dogs. In 6 anesthetized (chloralose and urethane), heparinized dogs (mean +/- SD, 24 +/- 4 kg) with open thorax, cannulas were inserted in both vena cavas to drain venous blood return to a reservoir (anaerobic bag or bubble oxygenator). A roller pump then drove blood through a heat exchanger back to the right atrial appendage. After 1.8 +/- 1.4 hour of RAB, physiologic variables remained within reference limits for dogs (QT, 1.5 +/- 0.3 L/min; blood pressure, 92 +/- 25 mm of Hg; arterial PCO2, 35 +/- 4 mm of Hg; PO2, 513 +/- 39 mm of Hg; pH, 7.39 +/- 0.08; and tissue CO2 production, 126 +/- 56 ml/min). To permit study of gas exchange, venous return (and thus, QT) and venous PCO2 and PO2 could be accurately regulated and measured over a wide range. Maintenance of native pulsatile lung perfusion and cardiogenic oscillations minimizes mismatching of pulmonary ventilation and perfusion and facilitates studies addressing pulmonary gas exchange. This RAB model is designed so that investigators can establish the preparation in a few hours.
Chapagain, Durga; Range, Friederike; Huber, Ludwig; Virányi, Zsófia
A decline in the physical or mental health of older dogs can be a challenge for the owners, whose relationship with their dog is compromised by the cognitive and behavioral changes in their dogs. Although dog owners tend to consider many physiological and behavioral changes in old dogs as part of the normal aging process, it is important to differentiate between normal aging and pathologic aging, since behavioral changes may be the first indication of declining health and welfare in old dogs. Most reviews on cognitive aging in dogs have focused on translational approaches to human Alzheimer's disease; from a practical perspective, however, understanding normal cognitive aging in pet dogs and screening cognitively affected dogs are important in their own right. Here we review the literature on different cognitive functions that decline during aging, signs of cognitive dysfunction, screening methods, and preventive measures for age-related cognitive decline. Moreover, we discuss the drawbacks of using questionnaires as subjective measures of aging and propose the development of objective methods to distinguish normal cognitive aging from severe cognitive dysfunction. We suggest that multi-targeted approaches that combine owner-evaluated questionnaires with neuropsychological tests can be most effective in screening cognitively affected dogs from normally aging dogs. Regarding preventive measures, we conclude that combinations of dietary intervention and behavioral enrichment may be more beneficial than single-pathway manipulations in delaying cognitive aging or retaining various cognitive functions during aging. © 2017 The Author(s) Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.
Joly-Mascheroni, Ramiro M; Senju, Atsushi; Shepherd, Alex J
This study is the first to demonstrate that human yawns are possibly contagious to domestic dogs (Canis familiaris). Twenty-nine dogs observed a human yawning or making control mouth movements. Twenty-one dogs yawned when they observed a human yawning, but control mouth movements did not elicit yawning from any of them. The presence of contagious yawning in dogs suggests that this phenomenon is not specific to primate species and may indicate that dogs possess the capacity for a rudimentary form of empathy. Since yawning is known to modulate the levels of arousal, yawn contagion may help coordinate dog-human interaction and communication. Understanding the mechanism as well as the function of contagious yawning between humans and dogs requires more detailed investigation.
Grant, Malcolm Alister
As nations alike struggle to diversify and secure their power portfolios, geothermal energy, the essentially limitless heat emanating from the earth itself, is being harnessed at an unprecedented rate. For the last 25 years, engineers around the world tasked with taming this raw power have used Geothermal Reservoir Engineering as both a training manual and a professional reference. This long-awaited second edition of Geothermal Reservoir Engineering is a practical guide to the issues and tasks geothermal engineers encounter in the course of their daily jobs. The bo
Renner, Joel L.; Bodvarsson, Gudmundur S.; Wannamaker, Philip E.; Horne, Roland N.; Shook, G. Michael
This session at the Geothermal Energy Program Review X: Geothermal Energy and the Utility Market consisted of five papers: ''Reservoir Technology'' by Joel L. Renner; ''LBL Research on the Geysers: Conceptual Models, Simulation and Monitoring Studies'' by Gudmundur S. Bodvarsson; ''Geothermal Geophysical Research in Electrical Methods at UURI'' by Philip E. Wannamaker; ''Optimizing Reinjection Strategy at Palinpinon, Philippines Based on Chloride Data'' by Roland N. Horne; ''TETRAD Reservoir Simulation'' by G. Michael Shook
Basso, Beatriz; Marini, Vanina; Gauna, Diego; Frias, Maria
Dogs play a major role in the domestic cycle of Trypanosoma cruzi, acting as reservoirs. In a previous work we have developed a model of vaccination of dogs in captivity with nonpathogenic Trypanosoma rangeli epimastigotes, resulting in the production of protective antibodies against T. cruzi, with dramatic decrease of parasitaemia upon challenge with 100,000 virulent forms of this parasite. The aim of this work was to evaluate the immunogenicity of this vaccine in dogs living in a rural area. Domestic dogs, free from T. cruzi infection, received three immunisations with fixed T. rangeli epimastigotes. Dogs were not challenged with T. cruzi, but they were left in their environment. This immunisation induced antibodies against T. cruzi for more than three years in dogs in their natural habitat, while control dogs remained serologically negative.
Nunes, Cáris Maroni; Pires, Marina Mota; da Silva, Karinne Marques; Assis, Filipe Daniel; Gonçalves Filho, Jesualdo; Perri, Silvia Helena Venturoli
Domestic dogs are the main reservoirs of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in urban areas; one of the control measures adopted in Brazil is the elimination of this reservoir. In order to test the relationship between the euthanasia rate of the canine reservoir and the incidence of the disease in humans, data on dog culling from the Centre for Zoonosis Control of Araçatuba, São Paulo, Brazil, during the period from 1999 to 2008 and visceral leishmaniasis human cases registered in the same period were analyzed. Reduction of human VL incidence was statistically correlated to dog euthanasia rate (P=0.0211; r(2)=0.616) when it was analyzed for the period of two years after application of this measure. Other factors that may influence this relationship are considered. (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Little, Susan E; Hostetler, Joe; Kocan, Katherine M
Adult male ticks have been shown capable of experimental acquisition and transmission of tick-borne pathogens without requiring a molt. To determine the ecological relevance of this intrastadial transmission route, we evaluated the extent to which actively feeding male Rhipicephalus sanguineus move naturally between co-housed infested dogs. Dogs (n=4) were infested with single color-coded ticks, individually housed in tick-confinement cages for 48 h while infestations established, and then each dog examined and the ticks present counted. Dogs were then co-housed in a large, group pen for an additional 7 (study 1) or 5 (study 2) days. In the first study, sex ratios were adjusted to encourage migration, with two dogs receiving predominantly female ticks and two dogs receiving all male ticks. In the second study, each dog received a ratio of ticks that parallels that found in natural infestations (4:1 male to female). Results showed that ticks readily migrated between infested, co-housed dogs. Rates of immigration, defined as the percentage of ticks previously attached to one dog that moved onto another dog, ranged from 0 to 46% (mean=31.1% study 1; 9.4% study 2). Emigration rates, defined as the number of ticks initially infesting one dog that moved to another dog, averaged 35.2% in study 1 and 10.8% in study 2 (3.6-67.6%). Movement of adult ticks between dogs represents a naturally occurring form of interrupted feeding, a strategy which has been shown to shorten the feeding time necessary to allow transmission of pathogens. In ticks that readily detach from one host and reattach to a second host to resume feeding, replication of any pathogens present has already been initiated and therefore the same delay in transmission seen in ticks attached to a host for the first time may not occur.
Albuquerque, Natalia; Guo, Kun; Wilkinson, Anna; Savalli, Carine; Otta, Emma; Mills, Daniel
The perception of emotional expressions allows animals to evaluate the social intentions and motivations of each other. This usually takes place within species; however, in the case of domestic dogs, it might be advantageous to recognize the emotions of humans as well as other dogs. In this sense, the combination of visual and auditory cues to categorize others' emotions facilitates the information processing and indicates high-level cognitive representations. Using a cross-modal preferential looking paradigm, we presented dogs with either human or dog faces with different emotional valences (happy/playful versus angry/aggressive) paired with a single vocalization from the same individual with either a positive or negative valence or Brownian noise. Dogs looked significantly longer at the face whose expression was congruent to the valence of vocalization, for both conspecifics and heterospecifics, an ability previously known only in humans. These results demonstrate that dogs can extract and integrate bimodal sensory emotional information, and discriminate between positive and negative emotions from both humans and dogs. © 2016 The Author(s).
Hornok, S; Edelhofer, R; Fok, E; Berta, K; Fejes, P; Répási, A; Farkas, R
In order to assess the seroprevalence of canine neosporosis 651 blood samples were collected from 586 household, 41 herding and 24 stray dogs, at small animal clinics in four large cities and other places of Hungary. Nineteen (2.9%) showed positivity in the IFAT with titres between 1:80 and 1:10240. Two dogs with high titres of antibodies to Neospora caninum had neuromuscular signs (imbalance, tremor) and a further one developed papulomatous, ulcerative and necrotizing dermatitis. There was no correlation between titers and age, sex, breed or keeping place. Although more male dogs had antibodies to N. caninum than females in case of both household and herding dogs, this association was not significant. No breed predisposition was observed. However, dogs with seroconversion were significantly more prevalent among rural (6%) than among urban dogs (1%), indicating that dogs in the countryside may have contact with or access to potentially infected offal from cattle and other intermediate hosts more frequently than those in large cities. Furthermore, significantly more herding dogs (29.3%) had antibodies to N. caninum than household dogs (1.2%), confirming the association between the occurrence of neosporosis and dog keeping on farms. The 12 dogs found seropositive among herding ones lived on 6 farms, on 5 of which seropositive cattle were also identified. This is the first report on the prevalence of N. caninum infection in dogs in Hungary.
Horiuchi, Yutaka; Tominaga, Makiko; Ichikawa, Mika; Yamashita, Masao; Okano, Kumiko; Jikumaru, Yuri; Nariai, Yoko; Nakajima, Yuko; Kuwabara, Masato; Yukawa, Masayoshi
Recent data suggest a decreased prevalence of IFN-gamma-producing T lymphocytes (Type 1 T cells) in tumor-bearing hosts. Moreover, it has been reported that Treg have a strong impact on the activation and proliferation of CD4 (+) and CD8 (+) lymphocytes; however, no previous reports have described the relationship between Treg and the progression of tumor, or Type 1 T cell populations in dogs with malignant tumor. In this study, the percentage of Treg, Th1, and Tc1 in the peripheral blood of dogs with oral malignant melanoma and healthy dogs was measured and compared. Although the percentages of Th1 and Tc1 in dogs with oral malignant melanoma were less than those in healthy dogs (Th1: P dogs with oral malignant melanoma. In dogs, Treg appears to suppress Type 1 immunity, which may be responsible for anti-tumor responses.
Kuno, G.; Mackenzie, J. S.; Junglen, S.; Hubálek, Zdeněk; Plyusnin, A.; Gubler, D. J.
Roč. 9, č. 7 (2017), č. článku 185. ISSN 1999-4915 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : insect-specific virus * arbovirus * transmission mechanism * vertebrate reservoir * origin of arbovirus * virus maintenance * zoonosis * host range Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology OBOR OECD: Virology Impact factor: 3.465, year: 2016
Pasternak, Alexander O.; Berkhout, Ben
HIV forms a reservoir that persists despite prolonged therapy and is considered the main barrier to an HIV cure. Baxter et al. (2016) in this issue of Cell Host & Microbe and Boritz et al. (2016) in a recent Cell paper shed new light on HIV persistence in infected individuals
Courtney L. Pariera Dinkins; Sue K. Brumfield; Robert K. D. Peterson; William E. Grey; Sharlene E. Sing
To date, there have been no reports of Dalmatian toadflax serving as a host for cucumber mosaic virus (CMV). Infestations of Dalmatian toadflax may serve as a reservoir of CMV, thereby facilitating aphid transmission of CMV to both agricultural crops and native plants. The goal of this study was to determine whether Dalmatian toadflax is a host for CMV. Dalmatian...
Correa G, Tomas F; Osorio, Nelson; Restrepo R, Dora P
This work is an exploration about different unconventional gas reservoirs worldwide: coal bed methane, tight gas, shale gas and gas hydrate? describing aspects such as definition, reserves, production methods, environmental issues and economics. The overview also mentioned preliminary studies about these sources in Colombia.
Hemanth-Kumar, K.; Young, L.C.
The adaptation of a reservoir simulator for parallel computations is described. The simulator was originally designed for vector processors. It performs approximately 99% of its calculations in vector/parallel mode and relative to scalar calculations it achieves speedups of 65 and 81 for black oil and EOS simulations, respectively on the CRAY C-90
Bosco-Lauth, Angela M; Hartwig, Airn E; Bowen, Richard A
Chikungunya virus is an emerging arbovirus of significant human-health concern. Little is known about its sylvatic cycle, including whether ectothermic vertebrates are permissive to infection. In this study, individuals from ten species of reptiles and amphibians were inoculated with chikungunya virus and samples of blood were tested to characterize viremia and seroconversion. Viremia was not detected in cane toads, house geckos, or American alligators, but most of the green iguanas, red-eared sliders, ball and Burmese pythons, leopard frogs, Texas toads, and garter snakes developed viremia. Peak virus titers in serum of up to 4.5, 4.7, and 5.1 log 10 plaque-forming units per milliliter were observed for garter snakes, ball pythons, and Texas toads, respectively. These results add to those of other studies that have suggested a possible role for ectothermic vertebrates in the ecology of arbovirus maintenance and transmission in nature.
Full Text Available Gastrointestinal microbial balance is the most important prerequisite for normal functions of digestive system, physiological and immunological homeostasis in dogs as well as in other animals. It helps in prevention of pathogenic colonization, provides energy through SCFA by nutrient breakdown, and improves mineral-vitamin supply to host, augment host immune status. Hence, it is imperative to explore the potential means to improve the gastrointestinal microbial diversity which in turns boost up dog health. [Vet. World 2010; 3(3.000: 140-141
Reithinger, R; Teodoro, U; Davies, CR
We compared the susceptibility of sand fly vectors to four topical insecticide treatments applied to domestic dogs, a reservoir of human leishmaniasis. Dogs were exposed to sand flies pretreatment and at 1 week, 1 month, and 2 months posttreatment. Sand fly bloodfeeding and survival rate of both fed and unfed flies were significantly reduced by the permethrin, deltamethrin, and fenthion treatments, but diazinon had no effect. The survival rate of bloodfed sand flies was reduced by up to 86% w...
... Tools for K-12 Educators Disease Precautions for Dog Walkers CC by Tomwsulcer Whether you’re walking ... routes or durations may need to be altered. Dog bites Always be careful when walking a dog ...
Jack Bergeron; Tom Blasingame; Louis Doublet; Mohan Kelkar; George Freeman; Jeff Callard; David Moore; David Davies; Richard Vessell; Brian Pregger; Bill Dixon; Bryce Bezant
Reservoir performance and characterization are vital parameters during the development phase of a project. Infill drilling of wells on a uniform spacing, without regard to characterization does not optimize development because it fails to account for the complex nature of reservoir heterogeneities present in many low permeability reservoirs, especially carbonate reservoirs. These reservoirs are typically characterized by: (1) large, discontinuous pay intervals; (2) vertical and lateral changes in reservoir properties; (3) low reservoir energy; (4) high residual oil saturation; and (5) low recovery efficiency. The operational problems they encounter in these types of reservoirs include: (1) poor or inadequate completions and stimulations; (2) early water breakthrough; (3) poor reservoir sweep efficiency in contacting oil throughout the reservoir as well as in the nearby well regions; (4) channeling of injected fluids due to preferential fracturing caused by excessive injection rates; and (5) limited data availability and poor data quality. Infill drilling operations only need target areas of the reservoir which will be economically successful. If the most productive areas of a reservoir can be accurately identified by combining the results of geological, petrophysical, reservoir performance, and pressure transient analyses, then this ''integrated'' approach can be used to optimize reservoir performance during secondary and tertiary recovery operations without resorting to ''blanket'' infill drilling methods. New and emerging technologies such as geostatistical modeling, rock typing, and rigorous decline type curve analysis can be used to quantify reservoir quality and the degree of interwell communication. These results can then be used to develop a 3-D simulation model for prediction of infill locations. The application of reservoir surveillance techniques to identify additional reservoir ''pay'' zones
Background: Neospora caninum and Toxoplasma gondii are important pathogens of worldwide distribution. N. caninum is a major cause of abortion in cattle and dogs are main reservoirs because they excrete the environmentally resistant oocysts. Toxoplasmosis is a worldwide zoonosis and dogs are consider...
Hend H. A. M. Abdullah
Full Text Available Aim: Rickettsioses have an epidemiological importance that includes pathogens, vectors, and hosts. The dog tick Rhipicephalus sanguineus and the camel tick Hyalomma dromedarii play important roles as vectors and reservoirs of Rickettsiae. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of Rickettsiae in ixodid ticks species infesting dogs and camels in Egypt, in addition to, the morphological and molecular identification of R. sanguineus and H. dromedarii. Materials and Methods: A total of 601 and 104 of ticks’ specimens were collected from dogs and camels, respectively, in Cairo, Giza and Sinai provinces. Hemolymph staining technique and OmpA and gltA genes amplification were performed to estimate the prevalence rate of Rickettsiae in ticks. For morphological identification of tick species, light microscope (LM and scanning electron microscope (SEM were used. In addition to the phylogenetic analyses of 18S rDNA, Second internal transcript spacer, 12S rDNA, cytochrome c oxidase subunit-1, and 16S rDNA were performed for molecular identification of two tick species. Results: The prevalence rate of Rickettsiae in ticks was 11.6% using hemolymph staining technique and 6.17% by OmpA and gltA genes amplification. Morphological identification revealed that 100% of dogs were infested by R. sanguineus while 91.9% of camels had been infested by H. dromedarii. The phylogenetic analyses of five DNA markers confirmed morphological identification by LM and SEM. The two tick species sequences analyses proved 96-100% sequences identities when compared with the reference data in Genbank records. Conclusion: The present studies confirm the suitability of mitochondrial DNA markers for reliable identification of ticks at both intra- and inter-species level over the nuclear ones. In addition to, the detection of Rickettsiae in both ticks’ species and establishment of the phylogenetic status of R. sanguineus and H. dromedarii would be useful in
Lin, Wei; Patil, Pavan Manohar
The exposed position of the face makes it vulnerable to dog bite injuries. This fact combined with the short stature of children makes them a high-risk group for such attacks. In contrast to wounds inflicted by assaults and accidents, dog bite wounds are deep puncture type wounds compounded by the presence of pathologic bacteria from the saliva of the attacking dog. This, combined with the presence of crushed, devitalized tissue makes these wounds highly susceptible to infection. Key to succe...
1998 and 1999 showed that the Europeans did not have an advantage in the selection of their dogs . Officials of the 341st TRS offered two possible...DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A Approved for Public Release Distribution Unlimited MILITARY WORKING DOG PROCUREMENTS Report No. D-2000-102 March 14...A . Report Title: Military Working Dog Procurements B. DATE Report Downloaded From the Internet: 03/28/99 C. Report’s Point of Contact: (Name
Curi, N. H. A.; Paschoal, A. M. O.; Massara, R. L.; Santos, H. A.; Guimarães, M. P.; Passamani, M.; Chiarello, A. G.
Abstract Despite the ubiquity of domestic dogs, their role as zoonotic reservoirs and the large number of studies concerning parasites in urban dogs, rural areas in Brazil, especially those at the wildlife-domestic animal-human interface, have received little attention from scientists and public health managers. This paper reports a cross-sectional epidemiological survey of gastrointestinal parasites of rural dogs living in farms around Atlantic Forest fragments. Through standard parasitologi...
Full Text Available Leptospirosis is a bacterial zoonosis of major concern on tropical islands. Human populations on western Indian Ocean islands are strongly affected by the disease although each archipelago shows contrasting epidemiology. For instance, Mayotte, part of the Comoros Archipelago, differs from the other neighbouring islands by a high diversity of Leptospira species infecting humans that includes Leptospira mayottensis, a species thought to be unique to this island. Using bacterial culture, molecular detection and typing, the present study explored the wild and domestic local mammalian fauna for renal carriage of leptospires and addressed the genetic relationships of the infecting strains with local isolates obtained from acute human cases and with Leptospira strains hosted by mammal species endemic to nearby Madagascar. Tenrec (Tenrec ecaudatus, Family Tenrecidae, a terrestrial mammal introduced from Madagascar, is identified as a reservoir of L. mayottensis. All isolated L. mayottensis sequence types form a monophyletic clade that includes Leptospira strains infecting humans and tenrecs on Mayotte, as well as two other Malagasy endemic tenrecid species of the genus Microgale. The lower diversity of L. mayottensis in tenrecs from Mayotte, compared to that occurring in Madagascar, suggests that L. mayottensis has indeed a Malagasy origin. This study also showed that introduced rats (Rattus rattus and dogs are probably the main reservoirs of Leptospira borgpetersenii and Leptospira kirschneri, both bacteria being prevalent in local clinical cases. Data emphasize the epidemiological link between the two neighbouring islands and the role of introduced small mammals in shaping the local epidemiology of leptospirosis.
Lagadec, Erwan; Gomard, Yann; Le Minter, Gildas; Cordonin, Colette; Cardinale, Eric; Ramasindrazana, Beza; Dietrich, Muriel; Goodman, Steven M; Tortosa, Pablo; Dellagi, Koussay
Leptospirosis is a bacterial zoonosis of major concern on tropical islands. Human populations on western Indian Ocean islands are strongly affected by the disease although each archipelago shows contrasting epidemiology. For instance, Mayotte, part of the Comoros Archipelago, differs from the other neighbouring islands by a high diversity of Leptospira species infecting humans that includes Leptospira mayottensis, a species thought to be unique to this island. Using bacterial culture, molecular detection and typing, the present study explored the wild and domestic local mammalian fauna for renal carriage of leptospires and addressed the genetic relationships of the infecting strains with local isolates obtained from acute human cases and with Leptospira strains hosted by mammal species endemic to nearby Madagascar. Tenrec (Tenrec ecaudatus, Family Tenrecidae), a terrestrial mammal introduced from Madagascar, is identified as a reservoir of L. mayottensis. All isolated L. mayottensis sequence types form a monophyletic clade that includes Leptospira strains infecting humans and tenrecs on Mayotte, as well as two other Malagasy endemic tenrecid species of the genus Microgale. The lower diversity of L. mayottensis in tenrecs from Mayotte, compared to that occurring in Madagascar, suggests that L. mayottensis has indeed a Malagasy origin. This study also showed that introduced rats (Rattus rattus) and dogs are probably the main reservoirs of Leptospira borgpetersenii and Leptospira kirschneri, both bacteria being prevalent in local clinical cases. Data emphasize the epidemiological link between the two neighbouring islands and the role of introduced small mammals in shaping the local epidemiology of leptospirosis.
We stress the usefulness of the work reservoir in the formalism of thermodynamics, in particular in the context of the first law. To elucidate its usefulness, the formalism is then applied to the Joule expansion and other peculiar and instructive experimental situations, clarifying the concepts of configuration and dissipative work. The ideas and discussions presented in this study are primarily intended for undergraduate students, but they might also be useful to graduate students, researchers and teachers.
Tome, Rozeani Olimpio; Gaio, Fernanda Conceição; Generoso, Diego; Menozzi, Benedito Donizete; Langoni, Helio
The canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) and american trypanosomiasis are important zoonoses in public health and dogs are the main domestic reservoir of the parasite for humans. The goal of this study was to estimate the prevalence of circulating antibodies anti-Trypanosoma cruzi and anti-Leishmania sp. in sera of dogs from the rural area of Botucatu, SP, Brazil. During the annual vaccination campaign against canine rabies in rural area, 689 blood samples were taken and processed by indirect immunofluorescent antibody test. The serological tests revealed the absence of antibodies anti-Leishmania spp., but anti-T. cruzi antibodies were detected in 3 (0.4%) dogs.
Nissen, Sofie; Nguyen, Lan Anh Thi; Dalsgaard, Anders
Fishborne zoonotic trematodes (FZT) are highly prevalent in Southeast Asia. Recent studies on the role of domestic animals in the transmission of FZT in Northern Vietnam found that dogs, mainly infected with Haplorchis pumilio, contributed widely to the transmission of FZT. On this background, we...... conducted an experimental infection with H. pumilio to elucidate population dynamics and host reactions in dogs. Eight household-reared dogs (3-6 months old), were each orally infected with 500 H. pumilio metacercariae obtained by artificial digestion of naturally infected fish. Another eight dogs were...
Full Text Available This paper took extra low permeability reservoirs in Dagang Liujianfang Oilfield as an example and analyzed different types of microscopic pore structures by SEM, casting thin sections fluorescence microscope, and so on. With adoption of rate-controlled mercury penetration, NMR, and some other advanced techniques, based on evaluation parameters, namely, throat radius, volume percentage of mobile fluid, start-up pressure gradient, and clay content, the classification and assessment method of extra low permeability reservoirs was improved and the parameter boundaries of the advantageous reservoirs were established. The physical properties of reservoirs with different depth are different. Clay mineral variation range is 7.0%, and throat radius variation range is 1.81 μm, and start pressure gradient range is 0.23 MPa/m, and movable fluid percentage change range is 17.4%. The class IV reservoirs account for 9.56%, class II reservoirs account for 12.16%, and class III reservoirs account for 78.29%. According to the comparison of different development methods, class II reservoir is most suitable for waterflooding development, and class IV reservoir is most suitable for gas injection development. Taking into account the gas injection in the upper section of the reservoir, the next section of water injection development will achieve the best results.
Full Text Available The presence of Giardia genotypes was investigated in 18 raccoon dogs ( Nyctereutes procyonoides and 80 red foxes ( Vulpes vulpes on one farm. To demonstrate Giardia cysts, fresh and trichrome stained smears were microscopically screened. Two molecular markers were used for Giardia genotyping: a fragment of the beta-giardin gene and a fragment of the glutamate dehydrogenase gene. All faecal samples obtained from red foxes were negative. Giardia cysts were identified only in 2 of the 18 raccoon dogs. The result of genotyping and phylogenetic analysis showed that the G. duodenalis from both raccoon dogs belonged to the D assemblage. This finding of a new animal reservoir of G. duodenalis canids-specific genotypes is important in order to eliminate the risk of infecting other animals bred for fur. Further molecular analyses of Giardia isolates in raccoon dogs are required. The present study represents the first contribution to knowledge of G. duodenalis genotypes in raccoon dogs.
Tear ferning in normal dogs and dogs with keratoconjunctivitis sicca. David Williams, Heather Hewitt. Abstract. This study evaluates tear ferning as an ancillary technique for the evaluation of the canine tear film in normal eyes and eyes affected by keratoconjunctivitis sicca (KCS). Thirty dogs with KCS and 50 control dogs ...
Nijsse, Rolf; Mughini-Gras, Lapo; Wagenaar, Jaap A; Franssen, Frits; Ploeger, Harm W
Environmental contamination with Toxocara eggs is considered the main source of human toxocariasis. The contribution of different groups of hosts to this contamination is largely unknown. Current deworming advices focus mainly on dogs. However, controversy exists about blind deworming regimens for >6-month-old dogs, as most of them do not actually shed Toxocara eggs. We aim to estimate the contribution of different non-juvenile hosts to the environmental Toxocara egg contamination and to assess the effects of different Toxocara-reducing interventions for dogs. A stochastic model was developed to quantify the relative contribution to the environmental contamination with Toxocara eggs of household dogs, household cats, stray cats, and foxes, all older than 6 months in areas with varying urbanization degrees. The model was built upon an existing model developed by Morgan et al. (2013). We used both original and published data on host density, prevalence and intensity of infection, coprophagic behaviour, faeces disposal by owners, and cats' outdoor access. Scenario analyses were performed to assess the expected reduction in dogs' egg output according to different deworming regimens and faeces clean-up compliances. Estimates referred to the Netherlands, a country free of stray dogs. Household dogs accounted for 39% of the overall egg output of >6-month-old hosts in the Netherlands, followed by stray cats (27%), household cats (19%), and foxes (15%). In urban areas, egg output was dominated by stray cats (81%). Intervention scenarios revealed that only with a high compliance (90%) to the four times a year deworming advice, dogs' contribution would drop from 39 to 28%. Alternatively, when 50% of owners would always remove their dogs' faeces, dogs' contribution would drop to 20%. Among final hosts of Toxocara older than 6 months, dogs are the main contributors to the environmental egg contamination, though cats in total (i.e. both owned and stray) transcend this
Full Text Available In this study 308 ticks (Ixodes ariadnae: 26 larvae, 14 nymphs, five females; I. vespertilionis: 89 larvae, 27 nymphs, eight females; I. simplex: 80 larvae, 50 nymphs, nine females have been collected from 200 individuals of 17 bat species in two countries, Hungary and Romania. After DNA extraction these ticks were molecularly analysed for the presence of piroplasm DNA. In Hungary I. ariadnae was most frequently identified from bat species in the family Vespertilionidae, whereas I. vespertilionis was associated with Rhinolophidae. Ixodes ariadnae was not found in Romania. Four, four and one new bat host species of I. ariadnae, I. vespertilionis and I. simplex were identified, respectively. DNA sequences of piroplasms were detected in 20 bat ticks (15 larvae, four nymphs and one female. I. simplex carried piroplasm DNA sequences significantly more frequently than I. vespertilionis. In I. ariadnae only Babesia vesperuginis DNA was detected, whereas in I. vespertilionis sequences of both B. vesperuginis and B. crassa. From I. simplex the DNA of B. canis, Theileria capreoli, T. orientalis and Theileria sp. OT3 were amplified, as well as a shorter sequence of the zoonotic B. venatorum. Bat ticks are not known to infest dogs or ruminants, i.e. typical hosts and reservoirs of piroplasms molecularly identified in I. vespertilionis and I. simplex. Therefore, DNA sequences of piroplasms detected in these bat ticks most likely originated from the blood of their respective bat hosts. This may indicate either that bats are susceptible to a broader range of piroplasms than previously thought, or at least the DNA of piroplasms may pass through the gut barrier of bats during digestion of relevant arthropod vectors. In light of these findings, the role of bats in the epidemiology of piroplasmoses deserves further investigation.
Hornok, Sándor; Szőke, Krisztina; Kováts, Dávid; Estók, Péter; Görföl, Tamás; Boldogh, Sándor A; Takács, Nóra; Kontschán, Jenő; Földvári, Gábor; Barti, Levente; Corduneanu, Alexandra; Sándor, Attila D
In this study 308 ticks (Ixodes ariadnae: 26 larvae, 14 nymphs, five females; I. vespertilionis: 89 larvae, 27 nymphs, eight females; I. simplex: 80 larvae, 50 nymphs, nine females) have been collected from 200 individuals of 17 bat species in two countries, Hungary and Romania. After DNA extraction these ticks were molecularly analysed for the presence of piroplasm DNA. In Hungary I. ariadnae was most frequently identified from bat species in the family Vespertilionidae, whereas I. vespertilionis was associated with Rhinolophidae. Ixodes ariadnae was not found in Romania. Four, four and one new bat host species of I. ariadnae, I. vespertilionis and I. simplex were identified, respectively. DNA sequences of piroplasms were detected in 20 bat ticks (15 larvae, four nymphs and one female). I. simplex carried piroplasm DNA sequences significantly more frequently than I. vespertilionis. In I. ariadnae only Babesia vesperuginis DNA was detected, whereas in I. vespertilionis sequences of both B. vesperuginis and B. crassa. From I. simplex the DNA of B. canis, Theileria capreoli, T. orientalis and Theileria sp. OT3 were amplified, as well as a shorter sequence of the zoonotic B. venatorum. Bat ticks are not known to infest dogs or ruminants, i.e. typical hosts and reservoirs of piroplasms molecularly identified in I. vespertilionis and I. simplex. Therefore, DNA sequences of piroplasms detected in these bat ticks most likely originated from the blood of their respective bat hosts. This may indicate either that bats are susceptible to a broader range of piroplasms than previously thought, or at least the DNA of piroplasms may pass through the gut barrier of bats during digestion of relevant arthropod vectors. In light of these findings, the role of bats in the epidemiology of piroplasmoses deserves further investigation.
Ostfeld, Richard S; Levi, Taal; Jolles, Anna E; Martin, Lynn B; Hosseini, Parviez R; Keesing, Felicia
Animal and plant species differ dramatically in their quality as hosts for multi-host pathogens, but the causes of this variation are poorly understood. A group of small mammals, including small rodents and shrews, are among the most competent natural reservoirs for three tick-borne zoonotic pathogens, Borrelia burgdorferi, Babesia microti, and Anaplasma phagocytophilum, in eastern North America. For a group of nine commonly-infected mammals spanning >2 orders of magnitude in body mass, we asked whether life history features or surrogates for (unknown) encounter rates with ticks, predicted reservoir competence for each pathogen. Life history features associated with a fast pace of life generally were positively correlated with reservoir competence. However, a model comparison approach revealed that host population density, as a proxy for encounter rates between hosts and pathogens, generally received more support than did life history features. The specific life history features and the importance of host population density differed somewhat between the different pathogens. We interpret these results as supporting two alternative but non-exclusive hypotheses for why ecologically widespread, synanthropic species are often the most competent reservoirs for multi-host pathogens. First, multi-host pathogens might adapt to those hosts they are most likely to experience, which are likely to be the most abundant and/or frequently bitten by tick vectors. Second, species with fast life histories might allocate less to certain immune defenses, which could increase their reservoir competence. Results suggest that of the host species that might potentially be exposed, those with comparatively high population densities, small bodies, and fast pace of life will often be keystone reservoirs that should be targeted for surveillance or management.
Richard S Ostfeld
Full Text Available Animal and plant species differ dramatically in their quality as hosts for multi-host pathogens, but the causes of this variation are poorly understood. A group of small mammals, including small rodents and shrews, are among the most competent natural reservoirs for three tick-borne zoonotic pathogens, Borrelia burgdorferi, Babesia microti, and Anaplasma phagocytophilum, in eastern North America. For a group of nine commonly-infected mammals spanning >2 orders of magnitude in body mass, we asked whether life history features or surrogates for (unknown encounter rates with ticks, predicted reservoir competence for each pathogen. Life history features associated with a fast pace of life generally were positively correlated with reservoir competence. However, a model comparison approach revealed that host population density, as a proxy for encounter rates between hosts and pathogens, generally received more support than did life history features. The specific life history features and the importance of host population density differed somewhat between the different pathogens. We interpret these results as supporting two alternative but non-exclusive hypotheses for why ecologically widespread, synanthropic species are often the most competent reservoirs for multi-host pathogens. First, multi-host pathogens might adapt to those hosts they are most likely to experience, which are likely to be the most abundant and/or frequently bitten by tick vectors. Second, species with fast life histories might allocate less to certain immune defenses, which could increase their reservoir competence. Results suggest that of the host species that might potentially be exposed, those with comparatively high population densities, small bodies, and fast pace of life will often be keystone reservoirs that should be targeted for surveillance or management.
Tsai, Yi-Lun; Lin, Chao-Chen; Chomel, Bruno B; Chuang, Shih-Te; Tsai, Kun-Hsien; Wu, Wen-Jer; Huang, Chin-Gi; Yu, Jiann-Chung; Sung, Min-Hua; Kass, Philip H; Chang, Chao-Chin
Mainly through vector transmission, domestic cats and dogs are infected by several Bartonella spp. and represent a large reservoir for human infections. This study investigated the relationship of prevalences of Bartonella infection in shelter dogs and cats and various ectoparasite species infesting them (fleas, ticks, and lice). Moreover, relationships between Bartonella infection and animal gender and age and presence of ectoparasites were analyzed. Blood samples were collected from 120 dogs and 103 cats. There were 386 ticks and 36 fleas harvested on these dogs, and 141 fleas, 4 ticks, and 2 lice harvested on these cats. Isolation/detection of Bartonella sp. was performed by culture, polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and partial sequencing. Bartonella was isolated from 21 (20.4%) cats and detected by PCR from 20 (19.4%) cats, 2 (1.7%) dogs, 55 (39%) fleas collected from cats, 28 (10%) ticks DNA samples, and 1 (2.8%) flea collected from dogs. When combining culture and PCR data, 27 cats and 55 fleas collected on cats were positive for Bartonella henselae or Bartonella clarridgeiae, but none were coinfected. Approximately half of the B. henselae isolates from 21 cats were B. henselae type I. Moreover, B. henselae, Bartonella phoceensis, Bartonella queenslandensis, Bartonella rattimassiliensis, Bartonella elizabethae DNA was detected in ticks collected from dogs and one flea was B. clarridgeiae PCR positive. This is the first report of such a wide variety of Bartonella spp. detected in Rhipicephalus sanguineus. Further studies are required to understand the relative importance of these ectoparasites to transmit Bartonella spp. in dogs and cats.
Some experience is reported, referring to court trials of accidents involving members of the so-called "fighting dog" breeds. Analysis of the situation makes obvious that many breeders and owners of these or similar dogs demonstrate an irresponsible attitude, thereby fostering breed standards which should be corrected. A future solution of this problem and of others could only be brought about by a law, which would regulate companion animal breeding and ownership. A ban on special breeds or their integration into a "Dangerous animals act" seems for now to be feasible for breeds only which are explicitly standard-bred for aggressiveness against man. Responsible dog breeding and ownership is postulated in order to avoid a growing aversion against dogs in society, which certainly contributed to the stagnation of the dog population in the FRG during the last years.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Visceral leishmaniasis in Brazil is caused by the protozoan Leishmania (Leishmania chagasi and it is transmitted by sandfly of the genus Lutzomyia. Dogs are an important domestic reservoir, and control of the transmission of visceral leishmaniasis (VL to humans includes the elimination of infected dogs. However, though dogs are considered to be an important element in the transmission cycle of Leishmania, the identification of infected dogs representing an immediate risk for transmission has not been properly evaluated. Since it is not possible to treat infected dogs, they are sacrificed when a diagnosis of VL is established, a measure that is difficult to accomplish in highly endemic areas. In such areas, parameters that allow for easy identification of reservoirs that represents an immediate risk for transmission is of great importance for the control of VL transmission. In this study we aimed to identify clinical parameters, reinforced by pathological parameters that characterize dogs with potential to transmit the parasite to the vector. Results The major clinical manifestations of visceral leishmaniasis in dogs from an endemic area were onicogriphosis, skin lesions, conjunctivitis, lymphadenopathy, and weight loss. The transmission potential of these dogs was assessed by xenodiagnosis using Lutzomyia longipalpis. Six of nine symptomatic dogs were infective to Lutzomyia longipalpis while none of the five asymptomatic dogs were infective to the sandfly. Leishmania amastigotes were present in the skin of all clinically symptomatic dogs, but absent in asymptomatic dogs. Higher parasite loads were observed in the ear and ungueal region, and lower in abdomen. The inflammatory infiltrate was more intense in the ears and ungueal regions of both symptomatic and asymptomatic dogs. In clinically affected dogs in which few or none Leishmania amastigotes were observed, the inflammatory infiltrate was constituted mainly of lymphocytes
In order to evaluate the influence on the feeding cycle of the bull-dog fish, Gnathonemus macrolepidotus, a 24-hour study was ..... intermediate hosts of the human bilharzia parasites, the snails Bulinus (Physopsis) and Biompha- laria pheifferi both occur in .... mass relationship is assumed. 2. Feeding time: It is necessary to ...
Luo, Ya-Kun; Liang, Lin; Tang, Qing-Hai; Zhou, Ling; Shi, Li-Jun; Cong, Ying-Ying; Lin, Wen-Cheng; Cui, Shang-Jin
Encephalomyocarditis virus (EMCV) is as a potential zoonotic agent with a wide host range. Here, we describe an EMC virus isolate, identified as EMCV C15, which was successfully obtained from the serum of dogs from animal hospitals. Virus production in cell culture was confirmed by EMCV-specific
Blood leucocyte apoptosis in the trypanosome-infected natural hosts is yet to be documented and recognized as a feature of trypanosomiasis. We provide evidence of marked peripheral blood leucocyte apoptosis in two cases of dogs severely infected with Trypanosoma congolense. It is expected that this case report will ...
Oh, Hyun Ju; Ra, Kihae; Kim, Min Jung; Kim, Geon A; Setyawan, Erif Maha Nugraha; Lee, Seok Hee; Lee, Byeong Chun
Dog cloning as a concept is no longer infeasible. Starting with Snuppy, the first cloned dog in the world, somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) has been continuously developed and used for diverse purposes. In this article we summarise the current method for SCNT, the normality of cloned dogs and the application of dog cloning not only for personal reasons, but also for public purposes.
Scherer, C.R.; Golabi, K.
The optimal management of a hot water geothermal reservoir was considered. The physical system investigated includes a three-dimensional aquifer from which hot water is pumped and circulated through a heat exchanger. Heat removed from the geothermal fluid is transferred to a building complex or other facility for space heating. After passing through the heat exchanger, the (now cooled) geothermal fluid is reinjected into the aquifer. This cools the reservoir at a rate predicted by an expression relating pumping rate, time, and production hole temperature. The economic model proposed in the study maximizes discounted value of energy transferred across the heat exchanger minus the discounted cost of wells, equipment, and pumping energy. The real value of energy is assumed to increase at r percent per year. A major decision variable is the production or pumping rate (which is constant over the project life). Other decision variables in this optimization are production timing, reinjection temperature, and the economic life of the reservoir at the selected pumping rate. Results show that waiting time to production and production life increases as r increases and decreases as the discount rate increases. Production rate decreases as r increases and increases as the discount rate increases. The optimal injection temperature is very close to the temperature of the steam produced on the other side of the heat exchanger, and is virtually independent of r and the discount rate. Sensitivity of the decision variables to geohydrological parameters was also investigated. Initial aquifer temperature and permeability have a major influence on these variables, although aquifer porosity is of less importance. A penalty was considered for production delay after the lease is granted.
Van der Sande, Guy; Brunner, Daniel; Soriano, Miguel C.
We review a novel paradigm that has emerged in analogue neuromorphic optical computing. The goal is to implement a reservoir computer in optics, where information is encoded in the intensity and phase of the optical field. Reservoir computing is a bio-inspired approach especially suited for processing time-dependent information. The reservoir's complex and high-dimensional transient response to the input signal is capable of universal computation. The reservoir does not need to be trained, which makes it very well suited for optics. As such, much of the promise of photonic reservoirs lies in their minimal hardware requirements, a tremendous advantage over other hardware-intensive neural network models. We review the two main approaches to optical reservoir computing: networks implemented with multiple discrete optical nodes and the continuous system of a single nonlinear device coupled to delayed feedback.
Inpankaew, Tawin; Hii, Sze Fui; Chimnoi, Wissanuwat; Traub, Rebecca J
In Southeast Asia, the canine vector-borne pathogens Babesia spp., Ehrlichia canis, Anaplasma platys, Hepatozoon canis, haemotropic mycoplasmas and Dirofilaria immitis cause significant morbidity and mortality in dogs. Moreover, dogs have also been implicated as natural reservoirs for Rickettsia felis, the agent of flea-borne spotted fever, increasingly implicated as a cause of undifferentiated fever in humans in Southeast Asia. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence and diversity of canine vector-borne pathogens in 101 semi-domesticated dogs from rural Cambodia using molecular diagnostic techniques. The most common canine vector-borne pathogens found infecting dogs in this study were Babesia vogeli (32.7 %) followed by Ehrlichia canis (21.8 %), Dirofilaria immitis (15.8 %), Hepatozoon canis (10.9 %), Mycoplasma haemocanis (9.9 %) and "Candidatus Mycoplasma haematoparvum" (2.9 %). A high level of co-infection with CVBD agents (23.8 %) was present, most commonly B. vogeli and E. canis. Naturally occurring R. felis infection was also detected in 10.9 % of dogs in support of their role as a natural mammalian reservoir for flea-borne spotted fever in humans. This study reports for the first time, the prevalence and diversity of CVBD pathogens in dogs in Cambodia. In total, five species of CVBD pathogens were found infecting semi-domesticated dogs and many were co-infected with two or more pathogens. This study supports the role of dogs as natural mammalian reservoirs for R. felis, the agent of flea-borne spotted fever in humans.
Zolnik, Christine P; Makkay, Amanda M; Falco, Richard C; Daniels, Thomas J
Ticks and whole blood were collected from American black bears (Ursus americanus Pallas) between October 2011 and October 2012 across four counties in northwestern New Jersey, an area where blacklegged ticks (Ixodes scapularis Say) and their associated tick-borne pathogens are prevalent. Adult American dog ticks (Dermacentor variabilis Say) were the most frequently collected tick species in late spring, whereas adult and nymphal blacklegged ticks were found in both the late spring and fall months. Additionally, for blacklegged ticks, we determined the quality of bloodmeals that females acquired from black bears compared with bloodmeals from white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus Zimmerman), the most important host for the adult stage of this tick species. Measures of fecundity after feeding on each host species were not significantly different, suggesting that the bloodmeal a female blacklegged tick acquires from a black bear is of similar quality to that obtained from a white-tailed deer. These results establish the American black bear as both a host and quality bloodmeal source to I. scapularis. Thus, black bears may help support blacklegged tick populations in areas where they are both present. In addition, samples of black bear blood were tested for DNA presence of three tick-borne pathogens. Anaplasma phagocytophilum Foggie and Babesia microti Franca were found in 9.2 and 32.3% of blood samples, respectively. All blood samples were quantitative polymerase chain reaction-negative for Borrelia burgdorferi Johnson, Schmid, Hyde, Steigerwalt, & Brenner. Although circulating pathogens were found in blood, the status of black bears as reservoirs for these pathogens remains unknown. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Vivian Suane de Freitas Vieira
Full Text Available ABSTRACT. Freitas Vieira V.S., Pires, M.S., Saavedra, A.F., Figueiredo, K.G., Scott F.B. & Rodrigues M. de L. de A. Experimental infection of Trichuris vulpis in dogs [Infecção experimental de cães com Trichuris vulpis]. Revista Brasileira de Medicina Veterinária, 38(supl. 3: 206-210, 2016. Programa de Pós graduação em Ciências Veterinária, Anexo 1, Instituto de Veterinária, Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro, BR 456, km 7, Campus Seropédica 23987-970, Seropédica, RJ, Brasil. E-mail: email@example.com Dog is the definitive host of Trichuris vulpis, gastrointestinal nematode that cause the illness known as trichuriasis that depending on the parasitic burden can cause, anorexy, loss of weight, anemia, dehydration and until evolving the death. With the objective to determine T. vulpis by oral inoculation with maximum 1,500 eggs; dogs had been infected with 500, 1,000 and 1,500 larvae eggs. From sixth week after infection, the egg counting was carried through eggs per gram of feces (EPG of each dog and from 11ª week egg elimination was observed in feces. The first Dog received 500 eggs and did not present eggs in feces; The second dog received 1000 eggs and presented a EPG of 17.150 in 12ª week with oscillations of up to 1,150 in 18ª week. Dog 3 that it received 1,500 eggs presented 50 EPG and reached the maximum of 150 eggs in 28ª week. In this study it can be concluded that the dose of 1.000 and 1.500 eggs of T.vulpis was capable to infect the dogs and that the dose of 1,000 eggs can be indicated to keep the experimental cycle.
Scott, Eddie Elmer; Aines, Roger D.; Spadaccini, Christopher M.
In one general embodiment, a system includes at least one microsensor configured to detect one or more conditions of a fluidic medium of a reservoir; and a receptacle, wherein the receptacle encapsulates the at least one microsensor. In another general embodiment, a method include injecting the encapsulated at least one microsensor as recited above into a fluidic medium of a reservoir; and detecting one or more conditions of the fluidic medium of the reservoir.
Piotti, Patrizia; Kaminski, Juliane
Dogs are particularly skilful during communicative interactions with humans. Dogs' abilities to use human communicative cues in cooperative contexts outcompete those of other species, and might be the result of selection pressures during domestication. Dogs also produce signals to direct the attention of humans towards outside entities, a behaviour often referred to as showing behaviour. This showing behaviour in dogs is thought to be something dogs use intentionally and referentially. Howeve...
Helton, William S
The motor control of novice participants is often cognitively demanding and susceptible to interference by other tasks. As people develop expertise, their motor control becomes less susceptible to interference from other tasks. Researchers propose a transition in human motor skill from active control to automaticity. This progression may also be the case with nonhuman animals. Differences in performance characteristics between expert, advanced, intermediate, and novice dogs competing in the sport of agility were investigated. There were statistically significant differences between dogs of varying competitive levels in speed, motor control, and signal detections suggestive of increasing motor control automaticity in highly skilled, or expert, dogs. The largest sequential motor control difference was between novice and intermediate dogs, d = .96, whereas the largest sequential signal detection difference was between advanced and expert dogs, d = .90. These findings have two significant implications for expertise researchers: first, the observed similarities between dogs and humans may enable dogs to be used as expert models; and second, expertise science and methods may be profitably employed in the future to create more proficient canine workers.
Kohnken, Rebecca A; Amerman, Hayley; Brown, Cathy A; Furrow, Eva; Lees, George E; Cianciolo, Rachel E
Glomerular lipidosis (GL) is characterized by dilated glomerular capillary loops containing lipid-laden cells (foam cells). Previously, GL was considered to be an incidental finding because affected dogs were typically not azotemic. However, the International Renal Interest Society staging system for canine chronic kidney disease has increased the awareness of other clinical parameters (eg, proteinuria and hypertension) that should be included in the assessment of renal function. As such, the aim of this study was to determine clinical abnormalities and concurrent renal lesions in dogs with GL. GL was identified in renal biopsies from 46 dogs evaluated by the International Veterinary Renal Pathology Service. GL was the sole diagnosis in 5 of 46 cases (11%), all of which were proteinuric. All 5 dogs had at least 1 additional clinicopathologic abnormality consistent with renal disease, including hypertension (4), azotemia (3), and/or hypoalbuminemia (2). The remaining 41 dogs had GL in combination with other glomerular lesions, the most common being focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (16, 35%), lesions consistent with juvenile nephropathy (8, 17%), and glomerular amyloidosis (5, 11%). Overall, dogs with severe GL were younger than were those with mild GL ( P < .001). The percentage of glomeruli affected by GL differed by concurrent diagnoses ( P = .034), with the highest percentage of affected glomeruli in dogs with GL alone or those with concurrent juvenile nephropathy. These findings suggest that GL should be a recognized histologic phenotype of glomerular injury associated with clinical renal dysfunction and/or juvenile nephropathies.
Stokholm, Jakob; Schjørring, Susanne; Pedersen, Louise
Furred pets in the household are known reservoirs for pathogenic bacteria, but it is not known if transmission of bacteria between pet and owner leads to significantly increased rate of infections. We studied whether cats and dogs living in the household of pregnant women affect the commensal vag...
Kennel dogs can serve as sentinels and/or reservoirs of diseases of veterinary and zoonotic interest because they have often roamed free and lived outdoors, being exposed to pathogens. We tested for evidence of infection with three protozoans, Leishmania infantum, Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora cani...
Full Text Available Earlier studies have shown variation among experimental attempts to establish whether human monozygotic twins that are genetically identical also have identical individual scents. In none of the cases were the dogs able to distinguish all the individual scents of monozygotic twins living in the same environment if the scents were presented to them separately. Ten specially trained police German Shepherd dogs of three Czech Republic Police Regional Headquarters were used for scent identification in our study. The dogs were supposed to match scents of two monozygotic pairs (5 and 7 years old and two dizygotic twin pairs (8 and 13 years old. Scents were collected on cotton squares stored in glass jars. Dog handlers were blind to the experiment details. In each trial (line-up, one scent was used as a starting scent and the dog was then sent to determine if any of the 7 presented glass jars contained a matching scent. Scents of children of similar ages were used as distractors. In the matching procedure, the dogs matched correctly the scent of one twin with the other, as well as two scents collected from every single identical and non-identical twin to prove their efficacy and likewise, the presence of the matching twin scent in any given glass jar. All dogs in all trials distinguished correctly the scents of identical as well as non-identical twins. All dogs similarly matched positively two scents collected from the same individuals. Our findings indicated that specially trained German Shepherd dogs are able to distinguish individual scents of identical twins despite the fact that they live in the same environment, eat the same food and even if the scents are not presented to them simultaneously.
Pinc, Ludvík; Bartoš, Luděk; Reslová, Alice; Kotrba, Radim
Earlier studies have shown variation among experimental attempts to establish whether human monozygotic twins that are genetically identical also have identical individual scents. In none of the cases were the dogs able to distinguish all the individual scents of monozygotic twins living in the same environment if the scents were presented to them separately. Ten specially trained police German Shepherd dogs of three Czech Republic Police Regional Headquarters were used for scent identification in our study. The dogs were supposed to match scents of two monozygotic pairs (5 and 7 years old) and two dizygotic twin pairs (8 and 13 years old). Scents were collected on cotton squares stored in glass jars. Dog handlers were blind to the experiment details. In each trial (line-up), one scent was used as a starting scent and the dog was then sent to determine if any of the 7 presented glass jars contained a matching scent. Scents of children of similar ages were used as distractors. In the matching procedure, the dogs matched correctly the scent of one twin with the other, as well as two scents collected from every single identical and non-identical twin to prove their efficacy and likewise, the presence of the matching twin scent in any given glass jar. All dogs in all trials distinguished correctly the scents of identical as well as non-identical twins. All dogs similarly matched positively two scents collected from the same individuals. Our findings indicated that specially trained German Shepherd dogs are able to distinguish individual scents of identical twins despite the fact that they live in the same environment, eat the same food and even if the scents are not presented to them simultaneously. PMID:21698282
Smith, A F; Rock, M; Neumann, N; Massolo, A
Giardia spp. is a common gastrointestinal (GI) parasite of multiple host species, including dogs and humans, with the potential for zoonotic transmission. The risk of GI parasitism in dogs (including Giardia spp.) may increase with park use in urban areas. This study aimed to (1) determine whether park attendance is a risk factor for Giardia spp. infection in dogs and (2) characterize the behavioural and demographic risk factors for Giardia spp. infection in park-attending and non-park-attending dogs. From August to September 2012, a total of 1293 dog owners completed a survey and 860 corresponding dog faecal samples were collected. Dog faeces were screened for Giardia spp. using a direct immunofluorescence assay and associations assessed among behaviours, demographics, and Giardia spp. infection. Main results included off-leash and swimming frequencies within parks as significantly positively associated with Giardia spp. infection in dogs. Dog-owner age was negatively associated with off-leash and swimming frequencies in parks. The results suggest some recreational behaviours in parks and certain demographics are risk factors for parasitism in pet dogs.
Wang, Shuai; Yao, Zhijun; Zhang, Nian; Wang, Dong; Ma, Jingbo; Liu, Shiguo; Zheng, Bin; Zhang, Bin; Liu, Kuo; Zhang, Haizhu
Neospora caninum is a protozoan parasite that causes abortion in cattle as well as reproduction problems and neurological disorders in dogs. Dogs are important in the epidemiology of N. caninum because they act as definitive hosts, shedding oocysts in the environment. To investigate the seroprevalence of N. caninum infection in dogs in central China, 1176 serum samples were collected from domestic dogs in Henan province, central China between March 2015 and February 2016 and tested for IgG antibody against N. caninum, using the indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT). The overall seroprevalence of N. caninum was nearly 15% (172/1176). No significant difference was observed between this seroprevalence according to sex and breed of dogs (p > 0.05). The infection rate in rural dogs (18%) was higher (p dogs (11%). The prevalence of N. caninum infection in dogs increased (p dogs in Henan province, central China. Sanitary conditions and animal health must be improved to prevent the transmission risk of N. caninum by dogs. © S. Wang et al., published by EDP Sciences, 2016.
Full Text Available Neospora caninum is a protozoan parasite that causes abortion in cattle as well as reproduction problems and neurological disorders in dogs. Dogs are important in the epidemiology of N. caninum because they act as definitive hosts, shedding oocysts in the environment. To investigate the seroprevalence of N. caninum infection in dogs in central China, 1176 serum samples were collected from domestic dogs in Henan province, central China between March 2015 and February 2016 and tested for IgG antibody against N. caninum, using the indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT. The overall seroprevalence of N. caninum was nearly 15% (172/1176. No significant difference was observed between this seroprevalence according to sex and breed of dogs (p > 0.05. The infection rate in rural dogs (18% was higher (p < 0.05 than in urban dogs (11%. The prevalence of N. caninum infection in dogs increased (p < 0.05 with age. The results of the present study indicate the high prevalence of N. caninum antibodies in dogs in Henan province, central China. Sanitary conditions and animal health must be improved to prevent the transmission risk of N. caninum by dogs.
Tahir, Djamel; Bittar, Fadi; Barré-Cardi, Hélène; Sow, Doudou; Dahmani, Mustapha; Mediannikov, Oleg; Raoult, Didier; Davoust, Bernard; Parola, Philippe
Dirofilaria immitis and D. repens are filarioid nematodes of animals and humans, transmitted by the bite of infected mosquitoes. Domestic and wild canids are a major natural host and reservoir for these parasites. In this study, we designed a duplex real-time PCR protocol targeting the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) gene, detecting both D. immitis and D. repens using two primer pairs and two Dirofilaria-specific hydrolysable probes. The sensitivity and specificity of the primers and probes were tested in both experimental and naturally infected samples. The detection limits of this assay were evaluated using plasmid DNA from D. immitis and D. repens. No cross-reaction was observed when testing this system against DNA from other filarial nematodes. The detection limit of the real-time PCR system was one copy per reaction mixture containing 5μl of template DNA. Field application of the new duplex real-time assay was conducted in Corsica. The prevalence rate of D. immitis was 21.3% (20/94) in dogs. In a locality where most dogs with Dirofilaria spp. infection were found, D. immitis and D. repens were detected in 5% (20/389) and 1.5% (6/389) of the Aedes albopictus population, respectively. These results suggest that this sensitive assay is a powerful tool for monitoring dirofilariosis in endemic or high risk areas. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
We have recently shown that repellency of the tick Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato by the tick resistant dog breed Beagle is mediated by volatile organic compounds 2-hexanone and benzaldehyde present in Beagle dog odour. Ectoparasite location on animal hosts is affected by variation in odour com...
Bedre, Madhur Ganesh
The eastern United States generally has lower temperature gradients than the western United States. However, West Virginia, in particular, has higher temperature gradients compared to other eastern states. A recent study at Southern Methodist University by Blackwell et al. has shown the presence of a hot spot in the eastern part of West Virginia with temperatures reaching 150°C at a depth of between 4.5 and 5 km. This thesis work examines similar reservoirs at a depth of around 5 km resembling the geology of West Virginia, USA. The temperature gradients used are in accordance with the SMU study. In order to assess the effects of geothermal reservoir conditions on the lifetime of a low-temperature geothermal system, a sensitivity analysis study was performed on following seven natural and human-controlled parameters within a geothermal reservoir: reservoir temperature, injection fluid temperature, injection flow rate, porosity, rock thermal conductivity, water loss (%) and well spacing. This sensitivity analysis is completed by using ‘One factor at a time method (OFAT)’ and ‘Plackett-Burman design’ methods. The data used for this study was obtained by carrying out the reservoir simulations using TOUGH2 simulator. The second part of this work is to create a database of thermal potential and time-dependant reservoir conditions for low-temperature geothermal reservoirs by studying a number of possible scenarios. Variations in the parameters identified in sensitivity analysis study are used to expand the scope of database. Main results include the thermal potential of reservoir, pressure and temperature profile of the reservoir over its operational life (30 years for this study), the plant capacity and required pumping power. The results of this database will help the supply curves calculations for low-temperature geothermal reservoirs in the United States, which is the long term goal of the work being done by the geothermal research group under Dr. Anderson at
Curi, Nelson Henrique de Almeida; Massara, Rodrigo Lima; de Oliveira Paschoal, Ana Maria; Soriano-Araújo, Amanda; Lobato, Zélia Inês Portela; Demétrio, Guilherme Ramos; Chiarello, Adriano Garcia; Passamani, Marcelo
Despite the crucial role of domestic dogs as reservoirs for zoonosis and some of the most threatening diseases for wild carnivores such as distemper and parvovirosis, little is known about the epidemiological features and the risk factors involved in pathogen exposure of dogs that live in human/wildlife interfaces and actually contacts wildlife. Through a cross-sectional serological approach and questionnaire survey, we assessed the prevalence along with individual and environment-associated risk factors for four important viral diseases of rural dogs living in households around six Atlantic Forest fragments in southeast Brazil. Widespread exposure to canine parvovirus (97%), canine distemper virus (15%) and canine adenovirus (27%) was detected, but none for canine coronavirus. Dogs from small private reserves were more exposed to parvovirus and canine distemper virus than those from larger state parks. Exposure was associated with dog sex and age, lack of health care and the number of people in the households. Remarkably, factors linked to free-ranging behaviour of dogs were associated with the exposure for all pathogens detected. According to identified associations, reducing viral pathogen exposure in dogs will require inhibiting dog's movements and access to nearby forests and villages and improving veterinary assistance. Promoting dog vaccination and population control through sterilization around protected areas is also necessary. The study provides support for preventive management actions aimed to protect the health of rural dogs, and consequently of Atlantic Forest's wild carnivores.
Kubinyi, Eniko; Turcsán, Borbála; Miklósi, Adám
The aim of this study was to analyze the relationships between four personality traits (calmness, trainability, dog sociability and boldness) of dogs (Canis familiaris) and dog and owner demographics on a large sample size with 14,004 individuals. German speaking dog owners could characterize their dog by filling out a form on the Internet. There were five demographic variables for dogs and nine for owners. Two statistical methods were used for investigating the associations between personality and demographic traits: the more traditional general linear methods and regression trees that are ideal for analyzing non-linear relationships in the structure of the data. The results showed that calmness is influenced primarily by the dog's age, the neutered status, the number of different types of professional training courses (e.g. obedience, agility) the dog had experienced and the age of acquisition. The least calm dogs were less than 2.5 years old, neutered and acquired after the first 12 weeks of age, while the calmest dogs were older than 6.9 years. Trainability was affected primarily by the training experiences, the dog's age, and the purpose of keeping the dog. The least trainable dogs had not received professional training at all and were older than 3 years. The most trainable dogs were those who participated in three or more types of professional training. Sociability toward conspecifics was mainly determined by the age, sex, training experience and time spent together. The least sociable dogs were older than 4.8 years and the owners spent less than 3h with the dog daily. The most sociable dogs were less than 1.5 years old. Males were less sociable toward their conspecifics than females. Boldness was affected by the sex and age of the dog and the age of acquisition. The least bold were females acquired after the age of 1 year or bred by the owner. The boldest dogs were males, acquired before the age of 12 weeks, and were younger than 2 years old. Other variables
physical geography, hydrology, desilation efficiency, reservoir flushing, density-current venting, sediment slucing, erosion pattern, downstream effects, flow characteristics, sedimentation......physical geography, hydrology, desilation efficiency, reservoir flushing, density-current venting, sediment slucing, erosion pattern, downstream effects, flow characteristics, sedimentation...
A survey of literature is made on reservoir sedimentation, one of the most threatening processes for world-wide reservoir performance. The sedimentation processes, their impacts, and their controlling factors are assessed from a hydraulic engineering point of view with special emphasis on
The four chapters that are described in this report cover a variety of subjects that not only give insight into the understanding of multiphase flow in fractured porous media, but they provide also major contribution towards the understanding of flow processes with in-situ phase formation. In the following, a summary of all the chapters will be provided. Chapter I addresses issues related to water injection in water-wet fractured porous media. There are two parts in this chapter. Part I covers extensive set of measurements for water injection in water-wet fractured porous media. Both single matrix block and multiple matrix blocks tests are covered. There are two major findings from these experiments: (1) co-current imbibition can be more efficient than counter-current imbibition due to lower residual oil saturation and higher oil mobility, and (2) tight fractured porous media can be more efficient than a permeable porous media when subjected to water injection. These findings are directly related to the type of tests one can perform in the laboratory and to decide on the fate of water injection in fractured reservoirs. Part II of Chapter I presents modeling of water injection in water-wet fractured media by modifying the Buckley-Leverett Theory. A major element of the new model is the multiplication of the transfer flux by the fractured saturation with a power of 1/2. This simple model can account for both co-current and counter-current imbibition and computationally it is very efficient. It can be orders of magnitude faster than a conventional dual-porosity model. Part II also presents the results of water injection tests in very tight rocks of some 0.01 md permeability. Oil recovery from water imbibition tests from such at tight rock can be as high as 25 percent. Chapter II discusses solution gas-drive for cold production from heavy-oil reservoirs. The impetus for this work is the study of new gas phase formation from in-situ process which can be significantly
Summaries are included which show advances in the following areas: fractured porous media, flow in single fractures or networks of fractures, hydrothermal flow, hydromechanical effects, hydrochemical processes, unsaturated-saturated systems, and multiphase multicomponent flows. The main thrust of these efforts is to understand the movement of mass and energy through rocks. This has involved treating fracture rock masses in which the flow phenomena within both the fractures and the matrix must be investigated. Studies also address the complex coupling between aspects of thermal, hydraulic, and mechanical processes associated with a nuclear waste repository in a fractured rock medium. In all these projects, both numerical modeling and simulation, as well as field studies, were employed. In the theoretical area, a basic understanding of multiphase flow, nonisothermal unsaturated behavior, and new numerical methods have been developed. The field work has involved reservoir testing, data analysis, and case histories at a number of geothermal projects
Fabricius, Ida Lykke
basin, so stylolite formation in the chalk is controlled by effective burial stress. The stylolites are zones of calcite dissolution and probably are the source of calcite for porefilling cementation which is typical in water zone chalk and also affect the reservoirs to different extent. The relatively...... 50% calcite, leaving the remaining internal surface to the fine grained silica and clay. The high specific surface of these components causes clay- and silica rich intervals to have high irreducible water saturation. Although chalks typically are found to be water wet, chalk with mixed wettability...... stabilizes chemically by recrystallization. This process requires energy and is promoted by temperature. This recrystallization in principle does not influence porosity, but only specific surface, which decreases during recrystallization, causing permeability to increase. The central North Sea is a warm...
Comina, Elodie; Marion, Karine; Renaud, François N R; Dore, Jeanne; Bergeron, Emmanuelle; Freney, Jean
The permanent contact between the nipple part of pacifiers and the oral microflora offers ideal conditions for the development of biofilms. This study assessed the microbial contamination on the surface of 25 used pacifier nipples provided by day-care centers. Nine were made of silicone and 16 were made of latex. The biofilm was quantified using direct staining and microscopic observations followed by scraping and microorganism counting. The presence of a biofilm was confirmed on 80% of the pacifier nipples studied. This biofilm was mature for 36% of them. Latex pacifier nipples were more contaminated than silicone ones. The two main genera isolated were Staphylococcus and Candida. Our results confirm that nipples can be seen as potential reservoirs of infections. However, pacifiers do have some advantages; in particular, the potential protection they afford against sudden infant death syndrome. Strict rules of hygiene and an efficient antibiofilm cleaning protocol should be established to answer the worries of parents concerning the safety of pacifiers.
Tangtrongsup, Sahatchai; Scorza, A Valeria; Reif, John S; Ballweber, Lora R; Lappin, Michael R; Salman, Mo D
The occurrence and zoonotic potential of Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia duodenalis isolated from dogs in Chiang Mai, Thailand were determined. Fecal samples were collected from 109 dogs between July and August 2008. Cryptosporidium spp. infection was determined by immunofluorescent assay (IFA), PCR assays that amplify Cryptosporidium heat-shock protein 70 kDa (hsp70), and two PCR assays that amplify a small subunit-ribosomal RNA (SSU-rRNA). Giardia duodenalis infection was identified using zinc sulfate centrifugal flotation, IFA, and four PCR assays that amplify the Giardia glutamate dehydrogenase (gdh), beta-giardin (bg), and generic and dog-specific assays of triosephosphate isomerase (tpi) genes. Overall prevalence of Cryptosporidium spp. and G. duodenalis was 31.2% and 45.9%, respectively. Sequence analysis of 22 Cryptosporidium -positive samples and 21 Giardia -positive samples revealed the presence of C. canis in 15, and C. parvum in 7, G. duodenalis Assemblage C in 8, D in 11, and mixed of C and D in 2 dogs. Dogs in Chiang Mai were commonly exposed to Cryptosporidium spp. and G. duodenalis . Cryptosporidium parvum can be isolated from the feces of dogs, and all G. duodenalis assemblages were dog-specific. Dogs could be a reservoir for a zoonotic Cryptosporidium infection in humans, but further studies will be required to determine the clinical and zoonotic importance.
Full Text Available Neighborhood dogs may act as reservoirs and disseminators of vector-borne diseases in urban areas. Accordingly, the aim of this study was to ascertain the health status and the vector-borne pathogens infecting dogs living in public areas with high levels of human movement in the city of Curitiba, southern Brazil. Blood samples from 21 neighborhood dogs that were found in nine of 22 bus stations and two public parks were subjected to a complete blood cell (CBC count, serum biochemical profiling, a commercial rapid ELISA test and a commercial real-time PCR panel of vector-borne diseases. The CBC count and serum biochemical profiling were within the normal range for dogs and only 1/21 (4.7% of the dogs was seroreactive for Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto. The commercial real-time PCR panel showed that 7/21 (33.3% of the dogs had Mycoplasma haemocanis infection, 9/21 (42.8% had ‘Candidatus Mycoplasma haematoparvum’ and 4/21 (19.0% had both. No statistical association between infected by the agents found here and abnormalities in physical examinations, laboratory tests or ectoparasite presence was found (p > 0.05. In conclusion, neighborhood dogs showed low prevalence of vector-borne diseases and satisfactory wellbeing, and dogs can be used as sentinels for disease exposure.
Full Text Available The occurrence and zoonotic potential of Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia duodenalis isolated from dogs in Chiang Mai, Thailand were determined. Fecal samples were collected from 109 dogs between July and August 2008. Cryptosporidium spp. infection was determined by immunofluorescent assay (IFA, PCR assays that amplify Cryptosporidium heat-shock protein 70 kDa (hsp70, and two PCR assays that amplify a small subunit-ribosomal RNA (SSU-rRNA. Giardia duodenalis infection was identified using zinc sulfate centrifugal flotation, IFA, and four PCR assays that amplify the Giardia glutamate dehydrogenase (gdh, beta-giardin (bg, and generic and dog-specific assays of triosephosphate isomerase (tpi genes. Overall prevalence of Cryptosporidium spp. and G. duodenalis was 31.2% and 45.9%, respectively. Sequence analysis of 22 Cryptosporidium-positive samples and 21 Giardia-positive samples revealed the presence of C. canis in 15, and C. parvum in 7, G. duodenalis Assemblage C in 8, D in 11, and mixed of C and D in 2 dogs. Dogs in Chiang Mai were commonly exposed to Cryptosporidium spp. and G. duodenalis. Cryptosporidium parvum can be isolated from the feces of dogs, and all G. duodenalis assemblages were dog-specific. Dogs could be a reservoir for a zoonotic Cryptosporidium infection in humans, but further studies will be required to determine the clinical and zoonotic importance.
Christine R Harris
Full Text Available It is commonly assumed that jealousy is unique to humans, partially because of the complex cognitions often involved in this emotion. However, from a functional perspective, one might expect that an emotion that evolved to protect social bonds from interlopers might exist in other social species, particularly one as cognitively sophisticated as the dog. The current experiment adapted a paradigm from human infant studies to examine jealousy in domestic dogs. We found that dogs exhibited significantly more jealous behaviors (e.g., snapping, getting between the owner and object, pushing/touching the object/owner when their owners displayed affectionate behaviors towards what appeared to be another dog as compared to nonsocial objects. These results lend support to the hypothesis that jealousy has some "primordial" form that exists in human infants and in at least one other social species besides humans.
Gart, Sean; Socha, Jake; Vlachos, Pavlos; Jung, Sunghwan
Animals with incomplete cheeks (i.e. dogs and cats) need to move fluid against gravity into the body by means other than suction. They do this by lapping fluid with their tongue. When a dog drinks, it curls its tongue posteriorly while plunging it into the fluid and then quickly withdraws its tongue back into the mouth. During this fast retraction fluid sticks to the ventral part of the curled tongue and is drawn into the mouth due to inertia. We show several variations of this drinking behavior among many dog breeds, specifically, the relationship between tongue dynamics and geometry, lapping frequency, and dog weight. We also compare the results with the physical experiment of a rounded rod impact onto a fluid surface. Supported by NSF PoLS #1205642.
Nielsen, Line A.; Zois, Nora Elisabeth; Pedersen, Henrik D.
Background: Clinical studies investigating platelet function in dogs have had conflicting results that may be caused by normal physiologic variation in platelet response to agonists. Objectives: The objective of this study was to investigate platelet function in clinically healthy dogs of 4...... different breeds by whole-blood aggregometry and with a point-of-care platelet function analyzer (PFA-100), and to evaluate the effect of acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) administration on the results from both methods. Methods: Forty-five clinically healthy dogs (12 Cavalier King Charles Spaniels [CKCS], 12...... applied. However, the importance of these breed differences remains to be investigated. The PFA-100 method with Col + Epi as agonists, and ADP-induced platelet aggregation appear to be sensitive to ASA in dogs....
IF YOU are bitten • If your own dog bit you, confine it immediately and call your veterinarian to check your dog’s vaccination records. Consult with your veterinarian about your dog’s aggressive ...
Dogs and cats in Brazil serve as primary hosts for a considerable number of parasites, which may affect their health and wellbeing. These may include endoparasites (e.g., protozoa, cestodes, trematodes, and nematodes) and ectoparasites (i.e., fleas, lice, mites, and ticks). While some dog and cat parasites are highly host-specific (e.g., Aelurostrongylus abstrusus and Felicola subrostratus for cats, and Angiostrongylus vasorum and Trichodectes canis for dogs), others may easily switch to other hosts, including humans. In fact, several dog and cat parasites (e.g., Toxoplasma gondii, Dipylidium caninum, Ancylostoma caninum, Strongyloides stercoralis, and Toxocara canis) are important not only from a veterinary perspective but also from a medical standpoint. In addition, some of them (e.g., Lynxacarus radovskyi on cats and Rangelia vitalii in dogs) are little known to most veterinary practitioners working in Brazil. This article is a compendium on dog and cat parasites in Brazil and a call for a One Health approach towards a better management of some of these parasites, which may potentially affect humans. Practical aspects related to the diagnosis, treatment, and control of parasitic diseases of dogs and cats in Brazil are discussed. PMID:24423244
Matthew G Blango
Full Text Available Intracellular quiescent reservoirs of uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC, which can seed the bladder mucosa during the acute phase of a urinary tract infection (UTI, are protected from antibiotic treatments and are extremely difficult to eliminate. These reservoirs are a potential source for recurrent UTIs that affect millions annually. Here, using murine infection models and the bladder cell exfoliant chitosan, we demonstrate that intracellular UPEC populations shift within the stratified layers of the urothelium during the course of a UTI. Following invasion of the terminally differentiated superficial layer of epithelial cells that line the bladder lumen, UPEC can multiply and disseminate, eventually establishing reservoirs within underlying immature host cells. If given access, UPEC can invade the superficial and immature bladder cells equally well. As infected immature host cells differentiate and migrate towards the apical surface of the bladder, UPEC can reinitiate growth and discharge into the bladder lumen. By inducing the exfoliation of the superficial layers of the urothelium, chitosan stimulates rapid regenerative processes and the reactivation and efflux of quiescent intracellular UPEC reservoirs. When combined with antibiotics, chitosan treatment significantly reduces bacterial loads within the bladder and may therefore be of therapeutic value to individuals with chronic, recurrent UTIs.
Levy, J K; Crawford, P C; Lappin, M R; Dubovi, E J; Levy, M G; Alleman, R; Tucker, S J; Clifford, E L
Vaccination and importation of dogs and cats are prohibited in the Galapagos, resulting in a uniquely isolated population. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of infectious diseases of dogs and cats that impact their health, could spill over to native wildlife, or sentinel diseases of concern to humans. The isolation of dogs and cats in the Galapagos protects them from diseases common in mainland populations. Ninety-five dogs and 52 cats presented during a neutering campaign. A prospective cross-sectional study was performed. Blood was collected for serological and DNA evaluation of a panel of infectious diseases. Antibodies against parvovirus (100%), parainfluenza virus (100%), adenovirus 1/2 (66-67%), and distemper virus (22%) were present in dogs. Dirofilaria immitis was also common in dogs (34%), with lower prevalences of Wolbachia pipiens (22%), Bartonella sp. (13%), Ehrlichia/Anaplasma spp. (1%), and Mycoplasma haemocanis (1%) observed. Antibodies against panleukopenia virus (67%), Toxoplasma gondii (63%), calicivirus (44%), and herpesvirus 1 (10%) were detected in cats. Feline leukemia virus antigen, feline immunodeficiency virus antibody, or coronavirus antibodies were not detected. Bartonella sp. (44%) infections were common in cats, but only one was infected with M. haemofelis. Despite their relative seclusion from the rest of the world, cats and dogs of Isabela were exposed to many pathogens found in mainland South America. Parasite prophylaxis, neutering, and strict enforcement of animal movement restrictions would control a majority of the diseases. In the absence of vaccination, a reservoir of susceptible animals remains vulnerable to new disease introductions.
Van der Sande Guy
Full Text Available We review a novel paradigm that has emerged in analogue neuromorphic optical computing. The goal is to implement a reservoir computer in optics, where information is encoded in the intensity and phase of the optical field. Reservoir computing is a bio-inspired approach especially suited for processing time-dependent information. The reservoir’s complex and high-dimensional transient response to the input signal is capable of universal computation. The reservoir does not need to be trained, which makes it very well suited for optics. As such, much of the promise of photonic reservoirs lies in their minimal hardware requirements, a tremendous advantage over other hardware-intensive neural network models. We review the two main approaches to optical reservoir computing: networks implemented with multiple discrete optical nodes and the continuous system of a single nonlinear device coupled to delayed feedback.
White, Jill; McBride, E. Anne; Redhead, Edward; Bishop, Felicity
This study investigated the strength of association between owner demographics, dog characteristics, owner attitude, owner-dog interactions and dog weight profiles in a random population of dog owners. In this correlation study, the variables were weight definition, as categorised by dog owners, dog and owner characteristics, food and exercise levels, owner attachment, owner attitude towards their dogs, and owner behaviour (owner-dog interaction). Respondents (n = 836) completed an on-line su...
Progress is reported on studies of the effects of continuous (22 hr/day), whole-body γ-irradiation in the pure-bred beagle dog. Dogs were exposed continuously until death at one of four different exposure rates ranging from 5 to 35 R/day. The study is still 2441 days (approximately 6.7 yr) of irradiation. The experiment has narrowed to the dogs receiving 5 R/day and the controls. A group of dogs receiving one of these relatively low daily exposure rates may exhibit remarkably varied responses, both in survival times in the γ field and in ultimate causes of death. The basis for these large differences in responses of individual dogs remains mostly unexplained, but is presumed to reside in their genetic composition. The composite result in the study, however, demonstrates an orderly, step-wise appearance of clinical end points resulting from radiation-induced damage to the blood-forming tissues. About one-half the dogs exposed continuously to 10 R/day develop bone marrow aplasia and die of anemia, while the other one-half develop bone marrow hyperplasias and die of malignancies, usually myelogenous leukemias. In dogs exposed at rates greater than 10 R/day, aplastic bone marrows predominate; while hyperplastic responses are the dominant cause of death at 5 R/day. Only among the most recent deaths of dogs exposed continuously to either 10 or 5 R/day, have there appeared terminal causes of death unrelated to hematopoietic injury. These causes (degenerative and/or inflammatory disease and cancers of tissue other than bone marrow) suggest that we are now beginning to define the combinations of exposure rate and time of exposure that allow expressions of damage by tissues outside the hematopoietic system. (U.S.)
Murphy, Lisa A; Coleman, Adrienne E
The sugar alcohol xylitol is a popular sweetener used in gums, candies, and baked goods. While xylitol has a wide margin of safety in people and most mammalian species, when ingested by dogs it is believed to stimulate excessive insulin secretion leading to severe hypoglycemia, potentially followed by acute hepatic failure and coagulopathies. Additional clinical findings may include thrombocytopenia, hypokalemia, and hyperphosphatemia. The prognosis for recovery in dogs that develop uncomplicated hypoglycemia is generally good with prompt and aggressive veterinary care.
Larsen, Jennifer A; Farcas, Amy
Aging is a normal process characterized by a variety of physiologic changes. Geriatric dogs are also more likely to be afflicted with certain disease conditions. Both normal and abnormal physiologic changes associated with aging in the dog may be amenable to nutritional intervention. Specific alterations in nutrients or in dietary characteristics can be beneficial; however, these are best done in the context of an individualized nutritional assessment and monitoring paradigm. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Zhang, Wenbao; Zhang, Zhuangzhi; Shi, Baoxin; Li, Jun; You, Hong; Tulson, Gunlor; Dang, Xinsheng; Song, Yingchun; Yimiti, Turhong; Wang, Jincheng; Jones, Malcolm K; McManus, Donald P
Dogs are pivotal in Echinococcus granulosus transmission to humans, and dog vaccination provides a very practical and cost-effective prevention strategy. We vaccinated dogs with soluble native proteins isolated from protoscoleces of E. granulosus and induced significant suppression of worm growth and egg production. Accordingly, we tested for vaccine efficacy using recombinant proteins derived from a developmentally regulated gene family (egM) specifically expressed in mature adult E. granulosus worms. Three egM genes--egM4, egM9, and egM123--were subcloned into an expression vector that expressed the molecules as soluble glutathione S-transferase (GST) fusion proteins in Escherichia coli. The 3 fusion proteins were purified for dog vaccination trials (3 doses of 80 microg/protein/dog) in which the dogs were challenged and then necropsied 45 days after infection. Compared with worms in the control dogs that received GST, the 3 recombinant proteins induced a very high level of protection (97%-100%) in terms of suppression of worm growth and, especially, of egg development and embryogenesis. We have thus shown that vaccination of the dog host against E. granulosus is feasible when recombinant proteins are used. Because the egg stage is crucial in the echinococcal life cycle, successful suppression of egg development by vaccination would halt transmission to intermediate hosts, thereby effecting long-term control.
Gentil, Michaela; Gruber, Achim D; Müller, Elisabeth
In 2012, a Dog circovirus (DogCV) was discovered in the USA, which was followed by further descriptions of the virus in the USA, Italy and Germany. The present study is the first to examine the prevalence of DogCV in faeces of dogs from Germany and other European countries. Faecal samples from 184 dogs with diarrhoea and from 82 clinically healthy dogs (control group) were analysed for the presence of DogCV by PCR. Furthermore, the detection of parvovirus, coronavirus, Giardia and Cryptosporidium was performed in all samples. In the group of dogs with diarrhoea the prevalence of DogCV was 20.1% (37/184), in the healthy control group it was 7.3% (6/82). Therefore, the virus could be detected significantly more frequently in dogs with diarrhoea. The detection frequency of DogCV is comparable with those of the other tested pathogens. In approximately 50% of the DogCV-positive dogs, infections with other enteropathogenic organisms were diagnosed. The role of co-infection in the pathogenesis of the disease remains unclear, but there appears to be an association between co-infection and disease severity. Evidence of DogCV in clinically healthy dogs appears important for the epidemiology and raises questions about its pathogenicity. Further studies are needed to clarify questions regarding the pathogenesis, causal relevance and possible interference by other diarrhoeal pathogens. Nevertheless, the results of this study are an important indication that DogCV should be considered as a differential diagnosis in dogs with diarrhoea.
In this thesis the added value of gravity observations for hydrocarbon reservoir monitoring and characterization is investigated. Reservoir processes and reservoir types most suitable for gravimetric monitoring are identified. Major noise sources affecting time-lapse gravimetry are analyzed. The
Weber, K S; Roden, M; Müssig, K
To summarize the current knowledge on the phenomenon of dogs, both trained and untrained, sensing hypoglycaemia and alerting their owners to it. Electronic databases were searched for all types of articles reporting on untrained or trained 'diabetes alert' dogs. Articles published up until December 2014 in the English or German language were included. Several case reports and observational studies provide evidence that animals can perform at a level above that attributable to chance, and may reliably detect low diurnal as well as nocturnal hypoglycaemic episodes. Behavioural changes in untrained dogs were reported during 38-100% of hypoglycaemic events experienced by their owners. The sensitivity and specificity of the performance of trained diabetes alert dogs sensing hypoglycaemia ranged from 22 to 100% and 71 to 90%, respectively. Additionally, 75-81% of patients with diabetes who owned a trained dog reported a subsequent improvement in their quality of life. Nevertheless, the available data are limited and heterogeneous because they rely on low patient numbers and survey-based studies prone to recall bias. Further research is needed to confirm the preliminary data on the reliability and mechanism underlying the dogs' abilities to detect hypoglycaemia, and its impact on patient outcomes. © 2015 Diabetes UK.
Cully, J.F.; Williams, E.S.
Of the 3 major factors (habitat loss, poisoning, and disease) that limit abundance of prairie dogs today, sylvatic plague caused by Yersinia pestis is the 1 factor that is beyond human control. Plague epizootics frequently kill >99% of prairie dogs in infected colonies. Although epizootics of sylvatic plague occur throughout most of the range of prairie dogs in the United States and are well described, long-term maintenance of plague in enzootic rodent species is not well documented or understood. We review dynamics of plague in white-tailed (Cynomys leucurus), Gunnison's (C. gunnisoni), and black-tailed (C. ludovicianus) prairie dogs, and their rodent and flea associates. We use epidemiologic concepts to support an enzootic hypothesis in which the disease is maintained in a dynamic state, which requires transmission of Y. pestis to be slower than recruitment of new susceptible mammal hosts. Major effects of plague are to reduce colony size of black-tailed prairie dogs and increase intercolony distances within colony complexes. In the presence of plague, black-tailed prairie dogs will probably survive in complexes of small colonies that are usually >3 km from their nearest neighbor colonies.
Mani, Seethambal S.; van Bloemen Waanders, Bart Gustaaf; Cooper, Scott Patrick; Jakaboski, Blake Elaine; Normann, Randy Allen; Jennings, Jim (University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX); Gilbert, Bob (University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX); Lake, Larry W. (University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX); Weiss, Chester Joseph; Lorenz, John Clay; Elbring, Gregory Jay; Wheeler, Mary Fanett (University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX); Thomas, Sunil G. (University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX); Rightley, Michael J.; Rodriguez, Adolfo (University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX); Klie, Hector (University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX); Banchs, Rafael (University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX); Nunez, Emilio J. (University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX); Jablonowski, Chris (University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX)
The project objective was to detail better ways to assess and exploit intelligent oil and gas field information through improved modeling, sensor technology, and process control to increase ultimate recovery of domestic hydrocarbons. To meet this objective we investigated the use of permanent downhole sensors systems (Smart Wells) whose data is fed real-time into computational reservoir models that are integrated with optimized production control systems. The project utilized a three-pronged approach (1) a value of information analysis to address the economic advantages, (2) reservoir simulation modeling and control optimization to prove the capability, and (3) evaluation of new generation sensor packaging to survive the borehole environment for long periods of time. The Value of Information (VOI) decision tree method was developed and used to assess the economic advantage of using the proposed technology; the VOI demonstrated the increased subsurface resolution through additional sensor data. Our findings show that the VOI studies are a practical means of ascertaining the value associated with a technology, in this case application of sensors to production. The procedure acknowledges the uncertainty in predictions but nevertheless assigns monetary value to the predictions. The best aspect of the procedure is that it builds consensus within interdisciplinary teams The reservoir simulation and modeling aspect of the project was developed to show the capability of exploiting sensor information both for reservoir characterization and to optimize control of the production system. Our findings indicate history matching is improved as more information is added to the objective function, clearly indicating that sensor information can help in reducing the uncertainty associated with reservoir characterization. Additional findings and approaches used are described in detail within the report. The next generation sensors aspect of the project evaluated sensors and packaging
Kome, Melvin Njumbe
Reservoir testing and analysis are fundamental tools in understanding reservoir hydraulics and hence forecasting reservoir responses. The quality of the analysis is very dependent on the conceptual model used in investigating the responses under different flowing conditions. The use of reservoir testing in the characterization and derivation of reservoir parameters is widely established, especially in conventional oil and gas reservoirs. However, with depleting conventional reserves, the ...
Jennett, Amy L; Smith, Faith D; Wall, Richard
Increases in the abundance and distribution of ticks and tick borne disease (TBD) within Europe have been reported extensively over the last 10-20 years. Changes in climate, habitat management, economic patterns and changes in the abundance of hosts, particularly deer, may all have influenced this change to varying extents. Increasing abundances of tick populations in urban and peri-urban environments, such as parks, are of particular concern. In these sites, suitable habitat, wildlife hosts, tick populations, people and their pets may be brought into close proximity and hence may provide foci for tick infestation and, ultimately, disease transmission. The distribution and abundance of ticks were examined in an intensively used, peri-urban park. First the seasonal and spatial distribution and abundance of ticks in various habitat types were quantified by blanket dragging. Then the pattern of pet dog movement in the park was mapped by attaching GPS recorders to the collars of dogs brought to the park for exercise, allowing their walking routes to be tracked. Information about the dog, its park use and its history of tick attachment were obtained from the dog-owners. Ticks were found predominantly in woodland, woodland edge and deer park areas and were least abundant in mown grassland. Tick infestation of dogs was a relatively frequent occurrence with, on average, one case of tick attachment reported per year for a dog walked once per week, but for some dogs walked daily, infestation 4-5 times per week was reported. All dogs appeared to be at equal risk, regardless of walk route or duration and infestation was primarily influenced by the frequency of exposure. In peri-urban green spaces, tick-biting risk for dogs may be high and here was shown to be related primarily to exposure frequency. While tick-biting is of direct veterinary importance for dogs, dogs also represent useful sentinels for human tick-exposure.
Paz María Salazar-Schettino
Full Text Available An epidemiological research project was performed in the State of Morelos including collection of samples for blood smears and culture, serological tests, and xenodiagnoses from a total of 76 domestic and peridomestic mammals. Two strains of Trypanosoma cruzi were isolated by haemocultures; one from a pig (Sus scrofa, the first case of natural infection reported in Mexico, and the other from a dog (Canis familiaris. This study summarizes current information in Mexico concerning confirmed reservoirs of T. cruzi
Trimble, Stanley W; Carey, William P
Suspended-sediment and reservoir sedimentation data have been analyzed to determine sediment yields and transport characteristics of Tennessee streams Data from 31 reservoirs plus suspended-sediment...
Full Text Available This article is focused on the analysis and evaluation of the changes of the bottom of the Bakomi reservoir, the total volume of the reservoir, ecosystems, as well as changes in the riparian zone of the Bakomi reservoir (situated in the central Slovakia. Changes of the water component of the reservoir were subject to the deposition by erosion-sedimentation processes, and were identifed on the basis of a comparison of the present relief of the bottom of reservoir obtained from feld measurements (in 2011 with the relief measurements of the bottom obtained from the 1971 historical maps, (i.e. over a period of 40 years. Changes of landscape structures of the riparian zone have been mapped for the time period of 1949–2013; these changes have been identifed with the analysis of ortophotomaps and the feld survey. There has been a signifcant rise of disturbed shores with low herb grassland. Over a period of 40 years, there has been a deposition of 667 m3 of sediments. The results showed that there were no signifcant changes in the local ecosystems of the Bakomi reservoir in comparison to the other reservoirs in the vicinity of Banská Štiavnica.
Lam, P.S.; Morgan, M.J
The burst test is used to assess the material performance of tritium reservoirs in the surveillance program in which reservoirs have been in service for extended periods of time. A materials system model and finite element procedure were developed under a Savannah River Site Plant-Directed Research and Development (PDRD) program to predict the structural response under a full range of loading and aged material conditions of the reservoir. The results show that the predicted burst pressure and volume ductility are in good agreement with the actual burst test results for the unexposed units. The material tensile properties used in the calculations were obtained from a curved tensile specimen harvested from a companion reservoir by Electric Discharge Machining (EDM). In the absence of exposed and aged material tensile data, literature data were used for demonstrating the methodology in terms of the helium-3 concentration in the metal and the depth of penetration in the reservoir sidewall. It can be shown that the volume ductility decreases significantly with the presence of tritium and its decay product, helium-3, in the metal, as was observed in the laboratory-controlled burst tests. The model and analytical procedure provides a predictive tool for reservoir structural integrity under aging conditions. It is recommended that benchmark tests and analysis for aged materials be performed. The methodology can be augmented to predict performance for reservoir with flaws.
Full Text Available In this investigation, the Warren and Root model proposed for the simulation of naturally fractured reservoir was improved. A reservoir simulation approach was used to develop a 2D model of a synthetic oil reservoir. Main rock properties of each gridblock were defined for two different types of gridblocks called matrix and fracture gridblocks. These two gridblocks were different in porosity and permeability values which were higher for fracture gridblocks compared to the matrix gridblocks. This model was solved using the implicit finite difference method. Results showed an improvement in the Warren and Root model especially in region 2 of the semilog plot of pressure drop versus time, which indicated a linear transition zone with no inflection point as predicted by other investigators. Effects of fracture spacing, fracture permeability, fracture porosity, matrix permeability and matrix porosity on the behavior of a typical naturally fractured reservoir were also presented.
Salmon, Jo; Timperio, Anna; Chu, Binh; Veitch, Jenny
This study aimed to determine cross-sectional associations of dog ownership, dog walking, and physical activity (PA) among children and their parents. Objective measures of PA were obtained for children ages 5-6 and 10-12 years from 19 primary schools across Melbourne, Australia. Parents self-reported their PA, dog ownership, and frequency of dog…
Barradas, Patrícia F; Vilhena, Hugo; Oliveira, Ana Cristina; Granada, Sara; Amorim, Irina; Ferreira, Paula; Cardoso, Luís; Gärtner, Fátima; de Sousa, Rita
Infections with tick-borne rickettsiae can cause diseases well known in humans but still not so well characterized in dogs. Susceptibility to infection depends on the virulence of Rickettsia spp. and only a few of them have been described to cause disease in dogs. The aim of this study was to investigate the exposure to Rickettsia spp. among a group of pet dogs from Luanda, Angola. Out of 103 dogs included in the study, 62 (60.2%) were infested with ticks. Plasma specimens tested for serology by an immunofluorescence assay (IFA) revealed that six (5.8%) dogs had detectable immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies to spotted fever group Rickettsia (SFGR), with endpoint titers of 64 for two dogs, 128 for three dogs and 1024 for one dog. From the seropositive group of dogs, five (83%) of them were males, with their age ranging from 1 to 8 years old. Among the seropositive dogs, four (66.7%) were parasitized with ticks and no breed (or cross) was found to be associated with specific antibodies. Rickettsia spp. DNA was detected by nested-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in two (1.9%) dogs that were found to be seronegative. Seroprevalence and molecular detection of Rickettsia spp. infection in this group of pet dogs from Luanda is low compared with other studies performed in the same type of hosts in other areas. Although many dogs were parasitized with ticks, a low prevalence of Rickettsia spp. could be related with the hypothesis of a low rickettsial prevalence in the infesting ticks. This study provides evidence that dogs in Luanda are exposed to Rickettsia spp., but further studies are needed to better characterize the bacterial infections in dogs and in their ectoparasites.
Basdani, Eleni; Papazoglou, Lysimachos G; Patsikas, Michail N; Kazakos, Georgios M; Adamama-Moraitou, Katerina K; Tsokataridis, Ioannis
Ten dogs that presented with trauma-induced upper airway rupture or stenosis were reviewed. Tracheal rupture was seen in seven dogs, tracheal stenosis in one dog, and laryngeal rupture in two dogs. Clinical abnormalities included respiratory distress in five dogs, subcutaneous emphysema in eight, air leakage through the cervical wound in seven, stridor in three dogs, pneumomediastinum in four and pneumothorax in one dog. Reconstruction with simple interrupted sutures was performed in four dogs, tracheal resection and end-to-end anastomosis in five dogs, and one dog was euthanized intraoperatively. Complications were seen in three dogs including aspiration pneumonia in one and vocalization alterations in two dogs.
Stabell, Alex C; Meyerson, Nicholas R; Gullberg, Rebekah C; Gilchrist, Alison R; Webb, Kristofor J; Old, William M; Perera, Rushika
Human dengue viruses emerged from primate reservoirs, yet paradoxically dengue does not reach high titers in primate models. This presents a unique opportunity to examine the genetics of spillover versus reservoir hosts. The dengue virus 2 (DENV2) - encoded protease cleaves human STING, reducing type I interferon production and boosting viral titers in humans. We find that both human and sylvatic (reservoir) dengue viruses universally cleave human STING, but not the STING of primates implicated as reservoir species. The special ability of dengue to cleave STING is thus specific to humans and a few closely related ape species. Conversion of residues 78/79 to the human-encoded ‘RG’ renders all primate (and mouse) STINGs sensitive to viral cleavage. Dengue viruses may have evolved to increase viral titers in the dense and vast human population, while maintaining decreased titers and pathogenicity in the more rare animals that serve as their sustaining reservoir in nature. PMID:29557779
Full Text Available There are two basic aspects of hunting dog’s health care: infectious diseases of hunting dogs and dog’s hunting performance. Concerning infectious diseases of hunting dogs, special attention is paid to public health, preventing possible dangers that could possibly arise. On the other hand, hunting performance of dogs depends on their nutrition. A complete analysis of hunting dogs’ health care in our country requires an assessment of awareness level in hunters about dangers which both humans and hunting dogs are exposed to, evaluation of preventive measures implementation in dogs by hunters, the prevalence of certain infections in dogs and determination of health risk for dogs and people related to hunting. This paper shows the results of a survey conducted among hunters with the objective to perceive their awareness of medical risks that hunters and hunting dogs could possibly be exposed to during hunting. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 31084
Niculae Iulian TEODORESCU
Full Text Available The Surduc reservoir was projected to ensure more water when water is scarce and to thus provide especially the city Timisoara, downstream of it with water.The accumulation is placed on the main affluent of the Bega river, Gladna in the upper part of its watercourse.The dam behind which this accumulation was created is of a frontal type made of enrochements with a masque made of armed concrete on the upstream part and protected/sustained by grass on the downstream. The dam is 130m long on its coping and a constructed height of 34 m. It is also endowed with spillway for high water and two bottom outlets formed of two conduits, at the end of which is the microplant. The second part of my paper deals with the hydrometric analysis of the Accumulation Surduc and its impact upon the flow, especially the maximum run-off. This influence is exemplified through the high flood from the 29th of July 1980, the most significant flood recorded in the basin with an apparition probability of 0.002%.
Flávia V. Vieira
Full Text Available Despite of the role of domestic dogs as reservoirs for threatening viral diseases for wild carnivores, few studies have focused to identify circulation of viruses among dogs living in human/wildlife interfaces. To identify canine parvovirus (CPV types circulating in dogs living in an Atlantic forest biome, faecal samples (n = 100 were collected at the same period (one week corresponding to each of four areas, during 2014 to 2016 and corresponded to 100 different individuals. CPV was isolated in cell culture from 67 out 100 (67% samples from healthy dogs. Cytopathic effects were characterized by total or partial cell culture lysis. Genome sequences of CPV-2a (10%, CPV-2b (7% and CPV-2c (50% were concomitantly detected by PCR and nucleotide sequencing. The current study addresses the importance of monitoring CPV circulation among dogs presenting potential contact with wildlife species.
Andreis, M.E.; Di Giancamillo, M.; Faustini, M.; Veronesi, M.C.; Modina, S.C.
The morphology of canine head differs greatly among breeds, so that they have been categorized in 3 groups (brachycephalic, mesaticephalic and dolichocephalic) based on craniometric measurements. However, several dog breeds are still unclassified, and skull measurements, often analyzed in adult dogs, are rarely studied in dog puppies. The aim of this work is to clarify whether dog puppies can be classified as dolichocephalic, mesaticephalic and brachycephalic. The skulls of spontaneously dead...
Robinson, R A; Pugh, R N
Dogs are the source of a wide range of zoonotic infections that pose a significant threat to human health. This is particularly the case for immunocompromised people, although there are few robust studies that determine immunosuppression as a risk factor for transmission of zoonoses from dogs to humans. An increasing proportion of human society is immunodeficient, principally through the advent of HIV infection and through more people, particularly the expanding elderly group, being subjected to immunosuppressive agents. This is happening at a time when more such people are capitalizing on the acknowledged benefits of dog ownership, making for a potentially dangerous mix. Enteric pathogens (for example, Salmonella, Campylobacter and Cryptosporidium species, that may be canine derived) are a frequent risk to the health of immunocompromised persons. Veterinarians and physicians can be criticised for not communicating with each other, and for not providing adequate risk assessment to pet owners. There is scope for voluntary groups to provide information and support for the immunosuppressed who wish to keep their dogs. Key recommendations are to maintain a clean personal environment and intact mucocutaneous barriers. Public health professionals could help rectify the current communications gap between veterinary and medical staff and so facilitate in the appropriate management of dog-owning immunocompromised people.
McRee, Anna; Wilkes, Rebecca P; Dawson, Jessica; Parry, Roger; Foggin, Chris; Adams, Hayley; Odoi, Agricola; Kennedy, Melissa A
Domestic dogs are common amongst communities in sub-Saharan Africa and may serve as important reservoirs for infectious agents that may cause diseases in wildlife. Two agents of concern are canine parvovirus (CPV) and canine distemper virus (CDV), which may infect and cause disease in large carnivore species such as African wild dogs and African lions, respectively. The impact of domestic dogs and their diseases on wildlife conservation is increasing in Zimbabwe, necessitating thorough assessment and implementation of control measures. In this study, domestic dogs in north-western Zimbabwe were evaluated for antibodies to CDV, CPV, and canine adenovirus (CAV). These dogs were communal and had no vaccination history. Two hundred and twenty-five blood samples were collected and tested using a commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for antibodies to CPV, CDV, and CAV. Of these dogs, 75 (34%) had detectable antibodies to CDV, whilst 191 (84%) had antibodies to CPV. Antibodies to canine adenovirus were present in 28 (13%) dogs. Canine parvovirus had high prevalence in all six geographic areas tested. These results indicate that CPV is circulating widely amongst domestic dogs in the region. In addition, CDV is present at high levels. Both pathogens can infect wildlife species. Efforts for conservation of large carnivores in Zimbabwe must address the role of domestic dogs in disease transmission.
Daniel Oladimeji Oluwayelu
Full Text Available Objective: To screen for rabies virus (RABV antibodies in apparently healthy confined, hunting and roaming dogs by a community-based approach. Methods: Sera from 230 (80 confined, 92 hunting and 58 roaming dogs in some urban and periurban communities in Ogun and Oyo states, Southwestern Nigeria were screened for RABV antibodies using the indirect ELISA method. Results: Analysis of administered questionnaires showed that of 80 confined dog owners, 37 were aware of anti-rabies vaccination (i.e. they were informed while 17 were negligent and 26 uninformed. Of the 230 sera tested, only 13 (5.7% from vaccinated confined dogs in Oyo state were positive (i.e. had optimal RABV antibody titres (mean 0.54, 95% CI: 0.42–0.67 while all confined dog sera in Ogun state were negative. Eleven (12.0% and 14 (24.1% of the hunting and roaming dogs respectively had sub-optimal RABV antibody titres while the rest were negative. Conclusions: Evidently, these groups of dogs are a totally unprotected and susceptible dog population that can serve as potential reservoirs of RABV in the study area. Responsible pet ownership, vaccination of hunting and roaming dogs, and community-based active rabies surveillance are therefore advocated in Nigeria.
Full Text Available Objective: The present study was conducted to determine the sero-prevalence of canine visceral leishmaniasis (VL among street and owned dogs at Trishal Upazila of Mymensingh district, Bangladesh. Material and methods: Blood was collected asceptically from targeted dogs and serum was separated out using standard centrifigation method. The rK39-antigen-based dipstick test was used to detect anti-leishmania antibodies in serum. Results: The study revealed that 35% of the dogs in the study area were sero-positive for L. donovani. Living status of the dogs (street or owned was a potential risk factor and sero-prevalence was significantly higher in free roaming street dogs (P=0.009 and dogs with skin lesions and enlarged lymph nodes (P<0.05. The female and adult dogs were more susceptible. Conclusion: VL is an important zoonotic disease wich is transmissible to humans by the bite of phlebotomine sand fly. Dogs are the main reservoir. The higher sero-prevalence of VL indicates the potential rule of dogs to maintain the zoonosis wich need to be explored more specifically by isolation and typing of the parasite. [J Adv Vet Anim Res 2017; 4(3.000: 241-248
Yamada, F H; Santos, L N; Takemoto, R M
The gills of 41 Cichla piquiti and 39 C. kelberi from Itaipu and Lajes reservoirs, respectively, Brazil, were examined to describe the ectoparasite assemblages of these two non-native peacock-bass populations. All ectoparasite species of the two studied hosts (C. piquiti and C. kelberi) were dominant, but Ascocotyle sp. (metacercariae) was the prevalent (58.53%) and most abundant helminth species in C. piquiti hosts, while Sciadicleithrum ergensi was the dominant species in C. kelberi hosts. Gill ectoparasites of C. piquiti and C. kelberi showed a typical pattern of overdispersion or aggregation, which is commonly reported for many other freshwater fishes. Ectoparasite prevalence and abundance did not vary between host sexes of the two Cichla populations. The prevalence and abundance of Ascocotyle sp. were positively correlated with C. piquiti standard length (SL), but only the abundance of S. ergensi showed a positive correlation with C. kelberi SL. Although environmental differences between reservoirs might also have influenced the results, we anticipated that the presence of a close congener in Itaipu reservoir and the lack of other Cichla species in Lajes reservoir were the key factors to explain the contrasts between C. piquiti and C. kelberi gill ectoparasites. Overall, our results suggest that the trend of parasite species loss through the invasion process may have contributed to the establishment of non-native C. piquiti and C. kelberi populations in Brazilian reservoirs.
Pimburage, R M S; Gunatilake, M; Wimalaratne, O; Balasuriya, A; Perera, K A D N
Mass vaccination of dogs is considered fundamental for national rabies control programmes in Sri Lanka, as dog is the main reservoir and transmitter of the disease. Dogs were followed to determine the sero-prevalence of antibodies to the rabies virus. Altogether 510 previously vaccinated and unvaccinated dogs with owners (domestic dogs) and dogs without owners (stray dogs) of the local guard dog breed in different age groups recruited from Kalutara District, Sri Lanka. The dogs were vaccinated with a monovalent inactivated vaccine intramuscularly and serum antibody titres on days 0, 30, 180 and 360 were determined by the Rapid Fluorescent Focus Inhibition Test (RFFIT). The results indicated, a single dose of anti-rabies vaccination fails to generate a protective level of immunity (0.5 IU/ml) which lasts until 1 year in 40.42% of dogs without owners and 57.14% of previously unvaccinated juvenile (age: 3 months to 1 year) dogs with owners. More than one vaccination would help to maintain antibody titres above the protective level in the majority of dogs. The pattern of antibody titre development in annually vaccinated and irregularly vaccinated (not annual) adult dogs with owners is closely similar irrespective of regularity in vaccination. Previously vaccinated animals have higher (2 IU/ml) antibody titres to begin with and have a higher antibody titre on day 360 too. They show a very good antibody titre by day 180. Unvaccinated animals start with low antibody titre and return to low titres by day 360, but have a satisfactory antibody titre by day 180. A single dose of anti-rabies vaccination is not sufficient for the maintenance of antibody titres for a period of 1 year in puppies, juvenile dogs with owners and in dogs without owners. Maternal antibodies do not provide adequate protection to puppies of previously vaccinated dams and puppies of previously unvaccinated dams. Immunity development after vaccination seems to be closely similar in both the groups
Successful exploitation of shale reservoirs largely depends on the effectiveness of hydraulic fracturing stimulation program. Favorable results have been attributed to intersection and reactivation of pre-existing fractures by hydraulically-induced fractures that connect the wellbore to a larger fracture surface area within the reservoir rock volume. Thus, accurate estimation of the stimulated reservoir volume (SRV) becomes critical for the reservoir performance simulation and production analysis. Micro-seismic events (MS) have been commonly used as a proxy to map out the SRV geometry, which could be erroneous because not all MS events are related to hydraulic fracture propagation. The case studies discussed here utilized a fully 3-D simulation approach to estimate the SRV. The simulation approach presented in this paper takes into account the real-time changes in the reservoir\\'s geomechanics as a function of fluid pressures. It is consisted of four separate coupled modules: geomechanics, hydrodynamics, a geomechanical joint model for interfacial resolution, and an adaptive re-meshing. Reservoir stress condition, rock mechanical properties, and injected fluid pressure dictate how fracture elements could open or slide. Critical stress intensity factor was used as a fracture criterion governing the generation of new fractures or propagation of existing fractures and their directions. Our simulations were run on a Cray XC-40 HPC system. The studies outcomes proved the approach of using MS data as a proxy for SRV to be significantly flawed. Many of the observed stimulated natural fractures are stress related and very few that are closer to the injection field are connected. The situation is worsened in a highly laminated shale reservoir as the hydraulic fracture propagation is significantly hampered. High contrast in the in-situ stresses related strike-slip developed thereby shortens the extent of SRV. However, far field nature fractures that were not connected to
Claerebout, E; Casaert, S; Dalemans, A-C; De Wilde, N; Levecke, B; Vercruysse, J; Geurden, T
The objectives of this study were to obtain data on the prevalence of intestinal parasites in different dog populations in northern Belgium, to estimate the zoonotic risk associated with these infections and to identify potential risk factors. Between 2004 and 2007 a total of 1159 faecal samples were collected from 451 household dogs, 357 dogs from breeding kennels and 351 dogs with gastrointestinal disorders. The samples from dogs with gastrointestinal disorders were sent to the diagnostic Laboratory for Parasitology at Ghent University by veterinary practitioners. In household dogs the prevalence of intestinal parasites was relatively low. Giardia was the most commonly found parasite (9.3%, CI 5.5-13.1), followed by Toxocara canis (4.4%, CI 2.7-6.8). Much higher infection rates were observed in kennel dogs, especially for Giardia spp. (43.9%, CI 37.8-50.0); T. canis (26.3%, CI 21.8-31.2) and Cystoisospora spp. (26.3%, CI 21.8-31.2). Also in dogs with gastrointestinal problems, Giardia spp. (18.1%, CI 13.1-23.1), Cystoisospora spp. (8.8%, CI 6.1-12.3) and T. canis (7.4%, CI 4.9-10.7) were the most frequently detected parasites. In all dog populations pups were more frequently infected with Cystoisospora (PGiardia (PGiardia and T. canis (PGiardia spp. Breed and gender did not affect the risk of an infection in any of the study populations. Toxocara and Giardia present a zoonotic risk, especially in household dogs, where the majority of Giardia positive samples (80%) belonged to the zoonotic assemblage A. In kennel dogs and clinically affected dogs the host-specific Giardia assemblages C and D were most prevalent (94% and 80%, respectively).
Full Text Available Dogs are particularly skilful during communicative interactions with humans. Dogs' abilities to use human communicative cues in cooperative contexts outcompete those of other species, and might be the result of selection pressures during domestication. Dogs also produce signals to direct the attention of humans towards outside entities, a behaviour often referred to as showing behaviour. This showing behaviour in dogs is thought to be something dogs use intentionally and referentially. However, there is currently no evidence that dogs communicate helpfully, i.e. to inform an ignorant human about a target that is of interest to the human but not to the dog. Communicating with a helpful motive is particularly interesting because it might suggest that dogs understand the human's goals and need for information. In study 1, we assessed whether dogs would abandon an object that they find interesting in favour of an object useful for their human partner, a random novel distractor, or an empty container. Results showed that it was mainly self-interest that was driving the dogs' behaviour. The dogs mainly directed their behaviour towards the object they had an interest in, but dogs were more persistent when showing the object relevant to the human, suggesting that to some extent they took the humans interest into account. Another possibility is that dogs' behaviour was driven by an egocentric motivation to interact with novel targets and that the dogs' neophila might have masked their helpful tendencies. Therefore, in study 2 the dogs had initial access to both objects, and were expected to indicate only one (relevant or distractor. The human partner interacted with the dog using vocal communication in half of the trials, and remaining silent in the other half. Dogs from both experimental groups, i.e. indicating the relevant object or indicating the distractor, established joint attention with the human. However, the human's vocal communication and the
Piotti, Patrizia; Kaminski, Juliane
Dogs are particularly skilful during communicative interactions with humans. Dogs' abilities to use human communicative cues in cooperative contexts outcompete those of other species, and might be the result of selection pressures during domestication. Dogs also produce signals to direct the attention of humans towards outside entities, a behaviour often referred to as showing behaviour. This showing behaviour in dogs is thought to be something dogs use intentionally and referentially. However, there is currently no evidence that dogs communicate helpfully, i.e. to inform an ignorant human about a target that is of interest to the human but not to the dog. Communicating with a helpful motive is particularly interesting because it might suggest that dogs understand the human's goals and need for information. In study 1, we assessed whether dogs would abandon an object that they find interesting in favour of an object useful for their human partner, a random novel distractor, or an empty container. Results showed that it was mainly self-interest that was driving the dogs' behaviour. The dogs mainly directed their behaviour towards the object they had an interest in, but dogs were more persistent when showing the object relevant to the human, suggesting that to some extent they took the humans interest into account. Another possibility is that dogs' behaviour was driven by an egocentric motivation to interact with novel targets and that the dogs' neophila might have masked their helpful tendencies. Therefore, in study 2 the dogs had initial access to both objects, and were expected to indicate only one (relevant or distractor). The human partner interacted with the dog using vocal communication in half of the trials, and remaining silent in the other half. Dogs from both experimental groups, i.e. indicating the relevant object or indicating the distractor, established joint attention with the human. However, the human's vocal communication and the presence of the
Meinert, D.L.; Butkus, S.R.; McDonough, T.A.
The objectives of this report are three-fold: (1) assess physical, chemical, and biological conditions in the major embayments of Chickamauga Reservoir; (2) compare water quality and biological conditions of embayments with main river locations; and (3) identify any water quality concerns in the study embayments that may warrant further investigation and/or management actions. Embayments are important areas of reservoirs to be considered when assessments are made to support water quality management plans. In general, embayments, because of their smaller size (water surface areas usually less than 1000 acres), shallower morphometry (average depth usually less than 10 feet), and longer detention times (frequently a month or more), exhibit more extreme responses to pollutant loadings and changes in land use than the main river region of the reservoir. Consequently, embayments are often at greater risk of water quality impairments (e.g. nutrient enrichment, filling and siltation, excessive growths of aquatic plants, algal blooms, low dissolved oxygen concentrations, bacteriological contamination, etc.). Much of the secondary beneficial use of reservoirs occurs in embayments (viz. marinas, recreation areas, parks and beaches, residential development, etc.). Typically embayments comprise less than 20 percent of the surface area of a reservoir, but they often receive 50 percent or more of the water-oriented recreational use of the reservoir. This intensive recreational use creates a potential for adverse use impacts if poor water quality and aquatic conditions exist in an embayment.
Studies were undertaken to determine the sandfly fauna of South West Africa with the view to finding possible vectors of leishmaniasis, and to locate a host reservoir. A possible vector species belonging to the Synphlebotomus group of sandflies, which have been incriminated as leishmania vectors in Kenya, has been found ...
Scott, Fabio; Franz, Lilian; Campos, Diefrey Ribeiro; Azevedo, Tha?s Ribeiro Correia; Cunha, Daise; Six, Robert H.; Maeder, Steven; Cree, Travis
Background Amblyomma cajennense is the main vector of Rickettsia rickettsii which causes Brazilian spotted fever. This adult tick preferably infests horses and capybaras, but has low host specificity during its immature stages, thus posing a threat to humans and dogs. In this study, the efficacy of sarolaner (Simparic?/Simparica?, Zoetis) when administered once orally to dogs at 2?mg/kg was evaluated against induced infestations of A. cajennense nymphs for up to 35?days after treatment. Metho...
McDonald, Lyman L.; Stanley, Thomas R.; Otis, David L.; Biggins, Dean E.; Stevens, Patricia D.; Koprowski, John L.; Ballard, Warren
Association of Fish and Wildlife Agencies (WAFWA), in coordination with USFWS and U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), hosted a prairie dog species survey methodology workshop January 25-28, 2010 in Fort Collins, Colorado. The workshop provided all WAFWA partners and interested parties the opportunity to present their survey methodology to a review panel made up of experts in the fields of quantitative biology, population biology, species biology, and biostatistics. This report presents the panel's survey methodology recommendations for each of the four species of prairie dogs found in the United States and, for the black-tailed prairie dog, a list of action items to facilitate implementation of the recommended methodology.
Oyeduntan Adejoju Adediran
Full Text Available Echinococcosis is a public health parasitic disease that is cosmopolitan (Echinococcus granulosus in its distribution. Domestic dogs (Canis familiaris have been recognised as the definitive host of the parasite. The present study was carried out to determine the prevalence of canine echinococcosis in Southwest Nigeria using direct enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA to detect sera antigen. Two hundred and seventy-three (273 canine sera were tested for the presence of Echinococcus antigen. Purpose of keeping (hunting or companion, age (young or adult, and sex of each dog were considered during sampling. Total prevalence recorded was 12.45% (34/273. There was significant difference (P0.05 between young and adult dogs. There was no association between sex and prevalence of canine echinococcosis. The result of this study established the presence of canine echinococcosis in Southwest Nigeria; thus there is the possibility of occurrence of zoonotic form of the disease (human cystic hydatid diseases in the region.
Full Text Available One of the chronic progressive disorders of the spinal cord in dogs is the degenerative myelopathy (DM. The most predisposed age in dog is 5 to 14 years, while rarely noted in younger, there is no gender predisposition. This disorder most commonly appears in dogs of the German shepherd breed, but it can appear in other breeds too. The main changes about this disease are degeneration of the myelin, especially in the thoracic-lumbar segments of the spinal cord and the dorsal nerve roots. The progression of the disease is slow and can last months to years. Undoubtedly, diagnosis is made by examinations of the CSF and establishing elevated level of protein segments.
This annual report describes the progress during the second year of a project on Reservoir Characterization of Pennsylvanian Sandstone Reservoirs. The report is divided into three sections: (i) reservoir description and scale-up procedures; (ii) outcrop investigation; (iii) in-fill drilling potential. The first section describes the methods by which a reservoir can be characterized, can be described in three dimensions, and can be scaled up with respect to its properties, appropriate for simulation purposes. The second section describes the progress on investigation of an outcrop. The outcrop is an analog of Bartlesville Sandstone. We have drilled ten wells behind the outcrop and collected extensive log and core data. The cores have been slabbed, photographed and the several plugs have been taken. In addition, minipermeameter is used to measure permeabilities on the core surface at six inch intervals. The plugs have been analyzed for the permeability and porosity values. The variations in property values will be tied to the geological descriptions as well as the subsurface data collected from the Glen Pool field. The third section discusses the application of geostatistical techniques to infer in-fill well locations. The geostatistical technique used is the simulated annealing technique because of its flexibility. One of the important reservoir data is the production data. Use of production data will allow us to define the reservoir continuities, which may in turn, determine the in-fill well locations. The proposed technique allows us to incorporate some of the production data as constraints in the reservoir descriptions. The technique has been validated by comparing the results with numerical simulations.
Lloyd, J.M.; Harrison, W.
This report consists of reservoir pressure and production data for 25 petroleum reservoirs. Included are 5 data sets for single-phase (liquid) reservoirs, 1 data set for a single-phase (liquid) reservoir with pressure maintenance, 13 data sets for two-phase (liquid/gas) reservoirs and 6 for two-phase reservoirs with pressure maintenance. Also given are ancillary data for each reservoir that could be of value in the development and validation of simulation models. A bibliography is included that lists the publications from which the data were obtained.
Eads, David A; Hoogland, John L
Fleas (Insecta: Siphonaptera) are hematophagous ectoparasites that can reduce the fitness of vertebrate hosts. Laboratory populations of fleas decline under dry conditions, implying that populations of fleas will also decline when precipitation is scarce under natural conditions. If precipitation and hence vegetative production are reduced, however, then herbivorous hosts might suffer declines in body condition and have weakened defenses against fleas, so that fleas will increase in abundance. We tested these competing hypotheses using information from 23 yr of research on 3 species of colonial prairie dogs in the western United States: Gunnison's prairie dog (Cynomys gunnisoni, 1989-1994), Utah prairie dog (Cynomys parvidens, 1996-2005), and white-tailed prairie dog (Cynomys leucurus, 2006-2012). For all 3 species, flea-counts per individual varied inversely with the number of days in the prior growing season with >10 mm of precipitation, an index of the number of precipitation events that might have caused a substantial, prolonged increase in soil moisture and vegetative production. Flea-counts per Utah prairie dog also varied inversely with cumulative precipitation of the prior growing season. Furthermore, flea-counts per Gunnison's and white-tailed prairie dog varied inversely with cumulative precipitation of the just-completed January and February. These results complement research on black-tailed prairie dog (Cynomys ludovicianus) and might have important ramifications for plague, a bacterial disease transmitted by fleas that devastates populations of prairie dogs. In particular, our results might help to explain why, at some colonies, epizootics of plague, which can kill >95% of prairie dogs, are more likely to occur during or shortly after periods of reduced precipitation. Climate change is projected to increase the frequency of droughts in the grasslands of western North America. If so, then climate change might affect the occurrence of plague epizootics
Minamoto, Yasushi; Otoni, Cristiane C; Steelman, Samantha M; Büyükleblebici, Olga; Steiner, Jörg M; Jergens, Albert E; Suchodolski, Jan S
Idiopathic inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a common cause of chronic gastrointestinal (GI) disease in dogs. The combination of an underlying host genetic susceptibility, an intestinal dysbiosis, and dietary/environmental factors are suspected as main contributing factors in the pathogenesis of canine IBD. However, actual mechanisms of the host-microbe interactions remain elusive. The aim of this study was to compare the fecal microbiota and serum metabolite profiles between healthy dogs (n = 10) and dogs with IBD before and after 3 weeks of medical therapy (n = 12). Fecal microbiota and metabolite profiles were characterized by 454-pyrosequencing of 16 S rRNA genes and by an untargeted metabolomics approach, respectively. Significantly lower bacterial diversity and distinct microbial communities were observed in dogs with IBD compared to the healthy control dogs. While Gammaproteobacteria were overrepresented, Erysipelotrichia, Clostridia, and Bacteroidia were underrepresented in dogs with IBD. The functional gene content was predicted from the 16 S rRNA gene data using PICRUSt, and revealed overrepresented bacterial secretion system and transcription factors, and underrepresented amino acid metabolism in dogs with IBD. The serum metabolites 3-hydroxybutyrate, hexuronic acid, ribose, and gluconic acid lactone were significantly more abundant in dogs with IBD. Although a clinical improvement was observed after medical therapy in all dogs with IBD, this was not accompanied by significant changes in the fecal microbiota or in serum metabolite profiles. These results suggest the presence of oxidative stress and a functional alteration of the GI microbiota in dogs with IBD, which persisted even in the face of a clinical response to medical therapy. PMID:25531678
Full Text Available Abstract Antimicrobial resistance in Escherichia coli isolated from pet dogs can be considered a potential threat of infection for the human population. Our objective was to characterize the resistance pattern, extended spectrum beta-lactamase production and genetic relatedness of multiresistant E. coli strains isolated from dogs (n = 134, their owners (n = 134, and humans who claim to have no contact with dogs (n = 44, control, searching for sharing of strains. The strains were assessed for their genetic relatedness by phylogenetic grouping and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. Multiresistant E. coli strains were isolated from 42 (31.3% fecal samples from pairs of dogs and owners, totaling 84 isolates, and from 19 (43.1% control group subjects. The strains showed high levels of resistance to ampicillin, streptomycin, tetracycline, trimethoprim and sulfamethoxazole regardless of host species or group of origin. The blaTEM, blaCTX-M, and blaSHV genes were detected in similar proportions in all groups. All isolates positive for bla genes were ESBL producers. The phylogenetic group A was the most prevalent, irrespective of the host species. None of the strains belonging to the B2 group contained bla genes. Similar resistance patterns were found for strains from dogs, owners and controls; furthermore, identical PFGE profiles were detected in four (9.5% isolate pairs from dogs and owners, denoting the sharing of strains. Pet dogs were shown to be a potential household source of multiresistant E. coli strains.
In this thesis the added value of gravity observations for hydrocarbon reservoir monitoring and characterization is investigated. Reservoir processes and reservoir types most suitable for gravimetric monitoring are identified. Major noise sources affecting time-lapse gravimetry are analyzed. The added value of gravity data for reservoir monitoring and characterization is analyzed within closed-loop reservoir management concept. Synthetic 2D and 3D numerical experiments are performed where var...
Ribeiro, R A N; Teixeira-Neto, R G; Belo, V S; Ferreira, E C; Schallig, H D F H; Silva, E S
Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a serious chronic disease with a lethality rate of up to 10% in humans. In urban areas of Brazil, dogs are the main reservoirs of the etiological agent (Leishmania infantum) of VL, and the Brazilian Ministry of Health recommends the euthanasia of animals that are seropositive in both the immunochromatographic dual path platform rapid test (DPP(®); Bio-Manguinhos) and the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) with an L. major-like antigen (Bio-Manguinhos). Vaccination is an additional tool in the control of canine VL, but the use of Leishmune(®) (Zoetis Indústria de Produtos Veterinários, São Paulo, SP, Brazil), which contains the fucose mannose ligand (FML) isolated from L. donovani, is not currently recommended by the Brazilian Ministry of Health because vaccinated animals may exhibit positive serology and there are reservations regarding the efficacy of the vaccine. The aims of the present study were: (i) to verify the abilities of the fast agglutination screening test (FAST), the direct agglutination test (DAT), the indirect fluorescent-antibody test (IFAT), the DPP rapid test, and ELISA tests with L. major-like and FML antigens to differentiate between L. infantum-infected and Leishmune(®)-vaccinated dogs, and (ii) to analyze the sensitivities and specificities of the different methods. The reactivities to these tests of Leishmune(®)-vaccinated dogs (n = 71), asymptomatic (n = 20) and symptomatic (n = 20) naturally infected dogs, and unvaccinated healthy control dogs (n = 5) were compared. None of the Leishmune(®)-vaccinated dogs tested seropositive in FAST and DAT, although one dog was reactive to DPP and four dogs to ELISA/L. major-like and IFAT tests. While 69 (97%) of vaccinated dogs reacted to ELISA/FML, only one was seropositive in both ELISA/L. major-like and IFAT tests. Individually, all immunodiagnostic tests presented high specificities and positive likelihood ratios (LR+), and high specificity values were
Full Text Available Canine ehrlichiosis is a zoonotic rickettsial disease transmitted by ticks. In the present study, 198 companion dogs of different ages were examined for serum antibody detection against Ehrlichia canis by means of immunochromatography assay. The dogs were selected among referred cases to Veterinary Hospital of Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz, Southwestern Iran from November 2008 to March 2010. The studied dogs were classified based on age, sex, breed, region and season. Nineteen of 198 serum samples (9.6% had antibody against E. canis. Prevalence was significantly higher in adult dogs more than 3 year-old (16.18% (P= 0.002 and 1 – 3 years (11.86% (P= 0.016 compared with young dogs less than 1 year-old (1.41%. Prevalence was higher in male dogs (10.62% than female dogs (8.24%, in the summer (11.32% and west region (11.11%. There were not significant differences between the prevalence of infection and host gender, season and region (P>0.05. Typical morulae of E. canis were observed in monocytes of four infected dogs (2.02%. Five out of 24 (20.83% of the thrombocytopenic dogs and 14 out of 174 (8.05% of the non-thrombocytopenic dogs were positive for ehrlichiosis. Of 19 seropositive dogs, six (31.58% had anemia, four (21.05% hypoalbuminemia and five (26.32% leukopenia. There were not statistically significant differences between hematological findings and prevalence of infection (P> 0.05. This is the first report indicating the presence of E. canis in companion dogs of Ahvaz district. However, the sources of infection in these dogs were not clear. Finally, the role of companion dogs in the epizootiology of E. canis infection needs to be further explored.
Kim, M J; Oh, H J; Kim, G A; Park, J E; Park, E J; Jang, G; Ra, J C; Kang, S K; Lee, B C
The aim of this article is to review dog cloning research and to suggest its applications based on a discussion about the normality of cloned dogs. Somatic cell nuclear transfer was successfully used for production of viable cloned puppies despite limited understanding of in vitro dog embryo production. Cloned dogs have similar growth characteristics to those born from natural fertilization, with no evidence of serious adverse effects. The offspring of cloned dogs also have similar growth performance and health to those of naturally bred puppies. Therefore, cloning in domestic dogs can be applied as an assisted reproductive technique to conserve endangered species, to treat sterile canids or aged dogs, to improve reproductive performance of valuable individuals and to generate disease model animals. © 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.
Full Text Available Trypanosoma cruzi is the etiologic agent of Chagas disease throughout the Americas. Few population-level studies have examined the epidemiology of canine infection and strain types of T. cruzi that infect canines in the USA. We conducted a cross-sectional study of T. cruzi infection in working hound dogs in south central Texas, including analysis of triatomine vectors collected within kennel environments.Paired IFA and Chagas Stat-Pak serological testing showed an overall seroprevalence of 57.6% (n = 85, with significant variation across kennels. Dog age had a marginally significant effect on seropositivity, with one year of age increase associated with a 19.6% increase in odds of being seropositive (odds ratio 95% CI 0.996-1.435; p = 0.055. PCR analyses of blood revealed 17.4% of dogs harbored parasite DNA in their blood, including both seronegative and seropositive dogs. Molecular screening of organs from opportunistically sampled seropositive dogs revealed parasite DNA in heart, uterus, and mammary tissues. Strain-typing showed parasite discrete typing units (DTU TcI and TcIV present in dog samples, including a co-occurrence of both DTUs in two individual dogs. Bloodmeal analysis of Triatoma gerstaeckeri and Triatoma sanguisuga insects collected from the kennels revealed exclusively dog DNA. Vector infection with T. cruzi was 80.6% (n = 36, in which T. gerstaeckeri disproportionately harbored TcI (p = 0.045 and T. sanguisuga disproportionately harbored TcIV (p = 0.029. Tracing infection status across dog litters showed some seropositive offspring of seronegative dams, suggesting infection of pups from local triatomine vectors rather than congenital transmission.Canine kennels are high-risk environments for T. cruzi transmission, in which dogs likely serve as the predominant parasite reservoir. Disease and death of working dogs from Chagas disease is associated with unmeasured yet undoubtedly significant financial consequences because working
Szánthó, Flóra; Miklósi, Ádám; Kubinyi, Enikő
Dogs' seemingly empathic behaviour attracts general and scientific attention alike. Behaviour tests are usually not sufficiently realistic to evoke empathic-like behaviour; therefore we decided to ask owners about their experiences with their dogs in emotionally loaded situations. Owners from Hungary (N = 591) and from Germany (N = 2283) were asked to rate their level of agreement on a 1-5 Likert scale with statements about the reactivity of their dogs to their emotions and to other dogs' behaviour. We created two scales with satisfactory internal reliability: reactivity to the owner's emotion and reactivity to other dogs' behaviour. Based on an owner-dog personality matching theory, we hypothesised that the owner's empathy, as measured by the subscale on the cooperativeness character factor of the human personality, will correlate with their dog's emotional reactivity in emotionally loaded situations. In addition we also examined how anthropomorphism, contagious yawning, attitude toward the dog are related to emotional reactivity in dogs as perceived by the owner. In addition we examined how owners rate dog pictures. We found that the scale scores were largely independent from demographic and environmental variables like breed, sex, age, age at acquiring, keeping practices, training experiences and owner's age. However, anthropomorphic and emotional attitude of the owners probably biased the responses. In the German sample more empathic owners reported to have more emotionally reactive dog, as expected by the personality matching theory. More empathic owners reported to have fewer problems with their dogs and they rated a puppy picture as more cute in both countries. 62% of owners from Hungary and 36% of owner from Germany agreed with the statement "My dog is more important for me than any human being". In Germany, more empathic owners agreed less with this statement and indicated that their dogs have a tendency for contagious yawning. Owners whose attitudes
Full Text Available Dogs' seemingly empathic behaviour attracts general and scientific attention alike. Behaviour tests are usually not sufficiently realistic to evoke empathic-like behaviour; therefore we decided to ask owners about their experiences with their dogs in emotionally loaded situations. Owners from Hungary (N = 591 and from Germany (N = 2283 were asked to rate their level of agreement on a 1-5 Likert scale with statements about the reactivity of their dogs to their emotions and to other dogs' behaviour. We created two scales with satisfactory internal reliability: reactivity to the owner's emotion and reactivity to other dogs' behaviour. Based on an owner-dog personality matching theory, we hypothesised that the owner's empathy, as measured by the subscale on the cooperativeness character factor of the human personality, will correlate with their dog's emotional reactivity in emotionally loaded situations. In addition we also examined how anthropomorphism, contagious yawning, attitude toward the dog are related to emotional reactivity in dogs as perceived by the owner. In addition we examined how owners rate dog pictures. We found that the scale scores were largely independent from demographic and environmental variables like breed, sex, age, age at acquiring, keeping practices, training experiences and owner's age. However, anthropomorphic and emotional attitude of the owners probably biased the responses. In the German sample more empathic owners reported to have more emotionally reactive dog, as expected by the personality matching theory. More empathic owners reported to have fewer problems with their dogs and they rated a puppy picture as more cute in both countries. 62% of owners from Hungary and 36% of owner from Germany agreed with the statement "My dog is more important for me than any human being". In Germany, more empathic owners agreed less with this statement and indicated that their dogs have a tendency for contagious yawning. Owners
The aim of this work was to find out the level of knowledge of dog owners living in Germany; covering various aspects of dog handling, which personal and social circumstances have influence on this, and in which areas and which groups of people possible knowledge gaps exist. For this purpose, a multiple choice test was developed. This contained eight subject areas: “man-dog-relationship”, “puppy purchase and raising”, “learning behavior and training”, “dog behavior”, “keeping”, “dog and th...
Maia, Carla; Lorentz, Susanne; Cardoso, Luís; Otranto, Domenico; Naucke, Torsten J
Dirofilaria repens causes subcutaneous infection in dogs and cats, and is the main agent of human dirofilariosis in Europe. Detection of D. repens is described in a dog from Portugal, a finding that simultaneously represents the first presumable case of autochthonous infection with the parasite in any animal host species in the country. A mixed D. repens/Dirofilaria immitis infection (20:1 ratio) was found, with an overall density of 1267 microfilariae per millilitre of blood. Morphological features, including morphometry, and acid phosphatase histochemical staining confirmed identity of the two filarioids. Distribution of D. repens in Portugal should be further assessed at the population level both in vertebrate hosts and in vectors. Due to the zoonotic potential of the parasite, preventive measures such as the administration of microfilaricides and insect repellents should be put into practice to protect animals and public health.
Guptill, L; Glickman, L; Glickman, N
The objectives of the study were to identify recent trends in the prevalence of diabetes mellitus (DM) in dogs and to identify host risk factors. Veterinary Medical Data Base (VMDB) electronic records of 6860 dogs with a diagnosis of DM (VMDB code 870178500) between 1970 and 1999 were evaluated to determine time trends. Records of 6707 dogs with DM and 6707 frequency matched dogs with any diagnosis other than DM from the same teaching hospitals in the same year, selected as controls, were evaluated for risk factor analysis. The prevalence of DM in dogs presented to veterinary teaching hospitals increased from 19 cases per 10,000 admissions per year in 1970 to 64 cases per 10,000 in 1999, while the case-fatality rate decreased from 37% to 5%. The hospital prevalence of DM was consistently greater over time in older compared with younger dogs with the highest prevalence occurring in dogs 10-15 years of age. Dogs weighing risk of DM compared with heavier dogs. Female dogs had an increased risk of DM compared with males (P<0.001).
Nunes, B.; do Nascimento, A.; Ferreira, J.; Bezerra, F.
Our case study - the Castanhão reservoir - is located in NE Brazil on crystalline rock at the Borborema Province. The Borborema Province is a major Proterozoic-Archean terrain formed as a consequence of convergence and collision of the São Luis-West Africa craton and the São Francisco-Congo-Kasai cratons. This reservoir is a 60 m high earth-filled dam, which can store up to 4.5 billion m3 of water. The construction begun in 1990 and finished in October 2003.The first identified reservoir-induced events occurred in 2003, when the water level was still low. The water reached the spillway for the first time in January 2004 and, after that, an increase in seismicity occured. The present study shows the results of a campaign done in the period from November 19th, 2009 to December 31th, 2010 at the Castanhão reservoir. We deployed six three-component digital seismographic station network around one of the areas of the reservoir. We analyzed a total of 77 events which were recorded in at least four stations. To determine hypocenters and time origin, we used HYPO71 program (Lee & Lahr, 1975) assuming a half-space model with following parameters: VP= 5.95 km/s and VP/VS=1.73. We also performed a relocation of these events using HYPODD (Waldhauser & Ellsworth, 2000) programme. The input data used we used were catalogue data, with all absolute times. The results from the spatio-temporal suggest that different clusters at different areas and depths are triggered at different times due to a mixture of: i - pore pressure increase due to diffusion and ii - increase of pore pressure due to the reservoir load.
reproduction. body weight evaluation and other existing ph}siological and pathological condn1ons. REFERE:\\CES. Datong. P. G. (2003). Seasonal Prevalence of Ascites in Dogs. '\\atonal Diploma project in. Animal I lealth and production Technology. FCAHPT. I'\\\\ RI. Vom .. Plateau State Pp 1-. 28. Gourley. I. M., and Vasseur ...
Neospora caninum is a protozoan parasite of animals. Until 1988, it was misdiagnosed as Toxoplasma gondii. Since its first recognition in 1984 and the description of a new genus and species Neospora caninum in 1988, neosporosis has emerged as a serious disease of dogs and cattle worldwide. Additiona...
Full Text Available Metaldehyde is an active substance used for extermination of slugs and snail population. This paper presents the very first case of metaldehyde intentional poisoning of dogs in Serbia. Three-year-old and a six-year-old Swiss white shepard dogs were poisoned. The owner noticed frequent defecation, skeletal muscles spasms and impossibility to put any weight on their back extremities. The vomit of the younger dog was made of green-turquoise colored gut content. Twenty minutes after the onset of the first clinical symptoms dogs died. Macroscopic examination showed congestion of lungs, in the liver and intestines, as well as chemorage in the pancreas, bladder and intestines. Nonspecific pathological lesions were present in the lungs, heart, kidneys, liver, gut, intestines and brain. Pathohistological examination showed dystrophic changes and necrosis in kidneys, brain and intestines. According to anamnestic data, clinical signs, macroscopic and microscopic examination as well as characteristic smell of gut content, one could say that metaldehyde poisoning is the case. Toxicological analysis of gut content samples was performed by using gas chromatography with mass spectrophotometry (GC-MS. Used diagnostic methodology and gut content toxicology results obtained was the base for crime case according to article 269. Republic of Serbia Crime law.
Evidência do cão como reservatório da leptospirose humana: isolamento de um sorovar, caracterização molecular e utilização em inquérito sorológico Evidence of dog as a reservoir for human leptospirosis: a serovar isolation, molecular characterization and its use in a serological survey
Claudiomar Soares Brod
Full Text Available A leptospirose canina é conhecida como enfermidade de Stuttgard desde 1898, sendo os cães, depois dos roedores, considerados como a segunda principal fonte de infecção para o homem. O isolamento de um sorovar patogênico da urina de um cão, laboratorial e clinicamente identificado como tendo leptospirose, e sua utilização para testar amostras de soro de casos de leptospirose humana e canina, evidenciou a sua importância no ecossistema da região sul do Brasil. Os resultados do teste de soroaglutinação microscópica indicaram que 100% das amostras de soro humano de 12 pacientes do banco de soro de 2001 do Centro de Controle de Zoonoses, que haviam reagido com títulos que variaram de 25 a 3.200 para o sorovar canicola, e 72% das amostras de 105 soros caninos do mesmo banco de soro, também reagiram contra o novo isolado. O título médio e mediana dos soros humanos testados com a bateria de antígenos recomendada pela OMS, foi respectivamente 630 e 100, ao passo que os testados com o isolado foi de 1.823 e 400. Nos soros caninos, os títulos foram respectivamente de 347 e 100 para a bateria e de 1.088 e 200 para o isolado.Canine leptospirosis has been known as Stuttgart disease since 1898, and dogs are considered to be the second principal source of infection in man. The isolation of a pathogenic serovar from dog urine that was diagnosed clinically and laboratorial as having leptospirosis and its utilization to test serological samples of human and canine cases of leptospirosis, has demonstrated its importance to the ecosystem of the southern region of Brazil. The results of the serological microscopic agglutination test indicated that 100% of human serum samples from 12 patients from the serum bank of 2001 at the Center for Control of Zoonoses, that had titers between 25 and 3,200 with the canicola serovar, and 72% of 105 canine serum samples from the same serum bank, also reacted with the new isolate. The mean and median titers of the
de Lucio, Aida; Bailo, Begoña; Aguilera, María; Cardona, Guillermo A; Fernández-Crespo, Juan C; Carmena, David
The role of pet dogs and cats as suitable source of human infections by the diarrheagenic protozoan parasites Giardia duodenalis and Cryptosporidium spp. has been a topic of intense debate for long time and still remains a largely unsolved problem. In this cross-sectional molecular epidemiological survey we attempted to investigate whether zoonotic (or zooanthroponotic) disease transmission was occurring among humans and domestic dogs and cats sharing the same spatial and temporal setting in both rural and urban areas of the province of Álava, Northern Spain. A total of 268 (including 179 human, 55 canine, and 34 feline) individual faecal specimens were obtained from 63 family households during February-March and November-December 2014. Detection of G. duodenalis cysts and Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts was achieved by direct fluorescence microscopy (DFAT) and PCR-based methods targeting the small subunit (SSU) ribosomal RNA gene of the parasites. Giardia-positive isolates were subsequently sub-genotyped at the glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) and β-giardin (BG) genes. Overall, G. duodenalis infections were identified in 3.4% (6/179) of humans, 29% (16/55) of dogs, and 5.9% (2/34) of cats, respectively. Cryptosporidium spp. infections were detected in 1.1% (2/179) of humans, 5.5% (3/55) of dogs, and 8.8% (3/34) of cats, respectively. Simultaneous infections in human and canine/feline hosts by G. duodenalis or Cryptosporidium spp. were only demonstrated in a single household in which a cat and its owner tested positive for Cryptosporidium by DFAT, but this result could not be confirmed by SSU-PCR. Infections were homogeneously distributed among the studied human or animal populations irrespectively of their sex, age group, or geographical region of origin. Inadequate washing of raw vegetables and fruits was the only risk factor significantly associated to a higher likelihood of having human giardiosis/cryptosporidiosis. Molecular characterization of G. duodenalis
Vriesendorp, H.M.; Halliwell, R.E.; Johnson, P.M.; Fey, T.A.; McDonough, C.M.
The influence of total-body irradiation (TBI) and autologous or allogeneic bone marrow transplantation on serum immunoglobulin subclasses was determined in a dog model. Only IgG1 levels decreased after low-dose (+/- 4.5 Gy) TBI, but levels of all immunoglobulin classes fell after high-dose TBI (8.5 GyX1 or 2X6.0 Gy). After autologous bone marrow transplantation IgM levels were the first and IgE levels were the last to return to normal. After successful allogeneic bone marrow transplantation prolonged low IgM and IgE levels were found but IgA levels increased rapidly to over 150% of pretreatment values. A comparison of dogs with or without clinical signs or graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), revealed no differences in IgM levels. Dogs with GVHD had higher IgA but lower IgE levels. Dogs that rejected their allogeneic bone marrow cells showed significant early rises in IgE and IgA levels in comparison with dogs with GVHD. These results differ from the observations made on Ig levels in human bone marrow transplant patients. No significant differences in phytohemagglutinin stimulation tests were found between dogs with or without GVHD or dogs receiving an autologous transplant for the first four months after TBI and transplantation. An early primary or secondary involvement of humoral immunity in GVHD and graft rejection in dogs is postulated.
Priestnall, Simon L; Erles, Kerstin; Brooks, Harriet W; Cardwell, Jacqueline M; Waller, Andrew S; Paillot, Romain; Robinson, Carl; Darby, Alistair C; Holden, Matthew T G; Schöniger, Sandra
Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus has been linked to cases of acute fatal pneumonia in dogs in several countries. Outbreaks can occur in kenneled dog populations and result in significant levels of morbidity and mortality. This highly contagious disease is characterized by the sudden onset of clinical signs, including pyrexia, dyspnea, and hemorrhagic nasal discharge. The pathogenesis of S. equi subsp. zooepidemicus infection in dogs is poorly understood. This study systematically characterized the histopathological changes in the lungs of 39 dogs from a large rehoming shelter in London, United Kingdom; the dogs were infected with S. equi subsp. zooepidemicus. An objective scoring system demonstrated that S. equi subsp. zooepidemicus caused pneumonia in 26/39 (66.7%) dogs, and most of these dogs (17/26 [65.4%]) were classified as severe fibrino-suppurative, necrotizing, and hemorrhagic. Three recently described superantigen genes (szeF, szeN, and szeP) were detected by PCR in 17/47 (36.2%) of the S. equi subsp. zooepidemicus isolates; however, there was no association between the presence of these genes and the histopathological score. The lungs of S. equi subsp. zooepidemicus-infected dogs with severe respiratory signs and lung pathology did however have significantly higher mRNA levels of the proinflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), interleukin 6 (IL-6), and interleukin 8 (IL-8) than in uninfected controls, suggesting a role for an exuberant host immune response in the pathogenesis of this disease.
Vriesendorp, H.M.; Halliwell, R.E.; Johnson, P.M.; Fey, T.A.; McDonough, C.M.
The influence of total-body irradiation (TBI) and autologous or allogeneic bone marrow transplantation on serum immunoglobulin subclasses was determined in a dog model. Only IgG1 levels decreased after low-dose (+/- 4.5 Gy) TBI, but levels of all immunoglobulin classes fell after high-dose TBI (8.5 GyX1 or 2X6.0 Gy). After autologous bone marrow transplantation IgM levels were the first and IgE levels were the last to return to normal. After successful allogeneic bone marrow transplantation prolonged low IgM and IgE levels were found but IgA levels increased rapidly to over 150% of pretreatment values. A comparison of dogs with or without clinical signs or graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), revealed no differences in IgM levels. Dogs with GVHD had higher IgA but lower IgE levels. Dogs that rejected their allogeneic bone marrow cells showed significant early rises in IgE and IgA levels in comparison with dogs with GVHD. These results differ from the observations made on Ig levels in human bone marrow transplant patients. No significant differences in phytohemagglutinin stimulation tests were found between dogs with or without GVHD or dogs receiving an autologous transplant for the first four months after TBI and transplantation. An early primary or secondary involvement of humoral immunity in GVHD and graft rejection in dogs is postulated
Ricardo E Gürtler
Full Text Available Understanding the factors that affect the host-feeding preferences of triatomine bugs is crucial for estimating transmission risks and predicting the effects of control tactics targeting domestic animals. We tested whether Triatoma infestans bugs prefer to feed on dogs vs. chickens and on dogs vs. cats and whether vector density modified host choices and other vital rates under natural conditions.Two host choice experiments were conducted in small caged huts with two rooms between which bugs could move freely. Matched pairs of dog-chicken (six and dog-cat (three were assigned randomly to two levels of vector abundance and exposed to starved bugs during three nights. Bloodmeals from 1,160 bugs were tested by a direct enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.Conditional logistic regression showed that dogs were highly preferred over chickens or cats and that vector density modified host-feeding choices. The relative risk of a bug being blood-engorged increased significantly when it fed only on dog rather than chicken or cat. Bugs achieved higher post-exposure weight at higher vector densities and successive occasions, more so if they fed on a dog rather than on a cat.Our findings strongly refute the hypothesis that T. infestans prefers to blood-feed on chickens rather than dogs. An increase in dog or cat availability or accessibility will increase the rate of bug feeding on them and exert strong non-linear effects on R(0. When combined with between-dog heterogeneities in exposure, infection, and infectiousness, the strong bug preference for dogs can be exploited to target dogs in general, and even the specific individuals that account for most of the risk, with topical lotions or insecticide-impregnated collars to turn them into baited lethal traps or use them as transmission or infestation sentinels based on their immune response to Trypanosoma cruzi or bug salivary antigens.
Ostfeld, Richard S.; Levi, Taal; Jolles, Anna E.; Martin, Lynn B.; Hosseini, Parviez R.; Keesing, Felicia
Animal and plant species differ dramatically in their quality as hosts for multi-host pathogens, but the causes of this variation are poorly understood. A group of small mammals, including small rodents and shrews, are among the most competent natural reservoirs for three tick-borne zoonotic pathogens, Borrelia burgdorferi, Babesia microti, and Anaplasma phagocytophilum, in eastern North America. For a group of nine commonly-infected mammals spanning >2 orders of magnitude in body mass, we as...
Lehmkuhl, L.B.; Ware, W.A.; Bonagura, J.D.
Mitral stenosis was diagnosed in 15 young to middle-aged dogs. There were 5 Newfoundlands and 4 bull terriers affected, suggesting a breed predisposition for this disorder. Clinical signs included cough, dyspnea, exercise intolerance, and syncope. Soft left apical diastolic murmurs were heard only in 4 dogs, whereas 8 dogs had systolic murmurs characteristic of mitral regurgitation. Left atrial enlargement was the most prominent radiographic feature. Left-sided congestive heart failure was detected by radiographs in 11 dogs within 1 year of diagnosis. Electrocardiographic abnormalities varied among dogs and included atrial and ventricular enlargement, as well as atrial and ventricular arrhythmias. Abnormalities on M-mode and two-dimensional echocardiograms included abnormal diastolic motion of the mitral valve characterized by decreased leaflet separation, valve doming, concordant motion of the parietal mitral valve leaflet, and a decreased E-to-F slope. Increased mitral valve inflow velocities and prolonged pressure half-times were detected by Doppler echocardiography. Cardiac catheterization, performed in 8 dogs, documented a diastolic pressure gradient between the left atrial, pulmonary capillary wedge, or pulmonary artery diastolic pressures and the left ventricular diastolic pressure. Necropsy showed mitral stenosis caused by thickened, fused mitral valve leaflets in 5 dogs and a supramitral ring in another dog. The outcome in affected dogs was poor; 9 of 15 dogs were euthanatized or died by 2 1/2 years of age
Infill drilling if wells on a uniform spacing without regard to reservoir performance and characterization foes not optimize reservoir development because it fails to account for the complex nature of reservoir heterogeneities present in many low permeability reservoirs, and carbonate reservoirs in particular. New and emerging technologies, such as geostatistical modeling, rigorous decline curve analysis, reservoir rock typing, and special core analysis can be used to develop a 3-D simulation model for prediction of infill locations.
Beco, S.; Maraschini, A.; Pacini, F.; Biran, O.
The support for complex services delivery is becoming a key point in current internet technology. Current trends in internet applications are characterized by on demand delivery of ever growing amounts of content. The future internet of services will have to deliver content intensive applications to users with quality of service and security guarantees. This paper describes the Reservoir project and the challenge of a reliable and effective delivery of services as utilities in a commercial scenario. It starts by analyzing the needs of a future infrastructure provider and introducing the key concept of a service oriented architecture that combines virtualisation-aware grid with grid-aware virtualisation, while being driven by business service management. This article will then focus on the benefits and the innovations derived from the Reservoir approach. Eventually, a high level view of Reservoir general architecture is illustrated.
Meyer, Iben Helene Coakley; Forkman, Björn
The nature of the relationship between companion dogs and their owners has important impact on the effect of life for both dog and owner. Identifying factors that affect the dogeowner relationship will assist the understanding of how the successful relationship is achieved and how the less...... successful relationship is mended, with potential benefits for the welfare of both species. In the present study, we investigated the effect of several dog and owner characteristics, including the personality of the dog, on the dogeowner relationship as measured by the Monash Dog Owner Relationship Scale...... linear regressions: 1 for each of the 3 subscales of the MDORS. Overall, the variables investigated only predicted a small proportion of the variance in MDORS scores, and owner characteristics appeared to influence the dogeowner relationship more than dog personality traits did. We found that children...
Full text: The radiocarbon dating technique depends essentially on the assumption that atmospheric carbon dioxide containing the cosmogenic radioisotope 14 C enters into a state of equilibrium with all living material (plants and animals) as part of the terrestrial carbon cycle. Terrestrial reservoir effects occur when the atmospheric 14 C signal is diluted by local effects where systems depleted in 14 C mix with systems that are in equilibrium with the atmosphere. Naturally, this can occur with plant material growing close to an active volcano adding very old CO 2 to the atmosphere (the original 14 C has completely decayed). It can also occur in highly industrialised areas where fossil fuel derived CO 2 dilutes the atmospheric signal. A terrestrial reservoir effect can occur in the case of fresh water shells living in rivers or lakes where there is an input of ground water from springs or a raising of the water table. Soluble bicarbonate derived from the dissolution of very old limestone produces a 14 C dilution effect. Land snail shells and stream carbonate depositions (tufas and travertines) can be affected by a similar mechanism. Alternatively, in specific cases, these reservoir effects may not occur. This means that general interpretations assuming quantitative values for these terrestrial effects are not possible. Each microenvironment associated with samples being analysed needs to be evaluated independently. Similarly, the marine environment produces reservoir effects. With respect to marine shells and corals, the water depth at which carbonate growth occurs can significantly affect quantitative 14 C dilution, especially in areas where very old water is uplifted, mixing with top layers of water that undergo significant exchange with atmospheric CO 2 . Hence, generalisations with respect to the marine reservoir effect also pose problems. These can be exacerbated by the mixing of sea water with either terrestrial water in estuaries, or ground water where
Caivano, D; Rishniw, M; Patata, V; Giorgi, M E; Birettoni, F; Porciello, F
Feasibility, intra- and inter-observer variability of measuring left atrial (LA) longitudinal strain and strain rate (SR) variables using speckle tracking echocardiography (STE) have not been reported in the dog. Reference intervals for these variables which can be useful to estimate LA function have been provided. Forty-eight healthy adult dogs. Left atrial longitudinal deformation was evaluated in each dog by STE, and different combinations of STE variables were used to describe the 3 phases (reservoir, conduit and booster pump phase) of the LA function. Left atrial STE was possible in 40/48 dogs (83%). Strain and SR curves in healthy dogs were characterized, and reference intervals for several strain and SR variables are provided. Intra- and inter-observer variability, expressed as percent difference between observations or observers, was 3.58%-10.8% for indices of the LA reservoir function, 10.48%-15.82% for indices of the LA conduit function and 14.1%-34% for indices of the LA contractile function. Strain rate in early diastole and strain rate at atrial contraction variables were correlated significantly with age. No other relationships (body weight, heart rate or LA size) with any STE variables could be identified. Speckle tracking echocardiography provides quantitative measurements of LA longitudinal deformation and can be used to assess LA phasic function in healthy dogs. Further studies of these variables in dogs with cardiac diseases are needed to determine the clinical applicability and utility. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Thomas, D; Delgado, A; Louison, B; Lefrancois, T; Shaw, J
Vaccination of domestic pets is an important component of rabies control and prevention in countries where the disease is maintained in a wildlife reservoir. In Grenada, vaccine coverage rates were low, despite extensive public education and advertising of government-sponsored vaccine clinics where rabies vaccine is administered to animals at no cost to animal owners. Information was needed on reasons for decreased dog owner participation in government-funded rabies vaccination clinics. A total of 120 dog owners from 6 different parishes were asked to complete a questionnaire assessing their currently held beliefs about rabies vaccination and perception of the risk posed by rabies. Over 70% of respondents believed that problems in the organization and management of clinic sites could allow for fighting between dogs or disease spread among dogs, while 35% of owners did not believe that they had the ability or adequate help to bring their dogs to the clinic sites. Recommendations for improving vaccine coverage rates included: improved scheduling of clinic sites and dates; increased biosecurity at clinic locations; focused advertising on the availability of home visits, particularly for aggressive dogs or dogs with visible skin-related diseases such as mange; and the recruitment of community volunteers to assist with bringing dogs to the clinic sites. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Brandt, Anders; Swenning, Joar
Physical geography, hydrology, geomorphology, sediment transport, erosion, sedimentation, dams, reservoirs......Physical geography, hydrology, geomorphology, sediment transport, erosion, sedimentation, dams, reservoirs...
P. K. Pande
Initial drilling of wells on a uniform spacing, without regard to reservoir performance and characterization, must become a process of the past. Such efforts do not optimize reservoir development as they fail to account for the complex nature of reservoir heterogeneities present in many low permeability reservoirs, and carbonate reservoirs in particular. These reservoirs are typically characterized by: o Large, discontinuous pay intervals o Vertical and lateral changes in reservoir properties o Low reservoir energy o High residual oil saturation o Low recovery efficiency
Daniel Constantin DIACONU
Full Text Available Siriu reservoir, owes it`s creation to the dam built on the river Buzau, in the town which bears the same name. The reservoir has a hydro energetic role, to diminish the maximum flow and to provide water to the localities below. The partial exploitation of the lake, began in 1984; Since that time, the initial bed of the river began to accumulate large quantities of alluvia, reducing the retention capacity of the lake, which had a volume of 125 million m3. The changes produced are determined by many topographic surveys at the bottom of the lake.
Choi, Jihye; Keh, Seoyeon; Kim, Hyunwook; Kim, Junyoung; Yoon, Junghee
Differential diagnoses for canine liver disease are commonly based on radiographic estimates of liver size, however little has been published on breed variations. Aims of this study were to describe normal radiographic liver size in Pekingese dogs and to compare normal measurements for this breed with other dog breeds and Pekingese dogs with liver disease. Liver measurements were compared for clinically normal Pekingese (n = 61), normal non-Pekingese brachycephalic (n = 45), normal nonbrachycephalic (n = 71), and Pekingese breed dogs with liver disease (n = 22). For each dog, body weight, liver length, T11 vertebral length, thoracic depth, and thoracic width were measured on right lateral and ventrodorsal abdominal radiographs. Liver volume was calculated using a formula and ratios of liver length/T11 vertebral length and liver volume/body weight ratio were determined. Normal Pekingese dogs had a significantly smaller liver volume/body weight ratio (16.73 ± 5.67, P dogs (19.54 ± 5.03) and normal nonbrachycephalic breed dogs (18.72 ± 6.52). The liver length/T11 vertebral length ratio in normal Pekingese (4.64 ± 0.65) was significantly smaller than normal non-Pekingese brachycephalic breed dogs (5.16 ± 0.74) and normal nonbrachycephalic breed dogs (5.40 ± 0.74). Ratios of liver volume/body weight and liver length/T11 vertebral length in normal Pekingese were significantly different from Pekingese with liver diseases (P dogs have a smaller normal radiographic liver size than other breeds. We recommend using 4.64× the length of the T11 vertebra as a radiographic criterion for normal liver length in Pekingese dogs. © 2012 Veterinary Radiology & Ultrasound.
Luis, Angela D.; Hayman, David T. S.; O'Shea, Thomas J.; Cryan, Paul M.; Gilbert, Amy T.; Pulliam, Juliet R. C.; Mills, James N.; Timonin, Mary E.; Willis, Craig K. R.; Cunningham, Andrew A.; Fooks, Anthony R.; Rupprecht, Charles E.; Wood, James L. N.; Webb, Colleen T.
Bats are the natural reservoirs of a number of high-impact viral zoonoses. We present a quantitative analysis to address the hypothesis that bats are unique in their propensity to host zoonotic viruses based on a comparison with rodents, another important host order. We found that bats indeed host more zoonotic viruses per species than rodents, and we identified life-history and ecological factors that promote zoonotic viral richness. More zoonotic viruses are hosted by species whose distributions overlap with a greater number of other species in the same taxonomic order (sympatry). Specifically in bats, there was evidence for increased zoonotic viral richness in species with smaller litters (one young), greater longevity and more litters per year. Furthermore, our results point to a new hypothesis to explain in part why bats host more zoonotic viruses per species: the stronger effect of sympatry in bats and more viruses shared between bat species suggests that interspecific transmission is more prevalent among bats than among rodents. Although bats host more zoonotic viruses per species, the total number of zoonotic viruses identified in bats (61) was lower than in rodents (68), a result of there being approximately twice the number of rodent species as bat species. Therefore, rodents should still be a serious concern as reservoirs of emerging viruses. These findings shed light on disease emergence and perpetuation mechanisms and may help lead to a predictive framework for identifying future emerging infectious virus reservoirs. PMID:23378666
Luis, Angela D.; Hayman, David T.S.; O'Shea, Thomas J.; Cryan, Paul M.; Gilbert, Amy T.; Pulliam, Juliet R.C.; Mills, James N.; Timonin, Mary E.; Willis, Craig K.R.; Cunningham, Andrew A.; Fooks, Anthony R.; Rupprecht, Charles E.; Wood, James L.N.; Webb, Colleen T.
Bats are the natural reservoirs of a number of high-impact viral zoonoses. We present a quantitative analysis to address the hypothesis that bats are unique in their propensity to host zoonotic viruses based on a comparison with rodents, another important host order. We found that bats indeed host more zoonotic viruses per species than rodents, and we identified life-history and ecological factors that promote zoonotic viral richness. More zoonotic viruses are hosted by species whose distributions overlap with a greater number of other species in the same taxonomic order (sympatry). Specifically in bats, there was evidence for increased zoonotic viral richness in species with smaller litters (one young), greater longevity and more litters per year. Furthermore, our results point to a new hypothesis to explain in part why bats host more zoonotic viruses per species: the stronger effect of sympatry in bats and more viruses shared between bat species suggests that interspecific transmission is more prevalent among bats than among rodents. Although bats host more zoonotic viruses per species, the total number of zoonotic viruses identified in bats (61) was lower than in rodents (68), a result of there being approximately twice the number of rodent species as bat species. Therefore, rodents should still be a serious concern as reservoirs of emerging viruses. These findings shed light on disease emergence and perpetuation mechanisms and may help lead to a predictive framework for identifying future emerging infectious virus reservoirs.
... Home For Consumers Consumer Updates Xylitol and Your Dog: Danger, Paws Off Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it ... vitamins mouthwash toothpaste Why is Xylitol Dangerous to Dogs, but Not People? In both people and dogs, ...
Meyer, Iben Helene Coakley; Forkman, Björn
The nature of the relationship between companion dogs and their owners has important impact on the effect of life for both dog and owner. Identifying factors that affect the dogeowner relationship will assist the understanding of how the successful relationship is achieved and how the less succes...... in the family and using the dog only for company were negatively associated with the owners’ perception of the relationship with their dogs. The only dog characteristics to predict the dogeowner relationship were fearfulness and fear-related behavior problems....... successful relationship is mended, with potential benefits for the welfare of both species. In the present study, we investigated the effect of several dog and owner characteristics, including the personality of the dog, on the dogeowner relationship as measured by the Monash Dog Owner Relationship Scale...... linear regressions: 1 for each of the 3 subscales of the MDORS. Overall, the variables investigated only predicted a small proportion of the variance in MDORS scores, and owner characteristics appeared to influence the dogeowner relationship more than dog personality traits did. We found that children...
Wenger-Riggenbach, B; Boretti, F S; Quante, S; Schellenberg, S; Reusch, C E; Sieber-Ruckstuhl, N S
Measurement of salivary cortisol is a useful diagnostic test for hypercortisolism (HC) in humans. To determine whether measurement of salivary cortisol concentration is a practical alternative to plasma cortisol to diagnose HC, to validate the use of salivary cortisol, and to examine the effect of time of day and sampling location on salivary cortisol. Thirty healthy dogs and 6 dogs with HC. Prospective, observational clinical trial including healthy volunteer dogs and dogs newly diagnosed with HC. Salivary and plasma cortisol concentrations were measured with an immunoassay analyzer. Intra- and interassay variability, linearity, and correlation between salivary and plasma cortisol concentrations were determined. The required 300 microL of saliva could not be obtained in 88/326 samples from healthy dogs and in 15/30 samples from dogs with HC. The intra-assay variability for measurement of salivary cortisol was 5-17.7%, the interassay variability 8.5 and 17.3%, and the observed to expected ratio 89-125%. The correlation (r) between salivary and plasma cortisol was 0.98. The time of day and location of collection did not affect salivary cortisol concentrations. Dogs with HC had significantly higher salivary cortisol values than healthy dogs (10.2 +/- 7.3 nmol/L versus 1.54 +/- 0.97 nmol/L; P cortisol in dogs. However, a broad clinical application of the method seems limited, because of the large sample volume required.
Franklin, Heather A; Stapp, Paul; Cohen, Amybeth
Elucidating feeding relationships between hosts and parasites remains a significant challenge in studies of the ecology of infectious diseases, especially those involving small or cryptic vectors. Black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus) are a species of conservation importance in the North American Great Plains whose populations are extirpated by plague, a flea-vectored, bacterial disease. Using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays, we determined that fleas (Oropsylla hirsuta) associated with prairie dogs feed upon northern grasshopper mice (Onychomys leucogaster), a rodent that has been implicated in the transmission and maintenance of plague in prairie-dog colonies. Our results definitively show that grasshopper mice not only share fleas with prairie dogs during plague epizootics, but also provide them with blood meals, offering a mechanism by which the pathogen, Yersinia pestis, may be transmitted between host species and maintained between epizootics. The lack of identifiable host DNA in a significant fraction of engorged Oropsylla hirsuta collected from animals (47%) and prairie-dog burrows (100%) suggests a rapid rate of digestion and feeding that may facilitate disease transmission during epizootics but also complicate efforts to detect feeding on alternative hosts. Combined with other analytical approaches, e.g., stable isotope analysis, molecular genetic techniques can provide novel insights into host-parasite feeding relationships and improve our understanding of the role of alternative hosts in the transmission and maintenance of disease. © 2010 The Society for Vector Ecology.
Acosta-Jamett, G; Chalmers, W S K; Cunningham, A A; Cleaveland, S; Handel, I G; Bronsvoort, B M deC
Urban areas can support dog populations dense enough to maintain canine distemper virus (CDV) and can be a source of infection for rural dogs and free-ranging carnivores. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationships between urban and rural domestic dog and wild carnivore populations and their effects on the epidemiology of CDV to explain retrospectively a CD outbreak in wild foxes in 2003. From 2005 to 2007 a cross-sectional household questionnaire survey was conducted in Coquimbo and Ovalle cities, in three towns and in rural sites along two transects from these cities to the Fray Jorge National Park (FJNP) in the Coquimbo region, Chile. Blood samples were collected from unvaccinated dogs at surveyed households and from free-ranging foxes in rural areas along the transects. The seroprevalence of CDV in domestic dogs was higher in urban than in rural areas and in the later was highest in dogs born before 2001-2002. The seroprevalence of CDV in foxes was higher in areas closer to human settlements. A high seroprevalence in dogs born before 2001-2002 further supports a link between CDV patterns in rural dog and fox populations. In our study area, urban dogs are proposed to be the source of CDV infection to wild carnivores. The large dog population size and density detected in Coquimbo and Ovalle provides optimal conditions for maintaining a large and dense susceptible population of dogs, which can act as a reservoir for highly infectious diseases and could have been the source of infection in the CD outbreak in wild foxes. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Reservoir sedimentation can result in loss of much needed reservoir storage capacity, reducing the useful life of dams. Thus, sufficient sediment storage capacity should be provided for the reservoir design stage to ensure that sediment accumulation will not impair the functioning of the reservoir during the useful operational-economic life of the project. However, an important issue to consider when estimating reservoir sedimentation and accumulation is the uncertainty involved in reservoir sedimentation. In this paper, the basic factors influencing the density of sediments deposited in reservoirs are discussed, and uncertainties in reservoir sedimentation have been determined using the Delta method. Further, Kenny Reservoir in the White River Basin in northwestern Colorado was selected to determine the density of deposits in the reservoir and the coefficient of variation. The results of this investigation have indicated that by using the Delta method in the case of Kenny Reservoir, the uncertainty regarding accumulated sediment density, expressed by the coefficient of variation for a period of 50 years of reservoir operation, could be reduced to about 10%. Results of the Delta method suggest an applicable approach for dead storage planning via interfacing with uncertainties associated with reservoir sedimentation.
Bryan, Jeffrey N; Henry, Carolyn J; Turnquist, Susan E; Tyler, Jeff W; Liptak, Julius M; Rizzo, Scott A; Sfiligoi, Gabriella; Steinberg, Steven J; Smith, Annette N; Jackson, Tarraca
Primary renal tumors are diagnosed uncommonly in dogs. Signs and survival will differ among different categories of primary renal tumors. Data were collected from the medical records of 82 dogs with primary renal tumors diagnosed by examination of tissue obtained by ultrasound-guided biopsy, needle aspiration, surgery, or at postmortem examination. This was a multi-institutional, retrospective study. Forty-nine dogs had carcinomas, 28 had sarcomas, and 5 had nephroblastomas. The dogs were geriatric (mean 8.1 years; range: 1-17) with a weight of 24.9 kg (range: 4.5-80). Tumors occurred with equal frequency in each kidney with 4% occurring bilaterally. Initial signs included one or more of hematuria, inappetance, lethargy. weight loss, or a palpable abdominal mass. Pain was reported more frequently in dogs with sarcomas (5/28). The most common hematologic abnormalities were neutrophilia (22/63), anemia (21/64), and thrombocytopenia (6/68). Polycythemia was present in 3 dogs and resolved with treatment. Hematuria (28/49), pyuria (26/49), proteinuria (24/50), and isosthenuria (20/56) were the most frequently observed abnormalities on urinalysis. Pulmonary metastases were noted on thoracic radiographs in 16% of dogs at diagnosis. Seventy-seven percent of dogs had metastatic disease at the time of death. Median survival for dogs with carcinomas was 16 months (range 0-59 months), for dogs with sarcomas 9 months (range 0-70 months), and for dogs with nephroblastomas 6 months (range 0-6 months). Primary renal tumors in dogs are generally highly malignant with surgery being the only treatment that improves survival.
de Bruijne, J J; de Koster, P
Glycogen concentrations were determined in liver-biopsy specimens which were taken from four dogs during five consecutive days of fasting. It was found that maximal depletion of liver glycogen occurred between the second and the third day. Starvation-induced glycogenolysis was much slower in the dog than in men and rats. Fuel fluxes are discussed and it is tentatively concluded that in the fasting dog larger amounts of glycerol are available for gluconeogenesis than in other species.
Adriana Patricia Suraniti
Full Text Available Miastenia Gravis is a neuromuscular disease caused by auto antibodies. Early Clinical and biochemical diagnosis and treatment is demanded in the assurementof quality and time of life in all dogs. In this study we describe the conventional diagnosis methods and therapy in 32 dogs with suspected myasthenia gravis and propose the administration of bromide of piridostigmin as another use full diagnosis method in dogs.
Spasojević-Kosić, Ljubica; Savić, Sara
There are two basic aspects of hunting dog’s health care: infectious diseases of hunting dogs and dog’s hunting performance. Concerning infectious diseases of hunting dogs, special attention is paid to public health, preventing possible dangers that could possibly arise. On the other hand, hunting performance of dogs depends on their nutrition. A complete analysis of hunting dogs’ health care in our country requires an assessment of awareness level in hunte...
Recovery from paraquat poisoning in the dog is rare. This is a report of a case of recovery from confirmed paraquat poisoning in a clinical setting. The dog exhibited the usual signs of paraquat poisoning. The diagnosis was confirmed on toxicological analysis of urine using an ion exchange technique. The dog was treated with frusemide, nicotinamide, corticosteroids, α-tocopherol, vitamin A, etamiphylline camsylate and ampicillin. He recovered after seven weeks of intensive therapy. Alternative treatments are discussed
Henrique Alves Monteiro, Luiz
As I am sure everyone will know, a hot dog is a popular snack consisting of a cooked sausage in a soft bun. The name of this sandwich originates from the fact that in the 18th century some people suspected that sausages were made of dog meat. This may sound strange, but as I have learned, the true nature of the humble hot dog may be stranger still.
The research presented in this thesis aims at improving computer models that allow simulations of water, oil and gas flows in subsurface petroleum reservoirs. This is done by integrating, or assimilating, measurements into physics-bases models. In recent years petroleum technology has developed
Harbeck, G. Earl
Man has engaged in the control of flowing water since history began. Among his early recorded efforts were reservoirs for muncipal water-supplies constructed near ancient Jerusalem to store water which was brought there in masonry conduits. 1/ Irrigation was practiced in Egypt as early as 2000 B. C. There the "basin system" was used from ancient times until the 19th century. The land was divided , into basins of approximately 40,000 acres, separated by earthen dikes. 2/ Flood waters of the Nile generally inundated the basins through canals, many of which were built by the Pharaohs. Even then the economic consequences of a deficient annual flood were recognized. Lake Maeris, which according to Herodotus was an ancient storage reservoir, is said to have had an area of 30,000 acres. In India, the British found at the time of their occupancy of the Presidency of Madras about 50,000 reservoirs for irrigation, many believed to be of ancient construction. 3/ During the period 115-130 A. D. reservoirs were built to improve the water-supply of Athens. Much has been written concerning the elaborate collection and distribution system built to supply Rome, and parts of it remain to this day as monuments to the engineering skill employed by the Romans in solving the problem of large-scale municipal water-supplies.
, aquatic plants and fish from the rivers Alster and Trave range between zero and about 3,000 radiocarbon years. The reservoir age of water DIC depends to a large extent on the origin of the water and is for example correlated with precipitation amounts. These short-term variations are smoothed out in water...
Soengkono, S.; Hochstein, M.P.
The extent of thermally altered rocks in high temperature geothermal reservoirs hosted by young volcanic rocks can be assessed from magnetic surveys. Magnetic anomalies associated with many geothermal field in New Zealand and Indonesia can be interpreted in terms of thick (up to 1 km) demagnetized reservoir rocks. Demagnetization of these rocks has been confirmed by core studies and is caused by hydrothermal alteration produced from fluid/rock interactions. Models of the demagnetized Wairakei (NZ) and Kamojang (Indonesia) reservoirs are presented which include the productive areas. Magnetic surveys give fast and economical investigations of high temperature prospects if measurements are made from the air. The magnetic interpretation models can provide important constraints for reservoir models. Magnetic ground surveys can also be used to assess the extent of concealed near surface alteration which can be used in site selection of engineering structures.
Richards, Elizabeth; McDonough, Megan H; Edwards, Nancy E; Lyle, RM; Troped, Philip J
Dog walking is associated with higher levels of physical activity (PA). However, not all dog owners walk their dog(s) at a level sufficient for health benefits. Therefore, identifying correlates of dog walking may help to inform the design of more effective interventions to promote this specific form of PA. The purpose of this study was to examine psychosocial and environmental correlates of dog walking and relationships of dog walking with overall PA. In 2010, 391 dog owners (Mage= 43.6±12.3...
Artiklen analyserer, hvorvidt den traditionsbestemte honorargrundsætning i aktieselskaber ”... formanden dog det dobbelte” gennemsyrer både ret- og pligtsiden for formanden, således at forstå, at ikke blot rettighedssiden med retten til honorar og andre goder forøges for en formand, men også...... næppe er urimeligt at genbruge talemåden ”... formanden dog det dobbelte”, her forstået som: en generelt øget ansvarsrisiko, uanset om dette udspringer af ansvarsstandarden, af den bevismæssige nærhed ved beslutningerne eller en kombination af begge disse faktorer. Artiklen foretager en gennemgang af de...
Millard, Ralph P; Tobias, Karen M
Laryngeal paralysis is a common cause of upper airway obstruction in older, large-breed dogs and is likely associated with a generalized polyneuropathy in most animals. Surgical therapy is frequently indicated, and UAL is currently the recommended treatment. Respiratory signs significantly improve in most patients after surgery; however, postoperative complication rates can be high, and patients have a lifelong risk of developing respiratory tract disease.
Full Text Available Fear of thunderstorms and other forms of noise phobia are common problems in dogs. Administering medications along with changing the pet’s environment, and using behavior modification techniques can help ease the fear. Above all, do not give your pet any attention or reward when he is showing signs of fear; this will only reinforce the fearful behavior. [Veterinary World 2008; 1(11.000: 351-352
Tequiero Abuom Okumu
Full Text Available Aim: The objective of this study was to determine the seroprevalence of Neospora caninum (NC and its risk factors in farm dogs in Kenya. Materials and Methods: As part of a longitudinal study on dairy cattle abortion in 2010 in Kenya, serum samples were collected from 84 dogs in 53 randomly selected dairy cattle farms to determine the seroprevalence and risk factors of seropositivity for NC. Results: 15 (17.9% of the dogs were seropositive to NC antibodies, and at least one seropositive dog was found in 12 (22.6% of the 53 farms. The final multivariable logistic regression model identified free-roaming as the only factor significantly associated with seropositivity (odds ratio=4.48; p=0.03. Conclusion: The findings of this study indicate that canine neosporosis does exist in Kenya and that farmers should restrict their dogs from roaming to reduce the risk of their dogs becoming a reservoir for NC. More studies need to be carried out to determine the reproductive effects of NC on dairy cattle in Kenya.
Okumu, Tequiero Abuom; Munene, John Njenga; Wabacha, James; Tsuma, Victor; Leeuwen, John Van
Aim: The objective of this study was to determine the seroprevalence of Neospora caninum (NC) and its risk factors in farm dogs in Kenya. Materials and Methods: As part of a longitudinal study on dairy cattle abortion in 2010 in Kenya, serum samples were collected from 84 dogs in 53 randomly selected dairy cattle farms to determine the seroprevalence and risk factors of seropositivity for NC. Results: 15 (17.9%) of the dogs were seropositive to NC antibodies, and at least one seropositive dog was found in 12 (22.6%) of the 53 farms. The final multivariable logistic regression model identified free-roaming as the only factor significantly associated with seropositivity (odds ratio=4.48; p=0.03). Conclusion: The findings of this study indicate that canine neosporosis does exist in Kenya and that farmers should restrict their dogs from roaming to reduce the risk of their dogs becoming a reservoir for NC. More studies need to be carried out to determine the reproductive effects of NC on dairy cattle in Kenya. PMID:27847430
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose a reservoir cathode to improve performance in both ion and Hall-effect thrusters. We propose to adapt our existing reservoir cathode technology to this...
... Reservoir, equalizing. An air reservoir connected with and adding volume to the top portion of the equalizing piston chamber of the automatic brake valve, to provide uniform service reductions in brake pipe...
Narvenkar, G.; Naqvi, S.W.A.; Kurian, S.; Shenoy, D.M.; Pratihary, A.K.; Naik, H.; Patil, S.; Sarkar, A.; Gauns, M.
Emission of methane (CH4), a potent greenhouse gas, from tropical reservoirs is of interest because such reservoirs experience conducive conditions for CH4 production through anaerobic microbial activities. It has been suggested that Indian...
Flemings, P. B.; Liu, X.
We use multi phase flow modeling and field examples (Hydrate Ridge, offshore Oregon and Blake Ridge, offshore North Carolina) to demonstrate that the methane hydrate reservoir system links traditional and non- traditional hydrocarbon system components: free gas flow is a fundamental control on this system. As in a traditional hydrocarbon reservoir, gas migrates into the hydrate reservoir as a separate phase (secondary migration) where it is trapped in a gas column beneath the base of the hydrate layer. With sufficient gas supply, buoyancy forces exceed either the capillary entry pressure of the cap rock or the fracture strength of the cap rock, and gas leaks into the hydrate stability zone, or cap rock. When gas enters the hydrate stability zone and forms hydrate, it becomes a very non traditional reservoir. Free gas forms hydrate, depletes water, and elevates salinity until pore water is too saline for further hydrate formation: salinity and hydrate concentration increase upwards from the base of the regional hydrate stability zone (RHSZ) to the seafloor and the base of the hydrate stability zone has significant topography. Gas chimneys couple the free gas zone to the seafloor through high salinity conduits that are maintained at the three-phase boundary by gas flow. As a result, significant amounts of gaseous methane can bypass the RHSZ, which implies a significantly smaller hydrate reservoir than previously envisioned. Hydrate within gas chimneys lie at the three-phase boundary and thus small increases in temperature or decreases in pressure can immediately transport methane into the ocean. This type of hydrate deposit may be the most economical for producing energy because it has very high methane concentrations (Sh > 70%) located near the seafloor, which lie on the three-phase boundary.
Hoffman, Christy L.; Chen, Pan; Serpell, James A.; Jacobson, Kristen C.
This paper explores whether dog behavioral characteristics predict the quality of the relationship between dogs and their owners (i.e., owner attachment to dog), and whether relations between dog behavior and owner attachment are moderated by demographic characteristics. In this study, N = 92 children and N = 60 adults from 60 dog-owning families completed questionnaires about their attachment to their pet dog, their level of responsibility for that dog, and their general attitudes toward pet...
Chronic pancreatitis used to be considered uncommon in dogs, but recent pathological and clinical studies have confirmed that it is in fact a common and clinically significant disease. Clinical signs can vary from low-grade recurrent gastrointestinal signs to acute exacerbations that are indistinguishable from classical acute pancreatitis. Chronic pancreatitis is a significant cause of chronic pain in dogs, which must not be underestimated. It also results in progressive impairment of endocrine and exocrine function and the eventual development of diabetes mellitus or exocrine pancreatic insufficiency or both in some affected dogs at end stage. The etiology is unknown in most cases. Chronic pancreatitis shows an increased prevalence in certain breeds, and recent work in English Cocker Spaniels suggests it is part of a polysystemic immune-mediated disease in this breed. The histological and clinical appearance is different in different breeds, suggesting that etiologies may also be different. Diagnosis is challenging because the sensitivities of the available noninvasive tests are relatively low. However, with an increased index of suspicion, clinicians will recognize more cases that will allow them to institute supportive treatment to improve the quality of life of the patient. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Zook, B.C.; Carpenter, J.L.; Leeds, E.B.
Lead poisoning was diagnosed and studied in 60 dogs. It was found that lead poisoning is a common disease of young dogs, especially in the summer and fall, and is related to their chewing and eating habits resulting in the ingestion of paint, linoleum, or other lead-containing materials. The signs were characterized by gastrointestinal dysfunction (colic, vomiting, and diarrhea) and nervous disorders (convulsions, hysteria, nervousness, behavioral changes). The blood findings, which the authors consider nearly pathognomonic, consisted of numerous stippled and immature (especially nucleated) erythrocytes in the absence of severe anemia. Protein and casts were frequently found in the urine. Radiography sometimes revealed lead-containing particles in the gastro-intestinal tract, and lead lines were occasionally detected in the metaphysis of long bones in immature dogs. Treatment with calcium ethylenediamine-tetraacetic acid resulted in rapid and often dramatic recoveries in nearly all instances. Removal of lead from the gastrointestinal tract and treatment to relieve pronounced central nervous disorders was sometimes necessary. 40 references, 6 figures, 7 tables
Full Text Available Infective third-stage larvae of three spiruroid nematodes, Ascarops strongylina and Physocephalus sexalatus of pigs and Spirocerca lupi of dogs, were recovered from 14 species of coprophagous beetles belonging to 4 different genera. These larvae were fed to rabbits and/or guinea pigs to study their development in these experimental hosts. Larvae of A. strongylina reached the adult stage in all rabbits and one guinea pig. The adult worms recovered in these hosts were 40% and 4%, respectively, and became diminutive in comparison to their natural hosts. The larvae of P. sexalatus became reencysted in the gastric wall of rabbits inducing marked pathological changes. The infective larvae of S. lupi became reencapsulated in the stomach wall of the rabbit and also showed development in the aortic wall. Adults of Toxocara canis of dog, collected from 5 different regions of the Indian subcontinent, varied significantly in size. The mouse passage of infective larvae of one of these types led to the recovery of the adults from the experimental dogs that were smaller in size and caused severe pathology in natural experimental hosts. Developmental effects shown in experimental hosts and host specificity are of value in understanding the evolution of nematode parasitism.
Tripp, Daniel W; Gage, Kenneth L; Montenieri, John A; Antolin, Michael F
Black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus) on the Great Plains of the United States are highly susceptible to plague, caused by the bacterium Yersinia pestis, with mortality on towns during plague epizootics often approaching 100%. The ability of flea-borne transmission to sustain disease spread has been questioned because of inefficiency of flea vectors. However, even with low individual efficiency, overall transmission can be increased if flea abundance (the number of fleas on hosts) increases. Changes in flea abundance on hosts during plague outbreaks were recorded during a large-scale study of plague outbreaks in prairie dogs in north central Colorado during 3 years (2004-2007). Fleas were collected from live-trapped black-tailed prairie dogs before and during plague epizootics and tested by PCR for the presence of Y. pestis. The predominant fleas were two prairie dog specialists (Oropsylla hirsuta and Oropsylla tuberculata cynomuris), and a generalist flea species (Pulex simulans) was also recorded from numerous mammals in the area. The three species differ in seasonal abundance, with greatest abundance in spring (February and March) and fall (September and October). Flea abundance and infestation intensity increased during epizootics and were highest on prairie dogs with Y. pestis-infected fleas. Seasonal occurrence of epizootics among black-tailed prairie dogs was found to coincide with seasonal peaks in flea abundance. Concentration of infected fleas on surviving animals may account for rapid spread of plague during epizootics. In particular, the role of the generalist flea P. simulans was previously underappreciated.
Master's thesis in Petroleum engineering The fluvial sandstone in the Snorre field consists of braided to meander streams deposited in arid and in humid climate that show a clear differences in the sedimentology and reservoir properties, especially the silt content in large part of the reservoir which decrease the reservoir properties and water saturation. The heterogeneity of these fluvial formations combined with the faulting history makes this reservoir highly complex with many local an...
Systems and methods for reservoir resistivity characterization are provided, in various aspects, an integrated framework for the estimation of Archie\\'s parameters for a strongly heterogeneous reservoir utilizing the dynamics of the reservoir are provided. The framework can encompass a Bayesian estimation/inversion method for estimating the reservoir parameters, integrating production and time lapse formation conductivity data to achieve a better understanding of the subsurface rock conductivity properties and hence improve water saturation imaging.
Irie, Takao; Yamaguchi, Yohei; Doanh, Pham Ngoc; Guo, Zhi Hong; Habe, Shigehisa; Horii, Yoichiro; Nonaka, Nariaki
Infection of boar-hunting dogs with Paragonimus westermani was investigated in Western Japan. Blood and rectal feces were collected from 441 dogs in the three districts (205 in Kinki, 131 in Chugoku and 105 in Shikoku District). In a screening ELISA for serum antibody against P. westermani antigen, 195 dogs (44.2%) showed positive reaction. In the 195 dogs, 8 dogs were found excreting P. westermani eggs after molecular analysis of fecal eggs, and additional 7 were identified serologically for the parasite infection because of their stronger reactivity against P. westermani antigen than against antigens of other species of Paragonimus. A spatial analysis showed that all of the P. westermani infections were found in Kinki and Chugoku Districts. In this area, dogs' experience of being fed with raw boar meat showed high odds ratio (3.35) to the sero-positivity in the screening ELISA, and the frequency of such experiences was significantly higher in sero-positive dogs. While clear relationship was not obtained between predation of boars by dogs during hunting and their sero-positivity. Therefore, it is suggested that human activity of feeding with wild boar meat is the risk factor for P. westermani infection in boar-hunting dogs. Considering that hunting dogs could play as a major definitive host and maintain the present distribution of P. westermani in Western Japan, control measures for the infection in hunting dogs, such as prohibition of raw meat feeding and regular deworming, should be undertaken.
Alpi, Kristine M.; Sherman, Barbara L.
Dogs are indeed people's best friends. A majority of owners report that their dog is a "member of the family," and that acceptable canine behavior and optimal care are high priorities for them. The human-animal bond, the close connection between people and their pets, is forged by positive interactions, but unacceptable canine behaviors that…
Härtwig, Vera; Schulze, Christoph; Pfeffer, Martin; Daugschies, Arwid; Dyachenko, Viktor
Dirofilaria (D.) repens is a nematode causing dirofilariasis in dogs, cats and in humans. Red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) and raccoon dogs (Nyctereutes procyonoides) are well-known wildlife reservoirs for zoonotic diseases. These two species are highly abundant in Germany, frequently exposed to vector mosquitoes and potentially susceptible to Dirofilaria infections. To obtain data about D. repens infections in these animals, red fox and raccoon dog carcasses (hunted or found dead) were collected from January to September 2009 in the Federal State of Brandenburg, Germany. Lung tissue samples were subjected to DNA extraction and examined for the presence of Dirofilaria DNA by means of D. repens-specific PCR. D. repens-specific DNA could not be amplified from the lungs of red foxes (n = 122; 0%) nor from the lungs of raccoon dogs (n = 13; 0%), suggesting a limited role if a role at all in the natural transmission cycle of D. repens in Brandenburg.
The workshop contains presentations in the following areas: (1) reservoir engineering research; (2) field development; (3) vapor-dominated systems; (4) the Geysers thermal area; (5) well test analysis; (6) production engineering; (7) reservoir evaluation; (8) geochemistry and injection; (9) numerical simulation; and (10) reservoir physics. (ACR)
... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Reservoir Projects. 644.4 Section 644.4 National... HANDBOOK Project Planning Civil Works § 644.4 Reservoir Projects. (a) Joint land acquisition policy for reservoir projects. The joint policies of the Department of the Interior and the Department of the Army...
Eads, David A.; Hoogland, John L.
Fleas (Insecta: Siphonaptera) are hematophagous ectoparasites that feed on vertebrate hosts. Fleas can reduce the fitness of hosts by interfering with immune responses, disrupting adaptive behaviors, and transmitting pathogens. The negative effects of fleas on hosts are usually most pronounced when fleas attain high densities. In lab studies, fleas desiccate and die under dry conditions, suggesting that populations of fleas will tend to decline when precipitation is scarce under natural conditions. To test this hypothesis, we compared precipitation vs. parasitism of black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus) by fleas at a single colony during May and June of 13 consecutive years (1976–1988) at Wind Cave National Park, South Dakota, USA. The number of fleas on prairie dogs decreased with increasing precipitation during both the prior growing season (April through August of the prior year) and the just-completed winter–spring (January through April of current year). Due to the reduction in available moisture and palatable forage in dry years, herbivorous prairie dogs might have been food-limited, with weakened behavioral and immunological defenses against fleas. In support of this hypothesis, adult prairie dogs of low mass harbored more fleas than heavier adults. Our results have implications for the spread of plague, an introduced bacterial disease, transmitted by fleas, that devastates prairie dog colonies and, in doing so, can transform grassland ecosystems.
thfloor, Physics Dept., FMIPA, Institut Teknologi Bandung (Indonesia); Rock Fluid Imaging Lab., Bandung (Indonesia))" data-affiliation=" (Wave Inversion and Subsurface Fluid Imaging Research Laboratory (WISFIR), Basic Science Center A 4thfloor, Physics Dept., FMIPA, Institut Teknologi Bandung (Indonesia); Rock Fluid Imaging Lab., Bandung (Indonesia))" >Nurhandoko, Bagus Endar B.; Susilowati
Amplitude various offset is widely used in petroleum exploration as well as in petroleum development field. Generally, phenomenon of amplitude in various angles assumes reservoir’s layer is quite thick. It also means that the wave is assumed as a very high frequency. But, in natural condition, the seismic wave is band limited and has quite low frequency. Therefore, topic about amplitude various angles in thin layer reservoir as well as low frequency assumption is important to be considered. Thin layer reservoir means the thickness of reservoir is about or less than quarter of wavelength. In this paper, I studied about the reflection phenomena in elastic wave which considering interference from thin layer reservoir and transmission wave. I applied Zoeppritz equation for modeling reflected wave of top reservoir, reflected wave of bottom reservoir, and also transmission elastic wave of reservoir. Results show that the phenomena of AVA in thin layer reservoir are frequency dependent. Thin layer reservoir causes interference between reflected wave of top reservoir and reflected wave of bottom reservoir. These phenomena are frequently neglected, however, in real practices. Even though, the impact of inattention in interference phenomena caused by thin layer in AVA may cause inaccurate reservoir characterization. The relation between classes of AVA reservoir and reservoir’s character are different when effect of ones in thin reservoir and ones in thick reservoir are compared. In this paper, I present some AVA phenomena including its cross plot in various thin reservoir types based on some rock physics data of Indonesia
Koerner, Roy; Clarke, Don; Walker, Scott; Phillips, Chris; Nguyen, John; Moos, Dan; Tagbor, Kwasi
This project was intended to increase recoverable waterflood reserves in slope and basin reservoirs through improved reservoir characterization and reservoir management. The particular application of this project is in portions of Fault Blocks IV and V of the Wilmington Oil Field, in Long Beach, California, but the approach is widely applicable in slope and basin reservoirs, transferring technology so that it can be applied in other sections of the Wilmington field and by operators in other slope and basin reservoirs is a primary component of the project.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Since the relationship between dogs and their owners has changed, and dogs moved from being working dogs to family members in post-industrial countries, we hypothesized that zoonotic transmission of opportunistic pathogens like coagulase positive staphylococci (CPS is likely between dogs and their owners. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: CPS- nasal carriage, different aspects of human-to-dog relationship as well as potential interspecies transmission risk factors were investigated by offering nasal swabs and a questionnaire to dog owners (108 and their dogs (108 at a dog show in 2009. S. aureus was found in swabs of 20 (18.5% humans and two dogs (1.8%, and spa types which correspond to well known human S. aureus lineages dominated (e.g. CC45, CC30 and CC22. Multilocus sequence typing (MLST of the two canine strains revealed ST72 and ST2065 (single locus variant of ST34. Fifteen dogs (13.9% and six owners (5.6% harboured S. pseudintermedius, including one mecA-positive human isolate (MRSP. Pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE revealed that one dog/owner pair harboured indistinguishable S. pseudintermedius- isolates of ST33. Ten (48% of the 21 S. pseudintermedius-isolates showed resistance towards more than one antimicrobial class. 88.9% of the dog owners reported to allow at least one dog into the house, 68.5% allow the dog(s to rest on the sofa, 39.8% allow their dogs to come onto the bed, 93.5% let them lick their hands and 52.8% let them lick their face. Bivariate analysis of putative risk factors revealed that dog owners who keep more than two dogs have a significantly higher chance of being colonized with S. pseudintermedius than those who keep 1-2 dogs (p<0.05. CONCLUSIONS/RECOMMENDATIONS: In conclusion, CPS transmission between dog owners and their dogs is possible. Further investigation regarding interspecies transmission and the diverse adaptive pathways influencing the epidemiology of CPS (including MRSA and MRSP in
Walther, Birgit; Hermes, Julia; Cuny, Christiane; Wieler, Lothar H.; Vincze, Szilvia; Abou Elnaga, Yassmin; Stamm, Ivonne; Kopp, Peter A.; Kohn, Barbara; Witte, Wolfgang; Jansen, Andreas; Conraths, Franz J.; Semmler, Torsten; Eckmanns, Tim; Lübke-Becker, Antina
Background Since the relationship between dogs and their owners has changed, and dogs moved from being working dogs to family members in post-industrial countries, we hypothesized that zoonotic transmission of opportunistic pathogens like coagulase positive staphylococci (CPS) is likely between dogs and their owners. Methodology/Principal Findings CPS- nasal carriage, different aspects of human-to-dog relationship as well as potential interspecies transmission risk factors were investigated by offering nasal swabs and a questionnaire to dog owners (108) and their dogs (108) at a dog show in 2009. S. aureus was found in swabs of 20 (18.5%) humans and two dogs (1.8%), and spa types which correspond to well known human S. aureus lineages dominated (e.g. CC45, CC30 and CC22). Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) of the two canine strains revealed ST72 and ST2065 (single locus variant of ST34). Fifteen dogs (13.9%) and six owners (5.6%) harboured S. pseudintermedius, including one mecA-positive human isolate (MRSP). Pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) revealed that one dog/owner pair harboured indistinguishable S. pseudintermedius- isolates of ST33. Ten (48%) of the 21 S. pseudintermedius-isolates showed resistance towards more than one antimicrobial class. 88.9% of the dog owners reported to allow at least one dog into the house, 68.5% allow the dog(s) to rest on the sofa, 39.8% allow their dogs to come onto the bed, 93.5% let them lick their hands and 52.8% let them lick their face. Bivariate analysis of putative risk factors revealed that dog owners who keep more than two dogs have a significantly higher chance of being colonized with S. pseudintermedius than those who keep 1–2 dogs (p<0.05). Conclusions/Recommendations In conclusion, CPS transmission between dog owners and their dogs is possible. Further investigation regarding interspecies transmission and the diverse adaptive pathways influencing the epidemiology of CPS (including MRSA and MRSP) in different
Curi, N H A; Paschoal, A M O; Massara, R L; Santos, H A; Guimarães, M P; Passamani, M; Chiarello, A G
Despite the ubiquity of domestic dogs, their role as zoonotic reservoirs and the large number of studies concerning parasites in urban dogs, rural areas in Brazil, especially those at the wildlife-domestic animal-human interface, have received little attention from scientists and public health managers. This paper reports a cross-sectional epidemiological survey of gastrointestinal parasites of rural dogs living in farms around Atlantic Forest fragments. Through standard parasitological methods (flotation and sedimentation), 13 parasite taxa (11 helminths and two protozoans) were found in feces samples from dogs. The most prevalent were the nematode Ancylostoma (47%) followed by Toxocara (18%) and Trichuris (8%). Other less prevalent (dogs younger than one year were more likely to be infected with Toxocara, and purebred dogs with Trichuris. The number of cats in the households was positively associated with Trichuris infection, while male dogs and low body scores were associated with mixed infections. The lack of associations with dog free-ranging behavior and access to forest or villages indicates that infections are mostly acquired around the households. The results highlight the risk of zoonotic and wildlife parasite infections from dogs and the need for monitoring and controlling parasites of domestic animals in human-wildlife interface areas.
Nistico, L.; Kreft, R.; Gieseke, A.; Coticchia, J. M.; Burrows, A.; Khampang, P.; Liu, Y.; Kerschner, J. E.; Post, J. C.; Lonergan, S.; Sampath, R.; Hu, F. Z.; Ehrlich, G. D.; Stoodley, P.; Hall-Stoodley, L.
Biofilms of pathogenic bacteria are present on the middle ear mucosa of children with chronic otitis media (COM) and may contribute to the persistence of pathogens and the recalcitrance of COM to antibiotic treatment. Controlled studies indicate that adenoidectomy is effective in the treatment of COM, suggesting that the adenoids may act as a reservoir for COM pathogens. To investigate the bacterial community in the adenoid, samples were obtained from 35 children undergoing adenoidectomy for chronic OM or obstructive sleep apnea. We used a novel, culture-independent molecular diagnostic methodology, followed by confocal microscopy, to investigate the in situ distribution and organization of pathogens in the adenoids to determine whether pathogenic bacteria exhibited criteria characteristic of biofilms. The Ibis T5000 Universal Biosensor System was used to interrogate the extent of the microbial diversity within adenoid biopsy specimens. Using a suite of 16 broad-range bacterial primers, we demonstrated that adenoids from both diagnostic groups were colonized with polymicrobial biofilms. Haemophilus influenzae was present in more adenoids from the COM group (P = 0.005), but there was no significant difference between the two patient groups for Streptococcus pneumoniae or Staphylococcus aureus. Fluorescence in situ hybridization, lectin binding, and the use of antibodies specific for host epithelial cells demonstrated that pathogens were aggregated, surrounded by a carbohydrate matrix, and localized on and within the epithelial cell surface, which is consistent with criteria for bacterial biofilms. PMID:21307211
Moreira, Edson Duarte; Mendes de Souza, Verena Maria; Sreenivasan, Meera; Nascimento, Eliane Góes; Pontes de Carvalho, Lain
already infected dogs; and other reservoirs may be involved in maintaining canine infection. Further efforts on ZVL control should be directed to developing new strategies or to testing control methods already in place with properly designed trials.
Sartin, E A; Hendrix, C M; Dillehay, D L; Nicholls, B
A second instar Cuterebra larva was found in the thickened meninges of a 6-week-old female Doberman Pinscher at necropsy. The dog appeared blind and had chewing fits before death. Cerebral cuterebrosis in the dog is uncommon. This report briefly discusses the pathogenesis of the condition.
Most pet owners have a close relationship with their dogs and often spend ... Dogs with localized form of demodecosis develop alopecic areas around the eyelids, lips, mouth and front limb giving the animal a characteristic moth-eaten appearance (7). ... of pododemodecosis affecting the paws (7, 8). Diagnosis is by deep ...
Ruiz Izaguirre, Eliza; Hebinck, P.G.M.; Eilers, C.H.A.M.
Village dogs are important for households in coastal Mexico, yet they are seen as out of place by etic stakeholders (public health and wildlife experts, and animal welfarists). Caregivers of village dogs are considered irresponsible, a view that is reinforced by Mexican policy. We describe two
Berendt, Martin Ole; Høgenhaven, H; Flagstad, Annette Borgbjerg
To investigate the diagnostic value of electroencephalography (EEG) in dogs with epilepsy, applying human criteria for EEG abnormalities observed with this disorder.......To investigate the diagnostic value of electroencephalography (EEG) in dogs with epilepsy, applying human criteria for EEG abnormalities observed with this disorder....
Kurz, Terri L.; Yanik, H. Bahadir; Lee, Mi Yeon
Using a dog's paw as a basis for numerical representation, sixth grade students explored how to count and regroup using the dog's four digital pads. Teachers can connect these base-4 explorations to the conceptual meaning of place value and regrouping using base-10.
Wiggins, M.L.; Evans, R.D.; Brown, R.L.; Gupta, A.
This report focuses on integrating geoscience and engineering data to develop a consistent characterization of the naturally fractured reservoirs. During this reporting period, effort was focused on relating seismic data to reservoir properties of naturally fractured reservoirs, scaling well log data to generate interwell descriptors of these reservoirs, enhancing and debugging a naturally fractured reservoir simulator, and developing a horizontal wellbore model for use in the simulator.
Hoffman, Christy L; Chen, Pan; Serpell, James A; Jacobson, Kristen C
This paper explores whether dog behavioral characteristics predict the quality of the relationship between dogs and their owners (i.e., owner attachment to dog), and whether relations between dog behavior and owner attachment are moderated by demographic characteristics. In this study, N = 92 children and N = 60 adults from 60 dog-owning families completed questionnaires about their attachment to their pet dog, their level of responsibility for that dog, and their general attitudes toward pets. They also rated their dogs on observable behavioral characteristics. Individuals who held positive attitudes about pets and who provided much of their dog's care reported stronger attachments to their dogs. The strength of owners' attachments to their dogs was associated with dog trainability and separation problems. Relationships between owner attachment and both dog excitability and attention-seeking behavior were further moderated by demographic characteristics: for Caucasians but not for non-Caucasians, dog excitability was negatively associated with owner attachment to dog; and for adults, dog attention-seeking behavior was positively associated with owner attachment, but children tended to be highly attached to their dogs, regardless of their dogs' attention-seeking behaviors. This study demonstrates that certain dog behavioral traits are indeed associated with the strength of owners' attachments to their dogs.
Ruiz Izaguirre, E.
Dogs (Canis familiaris) are considered one of the most numerous carnivores worldwide. Although in the Global North dogs are popular companions, that live inside homes, about 80% of the dogs in the world are village dogs. Village dogs are typically free-roaming, scavenge refuse around
Ruiz Izaguirre, E.
Dogs (Canis familiaris) are considered one of the most numerous carnivores worldwide. Although in the Global North dogs are popular companions, that live inside homes, about 80% of the dogs in the world are village dogs. Village dogs are typically free-roaming, scavenge refuse around human dwellings
This volume contains the Proceedings of the Fourth International Reservoir Characterization Technical Conference held March 2-4, 1997 in Houston, Texas. The theme for the conference was Advances in Reservoir Characterization for Effective Reservoir Management. On March 2, 1997, the DOE Class Workshop kicked off with tutorials by Dr. Steve Begg (BP Exploration) and Dr. Ganesh Thakur (Chevron). Tutorial presentations are not included in these Proceedings but may be available from the authors. The conference consisted of the following topics: data acquisition; reservoir modeling; scaling reservoir properties; and managing uncertainty. Selected papers have been processed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology database.
Rutledge, J.T.; Fairbanks, T.D. [Nambe Geophysical, Inc., Santa Fe, NM (United States); Albright, J.N. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Boade, R.R. [Phillips Petroleum Co., Bartlesville, OK (United States); Dangerfield, J.; Landa, G.H. [Phillips Petroleum Co., Tananger (Norway)
A triaxial, downhole geophone was deployed within the Ekofisk oil reservoir for monitoring ambient microseismicity as a test to determine if microearthquake signals generated from discrete shear failure of the reservoir rock could be detected. The results of the test were positive. During 104 hours of monitoring, 572 discrete events were recorded which have been identified as shear-failure microearthquakes. Reservoir microseismicity was detected at large distances (1000 m) from the monitor borehole and at rates (> 5 events per hour) which may allow practical characterization of the reservoir rock and overburden deformation induced by reservoir pressure changes.
During the last decade, smart waterflooding has been developed into an emerging EOR technology both for carbonate and sandstone reservoirs that does not require toxic or expensive chemicals. Although it is widely accepted that different salinity brines may increase the oil recovery for carbonate...... reservoirs, understanding of the mechanism of this increase is still developing. To understand this smart waterflooding process, an extensive research has been carried out covering a broad range of disciplines within surface chemistry, thermodynamics of crude oil and brine, as well as their behavior...... that a heavy oil (that with a large fraction of heavy components) exhibited viscosity reduction in contact with brine, while a light crude oil exhibited emulsion formation. Most of reported high salinity waterflooding studies were carried out with outcrop chalk core plugs, and by performing spontaneous...
With an increasing demand for oil and diculties in nding new major oil elds, research on methods to improve oil recovery from existing elds is more necessary now than ever. The subject of this thesis is to construct ecient numerical methods for simulation and optimization of oil recovery...... programming (SQP) with line-search and BFGS approximations of the Hessian, and the adjoint method for ecient computation of the gradients. We demonstrate that the application of NMPC for optimal control of smart-wells has the potential to increase the economic value of an oil reservoir....... with emphasis on optimal control of water ooding with the use of smartwell technology. We have implemented immiscible ow of water and oil in isothermal reservoirs with isotropic heterogenous permeability elds. We use the method of lines for solution of the partial differential equation (PDE) system that governs...
Christensen, Max la Cour
for both variational upscaling and the construction of linear solvers. In particular, it is found to be beneficial (or even necessary) to apply an AMGe based multigrid solver to solve the upscaled problems. It is found that the AMGe upscaling changes the spectral properties of the matrix, which renders...... is extended to include a hybrid strategy, where FAS is combined with Newton’s method to construct a multilevel nonlinear preconditioner. This method demonstrates high efficiency and robustness. Second, an improved IMPES formulated reservoir simulator is implemented using a novel variational upscaling approach...... based on element-based Algebraic Multigrid (AMGe). In particular, an advanced AMGe technique with guaranteed approximation properties is used to construct a coarse multilevel hierarchy of Raviart-Thomas and L2 spaces for the Galerkin coarsening of a mixed formulation of the reservoir simulation...
Full Text Available This paper presents a review of a dog, with a retrobulbar chondrosarcoma, which was admitted for surgery for visible changes in his eye during inspection. Orbital neoplasia in dogs may be primary and secondary. Sixty percent of orbital neoplasia in dogs are primary, ninety percent of which are malignant. Retrobulbar neoplasms are rare and in their early stage represent a diagnostic challenge. Chondrosarcoma of the skull is a slow-progressing malignant disease which occurs locally, aggressive with invasion into the surrounding tissues. Dogs with chondrosarcoma of the skull have life expectancy between 210 and 580 days - in our case it was 180 days - after the first alterations on the eye of the dog occurred.
M. A. Salmanov
Full Text Available Aim. It is hardly possible to predict the continued stability of the watercourse ecosystems without the study of biological characteristics and composition of organisms inhabiting them. In the last 35-40 years, environmental conditions of the Mingachevir reservoir are determined by the stationary anthropogenic pressure. It was found that such components of plankton as algae, bacteria and fungi play a leading role in the transformation and migration of pollutants. The role of the three groups of organisms is very important in maintaining the water quality by elimination of pollutants. Among the organisms inhabiting the Mingachevir Reservoir, micromycetes have not yet been studied. Therefore, the study of the species composition and seasonal dynamics, peculiarities of their growth and development in the environment with the presence of some of the pollutants should be considered to date.Methods. In order to determine the role of micromycetes-migrants in the mineralization of organic substrates, as an active participant of self-purification process, we used water samples from the bottom sediments as well as decaying and skeletonized stalks of cane, reeds, algae, macrophytes, exuvia of insects and fish remains submerged in water.Findings. For the first time, we obtained the data on the quality and quantity of microscopic mycelial fungi in freshwater bodies on the example of the Mingachevir water reservoir; we also studied the possibilities for oxygenating the autochthonous organic matter of allochthonous origin with micromycetes-migrants.Conclusions. It was found that the seasonal development of micromycetes-migrants within the Mingachevir reservoir is characterized by an increase in the number of species in the summer and a gradual reduction in species diversity in the fall.
Obrenović Sonja; Katić-Radivojević Sofija P.; Stanković B.; Bacić Dragan
The results of an investigation related to Sarcocystis spp. infection of dogs in Serbia are presented in this paper, for the first time after 25 years. In order to investigate the prevalence of sarcocystiosis in dogs, 448 dogs were examined. Considering feeding and living conditions, the dogs were divided in to 5 categories (city dogs - 100, village dogs - 188, dogs from a shelter - 54, military dog farm - 42 and dogs from private kennels - 64). Considering age, they were divided in to four g...
Fowler, M.L. [BDM-Petroleum Technologies, Bartlesville, OK (United States); Young, M.A.; Madden, M.P. [BDM-Oklahoma, Bartlesville, OK (United States)] [and others
Optimum reservoir recovery and profitability result from guidance of reservoir practices provided by an effective reservoir management plan. Success in developing the best, most appropriate reservoir management plan requires knowledge and consideration of (1) the reservoir system including rocks, and rock-fluid interactions (i.e., a characterization of the reservoir) as well as wellbores and associated equipment and surface facilities; (2) the technologies available to describe, analyze, and exploit the reservoir; and (3) the business environment under which the plan will be developed and implemented. Reservoir characterization is the essential to gain needed knowledge of the reservoir for reservoir management plan building. Reservoir characterization efforts can be appropriately scaled by considering the reservoir management context under which the plan is being built. Reservoir management plans de-optimize with time as technology and the business environment change or as new reservoir information indicates the reservoir characterization models on which the current plan is based are inadequate. BDM-Oklahoma and the Department of Energy have implemented a program of reservoir management demonstrations to encourage operators with limited resources and experience to learn, implement, and disperse sound reservoir management techniques through cooperative research and development projects whose objectives are to develop reservoir management plans. In each of the three projects currently underway, careful attention to reservoir management context assures a reservoir characterization approach that is sufficient, but not in excess of what is necessary, to devise and implement an effective reservoir management plan.
Bružinskaitė-Schmidhalter, Rasa; Šarkūnas, Mindaugas; Malakauskas, Alvydas; Mathis, Alexander; Torgerson, Paul R; Deplazes, Peter
Red foxes and raccoon dogs are hosts for a wide range of parasites including important zoonotic helminths. The raccoon dog has recently invaded into Europe from the east. The contribution of this exotic species to the epidemiology of parasitic diseases, particularly parasitic zoonoses is unknown. The helminth fauna and the abundance of helminth infections were determined in 310 carcasses of hunted red foxes and 99 of raccoon dogs from Lithuania. Both species were highly infected with Alaria alata (94·8% and 96·5% respectively) and Trichinella spp. (46·6% and 29·3%). High and significantly different prevalences in foxes and raccoon dogs were found for Eucoleus aerophilus (97·1% and 30·2% respectively), Crenosoma vulpis (53·8% and 15·1%), Capillaria plica (93·3% and 11·3%), C. putorii (29·4% and 51·5%), Toxocara canis (40·5% and 17·6%) and Uncinaria stenocephala (76·9% and 98·8%). The prevalences of the rodent-transmitted cestodes Echinococcus multilocularis, Taenia polyacantha, T. crassiceps and Mesocestoides spp. were significantly higher in foxes than in raccoon dogs. The abundances of E. multilocularis, Mesocestoides, Taenia, C. plica and E. aerophilus were higher in foxes than those in raccoon dogs. A. alata, U. stenocephala, C. putorii and Echinostomatidae had higher abundances in raccoon dogs. The difference in prevalence and abundance of helminths in both animals may reflect differences in host ecology and susceptibility. The data are consistent with red foxes playing a more important role than raccoon dogs in the transmission of E. multilocularis in Lithuania.
Full Text Available Abstract Background The genetic diversity of Anaplasma platys (Rickettsiales: Anaplasmataceae strains is currently poorly defined. The present study was designed to characterize A. patys strains in dogs from Palermo, Sicily, Italy, using a combination of PCR and sequence analysis of the 16S rDNA, heat shock operon groESL and citrate synthase (gltA genes. Results Blood was collected from 344 dogs (111 pet dogs, 122 pound dogs and 111 hunting dogs during 2003–2005 in the Province of Palermo, Sicily, Italy. The prevalence of A. platys in dogs in Sicily, as demonstrated by PCR and sequence analysis of the 16S rDNA, groESL and gltA genes, was 4%. None of the samples were positive for A. marginale, A. centrale, A. ovis and A. phagocytophilum DNA. Three different gltA genotypes of A. platys were identified in dogs from Sicily. Two of the gltA sequences of Sicilian A. platys strains were different from sequences reported previously. However, one of the gltA, 16S rDNA and groESL sequences were identical to the sequence of A. platys strains from other regions of the world characterized previously. Conclusion At least three different strains of A. platys were identified in dogs from Sicily by PCR and sequence analyses of the 16S rDNA, groESL and gltA genes. The results reported herein suggested that genetic diversity of A. platys strains may be similar to A. ovis, but lower than the diversity reported for A. marginale and A. phagocytophilum. This lower genetic diversity may have resulted from restricted movement of infected hosts compared to A. marginale-infected cattle and/or the limited host range of A. ovis and A. platys as compared with A. phagocytophilum. These results expand our knowledge about A. platys and encourage further research for analysis of the genetic variation of A. platys strains worldwide.
Brinkerhoff, Robert Jory; Collinge, Sharon K; Ray, Chris; Gage, Ken L
Small rodents are purported to be enzootic hosts of Yersinia pestis and may serve as sources of infection to prairie dogs or other epizootic hosts by direct or flea-mediated transmission. Recent research has shown that small rodent species composition and small rodent flea assemblages are influenced by the presence of prairie dogs, with higher relative abundance of both small rodents and fleas at prairie dog colony sites compared to grasslands without prairie dogs. However, it is unclear if increased rodent or flea abundance predisposes prairie dogs to infection with Y. pestis. We tracked rodent and flea occurrence for 3 years at a number of prairie dog colony sites in Boulder County, Colorado, before, during, and after a local plague epizootic to see if high rodent or flea abundance was associated with plague-affected colonies when compared to colonies that escaped infection. We found no difference in preepizootic rodent abundance or flea prevalence or abundance between plague-positive and plague-negative colonies. Further, we saw no significant before-plague/after-plague change in these metrics at either plague-positive or plague-negative sites. We did, however, find that small rodent species assemblages changed in the year following prairie dog die-offs at plague-affected colonies when compared to unaffected colonies. In light of previous research from this system that has shown that landscape features and proximity to recently plagued colonies are significant predictors of plague occurrence in prairie dogs, we suggest that landscape context is more important to local plague occurrence than are characteristics of rodent or flea species assemblages.
Joel Walls; M.T. Taner; Naum Derzhi; Gary Mavko; Jack Dvorkin
We have developed and tested technology for a new type of direct hydrocarbon detection. The method uses inelastic rock properties to greatly enhance the sensitivity of surface seismic methods to the presence of oil and gas saturation. These methods include use of energy absorption, dispersion, and attenuation (Q) along with traditional seismic attributes like velocity, impedance, and AVO. Our approach is to combine three elements: (1) a synthesis of the latest rock physics understanding of how rock inelasticity is related to rock type, pore fluid types, and pore microstructure, (2) synthetic seismic modeling that will help identify the relative contributions of scattering and intrinsic inelasticity to apparent Q attributes, and (3) robust algorithms that extract relative wave attenuation attributes from seismic data. This project provides: (1) Additional petrophysical insight from acquired data; (2) Increased understanding of rock and fluid properties; (3) New techniques to measure reservoir properties that are not currently available; and (4) Provide tools to more accurately describe the reservoir and predict oil location and volumes. These methodologies will improve the industry's ability to predict and quantify oil and gas saturation distribution, and to apply this information through geologic models to enhance reservoir simulation. We have applied for two separate patents relating to work that was completed as part of this project.
Lee, Sang Yun; Lee, Kwang-Wu; Rhee, Taehyun; Neumann, Ulrich
We describe a novel data visualization framework named Reservoir Model Information System (REMIS) for the display of complex and multi-dimensional data sets in oil reservoirs. It is aimed at facilitating visual exploration and analysis of data sets as well as user collaboration in an easier way. Our framework consists of two main modules: the data access point module and the data visualization module. For the data access point module, the Phrase-Driven Grammar System (PDGS) is adopted for helping users facilitate the visualization of data. It integrates data source applications and external visualization tools and allows users to formulate data query and visualization descriptions by selecting graphical icons in a menu or on a map with step-by-step visual guidance. For the data visualization module, we implemented our first prototype of an interactive volume viewer named REMVR to classify and to visualize geo-spatial specific data sets. By combining PDGS and REMVR, REMIS assists users better in describing visualizations and exploring data so that they can easily find desired data and explore interesting or meaningful relationships including trends and exceptions in oil reservoir model data.
Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Latreille) (Ixodida: Ixodidae) is a three-host dog tick found worldwide that is able to complete its’ entire lifecycle indoors. Options for the management of R. sanguineus are limited and its’ control relies largely on only a few acaricidal active ingredients. Previous stud...
Cossler, Christine T.
The odds that a school district might be asked to allow a service dog or miniature horse into one of its facilities have increased tremendously in light of new legislative changes. With those changes comes a host of fresh challenges for school administrators and policy makers--not the least of which are complex disability discrimination laws and…
Boufana, B.; Qui, J.; Chen, X.; Budke, C.; Campos Ponce, M.; Craig, P.S.
Echinococcus shiquicus was discovered in foxes and pika wildlife hosts in Sichuan Province, China in 2005. Faecal samples from dogs collected in a previous echinococcosis purgation survey from Shiqu County, Ganzi Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture (Sichuan) were screened by coproPCR to investigate the
Tips are offered for use in an encounter with a dog guide and its blind owner. Tips include approaching the person from the right side, not taking hold of the dog guide's harness, not offering food to the dog guide, and not petting the dog guide without the owner's permission. (JDD)
Stenske, Katherine A; Bemis, David A; Gillespie, Barbara E; D'Souza, Doris H; Oliver, Stephen P; Draughon, Francis A; Matteson, Karla J; Bartges, Joseph W
To determine prevalence of within-household sharing of fecal Escherichia coli between dogs and their owners on the basis of pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), compare antimicrobial susceptibility between isolates from dogs and their owners, and evaluate epidemiologic features of cross-species sharing by use of a questionnaire. 61 healthy dog-owner pairs and 30 healthy control humans. 3 fecal E coli colonies were isolated from each participant; PFGE profiles were used to establish relatedness among bacterial isolates. Susceptibility to 17 antimicrobials was determined via disk diffusion. A questionnaire was used to evaluate signalment, previous antimicrobial therapy, hygiene, and relationship with dog. A wide array of PFGE profiles was observed in E coli isolates from all participants. Within-household sharing occurred with 9.8% prevalence, and across-household sharing occurred with 0.3% prevalence. No behaviors were associated with increased clonal sharing between dog and owner. No differences were found in susceptibility results between dog-owner pairs. Control isolates were more likely than canine isolates to be resistant to ampicillin and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. Owners and control humans carried more multdrug-resistant E coli than did dogs. Within-household sharing of E coli was detected more commonly than across-household sharing, but both direct contact and environmental reservoirs may be routes of cross-species sharing of bacteria and genes for resistance. Cross-species bacterial sharing is a potential public health concern, and good hygiene is recommended.
Lee, Mellesia F; Cadogan, Paul; Eytle, Sarah; Copeland, Sonia; Walochnik, Julia; Lindo, John F
Giardia spp. are the causative agents of intestinal infections in a wide variety of mammals including humans and companion animals. Dogs may be reservoirs of zoonotic Giardia spp.; however, the potential for transmission between dogs and humans in Jamaica has not been studied. Conventional PCR was used to screen 285 human and 225 dog stool samples for Giardia targeting the SSU rDNA gene followed by multilocus sequencing of the triosephosphate isomerase (tpi), glutamate dehydrogenase (gdh), and β-giardin (bg) genes. Prevalence of human infections based on PCR was 6.7 % (19/285) and canine infections 19.6 % (44/225). Nested PCR conducted on all 63 positive samples revealed the exclusive presence of assemblage A in both humans and dogs. Sub-assemblage A-II was responsible for 79.0 % (15/19) and 70.5 % (31/44) of the infections in humans and dogs, respectively, while sub-assemblage A-I was identified at a rate of 15.8 % (3/19) and 29.5 % (13/44) in humans and dogs, respectively. The predominance of a single circulating assemblage among both humans and dogs in Jamaica suggests possible zoonotic transmission of Giardia infections.
Three related, but separate, studies are in progress. In the first, young adult beagles of both sexes are placed in the γ-ray field, to be kept there for duration of life at one of a number of daily exposure rates. In the second, young adult beagles are exposed in a similar fashion until they have accumulated predetermined amounts of total exposure ranging up to 4000 R, delivered at various daily exposure rates. They are then removed from the radiation field and kept for the rest of their lives to allow development of late effects attributable to radiation exposure. In the third study, pregnant beagles are irradiated, at one of four daily exposure rates, for all or part of their gestation periods, to produce an evaluation of the effects of continuous irradiation in the developing fetus. All of these studies are done by arranging dogs at various distances from a calibrated 60 Co γ-ray source, where they are irradiated during 22 hours of each day. The remaining 2 hours are used for animal care, maintenance, and clinical evaluation of the dogs. The combined results demonstrate that the cellular and organ systems of the dog respond predictably, and in a differential manner, depending on exposure rate. Exposure rates in excess of 17 R/day destroy the blood-cell producing elements of bone marrow and cause death, therefore, within 1 to 2 months. Minimally sublethal exposure rates to bone marrow (5-17 R/day), however, produce a very high (50-75 percent) incidence of anemia or myeloid leukemia. Furthermore, at exposure rates of 5 R/day or below, bone marrow appears to function in an essentially normal fashion, and causes of death appear, from preliminary data, to be related to degenerative disease and malignancies of other tissues
Maria Lígia de Arruda Mistieri
Full Text Available ABSTRACT. Mistieri M.L. de A., Pascon J.P. da E. & dos Santos F.P. [Multiple infestation of Dioctophyme renale in dogs with leishmaniasis in Uruguaiana, RS - Report of five cases.] Infestação múltipla de Dioctophyme renale em cães portadores de leishmaniose em Uruguaiana, RS - Relato de cinco casos. Revista Brasileira de Medicina Veterinária, 36(2:195-198, 2014. Universidade Federal do Pampa, BR 472, Km 592, Caixa Postal 118, Uruguaiana, RS 97500-970, Brasil. Email: firstname.lastname@example.org Dioctophyme renale is a parasite of different animal species, including human beings. The parasite life cycle can be complex, involving intermediate hosts, definitive hosts and paratenic hosts, represented by different species of frog, rat and fish, specially. The domestic dogs are considered unusual and terminal hosts because they commonly present single parasite, enabling its reproduction and the cycle maintenance. This report presents a multiple infestation of D. renale (male and female specimens in five of nine dogs that underwent to euthanasia due to leishmaniasis. It was noticed two to eight parasites in each affected dog, summing 27 specimens, 12 males measuring between 9.0 and 21.5 cm in length and 15 females with 23.5 to 42.0 cm. In all dogs, the right kidney was completely destroyed. Actual epidemiological studies are necessary to check the real prevalence of the dioctophimosis in the region of Uruguaiana and the determination of the local parasite cycle. Deficient sanitary and hygiene conditions are commonly observed in the progression of D. renale and Leishmania sp. infections. It is possible that those conditions are the link between both disorders in the studied dogs.
Schoenfeld-Tacher, Regina; Hellyer, Peter; Cheung, Louana; Kogan, Lori
As service dogs, emotional support dogs, and therapy dogs have become more prevalent in the USA, so too has the controversy surrounding their legitimacy. Yet, there is a lack of objective data regarding the public's understanding of the role played by each of these types of animals, as well as their perceptions regarding the legitimacy of their integration. An anonymous, online survey was distributed to examine the perceptions of US adults who do not own any type of assistance animal. A total of 505 individuals responded to the online survey, yielding 284 usable responses. Results suggest widespread misconceptions about definitions, rules, regulations, and rights associated with each type of assistance dog. In general, service dogs are more likely to be perceived as helping with a legitimate need, and their access to public spaces is viewed favorably. While there are some concerns about the legitimacy and necessary access rights for emotional support dogs, members of the public correctly identified the roles and rights of therapy dogs. Despite the media's focus on abuses and false representation of these dogs, most participants reported feeling the majority of people are not taking advantage of the system.
Leung, Tiffany; Davis, Stephen A.
The role of stray dogs in the persistence of domestic dog rabies, and whether removal of such dogs is beneficial, remains contentious issues for control programs seeking to eliminate rabies. While a community might reach the WHO vaccination target of 70% for dogs that can be handled, the stray or neighborhood dogs that are too wary of humans to be held are a more problematic population to vaccinate. Here, we present a method to estimate vaccination targets for stray dogs when the dog populati...
Cotmore, Susan F; Tattersall, Peter
Parvoviruses elaborate rugged nonenveloped icosahedral capsids of approximately 260 A in diameter that comprise just 60 copies of a common core structural polypeptide. While serving as exceptionally durable shells, capable of protecting the single-stranded DNA genome from environmental extremes, the capsid also undergoes sequential conformational changes that allow it to translocate the genome from its initial host cell nucleus all the way into the nucleus of its subsequent host. Lacking a duplex transcription template, the virus must then wait for its host to enter S-phase before it can initiate transcription and usurp the cell's synthetic pathways. Here we review cell entry mechanisms used by parvoviruses. We explore two apparently distinct modes of host cell specificity, first that used by Minute virus of mice, where subtle glycan-specific interactions between host receptors and residues surrounding twofold symmetry axes on the virion surface mediate differentiated cell type target specificity, while the second involves novel protein interactions with the canine transferrin receptor that allow a mutant of the feline leukopenia serotype, Canine parvovirus, to bind to and infect dog cells. We then discuss conformational shifts in the virion that accompany cell entry, causing exposure of a capsid-tethered phospholipase A2 enzymatic core that acts as an endosomolytic agent to mediate virion translocation across the lipid bilayer into the cell cytoplasm. Finally, we discuss virion delivery into the nucleus, and consider the nature of transcriptionally silent DNA species that, escaping detection by the cell, might allow unhampered progress into S-phase and hence unleash the parvoviral Trojan horse.
Canine echinococcosis is caused by the adult tapeworm of Echinococcus granulosus. As intermediate hosts, humans and livestock become infected following ingestion of eggs that are passed in the faeces of dogs. Mature eggs develop into hydatid cysts in different organs, leading to hydatid disease, which is a serious public health problem. In the present study, we investigated the proportion of mature eggs of E. granulosus in 140 dogs from three regions of Tunisia. The results showed the predominance of immature E. granulosus eggs in infected dogs and the occurrence of a small proportion of oncospheres. The ability of immature eggs to infect humans and livestock is discussed.
Varloud, Marie; Liebenberg, Julian; Fourie, Josephus
This study was designed to assess the ability of fed male Dermacentor reticulatus ticks to transmit Babesia canis to dogs after being detached from previous canine or ovine hosts. The study was an exploratory, parallel group design conducted in two trials. All the animals were sero-negative for babesiosis prior to enrolment. In a first trial, donor dogs and donor sheep were infested with Babesia canis infected male and uninfected female ticks for 72 h. The ticks were detached and the second group of host dogs were infested for 24 h before tick removal. In a second trial, the experiment was repeated but the donor animals were infested for 88 h and the second group of host dogs were infested for 8 h prior to tick removal. After infestation, the dogs were maintained under clinical surveillance and blood samples were collected for blood smear, IFA and PCR analysis. A dog was considered infected if any of these tests were positive. All of the dogs (6 out of 6) were infected after being exposed to pre-activated male ticks for 24 h. Half of the dogs were infected after being exposed to pre-activated ticks for 8 h: 1 out of 3 dogs infested with ticks removed from sheep and 2 out of 3 dogs infested with ticks removed from dog. All the infected dogs were positive to blood smear, IFA and PCR. Three of these dogs exhibited elevated body temperature (> 39.4 °C). This study demonstrates the ability of male D. reticulatus to transmit B. canis to dogs. The study also illustrates for the first time that, regardless of the first host on which ticks may attach and start feeding, Babesia canis can be transmitted to dogs within 8 h of infestation. Since no minimal transmission time can be established for all possible natural situations, a strategy of prevention based on anti-attachment or repellency is recommended.
Webster, Pia; Monrad, Jesper; Kapel, Christian M O; Kristensen, Annemarie T; Jensen, Asger L; Thamsborg, Stig M
Infections and clinical cases of Angiostrongylus vasorum in dogs are found increasingly across Europe, thus rendering knowledge on its infection biology more important. We used red foxes as a carnivore model to examine the effect of host age and infection dose on the establishment of adult A. vasorum in single experimental infections. Fourteen juvenile and fourteen adult red foxes, free of metastrongyloid infections, were given a low (50) or high (200) dose of third-stage larvae (L3) of A. vasorum. Two groups of three foxes of each age group served as uninfected controls. Larval excretion by Baermann and blood parameters were followed for ten weeks. Worm counts were performed at necropsy by sequential perfusion, dissection and Baermann method. The establishment rate (i.e. recovery in percentage of inoculation dose) of A. vasorum primary infections in red foxes was associated with host age and inoculation dose. In the low dose juveniles, 61% (range 52-72%) of the infection dose was recovered as worms in the pulmonary arteries and heart at necropsy while only 35% (21-50%) were recovered in the high dose. Corresponding establishment rates for adults were 39% (18-98%) and 8% (1-21%). In juveniles, a higher dose resulted in significantly higher adult worm counts, higher larval excretion and more pronounced pathophysiological changes, particularly in coagulation parameters. Earlier onset of patency was also found in the juveniles. In contrast, the larval excretion in high dose adults was very low and two infected animals never reached patency. However, a few adults showed only limited resistance as judged by excretion of larvae. The increase to very high larval excretion levels (> 4,000 larvae per g of faeces) after several months in a single animal, indicated that any potential acquired immunity does not affect worm fecundity. Resistance to a primary A. vasorum infection was generally higher in older animals, and this age resistance was reflected in lower worm counts
Amis, T C; Kurpershoek, C
The pattern of breathing was assessed in 19 brachycephalic dogs, using tidal breathing flow-volume loop (TBFVL) analysis. Fifteen dogs had TBFVL consistent with a fixed-type upper airway obstruction, whereas 4 dogs had a TBFVL indicative of a nonfixed upper airway obstruction. The dogs did not have a TBFVL shape the same as that considered normal for healthy nonbrachycephalic dogs. Tidal breathing flow-volume loops from brachycephalic dogs that were considered to have a normal respiratory tract (n = 11) were similar to those of dogs with clinical signs of upper airway obstruction (n = 8). Respiration was monitored continuously for short periods (20 to 50 minutes) in 3 brachycephalic dogs resting in a cage in a quiet, darkened laboratory; 2 of these dogs had periodic breathing patterns characterized by multiple episodes of alternating hypopnea and arousal. Brachycephalic dogs may be at risk for the development of disordered breathing during sleep.
Yang, Yurong; Zhang, Qiongfang; Kong, Yangguang; Ying, Yuqing; Kwok, Oliver Chun Hung; Liang, Hongde; Dubey, Jitender Prakash
Neospora caninum and Toxoplasma gondii are important pathogens of worldwide distribution. N. caninum is a major cause of abortion in cattle and dogs are main reservoirs because they excrete the environmentally resistant oocysts. Toxoplasmosis is a worldwide zoonosis and dogs are considered as sentinels for this parasite because of their close contact with people and cats; additionally dog meat is also used for human consumption in China. The aim of the present study was to assess the prevalence of N. caninum and T. gondii infection in dogs from China. A total of 425 countryside dog hearts in Jilin, Henan and Anhui provinces of the People's Republic of China were collected from slaughter houses in two batches; the first batch of 96 in October 2013, and the second batch of 329 in April 2014. Serum samples extracted from 96 dog hearts were tested for antibodies to N. caninum and from 425 dog hearts were tested for T. gondii antibodies in the modified agglutination tests (cut-off 1:25 for both), using respective antigens. Antibodies to N. caninum were 6 of 96 (6.25%) of dogs with titers of 1:25 in 2, 1:50 in 3, and 1:100 in 1. All seropositive dogs were more than 1 year old. Antibodies to T. gondii were found in 35 of 425 (8.24%) dogs with titers of 1:25 in 15, 1:50 in 14; and 1:100 in 6. The results of the present study indicated low prevalence of N. caninum and T. gondii antibodies in dogs of China, compared with Europe and America. Identification of the risk factors that underlie these differences may help prevention of neosporosis and toxoplasmosis. This is the first report of N. caninum infection in dogs from China.
Swei, Andrea; Kwan, Jessica Y
Lyme disease, a zoonotic disease, is the most prevalent vector-borne disease in the Northern Hemisphere. Diversity of the vector (tick) microbiome can impact pathogen transmission, yet the biotic and abiotic factors that drive microbiome diversity are largely unresolved, especially under natural, field conditions. We describe the microbiome of Ixodes pacificus ticks, the vector for Lyme disease in the western United States, and show a strong impact of host blood meal identity on tick microbiome species richness and composition. Western fence lizards, a host that is refractory to the Lyme disease pathogen, significantly reduces microbiome diversity in ticks relative to ticks that feed on a mammalian reservoir host. Host blood meal-driven reduction of tick microbiome diversity may have lifelong repercussions on I. pacificus vector competency and ultimately disease dynamics.
Kärssin, Age; Häkkinen, Liidia; Niin, Enel
Background: Raccoon dogs and red foxes are well-adapted hosts for Trichinella spp. The aims of this study were to estimate Trichinella infection prevalence and biomass and to investigate which Trichinella species circulated in these indicator hosts in Estonia. Methods: From material collected...... for evaluating the effectiveness of oral vaccination program for rabies eradication in wildlife, samples from 113 raccoon dogs and 87 red foxes were included in this study. From each animal, 20 g of masseter muscle tissue was tested for the presence of Trichinella larvae using an artificial digestion method.......0% in red foxes, which were higher than previous estimates. In addition, the larval burden had also increased in both hosts. We estimated that in 2011-2012, the Trichinella spp. biomass was more than 15 times higher in raccoon dogs and almost two times higher in red foxes than in 1992-2000 (based on mean...
Alam, Mahbub [Department of Geoscience, University of Calgary (Canada)
In order to meet increasing world energy demand, wells have to be drilled within very thin reservoir beds. This paper, we present one of the solutions for optimizing the reservoir characterization. Reservoir characterization is the process between the discovery of a property and the reservoir management phase. Principal data for reservoir modeling are: 4D Seismic interpretation, wireline log interpretation, core analysis, and petrophysical analysis. Reservoir conditions, perforation and completion technology are the key issues to the production rate of cold production. Reservoir modeling intends to minimize the risk factor, maximize production, and help determine the location for infill drillings. Cold heavy oil production with sand (CHOPS) is a method for enhancing primary production from heavy oil reservoirs. Gravitational forces, natural fluid pressure gradients and foamy oil flow phenomena are the major driving forces of the CHOPS mechanism. Finally, Reservoir characterization allows better understanding of permeability and porosity prediction.
Harvey, Naomi D.; Craigon, Peter J.; Blythe, Simon A.; England, Gary C.W.; Asher, Lucy
Early life experiences are known to influence behavior later in life. In dogs, environmental influences of early home rearing could be exploited to improve the chances of developing adult behavior most suited to the adult environment. For working dog organizations, such as Guide Dogs, suitable adult behavior is important to ensure that dogs can fulfill their role as guides for people with visual impairment. Here, we test the hypothesis that dogs' home rearing environment will influence behavi...
Westgarth, Carri; Christian, Hayley E; Christley, Robert M
Regular physical activity is beneficial to the health of both people and animals. The role of regular exercise undertaken together, such as dog walking, is a public health interest of mutual benefit. Exploration of barriers and incentives to regular dog walking by owners is now required so that effective interventions to promote it can be designed. This study explored a well-characterised cross-sectional dataset of 276 dogs and owners from Cheshire, UK, for evidence of factors associated with the dog being walked once or more per day. Factors independently associated with daily walking included: number of dogs owned (multiple (vs. single) dogs negatively associated); size (medium and possibly large dogs (vs. small) positively associated); and number of people in the household (more people negatively associated). Furthermore, a number of factors related to the dog-owner relationship and the dog's behaviour were associated with daily walking, including: having acquired the dog for a hobby (positively associated); dog lying on furniture (positively associated); dog lying on laps (negatively associated); growling at household members (negatively associated); and playing chase games with the dog (negatively associated). These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that the strength and nature of the human-dog relationship incentivises dog walking, and that behavioural and demographic factors may affect dog walking via this mechanism. Future studies need to investigate how dog demographic and behavioural factors, plus owner behavioural factors and perceptions of the dog, influence the dog-human relationship in respect to the perceived support and motivation a dog can provide for walking.
A cross-sectional study examining the prevalence and risk factors for anti-microbial-resistant generic Escherichia coli in domestic dogs that frequent dog parks in three cities in south-western Ontario, Canada.
Procter, T D; Pearl, D L; Finley, R L; Leonard, E K; Janecko, N; Reid-Smith, R J; Weese, J S; Peregrine, A S; Sargeant, J M
Anti-microbial resistance can threaten health by limiting treatment options and increasing the risk of hospitalization and severity of infection. Companion animals can shed anti-microbial-resistant bacteria that may result in the exposure of other dogs and humans to anti-microbial-resistant genes. The prevalence of anti-microbial-resistant generic Escherichia coli in the faeces of dogs that visited dog parks in south-western Ontario was examined and risk factors for shedding anti-microbial-resistant generic E. coli identified. From May to August 2009, canine faecal samples were collected at ten dog parks in three cities in south-western Ontario, Canada. Owners completed a questionnaire related to pet characteristics and management factors including recent treatment with antibiotics. Faecal samples were collected from 251 dogs, and 189 surveys were completed. Generic E. coli was isolated from 237 of the faecal samples, and up to three isolates per sample were tested for anti-microbial susceptibility. Eighty-nine percent of isolates were pan-susceptible; 82.3% of dogs shed isolates that were pan-susceptible. Multiclass resistance was detected in 7.2% of the isolates from 10.1% of the dogs. Based on multilevel multivariable logistic regression, a risk factor for the shedding of generic E. coli resistant to ampicillin was attending dog day care. Risk factors for the shedding of E. coli resistant to at least one anti-microbial included attending dog day care and being a large mixed breed dog, whereas consumption of commercial dry and home cooked diets was protective factor. In a multilevel multivariable model for the shedding of multiclass-resistant E. coli, exposure to compost and being a large mixed breed dog were risk factors, while consumption of a commercial dry diet was a sparing factor. Pet dogs are a potential reservoir of anti-microbial-resistant generic E. coli; some dog characteristics and management factors are associated with the prevalence of anti
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Yersinia pestis causes severe disease in natural rodent hosts, but mild to inapparent disease in certain rodent predators such as dogs. Y. pestis initiates infection in susceptible hosts by parasitizing and multiplying intracellularly in local macrophages prior to systemic dissemination. Thus, we hypothesize that Y. pestis disease severity may depend on the degree to which intracellular Y. pestis overcomes the initial host macrophage imposed stress. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To test this hypothesis, the progression of in vitro infection by Y. pestis KIM62053.1+ of mouse splenic and RAW264.7 tissue culture macrophages and dog peripheral blood-derived and DH82 tissue culture macrophages was studied using microscopy and various parameters of infection. The study showed that during the early stage of infection, intracellular Y. pestis assumed filamentous cellular morphology with multiple copies of the genome per bacterium in both mouse and dog macrophages. Later, in mouse macrophages, the infection elicited spacious vacuolar extension of Yersinia containing vacuoles (YCV, and the filamentous Y. pestis reverted to coccobacillary morphology with genomic equivalents approximately equaling colony forming units. In contrast, Y. pestis infected dog macrophages did not show noticeable extension of YCV, and intracellular Y. pestis retained the filamentous cellular morphology for the entire experiment in DH82 cells or were killed by blood-derived macrophages. In addition, during the later stage of infection, Y. pestis infected mouse macrophages exhibited cell lysis whereas dog macrophages did not. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Overall, these results support our hypothesis that Y. pestis in mouse macrophages can overcome the initial intracellular stress necessary for subsequent systemic infection. However, in dogs, failure of Y. pestis to overcome macrophage imposed stress may result in mild or in apparent disease in dogs.
Welch, N.; Crawshaw, J.
Initial experiments and the thermodynaic basis for carbon dioxide sequestration induced mineral precipitation healing of fractures through reservoir seals will be presented. The basis of this work is the potential exists for the dissolution of reservoir host rock formation carbonate minerals in the acidified injection front of CO2 during sequestration or EOR. This enriched brine and the bulk CO2 phase will then flow through the reservoir until contact with the reservoir seal. At this point any fractures present in the reservoir seal will be the preferential flow path for the bulk CO2 phase as well as the acidified brine front. These fractures would currently be filled with non-acidified brine saturated in seal formation brine. When the acidifeid brine from the host formation and the cap rock brine mix there is the potential for minerals to fall out of solution, and for these precipitated minerals to decrease or entirely cut off the fluid flow through the fractures present in a reservoir seal. Initial equilibrium simulations performed using the PHREEQC1 database drived from the PHREEQE2 database are used to show the favorable conditions under which this mineral precipitation can occurs. Bench scale fluid mixing experiments were then performed to determine the kinetics of the mineral precipitation process, and determine the progress of future experiemnts involving fluid flow within fractured anhydrite reservoir seal samples. 1Parkhurst, D.L., and Appelo, C.A.J., 2013, Description of input and examples for PHREEQC version 3—A computer program for speciation, batch-reaction, one-dimensional transport, and inverse geochemical calculations: U.S. Geological Survey Techniques and Methods, book 6, chap. A43, 497 p., available only at https://pubs.usgs.gov/tm/06/a43/. 2Parkhurst, David L., Donald C. Thorstenson, and L. Niel Plummer. PHREEQE: a computer program for geochemical calculations. No. 80-96. US Geological Survey, Water Resources Division,, 1980.
Craigon, Peter J; Hobson-West, Pru; England, Gary C W; Whelan, Chantelle; Lethbridge, Emma; Asher, Lucy
A guide dog is a domestic dog (Canis familiaris) that is specifically educated to provide mobility support to a blind or visually impaired owner. Current dog suitability assessments focus on behavioural traits, including: trainability, reactivity or attention to environmental stimuli, low aggressiveness, fearfulness and stress behaviour, energy levels, and attachment behaviour. The aim of this study was to find out which aspects of guide dog behaviour are of key importance to guide dog owners themselves. Sixty-three semi-structured interview surveys were carried out with guide dog owners. Topics included the behaviour of their guide dog both within and outside their working role, and also focused on examples of behaviour which might be considered outside a guide dog owner's typical expectations. Both positive and negative examples and situations were covered. This allowed for the discovery of new perspectives and emerging themes on living and working with a guide dog. Thematic analysis of the results reveals that a dog's safe behaviour in the face of traffic was the most important positive aspect of a guide dog's behaviour and pulling or high tension on the lead and /or harness was the most discussed negative aspect. Other aspects of guide dog behaviour were highlighted as particularly pleasing or disappointing by owners including attentiveness to the task, work, environment and owner; confidence in work and decision making (with confident dogs resulting in confident owners) obedience and control; calmness and locating objectives. The results reveal important areas of behaviour that are not currently considered priorities in guide dog assessments; these key areas were consistency of behaviour, the dog's maturity and the dog's behaviour in relation to children. The survey revealed a large range in what owners considered problematic or pleasing behaviours and this highlights the heterogeneity in guide dog owners and the potential multifarious roles of the guide dog
Peter J Craigon
Full Text Available A guide dog is a domestic dog (Canis familiaris that is specifically educated to provide mobility support to a blind or visually impaired owner. Current dog suitability assessments focus on behavioural traits, including: trainability, reactivity or attention to environmental stimuli, low aggressiveness, fearfulness and stress behaviour, energy levels, and attachment behaviour. The aim of this study was to find out which aspects of guide dog behaviour are of key importance to guide dog owners themselves. Sixty-three semi-structured interview surveys were carried out with guide dog owners. Topics included the behaviour of their guide dog both within and outside their working role, and also focused on examples of behaviour which might be considered outside a guide dog owner's typical expectations. Both positive and negative examples and situations were covered. This allowed for the discovery of new perspectives and emerging themes on living and working with a guide dog. Thematic analysis of the results reveals that a dog's safe behaviour in the face of traffic was the most important positive aspect of a guide dog's behaviour and pulling or high tension on the lead and /or harness was the most discussed negative aspect. Other aspects of guide dog behaviour were highlighted as particularly pleasing or disappointing by owners including attentiveness to the task, work, environment and owner; confidence in work and decision making (with confident dogs resulting in confident owners obedience and control; calmness and locating objectives. The results reveal important areas of behaviour that are not currently considered priorities in guide dog assessments; these key areas were consistency of behaviour, the dog's maturity and the dog's behaviour in relation to children. The survey revealed a large range in what owners considered problematic or pleasing behaviours and this highlights the heterogeneity in guide dog owners and the potential multifarious roles
Westhusin, M E; Burghardt, R C; Ruglia, J N; Willingham, L A; Liu, L; Shin, T; Howe, L M; Kraemer, D C
The aim of this study was to determine whether nuclear transplantation could be used to clone a dog using donor nucleus cells collected from an adult female. Fibroblasts obtained from skin biopsies were fused with enucleated bovine or canine oocytes. The resulting cloned embryos were cultured in vitro to monitor embryonic development. A proportion of the resulting embryos was transferred into surrogate bitches for development to term. When canine oocytes were used as recipient ova for canine fibroblasts, 23% of the resulting embryos cleaved at least once after culture in vitro. Five cloned embryos were transferred into three synchronized recipient bitches, but no pregnancies resulted. When bovine oocytes were used as recipinets for canine fibroblasts, 38% cleaved to the two- to four-cell stage and 43% cleaved to the eight- to 16-cell stage. Forty-seven of these embryos were transferred into four recipient females, resulting in a single conceptus that ceased development at about day 20 of gestation. The desire for cloned dogs is considerable and will undoubtedly incite the development of successful methods for cloning companion animals. However, significant investment into additional research is required, especially in the areas of in vitro maturation of oocytes and control of the oestrous cycle of bitches.
Ellis, Robert; Ellis, Carrie
Animal bites account for 1% of all emergency department visits in the United States and more than $50 million in health care costs per year. Most animal bites are from a dog, usually one known to the victim. Most dog bite victims are children. Bite wounds should be cleaned, copiously irrigated with normal saline using a 20-mL or larger syringe or a 20-gauge catheter attached to the syringe. The wound should be explored for tendon or bone involvement and possible foreign bodies. Wounds may be closed if cosmetically favorable, such as wounds on the face or gaping wounds. Antibiotic prophylaxis should be considered, especially if there is a high risk of infection, such as with cat bites, with puncture wounds, with wounds to the hand, and in persons who are immunosuppressed. Amoxicillin/clavulanate is the first-line prophylactic antibiotic. The need for rabies prophylaxis should be addressed with any animal bite because even domestic animals are often unvaccinated. Postexposure rabies prophylaxis consists of immune globulin at presentation and vaccination on days 0, 3, 7, and 14. Counseling patients and families about animal safety may help decrease animal bites. In most states, physicians are required by law to report animal bites.
Couturier, Jacob; Lewis, Dorothy E
The purpose of this review is to examine the evidence describing adipose tissue as a reservoir for HIV-1 and how this often expansive anatomic compartment contributes to HIV persistence. Memory CD4 T cells and macrophages, the major host cells for HIV, accumulate in adipose tissue during HIV/SIV infection of humans and rhesus macaques. Whereas HIV and SIV proviral DNA is detectable in CD4 T cells of multiple fat depots in virtually all infected humans and monkeys examined, viral RNA is less frequently detected, and infected macrophages may be less prevalent in adipose tissue. However, based on viral outgrowth assays, adipose-resident CD4 T cells are latently infected with virus that is replication-competent and infectious. Additionally, adipocytes interact with CD4 T cells and macrophages to promote immune cell activation and inflammation which may be supportive for HIV persistence. Antiviral effector cells, such as CD8 T cells and NK/NKT cells, are abundant in adipose tissue during HIV/SIV infection and typically exceed CD4 T cells, whereas B cells are largely absent from adipose tissue of humans and monkeys. Additionally, CD8 T cells in adipose tissue of HIV patients are activated and have a late differentiated phenotype, with unique TCR clonotypes of less diversity relative to blood CD8 T cells. With respect to the distribution of antiretroviral drugs in adipose tissue, data is limited, but there may be class-specific penetration of fat depots. The trafficking of infected immune cells within adipose tissues is a common event during HIV/SIV infection of humans and monkeys, but the virus may be mostly transcriptionally dormant. Viral replication may occur less in adipose tissue compared to other major reservoirs, such as lymphoid tissue, but replication competence and infectiousness of adipose latent virus are comparable to other tissues. Due to the ubiquitous nature of adipose tissue, inflammatory interactions among adipocytes and CD4 T cells and macrophages, and
Westgarth, C.; Boddy, L. M.; Stratton, G.; German, A. J.; Gaskell, R. M.; Coyne, K. P.; Bundred, P.; McCune, S.; Dawson, S.
Summary Background Health benefits of dog walking are established in adults: dog owners are on average more physically active, and those walking their dogs regularly have lower weight status than those who do not. However, there has been little research on children. Objectives This study aimed to examine the association between dog ownership or dog walking and childhood fitness or weight status. Methods A survey of pet ownership and involvement in dog walking was combined with fitness and wei...
Ruiz Izaguirre, E.
Dogs (Canis familiaris) are considered one of the most numerous carnivores worldwide. Although in the Global North dogs are popular companions, that live inside homes, about 80% of the dogs in the world are village dogs. Village dogs are typically free-roaming, scavenge refuse around human dwellings and are associated with one or various households. At present, village dogs in the Global South are a concern for (inter)national organizations and individuals, such as tourists. Concerns ar...
IRIE, Takao; YAMAGUCHI, Yohei; DOANH, Pham Ngoc; GUO, Zhi Hong; HABE, Shigehisa; HORII, Yoichiro; NONAKA, Nariaki
Infection of boar-hunting dogs with Paragonimus westermani was investigated in Western Japan. Blood and rectal feces were collected from 441 dogs in the three districts (205 in Kinki, 131 in Chugoku and 105 in Shikoku District). In a screening ELISA for serum antibody against P. westermani antigen, 195 dogs (44.2%) showed positive reaction. In the 195 dogs, 8 dogs were found excreting P. westermani eggs after molecular analysis of fecal eggs, and additional 7 were identified serologically for the parasite infection because of their stronger reactivity against P. westermani antigen than against antigens of other species of Paragonimus. A spatial analysis showed that all of the P. westermani infections were found in Kinki and Chugoku Districts. In this area, dogs’ experience of being fed with raw boar meat showed high odds ratio (3.35) to the sero-positivity in the screening ELISA, and the frequency of such experiences was significantly higher in sero-positive dogs. While clear relationship was not obtained between predation of boars by dogs during hunting and their sero-positivity. Therefore, it is suggested that human activity of feeding with wild boar meat is the risk factor for P. westermani infection in boar-hunting dogs. Considering that hunting dogs could play as a major definitive host and maintain the present distribution of P. westermani in Western Japan, control measures for the infection in hunting dogs, such as prohibition of raw meat feeding and regular deworming, should be undertaken. PMID:28717056
PAZ, Giselle Souza da; ROCHA, Katarine de Souza; LIMA, Michele de Souza; JORGE, Ediene Moura; PANTOJA, José Carlos Figueiredo; MORAES, Carla Cristina Guimarães de; LANGONI, Helio
Brucellosis and leptospirosis are widely spread bacterial infections and dogs are the most important source of infection and reservoir for diseases. Dogs can disseminate the agents in the environment and transmit them to humans and/or other animals. The objective of this study was assess the occurrence of reactive to antibodies anti-Leptospira spp., Brucella canis and B. abortus in Belém and Castanhal, State of Pará, Amazon, Brazil. A total of 156 samples were randomly collected in the city o...
There exists an abundance of literature on the health benefits of dog-ownership and the health benefits of self-disclosure however, there has been no research into the potential health benefits of self-disclosure to dogs. This thesis addresses that gap in the literature. Among the literature on the health benefits of dog-ownership there is often a focus on the benefits to people with clinical conditions or living in care facilities – much less investigated are the benefits to ‘normally-fun...
Katherine A. Miller
Full Text Available When pit bull-type dogs are seized in an investigation of organized dogfighting, heavily scarred dogs are often assumed to be highly dog aggressive due to a history of fighting. These dogs may be deemed dangerous and euthanized based on scarring alone. We analyzed our existing data on dogs seized from four dogfighting investigations, examining the relationship between the dogs’ scars with aggression towards other dogs. Scar and wound data were tallied in three body zones where dogfighting injuries tend to be concentrated. Dog aggression was assessed using a model dog and a friendly stimulus dog in a standardized behavior evaluation. Scarring and dog aggression were significantly related, more strongly among male (Fisher’s Exact p < 0.001 than female dogs (Fisher’s Exact p = 0.05. Ten or more scars in the three body zones was a reasonable threshold with which to classify a dog as high risk for dog aggression: 82% of males and 60% of females with such scarring displayed dog aggression. However, because many unscarred dogs were dog aggressive while some highly scarred dogs were not, we recommend collecting behavioral information to supplement scar counts when making disposition decisions about dogs seized in dogfighting investigations.
Hoffman, Christy L.; Chen, Pan; Serpell, James A.; Jacobson, Kristen C.
This paper explores whether dog behavioral characteristics predict the quality of the relationship between dogs and their owners (i.e., owner attachment to dog), and whether relations between dog behavior and owner attachment are moderated by demographic characteristics. In this study, N = 92 children and N = 60 adults from 60 dog-owning families completed questionnaires about their attachment to their pet dog, their level of responsibility for that dog, and their general attitudes toward pets. They also rated their dogs on observable behavioral characteristics. Individuals who held positive attitudes about pets and who provided much of their dog’s care reported stronger attachments to their dogs. The strength of owners’ attachments to their dogs was associated with dog trainability and separation problems. Relationships between owner attachment and both dog excitability and attention-seeking behavior were further moderated by demographic characteristics: for Caucasians but not for non-Caucasians, dog excitability was negatively associated with owner attachment to dog; and for adults, dog attention-seeking behavior was positively associated with owner attachment, but children tended to be highly attached to their dogs, regardless of their dogs’ attention-seeking behaviors. This study demonstrates that certain dog behavioral traits are indeed associated with the strength of owners’ attachments to their dogs. PMID:25685855
Otake Sato, Marcello; Sato, Megumi; Yoonuan, Tippayarat; Pongvongsa, Tiengkham; Sanguankiat, Surapol; Kounnavong, Sengchanh; Maipanich, Wanna; Chigusa, Yuichi; Moji, Kazuhiko; Waikagul, Jitra
Dogs have been bred since ancient times for companionship, hunting, protection, shepherding and other human activities. Some canine helminth parasites can cause significant clinical diseases in humans as Opisthorchis viverrini causing cholangiocarcinoma in Southeast Asian Countries. In this study, socio-cultural questionnaire, canine parasitological analysis, necropsy, parasite molecular confirmation and dog roaming data were evaluated in Savannakhet, Lao-PDR, a typical Mekong Basin area. Dog owners comprised 48.8% of the studied population, with 61.2% owning one dog, 25.1% 2 dogs, 8.5% 3 dogs and 1.8% owning more than 4 dogs. Data from GPS logger attached to dogs showed they walked from 1.4 to 13.3 km per day, covering an area of 3356.38m2 average, with a routine of accessing water sources. Thirteen zoonotic helminth species were observed. Causative agents of visceral and cutaneous larva migrans occurred in 44.1% and 70% of the samples respectively. Spirometra erinaceieuropaei was detected in 44.1% of samples. Importantly, O. viverrini was found in 8.8% of samples. Besides the known importance of dogs in the transmission of Ancylostoma spp., Toxocara spp. and S. erinaceieuropaei, the observed roaming pattern of dogs confirmed it as an important host perpetuating O. viverrini in endemic areas; their routine access to waterbodies may spread O. viverrini eggs in a favorable environment for the fluke development, facilitating the infection of fishes, and consequently infecting humans living in the same ecosystem. Therefore, parasitic NTDs control programs in humans should be done in parallel with parasite control in animals, especially dogs, in the Mekong River basin area.
Kellerová, Pavlína; Tachezy, Jan
Trichomonads are known to inhabit the oral cavities of various mammals, including dogs, cats and horses. However, little attention has been paid to species identification, prevalence and zoonotic potential of these parasites, although their hosts live in close proximity with humans. According to the original description, oral trichomonads in dogs and cats belong to the genus Tetratrichomonas. Interestingly, later investigations suggested that the oral cavities of dogs and cats could be infected with different species of the genus Trichomonas, including the human oral cavity parasite Trichomonas tenax. Thus, in this study we investigated the occurrence of oral trichomonads in 111 domestic dogs and 122 cats using cell cultivation methods, nested PCR analyses, and the sequencing of ITS1-5.8rRNA-ITS2 regions. We found that both dogs and cats harbour T. tenax, with prevalences of 8.1% and 4.1%, respectively. Considerably more dogs were infected with different species of the genus Trichomonas (30.6%), which we also identified in cats (6.6%). An analysis of the potential risk factors suggested that dogs of more than 3years old or with dental disease signs are more frequently infected with Trichomonas sp. than younger dogs or dogs without the disease signs, and that crossbreed dogs revealed increased rates of infection in comparison with purebred dogs. An analysis of the cat population suggested that Trichomonas sp. infection is lower in younger and crossbreed cats. Although the morphology of Trichomonas sp. is very similar to that of T. tenax, based on a phylogenetic analysis of ITS1-5.8rRNA-ITS2 regions and the ssrRNA genes, we consider Trichomonas sp. to represent a new trichomonad species, for which we propose the name Trichomonas brixi. Copyright © 2017 Australian Society for Parasitology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Cleaton, Julie M; Wallace, Ryan M; Crowdis, Kelly; Gibson, Andy; Monroe, Benjamin; Ludder, Fleurinord; Etheart, Melissa D; Natal Vigilato, Marco Antonio; King, Alasdair
Haiti has historically vaccinated between 100,000 and 300,000 dogs annually against rabies, however national authorities have not been able to reach and maintain the 70% coverage required to eliminate the canine rabies virus variant. Haiti conducts massive dog vaccination campaigns on an annual basis and utilizes both central point and door-to-door methods. These methods require that dog owners are aware of the dates and locations of the campaign. To improve this awareness among dog owners, 600,000 text messages were sent to phones in two Haitian communes (Gonaives and Saint-Marc) to remind dog owners to attend the campaign. Text messages were delivered on the second day and at the mid-point of the campaign. A post-campaign household survey was conducted to assess dog owner's perception of the text messages and the impact on their participation in the vaccination campaign. Overall, 147 of 160 (91.9%) text-receiving dog owners indicated the text was helpful, and 162 of 187 (86.6%) responding dog owners said they would like to receive text reminders during future rabies vaccination campaigns. In areas hosting one-day central point campaigns, dog owners who received the text were 2.0 (95% CI 1.1, 3.6) times more likely to have participated in the campaign (73.1% attendance among those who received the text vs 36.4% among those who did not). In areas incorporating door-to-door vaccination over multiple days there was no significant difference in participation between dog owners who did and did not receive a text. Text message reminders were well-received and significantly improved campaign attendance, indicating that short message service (SMS) alerts may be a successful strategy in low resource areas with large free roaming dog populations. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
Christensen, Max la Cour; Eskildsen, Klaus Langgren; Engsig-Karup, Allan Peter
modeled after local linearization, leading to a nonlinear multigrid method in the form of the full-approximation scheme (FAS). It is demonstrated through numerical experiments that, without loss of robustness, the FAS method can outperform the conventional techniques in terms of algorithmic and numerical...... efficiency for a black-oil model. Furthermore, the use of the FAS method enables a significant reduction in memory usage compared with conventional techniques, which suggests new possibilities for improved large-scale reservoir simulation and numerical efficiency. Last, nonlinear multilevel preconditioning...
Smorra, Christian; Franke, Kurt; Nagahama, Hiroki; Schneider, Georg; Higuchi, Takashi; Van Gorp, Simon; Blaum, Klaus; Matsuda, Yasuyuki; Quint, Wolfgang; Walz, Jochen; Yamazaki, Yasunori; Ulmer, Stefan
We have developed techniques to extract arbitrary fractions of antiprotons from an accumulated reservoir, and to inject them into a Penning-trap system for high-precision measurements. In our trap-system antiproton storage times > 1.08 years are estimated. The device is fail-safe against power-cuts of up to 10 hours. This makes our planned comparisons of the fundamental properties of protons and antiprotons independent from accelerator cycles, and will enable us to perform experiments during long accelerator shutdown periods when background magnetic noise is low. The demonstrated scheme has the potential to be applied in many other precision Penning trap experiments dealing with exotic particles.
Full Text Available Canids are reservoir for some zoonoses helminthic disease. They are one of main public health problem. The aim of this study was to ascertain frequency of gastrointestinal helminthic infection of stray dogs in Zabol city, southeaster of Iran. In this descriptive study, 30 stray dogs were euthanized, intestine was removed by necropsy. Then, the intestines was opened by scalpel and their contents passed through mesh sieve. The helminth were collected. The nematodes were preserved in 70% ethanol with 5% glycerin and cestodes were preserved in 70% ethanol. The cestodes were stained by acetocarmine. The nematodes were cleared by lactophenol. The genus and species of helminth were identified by identification keys. Twenty two (73.3% of stray dogs had at least one intestinal helminthic infection. Recovered helminth from stray dogs include: Taenia hydatigena (53.3%, Taenia ovis (20%, Taenia multiceps (6.6%, Mesocestoides spp (10%, Toxocara canis (23.3%, Toxocara cati (3.3%. Data showed that the stray dogs in Zabol city harbor some important zoonoses helminth parasite like Toxocara.
Full Text Available Lyme disease is a multisystemic disease, zoonotic in nature, caused by the Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato complex. In the continent of Europe, these spirochetes are predominantly transmitted by ticks of the genus Ixodes. Small mammals and birds have particular significance as reservoirs of the cause of lyme disease. The objective of these epidemiological investigations was to determine the value of IgG seroprevalence to Borrelia burgdorferi and to secure the geographic distribution of seropositive dogs in Vojvodina. The investigations covered 135 dogs that were not vaccinated against lyme disease. The indirect ELISA test was used to determine IgG prevalence to Borrelia burgdorferi antigens. Reactive blood serums of dogs were tested again using the rapid immunochromatographic and immunoblot test. A seroprevalence of G class antibodies to antigens of lyme disease causes of 8.1% (11/135 was established in the examined dog population of Vojvodina. The biggest number of positive results was recorded for the South Bačka District. The presented value for the seroprevalence of anti-Borrelia burgdorferi antibodies in the dog population indicates the exhistence of a significant risk of humans becoming infected with the cause of lyme disease in Vojvodina.
Full Text Available Air injection is a good option to development light oil reservoir. As well-known that, reservoir heterogeneity has great effect for various EOR processes. This also applies to air injection. However, oil recovery mechanisms and physical processes for air injection in heterogeneous reservoir with dip angle are still not well understood. The reported setting of reservoir heterogeneous for physical model or simulation model of air injection only simply uses different-layer permeability of porous media. In practice, reservoir heterogeneity follows the principle of geostatistics. How much of contrast in permeability actually challenges the air injection in light oil reservoir? This should be investigated by using layered porous medial settings of the classical Dykstra-Parsons style. Unfortunately, there has been no work addressing this issue for air injection in light oil reservoir. In this paper, Reservoir heterogeneity is quantified based on the use of different reservoir permeability distribution according to classical Dykstra-Parsons coefficients method. The aim of this work is to investigate the effect of reservoir heterogeneity on physical process and production performance of air injection in light oil reservoir through numerical reservoir simulation approach. The basic model is calibrated based on previous study. Total eleven pseudo compounders are included in this model and ten complexity of reactions are proposed to achieve the reaction scheme. Results show that oil recovery factor is decreased with the increasing of reservoir heterogeneity both for air and N2 injection from updip location, which is against the working behavior of air injection from updip location. Reservoir heterogeneity sometimes can act as positive effect to improve sweep efficiency as well as enhance production performance for air injection. High O2 content air injection can benefit oil recovery factor, also lead to early O2 breakthrough in heterogeneous reservoir. Well
Chavez, Gustavo Ivan
A dense volumetric grid coming from an oil/gas reservoir simulation output is translated into a compact representation that supports desired features such as interactive visualization, geometric continuity, color mapping and quad representation. A set of four control curves per layer results from processing the grid data, and a complete set of these 3-dimensional surfaces represents the complete volume data and can map reservoir properties of interest to analysts. The processing results yield a representation of reservoir simulation results which has reduced data storage requirements and permits quick performance interaction between reservoir analysts and the simulation data. The degree of reservoir grid compression can be selected according to the quality required, by adjusting for different thresholds, such as approximation error and level of detail. The processions results are of potential benefit in applications such as interactive rendering, data compression, and in-situ visualization of large-scale oil/gas reservoir simulations.
Katakweba, Abdul Sekemani; Muhairwa, Amandus Pachificus; Espinosa-Gongora, Carmen; Guardabassi, Luca; Mtambo, Madundo M A; Olsen, John Elmerdahl
Staphylococcus aureus is an opportunistic pathogen causing infections in humans and animals. Here we report for the first time the prevalence of nasal carriage, spa typing and antimicrobial resistance of S. aureus in a Tanzanian livestock community. Nasal swabs were taken from 100 humans, 100 pigs and 100 dogs in Morogoro Municipal. Each swab was enriched in Mueller Hinton broth with 6.5% NaCl and subcultured on chromogenic agar for S. aureus detection. Presumptive S. aureus colonies were confirmed to the species level by nuc PCR and analysed by spa typing. Antimicrobial susceptibility patterns were determined by disc diffusion method. S. aureus was isolated from 22% of humans, 4% of pigs and 11% of dogs. A total of 21 spa types were identified: 13, 7 and 1 in human, dogs, and pigs, respectively. Three spa types (t314, t223 and t084) were shared between humans and dogs. A novel spa type (t10779) was identified in an isolate recovered from a colonized human. Antimicrobials tested revealed resistance to ampicillin in all isolates, moderate resistances to other antimicrobials with tetracycline resistance being the most frequent. S. aureus carrier frequencies in dogs and humans were within the expected range and low in pigs. The S. aureus spa types circulating in the community were generally not shared by different hosts and majority of types belonged to known clones. Besides ampicillin resistance, moderate levels of antimicrobial resistance were observed irrespective of the host species from which the strains were isolated.
Meyer, Iben Helene Coakley; Forkman, Björn
Human–dog interaction relies to a large extent on nonverbal communication, and it is therefore plausible that human sensitivity to nonverbal signals affects interactions between human and dog. Experience with dogs is also likely to influence human–dog interactions, and it has been suggested...... and answered a questionnaire on their experience with dogs. The data obtained were then used to investigate the relationship between experience with dogs and sensitivity to human nonverbal communication. The results did not indicate that experience with dogs improves human nonverbal sensitivity. In study 2, 16...... that it influences human social skills. The present study investigated possible links between human nonverbal sensitivity, experience with dogs, and the quality of human–dog interactions. Two studies are reported. In study 1, 97 veterinary students took a psychometric test assessing human nonverbal sensitivity...
Salmela, Patrik; Melén, Jan
The Host Identity Protocol (HIP) is one of the more recent designs that challenge the current Internet architecture. The main features of HIP are security and the identifier-locator split, which solves the problem of overloading the IP address with two separate tasks. This paper studies the possibility of providing HIP services to legacy hosts via a HIP proxy. Making a host HIP enabled requires that the IP-stack of the host is updated to support HIP. From a network administrator's perspective this can be a large obstacle. However, by providing HIP from a centralized point, a HIP proxy, the transition to begin using HIP can be made smoother. This and other arguments for a HIP proxy will be presented in this paper along with an analysis of a prototype HIP proxy and its performance.
Liptak, J M; Kamstock, D A; Dernell, W S; Ehrhart, E J; Rizzo, S A; Withrow, S J
Nine dogs were diagnosed with cranial mediastinal carcinomas. Based on histological and immunohistochemical analysis, four dogs were diagnosed with ectopic follicular cell thyroid carcinomas, one dog with ectopic medullary cell thyroid carcinoma, two dogs with neuroendocrine carcinomas and two dogs with anaplastic carcinomas. Clinical signs and physical examination findings were associated with a space-occupying mass, although one dog was diagnosed with functional hyperthyroidism. Surgical resection was attempted in eight dogs. The cranial mediastinal mass was invasive either into the heart or into the cranial vena cava in three dogs. Resection was complete in six dogs and unresectable in two dogs. All dogs survived surgery, but four dogs developed pulmonary thromboembolism and two dogs died of respiratory complications postoperatively. Adjunctive therapies included pre-operative radiation therapy (n=1) and postoperative chemotherapy (n=3). Three dogs had metastasis at the time of diagnosis, but none developed metastasis following surgery. The overall median survival time was 243 days. Local invasion, pleural effusion and metastasis did not have a negative impact on survival time in this small case series.
Chan, Catherine M; Zwahlen, Courtney H; de Lorimier, Louis-Philippe; Yeomans, Stephen M; Hoffmann, Karon L; Moore, Antony S
CASE DESCRIPTION 4 dogs with a slow-growing mass in the cervical region were evaluated. CLINICAL FINDINGS All dogs had no clinical signs at the time of the evaluation. There was no apparent evidence of visceral metastases or other primary tumor based on available CT or MRI data for any dog. TREATMENT AND OUTCOME For each dog, surgery to remove the mass was performed. Histologic examination of the excised tissue revealed a completely excised grade 1 or 2 lymph node hemangiosarcoma. All dogs received adjuvant chemotherapy; 2 dogs underwent curative intent chemotherapy, 1 dog underwent metronomic treatment with cyclophosphamide, and 1 dog underwent metronomic treatment with chlorambucil. The survival time was 259 days in 1 dog; 3 dogs were still alive 615, 399, and 365 days after surgery. CLINICAL RELEVANCE Primary nodal hemangiosarcoma in dogs is a rare and, to the authors' knowledge, previously undescribed disease that appears to develop in the cervical lymph nodes as a slow-growing mass or masses. Surgical excision and adjunct treatment resulted in long survival times for 3 of the 4 dogs of the present report. Given the aggressive biologic behavior of hemangiosarcomas in other body locations, adjunct chemotherapy should be considered for affected dogs, although its role in the cases described in this report was unclear. Additional clinical information is required to further characterize the biologic behavior of this tumor type and determine the expected survival times and associated risk factors in dogs.
Laurimaa, Leidi; Süld, Karmen; Moks, Epp; Valdmann, Harri; Umhang, Gérald; Kna