Sample records for reservoir geological modelling

  1. High resolution reservoir geological modelling using outcrop information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Changmin; Lin Kexiang; Liu Huaibo [Jianghan Petroleum Institute, Hubei (China)] [and others


    This is China`s first case study of high resolution reservoir geological modelling using outcrop information. The key of the modelling process is to build a prototype model and using the model as a geological knowledge bank. Outcrop information used in geological modelling including seven aspects: (1) Determining the reservoir framework pattern by sedimentary depositional system and facies analysis; (2) Horizontal correlation based on the lower and higher stand duration of the paleo-lake level; (3) Determining the model`s direction based on the paleocurrent statistics; (4) Estimating the sandbody communication by photomosaic and profiles; (6) Estimating reservoir properties distribution within sandbody by lithofacies analysis; and (7) Building the reservoir model in sandbody scale by architectural element analysis and 3-D sampling. A high resolution reservoir geological model of Youshashan oil field has been built by using this method.

  2. The geological model calibration - Learnings from integration of reservoir geology and field performance - Example from the upper carboniferous reservoirs of the Southern North Sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moscariello, A.; Hoof, T.B. van; Kunakbayeva, G.; Veen, J.H. ten; Belt, F. van den; Twerda, A.; Peters, L.; Davis, P.; Williams, H.


    The Geological Model Calibration - Learnings from Integration of Reservoir Geology and Field Performance: example from the Upper Carboniferous Reservoirs of the Southern North Sea. Copyright © (2012) by the European Association of Geoscientists & Engineers All rights reserved.

  3. Geological model of supercritical geothermal reservoir related to subduction system (United States)

    Tsuchiya, Noriyoshi


    Following the Great East Japan Earthquake and the accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear power station on 3.11 (11th March) 2011, geothermal energy came to be considered one of the most promising sources of renewable energy for the future in Japan. The temperatures of geothermal fields operating in Japan range from 200 to 300 °C (average 250 °C), and the depths range from 1000 to 2000 m (average 1500 m). In conventional geothermal reservoirs, the mechanical behavior of the rocks is presumed to be brittle, and convection of the hydrothermal fluid through existing network is the main method of circulation in the reservoir. In order to minimize induced seismicity, a rock mass that is "beyond brittle" is one possible candidate, because the rock mechanics of "beyond brittle" material is one of plastic deformation rather than brittle failure. Supercritical geothermal resources could be evaluated in terms of present volcanic activities, thermal structure, dimension of hydrothermal circulation, properties of fracture system, depth of heat source, depth of brittle factures zone, dimension of geothermal reservoir. On the basis of the GIS, potential of supercritical geothermal resources could be characterized into the following four categories. 1. Promising: surface manifestation d shallow high temperature, 2 Probability: high geothermal gradient, 3 Possibility: Aseismic zone which indicates an existence of melt, 4 Potential : low velocity zone which indicates magma input. Base on geophysical data for geothermal reservoirs, we have propose adequate tectonic model of development of the supercritical geothermal reservoirs. To understand the geological model of a supercritical geothermal reservoir, granite-porphyry system, which had been formed in subduction zone, was investigated as a natural analog of the supercritical geothermal energy system. Quartz veins, hydrothermal breccia veins, and glassy veins are observed in a granitic body. The glassy veins formed at 500-550

  4. Reservoir management under geological uncertainty using fast model update

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hanea, R.; Evensen, G.; Hustoft, L.; Ek, T.; Chitu, A.; Wilschut, F.


    Statoil is implementing "Fast Model Update (FMU)," an integrated and automated workflow for reservoir modeling and characterization. FMU connects all steps and disciplines from seismic depth conversion to prediction and reservoir management taking into account relevant reservoir uncertainty. FMU

  5. The egg model - A geological ensemble for reservoir simulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, J.D.; Fonseca, R.M.; Kahrobaei, S.; Siraj, M.M.; Van Essen, G.M.; Van den Hof, P.M.J.


    The ‘Egg Model’ is a synthetic reservoir model consisting of an ensemble of 101 relatively small three-dimensional realizations of a channelized oil reservoir produced under water flooding conditions with eight water injectors and four oil producers. It has been used in numerous publications to

  6. The egg model - A geological ensemble for reservoir simulation


    Jansen, J.D.; Fonseca, R.M.; Kahrobaei, S.; Siraj, M.M.; Van Essen, G.M.; Van den Hof, P.M.J.


    The ‘Egg Model’ is a synthetic reservoir model consisting of an ensemble of 101 relatively small three-dimensional realizations of a channelized oil reservoir produced under water flooding conditions with eight water injectors and four oil producers. It has been used in numerous publications to demonstrate a variety of aspects related to computer-assisted flooding optimization and history matching. Unfortunately the details of the parameter settings are not always identical and not always ful...

  7. Reservoir architecture modeling: Nonstationary models for quantitative geological characterization. Final report, April 30, 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kerr, D.; Epili, D.; Kelkar, M.; Redner, R.; Reynolds, A.


    The study was comprised of four investigations: facies architecture; seismic modeling and interpretation; Markov random field and Boolean models for geologic modeling of facies distribution; and estimation of geological architecture using the Bayesian/maximum entropy approach. This report discusses results from all four investigations. Investigations were performed using data from the E and F units of the Middle Frio Formation, Stratton Field, one of the major reservoir intervals in the Gulf Coast Basin.

  8. Real-time reservoir geological model updating using the hybrid EnKF and geostatistical technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, H.; Chen, S.; Yang, D. [Regina Univ., SK (Canada). Petroleum Technology Research Centre


    Reservoir simulation plays an important role in modern reservoir management. Multiple geological models are needed in order to analyze the uncertainty of a given reservoir development scenario. Ideally, dynamic data should be incorporated into a reservoir geological model. This can be done by using history matching and tuning the model to match the past performance of reservoir history. This study proposed an assisted history matching technique to accelerate and improve the matching process. The Ensemble Kalman Filter (EnKF) technique, which is an efficient assisted history matching method, was integrated with a conditional geostatistical simulation technique to dynamically update reservoir geological models. The updated models were constrained to dynamic data, such as reservoir pressure and fluid saturations, and approaches geologically realistic at each time step by using the EnKF technique. The new technique was successfully applied in a heterogeneous synthetic reservoir. The uncertainty of the reservoir characterization was significantly reduced. More accurate forecasts were obtained from the updated models. 3 refs., 2 figs.

  9. A novel methodology improves reservoir characterization models using geologic fuzzy variables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soto B, Rodolfo [DIGITOIL, Maracaibo (Venezuela); Soto O, David A. [Texas A and M University, College Station, TX (United States)


    One of the research projects carried out in Cusiana field to explain its rapid decline during the last years was to get better permeability models. The reservoir of this field has a complex layered system that it is not easy to model using conventional methods. The new technique included the development of porosity and permeability maps from cored wells following the same trend of the sand depositions for each facie or layer according to the sedimentary facie and the depositional system models. Then, we used fuzzy logic to reproduce those maps in three dimensions as geologic fuzzy variables. After multivariate statistical and factor analyses, we found independence and a good correlation coefficient between the geologic fuzzy variables and core permeability and porosity. This means, the geologic fuzzy variable could explain the fabric, the grain size and the pore geometry of the reservoir rock trough the field. Finally, we developed a neural network permeability model using porosity, gamma ray and the geologic fuzzy variable as input variables. This model has a cross-correlation coefficient of 0.873 and average absolute error of 33% compared with the actual model with a correlation coefficient of 0.511 and absolute error greater than 250%. We tested different methodologies, but this new one showed dramatically be a promiser way to get better permeability models. The use of the models have had a high impact in the explanation of well performance and workovers, and reservoir simulation models. (author)

  10. Study on fine geological modelling of the fluvial sandstone reservoir in Daqing oilfield

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhoa Han-Qing [Daqing Research Institute, Helongjiang (China)


    These paper aims at developing a method for fine reservoir description in maturing oilfields by using close spaced well logging data. The main productive reservoirs in Daqing oilfield is a set of large fluvial-deltaic deposits in the Songliao Lake Basin, characterized by multi-layers and serious heterogeneities. Various fluvial channel sandstone reservoirs cover a fairly important proportion of reserves. After a long period of water flooding, most of them have turned into high water cut layers, but there are considerable residual reserves within them, which are difficult to find and tap. Making fine reservoir description and developing sound a geological model is essential for tapping residual oil and enhancing oil recovery. The principal reason for relative lower precision of predicting model developed by using geostatistics is incomplete recognition of complex distribution of fluvial reservoirs and their internal architecture`s. Tasking advantage of limited outcrop data from other regions (suppose no outcrop data available in oilfield) can only provide the knowledge of subtle changing of reservoir parameters and internal architecture. For the specific geometry distribution and internal architecture of subsurface reservoirs (such as in produced regions) can be gained only from continuous infilling logging well data available from studied areas. For developing a geological model, we think the first important thing is to characterize sandbodies geometries and their general architecture`s, which are the framework of models, and then the slight changing of interwell parameters and internal architecture`s, which are the contents and cells of the model. An excellent model should possess both of them, but the geometry is the key to model, because it controls the contents and cells distribution within a model.

  11. The influence of geological data on the reservoir modelling and history matching process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Jager, G.


    For efficient production of hydrocarbons from subsurface reservoirs it is important to understand the spatial properties of the reservoir. As there is almost always too little information on the reservoir to build a representative model directly, other techniques have been developed for generating

  12. Using outcrop data for geological well test modelling in fractured reservoirs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aljuboori, F.; Corbett, P.; Bisdom, K.; Bertotti, G.; Geiger, S.


    Outcrop fracture data sets can now be acquired with ever more accuracy using drone technology augmented by field observations. These models can be used to form realistic, deterministic models of fractured reservoirs. Fractured well test models are traditionally seen to be finite or infinite

  13. Integrated Reflection Seismic Monitoring and Reservoir Modeling for Geologic CO2 Sequestration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John Rogers


    The US DOE/NETL CCS MVA program funded a project with Fusion Petroleum Technologies Inc. (now SIGMA) to model the proof of concept of using sparse seismic data in the monitoring of CO{sub 2} injected into saline aquifers. The goal of the project was to develop and demonstrate an active source reflection seismic imaging strategy based on deployment of spatially sparse surface seismic arrays. The primary objective was to test the feasibility of sparse seismic array systems to monitor the CO{sub 2} plume migration injected into deep saline aquifers. The USDOE/RMOTC Teapot Dome (Wyoming) 3D seismic and reservoir data targeting the Crow Mountain formation was used as a realistic proxy to evaluate the feasibility of the proposed methodology. Though the RMOTC field has been well studied, the Crow Mountain as a saline aquifer has not been studied previously as a CO{sub 2} sequestration (storage) candidate reservoir. A full reprocessing of the seismic data from field tapes that included prestack time migration (PSTM) followed by prestack depth migration (PSDM) was performed. A baseline reservoir model was generated from the new imaging results that characterized the faults and horizon surfaces of the Crow Mountain reservoir. The 3D interpretation was integrated with the petrophysical data from available wells and incorporated into a geocellular model. The reservoir structure used in the geocellular model was developed using advanced inversion technologies including Fusion's ThinMAN{trademark} broadband spectral inversion. Seal failure risk was assessed using Fusion's proprietary GEOPRESS{trademark} pore pressure and fracture pressure prediction technology. CO{sub 2} injection was simulated into the Crow Mountain with a commercial reservoir simulator. Approximately 1.2MM tons of CO{sub 2} was simulated to be injected into the Crow Mountain reservoir over 30 years and subsequently let 'soak' in the reservoir for 970 years. The relatively small plume

  14. Study on detailed geological modelling for fluvial sandstone reservoir in Daqing oil field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao Hanqing; Fu Zhiguo; Lu Xiaoguang [Institute of Petroleum Exploration and Development, Daqing (China)


    Guided by the sedimentation theory and knowledge of modern and ancient fluvial deposition and utilizing the abundant information of sedimentary series, microfacies type and petrophysical parameters from well logging curves of close spaced thousands of wells located in a large area. A new method for establishing detailed sedimentation and permeability distribution models for fluvial reservoirs have been developed successfully. This study aimed at the geometry and internal architecture of sandbodies, in accordance to their hierarchical levels of heterogeneity and building up sedimentation and permeability distribution models of fluvial reservoirs, describing the reservoir heterogeneity on the light of the river sedimentary rules. The results and methods obtained in outcrop and modem sedimentation studies have successfully supported the study. Taking advantage of this method, the major producing layers (PI{sub 1-2}), which have been considered as heterogeneous and thick fluvial reservoirs extending widely in lateral are researched in detail. These layers are subdivided into single sedimentary units vertically and the microfacies are identified horizontally. Furthermore, a complex system is recognized according to their hierarchical levels from large to small, meander belt, single channel sandbody, meander scroll, point bar, and lateral accretion bodies of point bar. The achieved results improved the description of areal distribution of point bar sandbodies, provide an accurate and detailed framework model for establishing high resolution predicting model. By using geostatistic technique, it also plays an important role in searching for enriched zone of residual oil distribution.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ernest A. Mancini


    The University of Alabama in cooperation with Texas A&M University, McGill University, Longleaf Energy Group, Strago Petroleum Corporation, and Paramount Petroleum Company are undertaking an integrated, interdisciplinary geoscientific and engineering research project. The project is designed to characterize and model reservoir architecture, pore systems and rock-fluid interactions at the pore to field scale in Upper Jurassic Smackover reef and carbonate shoal reservoirs associated with varying degrees of relief on pre-Mesozoic basement paleohighs in the northeastern Gulf of Mexico. The project effort includes the prediction of fluid flow in carbonate reservoirs through reservoir simulation modeling which utilizes geologic reservoir characterization and modeling and the prediction of carbonate reservoir architecture, heterogeneity and quality through seismic imaging. The primary objective of the project is to increase the profitability, producibility and efficiency of recovery of oil from existing and undiscovered Upper Jurassic fields characterized by reef and carbonate shoals associated with pre-Mesozoic basement paleohighs. The principal research effort for Year 2 of the project has been reservoir characterization, 3-D modeling and technology transfer. This effort has included six tasks: (1) the study of rockfluid interactions, (2) petrophysical and engineering characterization, (3) data integration, (4) 3-D geologic modeling, (5) 3-D reservoir simulation and (6) technology transfer. This work was scheduled for completion in Year 2. Overall, the project work is on schedule. Geoscientific reservoir characterization is essentially completed. The architecture, porosity types and heterogeneity of the reef and shoal reservoirs at Appleton and Vocation Fields have been characterized using geological and geophysical data. The study of rock-fluid interactions is near completion. Observations regarding the diagenetic processes influencing pore system development and


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ernest A. Mancini


    The University of Alabama in cooperation with Texas A&M University, McGill University, Longleaf Energy Group, Strago Petroleum Corporation, and Paramount Petroleum Company are undertaking an integrated, interdisciplinary geoscientific and engineering research project. The project is designed to characterize and model reservoir architecture, pore systems and rock-fluid interactions at the pore to field scale in Upper Jurassic Smackover reef and carbonate shoal reservoirs associated with varying degrees of relief on pre-Mesozoic basement paleohighs in the northeastern Gulf of Mexico. The project effort includes the prediction of fluid flow in carbonate reservoirs through reservoir simulation modeling that utilizes geologic reservoir characterization and modeling and the prediction of carbonate reservoir architecture, heterogeneity and quality through seismic imaging. The primary objective of the project is to increase the profitability, producibility and efficiency of recovery of oil from existing and undiscovered Upper Jurassic fields characterized by reef and carbonate shoals associated with pre-Mesozoic basement paleohighs. The principal research effort for Year 3 of the project has been reservoir characterization, 3-D modeling, testing of the geologic-engineering model, and technology transfer. This effort has included six tasks: (1) the study of seismic attributes, (2) petrophysical characterization, (3) data integration, (4) the building of the geologic-engineering model, (5) the testing of the geologic-engineering model and (6) technology transfer. This work was scheduled for completion in Year 3. Progress on the project is as follows: geoscientific reservoir characterization is completed. The architecture, porosity types and heterogeneity of the reef and shoal reservoirs at Appleton and Vocation Fields have been characterized using geological and geophysical data. The study of rock-fluid interactions has been completed. Observations regarding the diagenetic

  17. Comparative modeling of fault reactivation and seismicity in geologic carbon storage and shale-gas reservoir stimulation (United States)

    Rutqvist, Jonny; Rinaldi, Antonio; Cappa, Frederic


    The potential for fault reactivation and induced seismicity are issues of concern related to both geologic CO2 sequestration and stimulation of shale-gas reservoirs. It is well known that underground injection may cause induced seismicity depending on site-specific conditions, such a stress and rock properties and injection parameters. To date no sizeable seismic event that could be felt by the local population has been documented associated with CO2 sequestration activities. In the case of shale-gas fracturing, only a few cases of felt seismicity have been documented out of hundreds of thousands of hydraulic fracturing stimulation stages. In this paper we summarize and review numerical simulations of injection-induced fault reactivation and induced seismicity associated with both underground CO2 injection and hydraulic fracturing of shale-gas reservoirs. The simulations were conducted with TOUGH-FLAC, a simulator for coupled multiphase flow and geomechanical modeling. In this case we employed both 2D and 3D models with an explicit representation of a fault. A strain softening Mohr-Coulomb model was used to model a slip-weakening fault slip behavior, enabling modeling of sudden slip that was interpreted as a seismic event, with a moment magnitude evaluated using formulas from seismology. In the case of CO2 sequestration, injection rates corresponding to expected industrial scale CO2 storage operations were used, raising the reservoir pressure until the fault was reactivated. For the assumed model settings, it took a few months of continuous injection to increase the reservoir pressure sufficiently to cause the fault to reactivate. In the case of shale-gas fracturing we considered that the injection fluid during one typical 3-hour fracturing stage was channelized into a fault along with the hydraulic fracturing process. Overall, the analysis shows that while the CO2 geologic sequestration in deep sedimentary formations are capable of producing notable events (e

  18. Improving Geologic and Engineering Models of Midcontinent Fracture and Karst-Modified Reservoirs Using New 3-D Seismic Attributes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Susan Nissen; Saibal Bhattacharya; W. Lynn Watney; John Doveton


    Our project goal was to develop innovative seismic-based workflows for the incremental recovery of oil from karst-modified reservoirs within the onshore continental United States. Specific project objectives were: (1) to calibrate new multi-trace seismic attributes (volumetric curvature, in particular) for improved imaging of karst-modified reservoirs, (2) to develop attribute-based, cost-effective workflows to better characterize karst-modified carbonate reservoirs and fracture systems, and (3) to improve accuracy and predictiveness of resulting geomodels and reservoir simulations. In order to develop our workflows and validate our techniques, we conducted integrated studies of five karst-modified reservoirs in west Texas, Colorado, and Kansas. Our studies show that 3-D seismic volumetric curvature attributes have the ability to re-veal previously unknown features or provide enhanced visibility of karst and fracture features compared with other seismic analysis methods. Using these attributes, we recognize collapse features, solution-enlarged fractures, and geomorphologies that appear to be related to mature, cockpit landscapes. In four of our reservoir studies, volumetric curvature attributes appear to delineate reservoir compartment boundaries that impact production. The presence of these compartment boundaries was corroborated by reservoir simulations in two of the study areas. Based on our study results, we conclude that volumetric curvature attributes are valuable tools for mapping compartment boundaries in fracture- and karst-modified reservoirs, and we propose a best practices workflow for incorporating these attributes into reservoir characterization. When properly calibrated with geological and production data, these attributes can be used to predict the locations and sizes of undrained reservoir compartments. Technology transfer of our project work has been accomplished through presentations at professional society meetings, peer-reviewed publications


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ernest A. Mancini


    The University of Alabama in cooperation with Texas A&M University, McGill University, Longleaf Energy Group, Strago Petroleum Corporation, and Paramount Petroleum Company are undertaking an integrated, interdisciplinary geoscientific and engineering research project. The project is designed to characterize and model reservoir architecture, pore systems and rock-fluid interactions at the pore to field scale in Upper Jurassic Smackover reef and carbonate shoal reservoirs associated with varying degrees of relief on pre-Mesozoic basement paleohighs in the northeastern Gulf of Mexico. The project effort includes the prediction of fluid flow in carbonate reservoirs through reservoir simulation modeling which utilizes geologic reservoir characterization and modeling and the prediction of carbonate reservoir architecture, heterogeneity and quality through seismic imaging. The primary objective of the project is to increase the profitability, producibility and efficiency of recovery of oil from existing and undiscovered Upper Jurassic fields characterized by reef and carbonate shoals associated with pre-Mesozoic basement paleohighs. The principal research effort for Year 1 of the project has been reservoir description and characterization. This effort has included four tasks: (1) geoscientific reservoir characterization, (2) the study of rock-fluid interactions, (3) petrophysical and engineering characterization and (4) data integration. This work was scheduled for completion in Year 1. Overall, the project work is on schedule. Geoscientific reservoir characterization is essentially completed. The architecture, porosity types and heterogeneity of the reef and shoal reservoirs at Appleton and Vocation Fields have been characterized using geological and geophysical data. The study of rock-fluid interactions has been initiated. Observations regarding the diagenetic processes influencing pore system development and heterogeneity in these reef and shoal reservoirs have been


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ernest A. Mancini


    The University of Alabama, in cooperation with Texas A&M University, McGill University, Longleaf Energy Group, Strago Petroleum Corporation, and Paramount Petroleum Company, has undertaken an integrated, interdisciplinary geoscientific and engineering research project. The project is designed to characterize and model reservoir architecture, pore systems and rock-fluid interactions at the pore to field scale in Upper Jurassic Smackover reef and carbonate shoal reservoirs associated with varying degrees of relief on pre-Mesozoic basement paleohighs in the northeastern Gulf of Mexico. The project effort includes the prediction of fluid flow in carbonate reservoirs through reservoir simulation modeling which utilizes geologic reservoir characterization and modeling and the prediction of carbonate reservoir architecture, heterogeneity and quality through seismic imaging. The primary goal of the project is to increase the profitability, producibility and efficiency of recovery of oil from existing and undiscovered Upper Jurassic fields characterized by reef and carbonate shoals associated with pre-Mesozoic basement paleohighs. Geoscientific reservoir property, geophysical seismic attribute, petrophysical property, and engineering property characterization has shown that reef (thrombolite) and shoal reservoir lithofacies developed on the flanks of high-relief crystalline basement paleohighs (Vocation Field example) and on the crest and flanks of low-relief crystalline basement paleohighs (Appleton Field example). The reef thrombolite lithofacies have higher reservoir quality than the shoal lithofacies due to overall higher permeabilities and greater interconnectivity. Thrombolite dolostone flow units, which are dominated by dolomite intercrystalline and vuggy pores, are characterized by a pore system comprised of a higher percentage of large-sized pores and larger pore throats. Rock-fluid interactions (diagenesis) studies have shown that although the primary control on

  1. Comparison of Pore-Network and Lattice Boltzmann Models for Pore-Scale Modeling of Geological Storage of CO2 in Natural Reservoir Rocks (United States)

    Kohanpur, A. H.; Chen, Y.; Valocchi, A. J.; Tudek, J.; Crandall, D.


    CO2-brine flow in deep natural rocks is the focus of attention in geological storage of CO2. Understanding rock/flow properties at pore-scale is a vital component in field-scale modeling and prediction of fate of injected CO2. There are many challenges in working at the pore scale, such as size and selection of representative elementary volume (REV), particularly for material with complex geometry and heterogeneity, and the high computational costs. These issues factor into trade-offs that need to be made in choosing and applying pore-scale models. On one hand, pore-network modeling (PNM) simplifies the geometry and flow equations but can provide characteristic curves on fairly large samples. On the other hand, the lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) solves Navier-Stokes equations on the real geometry but is limited to small samples due to its high computational costs. Thus, both methods have some advantages but also face some challenges, which warrants a more detailed comparison and evaluation. In this study, we used industrial and micro-CT scans of actual reservoir rock samples to characterize pore structure at different resolutions. We ran LBM models directly on the characterized geometry and PNM on the equivalent 3D extracted network to determine single/two-phase flow properties during drainage and imbibition processes. Specifically, connectivity, absolute permeability, relative permeability curve, capillary pressure curve, and interface location are compared between models. We also did simulations on several subsamples from different locations including different domain sizes and orientations to encompass analysis of heterogeneity and isotropy. This work is primarily supported as part of the Center for Geologic Storage of CO2, an Energy Frontier Research Center funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science and partially supported by the International Institute for Carbon-Neutral Energy Research (WPI-I2CNER) based at Kyushu University, Japan.

  2. Gas condensate reservoir characterisation for CO2 geological storage (United States)

    Ivakhnenko, A. P.


    During oil and gas production hydrocarbon recovery efficiency is significantly increased by injecting miscible CO2 gas in order to displace hydrocarbons towards producing wells. This process of enhanced oil recovery (EOR) might be used for the total CO2 storage after complete hydrocarbon reservoir depletion. This kind of potential storage sites was selected for detailed studies, including generalised development study to investigate the applicability of CO2 for storages. The study is focused on compositional modelling to predict the miscibility pressures. We consider depleted gas condensate field in Kazakhstan as important target for CO2 storage and EOR. This reservoir being depleted below the dew point leads to retrograde condensate formed in the pore system. CO2 injection in the depleted gas condensate reservoirs may allow enhanced gas recovery by reservoir pressurisation and liquid re-vaporisation. In addition a number of geological and petrophysical parameters should satisfy storage requirements. Studied carbonate gas condensate and oil field has strong seal, good petrophysical parameters and already proven successful containment CO2 and sour gas in high pressure and high temperature (HPHT) conditions. The reservoir is isolated Lower Permian and Carboniferous carbonate platform covering an area of about 30 km. The reservoir contains a gas column about 1.5 km thick. Importantly, the strong massive sealing consists of the salt and shale seal. Sour gas that filled in the oil-saturated shale had an active role to form strong sealing. Two-stage hydrocarbon saturation of oil and later gas within the seal frame were accompanied by bitumen precipitation in shales forming a perfect additional seal. Field hydrocarbon production began three decades ago maintaining a strategy in full replacement of gas in order to maintain pressure of the reservoir above the dew point. This was partially due to the sour nature of the gas with CO2 content over 5%. Our models and

  3. Managing geological uncertainty in CO2-EOR reservoir assessments (United States)

    Welkenhuysen, Kris; Piessens, Kris


    therefore not suited for cost-benefit analysis. They likely result in too optimistic results because onshore configurations are cheaper and different. We propose to translate the detailed US data to the North Sea, retaining their uncertainty ranges. In a first step, a general cost correction can be applied to account for costs specific to the EU and the offshore setting. In a second step site-specific data, including laboratory tests and reservoir modelling, are used to further adapt the EOR ratio values taking into account all available geological reservoir-specific knowledge. And lastly, an evaluation of the field configuration will have an influence on both the cost and local geology dimension, because e.g. horizontal drilling is needed (cost) to improve injectivity (geology). As such, a dataset of the EOR field is obtained which contains all aspects and their uncertainty ranges. With these, a geologically realistic basis is obtained for further cost-benefit analysis of a specific field, where the uncertainties are accounted for using a stochastic evaluation. Such ad-hoc evaluation of geological parameters will provide a better assessment of the CO2-EOR potential of the North Sea oil fields.

  4. Dolomitization of carbonated reservoirs of platforms. From geologic data to modeling. Example of the great Bahama bank; La dolomitisation des reservoirs carbonates de plate-forme. Des donnees geologiques a la modelisation. Exemple du Grand Banc des Bahamas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caspard, E.


    Dolomitization has long been one of the most studied geological processes because of its economic interest (dolomitic rocks form a significant share of hydrocarbon reservoirs) as well as its academic interest, based on the fact that dolomite scarcely forms in current and recent marine environments whereas seawater is highly over-saturated; and that it is still not possible to synthesize it in laboratory under the same conditions. We used data collected by the University of Miami (Bahamas Drilling Project, ODP Leg 166) to understand the geological context of complete dolomitization of a Messinian 60 m thick reef unit. Classical methods of petrographic analysis of thin sections (optical microscopy, cathodoluminescence, scanning electron microscopy, in situ isotopic analyze using ionic microprobe) showed that the intensity of dolomitization is not controlled by the initial texture of the sediment, that the key parameter for dolomitization is the conservation of the initial mineralogy of magnesian bio-clasts, and that redox conditions, salinity and/or temperature of the precipitation fluid varied significantly during the process. Hydrodynamic modelling showed that during periods of high sea-level, Kohout thermal convection is a viable mechanism for driving marine fluids through the sediments. The key parameter for fluid circulations is the permeability anisotropy on the platform scale. Geochemical modelling showed that seawater is able to induce a complete dolomitization over durations of around one million years. Sensitivity tests showed that the critical parameter (as well as one of the less well-known) to describe diagenetic processes in carbonates is the water/rock reactions kinetics and in particular the precipitation kinetics of carbonate minerals. We finally propose that the dolomitization of the reef unit of the Unda well took place during the high sea-level period which extended over 1,1 My in the early Pliocene, according to the Kohout thermal convection

  5. Analysis of real-time reservoir monitoring : reservoirs, strategies, & modeling.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mani, Seethambal S.; van Bloemen Waanders, Bart Gustaaf; Cooper, Scott Patrick; Jakaboski, Blake Elaine; Normann, Randy Allen; Jennings, Jim (University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX); Gilbert, Bob (University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX); Lake, Larry W. (University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX); Weiss, Chester Joseph; Lorenz, John Clay; Elbring, Gregory Jay; Wheeler, Mary Fanett (University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX); Thomas, Sunil G. (University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX); Rightley, Michael J.; Rodriguez, Adolfo (University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX); Klie, Hector (University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX); Banchs, Rafael (University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX); Nunez, Emilio J. (University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX); Jablonowski, Chris (University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX)


    survivability issues. Our findings indicate that packaging represents the most significant technical challenge associated with application of sensors in the downhole environment for long periods (5+ years) of time. These issues are described in detail within the report. The impact of successful reservoir monitoring programs and coincident improved reservoir management is measured by the production of additional oil and gas volumes from existing reservoirs, revitalization of nearly depleted reservoirs, possible re-establishment of already abandoned reservoirs, and improved economics for all cases. Smart Well monitoring provides the means to understand how a reservoir process is developing and to provide active reservoir management. At the same time it also provides data for developing high-fidelity simulation models. This work has been a joint effort with Sandia National Laboratories and UT-Austin's Bureau of Economic Geology, Department of Petroleum and Geosystems Engineering, and the Institute of Computational and Engineering Mathematics.

  6. Geological and production characteristics of strandplain/barrier island reservoirs in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cole, E.L.; Fowler, M.; Jackson, S.; Madden, M.P.; Reeves, T.K.; Salamy, S.P.; Young, M.A.


    The Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) primary mission in the oil research program is to maximize the economically and environmentally sound recovery of oil from domestic reservoirs and to preserve access to this resource. The Oil Recovery Field Demonstration Program supports DOE`s mission through cost-shared demonstrations of improved Oil Recovery (IOR) processes and reservoir characterization methods. In the past 3 years, the DOE has issued Program Opportunity Notices (PONs) seeking cost-shared proposals for the three highest priority, geologically defined reservoir classes. The classes have been prioritized based on resource size and risk of abandonment. This document defines the geologic, reservoir, and production characteristics of the fourth reservoir class, strandplain/barrier islands. Knowledge of the geological factors and processes that control formation and preservation of reservoir deposits, external and internal reservoir heterogeneities, reservoir characterization methodology, and IOR process application can be used to increase production of the remaining oil-in-place (IOR) in Class 4 reservoirs. Knowledge of heterogeneities that inhibit or block fluid flow is particularly critical. Using the TORIS database of 330 of the largest strandplain/barrier island reservoirs and its predictive and economic models, the recovery potential which could result from future application of IOR technologies to Class 4 reservoirs was estimated to be between 1.0 and 4.3 billion barrels, depending on oil price and the level of technology advancement. The analysis indicated that this potential could be realized through (1) infill drilling alone and in combination with polymer flooding and profile modification, (2) chemical flooding (sufactant), and (3) thermal processes. Most of this future potential is in Texas, Oklahoma, and the Rocky Mountain region. Approximately two-thirds of the potentially recoverable resource is at risk of abandonment by the year 2000.

  7. Update of the conceptual geological model for the geothermal reservoir in Cerro Prieto, BC; Actualizacion del modelo geologico conceptual del yacimiento geotermico de Cerro Prieto, BC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lira Herrera, Hector [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Mexicali, B.C., (Mexico)


    An updated, conceptual geologic model is presented for the geothermal reservoir in Cerro Prieto geothermal field. The tectonic extension that formed the Basin and Range Province of the Western United States and Northwestern Mexico during Upper Tertiary in the Cerro Prieto area resulted in the formation of a half graben tectonic basin between the Cerro Prieto and Imperial faults. Called the Cerro Prieto basin, it includes listric faults, predominately northwest-southwest trending, stepped generally to the northeast. The zone of cortical weakness, formed during the Tertiary, allowed an intrusion of basic rock associated with the magnetic anomaly know as Nuevo Leon. The intrusive rock has been fed by new magmatic intrusions originated by the present tectonic extension of the Gulf of California. The oldest rocks identified in the area are gneiss and biotite-schists of Permian-Jurassic age and tonalities of Jurassic-Cretaceous age in contact with Cretaceous granites, all representing the regional basement. The lithologic column in the subsurface of the Cerro Prieto basin in formed by a basement of Cretaceous granites; an argillaceous package resting on the basement composed of gray shales with interleaves of sandstone, Tertiary brown-shales and mudstone, with an average thickness of 2700 m; clastic sediments of the Quaternary age deposited mainly by the Colorado River and alluvial fans of the Cucapa Range, comprised of gravel, sands and clays with an average thickness of 2500 m, covering the shales. The fluids feeding the geothermal reservoir heat as they pass though the zone where the basic intrusive is located (the heat source) and migrate through the listric faults toward the permeable layers of sandstone located within the gray shales. [Spanish] Se presenta el modelo geologico conceptual actualizado del yacimiento geotermico de Cerro Prieto. La tectonica extensional que origino la Provincia de Cuencas y Cordilleras (Basin and Range) del oeste de Estados Unidos y

  8. modeling of modeling of reservoir in reservoir in artificial neu

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    the three hydropower reser parameters parameters and Artificial rtificial rtificial Neural Network (ANN) eural Network (ANN) and the modeled reservoir inflow .... MODELING OF RESERVOIR INFLOW FOR HYDROPOWER DAMS USING ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORK ..... Based Model of an Industrial Oil-Fired Boiler”.

  9. Top-Down, Intelligent Reservoir Model (United States)

    Mohaghegh, Shahab


    Conventional reservoir simulation and modeling is a bottom-up approach. It starts with building a geological model of the reservoir that is populated with the best available petrophysical and geophysical information at the time of development. Engineering fluid flow principles are added and solved numerically so as to arrive at a dynamic reservoir model. The dynamic reservoir model is calibrated using the production history of multiple wells and the history matched model is used to strategize field development in order to improve recovery. Top-Down, Intelligent Reservoir Modeling approaches the reservoir simulation and modeling from an opposite angle by attempting to build a realization of the reservoir starting with the measured well production behavior (history). The production history is augmented by core, log, well test and seismic data in order to increase the accuracy of the Top-Down modeling technique. Although not intended as a substitute for the conventional reservoir simulation of large, complex fields, this novel approach to reservoir modeling can be used as an alternative (at a fraction of the cost) to conventional reservoir simulation and modeling in cases where performing conventional modeling is cost (and man-power) prohibitive. In cases where a conventional model of a reservoir already exists, Top-Down modeling should be considered as a compliment to, rather than a competition for the conventional technique, to provide an independent look at the data coming from the reservoir/wells for optimum development strategy and recovery enhancement. Top-Down, Intelligent Reservoir Modeling starts with well-known reservoir engineering techniques such as Decline Curve Analysis, Type Curve Matching, History Matching using single well numerical reservoir simulation, Volumetric Reserve Estimation and calculation of Recovery Factors for all the wells (individually) in the field. Using statistical techniques multiple Production Indicators (3, 6, and 9 months cum

  10. Tectono-Thermal History Modeling and Reservoir Simulation Study of the Nenana Basin, Central Alaska: Implications for Regional Tectonics and Geologic Carbon Sequestration (United States)

    Dixit, Nilesh C.

    basin. Coals have significant capacity for sequestering anthropogenic CO 2 emissions and offer the benefit of enhanced coal bed methane production that can offset the costs associated with the sequestration processes. In order to do a preliminary assessment of the CO2 sequestration and coal bed methane production potential of the Nenana basin, I used available surface and subsurface data to build and simulate a reservoir model of subbituminous Healy Creek Formation coals. The petroleum exploration data were also used to estimate the state of subsurface stresses that are critical in modeling the orientation, distribution and flow behavior of natural coal fractures in the basin. The effect of uncertainties within major coal parameters on the total CO2 sequestration and coal bed methane capacity estimates were evaluated through a series of sensitivity analyses, experimental design methods and fluid flow simulations. Results suggest that the mature, unmineable Healy Creek Formation coals of the Nenana basin can sequester up to 0.41 TCF of CO2 while producing up to 0.36 TCF of CH4 at the end of 44-year forecast. However, these volumes are estimates and they are also sensitive to the well type, pattern and cap rock lithology. I used a similar workflow to evaluate the state of in situ stress in the northeastern North Slope province of Alaska. The results show two distinct stress regimes across the northeastern North Slope. The eastern Barrow Arch exhibits both strike-slip and normal stress regimes. Along the northeastern Brooks Range thrust front, an active thrust-fault regime is present at depths up to 6000 ft but changes to a strike-slip stress regime at depths greater than 6000 ft.

  11. Maximizing reservoir exposure with proactive well placement in high geological complexity field of Venezuelan Orinoco Belt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castaneda, Luis; Leon, Maryesther; Meunier, Antoine [Schlumberger, Caracas (Venezuela); Lara, Manuel; Herrera, Yoanna; Granado, Miguel [Petrolera Indovenezolana S.A. (PIV), El Tigre (Venezuela)


    In 2010, Petrolera Indovenezolana S.A. (PIV), a joint venture between Corporacion Venezolana del Petroleo (CVP) and the Indian company ONGC Videsh Limited (OVL), started planning for two horizontal wells in the Norte Zuata (San Cristobal) field in the Orinoco belt of eastern Venezuela. The focus for this campaign was to evaluate the productivity of horizontal wells in thin sands and avoid areas of complex geology because of the high uncertainty in the structural behavior, applying technology that provided absolute control of the drilling process into the Oficina formation. Within the Oficina formation, thin sand reservoirs with variations in thickness and dip, geologically facies changes and sub seismic faults presented the main challenge to geosteering a horizontal well. Because the project faced high geological uncertainties, a pilot hole was drilled as the first stage in the first well to verify the structural levels and the continuity of the sand bodies. To achieve the above challenges, the combination of a rotary steerable system (RSS) 'point-the-bit' and a deep azimuthal electromagnetic resistivity tool (DAEMR) was used. The measurements provided accurate information to the well-placement engineers for proactive decisions in real time, mitigating the possible loss of the target by these geologic uncertainties. High-quality and valuable data for real time geological model update were the expected results obtained from the effort made by PIV in the Norte Zuata (San Cristobal) field, and the data showed the oil-producing potential of one of the main reservoir (Sand F,G). This application of high-tier technologies demonstrated that drilling and data measurements can be improved and optimized to yield added value for reservoir development and 100% net to gross (NTG) targets. This reduces operational cost, makes it possible to drill in the right place the first time, and pushes forward the limit of the achievable in terms of reservoir exposure. (author)

  12. Seismically integrated geologic modelling: Guntong Field, Malay Basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calvert, Craig S.; Bhuyan, K.; Sterling, J. Helwick; Hill, Rob E.; Hubbard, R. Scott; Khare, Vijay; Wahrmund, Leslie A.; Wang, Gann-Shyong


    This presentation relates to a research project on offshore seismically reservoir modelling. The goal of the project was to develop and test a process for interpreting reservoir properties from 3-D seismic data and for integrating these data into the building of 3-D geologic models that would be suitable for use in flow simulation studies. The project produced a 3-D geologic model for three reservoir intervals and three predominantly non-reservoir intervals. Each reservoir interval was subdivided into faces that were determined by integrating core, well log, and seismic interpretations. predictions of porosity and lithology used in building the geologic model were made using seismic attributes calculated from acoustic impedance data. 8 figs.

  13. Reservoir geology of Landslide field, southern San Joaquin basin, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carr, T.R.; Tucker, R.D.; Singleton, M.T. (ARCO Oil and Gas Co., Bakersfield, CA (United States))


    The Landslide field, which is located on the southern margin of the San Joaquin basin, was discovered in 1985 and consists of 13 producers and six injectors. Cumulative production as of mid-1990 was approximately 10 million bbl of oil with an average daily production of 4700 BOPD. Production is from a series of late Miocene turbidite sands (Stevens Sand) that were deposited as a small constructional submarine fan (less than 2 mi in diameter). Based on interpretation of wireline logs and engineering data, deposition of the fan and of individual lobes within the fan was strongly influenced by preexisting paleotopography and small syndepositional slump features. Based on mapping of individual depositional units and stratigraphic dipmeter analysis, transport direction of the sand was to the north-north across these paleotopographic breaks in slope. Dipmeter data and pressure data from individual sands are especially useful for recognition and mapping of individual flow units between well bores. Detailed engineering, geophysical and geological studies have increased our understanding of the dimensions, continuity, geometry, and inherent reservoir properties of the individual flow units within the reservoir. Based on the results of these studies a series of water isolation workovers and extension wells were proposed and successfully undertaken. This work has increased recoverable reserves and arrested the rapid production decline.

  14. The Potosi Reservoir Model 2013

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adushita, Yasmin; Smith, Valerie; Leetaru, Hannes


    As a part of a larger project co-funded by the United States Department of Energy (US DOE) to evaluate the potential of formations within the Cambro-Ordovician strata above the Mt. Simon as potential targets for carbon sequestration in the Illinois and Michigan Basins, the Illinois Clean Coal Institute (ICCI) requested Schlumberger to evaluate the potential injectivity and carbon dioxide (CO2) plume size of the Cambrian Potosi Formation. The evaluation of this formation was accomplished using wireline data, core data, pressure data, and seismic data from the US DOE-funded Illinois Basin–Decatur Project (IBDP) being conducted by the Midwest Geological Sequestration Consortium in Macon County, Illinois. In 2010, technical performance evaluations on the Cambrian Potosi Formation were performed through reservoir modeling. The data included formation tops from mud logs, well logs from the VW1 and the CCS1 wells, structural and stratigraphic formation from three dimensional (3D) seismic data, and field data from several waste water injection wells for Potosi Formation. Intention was for two million tons per annum (MTPA) of CO2 to be injected for 20 years. In the preceding, the 2010 Potosi heterogeneous model (referred to as the "Potosi Dynamic Model 2010" in this topical report) was re-run using a new injection scenario; 3.2 MTPA for 30 years. The extent of the Potosi Dynamic Model 2010, however, appeared too small for the new injection target. It was not sufficiently large enough to accommodate the evolution of the plume. The new model, Potosi Dynamic Model 2013a, was built by extending the Potosi Dynamic Model 2010 grid to 30 miles x 30 miles (48.3km x48.3km), while preserving all property modeling workflows and layering. This model was retained as the base case of Potosi Dynamic Model 2013a. The Potosi reservoir model was updated to take into account the new data from the verification well VW2 which was drilled in 2012. The new porosity and permeability modeling was

  15. Flow-based dissimilarity measures for reservoir models : a spatial-temporal tensor approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Insuasty, Edwin; van den Hof, P.M.J.; Weiland, Siep; Jansen, J.D.


    In reservoir engineering, it is attractive to characterize the difference between reservoir models in metrics that relate to the economic performance of the reservoir as well as to the underlying geological structure. In this paper, we develop a dissimilarity measure that is based on reservoir

  16. Geological and Petrophysical Characterization of the Ferron Sandstone for 3-D Simulation of a Fluvial-Deltaic Reservoir

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chidsey, Jr, Thomas C.


    The objective of the Ferron Sandstone project was to develop a comprehensive, interdisciplinary, quantitative characterization f fluvial-deltaic reservoir to allow realistic interwell and reservoir-scale models to be developed for improved oil-field development in similar reservoirs world-wide. Quantitative geological and petrophysical information on the Cretaceous Ferron Sandstone in east-central Utah was collected. Both new and existing data was integrated into a three-dimensional model of spatial variations in porosity, storativity, and tensorial rock permeability at a scale appropriate for inter-well to regional-scale reservoir simulation. Simulation results could improve reservoir management through proper infill and extension drilling strategies, reduction of economic risks, increased recovery from existing oil fields, and more reliable reserve calculations.

  17. Geologic Framework Model (GFM2000)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    T. Vogt


    The purpose of this report is to document the geologic framework model, version GFM2000 with regard to input data, modeling methods, assumptions, uncertainties, limitations, and validation of the model results, and the differences between GFM2000 and previous versions. The version number of this model reflects the year during which the model was constructed. This model supersedes the previous model version, documented in Geologic Framework Model (GFM 3.1) (CRWMS M&O 2000 [DIRS 138860]). The geologic framework model represents a three-dimensional interpretation of the geology surrounding the location of the monitored geologic repository for spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste at Yucca Mountain. The geologic framework model encompasses and is limited to an area of 65 square miles (168 square kilometers) and a volume of 185 cubic miles (771 cubic kilometers). The boundaries of the geologic framework model (shown in Figure 1-1) were chosen to encompass the exploratory boreholes and to provide a geologic framework over the area of interest for hydrologic flow and radionuclide transport modeling through the unsaturated zone (UZ). The upper surface of the model is made up of the surface topography and the depth of the model is constrained by the inferred depth of the Tertiary-Paleozoic unconformity. The geologic framework model was constructed from geologic map and borehole data. Additional information from measured stratigraphic sections, gravity profiles, and seismic profiles was also considered. The intended use of the geologic framework model is to provide a geologic framework over the area of interest consistent with the level of detailed needed for hydrologic flow and radionuclide transport modeling through the UZ and for repository design. The model is limited by the availability of data and relative amount of geologic complexity found in an area. The geologic framework model is inherently limited by scale and content. The grid spacing used in the

  18. Data Integration for the Generation of High Resolution Reservoir Models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albert Reynolds; Dean Oliver; Gaoming Li; Yong Zhao; Chaohui Che; Kai Zhang; Yannong Dong; Chinedu Abgalaka; Mei Han


    The goal of this three-year project was to develop a theoretical basis and practical technology for the integration of geologic, production and time-lapse seismic data in a way that makes best use of the information for reservoir description and reservoir performance predictions. The methodology and practical tools for data integration that were developed in this research project have been incorporated into computational algorithms that are feasible for large scale reservoir simulation models. As the integration of production and seismic data require calibrating geological/geostatistical models to these data sets, the main computational tool is an automatic history matching algorithm. The following specific goals were accomplished during this research. (1) We developed algorithms for calibrating the location of the boundaries of geologic facies and the distribution of rock properties so that production and time-lapse seismic data are honored. (2) We developed and implemented specific procedures for conditioning reservoir models to time-lapse seismic data. (3) We developed and implemented algorithms for the characterization of measurement errors which are needed to determine the relative weights of data when conditioning reservoir models to production and time-lapse seismic data by automatic history matching. (4) We developed and implemented algorithms for the adjustment of relative permeability curves during the history matching process. (5) We developed algorithms for production optimization which accounts for geological uncertainty within the context of closed-loop reservoir management. (6) To ensure the research results will lead to practical public tools for independent oil companies, as part of the project we built a graphical user interface for the reservoir simulator and history matching software using Visual Basic.

  19. Spatial Stochastic Point Models for Reservoir Characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Syversveen, Anne Randi


    The main part of this thesis discusses stochastic modelling of geology in petroleum reservoirs. A marked point model is defined for objects against a background in a two-dimensional vertical cross section of the reservoir. The model handles conditioning on observations from more than one well for each object and contains interaction between objects, and the objects have the correct length distribution when penetrated by wells. The model is developed in a Bayesian setting. The model and the simulation algorithm are demonstrated by means of an example with simulated data. The thesis also deals with object recognition in image analysis, in a Bayesian framework, and with a special type of spatial Cox processes called log-Gaussian Cox processes. In these processes, the logarithm of the intensity function is a Gaussian process. The class of log-Gaussian Cox processes provides flexible models for clustering. The distribution of such a process is completely characterized by the intensity and the pair correlation function of the Cox process. 170 refs., 37 figs., 5 tabs.

  20. Geological Characterisation of Depleted Oil and Gas Reservoirs for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The reservoir depth of at least 800 m, porosity and permeability of more than 10 percent and 20 mD, and a caprock thickness of at least 10 m, in addition to geothermal gradients of 13.46 to 33.66oC /km are the ideal conditions for the efficacy of storage. Comparison of the derived reservoir and seal properties such as ...

  1. Influence of Chemical, Mechanical, and Transport Processes on Wellbore Leakage from Geologic CO2Storage Reservoirs. (United States)

    Carroll, Susan A; Iyer, Jaisree; Walsh, Stuart D C


    Wells are considered to be high-risk pathways for fluid leakage from geologic CO 2 storage reservoirs, because breaches in this engineered system have the potential to connect the reservoir to groundwater resources and the atmosphere. Given these concerns, a few studies have assessed leakage risk by evaluating regulatory records, often self-reported, documenting leakage in gas fields. Leakage is thought to be governed largely by initial well-construction quality and the method of well abandonment. The geologic carbon storage community has raised further concerns because acidic fluids in the CO 2 storage reservoir, alkaline cement meant to isolate the reservoir fluids from the overlying strata, and steel casings in wells are inherently reactive systems. This is of particular concern for storage of CO 2 in depleted oil and gas reservoirs with numerous legacy wells engineered to variable standards. Research suggests that leakage risks are not as great as initially perceived because chemical and mechanical alteration of cement has the capacity to seal damaged zones. Our work centers on defining the coupled chemical and mechanical processes governing flow in damaged zones in wells. We have developed process-based models, constrained by experiments, to better understand and forecast leakage risk. Leakage pathways can be sealed by precipitation of carbonate minerals in the fractures and deformation of the reacted cement. High reactivity of cement hydroxides releases excess calcium that can precipitate as carbonate solids in the fracture network under low brine flow rates. If the flow is fast, then the brine remains undersaturated with respect to the solubility of calcium carbonate minerals, and zones depleted in calcium hydroxides, enriched in calcium carbonate precipitates, and made of amorphous silicates leached of original cement minerals are formed. Under confining pressure, the reacted cement is compressed, which reduces permeability and lowers leakage risks. The

  2. Reservoir Model Information System: REMIS (United States)

    Lee, Sang Yun; Lee, Kwang-Wu; Rhee, Taehyun; Neumann, Ulrich


    We describe a novel data visualization framework named Reservoir Model Information System (REMIS) for the display of complex and multi-dimensional data sets in oil reservoirs. It is aimed at facilitating visual exploration and analysis of data sets as well as user collaboration in an easier way. Our framework consists of two main modules: the data access point module and the data visualization module. For the data access point module, the Phrase-Driven Grammar System (PDGS) is adopted for helping users facilitate the visualization of data. It integrates data source applications and external visualization tools and allows users to formulate data query and visualization descriptions by selecting graphical icons in a menu or on a map with step-by-step visual guidance. For the data visualization module, we implemented our first prototype of an interactive volume viewer named REMVR to classify and to visualize geo-spatial specific data sets. By combining PDGS and REMVR, REMIS assists users better in describing visualizations and exploring data so that they can easily find desired data and explore interesting or meaningful relationships including trends and exceptions in oil reservoir model data.

  3. Paleogeographic evolution of carbonate reservoirs: geological and geophysical analysis at the Albian Campos Basin, Brazil (United States)

    Castillo Vincentelli, Maria Gabriela; Favoreto, Julia; Roemers-Oliveira, Eduardo


    An integrated geophysical and geological analysis of a carbonate reservoir can offer an effective method to better understand the paleogeographical evolution and distribution of a geological reservoir and non-reservoir facies. Therefore, we propose a better method for obtaining geological facies from geophysical facies, helping to characterize the permo-porous system of this kind of play. The goal is to determine the main geological phases from a specific hydrocarbon producer (Albian Campos Basin, Brazil). The applied method includes the use of a petrographic and qualitative description from the integrated reservoir with seismic interpretation of an attribute map (energy, root mean square, mean amplitude, maximum negative amplitude, etc), all calculated at the Albian level for each of the five identified phases. The studied carbonate reservoir is approximately 6 km long with a main direction of NE–SW, and it was sub-divided as follows (from bottom to top): (1) the first depositional sequence of the bank was composed mainly of packstone, indicating that the local structure adjacent to the main bank is protected from environmental conditions; (2) characterized by the presence of grainstone developed at the higher structure; (3) the main sequence of the peloidal packstone with mudstones oncoids; (4) corresponds to the oil production of carbonate reservoirs formed by oolitic grainstone deposited at the top of the carbonate bank; at this phase, rising sea levels formed channels that connected the open sea shelf with the restricted circulation shelf; and (5) mudstone and wackestone represent the system’s flooding phase.

  4. Integration of dynamical data in a geostatistical model of reservoir; Integration des donnees dynamiques dans un modele geostatistique de reservoir

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa Reis, L.


    We have developed in this thesis a methodology of integrated characterization of heterogeneous reservoirs, from geologic modeling to history matching. This methodology is applied to the reservoir PBR, situated in Campos Basin, offshore Brazil, which has been producing since June 1979. This work is an extension of two other thesis concerning geologic and geostatistical modeling of the reservoir PBR from well data and seismic information. We extended the geostatistical litho-type model to the whole reservoir by using a particular approach of the non-stationary truncated Gaussian simulation method. This approach facilitated the application of the gradual deformation method to history matching. The main stages of the methodology for dynamic data integration in a geostatistical reservoir model are presented. We constructed a reservoir model and the initial difficulties in the history matching led us to modify some choices in the geological, geostatistical and flow models. These difficulties show the importance of dynamic data integration in reservoir modeling. The petrophysical property assignment within the litho-types was done by using well test data. We used an inversion procedure to evaluate the petrophysical parameters of the litho-types. The up-scaling is a necessary stage to reduce the flow simulation time. We compared several up-scaling methods and we show that the passage from the fine geostatistical model to the coarse flow model should be done very carefully. The choice of the fitting parameter depends on the objective of the study. In the case of the reservoir PBR, where water is injected in order to improve the oil recovery, the water rate of the producing wells is directly related to the reservoir heterogeneity. Thus, the water rate was chosen as the fitting parameter. We obtained significant improvements in the history matching of the reservoir PBR. First, by using a method we have proposed, called patchwork. This method allows us to built a coherent

  5. Verification of geological/engineering model in waterflood areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, B.; Szpakiewicz, M.; Honarpour, M.; Schatzinger, R.A.; Tillman, R.


    The construction of a detailed geological/engineering model is the basis for development of the methodology for characterizing reservoir heterogeneity. The NIPER geological/engineering model is the subject of this report. The area selected for geological and production performance studies is a four-section area within the Powder River Basin which includes the Tertiary Incentive Project (TIP) pilot. Log, well test, production, and core data were acquired for construction of the geological model of a barrier island reservoir. In this investigation, emphasis was on the synthesis and quantification of the abundant geological information acquired from the literature and field studies (subsurface and outcrop) by mapping the geological heterogeneities that influence fluid flow. The geological model was verified by comparing it with the exceptionally complete production data available for Bell Creek field. This integration of new and existing information from various geological, geophysical, and engineering disciplines has enabled better definition of the heterogeneities that influence production during different recovery operations. 16 refs., 26 figs., 6 tabs.

  6. Metrics to assess the mitigation of global warming by carbon capture and storage in the ocean and in geological reservoirs


    Haugan, Peter Mosby; Joos, Fortunat


    Different metrics to assess mitigation of global warming by carbon capture and storage are discussed. The climatic impact of capturing 30% of the anthropogenic carbon emission and its storage in the ocean or in geological reservoir are evaluated for different stabilization scenarios using a reduced-form carbon cycle-climate model. The accumulated Global Warming Avoided (GWA) remains, after a ramp-up during the first ~50 years, in the range of 15 to 30% over the next millennium for de...

  7. Simulation of muon radiography for monitoring CO$_2$ stored in a geological reservoir

    CERN Document Server

    Klinger, J; Coleman, M; Gluyas, J G; Kudryavtsev, V A; Lincoln, D L; Pal, S; Paling, S M; Spooner, N J C; Telfer, S; Thompson, L F; Woodward, D


    Current methods of monitoring subsurface CO$_2$, such as repeat seismic surveys, are episodic and require highly skilled personnel to acquire the data. Simulations based on simplified models have previously shown that muon radiography could be automated to continuously monitor CO$_2$ injection and migration, in addition to reducing the overall cost of monitoring. In this paper, we present a simulation of the monitoring of CO$_2$ plume evolution in a geological reservoir using muon radiography. The stratigraphy in the vicinity of a nominal test facility is modelled using geological data, and a numerical fluid flow model is used to describe the time evolution of the CO$_2$ plume. A planar detection region with a surface area of 1000 m$^2$ is considered, at a vertical depth of 776 m below the seabed. We find that one year of constant CO$_2$ injection leads to changes in the column density of $\\lesssim 1\\%$, and that the CO$_2$ plume is already resolvable with an exposure time of less than 50 days.

  8. Geochemical modeling of water-gas-rock interactions. Application to mineral diagenesis in geologic reservoirs; Modelisation geochimique des interactions eau-gaz-roche. Application a la diagenese minerale dans les reservoirs geologiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bildstein, O.


    The Ph.D. report describes a conceptual and numerical model for simulating gas-water-rock interaction during mineral diagenesis of sediments. The main specific features of this model are the following: applicable to open systems, half-implicit resolution numerical method, feedback on the texture evolution (grain model), existence of a gas phase, oxido-reduction phenomena. (author) 217 refs.

  9. Putting the geology back into Earth models (United States)

    McCaffrey, K.; Imber, J.; Holdsworth, R.; Clegg, P.; de Paola, N.; Jones, R.; Hobbs, R.; Holliman, N.


    Geological architectures span at least 12 orders of magnitude length-scale from individual microstructures to lithospheric plates. Traditional paper-based geological mapping and fieldwork techniques have not been able to accurately capture the geospatial properties of mesoscale features in surface outcrops. In addition, geophysical imaging of the subsurface is poor at these length scales. This lack of fine-scale spatial precision has meant that the superbly detailed lithological units and structures we see in surface outcrops have not been integrated directly into predictive numerical and analogue models. As a result, models created to simulate mesoscale geology are currently not well calibrated to natural datasets and it is therefore difficult to demonstrate even partial confirmation of predictive, three dimensional (3D) models. This creates significant problems for industrial users interested in the extraction or storage of fluids in subsurface reservoirs, since accurate predictions of these processes rely critically on a complete 3D understanding of the subsurface mesoscale geology. Terrestrial laser scanners and Real Time Kinematic (RTK) GPS units are the principal tools used to capture digital data from surface outcrops. Automatic data collection involves scanning the outcrop surface with a laser to capture the topography with a cm-spaced grid of spatial coordinates in x,y and z. Using built-in digital cameras, the most recent laser scanners collect registered photographs that allow the software to colour the points to match the outcrop, and produce a photo-realistic 3D image. Laser scanning works best on cliff sections or in mines and quarries where the scanner can be placed directly in front of the outcrop. With RTK GPS data collection, any measurable attribute (surface dip, strike, lithology) can be recorded together with the spatial coordinates at a user-controlled sample spacing down to c. 5 cm. As the method is GPS-based, it works best on sub

  10. Development of luminescent bacteria as tracers for geological reservoir characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, J.W.


    Bioluminescent cultures were acquired and tested for use as biological tracers for reservoir characterization by small independent oil companies. Initially these bacterial cultures were fastidious to work with, but when we finally determined their critical growth parameters simple test variations were developed that could be routinely accomplished. The intensity of their luminescence is easily distinguished by the human eye and requires no sophisticated technical knowledge or instrumentation. Cultures were received from culture banks and collected from marine environments. In our laboratory they were screened using the criteria of optimum growth and luminescence. Three stock cultures proved to grow profusely even when variations were made in nutrient additions, salts, and temperature. These three selected cultures were not inhibited when introduced to formations and formation waters and were not overgrown by other bacteria. Cultures isolated from the Gulf of Mexico were overgrown by indigenous bacteria and therefore, they were eliminated from further screening and adaption. Experiments were performed according to three major task descriptions: 1. Establish growth and luminescencing limitations of selected bacteria in various media, varying salt concentration and temperature. 2. Adapt cultures to formation waters. 3. Determine transport limitations of bioluminescent bacteria through representative reservoir cores. 19 refs., 5 figs., 7 tabs.

  11. Nonlinear Model Predictive Control for Oil Reservoirs Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Capolei, Andrea

    . The controller consists of -A model based optimizer for maximizing some predicted financial measure of the reservoir (e.g. the net present value). -A parameter and state estimator. -Use of the moving horizon principle for data assimilation and implementation of the computed control input. The optimizer uses...... Optimization has been suggested to compensate for inherent geological uncertainties in an oil field. In robust optimization of an oil reservoir, the water injection and production borehole pressures are computed such that the predicted net present value of an ensemble of permeability field realizations...

  12. [Summer Greenhouse Gases Exchange Flux Across Water-air Interface in Three Water Reservoirs Located in Different Geologic Setting in Guangxi, China]. (United States)

    Li, Jian-hong; Pu, Jun-bing; Sun, Ping-an; Yuan, Dao-xian; Liu, Wen; Zhang, Tao; Mo, Xue


    Due to special hydrogeochemical characteristics of calcium-rich, alkaline and DIC-rich ( dissolved inorganic carbon) environment controlled by the weathering products from carbonate rock, the exchange characteristics, processes and controlling factors of greenhouse gas (CO2 and CH4) across water-air interface in karst water reservoir show obvious differences from those of non-karst water reservoir. Three water reservoirs (Dalongdong reservoir-karst reservoir, Wulixia reservoir--semi karst reservoir, Si'anjiang reservoir-non-karst reservoir) located in different geologic setting in Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, China were chosen to reveal characteristics and controlling factors of greenhouse gas exchange flux across water-air interface. Two common approaches, floating chamber (FC) and thin boundary layer models (TBL), were employed to research and contrast greenhouse gas exchange flux across water-air interface from three reservoirs. The results showed that: (1) surface-layer water in reservoir area and discharging water under dam in Dalongdong water reservoir were the source of atmospheric CO2 and CH4. Surface-layer water in reservoir area in Wulixia water reservoir was the sink of atmospheric CO2 and the source of atmospheric CH4, while discharging water under dam was the source of atmospheric CO2 and CH4. Surface-layer water in Si'anjiang water reservoir was the sink of atmospheric CO2 and source of atmospheric CH4. (2) CO2 and CH4 effluxes in discharging water under dam were much more than those in surface-layer water in reservoir area regardless of karst reservoir or non karst reservoir. Accordingly, more attention should be paid to the CO2 and CH4 emission from discharging water under dam. (3) In the absence of submerged soil organic matters and plants, the difference of CH4 effluxes between karst groundwater-fed reservoir ( Dalongdong water reservoir) and non-karst area ( Wulixia water reservoir and Si'anjiang water reservoir) was less. However, CO2

  13. Geophysical assessments of renewable gas energy compressed in geologic pore storage reservoirs. (United States)

    Al Hagrey, Said Attia; Köhn, Daniel; Rabbel, Wolfgang


    Renewable energy resources can indisputably minimize the threat of global warming and climate change. However, they are intermittent and need buffer storage to bridge the time-gap between production (off peak) and demand peaks. Based on geologic and geochemical reasons, the North German Basin has a very large capacity for compressed air/gas energy storage CAES in porous saltwater aquifers and salt cavities. Replacing pore reservoir brine with CAES causes changes in physical properties (elastic moduli, density and electrical properties) and justify applications of integrative geophysical methods for monitoring this energy storage. Here we apply techniques of the elastic full waveform inversion FWI, electric resistivity tomography ERT and gravity to map and quantify a gradually saturated gas plume injected in a thin deep saline aquifer within the North German Basin. For this subsurface model scenario we generated different synthetic data sets without and with adding random noise in order to robust the applied techniques for the real field applications. Datasets are inverted by posing different constraints on the initial model. Results reveal principally the capability of the applied integrative geophysical approach to resolve the CAES targets (plume, host reservoir, and cap rock). Constrained inversion models of elastic FWI and ERT are even able to recover well the gradual gas desaturation with depth. The spatial parameters accurately recovered from each technique are applied in the adequate petrophysical equations to yield precise quantifications of gas saturations. Resulting models of gas saturations independently determined from elastic FWI and ERT techniques are in accordance with each other and with the input (true) saturation model. Moreover, the gravity technique show high sensitivity to the mass deficit resulting from the gas storage and can resolve saturations and temporal saturation changes down to ±3% after reducing any shallow fluctuation such as that of

  14. Static reservoir modeling of the Bahariya reservoirs for the oilfields development in South Umbarka area, Western Desert, Egypt (United States)

    Abdel-Fattah, Mohamed I.; Metwalli, Farouk I.; Mesilhi, El Sayed I.


    3D static reservoir modeling of the Bahariya reservoirs using seismic and wells data can be a relevant part of an overall strategy for the oilfields development in South Umbarka area (Western Desert, Egypt). The seismic data is used to build the 3D grid, including fault sticks for the fault modeling, and horizon interpretations and surfaces for horizon modeling. The 3D grid is the digital representation of the structural geology of Bahariya Formation. When we got a reasonably accurate representation, we fill the 3D grid with facies and petrophysical properties to simulate it, to gain a more precise understanding of the reservoir properties behavior. Sequential Indicator Simulation (SIS) and Sequential Gaussian Simulation (SGS) techniques are the stochastic algorithms used to spatially distribute discrete reservoir properties (facies) and continuous reservoir properties (shale volume, porosity, and water saturation) respectively within the created 3D grid throughout property modeling. The structural model of Bahariya Formation exhibits the trapping mechanism which is a fault assisted anticlinal closure trending NW-SE. This major fault breaks the reservoirs into two major fault blocks (North Block and South Block). Petrophysical models classified Lower Bahariya reservoir as a moderate to good reservoir rather than Upper Bahariya reservoir in terms of facies, with good porosity and permeability, low water saturation, and moderate net to gross. The Original Oil In Place (OOIP) values of modeled Bahariya reservoirs show hydrocarbon accumulation in economic quantity, considering the high structural dips at the central part of South Umbarka area. The powerful of 3D static modeling technique has provided a considerable insight into the future prediction of Bahariya reservoirs performance and production behavior.

  15. 3D Geological Model for "LUSI" - a Deep Geothermal System (United States)

    Sohrabi, Reza; Jansen, Gunnar; Mazzini, Adriano; Galvan, Boris; Miller, Stephen A.


    Geothermal applications require the correct simulation of flow and heat transport processes in porous media, and many of these media, like deep volcanic hydrothermal systems, host a certain degree of fracturing. This work aims to understand the heat and fluid transport within a new-born sedimentary hosted geothermal system, termed Lusi, that began erupting in 2006 in East Java, Indonesia. Our goal is to develop conceptual and numerical models capable of simulating multiphase flow within large-scale fractured reservoirs such as the Lusi region, with fractures of arbitrary size, orientation and shape. Additionally, these models can also address a number of other applications, including Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS), CO2 sequestration (Carbon Capture and Storage CCS), and nuclear waste isolation. Fractured systems are ubiquitous, with a wide-range of lengths and scales, making difficult the development of a general model that can easily handle this complexity. We are developing a flexible continuum approach with an efficient, accurate numerical simulator based on an appropriate 3D geological model representing the structure of the deep geothermal reservoir. Using previous studies, borehole information and seismic data obtained in the framework of the Lusi Lab project (ERC grant n°308126), we present here the first 3D geological model of Lusi. This model is calculated using implicit 3D potential field or multi-potential fields, depending on the geological context and complexity. This method is based on geological pile containing the geological history of the area and relationship between geological bodies allowing automatic computation of intersections and volume reconstruction. Based on the 3D geological model, we developed a new mesh algorithm to create hexahedral octree meshes to transfer the structural geological information for 3D numerical simulations to quantify Thermal-Hydraulic-Mechanical-Chemical (THMC) physical processes.

  16. Discovery and reservoir-forming geological characteristics of the Shenmu Gas Field in the Ordos Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua Yang


    Full Text Available By the end of 2014, the giant Shenmu Gas Field had been found in the Ordos Basin with an explored gas-bearing area of 4069 km2 and the proved geological gas reserves of 333.4 billion m3. This paper aims to review the exploration history of this field and discusses its reservoir-forming mechanism and geological characteristics, which may guide the further discovery and exploration of such similar gas fields in this basin and other basins. The following research findings were concluded. (1 There are typical tight sand gas reservoirs in this field primarily with the pay zones of the Upper Paleozoic Taiyuan Fm, and secondly with those of the Shanxi and Shihezi Fms. (2 Gas types are dominated by coal gas with an average methane content of 88% and no H2S content. (3 The gas reservoirs were buried 1700–2800 m deep underneath with multiple pressure systems and an average pressure coefficient of 0.87. (4 The reservoir strata are composed of fluvial delta facies sandstones with an average porosity of 7.8% and permeability of 0.63 mD, having high pressure sensibility and a strong water-locking effect because the pore throat radius are mostly less than 1 μm. (5 There are different dynamics at various stages in the gas reservoir-forming process. The abnormal well-developed strata pressure was the main reservoir-forming force at the Early Cretaceous setting stage while the fluid expansibility became the main gas-migrating force at the uplift and denudation stage after the Early Cretaceous period. (6 Gas reservoirs with ultra-low water saturation are mainly controlled by many factors such as changes of high temperature and high pressure fields in the Late Jurassic and Early Cretaceous periods, the charging of dry gas at the highly-mature stage, and the gas escape and dissipation at the post-reservoir-forming periods. (7 Natural gas migrated and accumulated vertically in a shortcutting path to form gas reservoirs. At such areas near the source rocks

  17. The geological effect of direct exploring the hydrocarbon reservoir in Chaidamu basin using airborne magnetic survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luling, L.; Yongxia, Z.; Fuhong, Z.


    There are good geological and geophysical conditions for airborne magnetic survey in Chaidamu basin because there is no igneous rock in sedimentary formation, and a little civilization interference in the basin. The upmigrated hydrocarbon from reservoir caused chemical reaction in overburden to form magnetite, which results in magnetic anomaly. The minimum altitude airborne magnetic survey (with large scale and high accuracy) mapped weak magnetic anomaly which covers a large area. It has been proved that the weak magnetic anomaly is related to hydrocarbon accumulation. This experience can also be used in other sedimentary basins in Northwest China which have analogous geological and geophysical conditions.

  18. Integrated methodology for constructing a quantified hydrodynamic model for application to clastic petroleum reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Honarpour, M. M.; Schatzinger, R. A.; Szpakiewicz, M. J.; Jackson, S. R.; Sharma, B.; Tomutsa, L.; Chang, M. M.


    A comprehensive, multidisciplinary, stepwise methodology is developed for constructing and integration geological and engineering information for predicting petroleum reservoir performance. This methodology is based on our experience in characterizing shallow marine reservoirs, but it should also apply to other deposystems. The methodology is presented as Part 1 of this report. Three major tasks that must be studied to facilitate a systematic approach for constructing a predictive hydrodynamic model for petroleum reservoirs are addressed: (1) data collection, organization, evaluation, and integration; (2) hydrodynamic model construction and verification; and (3) prediction and ranking of reservoir parameters by numerical simulation using data derived from the model. 39 refs., 62 figs., 13 tabs.

  19. Evaluation of Gaussian approximations for data assimilation in reservoir models

    KAUST Repository

    Iglesias, Marco A.


    The Bayesian framework is the standard approach for data assimilation in reservoir modeling. This framework involves characterizing the posterior distribution of geological parameters in terms of a given prior distribution and data from the reservoir dynamics, together with a forward model connecting the space of geological parameters to the data space. Since the posterior distribution quantifies the uncertainty in the geologic parameters of the reservoir, the characterization of the posterior is fundamental for the optimal management of reservoirs. Unfortunately, due to the large-scale highly nonlinear properties of standard reservoir models, characterizing the posterior is computationally prohibitive. Instead, more affordable ad hoc techniques, based on Gaussian approximations, are often used for characterizing the posterior distribution. Evaluating the performance of those Gaussian approximations is typically conducted by assessing their ability at reproducing the truth within the confidence interval provided by the ad hoc technique under consideration. This has the disadvantage of mixing up the approximation properties of the history matching algorithm employed with the information content of the particular observations used, making it hard to evaluate the effect of the ad hoc approximations alone. In this paper, we avoid this disadvantage by comparing the ad hoc techniques with a fully resolved state-of-the-art probing of the Bayesian posterior distribution. The ad hoc techniques whose performance we assess are based on (1) linearization around the maximum a posteriori estimate, (2) randomized maximum likelihood, and (3) ensemble Kalman filter-type methods. In order to fully resolve the posterior distribution, we implement a state-of-the art Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) method that scales well with respect to the dimension of the parameter space, enabling us to study realistic forward models, in two space dimensions, at a high level of grid refinement. Our

  20. Imaging Reservoir Quality: Seismic Signatures of Geologic Processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Department of Geophysics


    Lithofacies successions from diverse depositional environments show distinctive patterns in various rock-physics planes (velocity-porosity, velocity-density and porosity-clay). Four clear examples of decameter-scale lithofacies sequences are documented in this study: (1) Micocene fluvial deposits show an inverted-V pattern indicative of dispersed fabric, (2) a fining-upward sequence of mud-rich deep deposits shows a linear trend associated with laminated sand-clay mixtures, (3) sand-rich deposits show a pattern resulting from the scarcity of mixed lithofacies, and (4) a coarsening-upward sequence shows evidence of both dispersed and horizontally laminated mixed lithofacies, with predominating dispersed mixtures generated by bioturbation. It was observed that carbonate-cemented sandstones are extremely heterogeneous in the project deep-water study area. Those from the base of incisions are usually associated with lower shaliness, lower porosity and higher P-impedance, while from the top of flooding surfaces exhibit higher shaliness, higher porosity and lower P-impedance. One rock physics model that captures the observed impedance-porosity trend is the 'stiff-sand model'. For this model, the high-porosity end-member is unconsolidated sand whose initial porosity is a function of sorting and shaliness, while the low-porosity end-member is solid mineral. These two end points are joined with a Hashin-Shtrikman equation. A systematic variation of quartz:clay ratio from proximal to distal locations was observed in the study area even within a single facies. The quartz:clay ratio changes from [0.5:0.5] to [1:0] along the direction of flow, based on the trends of P-impedance vs. porosity as predicted by the rock model for uncemented sands. The results are in agreement with spill-and-fill sequence stratigraphic model in mini-basin setting. In addition, porosity at the distal location ({approx}25 % to 35%) is higher than the porosity at the proximal location ({approx

  1. Drone photogrammetry for geological research: field digital stratigraphic logs for turbiditic reservoir analog studies in Calabria, Southern Italy. (United States)

    Guillois, Maxime; Brocheray, Sandra; Paron, Paolo


    Drone technology combined with new algorithms like Structure from Motion (SfM) has revived and expanded the uses of photogrammetry bringing new flexibility and the capacity to carry on close range photogrammetry to inaccessible areas. This characteristics are particularly appealing in field geology offering the option to reconstruct continuous digital outcrop models of vertical or difficult to reach outcrops. In this light we present the results of a digital outcrop modelling of a Miocene turbiditic system (mainly sandstone) in Calabria (Southern Italy) generated through field data collected by means of a light-weight commercial drone, a detailed geological field survey and cloud point photogrammetric analyses comparing different software for this purpose (Agisoft Photoscan, Drone deploy, Arc3D). The geological model has been used as an input for preliminary reservoir modelling. We generated digital geological sections (stratigraphic logs) of 1,200 m of sections using expert digital image and terrain model interprepation from the DTM generated with drone data, with the goal to reconstruct the real thickness of each layer. We then compared the results with previously created detailed field geological cross sections. The comparison between drone-derived sections and field-survey sections shows a global accuracy of the thickness ranging between 1% to 10%. Although this new methodology still has to be validated in other morpho-lithological context it already demonstrating its usefulness for preliminary geological outcrop investigation and modelling in remote areas. We also compared the different softwares used and we made recommendations for future deployment. This research has been made possible thanks to a collaboration between UNESCO-IHE, The Netherlands, and UniLaSalle Beauvais, France.

  2. Geological and petrophysical characterization of the Ferron Sandstone for 3-D simulation of a fluvial-deltaic reservoir. Technical progress report, January 1, 1995--March 31, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allison, M.L.


    The objective of this project is to develop a comprehensive, interdisciplinary, and quantitative characterization of a fluvial-deltaic reservoir which will allow realistic inter-well and reservoir-scale modeling to be developed for improved oil-field development in similar reservoirs world-wide. The geological and petrophysical properties of the Cretaceous Ferron Sandstone in east-central Utah will be quantitatively determined. Both new and existing data will be integrated into a three-dimensional representation of spatial variations in porosity, storativity, and tensorial rock permeability at a scale appropriate for inter-well to regional-scale reservoir simulation. Results could improve reservoir management through proper infill and extension drilling strategies, reduction of economic risks, increased recovery from existing oil fields, and more reliable reserve calculations. Transfer of the project results to the petroleum industry is an integral component of the project.

  3. Geological and petrophysical characterization of the Ferron Sandstone for 3-D simulation of a fluvial-deltaic reservoir. Annual report, October 1, 1995--September 30, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chidsey, T.C. Jr.


    The objective of the Ferron Sandstone project is to develop a comprehensive, interdisciplinary, quantitative characterization of a fluvial-deltaic reservoir to allow realistic inter-well and reservoir-scale models to be developed for improved oil-field development in similar reservoirs world-wide. Quantitative geological and petrophysical information on the Cretaceous Ferron Sandstone in east-central Utah was collected. Both new and existing data is being integrated into a three-dimensional model of spatial variations in porosity, storativity, and tensorial rock permeability at a scale appropriate for inter-well to regional-scale reservoir simulation. Simulation results could improve reservoir management through proper infill and extension drilling strategies, reduction of economic risks, increased recovery from existing oil fields, and more reliable reserve calculations. Transfer of the project results to the petroleum industry is an integral component of the project. This report covers research activities for fiscal year 1995-96, the third year of the project. Most work consisted of interpreting the large quantity of data collected over two field seasons. The project is divided into four tasks: (1) regional stratigraphic analysis, (2) case studies, (3) reservoirs models, and (4) field-scale evaluation of exploration strategies. The primary objective of the regional stratigraphic analysis is to provide a more detailed interpretation of the stratigraphy and gross reservoir characteristics of the Ferron Sandstone as exposed in outcrop. The primary objective of the case-studies work is to develop a detailed geological and petrophysical characterization, at well-sweep scale or smaller, of the primary reservoir lithofacies typically found in a fluvial-dominated deltaic reservoir.

  4. The Potosi Reservoir Model 2014

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Valerie; Adushita, Yasmin; Leetaru, Hannes


    As a part of a larger project co-funded by the United States Department of Energy (US DOE) to evaluate the potential of formations within the Cambro-Ordovician strata above the Mt. Simon Sandstone as potential targets for carbon sequestration in the Illinois and Michigan Basins, the Illinois State Geological Survey (ISGS) requested Schlumberger to evaluate the potential injectivity and carbon dioxide (CO2) plume size of the Cambrian Potosi Formation. The evaluation of this formation was accomplished using wireline data, core data, pressure data, and seismic data from this project as well as two other separately funded projects: the United States Department of Energy-funded Illinois Basin – Decatur Project (IBDP) being conducted by the Midwest Geological Sequestration Consortium (MGSC) in Macon County, Illinois, and the Illinois Industrial Carbon Capture and Sequestration (IL-ICCS) project funded through the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act.

  5. Maximizing Storage Rate and Capacity and Insuring the Environmental Integrity of Carbon Dioxide Sequestration in Geological Reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L.A. Davis; A.L. Graham; H.W. Parker; J.R. Abbott; M.S. Ingber; A.A. Mammoli; L.A. Mondy; Quanxin Guo; Ahmed Abou-Sayed


    Maximizing Storage Rate and Capacity and Insuring the Environmental Integrity of Carbon Dioxide Sequestration in Geological Formations The U.S. and other countries may enter into an agreement that will require a significant reduction in CO2 emissions in the medium to long term. In order to achieve such goals without drastic reductions in fossil fuel usage, CO2 must be removed from the atmosphere and be stored in acceptable reservoirs. The research outlined in this proposal deals with developing a methodology to determine the suitability of a particular geologic formation for the long-term storage of CO2 and technologies for the economical transfer and storage of CO2 in these formations. A novel well-logging technique using nuclear-magnetic resonance (NMR) will be developed to characterize the geologic formation including the integrity and quality of the reservoir seal (cap rock). Well-logging using NMR does not require coring, and hence, can be performed much more quickly and efficiently. The key element in the economical transfer and storage of the CO2 is hydraulic fracturing the formation to achieve greater lateral spreads and higher throughputs of CO2. Transport, compression, and drilling represent the main costs in CO2 sequestration. The combination of well-logging and hydraulic fracturing has the potential of minimizing these costs. It is possible through hydraulic fracturing to reduce the number of injection wells by an order of magnitude. Many issues will be addressed as part of the proposed research to maximize the storage rate and capacity and insure the environmental integrity of CO2 sequestration in geological formations. First, correlations between formation properties and NMR relaxation times will be firmly established. A detailed experimental program will be conducted to determine these correlations. Second, improved hydraulic fracturing models will be developed which are suitable for CO2 sequestration as opposed to enhanced oil recovery (EOR

  6. Local Refinement of the Super Element Model of Oil Reservoir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.B. Mazo


    Full Text Available In this paper, we propose a two-stage method for petroleum reservoir simulation. The method uses two models with different degrees of detailing to describe hydrodynamic processes of different space-time scales. At the first stage, the global dynamics of the energy state of the deposit and reserves is modeled (characteristic scale of such changes is km / year. The two-phase flow equations in the model of global dynamics operate with smooth averaged pressure and saturation fields, and they are solved numerically on a large computational grid of super-elements with a characteristic cell size of 200-500 m. The tensor coefficients of the super-element model are calculated using special procedures of upscaling of absolute and relative phase permeabilities. At the second stage, a local refinement of the super-element model is constructed for calculating small-scale processes (with a scale of m / day, which take place, for example, during various geological and technical measures aimed at increasing the oil recovery of a reservoir. Then we solve the two-phase flow problem in the selected area of the measure exposure on a detailed three-dimensional grid, which resolves the geological structure of the reservoir, and with a time step sufficient for describing fast-flowing processes. The initial and boundary conditions of the local problem are formulated on the basis of the super-element solution. This approach allows us to reduce the computational costs in order to solve the problems of designing and monitoring the oil reservoir. To demonstrate the proposed approach, we give an example of the two-stage modeling of the development of a layered reservoir with a local refinement of the model during the isolation of a water-saturated high-permeability interlayer. We show a good compliance between the locally refined solution of the super-element model in the area of measure exposure and the results of numerical modeling of the whole history of reservoir

  7. Integrated reservoir characterization: Improvement in heterogeneities stochastic modelling by integration of additional external constraints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doligez, B.; Eschard, R. [Institut Francais du Petrole, Rueil Malmaison (France); Geffroy, F. [Centre de Geostatistique, Fontainebleau (France)] [and others


    The classical approach to construct reservoir models is to start with a fine scale geological model which is informed with petrophysical properties. Then scaling-up techniques allow to obtain a reservoir model which is compatible with the fluid flow simulators. Geostatistical modelling techniques are widely used to build the geological models before scaling-up. These methods provide equiprobable images of the area under investigation, which honor the well data, and which variability is the same than the variability computed from the data. At an appraisal phase, when few data are available, or when the wells are insufficient to describe all the heterogeneities and the behavior of the field, additional constraints are needed to obtain a more realistic geological model. For example, seismic data or stratigraphic models can provide average reservoir information with an excellent areal coverage, but with a poor vertical resolution. New advances in modelisation techniques allow now to integrate this type of additional external information in order to constrain the simulations. In particular, 2D or 3D seismic derived information grids, or sand-shale ratios maps coming from stratigraphic models can be used as external drifts to compute the geological image of the reservoir at the fine scale. Examples are presented to illustrate the use of these new tools, their impact on the final reservoir model, and their sensitivity to some key parameters.

  8. Dispersion measurement as a method of quantifying geologic characterization and defining reservoir heterogeneity. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menzie, D.E.


    The main objective of this research project is to investigate dispersion as a method of quantifying geological characterization and defining reservoir heterogeneity in order to enhance crude oil recovery. The dispersion of flow of a reservoir rock (dispersion coefficient and dispersivity) was identified as one of the physical properties of a reservoir rock by measuring the mixing of two miscible fluids, one displacing the other in a porous medium. A rock was 100% saturated with a resident fluid and displaced by a miscible fluid of equal viscosity and equal density. Some specific experiments were performed with unequal densities. Produced fluid was analyzed by refractometer, nuclear reaction, electrical conductivity and X-ray scan. Several physical and flow characteristics were measured on the sand rock sample in order to establish correlations with the measured dispersion property. Absolute permeability, effective porosity, relative permeability, capillary pressure, the heterogeneity factor and electrical conductivity were used to better understand the flow system. Linear, transverse, 2-D and 3-D dispersions were measured and used to characterize the rock heterogeneity of the flow system. A new system of measuring dispersion was developed using a gas displacing gas system in a porous medium. An attempt was also made to determine the dispersion property of an actual reservoir from present day well log data on a producing well. 275 refs., 102 figs., 17 tabs.

  9. Evaluation of field development plans using 3-D reservoir modelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seifert, D.; Lewis, J.J.M. [Heriot-Watt Univ., Edinburgh (United Kingdom); Newbery, J.D.H. [Conoco, UK Ltd., Aberdeen (United Kingdom)] [and others


    Three-dimensional reservoir modelling has become an accepted tool in reservoir description and is used for various purposes, such as reservoir performance prediction or integration and visualisation of data. In this case study, a small Northern North Sea turbiditic reservoir was to be developed with a line drive strategy utilising a series of horizontal producer and injector pairs, oriented north-south. This development plan was to be evaluated and the expected outcome of the wells was to be assessed and risked. Detailed analyses of core, well log and analogue data has led to the development of two geological {open_quotes}end member{close_quotes} scenarios. Both scenarios have been stochastically modelled using the Sequential Indicator Simulation method. The resulting equiprobable realisations have been subjected to detailed statistical well placement optimisation techniques. Based upon bivariate statistical evaluation of more than 1000 numerical well trajectories for each of the two scenarios, it was found that the wells inclinations and lengths had a great impact on the wells success, whereas the azimuth was found to have only a minor impact. After integration of the above results, the actual well paths were redesigned to meet external drilling constraints, resulting in substantial reductions in drilling time and costs.

  10. Geology and petrophysical characterization of the Ferron Sandstone for 3-D simulation of a fluvial-deltaic reservoir. Annual report, October 1, 1996--September 30, 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chidsey, T.C. Jr.; Anderson, P.B.; Morris, T.H.; Dewey, J.A. Jr.; Mattson, A.; Foster, C.B.; Snelgrove, S.H.; Ryer, T.A.


    The objective of the Ferron Sandstone (Utah) project is to develop a comprehensive, interdisciplinary, quantitative characterization of a fluvial-deltaic reservoir to allow realistic interwell and reservoir-scale models to be developed for improved oil-field development in similar reservoirs world-wide. Both new and existing data is being integrated into a 3-D model of spatial variations in porosity, storativity, and tensorial rock permeability at a scale appropriate for inter-well to regional-scale reservoir simulation. Simulation results could improve reservoir management through proper infill and extension drilling strategies, reduction of economic risks, increased recovery from existing oil fields, and more reliable reserve calculations. The project is divided into four tasks: (1) regional stratigraphic analysis, (2) case studies, (3) reservoirs models, and (4) field-scale evaluation of exploration strategies. The primary objective of the regional stratigraphic analysis is to provide a more detailed interpretation of the stratigraphy and gross reservoir characteristics of the Ferron Sandstone as exposed in outcrop. The primary objective of the case-studies work is to develop a detailed geological and petrophysical characterization, at well-sweep scale or smaller, of the primary reservoir lithofacies typically found in a fluvial-dominated deltaic reservoir. Work on tasks 3 and 4 consisted of developing two- and three-dimensional reservoir models at various scales. The bulk of the work on these tasks is being completed primarily during the last year of the project, and is incorporating the data and results of the regional stratigraphic analysis and case-studies tasks.

  11. Geologic Framework Model Analysis Model Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. Clayton


    The purpose of this report is to document the Geologic Framework Model (GFM), Version 3.1 (GFM3.1) with regard to data input, modeling methods, assumptions, uncertainties, limitations, and validation of the model results, qualification status of the model, and the differences between Version 3.1 and previous versions. The GFM represents a three-dimensional interpretation of the stratigraphy and structural features of the location of the potential Yucca Mountain radioactive waste repository. The GFM encompasses an area of 65 square miles (170 square kilometers) and a volume of 185 cubic miles (771 cubic kilometers). The boundaries of the GFM were chosen to encompass the most widely distributed set of exploratory boreholes (the Water Table or WT series) and to provide a geologic framework over the area of interest for hydrologic flow and radionuclide transport modeling through the unsaturated zone (UZ). The depth of the model is constrained by the inferred depth of the Tertiary-Paleozoic unconformity. The GFM was constructed from geologic map and borehole data. Additional information from measured stratigraphy sections, gravity profiles, and seismic profiles was also considered. This interim change notice (ICN) was prepared in accordance with the Technical Work Plan for the Integrated Site Model Process Model Report Revision 01 (CRWMS M&O 2000). The constraints, caveats, and limitations associated with this model are discussed in the appropriate text sections that follow. The GFM is one component of the Integrated Site Model (ISM) (Figure l), which has been developed to provide a consistent volumetric portrayal of the rock layers, rock properties, and mineralogy of the Yucca Mountain site. The ISM consists of three components: (1) Geologic Framework Model (GFM); (2) Rock Properties Model (RPM); and (3) Mineralogic Model (MM). The ISM merges the detailed project stratigraphy into model stratigraphic units that are most useful for the primary downstream models and the

  12. Extracting maximum petrophysical and geological information from a limited reservoir database

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ali, M.; Chawathe, A.; Ouenes, A. [New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology, Socorro, NM (United States)] [and others


    The characterization of old fields lacking sufficient core and log data is a challenging task. This paper describes a methodology that uses new and conventional tools to build a reliable reservoir model for the Sulimar Queen field. At the fine scale, permeability measured on a fine grid with a minipermeameter was used in conjunction with the petrographic data collected on multiple thin sections. The use of regression analysis and a newly developed fuzzy logic algorithm led to the identification of key petrographic elements which control permeability. At the log scale, old gamma ray logs were first rescaled/calibrated throughout the entire field for consistency and reliability using only four modem logs. Using data from one cored well and the rescaled gamma ray logs, correlations between core porosity, permeability, total water content and gamma ray were developed to complete the small scale characterization. At the reservoir scale, outcrop data and the rescaled gamma logs were used to define the reservoir structure over an area of ten square miles where only 36 wells were available. Given the structure, the rescaled gamma ray logs were used to build the reservoir volume by identifying the flow units and their continuity. Finally, history-matching results constrained to the primary production were used to estimate the dynamic reservoir properties such as relative permeabilities to complete the characterization. The obtained reservoir model was tested by forecasting the waterflood performance and which was in good agreement with the actual performance.

  13. Geophysical and geological investigations of subsurface reservoirs : case studies of Spitsbergen, Norway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baelum, Karoline


    The thesis gives a description of the subsurface and outcrop geology at a number of localities on Svalbard through a selection of various geophysical and geological methods. The localities represent a series of geological settings of varying scale, from near surface paleokarst and glacial environments to large scale geological features such as fault zones, grabens and dolerite intrusions. The geophysical and geological methods deployed likewise represent both detailed small scale investigations such as Lidar, radar and geoelectric investigations on and near the surface, and seismic investigations covering larger areas to a depth of several kilometers. The overall aim for all the studies has been to better understand reservoir and cap rock/ice systems in a barren arctic desert characterized by a frozen ground that challenges common geophysical methods. The investigations undertaken in connection with this thesis cover several areas The first part addresses the Billefjorden fault zone (BFZ) with its eastern hanging wall classic rift-basin. This fault zone can be traced for more than 200 km as a lineament that runs almost the entire length of Spitsbergen, from Wijdefjorden in the north to Storfjorden in the south. The seismic data along with surface observations and Lidar scans illustrate the long and complicated history of the BFZ and associated basin, from the initial formation via linkage of reverse faults in the Devonian, through Carboniferous reactivation as a normal fault with adjacent rift-basin in an extensional tectonic regime, to finally Tertiary contraction seen as fault reactivation and basin inversion in connection with the formation of the west-coast fold and thrust-belt. Especially the development of the Carboniferous rift-basin is of interest. An integrated study by seismic and georadar mapping, and Lidar data interpretation combined with outcrop analysis of faults and sedimentary succession, have shed new, detailed information on the good sandstone

  14. Modeling of matrix acidizing process under reservoir conditions (United States)

    Turegeldieva, Karlygash; Assilbekov, Bakhytzhan; Zhapbasbayev, Uzak; Zolotukhin, Anatoly; Bekibaev, Timur; Kenzhebekov, Nurlan; Gubkin Russian State University of oil; gas Collaboration


    Effectiveness of the process depends on the parameters: well choice, geological structure of the reservoir, definition of physical and chemical properties of rocks and fluids, agent choice. There are different mathematical models of the matrix acidizing, including the two scale model. These models describe the process in the core scale and Darcy scale, i.e. in an area with dimensions of several centimeters. It leads to the main problem - how to use these models to the near wellbore scale under reservoir conditions. Some authors have increased the dimensions of the cores in numerical simulations and investigated the influence of the core dimensions to acidizing process. In this paper effort to indirectly solve this problem made. It based on boundary conditions alteration and simultaneous solution of matrix acidizing in damaged zone and reservoir fluid flow models. Furthermore in this work the criterion of the acid injection shut down for optimal breakthrough volume calculation was modified. Influence of boundary conditions on near well-bore zone treatment process was investigated. Science Committee of Ministry of Education and Science of Republic of Kazakhstan.

  15. Quantifying uncertainty of geological 3D layer models, constructed with a-priori geological expertise


    Gunnink, J.J.; Maljers, D.; Hummelman, J.


    Uncertainty quantification of geological models that are constructed with additional geological expert-knowledge is not straightforward. To construct sound geological 3D layer models we use a lot of additional knowledge, with an uncertainty that is hard to quantify. Examples of geological expert knowledge are trend surfaces that display a geological plausible basin, additional points that guide the pinching out of geological formations along its depositional extent, etc. All the added geologi...

  16. modeling of modeling of reservoir in reservoir in artificial neu

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    , optimization maintenance of ... They learn from examples erian Journal of Technology (NIJOTECH) ol. 34 No. 1, January 2015, pp. ... forecasting using ANN model in the Apure river basin in Venezuela. Two types of ANN architectures namely.

  17. On CO2 Behavior in the Subsurface, Following Leakage from aGeologic Storage Reservoir

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pruess, Karsten


    The amounts of CO2 that would need to be injected intogeologic storage reservoirs to achieve a significant reduction ofatmospheric emissions are very large. A 1000 MWe coal-fired power plantemits approximately 30,000 tonnes of CO2 per day, 10 Mt per year(Hitchon, 1996). When injected underground over a typical lifetime of 30years of such a plant, the CO2 plume may occupy a large area of order 100km2 or more, and fluid pressure increase in excess of 1 bar(corresponding to 10 m water head) may extend over an area of more than2,500 km2 (Pruess, et al., 2003). The large areal extent expected for CO2plumes makes it likely that caprock imperfections will be encountered,such as fault zones or fractures, which may allow some CO2 to escape fromthe primary storage reservoir. Under most subsurface conditions oftemperature and pressure, CO2 is buoyant relative to groundwaters. If(sub-)vertical pathways are available, CO2 will tend to flow upward and,depending on geologic conditions, may eventually reach potablegroundwater aquifers or even the land surface. Leakage of CO2 could alsooccur along wellbores, including pre-existing and improperly abandonedwells, or wells drilled in connection with the CO2 storage operations.The pressure increases accompanying CO2 injection will give rise tochanges in effective stress that could cause movement along faults,increasing permeability and potential for leakage.Escape of CO2 from aprimary geologic storage reservoir and potential hazards associated withits discharge at the land surface raise a number of concerns, including(1) acidification of groundwater resources, (2) asphyxiation hazard whenleaking CO2 is discharged at the land surface, (3) increase inatmospheric concentrations of CO2, and (4) damage from a high-energy,eruptive discharge (if such discharge is physically possible). In orderto gain public acceptance for geologic storage as a viable technology forreducing atmospheric emissions of CO2, it is necessary to address theseissues

  18. Application of Cutting-Edge 3D Seismic Attribute Technology to the Assessment of Geological Reservoirs for CO2 Sequestration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christopher Liner; Jianjun Zeng; Po Geng Heather King Jintan Li; Jennifer Califf; John Seales


    The goals of this project were to develop innovative 3D seismic attribute technologies and workflows to assess the structural integrity and heterogeneity of subsurface reservoirs with potential for CO{sub 2} sequestration. Our specific objectives were to apply advanced seismic attributes to aide in quantifying reservoir properies and lateral continuity of CO{sub 2} sequestration targets. Our study area is the Dickman field in Ness County, Kansas, a type locality for the geology that will be encountered for CO{sub 2} sequestration projects from northern Oklahoma across the U.S. midcontent to Indiana and beyond. Since its discovery in 1962, the Dickman Field has produced about 1.7 million barrels of oil from porous Mississippian carbonates with a small structural closure at about 4400 ft drilling depth. Project data includes 3.3 square miles of 3D seismic data, 142 wells, with log, some core, and oil/water production data available. Only two wells penetrate the deep saline aquifer. Geological and seismic data were integrated to create a geological property model and a flow simulation grid. We systematically tested over a dozen seismic attributes, finding that curvature, SPICE, and ANT were particularly useful for mapping discontinuities in the data that likely indicated fracture trends. Our simulation results in the deep saline aquifer indicate two effective ways of reducing free CO{sub 2}: (a) injecting CO{sub 2} with brine water, and (b) horizontal well injection. A tuned combination of these methods can reduce the amount of free CO{sub 2} in the aquifer from over 50% to less than 10%.

  19. Evaluation of stochastic reservoir operation optimization models (United States)

    Celeste, Alcigeimes B.; Billib, Max


    This paper investigates the performance of seven stochastic models used to define optimal reservoir operating policies. The models are based on implicit (ISO) and explicit stochastic optimization (ESO) as well as on the parameterization-simulation-optimization (PSO) approach. The ISO models include multiple regression, two-dimensional surface modeling and a neuro-fuzzy strategy. The ESO model is the well-known and widely used stochastic dynamic programming (SDP) technique. The PSO models comprise a variant of the standard operating policy (SOP), reservoir zoning, and a two-dimensional hedging rule. The models are applied to the operation of a single reservoir damming an intermittent river in northeastern Brazil. The standard operating policy is also included in the comparison and operational results provided by deterministic optimization based on perfect forecasts are used as a benchmark. In general, the ISO and PSO models performed better than SDP and the SOP. In addition, the proposed ISO-based surface modeling procedure and the PSO-based two-dimensional hedging rule showed superior overall performance as compared with the neuro-fuzzy approach.

  20. Geological and petrophysical characterization of the ferron sandstone for 3-D simulation of a fluvial-deltaic reservoir. Annual report, October 1, 1994--September 30, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chidsey, T.C. Jr.; Allison, M.L.


    The objective of the Ferron Sandstone project is to develop a comprehensive, interdisciplinary, quantitative characterization of a fluvial-deltaic reservoir to allow realistic interwell and reservoir-scale models to be developed for improved oil-field development in similar reservoirs world-wide. Quantitative geological and petrophysical information on the Cretaceous Ferron Sandstone in east-central Utah was collected. Both new and existing data is being integrated into a three-dimensional model of spatial variations in porosity, storativity, and tensorial rock permeability at a scale appropriate for inter-well to regional-scale reservoir simulation. Simulation results could improve reservoir management through proper infill and extension drilling strategies, reduction of economic risks, increased recovery from existing oil fields, and more reliable reserve calculations. Transfer of the project results to the petroleum industry is an integral component of the project. This report covers research activities for fiscal year 1994-95, the second year of the project. Most work consisted of developing field methods and collecting large quantities of existing and new data. We also continued to develop preliminary regional and case-study area interpretations. The project is divided into four tasks: (1) regional stratigraphic analysis, (2) case studies, (3) reservoirs models, and (4) field-scale evaluation of exploration strategies.

  1. Reservoir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mokhtar


    Full Text Available Scarab field is an analog for the deep marine slope channels in Nile Delta of Egypt. It is one of the Pliocene reservoirs in West delta deep marine concession. Channel-1 and channel-2 are considered as main channels of Scarab field. FMI log is used for facies classification and description of the channel subsequences. Core data analysis is integrated with FMI to confirm the lithologic response and used as well for describing the reservoir with high resolution. A detailed description of four wells penetrated through both channels lead to define channel sequences. Some of these sequences are widely extended within the field under study exhibiting a good correlation between the wells. Other sequences were of local distribution. Lithologic sequences are characterized mainly by fining upward in Vshale logs. The repetition of these sequences reflects the stacking pattern and high heterogeneity of the sandstone reservoir. It also refers to the sea level fluctuation which has a direct influence to the facies change. In terms of integration of the previously described sequences with a high resolution seismic data a depositional model has been established. The model defines different stages of the channel using Scarab-2 well as an ideal analog.

  2. Modelling souring in a high salinity reservoir

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, Michael; Crossland, Alan; Stott, Jim


    CAPCIS Ltd (Capcis) have developed a souring model for use in highly saline reservoirs where salinity limits the growth of sulphate reducing bacteria (SRB). Capcis have successfully applied the model to a field in North Africa. The conceptual basis of the model considers the course of the H2S from generation in the reservoir including dilution, sulphide retardation and scavenging and H2S fluid phase partitioning. At each stage mathematical equations governing the behaviour of the H2S were produced. In order to estimate the potential for H2S generation, it is required to know the chemistry of the injection and formation waters, as well as the properties of the indigenous SRB, i.e. the maximum salinity for their growth. This is determined by bottle testing of H2S generation by SRB at a range of injection/formation water ratios. The maximum salinity for SRB growth then determines the mixing ratios at which H2S generation takes place. Sulphide retardation due to adsorption at immobile interfaces was empirically modeled from reservoir data. Sulphide scavenging due to reaction with iron generated from corrosion was also modelled. Reservoir mineral scavenging was not modelled but could be incorporated in an extension to the model. Finally, in order to compute the gas-phase concentration of generated H2S, the H2S in the well stream is partitioned between the gas, oil and water phases. Capcis has carried out detailed computations of H2S solubility in crude oil and formation waters and the derivation of distribution ratios based on the respective partition coefficients using Gerard's line method, a modification of Henry's Law. (author) (tk)


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Louis J. Durlofsky; Khalid Aziz


    Nonconventional wells, which include horizontal, deviated, multilateral and ''smart'' wells, offer great potential for the efficient management of oil and gas reservoirs. These wells are able to contact larger regions of the reservoir than conventional wells and can also be used to target isolated hydrocarbon accumulations. The use of nonconventional wells instrumented with downhole inflow control devices allows for even greater flexibility in production. Because nonconventional wells can be very expensive to drill, complete and instrument, it is important to be able to optimize their deployment, which requires the accurate prediction of their performance. However, predictions of nonconventional well performance are often inaccurate. This is likely due to inadequacies in some of the reservoir engineering and reservoir simulation tools used to model and optimize nonconventional well performance. A number of new issues arise in the modeling and optimization of nonconventional wells. For example, the optimal use of downhole inflow control devices has not been addressed for practical problems. In addition, the impact of geological and engineering uncertainty (e.g., valve reliability) has not been previously considered. In order to model and optimize nonconventional wells in different settings, it is essential that the tools be implemented into a general reservoir simulator. This simulator must be sufficiently general and robust and must in addition be linked to a sophisticated well model. Our research under this five year project addressed all of the key areas indicated above. The overall project was divided into three main categories: (1) advanced reservoir simulation techniques for modeling nonconventional wells; (2) improved techniques for computing well productivity (for use in reservoir engineering calculations) and for coupling the well to the simulator (which includes the accurate calculation of well index and the modeling of multiphase flow

  4. Small County: Development of a Virtual Environment for Instruction in Geological Characterization of Petroleum Reservoirs (United States)

    Banz, B.; Bohling, G.; Doveton, J.


    Traditional programs of geological education continue to be focused primarily on the evaluation of surface or near-surface geology accessed at outcrops and shallow boreholes. However, most students who graduate to careers in geology work almost entirely on subsurface problems, interpreting drilling records and petrophysical logs from exploration and production wells. Thus, college graduates commonly find themselves ill-prepared when they enter the petroleum industry and require specialized training in drilling and petrophysical log interpretation. To aid in this training process, we are developing an environment for interactive instruction in the geological aspects of petroleum reservoir characterization employing a virtual subsurface closely reflecting the geology of the US mid-continent, in the fictional setting of Small County, Kansas. Stochastic simulation techniques are used to generate the subsurface characteristics, including the overall geological structure, distributions of facies, porosity, and fluid saturations, and petrophysical logs. The student then explores this subsurface by siting exploratory wells and examining drilling and petrophysical log records obtained from those wells. We are developing the application using the Eclipse Rich Client Platform, which allows for the rapid development of a platform-agnostic application while providing an immersive graphical interface. The application provides an array of views to enable relevant data display and student interaction. One such view is an interactive map of the county allowing the student to view the locations of existing well bores and select pertinent data overlays such as a contour map of the elevation of an interesting interval. Additionally, from this view a student may choose the site of a new well. Another view emulates a drilling log, complete with drilling rate plot and iconic representation of examined drill cuttings. From here, students are directed to stipulate subsurface lithology and

  5. Subsurface Flow Model Calibration under Uncertain Geologic Scenarios with Adaptive Sparse Reconstruction Techniques (United States)

    Khaninezhad, M. M.; Jafarpour, B.


    Construction of predictive aquifer and reservoir models involves subjective interpretation and interpolation of spatially limited data and imperfect modeling assumptions. Hence, the process can introduce significant uncertainty and bias into subsurface flow and transport modeling. In particular, the uncertainty in the geologic continuity model can markedly degrade the quality of fluid displacement predictions and, hence, the efficiency of resource development plans. We present a novel approach for flow model calibration under uncertainty in geologic continuity model. Our approach is inspired by recent advances in sparse reconstruction and takes advantage of the selection property of the l1-norm minimization in sparse bases. Using an adaptive saprse reconstruction framework, we develop a prior model identification method to discriminate against distinct prior geologic continuity models (e.g., variograms) that are proposed for model calibration. Realizations from each geologic continuity model are used to generate a diverse geologic dictionary that compactly represents models from each proposed prior geologic scenario. The inversion method is initialized by taking the same number of elements from each prior geologic continuity model. At each iteration of the nonlinear model calibration process the contribution of the proposed prior models to the reconstructed solution is monitored and, to improve the solution quality, elements from inconsistent prior models are replaced with additional elements from geologically consistent priors. We use several numerical examples to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed adaptive prior identification approach for model calibration under uncertainty in prior geologic continuity.

  6. The Potosi Reservoir Model 2013c, Property Modeling Update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adushita, Yasmin; Smith, Valerie; Leetaru, Hannes


    As part of a larger project co-funded by the United States Department of Energy (US DOE) to evaluate the potential of formations within the Cambro-Ordovician strata above the Mt. Simon as potential targets for carbon sequestration in the Illinois and Michigan Basins, the Illinois Clean Coal Institute (ICCI) requested Schlumberger to evaluate the potential injectivity and carbon dioxide (CO2) plume size of the Cambrian Potosi Formation. The evaluation of this formation was accomplished using wireline data, core data, pressure data, and seismic data from this project as well as two other separately funded projects: the US DOE-funded Illinois Basin–Decatur Project (IBDP) being conducted by the Midwest Geological Sequestration Consortium (MGSC) in Macon County, Illinois, and the Illinois Industrial Carbon Capture and Sequestration (ICCS) project funded through the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act. In 2010, technical performance evaluations on the Cambrian Potosi Formation were performed through reservoir modeling. The data included formation tops from mud logs, well logs from the Verification Well #1 (VW1) and the Injection Well (CCS1), structural and stratigraphic formation from three dimensional (3D) seismic data, and field data from several waste water injection wells for Potosi Formation. The intention was for 2.2 million tons per annum (2 million tonnes per annum [MTPA]) of CO2 to be injected for 20 years. In the Task Error! Reference source not found., the 2010 Potosi heterogeneous model (referred to as the "Potosi Dynamic Model 2010") was re-run using a new injection scenario of 3.5 million tons per annum (3.2 MTPA) for 30 years. The extent of the Potosi Dynamic Model 2010, however, appeared too small for the new injection target. The models size was insufficient to accommodate the evolution of the plume. The new model, Potosi Dynamic Model 2013a, was built by extending the Potosi Dynamic Model 2010 grid to 30 by 30 mi (48 by 48 km), while preserving all

  7. Development of Reservoir Characterization Techniques and Production Models for Exploiting Naturally Fractured Reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiggins, Michael L.; Brown, Raymon L.; Civan, Faruk; Hughes, Richard G.


    This research was directed toward developing a systematic reservoir characterization methodology which can be used by the petroleum industry to implement infill drilling programs and/or enhanced oil recovery projects in naturally fractured reservoir systems in an environmentally safe and cost effective manner. It was anticipated that the results of this research program will provide geoscientists and engineers with a systematic procedure for properly characterizing a fractured reservoir system and a reservoir/horizontal wellbore simulator model which can be used to select well locations and an effective EOR process to optimize the recovery of the oil and gas reserves from such complex reservoir systems.

  8. Reservoir pressure evolution model during exploration drilling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korotaev B. A.


    Full Text Available Based on the analysis of laboratory studies and literature data the method for estimating reservoir pressure in exploratory drilling has been proposed, it allows identify zones of abnormal reservoir pressure in the presence of seismic data on reservoir location depths. This method of assessment is based on developed at the end of the XX century methods using d- and σ-exponentials taking into account the mechanical drilling speed, rotor speed, bit load and its diameter, lithological constant and degree of rocks' compaction, mud density and "regional density". It is known that in exploratory drilling pulsation of pressure at the wellhead is observed. Such pulsation is a consequence of transferring reservoir pressure through clay. In the paper the mechanism for transferring pressure to the bottomhole as well as the behaviour of the clay layer during transmission of excess pressure has been described. A laboratory installation has been built, it has been used for modelling pressure propagation to the bottomhole of the well through a layer of clay. The bulge of the clay layer is established for 215.9 mm bottomhole diameter. Functional correlation of pressure propagation through the layer of clay has been determined and a reaction of the top clay layer has been shown to have bulge with a height of 25 mm. A pressure distribution scheme (balance has been developed, which takes into account the distance from layers with abnormal pressure to the bottomhole. A balance equation for reservoir pressure evaluation has been derived including well depth, distance from bottomhole to the top of the formation with abnormal pressure and density of clay.

  9. Geographical Overview of the Three Gorges Dam and Reservoir, China - Geologic Hazards and Environmental Impacts (United States)

    Highland, Lynn M.


    The Three Gorges Dam and Reservoir on the Yangtze River, China, has been an ambitious and controversial project. The dam, the largest in the world as of 2008, will provide hydropower, help to manage flood conditions, and increase the navigability of the Yangtze River. However, this massive project has displaced human and animal populations and altered the stability of the banks of the Yangtze, and it may intensify the seismic hazard of the area. It has also hindered archeological investigations in the reservoir and dam area. This report, originally in the form of a Microsoft PowerPoint presentation, gives a short history and overview of the dam construction and subsequent consequences, especially geologic hazards already noted or possible in the future. The report provides photographs, diagrams, and references for the reader's further research - a necessity, because this great undertaking is dynamic, and both its problems and successes continue to evolve. The challenges and consequences of Three Gorges Dam will be closely watched and documented as lessons learned and applied to future projects in China and elsewhere.

  10. Models of Geothermal Reservoirs as a Basis for Interdisciplinary Cooperation (United States)

    Hoerdt, A.; Beilecke, T.; Ghergut, J.; Holzbecher, E.; Löhken, J.; Löhken, I.; Musmann, P.; Philipp, S. L.; Sauter, M.; Reyer, D.; Schaumann, G.; Thomas, R.


    Geophysical investigation and numerical simulation of various processes such as hydromechanics, hydrogeochemistry and heat flow are necessary to assess the prospects and improve the concepts of geothermal exploitation. The numerical simulation is based on models of geothermal reservoirs, where the geometry and physical properties of different formations are specified. The properties of drill holes, such as geometry and coupling to the formation, are also included. Here, we present a set of models that was defined within the German research consortium "geothermal energy and high-performance drilling technology" (gebo), sponsored by Baker Hughes and the Ministry of Science and Culture of Lower Saxony, Germany. Providing a standard set of models is essential to achieve the maximum possible exchange between the scientific disciplines and to obtain realistic and meaningful simulation results. The models are structured into three categories: large fault zones with increased hydraulic permeability, deep aquifers, which are characterised by a natural permittivity sufficient for geothermal exploitation, and petrothermal systems, where permittivity must be enhanced by hydraulic fracturing. We illustrate the simulation of different processes with a model of a large fault system, which was derived from seismic data and geological information, and specified within a commercial finite-element package. Stress field, heat flow and geophysical investigation were all simulated based on the same structure. For the reservoir categories "deep aquifer" and "petrothermal systems" we defined extremal models which represent the potentially deepest and hottest reservoirs in the North German sedimentary basin that constitute reasonable aims for drilling. Such models are essential for a regional strategy for the exploitation of geothermal energy.

  11. Development of Reservoir Characterization Techniques and Production Models for Exploiting Naturally Fractured Reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiggins, Michael L.; Brown, Raymon L.; Civan, Frauk; Hughes, Richard G.


    Research continues on characterizing and modeling the behavior of naturally fractured reservoir systems. Work has progressed on developing techniques for estimating fracture properties from seismic and well log data, developing naturally fractured wellbore models, and developing a model to characterize the transfer of fluid from the matrix to the fracture system for use in the naturally fractured reservoir simulator.

  12. Quantifying uncertainty of geological 3D layer models, constructed with a-priori geological expertise

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gunnink, J.J.; Maljers, D.; Hummelman, J.


    Uncertainty quantification of geological models that are constructed with additional geological expert-knowledge is not straightforward. To construct sound geological 3D layer models we use a lot of additional knowledge, with an uncertainty that is hard to quantify. Examples of geological expert

  13. Hands-On Exercise in Environmental Structural Geology Using a Fracture Block Model. (United States)

    Gates, Alexander E.


    Describes the use of a scale analog model of an actual fractured rock reservoir to replace paper copies of fracture maps in the structural geology curriculum. Discusses the merits of the model in enabling students to gain experience performing standard structural analyses. (DDR)

  14. 3D Geostatistical Modeling and Uncertainty Analysis in a Carbonate Reservoir, SW Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Kamali


    Full Text Available The aim of geostatistical reservoir characterization is to utilize wide variety of data, in different scales and accuracies, to construct reservoir models which are able to represent geological heterogeneities and also quantifying uncertainties by producing numbers of equiprobable models. Since all geostatistical methods used in estimation of reservoir parameters are inaccurate, modeling of “estimation error” in form of uncertainty analysis is very important. In this paper, the definition of Sequential Gaussian Simulation has been reviewed and construction of stochastic models based on it has been discussed. Subsequently ranking and uncertainty quantification of those stochastically populated equiprobable models and sensitivity study of modeled properties have been presented. Consequently, the application of sensitivity analysis on stochastic models of reservoir horizons, petrophysical properties, and stochastic oil-water contacts, also their effect on reserve, clearly shows any alteration in the reservoir geometry has significant effect on the oil in place. The studied reservoir is located at carbonate sequences of Sarvak Formation, Zagros, Iran; it comprises three layers. The first one which is located beneath the cap rock contains the largest portion of the reserve and other layers just hold little oil. Simulations show that average porosity and water saturation of the reservoir is about 20% and 52%, respectively.

  15. Mineral potential mapping with mathematical geological models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Porwal, A.K.


    Mathematical geological models are being increasingly used by natural resources delineation and planning agencies for mapping areas of mineral potential in order to optimize land use in accordance with socio-economic needs of the society. However, a key problem in spatial-mathematical-model-based

  16. Optimal Complexity in Reservoir Modeling of an Eolian Sandstone for Carbon Sequestration Simulation (United States)

    Li, S.; Zhang, Y.; Zhang, X.


    Geologic Carbon Sequestration (GCS) is a proposed means to reduce atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide (CO2). Given the type, abundance, and accessibility of geologic characterization data, different reservoir modeling techniques can be utilized to build a site model. However, petrophysical properties of a formation can be modeled with simplifying assumptions or with greater detail, the later requiring sophisticated modeling techniques supported by additional data. In GCS where cost of data collection needs to be minimized, will detailed (expensive) reservoir modeling efforts lead to much improved model predictive capability? Is there an optimal level of detail in the reservoir model sufficient for prediction purposes? In Wyoming, GCS into the Nugget Sandstone is proposed. This formation is a deep (>13,000 ft) saline aquifer deposited in eolian environments, exhibiting permeability heterogeneity at multiple scales. Based on a set of characterization data, this study utilizes multiple, increasingly complex reservoir modeling techniques to create a suite of reservoir models including a multiscale, non-stationary heterogeneous model conditioned to a soft depositional model (i.e., training image), a geostatistical (stationary) facies model without conditioning, a geostatistical (stationary) petrophysical model ignoring facies, and finally, a homogeneous model ignoring all aspects of sub-aquifer heterogeneity. All models are built at regional scale with a high-resolution grid (245,133,140 cells) from which a set of local simulation models (448,000 grid cells) are extracted. These are considered alternative conceptual models with which pilot-scale CO2 injection is simulated (50 year duration at 1/10 Mt per year). A computationally efficient sensitivity analysis (SA) is conducted for all models based on a Plackett-Burman Design of Experiment metric. The SA systematically varies key parameters of the models (e.g., variogram structure and principal axes of intrinsic

  17. Statistical modeling of geopressured geothermal reservoirs (United States)

    Ansari, Esmail; Hughes, Richard; White, Christopher D.


    Identifying attractive candidate reservoirs for producing geothermal energy requires predictive models. In this work, inspectional analysis and statistical modeling are used to create simple predictive models for a line drive design. Inspectional analysis on the partial differential equations governing this design yields a minimum number of fifteen dimensionless groups required to describe the physics of the system. These dimensionless groups are explained and confirmed using models with similar dimensionless groups but different dimensional parameters. This study models dimensionless production temperature and thermal recovery factor as the responses of a numerical model. These responses are obtained by a Box-Behnken experimental design. An uncertainty plot is used to segment the dimensionless time and develop a model for each segment. The important dimensionless numbers for each segment of the dimensionless time are identified using the Boosting method. These selected numbers are used in the regression models. The developed models are reduced to have a minimum number of predictors and interactions. The reduced final models are then presented and assessed using testing runs. Finally, applications of these models are offered. The presented workflow is generic and can be used to translate the output of a numerical simulator into simple predictive models in other research areas involving numerical simulation.

  18. Geologic and preliminary reservoir data on the Los Humeros Geothermal System, Puebla, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferriz, H.


    Exploratory drilling has confirmed the existence of a geothermal system in the Los Humeros volcanic center, located 180 km east of Mexico City. Volcanic activity in the area began with the eruption of andesites, followed by two major caldera-forming pyroclastic eruptions. The younger Los Potreros caldera is nested inside the older Los Humeros caldera. At later stages, basaltic andesite, dacite, and olivine basalt lavas erupted along the ring-fracture zones of both calderas. Geologic interpretation of structural, geophysical, and drilling data suggests that: (1) the water-dominated geothermal reservoir is hosted by the earliest andesitic volcanic pile, is bounded by the ring-fracture zone of the Los Potreros caldera, and is capped by the products of the oldest caldera-forming eruption; (2) permeability within the andesitic pile is provided by faults and fractures related to intracaldera uplift; (3) the geothermal system has potential for a large influx of meteoric water through portions of the ring-fracture zones of both calderas; and (4) volcanic centers with similar magmatic and structural conditions can be found in the eastern Cascades, USA.

  19. Geologic setting and stratigraphy of the Ziegler Reservoir fossil site, Snowmass Village, Colorado (United States)

    Pigati, Jeff S.; Miller, Ian M.; Johnson, Kirk R.; Honke, Jeffrey S.; Carrara, Paul E.; Muhs, Daniel R.; Skipp, Gary; Bryant, Bruce


    The geologic setting of the Ziegler Reservoir fossil site is somewhat unusual – the sediments containing the Pleistocene fossils were deposited in a lake on top of a ridge. The lake basin was formed near the Town of Snowmass Village, Colorado when a glacier flowing down Snowmass Creek Valley became thick enough to overtop a low point in the eastern valley wall and entered the head of Brush Creek Valley. When the glacier retreated at the end of the marine isotope stage (MIS) 6, ~155-130 ka (thousands of years before present), the Brush Creek Valley lobe left behind a moraine that impounded a small alpine lake. The lake was initially ~10 m deep and was highly productive during most of its existence based on the abundant and exquisitely preserved organic material present in the sediments. Over time, the basin slowly filled with (mostly) eolian sediment such that by ~85 ka it contained more of a marsh or wetland than a true lake. Open water conditions returned briefly between ~75 and 55 ka before the impoundment was finally breached to the east, establishing ties with the Brush Creek drainage system and creating an alpine meadow that persisted until historic times.

  20. History Matching: Towards Geologically Reasonable Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melnikova, Yulia; Cordua, Knud Skou; Mosegaard, Klaus

    that measures similarity between statistics of a training image and statistics of any smooth model is introduced and its analytical gradient is computed. This allows us to apply any gradientbased method to history matching problem and guide a solution until it satisfies both production data and complexity......This work focuses on the development of a new method for history matching problem that through a deterministic search finds a geologically feasible solution. Complex geology is taken into account evaluating multiple point statistics from earth model prototypes - training images. Further a function...

  1. Key Factors for Determining Risk of Groundwater Impacts Due to Leakage from Geologic Carbon Sequestration Reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carroll, Susan [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Keating, Elizabeth [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Mansoor, Kayyum [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Dai, Zhenue [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Sun, Yunwei [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Trainor-Guitton, Whitney [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Brown, Chris [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Bacon, Diana [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)


    The National Risk Assessment Partnership (NRAP) is developing a science-based toolset for the analysis of potential impacts to groundwater chemistry from CO2 injection ( The toolset adopts a stochastic approach in which predictions address uncertainties in shallow underwater and leakage scenarios. It is derived from detailed physics and chemistry simulation results that are used to train more computationally efficient models,l referred to here as reduced-order models (ROMs), for each component system. In particular, these tools can be used to help regulators and operators understand the expected sizes and longevity of plumes in pH, TDS, and dissolved metals that could result from a leakage of brine and/or CO2 from a storage reservoir into aquifers. This information can inform, for example, decisions on monitoring strategies that are both effective and efficient. We have used this approach to develop predictive reduced-order models for two common types of reservoirs, but the approach could be used to develop a model for a specific aquifer or other common types of aquifers. In this paper we describe potential impacts to groundwater quality due to CO2 and brine leakage, discuss an approach to calculate thresholds under which "no impact" to groundwater occurs, describe the time scale for impact on groundwater, and discuss the probability of detecting a groundwater plume should leakage occur.

  2. Modeling Tools for Drilling, Reservoir Navigation, and Formation Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sushant Dutta


    Full Text Available The oil and gas industry routinely uses borehole tools for measuring or logging rock and fluid properties of geologic formations to locate hydrocarbons and maximize their production. Pore fluids in formations of interest are usually hydrocarbons or water. Resistivity logging is based on the fact that oil and gas have a substantially higher resistivity than water. The first resistivity log was acquired in 1927, and resistivity logging is still the foremost measurement used for drilling and evaluation. However, the acquisition and interpretation of resistivity logging data has grown in complexity over the years. Resistivity logging tools operate in a wide range of frequencies (from DC to GHz and encounter extremely high (several orders of magnitude conductivity contrast between the metal mandrel of the tool and the geologic formation. Typical challenges include arbitrary angles of tool inclination, full tensor electric and magnetic field measurements, and interpretation of complicated anisotropic formation properties. These challenges combine to form some of the most intractable computational electromagnetic problems in the world. Reliable, fast, and convenient numerical modeling of logging tool responses is critical for tool design, sensor optimization, virtual prototyping, and log data inversion. This spectrum of applications necessitates both depth and breadth of modeling software—from blazing fast one-dimensional (1-D modeling codes to advanced threedimensional (3-D modeling software, and from in-house developed codes to commercial modeling packages. In this paper, with the help of several examples, we demonstrate our approach for using different modeling software to address different drilling and evaluation applications. In one example, fast 1-D modeling provides proactive geosteering information from a deep-reading azimuthal propagation resistivity measurement. In the second example, a 3-D model with multiple vertical resistive fractures

  3. A new approach to integrate seismic and production data in reservoir models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ouenes, A.; Chawathe, A.; Weiss, W. [New Mexico Tech, Socorro, NM (United States)] [and others


    A great deal of effort is devoted to reducing the uncertainties in reservoir modeling. For example, seismic properties are used to improve the characterization of interwell properties by providing porosity maps constrained to seismic impedance. Another means to reduce uncertainties is to constrain the reservoir model to production data. This paper describes a new approach where the production and seismic data are simultaneously used to reduce the uncertainties. In this new approach, the primary geologic parameter that controls reservoir properties is identified. Next, the geophysical parameter that is sensitive to the dominant geologic parameter is determined. Then the geology and geophysics are linked using analytic correlations. Unfortunately, the initial guess resulted in a reservoir model that did not match the production history. Since the time required for trial and error matching of production history is exorbitant, an automatic history matching method based on a fast optimization method was used to find the correlating parameters. This new approach was illustrated with an actual field in the Williston Basin. Upscalling problems do not arise since the scale is imposed by the size of the seismic bin (66m, 219 ft) which is the size of the simulator gridblocks.

  4. Initialising reservoir models for history matching using pre-production 3D seismic data: constraining methods and uncertainties (United States)

    Niri, Mohammad Emami; Lumley, David E.


    Integration of 3D and time-lapse 4D seismic data into reservoir modelling and history matching processes poses a significant challenge due to the frequent mismatch between the initial reservoir model, the true reservoir geology, and the pre-production (baseline) seismic data. A fundamental step of a reservoir characterisation and performance study is the preconditioning of the initial reservoir model to equally honour both the geological knowledge and seismic data. In this paper we analyse the issues that have a significant impact on the (mis)match of the initial reservoir model with well logs and inverted 3D seismic data. These issues include the constraining methods for reservoir lithofacies modelling, the sensitivity of the results to the presence of realistic resolution and noise in the seismic data, the geostatistical modelling parameters, and the uncertainties associated with quantitative incorporation of inverted seismic data in reservoir lithofacies modelling. We demonstrate that in a geostatistical lithofacies simulation process, seismic constraining methods based on seismic litho-probability curves and seismic litho-probability cubes yield the best match to the reference model, even when realistic resolution and noise is included in the dataset. In addition, our analyses show that quantitative incorporation of inverted 3D seismic data in static reservoir modelling carries a range of uncertainties and should be cautiously applied in order to minimise the risk of misinterpretation. These uncertainties are due to the limited vertical resolution of the seismic data compared to the scale of the geological heterogeneities, the fundamental instability of the inverse problem, and the non-unique elastic properties of different lithofacies types.

  5. Development and evaluation of a reservoir model for the Chain of Lakes in Illinois (United States)

    Domanski, Marian M.


    Forecasts of flows entering and leaving the Chain of Lakes reservoir on the Fox River in northeastern Illinois are critical information to water-resource managers who determine the optimal operation of the dam at McHenry, Illinois, to help minimize damages to property and loss of life because of flooding on the Fox River. In 2014, the U.S. Geological Survey; the Illinois Department of Natural Resources, Office of Water Resources; and National Weather Service, North Central River Forecast Center began a cooperative study to develop a system to enable engineers and planners to simulate and communicate flows and to prepare proactively for precipitation events in near real time in the upper Fox River watershed. The purpose of this report is to document the development and evaluation of the Chain of Lakes reservoir model developed in this study.The reservoir model for the Chain of Lakes was developed using the Hydrologic Engineering Center–Reservoir System Simulation program. Because of the complex relation between the dam headwater and reservoir pool elevations, the reservoir model uses a linear regression model that relates dam headwater elevation to reservoir pool elevation. The linear regression model was developed using 17 U.S. Geological Survey streamflow measurements, along with the gage height in the reservoir pool and the gage height at the dam headwater. The Nash-Sutcliffe model efficiency coefficients for all three linear regression model variables ranged from 0.90 to 0.98.The reservoir model performance was evaluated by graphically comparing simulated and observed reservoir pool elevation time series during nine periods of high pool elevation. In addition, the peak elevations during these time periods were graphically compared to the closest-in-time observed pool elevation peak. The mean difference in the simulated and observed peak elevations was -0.03 feet, with a standard deviation of 0.19 feet. The Nash-Sutcliffe coefficient for peak prediction was

  6. Stress heterogeneity above and within a deep geothermal reservoir: From borehole observations to geomechanical modelling (United States)

    Seithel, Robin; Peters, Max; Lesueur, Martin; Kohl, Thomas


    Overpressured reservoir conditions, local stress concentrations or a locally rotated stress field can initiate substantial problems during drilling or reservoir exploitation. Increasing geothermal utilization in the Molasse basin area in S-Germany is faced with such problems of deeply seated reservoir sections. In several wells, radial fluid flow systems are interpreted as highly porous layers. However, in nearby wells a combination of linear fluid flow, local stress heterogeneities and structural geology hint to a rather fault dominated reservoir (Seithel et al. 2015). Due to missing knowledge of the stress magnitude, stress orientation and their coupling to reservoir response, we will present a THMC model of critical formations and the geothermal reservoir targeting nearby faults. In an area south of Munich, where several geothermal wells are constructed, such wells are interpreted and integrated into a 30 x 30 km simulated model area. One of the main objectives here is to create a geomechanical reservoir model in a thermo-mechanical manner in order to understand the coupling between reservoir heterogeneities and stress distributions. To this end, stress analyses of wellbore data and laboratory tests will help to calibrate a reliable model. In order to implement the complex geological structure of the studied wedge-shaped foreland basin, an automatic export of lithology, fault and borehole data (e.g. from Petrel) into a FE mesh is used. We will present a reservoir-scale model that considers thermo-mechanic effects and analyze their influence on reservoir deformation, fluid flow and stress concentration. We use the currently developed finite element application REDBACK (, inside the MOOSE framework (Poulet et al. 2016). We show that mechanical heterogeneities nearby fault zones and their orientation within the stress field correlate to fracture pattern, interpreted stress heterogeneities or variegated flow systems within the

  7. Impact of geological model uncertainty on integrated catchment hydrological modeling (United States)

    He, Xin; Jørgensen, Flemming; Refsgaard, Jens Christian


    Various types of uncertainty can influence hydrological model performance. Among them, uncertainty originated from geological model may play an important role in process-based integrated hydrological modeling, if the model is used outside the calibration base. In the present study, we try to assess the hydrological model predictive uncertainty caused by uncertainty of the geology using an ensemble of geological models with equal plausibility. The study is carried out in the 101 km2 Norsminde catchment in western Denmark. Geostatistical software TProGS is used to generate 20 stochastic geological realizations for the west side the of study area. This process is done while incorporating the borehole log data from 108 wells and high resolution airborne transient electromagnetic (AEM) data for conditioning. As a result, 10 geological models are generated based solely on borehole data, and another 10 geological models are based on both borehole and AEM data. Distributed surface water - groundwater models are developed using MIKE SHE code for each of the 20 geological models. The models are then calibrated using field data collected from stream discharge and groundwater head observations. The model simulation results are evaluated based on the same two types of field data. The results show that the differences between simulated discharge flows caused by using different geological models are relatively small. The model calibration is shown to be able to account for the systematic bias in different geological realizations and hence varies the calibrated model parameters. This results in an increase in the variance between the hydrological realizations compared to the uncalibrated models that uses the same parameter values in all 20 models. Furthermore, borehole based hydrological models in general show more variance between simulations than the AEM based models; however, the combined total uncertainty, bias plus variance, is not necessarily higher.

  8. Modeling of Reservoir Inflow for Hydropower Dams Using Artificial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The stream flow at the three hydropower reservoirs in Nigeria were modeled using hydro-meteorological parameters and Artificial Neural Network (ANN). The model revealed positive relationship between the observed and the modeled reservoir inflow with values of correlation coefficient of 0.57, 0.84 and 0.92 for Kainji, ...

  9. Geological and geophysical investigation of water leakage from two micro-dam reservoirs: Implications for future site selection, northern Ethiopia (United States)

    Berhane, Gebremedhin; Amare, Mogos; Gebreyohannes, Tesfamichael; Walraevens, Kristine


    Water resources are essential to human development activities and to eradicate extreme poverty and hunger. Geological problems of two water harvesting Micro-Dam Reservoirs (MDRs) were evaluated from leakage perspectives in the northern part of Ethiopia, East Africa. Conventional geological mapping, discontinuity and weathering descriptions, test pits and geophysical methods were used to characterize the hydrogeological features of the MDRs. Vertical Electrical Sounding (VES) and Electrical Profiling (EP), were executed using Terrameter SAS (signal averaging system) 1000 manufactured by ABEM, Sweden, with Schlumberger and Wenner array configuration respectively. It was concluded that the foundations of both MDRs, except the right abutment for Adishuhu which is partly composed of dolerite, are pervious due to the presence of thin bedding planes, joints, weathered materials and fault. The presence of water in the downstream toe of the MDRs, at depressions, existing test pits and test pits excavated during the present study which lie within the seepage zone demarcated during surface geological mapping, correspond with the electrical resistivity study. The results of the electrical resistivity survey (EP and VES) were merged with the geological and structural mapping and the observation of seepage zones, for the delineation of weak zones responsible for leakage. Monitoring of the leakage (reservoir water and groundwater levels), both manually and using automatic divers, is recommended, along with monitoring of the stability of the embankments and the discharge or flow downstream of the MDRs.

  10. Daily reservoir sedimentation model: Case study from the Fena Valley Reservoir, Guam (United States)

    Marineau, Mathieu D.; Wright, Scott A.


    A model to compute reservoir sedimentation rates at daily timescales is presented. The model uses streamflow and sediment load data from nearby stream gauges to obtain an initial estimate of sediment yield for the reservoir’s watershed; it is then calibrated to the total deposition calculated from repeat bathymetric surveys. Long-term changes to reservoir trapping efficiency are also taken into account. The model was applied to the Fena Valley Reservoir, a water supply reservoir on the island of Guam. This reservoir became operational in 1951 and was recently surveyed in 2014. The model results show that the highest rate of deposition occurred during two typhoons (Typhoon Alice in 1953 and Typhoon Tingting in 2004); each storm decreased reservoir capacity by approximately 2–3% in only a few days. The presented model can be used to evaluate the impact of an extreme event, or it can be coupled with a watershed runoff model to evaluate potential impacts to storage capacity as a result of climate change or other hydrologic modifications.

  11. South Louisiana Enhanced Oil Recovery/Sequestration R&D Project Small Scale Field Tests of Geologic Reservoir Classes for Geologic Storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hite, Roger [Blackhorse Energy LLC, Houston, TX (United States)


    The project site is located in Livingston Parish, Louisiana, approximately 26 miles due east of Baton Rouge. This project proposed to evaluate an early Eocene-aged Wilcox oil reservoir for permanent storage of CO2. Blackhorse Energy, LLC planned to conduct a parallel CO2 oil recovery project in the First Wilcox Sand. The primary focus of this project was to examine and prove the suitability of South Louisiana geologic formations for large-scale geologic sequestration of CO2 in association with enhanced oil recovery applications. This was to be accomplished through the focused demonstration of small-scale, permanent storage of CO2 in the First Wilcox Sand. The project was terminated at the request of Blackhorse Energy LLC on October 22, 2014.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael L. Wiggins; Raymon L. Brown; Faruk Civan; Richard G. Hughes


    For many years, geoscientists and engineers have undertaken research to characterize naturally fractured reservoirs. Geoscientists have focused on understanding the process of fracturing and the subsequent measurement and description of fracture characteristics. Engineers have concentrated on the fluid flow behavior in the fracture-porous media system and the development of models to predict the hydrocarbon production from these complex systems. This research attempts to integrate these two complementary views to develop a quantitative reservoir characterization methodology and flow performance model for naturally fractured reservoirs. The research has focused on estimating naturally fractured reservoir properties from seismic data, predicting fracture characteristics from well logs, and developing a naturally fractured reservoir simulator. It is important to develop techniques that can be applied to estimate the important parameters in predicting the performance of naturally fractured reservoirs. This project proposes a method to relate seismic properties to the elastic compliance and permeability of the reservoir based upon a sugar cube model. In addition, methods are presented to use conventional well logs to estimate localized fracture information for reservoir characterization purposes. The ability to estimate fracture information from conventional well logs is very important in older wells where data are often limited. Finally, a desktop naturally fractured reservoir simulator has been developed for the purpose of predicting the performance of these complex reservoirs. The simulator incorporates vertical and horizontal wellbore models, methods to handle matrix to fracture fluid transfer, and fracture permeability tensors. This research project has developed methods to characterize and study the performance of naturally fractured reservoirs that integrate geoscience and engineering data. This is an important step in developing exploitation strategies for

  13. System-level modeling for geological storage of CO2


    Zhang, Yingqi; Oldenburg, Curtis M.; Finsterle, Stefan; Bodvarsson, Gudmundur S.


    One way to reduce the effects of anthropogenic greenhouse gases on climate is to inject carbon dioxide (CO2) from industrial sources into deep geological formations such as brine formations or depleted oil or gas reservoirs. Research has and is being conducted to improve understanding of factors affecting particular aspects of geological CO2 storage, such as performance, capacity, and health, safety and environmental (HSE) issues, as well as to lower the cost of CO2 capture and related p...

  14. Modeling Reservoir-River Networks in Support of Optimizing Seasonal-Scale Reservoir Operations (United States)

    Villa, D. L.; Lowry, T. S.; Bier, A.; Barco, J.; Sun, A.


    HydroSCOPE (Hydropower Seasonal Concurrent Optimization of Power and the Environment) is a seasonal time-scale tool for scenario analysis and optimization of reservoir-river networks. Developed in MATLAB, HydroSCOPE is an object-oriented model that simulates basin-scale dynamics with an objective of optimizing reservoir operations to maximize revenue from power generation, reliability in the water supply, environmental performance, and flood control. HydroSCOPE is part of a larger toolset that is being developed through a Department of Energy multi-laboratory project. This project's goal is to provide conventional hydropower decision makers with better information to execute their day-ahead and seasonal operations and planning activities by integrating water balance and operational dynamics across a wide range of spatial and temporal scales. This presentation details the modeling approach and functionality of HydroSCOPE. HydroSCOPE consists of a river-reservoir network model and an optimization routine. The river-reservoir network model simulates the heat and water balance of river-reservoir networks for time-scales up to one year. The optimization routine software, DAKOTA (Design Analysis Kit for Optimization and Terascale Applications -, is seamlessly linked to the network model and is used to optimize daily volumetric releases from the reservoirs to best meet a set of user-defined constraints, such as maximizing revenue while minimizing environmental violations. The network model uses 1-D approximations for both the reservoirs and river reaches and is able to account for surface and sediment heat exchange as well as ice dynamics for both models. The reservoir model also accounts for inflow, density, and withdrawal zone mixing, and diffusive heat exchange. Routing for the river reaches is accomplished using a modified Muskingum-Cunge approach that automatically calculates the internal timestep and sub-reach lengths to match the conditions of

  15. Depositional sequence analysis and sedimentologic modeling for improved prediction of Pennsylvanian reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watney, W.L.


    Reservoirs in the Lansing-Kansas City limestone result from complex interactions among paleotopography (deposition, concurrent structural deformation), sea level, and diagenesis. Analysis of reservoirs and surface and near-surface analogs has led to developing a {open_quotes}strandline grainstone model{close_quotes} in which relative sea-level stabilized during regressions, resulting in accumulation of multiple grainstone buildups along depositional strike. Resulting stratigraphy in these carbonate units are generally predictable correlating to inferred topographic elevation along the shelf. This model is a valuable predictive tool for (1) locating favorable reservoirs for exploration, and (2) anticipating internal properties of the reservoir for field development. Reservoirs in the Lansing-Kansas City limestones are developed in both oolitic and bioclastic grainstones, however, re-analysis of oomoldic reservoirs provides the greatest opportunity for developing bypassed oil. A new technique, the {open_quotes}Super{close_quotes} Pickett crossplot (formation resistivity vs. porosity) and its use in an integrated petrophysical characterization, has been developed to evaluate extractable oil remaining in these reservoirs. The manual method in combination with 3-D visualization and modeling can help to target production limiting heterogeneities in these complex reservoirs and moreover compute critical parameters for the field such as bulk volume water. Application of this technique indicates that from 6-9 million barrels of Lansing-Kansas City oil remain behind pipe in the Victory-Northeast Lemon Fields. Petroleum geologists are challenged to quantify inferred processes to aid in developing rationale geologically consistent models of sedimentation so that acceptable levels of prediction can be obtained.

  16. Numerical Simulation of the Depressurization Process of a Natural Gas Hydrate Reservoir: An Attempt at Optimization of Field Operational Factors with Multiple Wells in a Real 3D Geological Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhixue Sun


    Full Text Available Natural gas hydrates, crystalline solids whose gas molecules are so compressed that they are denser than a typical fluid hydrocarbon, have extensive applications in the areas of climate change and the energy crisis. The hydrate deposit located in the Shenhu Area on the continental slope of the South China Sea is regarded as the most promising target for gas hydrate exploration in China. Samples taken at drilling site SH2 have indicated a high abundance of methane hydrate reserves in clay sediments. In the last few decades, with its relatively low energy cost, the depressurization gas recovery method has been generally regarded as technically feasible and the most promising one. For the purpose of a better acquaintance with the feasible field operational factors and processes which control the production behavior of a real 3D geological CH4-hydrate deposit, it is urgent to figure out the effects of the parameters such as well type, well spacing, bottom hole pressure, and perforation intervals on methane recovery. One years’ numerical simulation results show that under the condition of 3000 kPa constant bottom hole pressure, 1000 m well spacing, perforation in higher intervals and with one horizontal well, the daily peak gas rate can reach 4325.02 m3 and the cumulative gas volume is 1.291 × 106 m3. What’s more, some new knowledge and its explanation of the curve tendency and evolution for the production process are provided. Technically, one factor at a time design (OFAT and an orthogonal design were used in the simulation to investigate which factors dominate the productivity ability and which is the most sensitive one. The results indicated that the order of effects of the factors on gas yield was perforation interval > bottom hole pressure > well spacing.

  17. Modeling reservoir geomechanics using discrete element method : Application to reservoir monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alassi, Haitham Tayseer


    Understanding reservoir geomechanical behavior is becoming more and more important for the petroleum industry. Reservoir compaction, which may result in surface subsidence and fault reactivation, occurs during reservoir depletion. Stress changes and possible fracture development inside and outside a depleting reservoir can be monitored using time-lapse (so-called '4D') seismic and/or passive seismic, and this can give valuable information about the conditions of a given reservoir during production. In this study we will focus on using the (particle-based) Discrete Element Method (DEM) to model reservoir geomechanical behavior during depletion and fluid injection. We show in this study that DEM can be used in modeling reservoir geomechanical behavior by comparing results obtained from DEM to those obtained from analytical solutions. The match of the displacement field between DEM and the analytical solution is good, however there is mismatch of the stress field which is related to the way stress is measured in DEM. A good match is however obtained by measuring the stress field carefully. We also use DEM to model reservoir geomechanical behavior beyond the elasticity limit where fractures can develop and faults can reactivate. A general technique has been developed to relate DEM parameters to rock properties. This is necessary in order to use correct reservoir geomechanical properties during modeling. For any type of particle packing there is a limitation that the maximum ratio between P- and S-wave velocity Vp/Vs that can be modeled is 3 . The static behavior for a loose packing is different from the dynamic behavior. Empirical relations are needed for the static behavior based on numerical test observations. The dynamic behavior for both dense and loose packing can be given by analytical relations. Cosserat continuum theory is needed to derive relations for Vp and Vs. It is shown that by constraining the particle rotation, the S-wave velocity can be

  18. Modelling of Geological Structures Using Emergence (United States)

    Hillier, M.; de Kemp, E. A.; Sprague, K.


    A complex system based approach is used to model geological structures. Preliminary work is presented to show how mutually interacting agents can be used to probe local regions and obtain emergent behaviour of its geometrical properties. Models are built bottom up from the smaller components to simulate regions from camp scales to regional scales. In nature, very complex structures exhibiting discontinuous and heterogeneous features are common. Modelling such regions using conventional methods is cumbersome and influences between close proximity zones are generally not considered. Agents are able to detect local and global features in the entire model space, as detailed as the data set allows. These features are incorporated into the interpolation of a modeled zone if those features are coupled to that location. We attempt to see if opportunities exist for exploiting complex systems approaches in what is a classical knowledge driven modelling domain with high emphasis on expert interpretive methods. Geological maps (2D, 3D or 4D) are fundamentally an emergent result of an iterative mental process which focuses on reconciling disparate data. The end goal of our research is to point a way forward in which complexity can support the simulation of maps and thus support the interpretive workflow.

  19. Petrofacies Analysis - A Petrophysical Tool for Geologic/Engineering Reservoir Characterization (United States)

    Watney, W.L.; Guy, W.J.; Doveton, J.H.; Bhattacharya, S.; Gerlach, P.M.; Bohling, G.C.; Carr, T.R.


    Petrofacies analysis is defined as the characterization and classification of pore types and fluid saturations as revealed by petrophysical measurements of a reservoir. The word "petrofacies" makes an explicit link between petroleum engineers' concerns with pore characteristics as arbiters of production performance and the facies paradigm of geologists as a methodology for genetic understanding and prediction. In petrofacies analysis, the porosity and resistivity axes of the classical Pickett plot are used to map water saturation, bulk volume water, and estimated permeability, as well as capillary pressure information where it is available. When data points are connected in order of depth within a reservoir, the characteristic patterns reflect reservoir rock character and its interplay with the hydrocarbon column. A third variable can be presented at each point on the crossplot by assigning a color scale that is based on other well logs, often gamma ray or photoelectric effect, or other derived variables. Contrasts between reservoir pore types and fluid saturations are reflected in changing patterns on the crossplot and can help discriminate and characterize reservoir heterogeneity. Many hundreds of analyses of well logs facilitated by spreadsheet and object-oriented programming have provided the means to distinguish patterns typical of certain complex pore types (size and connectedness) for sandstones and carbonate reservoirs, occurrences of irreducible water saturation, and presence of transition zones. The result has been an improved means to evaluate potential production, such as bypassed pay behind pipe and in old exploration wells, or to assess zonation and continuity of the reservoir. Petrofacies analysis in this study was applied to distinguishing flow units and including discriminating pore type as an assessment of reservoir conformance and continuity. The analysis is facilitated through the use of colorimage cross sections depicting depositional sequences

  20. Seismic monitoring of heavy oil reservoirs: Rock physics and finite element modelling (United States)

    Theune, Ulrich

    In the past decades, remote monitoring of subsurface processes has attracted increasing attention in geophysics. With repeated geophysical surveys one attempts to detect changes in the physical properties in the underground without directly accessing the earth. This technique has been proven to be very valuable for monitoring enhanced oil recovery programs. This thesis presents an modelling approach for the feasibility analysis for monitoring of a thermal enhanced oil recovery technique applied to heavy oil reservoirs in the Western Canadian Sedimentary Basin. In order to produce heavy oil from shallow reservoirs thermal oil recovery techniques such as the Steam Assisted Gravity Drainage (SAGD) are often employed. As these techniques are expensive and technically challenging, early detection of operational problems is without doubt of great value. However, the feasibility of geophysical monitoring depends on many factors such as the changes in the rock physical properties of the target reservoir. In order to access the feasibility of seismic monitoring for heavy oil reservoirs, a fluid-substitutional rock physical study has been carried out to simulate the steam injection. The second modelling approach is based on a modified finite element algorithm to simulate the propagation of elastic waves in the earth, which has been developed independently in the framework of this thesis. The work summarized in this thesis shows a possibility to access the feasibility of seismic monitoring for heavy oil reservoirs through an extensive rock-physical study. Seismic monitoring is a useful tool in reservoir management decision process. However, the work reported here suggests that seismic monitoring of SAGD processes in the heavy oil reservoirs of the Western Canadian Sedimentary Basin is only feasible in shallow, unconsolidated deposits. For deeper, but otherwise geological similar reservoirs, the SAGD does not create a sufficient change in the rock physical properties to be

  1. Petrofacies analysis - the petrophysical tool for geologic/engineering reservoir characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watney, W.L.; Guy, W.J.; Gerlach, P.M. [Kansas Geological Survey, Lawrence, KS (United States)] [and others


    Petrofacies analysis is defined as the characterization and classification of pore types and fluid saturations as revealed by petrophysical measures of a reservoir. The word {open_quotes}petrofacies{close_quotes} makes an explicit link between petroleum engineers concerns with pore characteristics as arbiters of production performance, and the facies paradigm of geologists as a methodology for genetic understanding and prediction. In petrofacies analysis, the porosity and resistivity axes of the classical Pickett plot are used to map water saturation, bulk volume water, and estimated permeability, as well as capillary pressure information, where it is available. When data points are connected in order of depth within a reservoir, the characteristic patterns reflect reservoir rock character and its interplay with the hydrocarbon column. A third variable can be presented at each point on the crossplot by assigning a color scale that is based on other well logs, often gamma ray or photoelectric effect, or other derived variables. Contrasts between reservoir pore types and fluid saturations will be reflected in changing patterns on the crossplot and can help discriminate and characterize reservoir heterogeneity. Many hundreds of analyses of well logs facilitated by spreadsheet and object-oriented programming have provided the means to distinguish patterns typical of certain complex pore types for sandstones and carbonate reservoirs, occurrences of irreducible water saturation, and presence of transition zones. The result has been an improved means to evaluate potential production such as bypassed pay behind pipe and in old exploration holes, or to assess zonation and continuity of the reservoir. Petrofacies analysis is applied in this example to distinguishing flow units including discrimination of pore type as assessment of reservoir conformance and continuity. The analysis is facilitated through the use of color cross sections and cluster analysis.

  2. Quantitative geological modeling based on probabilistic integration of geological and geophysical data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gulbrandsen, Mats Lundh

    In order to obtain an adequate geological model of any kind, proper integration of geophysical data, borehole logs and geological expert knowledge is important. Geophysical data provide indirect information about geology, borehole logs provide sparse point wise direct information about geology...... entitled Smart Interpretation is developed. This semi-automatic method learns the relation between a set of data attributes extracted from deterministically inverted airborne electromagnetic data and a set of interpretations of a geological layer that is manually picked by a geological expert....... This relation can then be used to predict the interpreted geological layer, throughout the whole geophysical survey. Two applications of this method are presented. In one study, the distribution of permafrost in the Yukon Flats, Alaska is mapped, and in the other study, Smart Interpretation is using well...

  3. Research and implementation on 3D modeling of geological body (United States)

    Niu, Lijuan; Li, Ligong; Zhu, Renyi; Huang, Man


    This study based on GIS thinking explores the combination of the mixed spatial data model and GIS model to build three-dimensional(3d) model of geological bodies in the Arc Engine platform, describes the interface and method used in the construction of 3d geological body in Arc Engine component platform in detail, and puts forward an indirect method which constructs a set of geological grid layers through Rigging interpolation by the borehole data and then converts it into the geological layers of TIN, which improves the defect in building the geological layers of TIN directly and makes it better to complete the simulation of the real geological layer. This study makes a useful attempt to build 3d model of the geological body based on the GIS, and provides a certain reference value for simulating geological bodies in 3d and constructing the digital system of underground space.

  4. Summary on several key techniques in 3D geological modeling. (United States)

    Mei, Gang


    Several key techniques in 3D geological modeling including planar mesh generation, spatial interpolation, and surface intersection are summarized in this paper. Note that these techniques are generic and widely used in various applications but play a key role in 3D geological modeling. There are two essential procedures in 3D geological modeling: the first is the simulation of geological interfaces using geometric surfaces and the second is the building of geological objects by means of various geometric computations such as the intersection of surfaces. Discrete geometric surfaces that represent geological interfaces can be generated by creating planar meshes first and then spatially interpolating; those surfaces intersect and then form volumes that represent three-dimensional geological objects such as rock bodies. In this paper, the most commonly used algorithms of the key techniques in 3D geological modeling are summarized.

  5. A Statistical Graphical Model of the California Reservoir System (United States)

    Taeb, A.; Reager, J. T.; Turmon, M.; Chandrasekaran, V.


    The recent California drought has highlighted the potential vulnerability of the state's water management infrastructure to multiyear dry intervals. Due to the high complexity of the network, dynamic storage changes in California reservoirs on a state-wide scale have previously been difficult to model using either traditional statistical or physical approaches. Indeed, although there is a significant line of research on exploring models for single (or a small number of) reservoirs, these approaches are not amenable to a system-wide modeling of the California reservoir network due to the spatial and hydrological heterogeneities of the system. In this work, we develop a state-wide statistical graphical model to characterize the dependencies among a collection of 55 major California reservoirs across the state; this model is defined with respect to a graph in which the nodes index reservoirs and the edges specify the relationships or dependencies between reservoirs. We obtain and validate this model in a data-driven manner based on reservoir volumes over the period 2003-2016. A key feature of our framework is a quantification of the effects of external phenomena that influence the entire reservoir network. We further characterize the degree to which physical factors (e.g., state-wide Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI), average temperature, snow pack) and economic factors (e.g., consumer price index, number of agricultural workers) explain these external influences. As a consequence of this analysis, we obtain a system-wide health diagnosis of the reservoir network as a function of PDSI.

  6. Advancing reservoir operation description in physically based hydrological models (United States)

    Anghileri, Daniela; Giudici, Federico; Castelletti, Andrea; Burlando, Paolo


    Last decades have seen significant advances in our capacity of characterizing and reproducing hydrological processes within physically based models. Yet, when the human component is considered (e.g. reservoirs, water distribution systems), the associated decisions are generally modeled with very simplistic rules, which might underperform in reproducing the actual operators' behaviour on a daily or sub-daily basis. For example, reservoir operations are usually described by a target-level rule curve, which represents the level that the reservoir should track during normal operating conditions. The associated release decision is determined by the current state of the reservoir relative to the rule curve. This modeling approach can reasonably reproduce the seasonal water volume shift due to reservoir operation. Still, it cannot capture more complex decision making processes in response, e.g., to the fluctuations of energy prices and demands, the temporal unavailability of power plants or varying amount of snow accumulated in the basin. In this work, we link a physically explicit hydrological model with detailed hydropower behavioural models describing the decision making process by the dam operator. In particular, we consider two categories of behavioural models: explicit or rule-based behavioural models, where reservoir operating rules are empirically inferred from observational data, and implicit or optimization based behavioural models, where, following a normative economic approach, the decision maker is represented as a rational agent maximising a utility function. We compare these two alternate modelling approaches on the real-world water system of Lake Como catchment in the Italian Alps. The water system is characterized by the presence of 18 artificial hydropower reservoirs generating almost 13% of the Italian hydropower production. Results show to which extent the hydrological regime in the catchment is affected by different behavioural models and reservoir

  7. Borehole radar modeling for reservoir monitoring applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miorali, M.; Slob, E.C.; Arts, R.J.


    The use of down-hole sensors and remotely controlled valves in wells provide enormous benefits to reservoir management and oil production. We suggest borehole radar measurements as a promising technique capable of monitoring the arrival of undesired fluids in the proximity of production wells. The

  8. Three dimensional heat transport modeling in Vossoroca reservoir (United States)

    Arcie Polli, Bruna; Yoshioka Bernardo, Julio Werner; Hilgert, Stephan; Bleninger, Tobias


    Freshwater reservoirs are used for many purposes as hydropower generation, water supply and irrigation. In Brazil, according to the National Energy Balance of 2013, hydropower energy corresponds to 70.1% of the Brazilian demand. Superficial waters (which include rivers, lakes and reservoirs) are the most used source for drinking water supply - 56% of the municipalities use superficial waters as a source of water. The last two years have shown that the Brazilian water and electricity supply is highly vulnerable and that improved management is urgently needed. The construction of reservoirs affects physical, chemical and biological characteristics of the water body, e.g. stratification, temperature, residence time and turbulence reduction. Some water quality issues related to reservoirs are eutrophication, greenhouse gas emission to the atmosphere and dissolved oxygen depletion in the hypolimnion. The understanding of the physical processes in the water body is fundamental to reservoir management. Lakes and reservoirs may present a seasonal behavior and stratify due to hydrological and meteorological conditions, and especially its vertical distribution may be related to water quality. Stratification can control heat and dissolved substances transport. It has been also reported the importance of horizontal temperature gradients, e.g. inflows and its density and processes of mass transfer from shallow to deeper regions of the reservoir, that also may impact water quality. Three dimensional modeling of the heat transport in lakes and reservoirs is an important tool to the understanding and management of these systems. It is possible to estimate periods of large vertical temperature gradients, inhibiting vertical transport and horizontal gradients, which could be responsible for horizontal transport of heat and substances (e.g. differential cooling or inflows). Vossoroca reservoir was constructed in 1949 by the impoundment of São João River and is located near to

  9. Climate modeling - a tool for the assessment of the paleodistribution of source and reservoir rocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roscher, M.; Schneider, J.W. [Technische Univ. Bergakademie Freiberg (Germany). Inst. fuer Geologie; Berner, U. [Bundesanstalt fuer Geowissenschaften und Rohstoffe, Hannover (Germany). Referat Organische Geochemie/Kohlenwasserstoff-Forschung


    In an on-going project of BGR and TU Bergakademie Freiberg, numeric paleo-climate modeling is used as a tool for the assessment of the paleo-distribution of organic rich deposits as well as of reservoir rocks. This modeling approach is based on new ideas concerning the formation of the Pangea supercontinent. The new plate tectonic concept is supported by paleo- magnetic data as it fits the 95% confidence interval of published data. Six Permocarboniferous time slices (340, 320, 300, 290, 270, 255 Ma) were chosen within a first paleo-climate modeling approach as they represent the most important changes of the Late Paleozoic climate development. The digital maps have a resolution of 2.8 x 2.8 (T42), suitable for high-resolution climate modeling, using the PLASIM model. CO{sub 2} concentrations of the paleo-atmosphere and paleo-insolation values have been estimated by published methods. For the purpose of validation, quantitative model output, had to be transformed into qualitative parameters in order to be able to compare digital data with qualitative data of geologic indicators. The model output of surface temperatures and precipitation was therefore converted into climate zones. The reconstructed occurrences of geological indicators like aeolian sands, evaporites, reefs, coals, oil source rocks, tillites, phosphorites and cherts were then compared to the computed paleo-climate zones. Examples of the Permian Pangea show a very good agreement between model results and geological indicators. From the modeling approach we are able to identify climatic processes which lead to the deposition of hydrocarbon source and reservoir rocks. The regional assessment of such atmospheric processes may be used for the identification of the paleo-distribution of organic rich deposits or rock types suitable to form hydrocarbon reservoirs. (orig.)

  10. A new postprocessing method for reservoir stochastic modeling: A solution based on information degree (United States)

    Yin, Yanshu; Zhang, Changmin; Li, Weiguo; Li, Shaohua


    A postprocessing method based on information degree is developed to solve the small-scale variation (noise) in reservoir stochastic modeling. Considering that different modeling results have different probabilities and credits, the new method uses the information degree calculated by the probabilities as weights to process the noise. Compared with the traditional postprocessing methods, this method is geologically more reasonable in that it considers both the information provided by the conditional data and the uncertainties associated with random sampling during simulation. The computation of information degree is objective, which avoids the subjective assignments of weight values in the traditional methods. Comparative studies using both conceptual and real reservoir models show that the new method effectively processes the noise in realizations. Thus, it is a prospective approach to the postprocessing family in stochastic modeling.

  11. Reactive Transport Model of Microbial Reservoir Souring and Remediation in Fractured Rock (United States)

    Cheng, Y.; Bouskill, N.; Wu, Y.; Hubbard, C. G.; Zheng, L.; Arora, B.; Ajo Franklin, J. B.


    Microorganisms mediate the production of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) in oil bearing geological formations. H2S has detrimental impacts on oil production operations and can cause significant environmental and health problems. Oil reservoir souring results from coupled thermal, chemical, biological and hydrological interactions across a range of spatiotemporal scales. At the macroscale, fluid flows in the fractures and matrix determine the delivery of electron donors and acceptors to the microbes, and the flux of H2S throughout the reservoir. At the microscale, microbes reduce sulfate while oxidizing available electron donors for growth. Accumulation of the microbial biomass can in turn impact flows in the fractured geological formation. Understanding the processes that control the rates and patterns of sulfate reduction is a crucial step in developing a predictive understanding of reservoir souring and associated mitigation processes. Recently, a novel fractured sandstone experiment was conducted to explore souring and desouring (perchlorate treatment) across controlled thermal gradient (also in this session). In this work, a reactive transport model (RTM) of the fractured sandstone was developed. Observed spatiotemporal data from the fractured sandstone experiment such as tracer, thermal state, effluent sulfide, sulfate and perchlorate concentrations were used to constrain the model transport and reaction process rates. The model captured the spatiotemporal trends of the chemical species and microbial populations that emerged as a result of feedbacks between microbes, flow and the minerals. This work demonstrates modeling to be a powerful tool for elucidating the interacting factors governing biogenesis of H2S.

  12. Numerical modeling of fracking fluid and methane migration through fault zones in shale gas reservoirs (United States)

    Taherdangkoo, Reza; Tatomir, Alexandru; Sauter, Martin


    Hydraulic fracturing operation in shale gas reservoir has gained growing interest over the last few years. Groundwater contamination is one of the most important environmental concerns that have emerged surrounding shale gas development (Reagan et al., 2015). The potential impacts of hydraulic fracturing could be studied through the possible pathways for subsurface migration of contaminants towards overlying aquifers (Kissinger et al., 2013; Myers, 2012). The intent of this study is to investigate, by means of numerical simulation, two failure scenarios which are based on the presence of a fault zone that penetrates the full thickness of overburden and connect shale gas reservoir to aquifer. Scenario 1 addresses the potential transport of fracturing fluid from the shale into the subsurface. This scenario was modeled with COMSOL Multiphysics software. Scenario 2 deals with the leakage of methane from the reservoir into the overburden. The numerical modeling of this scenario was implemented in DuMux (free and open-source software), discrete fracture model (DFM) simulator (Tatomir, 2012). The modeling results are used to evaluate the influence of several important parameters (reservoir pressure, aquifer-reservoir separation thickness, fault zone inclination, porosity, permeability, etc.) that could affect the fluid transport through the fault zone. Furthermore, we determined the main transport mechanisms and circumstances in which would allow frack fluid or methane migrate through the fault zone into geological layers. The results show that presence of a conductive fault could reduce the contaminant travel time and a significant contaminant leakage, under certain hydraulic conditions, is most likely to occur. Bibliography Kissinger, A., Helmig, R., Ebigbo, A., Class, H., Lange, T., Sauter, M., Heitfeld, M., Klünker, J., Jahnke, W., 2013. Hydraulic fracturing in unconventional gas reservoirs: risks in the geological system, part 2. Environ Earth Sci 70, 3855

  13. Sampling from stochastic reservoir models constrained by production data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hegstad, Bjoern Kaare


    When a petroleum reservoir is evaluated, it is important to forecast future production of oil and gas and to assess forecast uncertainty. This is done by defining a stochastic model for the reservoir characteristics, generating realizations from this model and applying a fluid flow simulator to the realizations. The reservoir characteristics define the geometry of the reservoir, initial saturation, petrophysical properties etc. This thesis discusses how to generate realizations constrained by production data, that is to say, the realizations should reproduce the observed production history of the petroleum reservoir within the uncertainty of these data. The topics discussed are: (1) Theoretical framework, (2) History matching, forecasting and forecasting uncertainty, (3) A three-dimensional test case, (4) Modelling transmissibility multipliers by Markov random fields, (5) Up scaling, (6) The link between model parameters, well observations and production history in a simple test case, (7) Sampling the posterior using optimization in a hierarchical model, (8) A comparison of Rejection Sampling and Metropolis-Hastings algorithm, (9) Stochastic simulation and conditioning by annealing in reservoir description, and (10) Uncertainty assessment in history matching and forecasting. 139 refs., 85 figs., 1 tab.

  14. Geologic and petrophysic analysis of a travertine block as hydrocarbon reservoir analogue; Analise geologica e petrofisica de um bloco de travertino como analogo de reservatorio de hidrocarbonetos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basso, Mateus; Kuroda, Michelle Chaves; Vidal, Alexandre Campane, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail: [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (CEPETRO/UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Centro de Estudos do Petroleo


    Microbialitic limestones are gaining space in petroleum geology due to the existence of many reservoirs composed of these lithologies in the pre-salt producing fields. Travertine, calcareous tufa and stromatolites figure among the rocks proposed as analogous for the microbialitic rocks. This work conduces the study of geological, petrophysical and geophysical parameters of a travertine block measuring 1,60 x 1,60 x 2,70 m, weighing 21,2 tons and available in the Centro de Estudo do Petroleo (CEPETRO) at the Universidade Estadual de Campinas. The Italian block, named T-block, corresponds to the representative elementary volume of its original formation and allows the study in an intermediate scale between the hand sample and the outcrop scale. Permeability tests and gamma ray spectrometry measurements were conducted and the porosity was calculated by image analysis. Models were generated from the obtained data and then associated with descriptive geology of the block. A reduction in permeability, porosity and concentration of elements potassium (K), uranium (U) and thorium (Th) was recorded, following a gradient towards the top of the T-block accompanying the reduction in the degree of development of the rock fabric. (author)

  15. Soils, crop production, and geology in the Fort Cobb reservoir watershed, southwestern Oklahoma (United States)

    The Ft. Cobb Reservoir Experimental Watershed (FCREW) is one of 14 ARS benchmark CEAP (Conservation Effects Assessment Project) watersheds. To address basic CEAP research questions, and to foster interagency research collaborations, several spatial data sets and data from various field experiments ...

  16. Assessing the potential of reservoir outflow management to reduce sedimentation using continuous turbidity monitoring and reservoir modelling (United States)

    Lee, Casey; Foster, Guy


    In-stream sensors are increasingly deployed as part of ambient water quality-monitoring networks. Temporally dense data from these networks can be used to better understand the transport of constituents through streams, lakes or reservoirs. Data from existing, continuously recording in-stream flow and water quality monitoring stations were coupled with the two-dimensional hydrodynamic CE-QUAL-W2 model to assess the potential of altered reservoir outflow management to reduce sediment trapping in John Redmond Reservoir, located in east-central Kansas. Monitoring stations upstream and downstream from the reservoir were used to estimate 5.6 million metric tons of sediment transported to John Redmond Reservoir from 2007 through 2010, 88% of which was trapped within the reservoir. The two-dimensional model was used to estimate the residence time of 55 equal-volume releases from the reservoir; sediment trapping for these releases varied from 48% to 97%. Smaller trapping efficiencies were observed when the reservoir was maintained near the normal operating capacity (relative to higher flood pool levels) and when average residence times were relatively short. An idealized, alternative outflow management scenario was constructed, which minimized reservoir elevations and the length of time water was in the reservoir, while continuing to meet downstream flood control end points identified in the reservoir water control manual. The alternative scenario is projected to reduce sediment trapping in the reservoir by approximately 3%, preventing approximately 45 000 metric tons of sediment from being deposited within the reservoir annually. This article presents an approach to quantify the potential of reservoir management using existing in-stream data; actual management decisions need to consider the effects on other reservoir benefits, such as downstream flood control and aquatic life.

  17. Reservoir structural model updating using the Ensemble Kalman Filter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seiler, Alexandra


    In reservoir characterization, a large emphasis is placed on risk management and uncertainty assessment, and the dangers of basing decisions on a single base-case reservoir model are widely recognized. In the last years, statistical methods for assisted history matching have gained popularity for providing integrated models with quantified uncertainty, conditioned on all available data. Structural modeling is the first step in a reservoir modeling work flow and consists in defining the geometrical framework of the reservoir, based on the information from seismic surveys and well data. Large uncertainties are typically associated with the processing and interpretation of seismic data. However, the structural model is often fixed to a single interpretation in history-matching work flows due to the complexity of updating the structural model and related reservoir grid. This thesis present a method that allows to account for the uncertainties in the structural model and continuously update the model and related uncertainties by assimilation of production data using the Ensemble Kalman Filter (EnKF). We consider uncertainties in the depth of the reservoir horizons and in the fault geometry, and assimilate production data, such as oil production rate, gas-oil ratio and water-cut. In the EnKF model-updating work flow, an ensemble of reservoir models, expressing explicitly the model uncertainty, is created. We present a parameterization that allows to generate different realizations of the structural model to account for the uncertainties in faults and horizons and that maintains the consistency throughout the reservoir characterization project, from the structural model to the prediction of production profiles. The uncertainty in the depth of the horizons is parameterized as simulated depth surfaces, the fault position as a displacement vector and the fault throw as a throw-scaling factor. In the EnKF, the model parameters and state variables are updated sequentially in

  18. Thermal Remote Sensing for Reservoir Modelling and Management (United States)

    Marti-Cardona, Belen; Arbat-Bofill, Marina; Prats-Rodriquez, Jordi; Pipia, Luca


    ASTER and Landsat images were used for mapping the water surface temperature in the Sobrón, Mequinenza and Ribarroja reservoirs in the Ebro River, Spain. The spatially continuous information in these maps reveals the impact of the reservoir on the river natural thermal gradient in two different periods of the year. It also evidences the thermal impact intensity and extent of the refrigeration flow discharge from a nuclear power plant located on the river bank.The high spatial resolution images of the Ribarroja reservoir, acquired by the airborne hyperspectral TASI sensor, show spatial patterns which complemented the in-situ point measurements and contributed valuable data for validating the three-dimensional thermo- hydrodynamic model of the reservoir.

  19. High-Performance Modeling of Carbon Dioxide Sequestration by Coupling Reservoir Simulation and Molecular Dynamics

    KAUST Repository

    Bao, Kai


    The present work describes a parallel computational framework for carbon dioxide (CO2) sequestration simulation by coupling reservoir simulation and molecular dynamics (MD) on massively parallel high-performance-computing (HPC) systems. In this framework, a parallel reservoir simulator, reservoir-simulation toolbox (RST), solves the flow and transport equations that describe the subsurface flow behavior, whereas the MD simulations are performed to provide the required physical parameters. Technologies from several different fields are used to make this novel coupled system work efficiently. One of the major applications of the framework is the modeling of large-scale CO2 sequestration for long-term storage in subsurface geological formations, such as depleted oil and gas reservoirs and deep saline aquifers, which has been proposed as one of the few attractive and practical solutions to reduce CO2 emissions and address the global-warming threat. Fine grids and accurate prediction of the properties of fluid mixtures under geological conditions are essential for accurate simulations. In this work, CO2 sequestration is presented as a first example for coupling reservoir simulation and MD, although the framework can be extended naturally to the full multiphase multicomponent compositional flow simulation to handle more complicated physical processes in the future. Accuracy and scalability analysis are performed on an IBM BlueGene/P and on an IBM BlueGene/Q, the latest IBM supercomputer. Results show good accuracy of our MD simulations compared with published data, and good scalability is observed with the massively parallel HPC systems. The performance and capacity of the proposed framework are well-demonstrated with several experiments with hundreds of millions to one billion cells. To the best of our knowledge, the present work represents the first attempt to couple reservoir simulation and molecular simulation for large-scale modeling. Because of the complexity of

  20. Artificial neural network modeling of dissolved oxygen in reservoir. (United States)

    Chen, Wei-Bo; Liu, Wen-Cheng


    The water quality of reservoirs is one of the key factors in the operation and water quality management of reservoirs. Dissolved oxygen (DO) in water column is essential for microorganisms and a significant indicator of the state of aquatic ecosystems. In this study, two artificial neural network (ANN) models including back propagation neural network (BPNN) and adaptive neural-based fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) approaches and multilinear regression (MLR) model were developed to estimate the DO concentration in the Feitsui Reservoir of northern Taiwan. The input variables of the neural network are determined as water temperature, pH, conductivity, turbidity, suspended solids, total hardness, total alkalinity, and ammonium nitrogen. The performance of the ANN models and MLR model was assessed through the mean absolute error, root mean square error, and correlation coefficient computed from the measured and model-simulated DO values. The results reveal that ANN estimation performances were superior to those of MLR. Comparing to the BPNN and ANFIS models through the performance criteria, the ANFIS model is better than the BPNN model for predicting the DO values. Study results show that the neural network particularly using ANFIS model is able to predict the DO concentrations with reasonable accuracy, suggesting that the neural network is a valuable tool for reservoir management in Taiwan.

  1. Model Structure Analysis of Model-based Operation of Petroleum Reservoirs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Doren, J.F.M.


    The demand for petroleum is expected to increase in the coming decades, while the production of petroleum from subsurface reservoirs is becoming increasingly complex. To meet the demand petroleum reservoirs should be operated more efficiently. Physics-based petroleum reservoir models that describe

  2. Geology (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — This database is an Arc/Info implementation of the 1:500,000 scale Geology Map of Kansas, M­23, 1991. This work wasperformed by the Automated Cartography section of...

  3. 3D modeling of geological anomalies based on segmentation of multiattribute fusion (United States)

    Liu, Zhi-Ning; Song, Cheng-Yun; Li, Zhi-Yong; Cai, Han-Peng; Yao, Xing-Miao; Hu, Guang-Min


    3D modeling of geological bodies based on 3D seismic data is used to define the shape and volume of the bodies, which then can be directly applied to reservoir prediction, reserve estimation, and exploration. However, multiattributes are not effectively used in 3D modeling. To solve this problem, we propose a novel method for building of 3D model of geological anomalies based on the segmentation of multiattribute fusion. First, we divide the seismic attributes into edge- and region-based seismic attributes. Then, the segmentation model incorporating the edge- and region-based models is constructed within the levelset-based framework. Finally, the marching cubes algorithm is adopted to extract the zero level set based on the segmentation results and build the 3D model of the geological anomaly. Combining the edge-and region-based attributes to build the segmentation model, we satisfy the independence requirement and avoid the problem of insufficient data of single seismic attribute in capturing the boundaries of geological anomalies. We apply the proposed method to seismic data from the Sichuan Basin in southwestern China and obtain 3D models of caves and channels. Compared with 3D models obtained based on single seismic attributes, the results are better agreement with reality.

  4. Integration of advanced geoscience and engineering techniques to quantify interwell heterogeneity in reservoir models. Final report, September 29, 1993--September 30, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiss, W.W.; Buckley, J.S.; Ouenes, A.


    The goal of this three-year project was to provide a quantitative definition of reservoir heterogeneity. This objective was accomplished through the integration of geologic, geophysical, and engineering databases into a multi-disciplinary understanding of reservoir architecture and associated fluid-rock and fluid-fluid interactions. This interdisciplinary effort integrated geological and geophysical data with engineering and petrophysical results through reservoir simulation to quantify reservoir architecture and the dynamics of fluid-rock and fluid-fluid interactions. An improved reservoir description allows greater accuracy and confidence during simulation and modeling as steps toward gaining greater recovery efficiency from existing reservoirs. A field laboratory, the Sulimar Queen Unit, was available for the field research. Several members of the PRRC staff participated in the development of improved reservoir description by integration of the field and laboratory data as well as in the development of quantitative reservoir models to aid performance predictions. Subcontractors from Stanford University and the University of Texas at Austin (UT) collaborated in the research and participated in the design and interpretation of field tests. The three-year project was initiated in September 1993 and led to the development and application of various reservoir description methodologies. A new approach for visualizing production data graphically was developed and implemented on the Internet. Using production data and old gamma rays logs, a black oil reservoir model that honors both primary and secondary performance was developed. The old gamma ray logs were used after applying a resealing technique, which was crucial for the success of the project. In addition to the gamma ray logs, the development of the reservoir model benefitted from an inverse Drill Stem Test (DST) technique which provided initial estimates of the reservoir permeability at different wells.

  5. Teaching the geological subsurface with 3D models (United States)

    Thorpe, Steve; Ward, Emma


    3D geological models have great potential as a resource when teaching geological concepts as it allows the student to visualise and interrogate UK geology. They are especially useful when dealing with the conversion of 2D field, map and GIS outputs into three dimensional geological units, which is a common problem for many students. Today's earth science students use a variety of skills and processes during their learning experience including spatial thinking, image construction, detecting patterns, making predictions and deducing the orientation of themselves. 3D geological models can reinforce spatial thinking strategies and encourage students to think about processes and properties, in turn helping the student to recognise pre-learnt geological principles in the field and to convert what they see at the surface into a picture of what is going on at depth. The British Geological Survey (BGS) has been producing digital 3D geological models for over 10 years. The models produced are revolutionising the working practices, data standards and products of the BGS. Sharing our geoscience information with academia is highlighted throughout the BGS strategy as is instilling practical skills in future geoscience professionals, such as model building and interpretation. In 2009 a project was launched to investigate the potential of the models as a teaching resource. The study included justifying if and how the models help students to learn, how models have been used historically, and how other forms of modelling are being used today. BGS now produce 3D geological models for use by anyone teaching or learning geoscience. They incorporate educational strategies that will develop geospatial skills and alleviate potential problems that some students experience. They are contained within contemporary case studies and show standard geological concepts, structures, sedimentary rocks, cross sections and field techniques. 3D geological models of the Isle of Wight and Ingleborough

  6. Generation of reservoir models on flexible meshes; Generation de modeles de reservoir sur maillage flexible

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ricard, L.


    The high level geo-statistic description of the subsurface are often far too detailed for use in routine flow simulators. To make flow simulations tractable, the number of grid blocks has to be reduced: an approximation, still relevant with flow description, is necessary. In this work, we place the emphasis on the scaling procedure from the fine scale model to the multi-scale reservoir model. Two main problems appear: Near wells, faults and channels, the volume of flexible cells may be less than fine ones, so we need to solve a down-scaling problem; Far from these regions, the volume of cells are bigger than fine ones so we need to solve an up-scaling problem. In this work, research has been done on each of these three areas: down-scaling, up-scaling and fluid flow simulation. For each of these subjects, a review, some news improvements and comparative study are proposed. The proposed down-scaling method is build to be compatible with existing data integration methods. The comparative study shows that empirical methods are not enough accurate to solve the problem. Concerning the up-scaling step, the proposed approach is based on an existing method: the perturbed boundary conditions. An extension to unstructured mesh is developed for the inter-cell permeability tensor. The comparative study shows that numerical methods are not always as accurate as expected and the empirical model can be sufficient in lot of cases. A new approach to single-phase fluid flow simulation is developed. This approach can handle with full tensorial permeability fields with source or sink terms.(author)

  7. Fracture network modeling of a Hot Dry Rock geothermal reservoir

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robinson, B.A.


    Fluid flow and tracer transport in a fractured Hot Dry Rock (HDR) geothermal reservoir are modeled using fracture network modeling techniques. The steady state pressure and flow fields are solved for a two-dimensional, interconnected network of fractures with no-flow outer boundaries and constant-pressure source and sink points to simulate wellbore-fracture intersections. The tracer response is simulated by particle tracking, which follows the progress of a representative sample of individual tracer molecules traveling through the network. Solute retardation due to matrix diffusion and sorption is handled easily with these particle tracking methods. Matrix diffusion is shown to have an important effect in many fractured geothermal reservoirs, including those in crystalline formations of relatively low matrix porosity. Pressure drop and tracer behavior are matched for a fractured HDR reservoir tested at Fenton Hill, NM.

  8. The Baltic Basin: structure, properties of reservoir rocks, and capacity for geological storage of CO2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaher, Rein


    Full Text Available Baltic countries are located in the limits of the Baltic sedimentary basin, a 700 km long and 500 km wide synclinal structure. The axis of the syneclise plunges to the southwest. In Poland the Precambrian basement occurs at a depth of 5 km. The Baltic Basin includes the Neoproterozoic Ediacaran (Vendian at the base and all Phanerozoic systems. Two aquifers, the lower Devonian and Cambrian reservoirs, meet the basic requirements for CO2 storage. The porosity and permeability of sandstone decrease with depth. The average porosity of Cambrian sandstone at depths of 80–800, 800–1800, and 1800–2300 m is 18.6, 14.2, and 5.5%, respectively. The average permeability is, respectively, 311, 251, and 12 mD. Devonian sandstone has an average porosity of 26% and permeability in the range of 0.5–2 D. Prospective Cambrian structural traps occur only in Latvia. The 16 largest ones have CO2 storage capacity in the range of 2–74 Mt, with total capacity exceeding 400 Mt. The structural trapping is not an option for Lithuania as the uplifts there are too small. Another option is utilization of CO2 for enhanced oil recovery (EOR. The estimated total EOR net volume of CO2 (part of CO2 remaining in the formation in Lithuania is 5.6 Mt. Solubility and mineral trapping are a long-term option. The calculated total solubility trapping capacity of the Cambrian reservoir is as high as 11 Gt of CO2 within the area of the supercritical state of carbon dioxide.

  9. A Geological Model for the Evolution of Early Continents (Invited) (United States)

    Rey, P. F.; Coltice, N.; Flament, N. E.; Thébaud, N.


    Geochemical probing of ancient sediments (REE in black shales, strontium composition of carbonates, oxygen isotopes in zircons...) suggests that continents were a late Archean addition at Earth's surface. Yet, geochemical probing of ancient basalts reveals that they were extracted from a mantle depleted of its crustal elements early in the Archean. Considerations on surface geology, the early Earth hypsometry and the rheology and density structure of Archean continents can help solve this paradox. Surface geology: The surface geology of Archean cratons is characterized by thick continental flood basalts (CFBs, including greenstones) emplaced on felsic crusts dominated by Trondhjemite-Tonalite-Granodiorite (TTG) granitoids. This simple geology is peculiar because i/ most CFBs were emplaced below sea level, ii/ after their emplacement, CFBs were deformed into relatively narrow, curviplanar belts (greenstone basins) wrapping around migmatitic TTG domes, and iii/ Archean greenstone belts are richly endowed with gold and other metals deposits. Flat Earth hypothesis: From considerations on early Earth continental geotherm and density structure, Rey and Coltice (2008) propose that, because of the increased ability of the lithosphere to flow laterally, orogenic processes in the Archean produced only subdued topography (Water world hypothesis: From the observation that most Archean CFB were emplaced on flooded continents, Flament et al. (2008) proposed a theory for the hypsometry of the early Earth showing that, until the late Archean, most continents were flooded and Earth was largely a water world. From this, a model consistent with many of the peculiar attributes of Archean geology, can be proposed: 1/ Continents appeared at Earth's surface at an early stage during the Hadean/Archean. However, because they were i/ covered by continental flood basalts, ii/ below sea level, and iii/ deprived of modern-style mountain belts and orogenic plateaux, early felsic continents were

  10. Predicting the distribution of reservoirs by combining variable wavelet model of seismograms with wavelet edge analysis and modeling (United States)

    Xie, Yujiang; Liu, Gao


    Reservoir prediction with its unique role in oil and gas fields is constantly facing new challenges, such as high-resolution seismic data and fast-accurate impedance inversion are needed. Generally, conventional methods used to enhance the resolution of seismic data, for example the spectral whitening, sometimes called balancing or broadening, is hard to yield valuable results as the seismic wavelets change during traveling subsurface. Besides, impedance inversion used in reservoir such as acoustic impedance inversion (AII) also confronts problem—low computational efficiency when more geological and geophysical parameters are taken into consideration in the modeling inversion. Based on these questions, in this study, a joint approach is presented. The first approach is the variable wavelet model of seismograms (VWMS), which is carried out by a series of processes such as time partition and frequency domain processing, to enhance the resolution of the seismic traces. Another approach that can improve the computational efficiency of the AII is the acoustic impedance inversion based wavelet edge analysis and modeling (AII-WEAM). In this approach, the algorithms of the AII were replaced by the modified very fast simulated annealing (MVFSA), to improve the inversed speed. By using a gas reservoir predicting example, we show that the joint approaches produce results that are feasible and reliable after comparing with the well data. Hence, these joint approaches have great potential to be the next-generation tools for reservoir description and prediction.

  11. Geostatistical Reservoir Modeling of Trending Heterogeneity Specified in Focused Recharge Zone : A Case Study of Toyohira River Alluvial Fan, Sapporo, Japan


    Sakata, Yoshitaka


    Coarse alluvial deposits are increasingly important as water reservoirs, especially in arid and semi-arid regions. Coarse alluvial deposits consist mainly of poorly sorted sand and gravel, and the geologic heterogeneity is generally large and trending as a result of depositional and post-depositional processes. Geostatistical approaches in groundwater reservoir modeling are various, but are often based on the assumption of stationarity. This assumption is not necessarily valid in coarse alluv...

  12. Play Analysis and Digital Portfolio of Major Oil Reservoirs in the Permian Basin: Application and Transfer of Advanced Geological and Engineering Technologies for Incremental Production Opportunities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shirley P. Dutton; Eugene M. Kim; Ronald F. Broadhead; Caroline L. Breton; William D. Raatz; Stephen C. Ruppel; Charles Kerans


    A play portfolio is being constructed for the Permian Basin in west Texas and southeast New Mexico, the largest onshore petroleum-producing basin in the United States. Approximately 1,300 reservoirs in the Permian Basin have been identified as having cumulative production greater than 1 MMbbl (1.59 x 10{sup 5} m{sup 3}) of oil through 2000. Of these significant-sized reservoirs, approximately 1,000 are in Texas and 300 in New Mexico. There are 32 geologic plays that have been defined for Permian Basin oil reservoirs, and each of the 1,300 major reservoirs was assigned to a play. The reservoirs were mapped and compiled in a Geographic Information System (GIS) by play. The final reservoir shapefile for each play contains the geographic location of each reservoir. Associated reservoir information within the linked data tables includes RRC reservoir number and district (Texas only), official field and reservoir name, year reservoir was discovered, depth to top of the reservoir, production in 2000, and cumulative production through 2000. Some tables also list subplays. Play boundaries were drawn for each play; the boundaries include areas where fields in that play occur but are smaller than 1 MMbbl (1.59 x 10{sup 5} m{sup 3}) of cumulative production. Oil production from the reservoirs in the Permian Basin having cumulative production of >1 MMbbl (1.59 x 10{sup 5} m{sup 3}) was 301.4 MMbbl (4.79 x 10{sup 7} m{sup 3}) in 2000. Cumulative Permian Basin production through 2000 was 28.9 Bbbl (4.59 x 10{sup 9} m{sup 3}). The top four plays in cumulative production are the Northwest Shelf San Andres Platform Carbonate play (3.97 Bbbl [6.31 x 10{sup 8} m{sup 3}]), the Leonard Restricted Platform Carbonate play (3.30 Bbbl [5.25 x 10{sup 8} m{sup 3}]), the Pennsylvanian and Lower Permian Horseshoe Atoll Carbonate play (2.70 Bbbl [4.29 x 10{sup 8} m{sup 3}]), and the San Andres Platform Carbonate play (2.15 Bbbl [3.42 x 10{sup 8} m{sup 3}]). Detailed studies of three reservoirs

  13. Experiments and Simulations of Fluid Flow in Heterogeneous Reservoir Models - Emphasis on Impacts from Crossbeds and Fractures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boerresen, Knut Arne


    Hydrocarbon recovery from subsurface reservoirs has become increasingly dependent on advanced recovery techniques that require improved understanding of the physics of fluid flow within and across geological units including small-scale heterogeneities and fractures. In this thesis, impacts from heterogeneities on local fluid flow are studied experimentally by means of imaging techniques to visualize fluid flow in two dimensions during flooding of larger reservoir models. Part 1 reflects the multi-disciplinary collaboration, by briefly introducing the relevant geology, the literature on experiments on fluid flow in bedded structures, and outlining the applied numerical simulator and imaging techniques applied to visualize fluid flow. The second part contains a synopsis of displacement experiments in naturally laminated sandstones and in crossbed laboratory models, and of the impact from incipient shear fractures on oil recovery. The detailed results obtained from the experiments and simulations are described in six papers, all included. 215 refs., 108 figs., 16 tabs.

  14. High-performance modeling of CO2 sequestration by coupling reservoir simulation and molecular dynamics

    KAUST Repository

    Bao, Kai


    The present work describes a parallel computational framework for CO2 sequestration simulation by coupling reservoir simulation and molecular dynamics (MD) on massively parallel HPC systems. In this framework, a parallel reservoir simulator, Reservoir Simulation Toolbox (RST), solves the flow and transport equations that describe the subsurface flow behavior, while the molecular dynamics simulations are performed to provide the required physical parameters. Numerous technologies from different fields are employed to make this novel coupled system work efficiently. One of the major applications of the framework is the modeling of large scale CO2 sequestration for long-term storage in the subsurface geological formations, such as depleted reservoirs and deep saline aquifers, which has been proposed as one of the most attractive and practical solutions to reduce the CO2 emission problem to address the global-warming threat. To effectively solve such problems, fine grids and accurate prediction of the properties of fluid mixtures are essential for accuracy. In this work, the CO2 sequestration is presented as our first example to couple the reservoir simulation and molecular dynamics, while the framework can be extended naturally to the full multiphase multicomponent compositional flow simulation to handle more complicated physical process in the future. Accuracy and scalability analysis are performed on an IBM BlueGene/P and on an IBM BlueGene/Q, the latest IBM supercomputer. Results show good accuracy of our MD simulations compared with published data, and good scalability are observed with the massively parallel HPC systems. The performance and capacity of the proposed framework are well demonstrated with several experiments with hundreds of millions to a billion cells. To our best knowledge, the work represents the first attempt to couple the reservoir simulation and molecular simulation for large scale modeling. Due to the complexity of the subsurface systems

  15. Regional Differences in Geological Conditions Related to Reservoir-forming in the Foreland Fold and Thrust Belt of Southwest Tarim Basin (United States)

    Li, Danmei; Tang, Dazhen; Zhang, Shonghang; Lin, Wenji; Tao, Shu; Zhang, Biao; Xin, Weixin

    The foreland fold and thrust belt of southwest Tarim basin can be divided into four structural zones, and different tectonic sectors have quite different geological conditions related to reservoir-forming. Most favorable locations are Pusha-Keliyang zone and Sugaite-Qimugen zone, not only with many fault-propagation folds, triangle-zone structures, and three sets of excellent source rocks including Lower-Middle Cambrian carbonate, Lower Carboniferous-Lower Permian, and Jurassic dark mudstone but also with a series of good petroleum reservoir and seal combinations such as Lower-Cretaceous sandstone reservoirs associated with Paleogene cap rocks, Paleocene carbonate reservoirs, and Miocene sandstone reservoirs associated with their corresponding mudstone cap rocks, respectively. The second favorable location is Hotan thrust nappe zone with some good tectonic traps including traps of par-autochthonous system and in-situ system, and Lower-Permian mudstone as a set of high quality regional cap rocks, but their source and reservoir are relatively bad, that is, Lower-Permian carbonate source rocks just meet the criteria of gas source rocks, and Lower-Permian sandstone or carbonate reservoirs and Lower-Ordovician carbonate reservoirs are all low-porous and low-permeable in spite of Lower-Permian Pusige mudstone as excellent regional cap rocks. The last, Pamir thrust zone might not be favorable for reservoir-forming due to its large-scale nappes and distinctly-exposed thrust faults which result in the lack of good tectonic traps although there are some advantageous petroleum source-reservoir-seal combinations.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shirley P. Dutton; Eugene M. Kim; Ronald F. Broadhead; William Raatz; Cari Breton; Stephen C. Ruppel; Charles Kerans; Mark H. Holtz


    A play portfolio is being constructed for the Permian Basin in west Texas and southeast New Mexico, the largest petroleum-producing basin in the US. Approximately 1300 reservoirs in the Permian Basin have been identified as having cumulative production greater than 1 MMbbl of oil through 2000. Of these major reservoirs, approximately 1,000 are in Texas and 300 in New Mexico. On a preliminary basis, 32 geologic plays have been defined for Permian Basin oil reservoirs and assignment of each of the 1300 major reservoirs to a play has begun. The reservoirs are being mapped and compiled in a Geographic Information System (GIS) by play. Detailed studies of three reservoirs are in progress: Kelly-Snyder (SACROC unit) in the Pennsylvanian and Lower Permian Horseshoe Atoll Carbonate play, Fullerton in the Leonardian Restricted Platform Carbonate play, and Barnhart (Ellenburger) in the Ellenburger Selectively Dolomitized Ramp Carbonate play. For each of these detailed reservoir studies, technologies for further, economically viable exploitation are being investigated.

  17. The Importance of Geological Uncertainty for Flow and Transport Modelling (United States)

    Refsgaard, J.; Hojberg, A. L.; Troldborg, L.; Sonneborg, T. O.


    The impact of geological uncertainty has during the past decade been studied extensively in Denmark by establishing alternative conceptual models, each representing a plausible geological interpretation, and use these multiple conceptual models to construct multiple groundwater models of the same area. Four published case studies will be reviewed. The cases comprise groundwater modelling for areas ranging from 300 km2 to 1000 km2 with various types of glacial geological settings including multi aquifer systems and buried valleys. The modelling studies have included simulations and uncertainty assessments of groundwater head, groundwater recharge, location of well capture zones, groundwater age and concentrations of environmental tracers. All studies had multiple geological models, while one study compared the impacts of conceptual uncertainty versus parameter uncertainty using the Monte Carlo approach, and another study compared deterministic geological models with stochastic realisations generated by TPROGS. A trivial finding from the studies is that possible errors in a conceptual model (wrong geological interpretation) can be compensated through the calibration with respect to simulations of variables for which data are used in the calibration. However, once extrapolation beyond the calibration base is attempted, different conceptual model formulations result in significantly different results. A key conclusion from the studies is that uncertainties in the conceptual model become of increasing importance, when predictive simulations consider data types that are extrapolated from the data types used for calibration. Examples from the four cases will be shown and a discussion of the future perspectives will be given.

  18. River and Reservoir Operations Model, Truckee River basin, California and Nevada, 1998 (United States)

    Berris, Steven N.; Hess, Glen W.; Bohman, Larry R.


    The demand for all uses of water in the Truckee River Basin, California and Nevada, commonly is greater than can be supplied. Storage reservoirs in the system have a maximum effective total capacity equivalent to less than two years of average river flows, so longer-term droughts can result in substantial water-supply shortages for irrigation and municipal users and may stress fish and wildlife ecosystems. Title II of Public Law (P.L.) 101-618, the Truckee?Carson?Pyramid Lake Water Rights Settlement Act of 1990, provides a foundation for negotiating and developing operating criteria, known as the Truckee River Operating Agreement (TROA), to balance interstate and interbasin allocation of water rights among the many interests competing for water from the Truckee River. In addition to TROA, the Truckee River Water Quality Settlement Agreement (WQSA), signed in 1996, provides for acquisition of water rights to resolve water-quality problems during low flows along the Truckee River in Nevada. Efficient execution of many of the planning, management, or environmental assessment requirements of TROA and WQSA will require detailed water-resources data coupled with sound analytical tools. Analytical modeling tools constructed and evaluated with such data could help assess effects of alternative operational scenarios related to reservoir and river operations, water-rights transfers, and changes in irrigation practices. The Truckee?Carson Program of the U.S. Geological Survey, to support U.S. Department of the Interior implementation of P.L. 101-618, is developing a modeling system to support efficient water-resources planning, management, and allocation. The daily operations model documented herein is a part of the modeling system that includes a database management program, a graphical user interface program, and a program with modules that simulate river/reservoir operations and a variety of hydrologic processes. The operations module is capable of simulating lake

  19. Using numerical models and acoustic methods to predict reservoir sedimentation


    Elçi, Şebnem; Bor, Aslı; Çalışkan, Anıl


    This study draws on drainage basin hydrography, numerical modeling and geographic information system (GIS) techniques in concert with dual frequency echo sounder data to estimate sediment thickness when initial surveys are unavailable or inaccurate. Tahtali Reservoir (Turkey), which provides 40% of water supply to the city of Izmir, was selected as the study site. Deposition patterns within the whole lake were estimated with a 3-D hydrodynamic and sediment transport model applied to Tahtali R...

  20. Three-Dimensional Modeling of Fracture Clusters in Geothermal Reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghassemi, Ahmad [Univ. of Oklahoma, Norman, OK (United States)


    The objective of this is to develop a 3-D numerical model for simulating mode I, II, and III (tensile, shear, and out-of-plane) propagation of multiple fractures and fracture clusters to accurately predict geothermal reservoir stimulation using the virtual multi-dimensional internal bond (VMIB). Effective development of enhanced geothermal systems can significantly benefit from improved modeling of hydraulic fracturing. In geothermal reservoirs, where the temperature can reach or exceed 350oC, thermal and poro-mechanical processes play an important role in fracture initiation and propagation. In this project hydraulic fracturing of hot subsurface rock mass will be numerically modeled by extending the virtual multiple internal bond theory and implementing it in a finite element code, WARP3D, a three-dimensional finite element code for solid mechanics. The new constitutive model along with the poro-thermoelastic computational algorithms will allow modeling the initiation and propagation of clusters of fractures, and extension of pre-existing fractures. The work will enable the industry to realistically model stimulation of geothermal reservoirs. The project addresses the Geothermal Technologies Office objective of accurately predicting geothermal reservoir stimulation (GTO technology priority item). The project goal will be attained by: (i) development of the VMIB method for application to 3D analysis of fracture clusters; (ii) development of poro- and thermoelastic material sub-routines for use in 3D finite element code WARP3D; (iii) implementation of VMIB and the new material routines in WARP3D to enable simulation of clusters of fractures while accounting for the effects of the pore pressure, thermal stress and inelastic deformation; (iv) simulation of 3D fracture propagation and coalescence and formation of clusters, and comparison with laboratory compression tests; and (v) application of the model to interpretation of injection experiments (planned by our

  1. Geological Modelling and Validation of Geological Interpretations via Simulation and Classification of Quantitative Covariates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Adeli


    Full Text Available This paper proposes a geostatistical approach for geological modelling and for validating an interpreted geological model, by identifying the areas of an ore deposit with a high probability of being misinterpreted, based on quantitative coregionalised covariates correlated with the geological categories. This proposal is presented through a case study of an iron ore deposit at a stage where the only available data are from exploration drill holes. This study consists of jointly simulating the quantitative covariates with no previous geological domaining. A change of variables is used to account for stoichiometric closure, followed by projection pursuit multivariate transformation, multivariate Gaussian simulation, and conditioning to the drill hole data. Subsequently, a decision tree classification algorithm is used to convert the simulated values into a geological category for each target block and realisation. The determination of the prior (ignoring drill hole data and posterior (conditioned to drill hole data probabilities of categories provides a means of identifying the blocks for which the interpreted category disagrees with the simulated quantitative covariates.

  2. An Efficient Upscaling Procedure Based on Stokes-Brinkman Model and Discrete Fracture Network Method for Naturally Fractured Carbonate Karst Reservoirs

    KAUST Repository

    Qin, Guan


    Naturally-fractured carbonate karst reservoirs are characterized by various-sized solution caves that are connected via fracture networks at multiple scales. These complex geologic features can not be fully resolved in reservoir simulations due to the underlying uncertainty in geologic models and the large computational resource requirement. They also bring in multiple flow physics which adds to the modeling difficulties. It is thus necessary to develop a method to accurately represent the effect of caves, fractures and their interconnectivities in coarse-scale simulation models. In this paper, we present a procedure based on our previously proposed Stokes-Brinkman model (SPE 125593) and the discrete fracture network method for accurate and efficient upscaling of naturally fractured carbonate karst reservoirs.

  3. A Mathematical Model for Coordinated Multiple Reservoir Operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sheung Kown; Park, Young Joon [Korea University, Seoul (Korea)


    In this study, for the purpose of water supply planning, we propose a sophisticated multi-period mixed integer programming model that can coordinate the behavior of multi-reservoir operation, minimizing unnecessary spill. It can simulate the system with operating rules which are self-generated by the optimization engine in the algorithm. It is an optimization model in structure, but it indeed simulates the coordinating behavior of multi-reservoir operation. It minimizes the water shortfalls in demand requirements, maintaining flood reserve volume, minimizing unnecessary spill, maximizing hydropower generation release, keeping water storage levels high for efficient hydroelectric turbine operation. This optimization model is a large scale mixed integer programming problem that consists of 3,920 integer variables and 68,658 by 132,384 node-arc incidence matrix for 28 years of data. In order to handle the enormous amount of data generated by a big mathematical model, the utilization of DBMS (data base management system) seems to be inevitable. It has been tested with the Han River multi-reservoir system in Korea, which consists of 2 large multipurpose dams and 3 hydroelectric dams. We demonstrated successfully that there is a good chance of saving substantial amount of water should it be put to use in real time with a good inflow forecasting system. (author). 19 refs., 8 figs.

  4. An object oriented tool for modeling production data associated with reservoir simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esau, R.; Wells, M.; Leiknes, J.


    An object oriented, cross platform, C++ application has been successfully developed for the manipulation of production data associated with reservoir engineering and reservoir simulation data. The application supports all the main categories of production data necessary for simulation including historical production and injection volumes, well deviation surveys and reservoir events such as completion data. Particular emphasis is placed on the rapid generation of accurate and representative simulation controls. Key features include time varying connection factors where parameters are calculated from perforation data specified in terms of measured depths and formations, a flexible timestep framework and the handling of deviated wells, partially penetrating wells and multiple completions within a single simulation cell. The paper will discuss how the development of this and associated applications has shown it is possible to efficiently build sophisticated, cross platform products if the appropriate tools, suppliers and methodology are used. Finally the paper will address how the application and corresponding application development environment helps address future uncertainties including the continuing hardware and software revolution, the move towards keywordless, {open_quotes}gridless{close_quotes} simulation on a geological model and the existence of multiple integration platforms.

  5. State-of-the-art review of geothermal reservoir modelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinder, G.F.


    The state-of-the-art in geothermal reservoir modelling is summarized and evaluated. Only those models which have been developed exclusively for geothermal simulation are considered. Attention is focused primarily on the two and three dimensional distributed parameter models. The general porous flow theory is formulated. For each model, the governing equations, method of approximation, treatment of the convection term, treatment of the nonlinear coefficients, solution of the resulting algebraic equations, and representation of the well-bore are presented. Example problems that have been treated are discussed briefly. (MHR)

  6. Large landslides associated with a diapiric fold in Canelles Reservoir (Spanish Pyrenees): Detailed geological-geomorphological mapping, trenching and electrical resistivity imaging (United States)

    Gutiérrez, Francisco; Linares, Rogelio; Roqué, Carles; Zarroca, Mario; Carbonel, Domingo; Rosell, Joan; Gutiérrez, Mateo


    Detailed geomorphological-geological mapping in Canelles Reservoir, the Spanish Pyrenees, reveals the presence of several large landslides overlooked in previous cartographic works. One of the slope movements, designated as the Canelles landslide, corresponds to a 40 × 106 m3 translational landslide reactivated in 2006 by a severe decline in the reservoir water level. The geomorphic features mapped in the upper part of the Canelles landslide, including surface ruptures corroborated by electrical resistivity imaging and trenching, indicate multiple displacement episodes previous to the 2006 human-induced event. Consistently, the stratigraphic and structural relationships observed in a trench record at least two displacement events older and larger in magnitude than the 2006 reactivation. The oldest recorded event occurred in the 6th to 7th Centuries and the second in 1262-1679 yr AD. This latter episode might be correlative to the 1373 Ribagorza earthquake (Mw 6.2), which caused the reactivation of a landslide and the consequent destruction of a village in the adjacent valley. The available data indicate that over more than one millennium the kinematics of the landslide has been characterised by discrete small-displacement episodes. These data, together with the available literature on rapid rockslides, do not concur with the acceleration predicted by modelling in a previous investigation, which foresees a speed of 16 m s- 1 despite the low average dip of the sliding surface (9-10°). This case study illustrates that the trenching technique may provide valuable practical information on the past behaviour of landslides, covering a much broader time span than instrumental and historical records.

  7. Scalable and Robust BDDC Preconditioners for Reservoir and Electromagnetics Modeling

    KAUST Repository

    Zampini, S.


    The purpose of the study is to show the effectiveness of recent algorithmic advances in Balancing Domain Decomposition by Constraints (BDDC) preconditioners for the solution of elliptic PDEs with highly heterogeneous coefficients, and discretized by means of the finite element method. Applications to large linear systems generated by div- and curl- conforming finite elements discretizations commonly arising in the contexts of modelling reservoirs and electromagnetics will be presented.

  8. Numerical Studies of Fluid Leakage from a Geologic DisposalReservoir for CO2 Show Self-Limiting Feedback between Fluid Flow and HeatTransfer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pruess, Karsten


    Leakage of CO2 from a hypothetical geologic storage reservoir along an idealized fault zone has been simulated, including transitions between supercritical, liquid, and gaseous CO2. We find strong non-isothermal effects due to boiling and Joule-Thomson cooling of expanding CO2. Leakage fluxes are limited by limitations in conductive heat transfer to the fault zone. The interplay between multiphase flow and heat transfer effects produces non-monotonic leakage behavior.

  9. Altering Reservoir Withdrawal: a modeling approach to tail-water eutrophication on the South Fork Humboldt Reservoir, NV USA (United States)

    Smith, D. W.; Warwick, J. J.; Fritsen, C. H.; Davis, C.; Memmott, J.; Wirthlin, E.


    The South Fork Humboldt Reservoir (south of Elko, Nevada) represents an arid, hypolimnetic release dam with tail-water eutrophication exceeding 300mg Chla per m2. The USEPA model AQUATOX 3 has been used to simulate reservoir nutrient loadings on tail-water periphyton and to predict changes in stream response to top release conditions. From April to September of 2009, an investigation characterized reservoir stratified nutrient profiles and downstream riverine algal dynamics due to reservoir bottom withdrawal. The 2009 period represents calibration with exceptional downstream diel dissolved oxygen swings (3.76 to 19.75 mg/L) and gross primary productivity (30.7 g C m2 d¬-1) for model prediction. The observed period was additionally simulated with exclusively top release conditions to investigate potential best management practices. The results predict potential changes of attached algal communities and associated dissolved oxygen conditions based on varied release nutrient loadings.

  10. Preliminary Geologic Map of the Sanchez Reservoir Quadrangle and Eastern Part of the Garcia Quadrangle, Costilla County, Colorado (United States)

    Thompson, Ren A.; Machette, Michael N.; Drenth, Benjamin J.


    This geologic map is based entirely on new mapping by Thompson and Machette, whereas the geophysical data and interpretations were supplied by Drenth. The map area includes most of San Pedro Mesa, a basalt covered mesa that is uplifted as a horst between the Southern Sangre de Cristo fault zone (on the west) and the San Luis fault zone on the east. The map also includes most of the Sanchez graben, a deep structural basin that lies between the San Luis fault zone (on the west) and the Central Sangre de Cristo fault zone on the east. The oldest rocks in the map area are Proterozoic granites and Paleozoic sedimentary rocks, which are only exposed in a small hill on the west-central part of the mesa. The low hills that rise above San Pedro mesa are comprised of middle(?) Miocene volcanic rocks that are undated, but possibly correlative with mapped rocks to the east of Sanchez Reservoir. The bulk of the map area is comprised of the Servilleta Basalt, a regional series of flood basalts of Pliocene age. The west, north, and northeast margins of the mesa are covered by extensive landslide deposits that rest on poorly exposed sediment of the Santa Fe Group. Rare exposures of the sediment are comprised of siltstones, sandstones, and minor fluvial conglomerates. Most of the low ground surrounding the mesa is covered by surficial deposits of Quaternary age. The piedmont alluvium is subdivided into three Pleistocene units, and three Holocene units. The oldest Pleistocene gravel (unit Qao) forms an extensive coalesced alluvial fan and piedmont surface that is known as the Costilla Plains. This surface extends west from San Pedro Mesa to the Rio Grande. The primary geologic hazards in the map are are from earthquakes and landslides. There are three major fault zones in the area (as discussed above), and they all show evidence for late Pleistocene to possible Holocene movement. Two generations of landslides are mapped (younger and older), and both may have seismogenic origins.

  11. Final Report: Optimal Model Complexity in Geological Carbon Sequestration: A Response Surface Uncertainty Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Ye [Univ. of Wyoming, Laramie, WY (United States)


    The critical component of a risk assessment study in evaluating GCS is an analysis of uncertainty in CO2 modeling. In such analyses, direct numerical simulation of CO2 flow and leakage requires many time-consuming model runs. Alternatively, analytical methods have been developed which allow fast and efficient estimation of CO2 storage and leakage, although restrictive assumptions on formation rock and fluid properties are employed. In this study, an intermediate approach is proposed based on the Design of Experiment and Response Surface methodology, which consists of using a limited number of numerical simulations to estimate a prediction outcome as a combination of the most influential uncertain site properties. The methodology can be implemented within a Monte Carlo framework to efficiently assess parameter and prediction uncertainty while honoring the accuracy of numerical simulations. The choice of the uncertain properties is flexible and can include geologic parameters that influence reservoir heterogeneity, engineering parameters that influence gas trapping and migration, and reactive parameters that influence the extent of fluid/rock reactions. The method was tested and verified on modeling long-term CO2 flow, non-isothermal heat transport, and CO2 dissolution storage by coupling two-phase flow with explicit miscibility calculation using an accurate equation of state that gives rise to convective mixing of formation brine variably saturated with CO2. All simulations were performed using three-dimensional high-resolution models including a target deep saline aquifer, overlying caprock, and a shallow aquifer. To evaluate the uncertainty in representing reservoir permeability, sediment hierarchy of a heterogeneous digital stratigraphy was mapped to create multiple irregularly shape stratigraphic models of decreasing geologic resolutions: heterogeneous (reference), lithofacies, depositional environment, and a (homogeneous) geologic formation. To ensure model

  12. Geo-Chemo-Mechanical Studies for Permanent CO{sub 2} Storage in Geologic Reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelemen, Peter; Park, Ah-hyung; Matter, Jurg; Gadikota, Greeshma; Lisabeth, Harrison; Zhu, Wenlu


    did not have a discernable effect on reaction progress. Geomechanical experiments did not identify pressure-temperature-composition conditions under which porous olivine aggregates undergo reaction driven cracking. Little carbonate formed in these experiments. Though we fulfilled the milestones for this project, a variety of reasons for this remain to be investigated in the future. Reaction of porous olivine aggregates with brines rich in NaHCO{sub 3} caused substantial weakening of samples in compression, due to formation of dissolution pits along olivine-olivine grain boundaries, reducing the solid-solid surface area. A preliminary modeling study funded in part by this grant emphasized potential rate enhancements due to reaction-driven cracking. In related research, not funded by this grant, several additional experimental and modeling studies of reaction-driven cracking are underway.

  13. Scale Model Simulation of Enhanced Geothermal Reservoir Creation (United States)

    Gutierrez, M.; Frash, L.; Hampton, J.


    diameter may be drilled into the sample while at reservoir conditions. This allows for simulation of borehole damage as well as injector-producer schemes. Dual 70 MPa syringe pumps set to flow rates between 10 nL/min and 60 mL/min injecting into a partially cased borehole allow for fully contained fracturing treatments. A six sensor acoustic emission (AE) array is used for geometric fracture location estimation during intercept borehole drilling operations. Hydraulic sensors and a thermocouple array allow for additional monitoring and data collection as relevant to computer model validation as well as field test comparisons. The results from preliminary tests inside and outside of the cell demonstrate the functionality of the equipment while also providing some novel data on the propagation and flow characteristics of hydraulic fractures themselves.

  14. Reservoir Modeling by Data Integration via Intermediate Spaces and Artificial Intelligence Tools in MPS Simulation Frameworks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmadi, Rouhollah, E-mail: [Amirkabir University of Technology, PhD Student at Reservoir Engineering, Department of Petroleum Engineering (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Khamehchi, Ehsan [Amirkabir University of Technology, Faculty of Petroleum Engineering (Iran, Islamic Republic of)


    Conditioning stochastic simulations are very important in many geostatistical applications that call for the introduction of nonlinear and multiple-point data in reservoir modeling. Here, a new methodology is proposed for the incorporation of different data types into multiple-point statistics (MPS) simulation frameworks. Unlike the previous techniques that call for an approximate forward model (filter) for integration of secondary data into geologically constructed models, the proposed approach develops an intermediate space where all the primary and secondary data are easily mapped onto. Definition of the intermediate space, as may be achieved via application of artificial intelligence tools like neural networks and fuzzy inference systems, eliminates the need for using filters as in previous techniques. The applicability of the proposed approach in conditioning MPS simulations to static and geologic data is verified by modeling a real example of discrete fracture networks using conventional well-log data. The training patterns are well reproduced in the realizations, while the model is also consistent with the map of secondary data.

  15. Analysis of Heavy Oil Recovery by Thermal EOR in a Meander Belt: From Geological to Reservoir Modeling Analyse de la récupération d’huile lourde par procédé thermique dans une barre de méandre : du modèle géologique à la modélisation de réservoir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deschamps R.


    Full Text Available The objectives of this work is to assess the impact of reservoir heterogeneities on heavy oil recovery of a reservoir analogue of meander belt through the Steam Assisted Gravity Drainage (SAGD process by using numerical models. These models are obtained with different scales of upscaling of the geological model. Meander belts consist of point bar deposits, characterized by a 3D complex internal architecture, with different scales of heterogeneities, which distribution is associated with the depositional processes. Based on a 3D outcrop description of a meander belt analogue to the Canadian heavy-oil fields, the approach includes three steps: 1 the construction of a reference static reservoir model based on a very fine description of the outcrops in terms of architecture and geological heterogeneities, 2 upscaling of the grid at different scales using different upscaling factors in order to evaluate their impact on the heterogeneity distribution in the reservoir, 3 reservoir SAGD simulations using horizontal well doublet (steam injector and producer across the meander belt, so as to assess the impact of upscaling of heterogeneities on heavy oil production. The impact of heterogeneities on simulation results are evaluated for several upscaling stages. Results show that heterogeneity distribution has an impact on fluid flow at different stages of production. On the fine gridded model, small scale heterogeneities impact the steam chamber development and fluid flow in the wellbore vicinity at the beginning of the steam injection, whereas large scale heterogeneities strongly influence oil recovery during the whole recovery process and lower the efficiency of the reservoir drainage. On coarser grids, the effect of small-scale heterogeneities can be diminished, depending on the upscaling stage. The geomechanical effect is not taken into account in this work, the objective being to assess the impact of heterogeneities on oil recovery. The performance of

  16. Geologic modeling constrained by seismic and dynamical data; Modelisation geologique contrainte par les donnees sismiques et dynamiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pianelo, L.


    Matching procedures are often used in reservoir production to improve geological models. In reservoir engineering, history matching leads to update petrophysical parameters in fluid flow simulators to fit the results of the calculations with observed data. In the same line, seismic parameters are inverted to allow the numerical recovery of seismic acquisitions. However, it is well known that these inverse problems are poorly constrained. The idea of this original work is to simultaneous match both the permeability and the acoustic impedance of the reservoir, for an enhancement of the resulting geological model. To do so, both parameters are linked using either observed relations and/or the classic Wyllie (porosity impedance) and Carman-Kozeny (porosity-permeability) relationships. Hence production data are added to the seismic match, and seismic observations are used for the permeability recovery. The work consists in developing numerical prototypes of a 3-D fluid flow simulator and a 3-D seismic acquisition simulator. Then, in implementing the coupled inversion loop of the permeability and the acoustic impedance of the two models. We can hence test our theory on a 3-D realistic case. Comparison of the coupled matching with the two classical ones demonstrates the efficiency of our method. We reduce significantly the number of possible solutions, and then the number of scenarios. In addition to that, the augmentation of information leads to a natural improvement of the obtained models, especially in the spatial localization of the permeability contrasts. The improvement is significant, at the same time in the distribution of the two inverted parameters, and in the rapidity of the operation. This work is an important step in a way of data integration, and leads to a better reservoir characterization. This original algorithm could also be useful in reservoir monitoring, history matching and in optimization of production. This new and original method is patented and

  17. Geology - Background complementary studies. Forsmark modelling stage 2.2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephens, Michael B. [Geological Survey of Sweden, Uppsala (Sweden); Skagius, Kristina [Kemakta Konsult AB, Stockholm (Sweden)] (eds.)


    During Forsmark model stage 2.2, seven complementary geophysical and geological studies were initiated by the geological modelling team, in direct connection with and as a background support to the deterministic modelling of deformation zones. One of these studies involved a field control on the character of two low magnetic lineaments with NNE and NE trends inside the target volume. The interpretation of these lineaments formed one of the late deliveries to SKB that took place after the data freeze for model stage 2.2 and during the initial stage of the modelling work. Six studies involved a revised processing and analysis of reflection seismic, refraction seismic and selected oriented borehole radar data, all of which had been presented earlier in connection with the site investigation programme. A prime aim of all these studies was to provide a better understanding of the geological significance of indirect geophysical data to the geological modelling team. Such essential interpretative work was lacking in the material acquired in connection with the site investigation programme. The results of these background complementary studies are published together in this report. The titles and authors of the seven background complementary studies are presented below. Summaries of the results of each study, with a focus on the implications for the geological modelling of deformation zones, are presented in the master geological report, SKB-R--07-45. The sections in the master report, where reference is made to each background complementary study and where the summaries are placed, are also provided. The individual reports are listed in the order that they are referred to in the master geological report and as they appear in this report. 1. Scan line fracture mapping and magnetic susceptibility measurements across two low magnetic lineaments with NNE and NE trend, Forsmark. Jesper Petersson, Ulf B. Andersson and Johan Berglund. 2. Integrated interpretation of surface and

  18. Modelling sediment export, retention and reservoir sedimentation in drylands with the WASA-SED model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. N. Mueller


    Full Text Available Current soil erosion and reservoir sedimentation modelling at the meso-scale is still faced with intrinsic problems with regard to open scaling questions, data demand, computational efficiency and deficient implementations of retention and re-mobilisation processes for the river and reservoir networks. To overcome some limitations of current modelling approaches, the semi-process-based, spatially semi-distributed modelling framework WASA-SED (Vers. 1 was developed for water and sediment transport in large dryland catchments. The WASA-SED model simulates the runoff and erosion processes at the hillslope scale, the transport and retention processes of suspended and bedload fluxes in the river reaches and the retention and remobilisation processes of sediments in reservoirs. The modelling tool enables the evaluation of management options both for sustainable land-use change scenarios to reduce erosion in the headwater catchments as well as adequate reservoir management options to lessen sedimentation in large reservoirs and reservoir networks. The model concept, its spatial discretisation scheme and the numerical components of the hillslope, river and reservoir processes are described and a model application for the meso-scale dryland catchment Isábena in the Spanish Pre-Pyrenees (445 km2 is presented to demonstrate the capabilities, strengths and limits of the model framework. The example application showed that the model was able to reproduce runoff and sediment transport dynamics of highly erodible headwater badlands, the transient storage of sediments in the dryland river system, the bed elevation changes of the 93 hm3 Barasona reservoir due to sedimentation as well as the life expectancy of the reservoir under different management options.

  19. THMC Modeling of EGS Reservoirs -- Continuum through Discontinuum Representations. Capturing Reservoir Stimulation, Evolution and Induced Seismicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elsworth, Derek [Pennsylvania State Univ., State College, PA (United States); Izadi, Ghazal [Pennsylvania State Univ., State College, PA (United States); Gan, Quan [Pennsylvania State Univ., State College, PA (United States); Fang, Yi [Pennsylvania State Univ., State College, PA (United States); Taron, Josh [US Geological Survey, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Sonnenthal, Eric [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)


    This work has investigated the roles of effective stress induced by changes in fluid pressure, temperature and chemistry in contributing to the evolution of permeability and induced seismicity in geothermal reservoirs. This work has developed continuum models [1] to represent the progress or seismicity during both stimulation [2] and production [3]. These methods have been used to resolve anomalous observations of induced seismicity at the Newberry Volcano demonstration project [4] through the application of modeling and experimentation. Later work then focuses on the occurrence of late stage seismicity induced by thermal stresses [5] including the codifying of the timing and severity of such responses [6]. Furthermore, mechanistic linkages between observed seismicity and the evolution of permeability have been developed using data from the Newberry project [7] and benchmarked against field injection experiments. Finally, discontinuum models [8] incorporating the roles of discrete fracture networks have been applied to represent stimulation and then thermal recovery for new arrangements of geothermal wells incorporating the development of flow manifolds [9] in order to increase thermal output and longevity in EGS systems.

  20. Use of XML and Java for collaborative petroleum reservoir modeling on the Internet (United States)

    Victorine, J.; Watney, W.L.; Bhattacharya, S.


    The GEMINI (Geo-Engineering Modeling through INternet Informatics) is a public-domain, web-based freeware that is made up of an integrated suite of 14 Java-based software tools to accomplish on-line, real-time geologic and engineering reservoir modeling. GEMINI facilitates distant collaborations for small company and academic clients, negotiating analyses of both single and multiple wells. The system operates on a single server and an enterprise database. External data sets must be uploaded into this database. Feedback from GEMINI users provided the impetus to develop Stand Alone Web Start Applications of GEMINI modules that reside in and operate from the user's PC. In this version, the GEMINI modules run as applets, which may reside in local user PCs, on the server, or Java Web Start. In this enhanced version, XML-based data handling procedures are used to access data from remote and local databases and save results for later access and analyses. The XML data handling process also integrates different stand-alone GEMINI modules enabling the user(s) to access multiple databases. It provides flexibility to the user to customize analytical approach, database location, and level of collaboration. An example integrated field-study using GEMINI modules and Stand Alone Web Start Applications is provided to demonstrate the versatile applicability of this freeware for cost-effective reservoir modeling. ?? 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Geology Forsmark. Site descriptive modelling Forsmark - stage 2.2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephens, Michael B. [Geological Survey of Sweden, Uppsala (Sweden); Fox, Aaron; La Pointe, Paul [Golder Associates Inc (United States); Simeonov, Assen [Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., Stockholm (Sweden); Isaksson, Hans [GeoVista AB, Luleaa (Sweden); Hermanson, Jan; Oehman, Johan [Golder Associates AB, Stockholm (Sweden)


    The geological work during stage 2.2 has involved the development of deterministic models for rock domains (RFM) and deformation zones (ZFM), the identification and deterministic modelling of fracture domains (FFM) inside the candidate volume, i.e. the parts of rock domains that are not affected by deformation zones, and the development of statistical models for fractures and minor deformation zones (geological discrete fracture network modelling or geological DFN modelling). The geological DFN model addresses brittle structures at a scale of less than 1 km, which is the lower cut-off in the deterministic modelling of deformation zones. In order to take account of variability in data resolution, deterministic models for rock domains and deformation zones are presented in both regional and local model volumes, while the geological DFN model is valid within specific fracture domains inside the north-western part of the candidate volume, including the target volume. The geological modelling work has evaluated and made use of: A revised bedrock geological map at the ground surface. Geological and geophysical data from 21 cored boreholes and 33 percussion boreholes. Detailed mapping of fractures and rock units along nine excavations or large surface outcrops. Data bearing on the characterisation (including kinematics) of deformation zones. Complementary geochronological and other rock and fracture analytical data. Lineaments identified on the basis of airborne and high-resolution ground magnetic data. A reprocessing of both surface and borehole reflection seismic data. Seismic refraction data. The outputs of the deterministic modelling work are geometric models in RVS format and detailed property tables for rock domains and deformation zones, and a description of fracture domains. The outputs of the geological DFN modelling process are recommended parameters or statistical distributions that describe fracture set orientations, radius sizes, volumetric intensities

  2. Data Assimilation Tools for CO2 Reservoir Model Development – A Review of Key Data Types, Analyses, and Selected Software

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rockhold, Mark L.; Sullivan, E. C.; Murray, Christopher J.; Last, George V.; Black, Gary D.


    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has embarked on an initiative to develop world-class capabilities for performing experimental and computational analyses associated with geologic sequestration of carbon dioxide. The ultimate goal of this initiative is to provide science-based solutions for helping to mitigate the adverse effects of greenhouse gas emissions. This Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) initiative currently has two primary focus areas—advanced experimental methods and computational analysis. The experimental methods focus area involves the development of new experimental capabilities, supported in part by the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) Environmental Molecular Science Laboratory (EMSL) housed at PNNL, for quantifying mineral reaction kinetics with CO2 under high temperature and pressure (supercritical) conditions. The computational analysis focus area involves numerical simulation of coupled, multi-scale processes associated with CO2 sequestration in geologic media, and the development of software to facilitate building and parameterizing conceptual and numerical models of subsurface reservoirs that represent geologic repositories for injected CO2. This report describes work in support of the computational analysis focus area. The computational analysis focus area currently consists of several collaborative research projects. These are all geared towards the development and application of conceptual and numerical models for geologic sequestration of CO2. The software being developed for this focus area is referred to as the Geologic Sequestration Software Suite or GS3. A wiki-based software framework is being developed to support GS3. This report summarizes work performed in FY09 on one of the LDRD projects in the computational analysis focus area. The title of this project is Data Assimilation Tools for CO2 Reservoir Model Development. Some key objectives of this project in FY09 were to assess the current state

  3. Modeling peak oil and the geological constraints on oil production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Okullo, S.J.; Reynès, F.; Hofkes, M.W.


    We propose a model to reconcile the theory of inter-temporal non-renewable resource depletion with well-known stylized facts concerning the exploitation of exhaustible resources such as oil. Our approach introduces geological constraints into a Hotelling type extraction-exploration model. We show

  4. Modeling water-quality loads to the reservoirs of the Upper Trinity River Basin, Texas, USA (United States)

    Water quality modeling efforts have been conducted for 12 reservoirs in ten watersheds in Upper Trinity River Basin located in north Texas. The reservoirs are being used for water supply to the populated area around the Dallas-Fort Worth Metro and the water quality of some of these reservoirs has b...

  5. Towards an integrated workflow for structural reservoir model updating and history matching

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeuwenburgh, O.; Peters, E.; Wilschut, F.


    A history matching workflow, as typically used for updating of petrophysical reservoir model properties, is modified to include structural parameters including the top reservoir and several fault properties: position, slope, throw and transmissibility. A simple 2D synthetic oil reservoir produced by

  6. Direct Use Reservoir Models - How We think They Work

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Culver, G.


    The resource base for low-to-moderate temperature direct use geothermal applications is large and wide spread throughout the western United States. The models for direct use resources likely to be utilized in EPA Region IX depict fluids percolating to significant depths, being heated and convecting to the surface or near surface. The most commonly utilized resource is the fault controlled lateral leakage type. Geothermal fluids within the shallow reservoir vary in temperature and chemistry depending on the distance from the upflow zone. Regulations governing injected water chemistry compared to receiving water chemistry should take variations of chemistry into account.

  7. Cost-Effective Mapping of Benthic Habitats in Inland Reservoirs through Split-Beam Sonar, Indicator Kriging, and Historical Geologic Data (United States)

    Venteris, Erik R.; May, Cassandra J.


    Because bottom substrate composition is an important control on the temporal and spatial location of the aquatic community, accurate maps of benthic habitats of inland lakes and reservoirs provide valuable information to managers, recreational users, and scientists. Therefore, we collected vertical, split-beam sonar data (roughness [E1], hardness [E2], and bathymetry) and sediment samples to make such maps. Statistical calibration between sonar parameters and sediment classes was problematic because the E1:E2 ratios for soft (muck and clay) sediments overlapped a lower and narrower range for hard (gravel) substrates. Thus, we used indicator kriging (IK) to map the probability that unsampled locations did not contain coarse sediments. To overcome the calibration issue we tested proxies for the natural processes and anthropogenic history of the reservoir as potential predictive variables. Of these, a geologic map proved to be the most useful. The central alluvial valley and mudflats contained mainly muck and organic-rich clays. The surrounding glacial till and shale bedrock uplands contained mainly poorly sorted gravels. Anomalies in the sonar data suggested that the organic-rich sediments also contained trapped gases, presenting additional interpretive issues for the mapping. We extended the capability of inexpensive split-beam sonar units through the incorporation of historic geologic maps and other records as well as validation with dredge samples. Through the integration of information from multiple data sets, were able to objectively identify bottom substrate and provide reservoir users with an accurate map of available benthic habitat. PMID:24759834

  8. Integration of geologic and reservoir data to reevaluate performance of Terminal 8, an upper Miocene reservoir in Long Beach unit, Wilmington oil field, Los Angeles, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berman, B.H.


    The Terminal 8 reservoir consists of 615 ft of net oil sand. Vertical closure of the oil-saturated sandstone is 1080 ft. Areal extent is 13,350 ac. The reservoir sandstones are turbidites that have been correlated with the Puente Formation. The environment of deposition is an outer fan (sandstone-to-shale ratio of 1.2) in the lower Terminal sandstones and midfan in the upper Terminal sandstone (sandstone-to-shale ratio of 3.8). The fault block is located on the northeastern flank of the Wilmington anticline and is bounded by two intersecting normal faults and by oil-water contacts. Development started in 1969. Infill drilling after 1980 extended the boundaries and provided new data that led to reevaluation of the reservoir. The nine original sand units were divided into 13 flow units. Volumetrics were calculated for each flow unit using Zycor software. Mapping of electric log-derived water saturation and net oil-sand data revealed discrepancies, the result of varying log quality, different log types, lack of thin sand definition, and changing clay content. Computer-generated maps were constructed for each flow unit, and for weighted averages the units were combined into upper and lower Terminal zones. Individual maps are: structure, net oil sand, original water saturation, current water saturation, original oil in place, current oil in place, original reserves, current reserves, oil produced, pressure, and water cut. Mapping of original oil in place revealed fluid barriers within the reservoir. Mapping of current oil in place indicated moved oil and defined undrained areas. Water cut, fluid entry surveys, and temperature-spinner-tracer survey mapping revealed permeability trends. Pressure data confirmed sealing faults. This detailed study defined suspected, but never analyzed, complexities of the Terminal 8 reservoir.

  9. Geology of the Roswell artesian basin, New Mexico, and its relation to the Hondo Reservoir and Effect on artesian aquifer storage of flood water in Hondo Reservoir (United States)

    Bean, Robert T.; Theis, Charles V.


    In the Roswell Basin in southeastern New Mexico artesian water is produced from cavernous zones in the carbonate rocks of the San Andres formation and the lower part of the Chalk Bluff formation, both of Permian age. The Hondo Reservoir, 9 miles west-southwest of Roswell, was completed by the U. S. Bureau of Reclamation in 1907, to store waters of the Rio Hondo for irrigation. The project was not successful, as the impounded water escaped rapidly through holes in the gypsum and limestone of the San Andres formation constituting its floor. Of 27,000 acre~feet that entered the reservoir between 1908 and 1913, only 1,100 acre-feet was drawn Ollt for use, the remainder escaping through the floor of the reservoir. Since 1939, plans have been drawn up by the State Engineer and by Federal agencies to utilize the reservoir to protect Roswell from floods. It has also been suggested that water from the Pecos River might be diverted into underground storage through the reservoir. Sinkholes in the Roswell Basin are largely clustered in areas where gypsum occurs in the bedrock. Collapse of strata is due to solution of underlying rock commonly containing gypsum. Domes occur in gypsiferous strata near Salt Creek. The Bottomless Lakes, sinkhole lakes in the escarpment on the east side of the Pecos, are believed to have developed in north-south hinge-line fractures opened when the westernmost beds in the escarpment collapsed. Collapse was due to solution and removal of gypsiferous rock by artesian water which now fills the lakes.

  10. Hydrocarbon origin and reservoir forming model research of Longwangmiao Formation, Moxi-Gaoshiti area, Sichuan Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mindong Jin


    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the Longwangmiao gas reservoir in Moxi-Gaoshiti area, Sichuan Basin. Starting from the tectonic evolution perspective, though comparing biological marker compound and analyzing fluid inclusions, the oil & gas origin and accumulation evolution of Longwangmiao Formation are systematic studied with reference to the burial-thermal evolution of single well geological history in the study area. It is suggested that the oil & gas reservoir is generally characterized by early accumulation, multi-stage filling, late cracking and later adjustment. The oil and gas were mainly sourced from lower Cambrian Qiongzhusi Formation, partly from the Permian source rock. During the geological period, 3 major oil & gas fillings occurred in the Longwangmiao Formation, namely Caledonian-Hercynian filling that was small in scale and produced the first phase of paleo-oil reservoir that soon destroyed by Caledonian movement uplift, large-scale Permian filling that gave rise to the second-phase of paleo-oil reservoir and the Triassic-Jurassic filling that enriched the second phase of paleo-oil reservoir. Finally, the paleo-oil reservoir experienced an in-situ cracking during the cretaceous period that gave rise to a natural gas reservoir and left behind carbonaceous bitumen and oily bitumen in the holes of the Longwangmiao Formation.

  11. Fena Valley Reservoir watershed and water-balance model updates and expansion of watershed modeling to southern Guam (United States)

    Rosa, Sarah N.; Hay, Lauren E.


    In 2014, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Defense’s Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program, initiated a project to evaluate the potential impacts of projected climate-change on Department of Defense installations that rely on Guam’s water resources. A major task of that project was to develop a watershed model of southern Guam and a water-balance model for the Fena Valley Reservoir. The southern Guam watershed model provides a physically based tool to estimate surface-water availability in southern Guam. The U.S. Geological Survey’s Precipitation Runoff Modeling System, PRMS-IV, was used to construct the watershed model. The PRMS-IV code simulates different parts of the hydrologic cycle based on a set of user-defined modules. The southern Guam watershed model was constructed by updating a watershed model for the Fena Valley watersheds, and expanding the modeled area to include all of southern Guam. The Fena Valley watershed model was combined with a previously developed, but recently updated and recalibrated Fena Valley Reservoir water-balance model.Two important surface-water resources for the U.S. Navy and the citizens of Guam were modeled in this study; the extended model now includes the Ugum River watershed and improves upon the previous model of the Fena Valley watersheds. Surface water from the Ugum River watershed is diverted and treated for drinking water, and the Fena Valley watersheds feed the largest surface-water reservoir on Guam. The southern Guam watershed model performed “very good,” according to the criteria of Moriasi and others (2007), in the Ugum River watershed above Talofofo Falls with monthly Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency statistic values of 0.97 for the calibration period and 0.93 for the verification period (a value of 1.0 represents perfect model fit). In the Fena Valley watershed, monthly simulated streamflow volumes from the watershed model compared reasonably well with the

  12. An analytical thermohydraulic model for discretely fractured geothermal reservoirs (United States)

    Fox, Don B.; Koch, Donald L.; Tester, Jefferson W.


    In discretely fractured reservoirs such as those found in Enhanced/Engineered Geothermal Systems (EGS), knowledge of the fracture network is important in understanding the thermal hydraulics, i.e., how the fluid flows and the resulting temporal evolution of the subsurface temperature. The purpose of this study was to develop an analytical model of the fluid flow and heat transport in a discretely fractured network that can be used for a wide range of modeling applications and serve as an alternative analysis tool to more computationally intensive numerical codes. Given the connectivity and structure of a fracture network, the flow in the system was solved using a linear system of algebraic equations for the pressure at the nodes of the network. With the flow determined, the temperature in the fracture was solved by coupling convective heat transport in the fracture with one-dimensional heat conduction perpendicular to the fracture, employing the Green's function derived solution for a single discrete fracture. The predicted temperatures along the fracture surfaces from the analytical solution were compared to numerical simulations using the TOUGH2 reservoir code. Through two case studies, we showed the capabilities of the analytical model and explored the effect of uncertainty in the fracture apertures and network structure on thermal performance. While both sources of uncertainty independently produce large variations in production temperature, uncertainty in the network structure, whenever present, had a predominant influence on thermal performance.

  13. Multi-scale reservoir modeling as an integrated assessment tool for geo-sequestration in the San Juan Basin (United States)

    Young, G.; Haerer, D.; Bromhal, G.; Reeves, S.


    The Southwestern Regional Partnership on CO2 Sequestration conducted an Enhanced Coalbed Methane (ECBM)/Carbon Storage Pilot in the San Juan Basin as part of the ongoing DOE/NETL Carbon Capture and Storage Program. The primary goal of this pilot is to demonstrate the efficacy of using CO2 to enhance coalbed methane recovery particularly near reservoir abandonment pressure while also evaluating the suitability of coal seams for longer-term carbon storage. Basic geologic models of the coal seams were developed from well logs in the area. Production histories from several surrounding CBM wells were shown. To monitor the injection of up to 75,000 ton of CO2 beginning September 2007, seismic surveys and tiltmeter arrays were utilized. Larger-scale geo-hydrodynamic simulations were used to develop a regional model for the fluid dynamics of the northern San Juan Basin. Smaller-scale reservoir simulations, incorporating available laboratory and field data, were used to develop an improved understanding of reservoir dynamics within the specific 640-acre pilot area. Both modeling scales were critical to assessing the suitability of deploying commercial carbon storage programs throughout the basin. Reservoir characterization results on the optimization of total CO2 injection volume, injection rate over time, and how CO2 is expected to disperse after injection are presented. This is an abstract of a paper presented at the 2007 AIChE Annual Meeting (Salt Lake City, UT 11/4-9/2007).

  14. Actualistic and Geochemical Modeling of Reservoir Rock, CO2 and Formation Fluid Interaction, Citronelle Oil Field, Alabama

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weislogel, Amy [West Virginia Univ., Morgantown, WV (United States)


    This report includes description of the Citronelle field study area and the work carried out in the project to characterize the geology and composition of reservoir rock material and to collect an analyze the geochemical composition of produced fluid waters from the Citronelle field. Reservoir rock samples collected from well bore core were made into thin-sections and assessed for textural properties, including pore types and porosity distribution. Compositional framework grain modal data were collected via point-counting, and grain and cement mineralogy was assessed using SEM-EDS. Geochemistry of fluid samples is described and modeled using PHREEQC. Composition of rock and produced fluids were used as inputs for TOUGHREACT reactive transport modeling, which determined the rock-fluid system was in disequilibrium.

  15. D Geological Framework Models as a Teaching Aid for Geoscience (United States)

    Kessler, H.; Ward, E.; Geological ModelsTeaching Project Team


    3D geological models have great potential as a resource for universities when teaching foundation geological concepts as it allows the student to visualise and interrogate UK geology. They are especially useful when dealing with the conversion of 2D field, map and GIS outputs into three dimensional geological units, which is a common problem for all students of geology. Today’s earth science students use a variety of skills and processes during their learning experience including the application of schema’s, spatial thinking, image construction, detecting patterns, memorising figures, mental manipulation and interpretation, making predictions and deducing the orientation of themselves and the rocks. 3D geological models can reinforce spatial thinking strategies and encourage students to think about processes and properties, in turn helping the student to recognise pre-learnt geological principles in the field and to convert what they see at the surface into a picture of what is going on at depth. Learning issues faced by students may also be encountered by experts, policy managers, and stakeholders when dealing with environmental problems. Therefore educational research of student learning in earth science may also improve environmental decision making. 3D geological framework models enhance the learning of Geosciences because they: ● enable a student to observe, manipulate and interpret geology; in particular the models instantly convert two-dimensional geology (maps, boreholes and cross-sections) into three dimensions which is a notoriously difficult geospatial skill to acquire. ● can be orientated to whatever the user finds comfortable and most aids recognition and interpretation. ● can be used either to teach geosciences to complete beginners or add to experienced students body of knowledge (whatever point that may be at). Models could therefore be packaged as a complete educational journey or students and tutor can select certain areas of the model

  16. Integrative velocity model building for imaging a geothermal reservoir in southern Tuscany, Italy (United States)

    Schreiter, Lena; Loch, Felix; Ciuffi, Simonetta; Buske, Stefan


    Deep geothermal reservoirs are generally characterized by high temperatures and pressures, sometimes located in hard rock environments and even close to a super-critical state. For characterization of such a deep super-critical geothermal reservoir, the imaging of the subsurface at the highest possible resolution is required to reduce the uncertainties in exploration prior to the drilling phase. Several seismic surveys were carried out for characterization of a possible drilling target within a deep super-critical geothermal reservoir in Tuscany (project DESCRAMBLE). Seismic data were acquired in the form of 2D seismic reflection surveys as well as Vertical Seismic Profiling (VSP), the latter complemented by simultaneous recording of the source signals by a surface network covering an area of approximately 6 km x 6 km around the drill site. The investigation area itself is characterized by a complex geology with strong velocity contrasts, near-surface inhomogeneities and fracture zones. At first, the processing of the recorded seismic wavefields aimed at the determination of a seismic velocity model by a multidisciplinary approach. The application of conventional methods is limited due to the low resolution of the stacking velocities, significant lateral velocity changes and strong influence of noise. We performed first-arrival traveltime tomography and derived borehole velocities to tackle the complexity of the geology. Below the bottom of the borehole, results from laboratory measurements of rock samples from deeper neighboring wells were integrated into the velocity model. This approach limits the ambiguity, which depends on the existence and distribution of the neighboring wells in the investigation area. The results contribute to a robust migration velocity model used for an uncertainty depth analysis at the target horizon. In a next step, the influence of the velocity model on imaging is tested within an advanced seismic imaging workflow for several 2D

  17. Geological realism in hydrogeological and geophysical inverse modeling: A review (United States)

    Linde, Niklas; Renard, Philippe; Mukerji, Tapan; Caers, Jef


    Scientific curiosity, exploration of georesources and environmental concerns are pushing the geoscientific research community toward subsurface investigations of ever-increasing complexity. This review explores various approaches to formulate and solve inverse problems in ways that effectively integrate geological concepts with geophysical and hydrogeological data. Modern geostatistical simulation algorithms can produce multiple subsurface realizations that are in agreement with conceptual geological models and statistical rock physics can be used to map these realizations into physical properties that are sensed by the geophysical or hydrogeological data. The inverse problem consists of finding one or an ensemble of such subsurface realizations that are in agreement with the data. The most general inversion frameworks are presently often computationally intractable when applied to large-scale problems and it is necessary to better understand the implications of simplifying (1) the conceptual geological model (e.g., using model compression); (2) the physical forward problem (e.g., using proxy models); and (3) the algorithm used to solve the inverse problem (e.g., Markov chain Monte Carlo or local optimization methods) to reach practical and robust solutions given today's computer resources and knowledge. We also highlight the need to not only use geophysical and hydrogeological data for parameter estimation purposes, but also to use them to falsify or corroborate alternative geological scenarios.

  18. Reservoir Modeling of Carbonate on Fika Field: The Challenge to Capture the Complexity of Rock and Oil Types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erawati Fitriyani Adji


    Full Text Available DOI: 10.17014/ijog.v1i2.181The carbonate on Fika Field has a special character, because it grew above a basement high with the thickness and internal character variation. To develop the field, a proper geological model which can be used in reservoir simulation was needed. This model has to represent the complexity of the rock type and the variety of oil types among the clusters. Creating this model was challenging due to the heterogeneity of the Baturaja Formation (BRF: Early Miocene reef, carbonate platform, and breccia conglomerate grew up above the basement with a variety of thickness and quality distributions. The reservoir thickness varies between 23 - 600 ft and 3D seismic frequency ranges from 1 - 80 Hz with 25 Hz dominant frequency. Structurally, the Fika Field has a high basement slope, which has an impact on the flow unit layering slope. Based on production data, each area shows different characteristics and performance: some areas have high water cut and low cumulative production. Oil properties from several clusters also vary in wax content. The wax content can potentially build up a deposit inside tubing and flow-line, resulted in a possible disturbance to the operation. Five well cores were analyzed, including thin section and XRD. Seven check-shot data and 3D seismic Pre-Stack Time Migration (PSTM were available with limited seismic resolution. A seismic analysis was done after well seismic tie was completed. This analysis included paleogeography, depth structure map, and distribution of reservoir and basement. Core and log data generated facies carbonate distribution and rock typing, defining properties for log analysis and permeability prediction for each zone. An Sw prediction for each well was created by J-function analysis. This elaborates capillary pressure from core data, so it is very similar to the real conditions. Different stages of the initial model were done i.e. scale-up properties, data analysis, variogram modeling

  19. Predictive Modeling of Terrestrial Radiation Exposure from Geologic Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malchow, Russell L. [National Security Technologies, LLC; Haber, Daniel University of Nevada, Las Vegas; Burnley, Pamela [University of Nevada, Las Vegas; Marsac, Kara [University of Nevada, Las Vegas; Hausrath, Elisabeth [University of Nevada, Las Vegas; Adcock, Christopher [University of Nevada, Las Vegas


    Aerial gamma ray surveys are important for those working in nuclear security and industry for determining locations of both anthropogenic radiological sources and natural occurrences of radionuclides. During an aerial gamma ray survey, a low flying aircraft, such as a helicopter, flies in a linear pattern across the survey area while measuring the gamma emissions with a sodium iodide (NaI) detector. Currently, if a gamma ray survey is being flown in an area, the only way to correct for geologic sources of gamma rays is to have flown the area previously. This is prohibitively expensive and would require complete national coverage. This project’s goal is to model the geologic contribution to radiological backgrounds using published geochemical data, GIS software, remote sensing, calculations, and modeling software. K, U and Th are the three major gamma emitters in geologic material. U and Th are assumed to be in secular equilibrium with their daughter isotopes. If K, U, and Th abundance values are known for a given geologic unit the expected gamma ray exposure rate can be calculated using the Grasty equation or by modeling software. Monte Carlo N-Particle Transport software (MCNP), developed by Los Alamos National Laboratory, is modeling software designed to simulate particles and their interactions with matter. Using this software, models have been created that represent various lithologies. These simulations randomly generate gamma ray photons at energy levels expected from natural radiologic sources. The photons take a random path through the simulated geologic media and deposit their energy at the end of their track. A series of nested spheres have been created and filled with simulated atmosphere to record energy deposition. Energies deposited are binned in the same manner as the NaI detectors used during an aerial survey. These models are used in place of the simplistic Grasty equation as they take into account absorption properties of the lithology which the

  20. Investigation of seasonal thermal flow in a real dam reservoir using 3-D numerical modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Üneş Fatih


    Full Text Available Investigations indicate that correct estimation of seasonal thermal stratification in a dam reservoir is very important for the dam reservoir water quality modeling and water management problems. The main aim of this study is to develop a hydrodynamics model of an actual dam reservoir in three dimensions for simulating a real dam reservoir flows for different seasons. The model is developed using nonlinear and unsteady continuity, momentum, energy and k-ε turbulence model equations. In order to include the Coriolis force effect on the flow in a dam reservoir, Coriolis force parameter is also added the model equations. Those equations are constructed using actual dimensions, shape, boundary and initial conditions of the dam and reservoir. Temperature profiles and flow visualizations are used to evaluate flow conditions in the reservoir. Reservoir flow’s process and parameters are determined all over the reservoir. The mathematical model developed is capable of simulating the flow and thermal characteristics of the reservoir system for seasonal heat exchanges. Model simulations results obtained are compared with field measurements obtained from gauging stations for flows in different seasons. The results show a good agreement with the field measurements.

  1. A method of fundamental solutions in poroelasticity to model the stress field in geothermal reservoirs

    CERN Document Server

    Augustin, Matthias Albert


    This monograph focuses on the numerical methods needed in the context of developing a reliable simulation tool to promote the use of renewable energy. One very promising source of energy is the heat stored in the Earth’s crust, which is harnessed by so-called geothermal facilities. Scientists from fields like geology, geo-engineering, geophysics and especially geomathematics are called upon to help make geothermics a reliable and safe energy production method. One of the challenges they face involves modeling the mechanical stresses at work in a reservoir. The aim of this thesis is to develop a numerical solution scheme by means of which the fluid pressure and rock stresses in a geothermal reservoir can be determined prior to well drilling and during production. For this purpose, the method should (i) include poroelastic effects, (ii) provide a means of including thermoelastic effects, (iii) be inexpensive in terms of memory and computational power, and (iv) be flexible with regard to the locations of data ...

  2. New geological perspectives on earthquake recurrence models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwartz, D.P. [Geological Survey, Menlo Park, CA (United States)


    In most areas of the world the record of historical seismicity is too short or uncertain to accurately characterize the future distribution of earthquakes of different sizes in time and space. Most faults have not ruptured once, let alone repeatedly. Ultimately, the ability to correctly forecast the magnitude, location, and probability of future earthquakes depends on how well one can quantify the past behavior of earthquake sources. Paleoseismological trenching of active faults, historical surface ruptures, liquefaction features, and shaking-induced ground deformation structures provides fundamental information on the past behavior of earthquake sources. These studies quantify (a) the timing of individual past earthquakes and fault slip rates, which lead to estimates of recurrence intervals and the development of recurrence models and (b) the amount of displacement during individual events, which allows estimates of the sizes of past earthquakes on a fault. When timing and slip per event are combined with information on fault zone geometry and structure, models that define individual rupture segments can be developed. Paleoseismicity data, in the form of timing and size of past events, provide a window into the driving mechanism of the earthquake engine--the cycle of stress build-up and release.

  3. Rapid Calibration of High Resolution Geologic Models to Dynamic Data Using Inverse Modeling: Field Application and Validation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akhil Datta-Gupta


    Streamline-based assisted and automatic history matching techniques have shown great potential in reconciling high resolution geologic models to production data. However, a major drawback of these approaches has been incompressibility or slight compressibility assumptions that have limited applications to two-phase water-oil displacements only. We propose an approach to history matching three-phase flow using a novel compressible streamline formulation and streamline-derived analytic sensitivities. First, we utilize a generalized streamline model to account for compressible flow by introducing an 'effective density' of total fluids along streamlines. Second, we analytically compute parameter sensitivities that define the relationship between the reservoir properties and the production response, viz. water-cut and gas/oil ratio (GOR). These sensitivities are an integral part of history matching, and streamline models permit efficient computation of these sensitivities through a single flow simulation. We calibrate geologic models to production data by matching the water-cut and gas/oil ratio using our previously proposed generalized travel time inversion (GTTI) technique. For field applications, however, the highly non-monotonic profile of the gas/oil ratio data often presents a challenge to this technique. In this work we present a transformation of the field production data that makes it more amenable to GTTI. Further, we generalize the approach to incorporate bottom-hole flowing pressure during three-phase history matching. We examine the practical feasibility of the method using a field-scale synthetic example (SPE-9 comparative study) and a field application. Recently Ensemble Kalman Filtering (EnKF) has gained increased attention for history matching and continuous reservoir model updating using data from permanent downhole sensors. It is a sequential Monte-Carlo approach that works with an ensemble of reservoir models. Specifically, the method


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jack Bergeron; Tom Blasingame; Louis Doublet; Mohan Kelkar; George Freeman; Jeff Callard; David Moore; David Davies; Richard Vessell; Brian Pregger; Bill Dixon; Bryce Bezant


    Reservoir performance and characterization are vital parameters during the development phase of a project. Infill drilling of wells on a uniform spacing, without regard to characterization does not optimize development because it fails to account for the complex nature of reservoir heterogeneities present in many low permeability reservoirs, especially carbonate reservoirs. These reservoirs are typically characterized by: (1) large, discontinuous pay intervals; (2) vertical and lateral changes in reservoir properties; (3) low reservoir energy; (4) high residual oil saturation; and (5) low recovery efficiency. The operational problems they encounter in these types of reservoirs include: (1) poor or inadequate completions and stimulations; (2) early water breakthrough; (3) poor reservoir sweep efficiency in contacting oil throughout the reservoir as well as in the nearby well regions; (4) channeling of injected fluids due to preferential fracturing caused by excessive injection rates; and (5) limited data availability and poor data quality. Infill drilling operations only need target areas of the reservoir which will be economically successful. If the most productive areas of a reservoir can be accurately identified by combining the results of geological, petrophysical, reservoir performance, and pressure transient analyses, then this ''integrated'' approach can be used to optimize reservoir performance during secondary and tertiary recovery operations without resorting to ''blanket'' infill drilling methods. New and emerging technologies such as geostatistical modeling, rock typing, and rigorous decline type curve analysis can be used to quantify reservoir quality and the degree of interwell communication. These results can then be used to develop a 3-D simulation model for prediction of infill locations. The application of reservoir surveillance techniques to identify additional reservoir ''pay'' zones

  5. A Confidence Index for expressing geological model uncertainty (United States)

    Mathers, Steve; Lark, Murray; Marchant, Andrew; Hulbert, Andrew


    A Confidence Index has been developed that expresses the confidence of experts in the quality of a 3-D model as a representation of the subsurface at particular locations. The Confidence Index is based on the notion that the variation of the height of a particular geological surface represents general geological variability and local variability. The general variability comprises simple trends which allow the modeller to project surface structure at locations remote from direct observations. The local variability limits the extent to which hard data constrain inferences which the modeller can make concerning local fluctuations around the broad trends. The general and local geological variability of particular contacts are modelled in terms of simple trend surfaces and variogram models. These are then used to extend measures of confidence that reflect expert opinion so as to assign a confidence value to any location where a particular contact is represented in a model. The index is illustrated for individual model surfaces and ther thickness of units with examples from the East Midlands region of England.

  6. Markov random fields simulation: an introduction to the stochastic modelling of petroleum reservoirs; Simulacao de campos aleatorios markovianos: uma introducao voltada a modelagem estocastica de reservatorios de petroleo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saldanha Filho, Paulo Carlos


    Stochastic simulation has been employed in petroleum reservoir characterization as a modeling tool able to reconcile information from several different sources. It has the ability to preserve the variability of the modeled phenomena and permits transference of geological knowledge to numerical models of flux, whose predictions on reservoir constitute the main basis for reservoir management decisions. Several stochastic models have been used and/or suggested, depending on the nature of the phenomena to be described. Markov Random Fields (MRFs) appear as an alternative for the modeling of discrete variables, mainly reservoirs with mosaic architecture of facies. In this dissertation, the reader is introduced to the stochastic modeling by MRFs in a generic sense. The main aspects of the technique are reviewed. MRF Conceptual Background is described: its characterization through the Markovian property and the equivalence to Gibbs distributions. The framework for generic modeling of MRFs is described. The classical models of Ising and Potts-Strauss are specific in this context and are related to models of Ising and Potts-Strauss are specific in this context and are related to models used in petroleum reservoir characterization. The problem of parameter estimation is discussed. The maximum pseudolikelihood estimators for some models are presented. Estimators for two models useful for reservoir characterization are developed, and represent a new contribution to the subject. Five algorithms for the Conditional Simulation of MRFs are described: the Metropolis algorithm, the algorithm of German and German (Gibbs sampler), the algorithm of Swendsen-Wang, the algorithm of Wolff, and the algorithm of Flinn. Finally, examples of simulation for some of the models discussed are presented, along with their implications on the modelling of petroleum reservoirs. (author)

  7. Reduced-Order Model for Leakage Through an Open Wellbore from the Reservoir due to Carbon Dioxide Injection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pan, Lehua [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Oldenburg, Curtis M. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)


    Potential CO2 leakage through existing open wellbores is one of the most significant hazards that need to be addressed in geologic carbon sequestration (GCS) projects. In the framework of the National Risk Assessment Partnership (NRAP) which requires fast computations for uncertainty analysis, rigorous simulation of the coupled wellbore-reservoir system is not practical. We have developed a 7,200-point look-up table reduced-order model (ROM) for estimating the potential leakage rate up open wellbores in response to CO2 injection nearby. The ROM is based on coupled simulations using T2Well/ECO2H which was run repeatedly for representative conditions relevant to NRAP to create a look-up table response-surface ROM. The ROM applies to a wellbore that fully penetrates a 20-m thick reservoir that is used for CO2 storage. The radially symmetric reservoir is assumed to have initially uniform pressure, temperature, gas saturation, and brine salinity, and it is assumed these conditions are held constant at the far-field boundary (100 m away from the wellbore). In such a system, the leakage can quickly reach quasi-steady state. The ROM table can be used to estimate both the free-phase CO2 and brine leakage rates through an open well as a function of wellbore and reservoir conditions. Results show that injection-induced pressure and reservoir gas saturation play important roles in controlling leakage. Caution must be used in the application of this ROM because well leakage is formally transient and the ROM lookup table was populated using quasi-steady simulation output after 1000 time steps which may correspond to different physical times for the various parameter combinations of the coupled wellbore-reservoir system.

  8. Modelling of fractured reservoirs. Case of multi-scale media; Modelisation des reservoirs fractures. Cas des milieux multi-echelles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henn, N.


    Some of the most productive oil and gas reservoirs are found in formations crossed by multi-scale fractures/faults. Among them, conductive faults may closely control reservoir performance. However, their modelling encounters numerical and physical difficulties linked with (a) the necessity to keep an explicit representation of faults through small-size grid blocks, (b) the modelling of multiphase flow exchanges between the fault and the neighbouring medium. In this thesis, we propose a physically-representative and numerically efficient modelling approach in order to incorporate sub-vertical conductive faults in single and dual-porosity simulators. To validate our approach and demonstrate its efficiency, simulation results of multiphase displacements in representative field sector models are presented. (author)

  9. Modeling of eutrophication and strategies for improvement of water quality in reservoirs. (United States)

    Shourian, Mojtaba; Moridi, Ali; Kaveh, Mohammad


    The purpose of this study is to survey the thermal regime and eutrophication states in Ilam reservoir in Iran as the case study. For this purpose and to find solutions for improving the water's quality in the reservoir, two general strategies for reducing the entering pollution loads and water depletions from the reservoir's outlets were analyzed by use of the CE-QUAL-W2 model. Results of the simulation of the present situation show the existence of thermal stratification during summer, which results in the qualitative stratification in the reservoir. According to the qualitative criteria, the Ilam reservoir's state is between mesotrophic and eutrophic. Results of the scenarios of reduction of the nutrients show that in the scenario of 50% reduction of the phosphorus and nitrogen loads into the reservoir, the state of the reservoir would recover from eutrophic to semi-eutrophic. Also, release of water from the reservoir during September, October and November would cause the restoration of the quality of water in the reservoir. To avoid the occurrence of critical eutrophication in the reservoir, reducing the ponding time in the reservoir by fast depletion, preventing entrance of the upstream villages' sewage and agricultural drained waters, which are sources of nitrate and phosphate contamination into the rivers, and also management of the usage of agricultural fertilizers have been suggested.

  10. The GPlates Geological Information Model and Markup Language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Qin


    Full Text Available Understanding tectonic and geodynamic processes leading to the present-day configuration of the Earth involves studying data and models across a variety of disciplines, from geochemistry, geochronology and geophysics, to plate kinematics and mantle dynamics. All these data represent a 3-D spatial and 1-D temporal framework, a formalism which is not exploited by traditional spatial analysis tools. This is arguably a fundamental limit in both the rigour and sophistication in which datasets can be combined for geological deep time analysis, and often confines the extent of data analyses to the present-day configurations of geological objects. The GPlates Geological Information Model (GPGIM represents a formal specification of geological and geophysical data in a time-varying plate tectonics context, used by the GPlates virtual-globe software. It provides a framework in which relevant types of geological data are attached to a common plate tectonic reference frame, allowing the data to be reconstructed in a time-dependent spatio-temporal plate reference frame. The GPlates Markup Language (GPML, being an extension of the open standard Geography Markup Language (GML, is both the modelling language for the GPGIM and an XML-based data format for the interoperable storage and exchange of data modelled by it. The GPlates software implements the GPGIM allowing researchers to query, visualise, reconstruct and analyse a rich set of geological data including numerical raster data. The GPGIM has recently been extended to support time-dependent geo-referenced numerical raster data by wrapping GML primitives into the time-dependent framework of the GPGIM. Coupled with GPlates' ability to reconstruct numerical raster data and import/export from/to a variety of raster file formats, as well as its handling of time-dependent plate boundary topologies, interoperability with geodynamic softwares is established, leading to a new generation of deep-time spatio

  11. Visualization of 3D Geological Models on Google Earth (United States)

    Choi, Y.; Um, J.; Park, M.


    Google Earth combines satellite imagery, aerial photography, thematic maps and various data sets to make a three-dimensional (3D) interactive image of the world. Currently, Google Earth is a popular visualization tool in a variety of fields and plays an increasingly important role not only for private users in daily life, but also for scientists, practitioners, policymakers and stakeholders in research and application. In this study, a method to visualize 3D geological models on Google Earth is presented. COLLAborative Design Activity (COLLADA, an open standard XML schema for establishing interactive 3D applications) was used to represent different 3D geological models such as borehole, fence section, surface-based 3D volume and 3D grid by triangle meshes (a set of triangles connected by their common edges or corners). In addition, we designed Keyhole Markup Language (KML, the XML-based scripting language of Google Earth) codes to import the COLLADA files into the 3D render window of Google Earth. The method was applied to the Grosmont formation in Alberta, Canada. The application showed that the combination of COLLADA and KML enables Google Earth to effectively visualize 3D geological structures and properties.; Visualization of the (a) boreholes, (b) fence sections, (c) 3D volume model and (d) 3D grid model of Grossmont formation on Google Earth

  12. Sculpting Mountains: Interactive Terrain Modeling Based on Subsurface Geology. (United States)

    Cordonnier, Guillaume; Cani, Marie-Paule; Benes, Bedrich; Braun, Jean; Galin, Eric


    Most mountain ranges are formed by the compression and folding of colliding tectonic plates. Subduction of one plate causes large-scale asymmetry while their layered composition (or stratigraphy) explains the multi-scale folded strata observed on real terrains. We introduce a novel interactive modeling technique to generate visually plausible, large scale terrains that capture these phenomena. Our method draws on both geological knowledge for consistency and on sculpting systems for user interaction. The user is provided hands-on control on the shape and motion of tectonic plates, represented using a new geologically-inspired model for the Earth crust. The model captures their volume preserving and complex folding behaviors under collision, causing mountains to grow. It generates a volumetric uplift map representing the growth rate of subsurface layers. Erosion and uplift movement are jointly simulated to generate the terrain. The stratigraphy allows us to render folded strata on eroded cliffs. We validated the usability of our sculpting interface through a user study, and compare the visual consistency of the earth crust model with geological simulation results and real terrains.

  13. Characterization of oil and gas reservoir heterogeneity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    The objective of the cooperative research program is to characterize Alaskan reservoirs in terms of their reserves, physical and chemical properties, geologic configuration and structure, and the development potential. The tasks completed during this period include: (1) geologic reservoir description of Endicott Field; (2) petrographic characterization of core samples taken from selected stratigraphic horizons of the West Sak and Ugnu (Brookian) wells; (3) development of a polydispersed thermodynamic model for predicting asphaltene equilibria and asphaltene precipitation from crude oil-solvent mixtures, and (4) preliminary geologic description of the Milne Point Unit.

  14. Advances in Geologic Disposal System Modeling and Shale Reference Cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mariner, Paul E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Stein, Emily R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Frederick, Jennifer M. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Sevougian, S. David [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hammond, Glenn Edward [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)


    The Spent Fuel and Waste Science and Technology (SFWST) Campaign of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Nuclear Energy (NE), Office of Fuel Cycle Technology (OFCT) is conducting research and development (R&D) on geologic disposal of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and high level nuclear waste (HLW). Two high priorities for SFWST disposal R&D are design concept development and disposal system modeling (DOE 2011, Table 6). These priorities are directly addressed in the SFWST Generic Disposal Systems Analysis (GDSA) work package, which is charged with developing a disposal system modeling and analysis capability for evaluating disposal system performance for nuclear waste in geologic media (e.g., salt, granite, shale, and deep borehole disposal).

  15. Modeling naturally fractured carbonate as potential CGS reservoir: a case study from Sulcis Basin. (United States)

    Chiara Tartarello, Maria; Bigi, Sabina; Ruggiero, Livio


    The naturally fractured carbonates have a great potential for Carbon Geological Storage purpose because they could offer the possibility for storage in that areas where no sandstone are available. In Italy, we studied the Sulcis Basin, an area situated in SW Sardinia, where the "Miliolitico Fm." represents the potential reservoir. This Formation consists of well bedded, about 50 m thick, mudstones and grainstones with Miliolidae, deposited in a lagoon environment during the Early Eocene. This formation has a very low primary porosity and permeability, so it is essential to characterize the fracture network that characterize the reservoir's capacity. We performed a detailed fracture analysis at the outcrop, using scan lines and scan areas techniques. We measured the fractures spacing, aperture, length and connectivity both linearly and on a surface. These parameters were used to build several Discrete Fracture Model, using Move 2016 (Midland Valley). In particular DFN were constructed varying length and aperture values to evaluate their influence on the total secondary porosity. The same approach was also utilized in the Nuraxi Figus coal mine, where the Miliolitico crops out at a depth of -480 m b.s.l., in more confined pressure condition. Here we collected detailed scan lines. Major fractures/faults that cross the whole tunnel were also measured. These data were integrated with the previous ones for the DFN generation. A separate fracture model were generated to represent the fault network, to evaluate the different component of the brittle deformation (small fault and fractures). The fracture modeling was performed using Move 2016 and Petrel (Schlumberger); than the results were compared. The results show that most of the secondary permeability and porosity is due to faults, through which fluid circulate. Some fractures sometimes are affected by karst phenomena, that influence their aperture.

  16. Challenge to Increase Confidence in Geological Evolution Models (United States)

    Mizuno, T.; Iwatsuki, T.; Saegusa, H.; Kato, T.; Matsuoka, T.; Yasue, K.; Ohyama, T.; Sasao, E.


    The geological evolution models (GEMs) as well as site descriptive models (SDMs) are used to integrate investigation results and to support safety assessment. Even more, enhancing confidence in long-term stability of geological environment is required for geological disposal in Japan where is in active tectonic region. The aim of the study is to provide future direction for increasing GEMs confidence based on review of current GEMs. GEMs has been constructed in following three steps; 1) Features, Events and Processes (FEP) analysis, 2) Scenario development and 3) Numerical modeling. Base on the current status, we looked at the issues for developing GEMs with higher level of confidence. As the result, development of techniques and methodologies for; 1) validation of GEMs, 2) handling uncertainty and 3) digitalization/visualization are identified as open issues. To solve these issues, we specified three approaches. First approach is using multiple lines of evidence. Consistency between various study fields will be important information for validation of the GEMs. Second one is revealing the argument behind GEMs. Confidence/uncertainty of GEMs will be able to be confirmed by synthesizing the basic information behind the GEMs because GEMs are built on many evidences, hypothesis and assumptions. In addition, the optional cases will be needed for demonstrating the level of understanding. Third is development of elemental technology, such as the integrated system between numerical simulation and visualization which can take into account large size of model and composite phenomenon. In the future, we will focus on increasing GEMs confidence in keeping with this notion. This study was carried out under a contract with METI (Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry) as part of its R&D supporting program for developing geological disposal technology.

  17. Digital Geological Model (DGM): a 3D raster model of the subsurface of the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gunnink, J.L.; Maljers, D.; Gessel, S.F. van; Menkovic, A.; Hummelman, H.J.


    A 3D geological raster model has been constructed of the onshore of the Netherlands. The model displays geological units for the upper 500 m in 3D in an internally consistent way. The units are based on the lithostratigraphical classification of the Netherlands. This classification is used to

  18. Modelling of sedimentation processes inside Roseires Reservoir (Sudan) (abstract)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ali, Y.S.A.; Omer, A.Y.A.; Crosato, A.


    Roseires Reservoir is located on the Blue Nile River, in Sudan (figure 1). It is the first trap to the sediments coming from the upper catchment in Ethiopia, which suffers from high erosion and desertification problems. The reservoir lost already more than one third of its storage capacity due to

  19. Modelling of sedimentation processes inside Roseires Reservoir (Sudan) (discussion)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Omer, A.Y.A.; Ali, Y.S.A.; Roelvink, J.A.; Dastgheib, A.; Paron, P.; Crosato, A.


    Discussion paper. Roseires Reservoir, located on the Blue Nile River, in Sudan, is the first trap to the sediments coming from the upper catchment in Ethiopia, which suffers from high erosion and desertification problems. The reservoir lost already more than one third of its 5 storage capacity due

  20. Modelling of sedimentation processes inside Roseires Reservoir (Sudan)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Omer, A.Y.A.; Ali, Y.S.A.; Roelvink, J.A.; Dastgheib, A.; Paron, P.; Crosato, A.


    Roseires Reservoir, located on the Blue Nile River in Sudan, is the first trap to the sediments coming from the vast upper river catchment in Ethiopia, which suffers from high erosion and desertification problems. The reservoir has already lost more than one-third of its storage capacity due to

  1. BEKWAAM, a model fit for reservoir design and management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benoist, A.P.; Brinkman, A.G.; Diepenbeek, van P.M.J.A.; Waals, J.M.J.


    In the Province of Limburg in the Netherlands a new reservoir will be used for the drinking water production of 20 million m3 per annum from the year 2002. With the use of this reservoir the WML is shifting towards the use of surface water (River Meuse) as primary source instead of ground water.

  2. Fast Multiscale Reservoir Simulations using POD-DEIM Model Reduction

    KAUST Repository

    Ghasemi, Mohammadreza


    In this paper, we present a global-local model reduction for fast multiscale reservoir simulations in highly heterogeneous porous media with applications to optimization and history matching. Our proposed approach identifies a low dimensional structure of the solution space. We introduce an auxiliary variable (the velocity field) in our model reduction that allows achieving a high degree of model reduction. The latter is due to the fact that the velocity field is conservative for any low-order reduced model in our framework. Because a typical global model reduction based on POD is a Galerkin finite element method, and thus it can not guarantee local mass conservation. This can be observed in numerical simulations that use finite volume based approaches. Discrete Empirical Interpolation Method (DEIM) is used to approximate the nonlinear functions of fine-grid functions in Newton iterations. This approach allows achieving the computational cost that is independent of the fine grid dimension. POD snapshots are inexpensively computed using local model reduction techniques based on Generalized Multiscale Finite Element Method (GMsFEM) which provides (1) a hierarchical approximation of snapshot vectors (2) adaptive computations by using coarse grids (3) inexpensive global POD operations in a small dimensional spaces on a coarse grid. By balancing the errors of the global and local reduced-order models, our new methodology can provide an error bound in simulations. Our numerical results, utilizing a two-phase immiscible flow, show a substantial speed-up and we compare our results to the standard POD-DEIM in finite volume setup.

  3. Modeling pollution potential input from the drainage basin into Barra Bonita reservoir, São Paulo - Brazil. (United States)

    Prado, R B; Novo, E M L M


    In this study multi-criteria modeling tools are applied to map the spatial distribution of drainage basin potential to pollute Barra Bonita Reservoir, São Paulo State, Brasil. Barra Bonita Reservoir Basin had undergone intense land use/land cover changes in the last decades, including the fast conversion from pasture into sugarcane. In this respect, this study answers to the lack of information about the variables (criteria) which affect the pollution potential of the drainage basin by building a Geographic Information System which provides their spatial distribution at sub-basin level. The GIS was fed by several data (geomorphology, pedology, geology, drainage network and rainfall) provided by public agencies. Landsat satellite images provided land use/land cover map for 2002. Ratings and weights of each criterion defined by specialists supported the modeling process. The results showed a wide variability in the pollution potential of different sub-basins according to the application of different criterion. If only land use is analyzed, for instance, less than 50% of the basin is classified as highly threatening to water quality and include sub basins located near the reservoir, indicating the importance of protection areas at the margins. Despite the subjectivity involved in the weighing processes, the multi-criteria analysis model allowed the simulation of scenarios which support rational land use polices at sub-basin level regarding the protection of water resources.

  4. More Novel Hantaviruses and Diversifying Reservoir Hosts — Time for Development of Reservoir-Derived Cell Culture Models?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabella Eckerle


    Full Text Available Due to novel, improved and high-throughput detection methods, there is a plethora of newly identified viruses within the genus Hantavirus. Furthermore, reservoir host species are increasingly recognized besides representatives of the order Rodentia, now including members of the mammalian orders Soricomorpha/Eulipotyphla and Chiroptera. Despite the great interest created by emerging zoonotic viruses, there is still a gross lack of in vitro models, which reflect the exclusive host adaptation of most zoonotic viruses. The usually narrow host range and genetic diversity of hantaviruses make them an exciting candidate for studying virus-host interactions on a cellular level. To do so, well-characterized reservoir cell lines covering a wide range of bat, insectivore and rodent species are essential. Most currently available cell culture models display a heterologous virus-host relationship and are therefore only of limited value. Here, we review the recently established approaches to generate reservoir-derived cell culture models for the in vitro study of virus-host interactions. These successfully used model systems almost exclusively originate from bats and bat-borne viruses other than hantaviruses. Therefore we propose a parallel approach for research on rodent- and insectivore-borne hantaviruses, taking the generation of novel rodent and insectivore cell lines from wildlife species into account. These cell lines would be also valuable for studies on further rodent-borne viruses, such as orthopox- and arenaviruses.

  5. Geologic Model for Oil and Gas Assessment of the Kemik-Thomson Play, Central North Slope, Alaska (United States)

    Schenk, Christopher J.; Houseknecht, David W.


    A geologic model was developed to assess undiscovered oil and gas resources in the Kemik-Thomson Play of the Central North Slope, Alaska. In this model, regional erosion during the Early Cretaceous produced an incised valley system on the flanks and crest of the Mikkelsen High and formed the Lower Cretaceous unconformity. Locally derived, coarse-grained siliciclastic and carbonate detritus from eroded Franklinian-age basement rocks, Carboniferous Kekiktuk Conglomerate (of the Endicott Group), Lisburne Group, and Permian-Triassic Sadlerochit Group may have accumulated in the incised valleys during lowstand and transgression, forming potential reservoirs in the Lower Cretaceous Kemik Sandstone and Thomson sandstone (informal term). Continued transgression resulted in the deposition of the mudstones of the over-lying Cretaceous pebble shale unit and Hue Shale, which form top seals to the potential reservoirs. Petroleum from thermally mature facies of the Triassic Shublik Formation, Jurassic Kingak Shale, Hue Shale (and pebble shale unit), and the Cretaceous-Tertiary Canning Formation might have charged Thomson and Kemik sandstone reservoirs in this play during the Tertiary. The success of this play depends largely upon the presence of reservoir-quality units in the Kemik Sandstone and Thomson sandstone.

  6. Coupling geothermal energy capture with carbon dioxide sequestration in permeable, porous geologic formations II: Numerical modeling and preliminary results (United States)

    Randolph, J. B.; Saar, M. O.


    Carbon dioxide (CO2) sequestration in deep saline aquifers and exhausted oil fields has been widely considered as a means for reducing CO2 emissions to the atmosphere as a counter-measure to global warming. However, rather than treating CO2 as a waste fluid in need of permanent disposal, it could additionally be used as a working fluid in geothermal energy capture as its thermodynamic properties suggest it transfers heat more efficiently than water. Therefore, utilizing CO2 may permit more widespread implementation of geothermal power systems. Here, we present numerical modeling results of coupled CO2 injection into a brine and heat transfer in geothermal reservoirs under conditions relevant for both CO2 sequestration and geothermal electricity generation. In particular, we examine subsurface flow and heating of the sequestered CO2, cooling of the geothermal reservoir, and changes in pore-fluid pressures under a variety of generalized CO2 injection and production scenarios and reservoir characteristics. While additional research is required, modeling results at present suggest that geologic reservoirs with CO2 as the heat mining fluid would be viable geothermal energy sources for electric power production for decades, potentially even in regions with relatively low geothermal temperatures and heat flow rates.

  7. Application of Stochastic Partial Differential Equations to Reservoir Property Modelling

    KAUST Repository

    Potsepaev, R.


    Existing algorithms of geostatistics for stochastic modelling of reservoir parameters require a mapping (the \\'uvt-transform\\') into the parametric space and reconstruction of a stratigraphic co-ordinate system. The parametric space can be considered to represent a pre-deformed and pre-faulted depositional environment. Existing approximations of this mapping in many cases cause significant distortions to the correlation distances. In this work we propose a coordinate free approach for modelling stochastic textures through the application of stochastic partial differential equations. By avoiding the construction of a uvt-transform and stratigraphic coordinates, one can generate realizations directly in the physical space in the presence of deformations and faults. In particular the solution of the modified Helmholtz equation driven by Gaussian white noise is a zero mean Gaussian stationary random field with exponential correlation function (in 3-D). This equation can be used to generate realizations in parametric space. In order to sample in physical space we introduce a stochastic elliptic PDE with tensor coefficients, where the tensor is related to correlation anisotropy and its variation is physical space.

  8. Geology Laxemar. Site descriptive modelling SDM-Site Laxemar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wahlgren, Carl-Henric (Geological Survey of Sweden, Uppsala (Sweden)); Curtis, Philip; Hermanson, Jan; Forssberg, Ola; Oehman, Johan (Golder Associates AB (Sweden)); Fox, Aaron; La Pointe, Paul (Golder Associates Inc (United States)); Drake, Henrik (Dept. of Earth Sciences, Univ. of Goeteborg, Goeteborg (Sweden)); Triumf, Carl-Axel; Mattsson, Haakan; Thunehed, Hans (GeoVista AB, Luleaa (Sweden)); Juhlin, Christopher (Dept. of Earth Sciences, Uppsala Univ., Uppsala (Sweden))


    The geological work during the SDM Site Laxemar modelling stage has involved the continued development of deterministic models for rock domains (RSM) and deformation zones (ZSM), the identification and deterministic modelling of fracture domains (FSM), and the development of statistical models for fractures and minor deformation zones (geological discrete fracture network (DFN) modelling). The geological DFN model addresses fractures/structures with a size of less than 1 km, which is the lower cut-off of structures included in the deterministic modelling of deformation zones. In order to take account of variability in data resolution, deterministic models for rock domains and deformation zones are presented in both regional and local scale model volumes, while the geological DFN model is valid only within specific fracture domains inside the Laxemar local model volume. The geological and geophysical data that constitute the basis for the SDM-Site Laxemar modelling work comprise all data that have been acquired from Laxemar, i.e. all data that were available at the data freeze for SDM-Site Laxemar at August 31, 2007. Selected quality controlled data from the complementary cored borehole KLX27A have also been utilised in the modelling work. Data from the following investigations were acquired during the complete site investigation between the data freezes for Laxemar 1.2 and SDM-Site Laxemar as defined above: A revised bedrock geological map at the ground surface. Geological and geophysical data from 40 new cored boreholes and 14 percussion boreholes. Sampling and subsequent modal and geochemical analytical work of bedrock samples taken in connection with excavations in southern Laxemar. Detailed mapping of fractures and rock units along 10 trench excavations and 2 large surface exposures (drill sites for KLX09 and KLX11A/KLX20A). Special studies involving more detailed characterisation of deformation zones identified in the geological single-hole interpretation

  9. Geologic framework for the assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources in sandstone reservoirs of the Upper Jurassic-Lower Cretaceous Cotton Valley Group, U.S. Gulf of Mexico region (United States)

    Eoff, Jennifer D.; Dubiel, Russell F.; Pearson, Ofori N.; Whidden, Katherine J.


    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is assessing the undiscovered oil and gas resources in sandstone reservoirs of the Upper Jurassic–Lower Cretaceous Cotton Valley Group in onshore areas and State waters of the U.S. Gulf of Mexico region. The assessment is based on geologic elements of a total petroleum system. Four assessment units (AUs) are defined based on characterization of hydrocarbon source and reservoir rocks, seals, traps, and the geohistory of the hydrocarbon products. Strata in each AU share similar stratigraphic, structural, and hydrocarbon-charge histories.

  10. Mapping of Reservoir Properties and Facies Through Integration of Static and Dynamic Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reynolds, Albert C.; Oliver, Dean S.; Zhang, Fengjun; Dong, Yannong; Skjervheim, Jan Arild; Liu, Ning


    The goal of this project was to develop computationally efficient automatic history matching techniques for generating geologically plausible reservoir models which honor both static and dynamic data. Solution of this problem was necessary for the quantification of uncertainty in future reservoir performance predictions and for the optimization of reservoir management.

  11. Modeling of Turbidity Variation in Two Reservoirs Connected by a Water Transfer Tunnel in South Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae Chung Park


    Full Text Available The Andong and Imha reservoirs in South Korea are connected by a water transfer tunnel. The turbidity of the Imha reservoir is much higher than that of the Andong reservoir. Thus, it is necessary to examine the movement of turbidity between the two reservoirs via the water transfer tunnel. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of the water transfer tunnel on the turbidity behavior of the two connecting reservoirs and to further understand the effect of reservoir turbidity distribution as a function of the selective withdrawal depth. This study applied the CE-QUAL-W2, a water quality and 2-dimensional hydrodynamic model, for simulating the hydrodynamic processes of the two reservoirs. Results indicate that, in the Andong reservoir, the turbidity of the released water with the water transfer tunnel was similar to that without the tunnel. However, in the Imha reservoir, the turbidity of the released water with the water transfer tunnel was lower than that without the tunnel. This can be attributed to the higher capacity of the Andong reservoir, which has double the storage of the Imha reservoir. Withdrawal turbidity in the Imha reservoir was investigated using the water transfer tunnel. This study applied three withdrawal selections as elevation (EL. 141.0 m, 146.5 m, and 152.0 m. The highest withdrawal turbidity resulted in EL. 141.0 m, which indicates that the high turbidity current is located at a vertical depth of about 20–30 m because of the density difference. These results will be helpful for understanding the release and selective withdrawal turbidity behaviors for a water transfer tunnel between two reservoirs.

  12. Water Quality Modeling in Reservoirs Using Multivariate Linear Regression and Two Neural Network Models


    Wei-Bo Chen; Wen-Cheng Liu


    In this study, two artificial neural network models (i.e., a radial basis function neural network, RBFN, and an adaptive neurofuzzy inference system approach, ANFIS) and a multilinear regression (MLR) model were developed to simulate the DO, TP, Chl a, and SD in the Mingder Reservoir of central Taiwan. The input variables of the neural network and the MLR models were determined using linear regression. The performances were evaluated using the RBFN, ANFIS, and MLR models based on statistical ...

  13. Thermal remote sensing for reservoir modelling and management


    Martí-Cardona, B.; Arbat-Bofill, M; Prats-Rodríguez, J.; Pipia, L.


    ASTER and Landsat images were used for mapping the water surface temperature in the Sobrón, Mequinenza and Ribarroja reservoirs in the Ebro River, Spain. The spatially continuous information in these maps reveals the impact of the reservoir on the river natural thermal gradient in two different periods of the year. It also evidences the thermal impact intensity and extent of the refrigeration flow discharge from a nuclear power plant located on the river bank. The high spatial resolution i...

  14. Thermal remote sensing for reservoir modelling and management



    ASTER and Landsat images were used for mapping the water surface temperature in the Sobrón, Mequinenza and Ribarroja reservoirs in the Ebro River, Spain. The spatially continuous information in these maps reveals the impact of the reservoir on the river natural thermal gradient in two different periods of the year. It also evidences the thermal impact intensity and extent of the refrigeration flow discharge from a nuclear power plant located on the river bank. The high spatial resolution imag...

  15. Integration of the geological/engineering model with production performance for Patrick Draw Field, Wyoming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jackson, S.


    The NIPER Reservoir Assessment and Characterization Research Program incorporates elements of the near-term, mid-term and long-term objectives of the National Energy Strategy-Advanced Oil Recovery Program. The interdisciplinary NIPER team focuses on barrier island reservoirs, a high priority class of reservoirs, that contains large amounts of remaining oil in place located in mature fields with a high number of shut-in and abandoned wells. The project objectives are to: (1) identify heterogeneities that influence the movement and trapping of reservoir fluids in two examples of shoreline barrier reservoirs (Patrick Draw Field, WY and Bell Creek Field, MT); (2) develop geological and engineering reservoir characterization methods to quantify reservoir architecture and predict mobile oil saturation distribution for application of targeted infill drilling and enhanced oil recovery (EOR) processes; and (3) summarize reservoir and production characteristics of shoreline barrier reservoirs to determine similarities and differences. The major findings of the research include: (1) hydrogeochemical analytical techniques were demonstrated to be an inexpensive reservoir characterization tool that provides information on reservoir architecture and compartmentalization; (2) the formation water salinity in Patrick Draw Field varies widely across the field and can result in a 5 to 12% error in saturation values calculated from wireline logs if the salinity variations and corresponding resistivity values are not accounted for; and (3) an analysis of the enhanced oil recovery (EOR) potential of Patrick Draw Field indicates that CO[sub 2] flooding in the Monell Unit and horizontal drilling in the Arch Unit are potential methods to recover additional oil from the field.

  16. Integration of the geological/engineering model with production performance for Patrick Draw Field, Wyoming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jackson, S.


    The NIPER Reservoir Assessment and Characterization Research Program incorporates elements of the near-term, mid-term and long-term objectives of the National Energy Strategy-Advanced Oil Recovery Program. The interdisciplinary NIPER team focuses on barrier island reservoirs, a high priority class of reservoirs, that contains large amounts of remaining oil in place located in mature fields with a high number of shut-in and abandoned wells. The project objectives are to: (1) identify heterogeneities that influence the movement and trapping of reservoir fluids in two examples of shoreline barrier reservoirs (Patrick Draw Field, WY and Bell Creek Field, MT); (2) develop geological and engineering reservoir characterization methods to quantify reservoir architecture and predict mobile oil saturation distribution for application of targeted infill drilling and enhanced oil recovery (EOR) processes; and (3) summarize reservoir and production characteristics of shoreline barrier reservoirs to determine similarities and differences. The major findings of the research include: (1) hydrogeochemical analytical techniques were demonstrated to be an inexpensive reservoir characterization tool that provides information on reservoir architecture and compartmentalization; (2) the formation water salinity in Patrick Draw Field varies widely across the field and can result in a 5 to 12% error in saturation values calculated from wireline logs if the salinity variations and corresponding resistivity values are not accounted for; and (3) an analysis of the enhanced oil recovery (EOR) potential of Patrick Draw Field indicates that CO{sub 2} flooding in the Monell Unit and horizontal drilling in the Arch Unit are potential methods to recover additional oil from the field.

  17. Modelling Orthorhombic Anisotropic Effects for Reservoir Fracture Characterization of a Naturally Fractured Tight Carbonate Reservoir, Onshore Texas, USA (United States)

    Osinowo, Olawale Olakunle; Chapman, Mark; Bell, Rebecca; Lynn, Heloise B.


    In this study we present a step-by-step theoretical modelling approach, using established seismic wave propagation theories in anisotropic media, to generate unique anisotropic reflection patterns observed from three-dimensional pure-mode pressure (3D-PP), full-azimuth and full-offset seismic reflection data acquired over a naturally fractured tight carbonate field, onshore Texas, USA. Our aim is to gain an insight into the internal structures of the carbonate reservoir responsible for the observed anisotropic reflection patterns. From the generated model we were able to establish that the observed field seismic reflection patterns indicate azimuthal anisotropy in the form of crack induced shear-wave splitting and variation in P-wave velocity with offset and azimuth. Amplitude variation with azimuth (AVAZ) analysis also confirmed multi-crack sets induced anisotropy which is characteristic of orthorhombic symmetry, evident as multiple bright and dim-amplitude azimuth directions as well as complete reversal of bright-amplitude to dim-amplitude azimuth direction as the angle of incidence increases from near (≤15°) to mid (≥30°) offsets. Finally, we fitted the generated P-wave velocity into an ellipse to determine the intensity and orientation (N26E) of the open crack set as well as the direction of the minimum in situ stress axis (N116E) within the reservoir. The derived information served as an aid for the design of horizontal well paths that would intercept open fractures and ensure production optimization of the carbonate reservoir, which was on production decline despite reservoir studies that indicate un-depleted reserves.

  18. Modelling Orthorhombic Anisotropic Effects for Reservoir Fracture Characterization of a Naturally Fractured Tight Carbonate Reservoir, Onshore Texas, USA (United States)

    Osinowo, Olawale Olakunle; Chapman, Mark; Bell, Rebecca; Lynn, Heloise B.


    In this study we present a step-by-step theoretical modelling approach, using established seismic wave propagation theories in anisotropic media, to generate unique anisotropic reflection patterns observed from three-dimensional pure-mode pressure (3D-PP), full-azimuth and full-offset seismic reflection data acquired over a naturally fractured tight carbonate field, onshore Texas, USA. Our aim is to gain an insight into the internal structures of the carbonate reservoir responsible for the observed anisotropic reflection patterns. From the generated model we were able to establish that the observed field seismic reflection patterns indicate azimuthal anisotropy in the form of crack induced shear-wave splitting and variation in P-wave velocity with offset and azimuth. Amplitude variation with azimuth (AVAZ) analysis also confirmed multi-crack sets induced anisotropy which is characteristic of orthorhombic symmetry, evident as multiple bright and dim-amplitude azimuth directions as well as complete reversal of bright-amplitude to dim-amplitude azimuth direction as the angle of incidence increases from near (≤15°) to mid (≥30°) offsets. Finally, we fitted the generated P-wave velocity into an ellipse to determine the intensity and orientation (N26E) of the open crack set as well as the direction of the minimum in situ stress axis (N116E) within the reservoir. The derived information served as an aid for the design of horizontal well paths that would intercept open fractures and ensure production optimization of the carbonate reservoir, which was on production decline despite reservoir studies that indicate un-depleted reserves.

  19. On a model simulating lack of hydraulic connection between a man-made reservoir and the volume of poroelastic rock hosting the focus of a post-impoundment earthquake (United States)

    Chander, Ramesh; Tomar, S. K.


    The idea that a direct hydraulic connection between a man-made reservoir and the foci of post-impoundment earthquakes may not exist at all sites is eminently credible on geological grounds. Our aim is to provide a simple earth model and related theory for use during investigations of earthquakes near new man-made reservoirs. We consider a uniform circular reservoir which rests on the top surface of a no-hydraulic-connection earth model (NHCEM). The model comprises a top elastic (E) layer, an intermediate poroelastic (P) layer, and a bottom elastic half space. The focus of a potential earthquake in the P layer is located directly under the reservoir. The E layer disrupts the hydraulic connection between the reservoir and the focus. Depth of water in the reservoir varies as H ' + hcos( ω t). Expressions for reservoir-induced stresses and pore pressure in different layers of the NHCEM are obtained by solving the boundary-value problem invoking full coupling between mean normal stress and pore pressure in the P layer. As an application of the derived mathematical results, we have examined and found that earthquakes on 60∘ normal faults may occur in the P-layer of a selected NHCEM at epochs of low reservoir level if the reservoir lies mostly in the footwall of the fault. The exercise was motivated by observations of such earthquakes under the man-made Lake Mead after it was impounded.

  20. Integrated reservoir assessment and characterization: Final report, October 1, 1985--September 30, 1988

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Honarpour, M.; Szpakiewicz, M.; Sharma, B.; Chang, Ming-Ming; Schatzinger, R.; Jackson, S.; Tomutsa, L.; Maerefat, N.


    This report covers the development of a generic approach to reservoir characterization, the preliminary studies leading to the selection of an appropriate depositional system for detailed study, the application of outcrop studies to quantified reservoir characterization, and the construction of a quantified geological/engineering model used to screen the effects and scales of various geological heterogeneities within a reservoir. These heterogeneities result in large production/residual oil saturation contrasts over small distances. 36 refs., 124 figs., 38 tabs.

  1. Conceptual Model Summary Report Simulation Framework for Regional Geologic CO2 Storage Along Arches Province of Midwestern United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None


    A conceptual model was developed for the Arches Province that integrates geologic and hydrologic information on the Eau Claire and Mt. Simon formations into a geocellular model. The conceptual model describes the geologic setting, stratigraphy, geologic structures, hydrologic features, and distribution of key hydraulic parameters. The conceptual model is focused on the Mt. Simon sandstone and Eau Claire formations. The geocellular model depicts the parameters and conditions in a numerical array that may be imported into the numerical simulations of carbon dioxide (CO2) storage. Geophysical well logs, rock samples, drilling logs, geotechnical test results, and reservoir tests were evaluated for a 500,000 km2 study area centered on the Arches Province. The geologic and hydraulic data were integrated into a three-dimensional (3D) grid of porosity and permeability, which are key parameters regarding fluid flow and pressure buildup due to CO2 injection. Permeability data were corrected in locations where reservoir tests have been performed in Mt. Simon injection wells. The final geocellular model covers an area of 600 km by 600 km centered on the Arches Province. The geocellular model includes a total of 24,500,000 cells representing estimated porosity and permeability distribution. CO2 injection scenarios were developed for on-site and regional injection fields at rates of 70 to 140 million metric tons per year.

  2. Capillary pressure-saturation relations for supercritical CO2 and brine in limestone/dolomite sands: implications for geologic carbon sequestration in carbonate reservoirs. (United States)

    Wang, Shibo; Tokunaga, Tetsu K


    In geologic carbon sequestration, capillary pressure (Pc)-saturation (Sw) relations are needed to predict reservoir processes. Capillarity and its hysteresis have been extensively studied in oil-water and gas-water systems, but few measurements have been reported for supercritical (sc) CO2-water. Here, Pc-Sw relations of scCO2 displacing brine (drainage), and brine rewetting (imbibition) were studied to understand CO2 transport and trapping behavior under reservoir conditions. Hysteretic drainage and imbibition Pc-Sw curves were measured in limestone sands at 45 °C under elevated pressures (8.5 and 12.0 MPa) for scCO2-brine, and in limestone and dolomite sands at 23 °C (0.1 MPa) for air-brine using a new computer programmed porous plate apparatus. scCO2-brine drainage and imbibition curves shifted to lower Pc relative to predictions based on interfacial tension, and therefore deviated from capillary scaling predictions for hydrophilic interactions. Fitting universal scaled drainage and imbibition curves show that wettability alteration resulted from scCO2 exposure over the course of months-long experiments. Residual trapping of the nonwetting phases was determined at Pc = 0 during imbibition. Amounts of trapped scCO2 were significantly larger than for those for air, and increased with pressure (depth), initial scCO2 saturation, and time. These results have important implications for scCO2 distribution, trapping, and leakage potential.

  3. Risk and geological uncertainties in carbonate reservoirs in Santos Basin; Incertezas geologicas e risco em reservatorios carbonaticos na Bacia de Santos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saito, Makoto; Cortez, Marcella M.M. [Queiroz Galvao Perfuracoes S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Mendes, Marcos Huber


    The Lower Albian in the south part of Santos Basin is composed mainly of oolitic calcarenites and calcilutites organized in shoaling upward cycles. The calcarenites from the top of the sequence constitute a package of reservoir zones and sub-zones with regional distribution along which are located mature, producing and development phase oil fields. In this work the main factors with major impact in reserves estimation are interpreted and quantified in a probabilistic approach giving support for the development plan phase of a field of the carbonatic trend. The regional stratigraphic and structural interpretations provided information about extension, external geometry, and continuity of the reservoir zones for reserves risk computation. The porosity probability density functions were defined according to stratigraphic position, seismic reflection pattern of calcarenites and also information from the discovery and the appraisal wells. The Decision Tree methodology with Monte Carlo Simulation was used to better understand the impact of geological uncertainties in reserves computation and also as a first step for risk management. The Monte Carlo simulation allows the Multivariate Sensibility and Scenario Analysis, Probabilistic Technical and Economic Evaluation and Optimal Portfolio Stochastic Simulation. (author)

  4. Developing seismogenic source models based on geologic fault data (United States)

    Haller, Kathleen M.; Basili, Roberto


    Calculating seismic hazard usually requires input that includes seismicity associated with known faults, historical earthquake catalogs, geodesy, and models of ground shaking. This paper will address the input generally derived from geologic studies that augment the short historical catalog to predict ground shaking at time scales of tens, hundreds, or thousands of years (e.g., SSHAC 1997). A seismogenic source model, terminology we adopt here for a fault source model, includes explicit three-dimensional faults deemed capable of generating ground motions of engineering significance within a specified time frame of interest. In tectonically active regions of the world, such as near plate boundaries, multiple seismic cycles span a few hundred to a few thousand years. In contrast, in less active regions hundreds of kilometers from the nearest plate boundary, seismic cycles generally are thousands to tens of thousands of years long. Therefore, one should include sources having both longer recurrence intervals and possibly older times of most recent rupture in less active regions of the world rather than restricting the model to include only Holocene faults (i.e., those with evidence of large-magnitude earthquakes in the past 11,500 years) as is the practice in tectonically active regions with high deformation rates. During the past 15 years, our institutions independently developed databases to characterize seismogenic sources based on geologic data at a national scale. Our goal here is to compare the content of these two publicly available seismogenic source models compiled for the primary purpose of supporting seismic hazard calculations by the Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV) and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS); hereinafter we refer to the two seismogenic source models as INGV and USGS, respectively. This comparison is timely because new initiatives are emerging to characterize seismogenic sources at the continental scale (e.g., SHARE in the

  5. Development of a permanent geological environment model of Kazan city aimed to solve various engineering-geological problems (Russia) (United States)

    Zharkova, N.; Latypov, A.; Shevelev, A.; Khuzin, I.


    The article discusses the composition, structure and operation principles of a digital geological environment model for the urban area located in the valley of a large lowland river (the Volga). The model is implemented in ESRI (ArcView and ArcGis) and MapInfo software environments. The basis of the model is the data on the composition and physical and mechanical properties of soils, the information about ground waters and industrial loads. The model has been used to conduct zoning of soil conditions, groundwater aggressivity to the materials of underground structures. Also, the areas of existing and possible exogenous geological processes (flooding, karst, suffusion, erosion, landslides) have been identified. According to the model, it is offered to evaluate the stability of geological environment to human impact using typification on the soil conditions based on the pre-zoning of water content and the degree of drainage. A new monitoring system of dangerous exogenous geological processes has been developed, the impact of exogenous processes on the residential buildings has been estimated, and, also, the analysis and evaluation of geological risks have been performed. According to the data on the composition, density and water saturation of soils, the stability of the ground bases to a dynamic impact has been estimated.

  6. Integrating a reservoir regulation scheme into a spatially distributed hydrological model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Gang; Gao, Huilin; Naz, Bibi S.; Kao, Shih-Chieh; Voisin, Nathalie


    During the past several decades, numerous reservoirs have been built across the world for a variety of purposes such as flood control, irrigation, municipal/industrial water supplies, and hydropower generation. Consequently, natural streamflow timing and magnitude have been altered significantly by reservoir operations. In addition, the hydrological cycle can be modified by land use/land cover and climate changes. To understand the fine scale feedback between hydrological processes and water management decisions, a distributed hydrological model embedded with a reservoir component is of desire. In this study, a multi-purpose reservoir module with predefined complex operational rules was integrated into the Distributed Hydrology Soil Vegetation Model (DHSVM). Conditional operating rules, which are designed to reduce flood risk and enhance water supply reliability, were adopted in this module. The performance of the integrated model was tested over the upper Brazos River Basin in Texas, where two U.S. Army Corps of Engineers reservoirs, Lake Whitney and Aquilla Lake, are located. The integrated DHSVM model was calibrated and validated using observed reservoir inflow, outflow, and storage data. The error statistics were summarized for both reservoirs on a daily, weekly, and monthly basis. Using the weekly reservoir storage for Lake Whitney as an example, the coefficients of determination (R2) and the Nash-Sutcliff Efficiency (NSE) are 0.85 and 0.75, respectively. These results suggest that this reservoir module has promise for use in sub-monthly hydrological simulations. Enabled with the new reservoir component, the DHSVM model provides a platform to support adaptive water resources management under the impacts of evolving anthropogenic activities and substantial environmental changes.

  7. Modeling the hydrological behavior of a karst spring using a nonlinear reservoir-pipe model (United States)

    Chang, Yong; Wu, Jichun; Jiang, Guanghui


    Karst aquifers are commonly simulated based on conceptual models. However, most karst conceptual models hardly consider the function of turbulent conduits. The conduit network acts as the main draining passage of the karst aquifer and may also have a strong influence on the hydrological processes, especially during storm events. A conceptual model with a nonlinear reservoir and a turbulent pipe (representing the conduit system) in series is proposed according to the basic structure of a typical karst aquifer, to simulate the karst spring. The model indicates whether the spring discharge is influenced by the turbulent pipe; this not only depends on the parameters of the nonlinear reservoir and turbulent pipe, but also depends on the volume of spring discharge itself. Even though the spring discharge is strongly influenced by the turbulent pipe during the storm, this influence decreases with the rainfall intensity and volume of spring discharge. In addition, an `evapotranspiration store' is used to consider the moisture loss through evapotranspiration and to calculate the effective rainfall on the proposed model. Then, this simple conceptual model is used to simulate a karst spring (named S31) near Guilin city, China, with satisfactory results, especially with respect to discharge peaks and recession curves of the spring under storm conditions. The proposed model is also compared with the Vensim model of similar complexity, which has been applied to the same spring catchment. The comparison shows the superiority and better performance of the nonlinear reservoir-pipe model.

  8. Integrating a reservoir regulation scheme into a spatially distributed hydrological model (United States)

    Zhao, Gang; Gao, Huilin; Naz, Bibi S.; Kao, Shih-Chieh; Voisin, Nathalie


    During the past several decades, numerous reservoirs have been built across the world for a variety of purposes such as flood control, irrigation, municipal/industrial water supplies, and hydropower generation. Consequently, the timing and magnitude of natural streamflow have been altered significantly by reservoir operations. In addition, the hydrological cycle is also modified by land-use/land-cover change and by climate change. To understand the fine-scale feedback between hydrological processes and water management decisions, a distributed hydrological model embedded with a reservoir component is desired. In this study, a multi-purpose reservoir module with predefined complex operational rules was integrated into the Distributed Hydrology Soil Vegetation Model (DHSVM). Conditional operating rules, which are designed to reduce flood risk and enhance water supply reliability, were adopted in this module. The performance of the integrated model was tested over the upper Brazos River Basin in Texas, where two U.S. Army Corps of Engineers managed reservoirs, Lake Whitney and Aquilla Lake, are located. The integrated model was calibrated and validated using observed reservoir inflow, outflow, and storage data. The error statistics were summarized for both reservoirs on a daily, weekly, and monthly basis. Using the weekly reservoir storage for Lake Whitney as an example, the coefficient of determination (R2) was 0.85 and the Nash-Sutcliff Efficiency (NSE) was 0.75. These results suggest that this reservoir module holds promise for use in sub-monthly hydrological simulations. With the new reservoir component, the DHSVM provides a platform to support adaptive water resources management under the impacts of evolving anthropogenic activities and substantial environmental changes.

  9. Geochemical modeling of fluid-fluid and fluid-mineral interactions during geological CO2 storage (United States)

    Zhu, C.; Ji, X.; Lu, P.


    The long time required for effective CO2 storage makes geochemical modeling an indispensable tool for CCUS. One area of geochemical modeling research that is in urgent need is impurities in CO2 streams. Permitting impurities, such as H2S, in CO2 streams can lead to potential capital and energy savings. However, predicting the consequences of co-injection of CO2 and impurities into geological formations requires the understanding of the phase equilibrium and fluid-fluid interactions. To meet this need, we developed a statistical associating fluid theory (SAFT)-based equation of state (EOS) for the H2S-CO2-H2O-NaCl system at 373.15 concentration of NaCl up to 6 mol/kgH2O. The EoS allows us to predict equilibrium composition in both liquid and vapor phases, fugacity coefficients of components, and phase densities. Predictions show that inclusion of H2S in CO2 streams may lead to two-phase flow in pipelines. For H2S-CO2 mixtures at a given temperature the bubble and dew pressures decrease with increasing H2S content, while the mass density increases at low pressures and decreases at high pressures. Furthermore, the EoS can be incorporated into reservoir simulators so that the dynamic development of mixed fluid plumes in the reservoir can be simulated. Accurate modeling of fluid-mineral interactions must confront unresolved uncertainties of silicate dissolution - precipitation reaction kinetics. Most prominent among these uncertainties is the well-known lab-field apparent discrepancy in dissolution rates. Although reactive transport models that simulate the interactions between reservoir rocks and brine, and their attendant effects on porosity and permeability changes, have proliferated, whether these results have acceptable uncertainties are unknown. We have conducted a series of batch experiments at elevated temperatures and numerical simulations of coupled dissolution and precipitation reactions. The results show that taking into account of reaction coupling is able

  10. Modelling a turbidity current in Soyang reservoir (Korea) and its control using a selective withdrawal facility. (United States)

    Ryu, I G; Chung, S W; Yoon, S W


    Persistent turbidity in reservoirs and their downstream after flood events is one of most important environmental issues in Korea. Recently, modification of withdrawal facility and installation of a new selective withdrawal structure (SWS) have been implemented for the mitigation of downstream impact and sediment loading into water treatment facilities. This study was to explore the characteristics of flood density flow induced into Soyang Reservoir and the transport processes of suspended sediments (SS) through application of coupled two-dimensional hydrodynamic and particle dynamic models (TM-1, TM-2 and TM-3). The TM-3 including a turbidity attenuation rate as a lumped parameter showed best performance in reproducing the magnitude and distribution of SS in the reservoir. The validated model was applied to evaluate the effectiveness of SWS, which was designed for the reservoir, with 6 different historical flood events. The magnitude of vertical mixing of the turbidity plume and its persistence within the reservoir were closely correlated to the ratio of the volume of turbidity flow to the total reservoir storage (the theta value). The operation of SWS showed a positive effect as long as theta is between 0.3 and 0.6 but negative when theta = 0.83 for the study reservoir, thus it should be optimized based on the theta value for a better management of the reservoir.

  11. From eutrophic to mesotrophic: modelling watershed management scenarios to change the trophic status of a reservoir. (United States)

    Mateus, Marcos; Almeida, Carina; Brito, David; Neves, Ramiro


    Management decisions related with water quality in lakes and reservoirs require a combined land-water processes study approach. This study reports on an integrated watershed-reservoir modeling methodology: the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model to estimate the nutrient input loads from the watershed, used afterwards as boundary conditions to the reservoir model, CE-QUAL-W2. The integrated modeling system was applied to the Torrão reservoir and drainage basin. The objective of the study was to quantify the total maximum input load that allows the reservoir to be classified as mesotrophic. Torrão reservoir is located in the Tâmega River, one of the most important tributaries of the Douro River in Portugal. The watershed is characterized by a variety of land uses and urban areas, accounting for a total Waste Water Treatment Plants (WWTP) discharge of ~100,000 p.e. According to the criteria defined by the National Water Institute (based on the WWTP Directive), the Torrão reservoir is classified as eutrophic. Model estimates show that a 10% reduction in nutrient loads will suffice to change the state to mesotrophic, and should target primarily WWTP effluents, but also act on diffuse sources. The method applied in this study should provide a basis for water environmental management decision-making.

  12. Field demonstration of an active reservoir pressure management through fluid injection and displaced fluid extractions at the Rock Springs Uplift, a priority geologic CO2 storage site for Wyoming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiao, Zunsheng [Univ. of Wyoming, Laramie, WY (United States)


    This report provides the results from the project entitled Field Demonstration of Reservoir Pressure Management through Fluid Injection and Displaced Fluid Extraction at the Rock Springs Uplift, a Priority Geologic CO2 Storage Site for Wyoming (DE-FE0026159 for both original performance period (September 1, 2015 to August 31, 2016) and no-cost extension (September 1, 2016 to January 6, 2017)).

  13. Molecular Simulation towards Efficient and Representative Subsurface Reservoirs Modeling

    KAUST Repository

    Kadoura, Ahmad


    This dissertation focuses on the application of Monte Carlo (MC) molecular simulation and Molecular Dynamics (MD) in modeling thermodynamics and flow of subsurface reservoir fluids. At first, MC molecular simulation is proposed as a promising method to replace correlations and equations of state in subsurface flow simulators. In order to accelerate MC simulations, a set of early rejection schemes (conservative, hybrid, and non-conservative) in addition to extrapolation methods through reweighting and reconstruction of pre-generated MC Markov chains were developed. Furthermore, an extensive study was conducted to investigate sorption and transport processes of methane, carbon dioxide, water, and their mixtures in the inorganic part of shale using both MC and MD simulations. These simulations covered a wide range of thermodynamic conditions, pore sizes, and fluid compositions shedding light on several interesting findings. For example, the possibility to have more carbon dioxide adsorbed with more preadsorbed water concentrations at relatively large basal spaces. The dissertation is divided into four chapters. The first chapter corresponds to the introductory part where a brief background about molecular simulation and motivations are given. The second chapter is devoted to discuss the theoretical aspects and methodology of the proposed MC speeding up techniques in addition to the corresponding results leading to the successful multi-scale simulation of the compressible single-phase flow scenario. In chapter 3, the results regarding our extensive study on shale gas at laboratory conditions are reported. At the fourth and last chapter, we end the dissertation with few concluding remarks highlighting the key findings and summarizing the future directions.

  14. Modeling of Salinity Effects on Waterflooding of Petroleum Reservoirs


    Alexeev, Artem; Shapiro, Alexander; Thomsen, Kaj


    ”Smart water flooding” er en forbedret olieindvindings (EOR) teknik, der er baseret på injektion af vand med kemisk optimeret saltindhold i olie reservoirer. Omfattende forskning, der er udført i løbet af de seneste to årtier har tydeligt vist, at smart water flooding kan forbedre den ultimative olieindvindingsgrad både i carbonat- og i sandstens- reservoirer. Der er blevet foreslået en række forskellige fysisk-kemiske mekanismer til at forklare smart water effekten, men ingen af dem har være...

  15. GIS Data Modeling of a Regional Geological Structure by Integrating Geometric and Semantic Expressions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HE Handong


    Full Text Available Using GIS, data models of geology via geometric descriptions and expressions are being developed. However, the role played by these data models in terms of the description and expression of geological structure phenomenon is limited. To improve the semantic information in geological GIS data models, this study adopts an object-oriented method that describes and expresses the geometric and semantic features of the geological structure phenomenon using geological objects and designs a data model of regional geological structures by integrating geometry and semantics. Moreover, the study designs a semantic "vocabulary-explanation-graph" method for describing the geological phenomenon of structures. Based on the semantic features of regional geological structures and a linear classification method, it divides the regional geological structure phenomenon into 3 divisions, 10 groups, 33 classes and defines the element set and element class. Moreover, it builds the basic geometric network for geological elements based on the geometric and semantic relations among geological objects. Using the ArcGIS Diagrammer Geodatabase, it considers the regional geological structure of the Ning-Zhen Mountains to verify the data model, and the results indicate a high practicability.

  16. Using digital databases to create geologic maps for the 21st century : a GIS model for geologic, environmental, cultural and transportation data from southern Rhode Island (United States)


    Knowledge of surface and subsurface geology is fundamental to the planning and development of new or modified transportation systems. Toward this : end, we have compiled a model GIS database consisting of important geologic, cartographic, environment...

  17. Stress field modelling from digital geological map data (United States)

    Albert, Gáspár; Barancsuk, Ádám; Szentpéteri, Krisztián


    To create a model for the lithospheric stress a functional geodatabase is required which contains spatial and geodynamic parameters. A digital structural-geological map is a geodatabase, which usually contains enough attributes to create a stress field model. Such a model is not accurate enough for engineering-geological purposes because simplifications are always present in a map, but in many cases maps are the only sources for a tectonic analysis. The here presented method is designed for field geologist, who are interested to see the possible realization of the stress field over the area, on which they are working. This study presents an application which can produce a map of 3D stress vectors from a kml-file. The core application logic is implemented on top of a spatially aware relational database management system. This allows rapid and geographically accurate analysis of the imported geological features, taking advantage of standardized spatial algorithms and indexing. After pre-processing the map features in a GIS, according to the Type-Property-Orientation naming system, which was described in a previous study (Albert et al. 2014), the first stage of the algorithm generates an irregularly spaced point cloud by emitting a pattern of points within a user-defined buffer zone around each feature. For each point generated, a component-wise approximation of the tensor field at the point's position is computed, derived from the original feature's geodynamic properties. In a second stage a weighted moving average method calculates the stress vectors in a regular grid. Results can be exported as geospatial data for further analysis or cartographic visualization. Computation of the tensor field's components is based on the implementation of the Mohr diagram of a compressional model, which uses a Coulomb fracture criterion. Using a general assumption that the main principal stress must be greater than the stress from the overburden, the differential stress is

  18. Prediction of tectonic stresses and fracture networks with geomechanical reservoir models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henk, A.; Fischer, K. [TU Darmstadt (Germany). Inst. fuer Angewandte Geowissenschaften


    This project evaluates the potential of geomechanical Finite Element (FE) models for the prediction of in situ stresses and fracture networks in faulted reservoirs. Modeling focuses on spatial variations of the in situ stress distribution resulting from faults and contrasts in mechanical rock properties. In a first methodological part, a workflow is developed for building such geomechanical reservoir models and calibrating them to field data. In the second part, this workflow was applied successfully to an intensively faulted gas reservoir in the North German Basin. A truly field-scale geomechanical model covering more than 400km{sup 2} was built and calibrated. It includes a mechanical stratigraphy as well as a network of 86 faults. The latter are implemented as distinct planes of weakness and allow the fault-specific evaluation of shear and normal stresses. A so-called static model describes the recent state of the reservoir and, thus, after calibration its results reveal the present-day in situ stress distribution. Further geodynamic modeling work considers the major stages in the tectonic history of the reservoir and provides insights in the paleo stress distribution. These results are compared to fracture data and hydraulic fault behavior observed today. The outcome of this project confirms the potential of geomechanical FE models for robust stress and fracture predictions. The workflow is generally applicable and can be used for modeling of any stress-sensitive reservoir.

  19. Modelling CO2emissions from water surface of a boreal hydroelectric reservoir. (United States)

    Wang, Weifeng; Roulet, Nigel T; Kim, Youngil; Strachan, Ian B; Del Giorgio, Paul; Prairie, Yves T; Tremblay, Alain


    To quantify CO 2 emissions from water surface of a reservoir that was shaped by flooding the boreal landscape, we developed a daily time-step reservoir biogeochemistry model. We calibrated the model using the measured concentrations of dissolved organic and inorganic carbon (C) in a young boreal hydroelectric reservoir, Eastmain-1 (EM-1), in northern Quebec, Canada. We validated the model against observed CO 2 fluxes from an eddy covariance tower in the middle of EM-1. The model predicted the variability of CO 2 emissions reasonably well compared to the observations (root mean square error: 0.4-1.3gCm -2 day -1 , revised Willmott index: 0.16-0.55). In particular, we demonstrated that the annual reservoir surface effluxes were initially high, steeply declined in the first three years, and then steadily decreased to ~115gCm -2 yr -1 with increasing reservoir age over the estimated "engineering" reservoir lifetime (i.e., 100years). Sensitivity analyses revealed that increasing air temperature stimulated CO 2 emissions by enhancing CO 2 production in the water column and sediment, and extending the duration of open water period over which emissions occur. Increasing the amount of terrestrial organic C flooded can enhance benthic CO 2 fluxes and CO 2 emissions from the reservoir water surface, but the effects were not significant over the simulation period. The model is useful for the understanding of the mechanism of C dynamics in reservoirs and could be used to assist the hydro-power industry and others interested in the role of boreal hydroelectric reservoirs as sources of greenhouse gas emissions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Numerical modeling of gas recovery from methane hydrate reservoirs (United States)

    Silpngarmlert, Suntichai

    Class 1 hydrate deposits are characterized by a hydrate bearing layer underlain by a two phase, free-gas and water, zone. A Class 1 hydrate reservoir is more preferable than class 2 and class 3 hydrate accumulations because a small change of pressure and temperature can induce hydrate dissociation. In this study, production characteristics from class 1 methane-hydrate reservoirs by means of conventional depressurization technique are studied. In this work, the production characteristics and efficiency from different production strategies (mainly focused on a constant bottom-hole pressure production scheme) such as well-completion locations, well spacing, and production scheduling are investigated. In the production of conventional gas reservoirs using a constant bottom-hole pressure production scheme, both gas and water production rates exponentially decrease with time. However, for methane-hydrate reservoirs, gas production rate exponentially declines with time whereas water production rate increases with time because methane hydrate dissociation increases water saturation of the reservoir. The effects of well-completion locations on the production performances are examined. The simulation results indicate that the moving well completion location strategy provides better gas production performance than the fixed completion location strategy. The optimum well-completion location (using a moving completion location strategy) is at the middle of free-gas zone. Due to the effects of hydrate saturation on formation permeability, one should not complete a well in the hydrate zone. The effect of well spacing on the production efficiency is also investigated. As expected, smaller well-spacing system yields more total gas production and it can dissociate gas-hydrate more rapidly than the larger well-spacing system. However, the number of wells increases when the well-spacing decreases resulting in the increase of the capital investment of the project. Based on this study

  1. Isotopic tracers of sources, wells and of CO{sub 2} reactivity in geological reservoirs; Tracage isotopique des sources, puits et de la reactivite du CO{sub 2} dans les reservoirs geologiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Assayag, N


    The aim of this research works consisted in studying the behaviour of the carbonate system (dissolved inorganic carbon: DIC) following a CO{sub 2} injection (artificial or natural), in geological reservoirs. One part of the study consisted in improving an analytical protocol for the measurement of {delta} {sup 13}C DIC and DIC, using a continuous flow mass spectrometer. As a first study, we have focused our attention on the Pavin Lake (Massif Central, France). Owing to its limnologic characteristics (meromictic lake) and a deep volcanic CO{sub 2} contribution, it can be viewed as a natural analogue of reservoir storing important quantities of CO{sub 2} in the bottom part. Isotopic measurements ({delta} {sup 18}O, {delta} {sup 13}C DIC) allowed to better constrain the dynamics of the lake (stratification, seasonal variations), the magnitudes of biological activities (photosynthesis, organic matter decay, methane oxidation, methano-genesis), carbon sources (magmatic, methano-genetic), and the hydrological budgets (sub-lacustrine inputs). The second study was conducted on the Lamont-Doherty test well site (NY, USA). It includes an instrumental borehole which cuts through most of the section of the Palisades sill and into the Newark Basin sediments. Single well push-pull tests were performed: a test solution containing conservative tracers and a reactive tracer (CO{sub 2}) was injected at a permeable depth interval located in basaltic and meta sedimentary rocks. After an incubation period, the test solution/groundwater mixture was extracted from the hydraulically isolated zone. Isotopic measurements ({delta} {sup 18}O, {delta} {sup 13}C DIC) confronted to chemical data (major elements) allowed to investigate the extent of in-situ CO{sub 2}-water-rock interactions: essentially calcite dissolution and at a lesser extend silicate dissolution...and for one of the test, CO{sub 2} degassing. (author)

  2. Improved dual-porosity models for petrophysical analysis of vuggy reservoirs (United States)

    Wang, Haitao


    A new vug interconnection, isolated vug (IVG), was investigated through resistivity modeling and the dual-porosity model for connected vug (CVG) vuggy reservoirs was tested. The vuggy models were built by pore-scale modeling, and their electrical resistivity was calculated by the finite difference method. For CVG vuggy reservoirs, the CVG reduced formation factors and increased the porosity exponents, and the existing dual-porosity model failed to match these results. Based on the existing dual-porosity model, a conceptual dual-porosity model for CVG was developed by introducing a decoupled term to reduce the resistivity of the model. For IVG vuggy reservoirs, IVG increased the formation factors and porosity exponents. The existing dual-porosity model succeeded due to accurate calculation of the formation factors of the deformed interparticle porous media caused by the insertion of the IVG. Based on the existing dual-porosity model, a new porosity model for IVG vuggy reservoirs was developed by simultaneously recalculating the formation factors of the altered interparticle pore-scale models. The formation factors and porosity exponents from the improved and extended dual-porosity models for CVG and IVG vuggy reservoirs well matched the simulated formation factors and porosity exponents. This work is helpful for understanding the influence of connected and disconnected vugs on resistivity factors—an issue of particular importance in carbonates.

  3. Numerical modelling of CO2 migration in saline reservoirs using geoelectric and seismic techniques - first results (United States)

    Hagrey, S. A. Al; Strahser, M. H. P.; Rabbel, W.


    The research project "CO2 MoPa" (modelling and parameterisation of CO2 storage in deep saline formations for dimensions and risk analysis) has been initiated in 2008 by partners from different disciplines (e.g. geology, hydrogeology, geochemistry, geophysics, geomechanics, hydraulic engineering and law). It deals with the parameterisation of virtual subsurface storage sites to characterise rock properties, with high pressure-temperature experiments to determine in situ hydro-petrophysical and mechanical parameters, and with modelling of processes related to CCS in deep saline reservoirs. One objective is the estimation of the sensitivity and the resolution of reflection seismic and geoelectrical time-lapse measurements in order to determine the underground distribution of CO2. Compared with seismic, electric resistivity tomography (ERT) has lower resolution, but its permanent installation and continuous monitoring can make it an economical alternative or complement. Seismic and ERT (in boreholes) applications to quantify changes of intrinsic aquifers properties with time are justified by the velocity and resistivity decrease related to CO2 injection. Our numerical 2D/3D modelling reveals the capability of the techniques to map CO2 plumes and changes as a function of thickness, concentration, receiver/electrode configuration, aspect ratio and modelling and inversion constraint parameters. Depending on these factors, some configurations are favoured due to their better spatial resolution and lower artefacts. Acknowledgements This work has been carried out in the framework of "CO2 MoPa" research project funded by the Federal German Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF) and a consortium of energy companies (E.ON Energy, EnBW AG, RWE Dea AG, Stadtwerke Kiel AG, Vattenfall Europe Technology Research GmbH and Wintershall Holding AG).

  4. Modelling Spillway Flow Conditions at Złotniki Storage Reservoir on the Kwisa River (United States)

    Machajski, Jerzy; Olearczyk, Dorota


    An important part of the work connected with planning modernization of outlet devices of Złotniki storage reservoir on the Kwisa river was numerical modelling of flow conditions in the flume of the side-channel spillway. The modelling was preceded by the analysis of operating principles of such a device and performing analytical calculations that defined the spillway capacity ability as a function of the required water levels in the reservoir and the conditions of water flow through the flume that are significant to spillway operation. The results of the numerical modelling performed pointed to the evident need to reconstruct this device, guaranteeing exploitation safety of the reservoir, mainly in view of the computational discharges, exceeding considerably the nominal capacity ability of the reservoir's outlet installation in the existing constructional state.

  5. Modeling the groundwater recharge in karst aquifers by using a reservoir model. (United States)

    Ke, Tingting; Shu, Longcang; Chen, Xunhong


    The estimation of the groundwater recharge in a karstic system becomes an important challenge due to the great hydrodynamic variability in both time and space. This paper proposes a two reservoir conceptual model to simulate inflow into both the conduit system and the fissure network system based on the analysis of the spring hydrograph. The structure of the model and the governing equations are proposed on the basis of the physical considerations, with the assumption that flow at the outlet of the reservoirs obeys a linear threshold function. The model is applied on the Houzhai karstic underground river basin where it successfully reflects the temporal recharge distribution. The simulated accumulation recharge is 34.29 mm, which is reasonable in relation to the actual rainfall of 92.8 mm. The variations of water volume in two reservoirs represent the storage and transform characteristics of the karst aquifer system. However, this model is particularly well suited to simulate the recharge event after intensive rainfall.

  6. 3D geological modelling from boreholes, cross-sections and geological maps, application over former natural gas storages in coal mines (United States)

    Kaufmann, Olivier; Martin, Thierry


    In a wide range of applications involving geological modelling, geological data available at low cost usually consist of documents such as cross-sections or geological maps and punctual data like borehole logs or outcrop descriptions. In order to build accurate 3D geological models based on this information, it is necessary to develop a methodology that takes into account the variety of available data. Such models, of the geometry of geological bodies, should also be easy to edit and update to integrate new data. This kind of model should produce a consistent representation of subsurface geology that may be a support for modelling other subsoil characteristics such as hydrogeologic or geothermic properties of the geological bodies. This paper presents a methodology developed to process geological information in this context. The aims of this methodology are comprehensive data description, effective data validation and easier model updates. Thus, special attention has been given to data structures and processing flows. The adopted methodology is implemented on a system architecture formed by a geographic information system, a geomodeler and a database communicating by file transfers. An application of this methodology, to build a 3D geological model of the subsoil over former coalmines used to store natural gas, is then presented. This model integrates the geological information available and is representative of the geological context. It is a support to the environmental follow-up needed after the end of gas-storage operations.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matthias G. Imhof; James W. Castle


    The objective of the project was to examine how seismic and geologic data can be used to improve characterization of small-scale heterogeneity and their parameterization in reservoir models. The study focused on West Coalinga Field in California. The project initially attempted to build reservoir models based on different geologic and geophysical data independently using different tools, then to compare the results, and ultimately to integrate them all. We learned, however, that this strategy was impractical. The different data and tools need to be integrated from the beginning because they are all interrelated. This report describes a new approach to geostatistical modeling and presents an integration of geology and geophysics to explain the formation of the complex Coalinga reservoir.

  8. Modeling variations of marine reservoir ages during the last 45 000 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Franke


    Full Text Available When dating marine samples with 14C, the reservoir-age effect is usually assumed to be constant, although atmospheric 14C production rate and ocean circulation changes cause temporal and spatial reservoir-age variations. These lead to dating errors, which can limit the interpretation of cause and effect in paleoclimate data. We used a global ocean circulation model forced by transient atmospheric Δ14C variations to calculate reservoir ages for the last 45 000 years for a present day-like and a last glacial maximum-like ocean circulation. A ~30% reduced Atlantic meridonal overturning circulation leads to increased reservoir ages by up to ~500 years in high latitudes. Temporal variations are proportional to the absolute value of the reservoir age; regions with large reservoir age also show large variation. Temporal variations range between ~300 years in parts of the subtropics and ~1000 years in the Southern Ocean. For tropical regions, which are generally assumed to have nearly stable reservoir ages, the model suggests variations of several hundred years.

  9. Oases on Snowball Earth: Confluence of Ice Dynamics Modeling and Geological Observations (United States)

    Hoffman, P. F.; Maloof, A. C.; Halverson, G. P.; Schrag, D. P.


    Recent model experiments suggest that marine ice dynamics are important in the initiation and development of a snowball Earth. Ice-line advance is facilitated by the transport of latent heat and freshwater associated with Ekman forcing in the zone of westerlies (Lewis et al., 2002 this meeting) and with equatorward glacial flow of thick, multi-annual, marine ice (Goodman and Pierrehumbert, 2002 this meeting). After ice lines meet at the equator (snowball Earth), continued invasion by marine glaciers from higher latitudes maintains tropical marine ice >2.25 times thicker (fraction (critical oversaturation with respect to calcite or dolomite in snowball oases that are buffered by carbonate-rich bedrock and glacial debris (Fairchild, 1994). As snowball oases are small pools of water in contact with a pCO2-rich (>0.1 bar) atmosphere, the carbon isotopic composition of any carbonates they precipitate should evolve accordingly. Initially, oasis water may resemble evolved snowball seawater, which will be dominated by hydrothermal activity buffered by dissolution of sea-floor carbonate (Higgins and Schrag, G-cubed, 2003). Oasis water should evolve rapidly towards equilibrium with the atmospheric reservoir, whose isotopic composition is set by volcanic outgassing, not by the ocean. Oasis carbonate strata should exhibit a rapid rise in δ 13C with time, and may well have values substantially greater than 0 per mil PDB. We believe there are numerous examples of snowball oases in the geologic record associated with the Neoproterozoic Sturtian and Marinoan glaciations. Examples in NE Svalbard, SW Oman, SE California, and central and South Australia are well documented. In all but the first, the lithologic and isotopic evidence has been cited as precluding a snowball Earth altogether. In contrast, we consider that oases are a natural and important part of the snowball Earth cycle. Our concept of snowball oases combines insights from geophysical modeling and geology.

  10. Assessing simulation uncertainty of hydrological models using stochastic geological models generated with air borne geophysical data (United States)

    He, Xin; Refsgaard, Jens Christian; Joergensen, Flemming; Schamper, Cyril


    Uncertainty in hydrological simulations can be originated from various sources such as observational uncertainty of input data, model structural uncertainty, model parameter uncertainty, and/or local scale heterogeneity. The model structural uncertainty is essential since it accounts for the majority of the uncertainty during model conceptualization, and it becomes the dominating factor in the overall simulation uncertainty when the subject being simulated is an indirect extrapolation from the model calibration. In the present study, we assess the simulation uncertainty of coupled surface water - groundwater models by using multiple geological models that are generated stochastically. The study area is the Norsminde catchment located in eastern Jutland, Denmark, where the complex terrain and heterogeneous geological structure makes it an ideal example to showcase the scientific challenge described above. To establish the geological model, it is first delineated with dominant geological elements by an experienced geologist using all available field data. Subsequently the internal heterogeneity within the large scale geological elements is introduced by using TProGS realizations, which are generated based on information from both borehole data and airborne geophysical data (SkyTEM). Due to the high spatial resolution and exhaustiveness, the SkyTEM data is used in two ways. First it is used to estimate the horizontal transition probability, and afterwards used as information for soft conditioning in stochastic simulations with TProGS. 10 hydrological models are developed using MIKE SHE code, to which the individual geological models are associated. The hydrological models are inversely calibrated against groundwater head and stream discharge data using PEST optimization tool. Finally the simulated flows from the 10 models are collected and presented as an ensemble in order to assess the hydrological simulation uncertainty.

  11. J-Integral modeling and validation for GTS reservoirs.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez-Canales, Monica L.; Nibur, Kevin A.; Lindblad, Alex J.; Brown, Arthur A.; Ohashi, Yuki; Zimmerman, Jonathan A.; Huestis, Edwin; Hong, Soonsung; Connelly, Kevin; Margolis, Stephen B.; Somerday, Brian P.; Antoun, Bonnie R.


    Non-destructive detection methods can reliably certify that gas transfer system (GTS) reservoirs do not have cracks larger than 5%-10% of the wall thickness. To determine the acceptability of a reservoir design, analysis must show that short cracks will not adversely affect the reservoir behavior. This is commonly done via calculation of the J-Integral, which represents the energetic driving force acting to propagate an existing crack in a continuous medium. J is then compared against a material's fracture toughness (J{sub c}) to determine whether crack propagation will occur. While the quantification of the J-Integral is well established for long cracks, its validity for short cracks is uncertain. This report presents the results from a Sandia National Laboratories project to evaluate a methodology for performing J-Integral evaluations in conjunction with its finite element analysis capabilities. Simulations were performed to verify the operation of a post-processing code (J3D) and to assess the accuracy of this code and our analysis tools against companion fracture experiments for 2- and 3-dimensional geometry specimens. Evaluation is done for specimens composed of 21-6-9 stainless steel, some of which were exposed to a hydrogen environment, for both long and short cracks.

  12. An Efficient Upscaling Process Based on a Unified Fine-scale Multi-Physics Model for Flow Simulation in Naturally Fracture Carbonate Karst Reservoirs

    KAUST Repository

    Bi, Linfeng


    The main challenges in modeling fluid flow through naturally-fractured carbonate karst reservoirs are how to address various flow physics in complex geological architectures due to the presence of vugs and caves which are connected via fracture networks at multiple scales. In this paper, we present a unified multi-physics model that adapts to the complex flow regime through naturally-fractured carbonate karst reservoirs. This approach generalizes Stokes-Brinkman model (Popov et al. 2007). The fracture networks provide the essential connection between the caves in carbonate karst reservoirs. It is thus very important to resolve the flow in fracture network and the interaction between fractures and caves to better understand the complex flow behavior. The idea is to use Stokes-Brinkman model to represent flow through rock matrix, void caves as well as intermediate flows in very high permeability regions and to use an idea similar to discrete fracture network model to represent flow in fracture network. Consequently, various numerical solution strategies can be efficiently applied to greatly improve the computational efficiency in flow simulations. We have applied this unified multi-physics model as a fine-scale flow solver in scale-up computations. Both local and global scale-up are considered. It is found that global scale-up has much more accurate than local scale-up. Global scale-up requires the solution of global flow problems on fine grid, which generally is computationally expensive. The proposed model has the ability to deal with large number of fractures and caves, which facilitate the application of Stokes-Brinkman model in global scale-up computation. The proposed model flexibly adapts to the different flow physics in naturally-fractured carbonate karst reservoirs in a simple and effective way. It certainly extends modeling and predicting capability in efficient development of this important type of reservoir.

  13. Thermal hydraulics modeling of the US Geological Survey TRIGA reactor (United States)

    Alkaabi, Ahmed K.

    The Geological Survey TRIGA reactor (GSTR) is a 1 MW Mark I TRIGA reactor located in Lakewood, Colorado. Single channel GSTR thermal hydraulics models built using RELAP5/MOD3.3, RELAP5-3D, TRACE, and COMSOL Multiphysics predict the fuel, outer clad, and coolant temperatures as a function of position in the core. The results from the RELAP5/MOD3.3, RELAP5-3D, and COMSOL models are similar. The TRACE model predicts significantly higher temperatures, potentially resulting from inappropriate convection correlations. To more accurately study the complex fluid flow patterns within the core, this research develops detailed RELAP5/MOD3.3 and COMSOL multichannel models of the GSTR core. The multichannel models predict lower fuel, outer clad, and coolant temperatures compared to the single channel models by up to 16.7°C, 4.8°C, and 9.6°C, respectively, as a result of the higher mass flow rates predicted by these models. The single channel models and the RELAP5/MOD3.3 multichannel model predict that the coolant temperatures in all fuel rings rise axially with core height, as the coolant in these models flows predominantly in the axial direction. The coolant temperatures predicted by the COMSOL multichannel model rise with core height in the B-, C-, and D-rings and peak and then decrease in the E-, F-, and G-rings, as the coolant tends to flow from the bottom sides of the core to the center of the core in this model. Experiments at the GSTR measured coolant temperatures in the GSTR core to validate the developed models. The axial temperature profiles measured in the GSTR show that the flow patterns predicted by the COMSOL multichannel model are consistent with the actual conditions in the core. Adjusting the RELAP5/MOD3.3 single and multichannel models by modifying the axial and cross-flow areas allow them to better predict the GSTR coolant temperatures; however, the adjusted models still fail to predict accurate axial temperature profiles in the E-, F-, and G-rings.

  14. Theoretical modeling of a two-phase thermosyphon assuming the liquids reservoir

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zanardi, M.A. [UNESP, Guaratingueta, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia. Dept. de Energia; Leite, N.G.C. [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), Resende, RJ (Brazil). Faculdade de Tecnologia. Dept. de Mecanica e Energia]. E-mail:


    A theoretical mod sling using the mass, momentum and energy conservation equations, about the intrinsic phenomena in the working of a cylindrical geometry two-phase thermosyphon operating on vertical was performed. The conservation equations were solved in steady-state operation for all the phases of the thermosyphon. Then model also assumed the presence of a liquid reservoir whose valves of the coefficient of heat transfer that determine the operation of functioning in the reservoir, were obtained from the correlation published in literature The set of conservation equations was solved by using the method of fl nite volumes. The results achieved were checked with experimental data from literature and also from specific experiments performed in laboratory. In a general view, the the oric results matched reasonably well with those ones from the experiments, and the observed deviation were assumed by a inadequate prevision of the reservoir model used, besides keeping a stable level of the reservoir of liquid. (author)

  15. Analytical Modeling and Contradictions in Limestone Reservoirs: Breccias, Vugs, and Fractures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Barros-Galvis


    Full Text Available Modeling of limestone reservoirs is traditionally developed applying tectonic fractures concepts or planar discontinuities and has been simulated dynamically without considering nonplanar discontinuities as sedimentary breccias, vugs, fault breccias, and impact breccias, assuming that all these nonplanar discontinuities are tectonic fractures, causing confusion and contradictions in reservoirs characterization. The differences in geometry and connectivity in each discontinuity affect fluid flow, generating the challenge to develop specific analytical models that describe quantitatively hydrodynamic behavior in breccias, vugs, and fractures, focusing on oil flow in limestone reservoirs. This paper demonstrates the differences between types of discontinuities that affect limestone reservoirs and recommends that all discontinuities should be included in simulation and static-dynamic characterization, because they impact fluid flow. To demonstrate these differences, different analytic models are developed. Findings of this work are based on observations of cores, outcrops, and tomography and are validated with field data. The explanations and mathematical modeling developed here could be used as diagnostic tools to predict fluid velocity and fluid flow in limestone reservoirs, improving the complex reservoirs static-dynamic characterization.

  16. Sediment Deposition Risk Analysis and PLSR Model Research for Cascade Reservoirs Upstream of the Yellow River

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Yang


    Full Text Available It is difficult to effectively identify and eliminate the multiple correlation influence among the independent factors by least-squares regression. Focusing on this insufficiency, the sediment deposition risk of cascade reservoirs and fitting model of sediment flux into the reservoir are studied. The partial least-squares regression (PLSR method is adopted for modeling analysis; the model fitting is organically combined with the non-model-style data content analysis, so as to realize the regression model, data structure simplification, and multiple correlations analysis among factors; meanwhile the accuracy of the model is ensured through cross validity check. The modeling analysis of sediment flux into the cascade reservoirs of Long-Liu section upstream of the Yellow River indicates that partial least-squares regression can effectively overcome the multiple correlation influence among factors, and the isolated factor variables have better ability to explain the physical cause of measured results.

  17. Usage of ensemble geothermal models to consider geological uncertainties (United States)

    Rühaak, Wolfram; Steiner, Sarah; Welsch, Bastian; Sass, Ingo


    The usage of geothermal energy for instance by borehole heat exchangers (BHE) is a promising concept for a sustainable supply of heat for buildings. BHE are closed pipe systems, in which a fluid is circulating. Heat from the surrounding rocks is transferred to the fluid purely by conduction. The fluid carries the heat to the surface, where it can be utilized. Larger arrays of BHE require typically previous numerical models. Motivations are the design of the system (number and depth of the required BHE) but also regulatory reasons. Especially such regulatory operating permissions often require maximum realistic models. Although such realistic models are possible in many cases with today's codes and computer resources, they are often expensive in terms of time and effort. A particular problem is the knowledge about the accuracy of the achieved results. An issue, which is often neglected while dealing with highly complex models, is the quantification of parameter uncertainties as a consequence of the natural heterogeneity of the geological subsurface. Experience has shown, that these heterogeneities can lead to wrong forecasts. But also variations in the technical realization and especially of the operational parameters (which are mainly a consequence of the regional climate) can lead to strong variations in the simulation results. Instead of one very detailed single forecast model, it should be considered, to model numerous more simple models. By varying parameters, the presumed subsurface uncertainties, but also the uncertainties in the presumed operational parameters can be reflected. Finally not only one single result should be reported, but instead the range of possible solutions and their respective probabilities. In meteorology such an approach is well known as ensemble-modeling. The concept is demonstrated at a real world data set and discussed.

  18. Water Quality Modeling in Reservoirs Using Multivariate Linear Regression and Two Neural Network Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Bo Chen


    Full Text Available In this study, two artificial neural network models (i.e., a radial basis function neural network, RBFN, and an adaptive neurofuzzy inference system approach, ANFIS and a multilinear regression (MLR model were developed to simulate the DO, TP, Chl a, and SD in the Mingder Reservoir of central Taiwan. The input variables of the neural network and the MLR models were determined using linear regression. The performances were evaluated using the RBFN, ANFIS, and MLR models based on statistical errors, including the mean absolute error, the root mean square error, and the correlation coefficient, computed from the measured and the model-simulated DO, TP, Chl a, and SD values. The results indicate that the performance of the ANFIS model is superior to those of the MLR and RBFN models. The study results show that the neural network using the ANFIS model is suitable for simulating the water quality variables with reasonable accuracy, suggesting that the ANFIS model can be used as a valuable tool for reservoir management in Taiwan.

  19. Geological discrete fracture network model for the Laxemar site. Site Descriptive Modelling. SDM-Site Laxemar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    La Pointe, Paul; Fox, Aaron (Golder Associates Inc (United States)); Hermanson, Jan; Oehman, Johan (Golder Associates AB, Stockholm (Sweden))


    The Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB) is performing site characterization at two different locations, Forsmark and Laxemar, in order to locate a site for a final geologic repository for spent nuclear fuel. The program is built upon the development of Site Descriptive Models (SDMs) at specific timed data freezes. Each SDM is formed from discipline-specific reports from across the scientific spectrum. This report describes the methods, analyses, and conclusions of the modelling team in the production of the SDM-Site Laxemar geological discrete-fracture network (DFN) model. The DFN builds upon the work of other geological models, including the deformation zone and rock domain models. The geological DFN is a statistical model for stochastically simulating rock fractures and minor deformation zones at a scale of less than 1,000 m (the lower cut-off of the DZ models). The geological DFN is valid within six distinct fracture domains inside the Laxemar local model subarea: FSM{sub C}, FSM{sub E}W007, FSM{sub N}, FSM{sub N}E005, FSM{sub S}, and FSM{sub W}. The models are built using data from detailed surface outcrop maps, geophysical lineament maps, and the cored borehole record at Laxemar. The conceptual model for the SDM-Site Laxemar geological DFN model revolves around the identification of fracture domains based on relative fracture set intensities, orientation clustering, and the regional tectonic framework (including deformation zones). A single coupled fracture size/fracture intensity concept (the Base Model) based on a Pareto (power-law) distribution for fracture sizes was chosen as the recommended parameterisation. A slew of alternative size-intensity models were also carried through the fracture analyses and into the uncertainty and model verification analyses. Uncertainty is modelled by analysing the effects on fracture intensity (P32) that alternative model cases can have. Uncertainty is parameterised as a ratio between the P32 of the

  20. Time-series modeling of reservoir effects on river nitrate concentrations (United States)

    Schoch, A.L.; Schilling, K.E.; Chan, K.-S.


    Saylorville Reservoir is a 24.1 km2 impoundment of the Des Moines River located approximately 10 km north of the City of Des Moines, Iowa, USA. Surface water from the Des Moines River used for drinking water supply is impaired for nitrate-nitrogen. Monthly mean nitrate concentration data collected upstream and downstream of the reservoir for a 30-year period (1977-2006) were selected for time-series analysis. Our objectives were to (1) develop a model describing nitrate concentrations downstream of the reservoir as a function of the concentrations entering the reservoir and (2) use the model to provide a 1-month ahead forecast for downstream water quality. Results indicated that downstream nitrate can be effectively modeled using a transfer function approach that utilized inflow concentrations during the current and previous month as input variables. Inflow concentrations were modeled using an AR(20) model, with the higher order model consistent with temporal correlation noted by others. The transfer function model suggested that the reservoir is reducing nitrate concentrations by 22 ?? 6%, a reduction that greatly exceeds previous estimates. Monthly nitrate forecasted with the model were nearly all within a 95% prediction interval of their actual measured values and did not appear greatly affected by flow variations. ?? 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Simultaneous geologic scenario identification and flow model calibration with group-sparsity formulations (United States)

    Golmohammadi, Azarang; Jafarpour, Behnam


    Adopting representative geologic connectivity scenarios is critical for reliable modeling and prediction of flow and transport processes in subsurface environments. Geologic scenarios are often developed by integrating several sources of information, including knowledge of the depositional environment, qualitative and quantitative data such as outcrop and well logs, and process-based geologic modeling. In general, flow and transport response data are usually not included in constructing geologic scenarios for a basin. Instead, these data are typically matched using a given prior geologic scenario as constraint. Since data limitations, modeling assumptions and subjective interpretations can lead to significant uncertainty in the adopted geologic scenarios, flow and transport data may also be useful for constraining the uncertainty in proposed geologic scenarios. Constraining geologic scenarios with flow-related data opens an interesting and challenging research area, which goes beyond the traditional model calibration formulations where the geologic scenario is assumed given. In this paper, a novel concept, known as group-sparsity regularization, is proposed as an effective formulation to constrain the uncertainty in the prior geologic scenario during subsurface flow model calibration. Given a collection of model realizations from several plausible geologic scenarios, the proposed method first applies the truncated singular value decomposition (TSVD) to compactly represent the models from each geologic scenario. The TSVD basis for representing each scenario forms a distinct group. The proposed approach searches over these groups (i.e., geologic scenarios) to eliminate inconsistent groups that are not supported by the observed flow/pressure data. The group-sparsity regularization minimizes a l1/l2mixed norm, where the l2-norm quantifies the contribution of each group and operates on the coefficients within the groups while the l1-norm, having a selection property, is

  2. Statistical geological discrete fracture network model. Forsmark modelling stage 2.2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, Aaron; La Pointe, Paul [Golder Associates Inc (United States); Simeonov, Assen [Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., Stockholm (Sweden); Hermanson, Jan; Oehman, Johan [Golder Associates AB, Stockholm (Sweden)


    The Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB) is performing site characterization at two different locations, Forsmark and Laxemar, in order to locate a site for a final geologic repository for spent nuclear fuel. The program is built upon the development of Site Descriptive Models (SDMs) at specific timed data freezes. Each SDM is formed from discipline-specific reports from across the scientific spectrum. This report describes the methods, analyses, and conclusions of the geological modeling team with respect to a geological and statistical model of fractures and minor deformation zones (henceforth referred to as the geological DFN), version 2.2, at the Forsmark site. The geological DFN builds upon the work of other geological modelers, including the deformation zone (DZ), rock domain (RD), and fracture domain (FD) models. The geological DFN is a statistical model for stochastically simulating rock fractures and minor deformation zones as a scale of less than 1,000 m (the lower cut-off of the DZ models). The geological DFN is valid within four specific fracture domains inside the local model region, and encompassing the candidate volume at Forsmark: FFM01, FFM02, FFM03, and FFM06. The models are build using data from detailed surface outcrop maps and the cored borehole record at Forsmark. The conceptual model for the Forsmark 2.2 geological revolves around the concept of orientation sets; for each fracture domain, other model parameters such as size and intensity are tied to the orientation sets. Two classes of orientation sets were described; Global sets, which are encountered everywhere in the model region, and Local sets, which represent highly localized stress environments. Orientation sets were described in terms of their general cardinal direction (NE, NW, etc). Two alternatives are presented for fracture size modeling: - the tectonic continuum approach (TCM, TCMF) described by coupled size-intensity scaling following power law distributions

  3. 2011 Groundhog Reservoir Bathymetric Contours (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey performed a bathymetric survey of Groundhog Reservoir using a man-operated boat-mounted multibeam echo sounder integrated with a global...

  4. Incorporating teleconnection information into reservoir operating policies using Stochastic Dynamic Programming and a Hidden Markov Model (United States)

    Turner, Sean; Galelli, Stefano; Wilcox, Karen


    Water reservoir systems are often affected by recurring large-scale ocean-atmospheric anomalies, known as teleconnections, that cause prolonged periods of climatological drought. Accurate forecasts of these events -- at lead times in the order of weeks and months -- may enable reservoir operators to take more effective release decisions to improve the performance of their systems. In practice this might mean a more reliable water supply system, a more profitable hydropower plant or a more sustainable environmental release policy. To this end, climate indices, which represent the oscillation of the ocean-atmospheric system, might be gainfully employed within reservoir operating models that adapt the reservoir operation as a function of the climate condition. This study develops a Stochastic Dynamic Programming (SDP) approach that can incorporate climate indices using a Hidden Markov Model. The model simulates the climatic regime as a hidden state following a Markov chain, with the state transitions driven by variation in climatic indices, such as the Southern Oscillation Index. Time series analysis of recorded streamflow data reveals the parameters of separate autoregressive models that describe the inflow to the reservoir under three representative climate states ("normal", "wet", "dry"). These models then define inflow transition probabilities for use in a classic SDP approach. The key advantage of the Hidden Markov Model is that it allows conditioning the operating policy not only on the reservoir storage and the antecedent inflow, but also on the climate condition, thus potentially allowing adaptability to a broader range of climate conditions. In practice, the reservoir operator would effect a water release tailored to a specific climate state based on available teleconnection data and forecasts. The approach is demonstrated on the operation of a realistic, stylised water reservoir with carry-over capacity in South-East Australia. Here teleconnections relating

  5. Review of strategies for handling geological uncertainty in groundwater flow and transport modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Refsgaard, Jens Christian; Christensen, Steen; Sonnenborg, Torben O.


    The geologically related uncertainty in groundwater modeling originates from two main sources: geological structures and hydraulic parameter values within these structures. Within a geological structural element the parameter values will always exhibit local scale heterogeneity, which can...... be accounted for, but is often neglected, in assessments of prediction uncertainties. Strategies for assessing prediction uncertainty due to geologically related uncertainty may be divided into three main categories, accounting for uncertainty due to: (a) the geological structure; (b) effective model...... are made with respect to identifying key subjects for which further research is needed. When all sources of uncertainty are analyzed by exploring model parameter and local scale heterogeneity uncertainty for several plausible geological model structures the joint uncertainties can be assessed by use...

  6. iBem3D, a three-dimensional iterative boundary element method using angular dislocations for modeling geologic structures (United States)

    Maerten, F.; Maerten, L.; Pollard, D. D.


    Most analytical solutions to engineering or geological problems are limited to simple geometries. For example, analytical solutions have been found to solve for stresses around a circular hole in a plate. To solve more complex problems, mathematicians and engineers have developed powerful computer-aided numerical methods, which can be categorized into two main types: differential methods and integral methods. The finite element method (FEM) is a differential method that was developed in the 1950s and is one of the most commonly used numerical methods today. Since its development, other differential methods, including the boundary element method (BEM), have been developed to solve different types of problems. The purpose of this paper is to describe iBem3D, formally called Poly3D, a C++ and modular 3D boundary element computer program based on the theory of angular dislocations for modeling three-dimensional (3D) discontinuities in an elastic, heterogeneous, isotropic whole- or half-space. After 20 years and more than 150 scientific publications, we present in detail the formulation behind this method, its enhancements over the years as well as some important applications in several domains of the geosciences. The main advantage of using this formulation, for describing geological objects such as faults, resides in the possibility of modeling complex geometries without gaps and overlaps between adjacent triangular dislocation elements, which is a significant shortcoming for models using rectangular dislocation elements. Reliability, speed, simplicity, and accuracy are enhanced in the latest version of the computer code. Industrial applications include subseismic fault modeling, fractured reservoir modeling, interpretation and validation of fault connectivity and reservoir compartmentalization, depleted area and fault reactivation, and pressurized wellbore stability. Academic applications include earthquake and volcano monitoring, hazard mitigation, and slope

  7. Characterization and modelling of a naturally fractured reservoir-caprock unit targeted for CO2 storage in arctic Norway

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Senger, K.; Mulrooney, M.; Schaaf, N.; Tveranger, J.; Braathen, A.; Ogata, K.; Olaussen, S.


    Successfully storing CO2 underground requires a good understanding of the subsurface at the storage site, and its robust representation in geological models. Geological models, and related simulations, provide important quantitative information on critical parameters for the optimal utilisation of

  8. Technical note: Cascade of submerged reservoirs as a rainfall-runoff model (United States)

    Kurnatowski, Jacek


    The rainfall-runoff conceptual model as a cascade of submerged linear reservoirs with particular outflows depending on storages of adjoining reservoirs is developed. The model output contains different exponential functions with roots of Chebyshev polynomials of the first kind as exponents. The model is applied to instantaneous unit hydrograph (IUH) and recession curve problems and compared with the analogous results of the Nash cascade. A case study is performed on a basis of 46 recession periods. Obtained results show the usefulness of the model as an alternative concept to the Nash cascade.

  9. Research on carbonate reservoir interwell connectivity based on a modified diffusivity filter model (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Yao, Jun; Li, Yang; Lv, Aimin


    According to the solution of dual-porosity model, a diffusivity filter model of carbonate reservoir was established, which can effectively illustrate the injection signal attenuation and lag characteristic. The interwell dynamic connectivity inversion model combines a multivariate linear regression (MLR) analysis with a correction coefficient to eliminate the effect of fluctuating bottom-hole pressure (BHP). The modified MLR model was validated by synthetic field with fluctuating BHP. The method was applied to Tahe oilfield which showed that the inversion result was reliable. The interwell dynamic connectivity coefficients could reflect the real interwell connectivity of reservoir. The method is easy to use and proved to be effective in field applications.

  10. Increasing Waterflood Reserves in the Wilmington Oil Field through Improved Reservoir Characterization and Reservoir Management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clarke, D.; Koerner, R.; Moos D.; Nguyen, J.; Phillips, C.; Tagbor, K.; Walker, S.


    This project used advanced reservoir characterization tools, including the pulsed acoustic cased-hole logging tool, geologic three-dimensional (3-D) modeling software, and commercially available reservoir management software to identify sands with remaining high oil saturation following waterflood. Production from the identified high oil saturated sands was stimulated by recompleting existing production and injection wells in these sands using conventional means as well as a short radius redrill candidate.

  11. Effects of gas types and models on optimized gas fuelling station reservoir's pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Farzaneh-Gord


    Full Text Available There are similar algorithms and infrastructure for storing gas fuels at CNG (Compressed Natural Gas and CHG (Compressed Hydrogen Gas fuelling stations. In these stations, the fuels are usually stored in the cascade storage system to utilize the stations more efficiently. The cascade storage system generally divides into three reservoirs, commonly termed low, medium and high-pressure reservoirs. The pressures within these reservoirs have huge effects on performance of the stations. In the current study, based on the laws of thermodynamics, conservation of mass and real/ideal gas assumptions, a theoretical analysis has been constructed to study the effects of gas types and models on performance of the stations. It is intended to determine the optimized reservoir pressures for these stations. The results reveal that the optimized pressure differs between the gas types. For ideal and real gas models in both stations (CNG and CHG, the optimized non-dimensional low pressure-reservoir pressure is found to be 0.22. The optimized non-dimensional medium-pressure reservoir pressure is the same for the stations, and equal to 0.58.

  12. Performance modeling of an integral, self-regulating cesium reservoir for the ATI-TFE (United States)

    Thayer, Kevin L.; Ramalingam, Mysore L.; Young, Timothy J.


    This work covers the performance modeling of an integral metal-matrix cesium-graphite reservoir for operation in the Advanced Thermionic Initiative-Thermionic Fuel Element (ATI-TFE) converter configuration. The objectives of this task were to incorporate an intercalated cesium-graphite reservoir for the 3C24Cs→2C36Cs+Cs(g) two phase equilibrium reaction into the emitter lead region of the ATI-TFE. A semi two-dimensional, cylindrical TFE computer model was used to obtain thermal and electrical converter output characteristics for various reservoir locations. The results of this study are distributions for the interelectrode voltage, output current density, and output power density as a function of axial position along the TFE emitter. This analysis was accomplished by identifying an optimum cesium pressure for three representative pins in the ATI ``driverless'' reactor core and determining the corresponding position of the graphite reservoir in the ATI-TFE lead region. The position for placement of the graphite reservoir was determined by performing a first-order heat transfer analysis of the TFE lead region to determine its temperature distribution. The results of this analysis indicate that for the graphite reservoirs investigated the 3C24Cs→2C36Cs+Cs(g) equilibrium reaction reservoir is ideal for placement in the TFE emitter lead region. This reservoir can be directly coupled to the emitter, through conduction, to provide the desired cesium pressure for optimum performance. The cesium pressure corresponding to the optimum converter output performance was found to be 2.18 torr for the ATI core least power TFE, 2.92 torr for the average power TFE, and 4.93 torr for the maximum power TFE.

  13. An Analysis Model for Water Cone Subsidence in Bottom Water Drive Reservoirs (United States)

    Wang, Jianjun; Xu, Hui; Wu, Shucheng; Yang, Chao; Kong, lingxiao; Zeng, Baoquan; Xu, Haixia; Qu, Tailai


    Water coning in bottom water drive reservoirs, which will result in earlier water breakthrough, rapid increase in water cut and low recovery level, has drawn tremendous attention in petroleum engineering field. As one simple and effective method to inhibit bottom water coning, shut-in coning control is usually preferred in oilfield to control the water cone and furthermore to enhance economic performance. However, most of the water coning researchers just have been done on investigation of the coning behavior as it grows up, the reported studies for water cone subsidence are very scarce. The goal of this work is to present an analytical model for water cone subsidence to analyze the subsidence of water cone when the well shut in. Based on Dupuit critical oil production rate formula, an analytical model is developed to estimate the initial water cone shape at the point of critical drawdown. Then, with the initial water cone shape equation, we propose an analysis model for water cone subsidence in bottom water reservoir reservoirs. Model analysis and several sensitivity studies are conducted. This work presents accurate and fast analytical model to perform the water cone subsidence in bottom water drive reservoirs. To consider the recent interests in development of bottom drive reservoirs, our approach provides a promising technique for better understanding the subsidence of water cone.

  14. EOS simulation and GRNN modeling of the constant volume depletion behavior of gas condensate reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elsharkawy, A.M.; Foda, S.G. [Kuwait University, Safat (Kuwait). Petroleum Engineering Dept.


    Currently, two approaches are being used to predict the changes in retrograde gas condensate composition and estimate the pressure depletion behavior of gas condensate reservoirs. The first approach uses the equation of states whereas the second uses empirical correlations. Equations of states (EOS) are poor predictive tools for complex hydrocarbon systems. The EOS needs adjustment against phase behavior data of reservoir fluid of known composition. The empirical correlation does not involve numerous numerical computations but their accuracy is limited. This study presents two general regression neural network (GRNN) models. The first model, GRNNM1, is developed to predict dew point pressure and gas compressibility at dew point using initial composition of numerous samples while the second model, GRNNM2, is developed to predict the changes in well stream effluent composition at any stages of pressure depletion. GRNNM2 can also be used to determine the initial reservoir fluid composition using dew point pressure, gas compressibility at dew point, and reservoir temperature. These models are based on analysis of 142 sample of laboratory studies of constant volume depletion (CVD) for gas condensate systems forming a total of 1082 depletion stages. The database represents a wide range of gas condensate systems obtained worldwide. The performance of the GRNN models has been compared to simulation results of the equation of state. The study shows that the proposed general regression neural network models are accurate, valid, and reliable. These models can be used to forecast CVD data needed for many reservoir engineering calculations in case laboratory data is unavailable. The GRNN models save computer time involved in EOS calculations. The study also show that once these models are properly trained they can be used to cut expenses of frequent sampling and laborious experimental CVD tests required for gas condensate reservoirs. 55 refs., 13 figs., 6 tabs.

  15. Use of black oil simulator for coal bed methane reservoir model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sonwa, R.; Enachescu, C.; Rohs, S. [Golder Associates GmbH, Celle (Germany)


    This paper starts from the work done by Seidle et al. (1990) and other authors on the topic of coal degasification and develops a more accurate representative naturally fractured CBM-reservoir by using a Discrete Fracture Network modeling approach. For this issue we firstly calibrate the reservoir simulator tNAVIGATOR by showing his ability to reproduce the work done by Seidle et al. and secondly generate a DFN model using FracMan in accordance with the distribution and orientation of the cleats. tNavigator was then used to simulate multiphase flow through the DFN- Model. (orig.)

  16. A data driven model for the impact of IFT and density variations on CO2 storage capacity in geologic formations (United States)

    Nomeli, Mohammad A.; Riaz, Amir


    Carbon dioxide (CO2) storage in depleted hydrocarbon reservoirs and deep saline aquifers is one of the most promising solutions for decreasing CO2 concentration in the atmosphere. One of the important issues for CO2 storage in subsurface environments is the sealing efficiency of low-permeable cap-rocks overlying potential CO2 storage reservoirs. Though we focus on the effect of IFT in this study as a factor influencing sealing efficiency or storage capacity, other factors such as interfacial interactions, wettability, pore radius and interfacial mass transfer also affect the mobility and storage capacity of CO2 phase in the pore space. The study of the variation of IFT is however important because the pressure needed to penetrate a pore depends on both the pore size and the interfacial tension. Hence small variations in IFT can affect flow across a large population of pores. A novel model is proposed to find the IFT of the ternary systems (CO2/brine-salt) in a range of temperatures (300-373 K), pressures (50-250 bar), and up to 6 molal salinity applicable to CO2 storage in geological formations through a multi-variant non-linear regression of experimental data. The method uses a general empirical model for the quaternary system CO2/brine-salts that can be made to coincide with experimental data for a variety of solutions. We introduce correction parameters into the model, which compensates for uncertainties, and enforce agreement with experimental data. The results for IFT show a strong dependence on temperature, pressure, and salinity. The model has been found to describe the experimental data in the appropriate parameter space with reasonable precision. Finally, we use the new model to evaluate the effects of formation depth on the actual efficiency of CO2 storage. The results indicate that, in the case of CO2 storage in deep subsurface environments as a global-warming mitigation strategy, CO2 storage capacity increases with reservoir depth.

  17. Data assimilation using Bayesian filters and B-spline geological models

    KAUST Repository

    Duan, Lian


    This paper proposes a new approach to problems of data assimilation, also known as history matching, of oilfield production data by adjustment of the location and sharpness of patterns of geological facies. Traditionally, this problem has been addressed using gradient based approaches with a level set parameterization of the geology. Gradient-based methods are robust, but computationally demanding with real-world reservoir problems and insufficient for reservoir management uncertainty assessment. Recently, the ensemble filter approach has been used to tackle this problem because of its high efficiency from the standpoint of implementation, computational cost, and performance. Incorporation of level set parameterization in this approach could further deal with the lack of differentiability with respect to facies type, but its practical implementation is based on some assumptions that are not easily satisfied in real problems. In this work, we propose to describe the geometry of the permeability field using B-spline curves. This transforms history matching of the discrete facies type to the estimation of continuous B-spline control points. As filtering scheme, we use the ensemble square-root filter (EnSRF). The efficacy of the EnSRF with the B-spline parameterization is investigated through three numerical experiments, in which the reservoir contains a curved channel, a disconnected channel or a 2-dimensional closed feature. It is found that the application of the proposed method to the problem of adjusting facies edges to match production data is relatively straightforward and provides statistical estimates of the distribution of geological facies and of the state of the reservoir.

  18. How much can we trust a geological model underlying a subsurface hydrological investigation? (United States)

    Wellmann, Florian; de la Varga, Miguel; Schaaf, Alexander; Burs, David


    Geological models often provide an important basis for subsequent hydrological investigations. As these models are generally built with a limited amount of information, they can contain significant uncertainties - and it is reasonable to assume that these uncertainties can potentially influence subsequent hydrological simulations. However, the investigation of uncertainties in geological models is not straightforward - and, even though recent advances have been made in the field, there is no out-of-the-box implementation to analyze uncertainties in a standard geological modeling package. We present here results of recent developments to address this problem with an efficient implementation of a geological modeling method for complex structural models, integrated in a Bayesian inference framework. The implemented geological modeling approach is based on a full 3-D implicit interpolation that directly respects interface positions and orientation measurements, as well as the influence of faults. In combination, the approach allows us to generate ensembles of geological model realizations, constrained by additional information in the form of likelihood functions to ensure consistency with additional geological aspects (e.g. sequence continuity, topology, fault network consistency), and we demonstrate the potential of the method in an exemplified case study. With this approach, we aim to contribute to a better understanding of the influence of geological uncertainties on subsurface hydrological investigations.

  19. New Age of 3D Geological Modelling or Complexity is not an Issue Anymore (United States)

    Mitrofanov, Aleksandr


    Geological model has a significant value in almost all types of researches related to regional mapping, geodynamics and especially to structural and resource geology of mineral deposits. Well-developed geological model must take into account all vital features of modelling object without over-simplification and also should adequately represent the interpretation of the geologist. In recent years with the gradual exhaustion deposits with relatively simple morphology geologists from all over the world are faced with the necessity of building the representative models for more and more structurally complex objects. Meanwhile, the amount of tools used for that has not significantly changed in the last two-three decades. The most widespread method of wireframe geological modelling now was developed in 1990s and is fully based on engineering design set of instruments (so-called CAD). Strings and polygons representing the section-based interpretation are being used as an intermediate step in the process of wireframes generation. Despite of significant time required for this type of modelling, it still can provide sufficient results for simple and medium-complexity geological objects. However, with the increasing complexity more and more vital features of the deposit are being sacrificed because of fundamental inability (or much greater time required for modelling) of CAD-based explicit techniques to develop the wireframes of the appropriate complexity. At the same time alternative technology which is not based on sectional approach and which uses the fundamentally different mathematical algorithms is being actively developed in the variety of other disciplines: medicine, advanced industrial design, game and cinema industry. In the recent years this implicit technology started to being developed for geological modelling purpose and nowadays it is represented by very powerful set of tools that has been integrated in almost all major commercial software packages. Implicit

  20. Trade-off Assessment of Simplified Routing Models for Short-Term Hydropower Reservoir Optimization (United States)

    Issao Kuwajima, Julio; Schwanenberg, Dirk; Alvardo Montero, Rodolfo; Mainardi Fan, Fernando; Assis dos Reis, Alberto


    Short-term reservoir optimization, also referred to as model predictive control, integrates model-based forecasts and optimization algorithms to meet multiple management objectives such as water supply, navigation, hydroelectricity generation, environmental obligations and flood protection. It is a valuable decision support tool to handle water-stress conditions or flooding events, and supports decision makers to minimize their impact. If the reservoir management includes downstream control, for example for mitigation flood damages in inundation areas downstream of the operated dam, the flow routing between the dam and the downstream inundation area is of major importance. The unsteady open channel flow in river reaches can be described by the one-dimensional Saint-Venant equations. However, owing to the mathematical complexity of those equations, some simplifications may be required to speed up the computation within the optimization procedure. Another strategy to limit the model runtime is a schematization on a course computational grid. In particular the last measure can introduce significant numerical diffusion into the solution. This is a major drawback, in particular if the reservoir release has steep gradients which we often find in hydropower reservoirs. In this work, four different routing models are assessed concerning their implementation in the predictive control of the Três Marias Reservoir located at the Upper River São Francisco in Brazil: i) a fully dynamic model using the software package SOBEK; ii) a semi-distributed rainfall-runoff model with Muskingum-Cunge routing for the flow reaches of interest, the MGB-IPH (Modelo Hidrológico de Grandes Bacias - Instituto de Pesquisas Hidráulicas); iii) a reservoir routing approach; and iv) a diffusive wave model. The last two models are implemented in the RTC-Tool toolbox. The overall model accuracy between the simplified models in RTC-Tools (iii, iv) and the more sophisticated SOBEK model (i) are

  1. 3-D geomechanical modelling of a gas reservoir in the North German Basin: workflow for model building and calibration (United States)

    Fischer, K.; Henk, A.


    The optimal use of conventional and unconventional hydrocarbon reservoirs depends, amongst others, on the local tectonic stress field. For example, wellbore stability, orientation of hydraulically induced fractures and - especially in fractured reservoirs - permeability anisotropies are controlled by the recent in situ stresses. Faults and lithological changes can lead to stress perturbations and produce local stresses that can significantly deviate from the regional stress field. Geomechanical reservoir models aim for a robust, ideally "pre-drilling" prediction of the local variations in stress magnitude and orientation. This requires a~numerical modelling approach that is capable to incorporate the specific geometry and mechanical properties of the subsurface reservoir. The workflow presented in this paper can be used to build 3-D geomechanical models based on the Finite Element Method (FEM) and ranging from field-scale models to smaller, detailed submodels of individual fault blocks. The approach is successfully applied to an intensively faulted gas reservoir in the North German Basin. The in situ stresses predicted by the geomechanical FE model were calibrated against stress data actually observed, e.g. borehole breakouts and extended leak-off tests. Such a validated model can provide insights into the stress perturbations in the inter-well space and undrilled parts of the reservoir. In addition, the tendency of the existing fault network to slip or dilate in the present-day stress regime can be addressed.

  2. Continuous updating of a coupled reservoir-seismic model using an ensemble Kalman filter technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skjervheim, Jan-Arild


    This work presents the development of a method based on the ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) for continuous reservoir model updating with respect to the combination of production data, 3D seismic data and time-lapse seismic data. The reservoir-seismic model system consists of a commercial reservoir simulator coupled to existing rock physics and seismic modelling software. The EnKF provides an ideal-setting for real time updating and prediction in reservoir simulation models, and has been applied to synthetic models and real field cases from the North Sea. In the EnKF method, static parameters as the porosity and permeability, and dynamic variables, as fluid saturations and pressure, are updated in the reservoir model at each step data become available. In addition, we have updated a lithology parameter (clay ratio) which is linked to the rock physics model, and the fracture density in a synthetic fractured reservoir. In the EnKF experiments we have assimilated various types of production and seismic data. Gas oil ratio (GOR), water cut (WCT) and bottom-hole pressure (BHP) are used in the data assimilation. Furthermore, inverted seismic data, such as Poisson's ratio and acoustic impedance, and seismic waveform data have been assimilated. In reservoir applications seismic data may introduce a large amount of data in the assimilation schemes, and the computational time becomes expensive. In this project efficient EnKF schemes are used to handle such large datasets, where challenging aspects such as the inversion of a large covariance matrix and potential loss of rank are considered. Time-lapse seismic data may be difficult to assimilate since they are time difference data, i.e. data which are related to the model variable at two or more time instances. Here we have presented a general sequential Bayesian formulation which incorporates time difference data, and we show that the posterior distribution includes both a filter and a smoother solution. Further, we show

  3. Geological-structural models used in SR 97. Uncertainty analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saksa, P.; Nummela, J. [FINTACT Oy (Finland)


    The uncertainty of geological-structural models was studied for the three sites in SR 97, called Aberg, Beberg and Ceberg. The evaluation covered both regional and site scale models, the emphasis being placed on fracture zones in the site scale. Uncertainty is a natural feature of all geoscientific investigations. It originates from measurements (errors in data, sampling limitations, scale variation) and conceptualisation (structural geometries and properties, ambiguous geometric or parametric solutions) to name the major ones. The structures of A-, B- and Ceberg are fracture zones of varying types. No major differences in the conceptualisation between the sites were noted. One source of uncertainty in the site models is the non-existence of fracture and zone information in the scale from 10 to 300 - 1000 m. At Aberg the development of the regional model has been performed very thoroughly. At the site scale one major source of uncertainty is that a clear definition of the target area is missing. Structures encountered in the boreholes are well explained and an interdisciplinary approach in interpretation have taken place. Beberg and Ceberg regional models contain relatively large uncertainties due to the investigation methodology and experience available at that time. In site scale six additional structures were proposed both to Beberg and Ceberg to variant analysis of these sites. Both sites include uncertainty in the form of many non-interpreted fractured sections along the boreholes. Statistical analysis gives high occurrences of structures for all three sites: typically 20 - 30 structures/km{sup 3}. Aberg has highest structural frequency, Beberg comes next and Ceberg has the lowest. The borehole configuration, orientations and surveying goals were inspected to find whether preferences or factors causing bias were present. Data from Aberg supports the conclusion that Aespoe sub volume would be an anomalously fractured, tectonised unit of its own. This means that

  4. An Integrated Modeling Approach for Describing Fate and Transport of Perfluorinated Compounds (PFCs) in Estuarine Reservoir (United States)

    Zhang, J.; Nguyen Viet, T.; Wang, X.; Chen, H.; Gin, K. Y. H.


    The fate and transport processes of emerging contaminants in aquatic ecosystems are complex, which are not only determined by their own properties but also influenced by the environmental setting, physical, chemical and biological processes. A 3D-emerging contaminant model has been developed based on Delft3D water quality model and coupled with a hydrodynamic model and a catchment-scale 1D- hydrological and hydraulic model to study the possible fate and transport mechanisms of perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) in Marina Reservoir in Singapore. The main processes in the contaminant model include partitioning (among detritus, dissolved organic matter and phytoplankton), settling, resuspension and degradation. We used the integrated model to quantify the distribution of the total PFCs and two major components, namely perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) in the water, sediments and organisms in the reservoir. The model yielded good agreement with the field measurements when evaluated based on the datasets in 2009 and 2010 as well as recent observations in 2013 and 2014. Our results elucidate that the model can be a useful tool to characterize the occurrence, sources, sinks and trends of PFCs both in the water column and in the sediments in the reservoir. Thisapproach provides a better understanding of mechanisms that influence the fate and transport of emerging contaminants and lays down a framework for future experiments to further explore how the dominant environmental factors change towards mitigation of emerging contaminants in the reservoirs.

  5. Advanced Techniques for Reservoir Simulation and Modeling of Non-Conventional Wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durlofsky, Louis J.; Aziz, Khalid


    Research results for the second year of this project on the development of improved modeling techniques for non-conventional (e.g., horizontal, deviated or multilateral) wells were presented. The overall program entails the development of enhanced well modeling and general simulation capabilities. A general formulation for black-oil and compositional reservoir simulation was presented.

  6. Modeling of fault activation and seismicity by injection directly into a fault zone associated with hydraulic fracturing of shale-gas reservoirs (United States)

    LBNL, in consultation with the EPA, expanded upon a previous study by injecting directly into a 3D representation of a hypothetical fault zone located in the geologic units between the shale-gas reservoir and the drinking water aquifer.

  7. Integrating Geographical Information Systems, Fuzzy Logic and Analytical Hierarchy Process in Modelling Optimum Sites for Locating Water Reservoirs. A Case Study of the Debub District in Eritrea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodney G. Tsiko


    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to model water reservoir site selection for a real world application in the administrative district of Debub, Eritrea. This is a region were scarcity of water is a fundamental problem. Erratic rainfall, drought and unfavourable hydro-geological characteristics exacerbates the region’s water supply. Consequently, the population of Debub is facing severe water shortages and building reservoirs has been promoted as a possible solution to meet the future demand of water supply. This was the most powerful motivation to identify candidate sites for locating water reservoirs. A number of conflicting qualitative and quantitative criteria exist for evaluating alternative sites. Decisions regarding criteria are often accompanied by ambiguities and vagueness. This makes fuzzy logic a more natural approach to this kind of Multi-criteria Decision Analysis (MCDA problems. This paper proposes a combined two-stage MCDA methodology. The first stage involved utilizing the most simplistic type of data aggregation techniques known as Boolean Intersection or logical AND to identify areas restricted by environmental and hydrological constraints and therefore excluded from further study. The second stage involved integrating fuzzy logic with the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP to identify optimum and back-up candidate water reservoir sites in the area designated for further study.

  8. Zn(II, Mn(II and Sr(II Behavior in a Natural Carbonate Reservoir System. Part II: Impact of Geological CO2 Storage Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Auffray B.


    Full Text Available Some key points still prevent the full development of geological carbon sequestration in underground formations, especially concerning the assessment of the integrity of such storage. Indeed, the consequences of gas injection on chemistry and petrophysical properties are still much discussed in the scientific community, and are still not well known at either laboratory or field scale. In this article, the results of an experimental study about the mobilization of Trace Elements (TE during CO2 injection in a reservoir are presented. The experimental conditions range from typical storage formation conditions (90 bar, supercritical CO2 to shallower conditions (60 and 30 bar, CO2 as gas phase, and consider the dissolution of the two carbonates, coupled with the sorption of an initial concentration of 10−5 M of Zn(II, and the consequent release in solution of Mn(II and Sr(II. The investigation goes beyond the sole behavior of TE in the storage conditions: it presents the specific behavior of each element with respect to the pressure and the natural carbonate considered, showing that different equilibrium concentrations are to be expected if a fluid with a given concentration of TE leaks to an upper formation. Even though sorption is evidenced, it does not balance the amount of TE released by the dissolution process. The increase in porosity is clearly evidenced as a linear function of the CO2 pressure imposed for the St-Emilion carbonate. For the Lavoux carbonate, this trend is not confirmed by the 90 bar experiment. A preferential dissolution of the bigger family of pores from the preexisting porosity is observed in one of the samples (Lavoux carbonate while the second one (St-Emilion carbonate presents a newly-formed family of pores. Both reacted samples evidence that the pore network evolves toward a tubular network type.

  9. Discrete model for the recovery of oil from a reservoir

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vargas-Jarillo, C.


    Simulation of oil recovery by means of a molecular type approach is proposed. This means the materials are considered to be composed of a finite number of particles, which are approximate for molecules. Porous flow is studied qualitatively under the assumption that particles of rock, oil and the flooding flow interact with each other by means of a compensating Lennard-Jones type potential. The author also considers the system to be under the influence of gravity. Equipped with the developed tools, miscible displacement in an oil reservoir is studied from various initial data. Extensive computations are described and discussed. The velocity and the rate of injection of the ingoing particles prove to be among the most important parameters that can be adjusted to increase the rate of production. It is noted also that the fingering phenomenum is readily detected. The influence of gravity is important, since it affects fingering and increases the time that the oil particles take to go out. A comparison is made with actual physical experiments.

  10. PVT modeling of reservoir fluids using PC-SAFT EoS and Soave-BWR EoS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yan, Wei; Varzandeh, Farhad; Stenby, Erling Halfdan


    Cubic equations of state, such as the Soave-Redlich-Kwong (SRK) and the Peng-Robinson (PR) EoS, are still the mostly used models in PVT modeling of reservoir fluids, and almost the exclusively used models in compositional reservoir simulations. Nevertheless, it is promising that recently develope...

  11. U.S. Geological Survey Gap Analysis Program Species Distribution Models (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — GAP distribution models represent the areas where species are predicted to occur based on habitat associations. GAP distribution models are the spatial arrangement...

  12. A succession of pseudosteady-states model for an efficient simulation of depletion reservoirs performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Kun Sang [Kumho R and D Center (Korea, Republic of)


    A bounded reservoir with wells producing at constant rate exhibits pseudosteady-state behavior after the end of short-lived infinite-acting and transition flow periods. In this study, a new approach was developed for calculating pseudosteady-state flow behavior directly. This approach can be applied to the linearized forms of the diffusivity equation for either single-phase liquid or gas flow. A finite-element method is used which allows for spatially-dependent reservoir properties, complex reservoir geometries, and multiple wells. For the simulation of field-scale problems with multiple wells of differing production rates, a well model based on a near-wellbore approximation of the pseudopressure distribution during pseudosteady-state flow period is introduced to reduce the concentration of elements near wells. To account for rate changes during extended production periods, the pseudosteady-state equation was solved successively for each flow period and combined with an overall reservoir material balance analysis. Results from this study show that this approach provides a fast and accurate method for modeling the long-time behavior of various types of reservoirs under depletion conditions. (author). 14 refs., 3 tabs., 3 figs.

  13. A seismological model for earthquakes induced by fluid extraction from a subsurface reservoir (United States)

    Bourne, S. J.; Oates, S. J.; van Elk, J.; Doornhof, D.


    A seismological model is developed for earthquakes induced by subsurface reservoir volume changes. The approach is based on the work of Kostrov () and McGarr () linking total strain to the summed seismic moment in an earthquake catalog. We refer to the fraction of the total strain expressed as seismic moment as the strain partitioning function, α. A probability distribution for total seismic moment as a function of time is derived from an evolving earthquake catalog. The moment distribution is taken to be a Pareto Sum Distribution with confidence bounds estimated using approximations given by Zaliapin et al. (). In this way available seismic moment is expressed in terms of reservoir volume change and hence compaction in the case of a depleting reservoir. The Pareto Sum Distribution for moment and the Pareto Distribution underpinning the Gutenberg-Richter Law are sampled using Monte Carlo methods to simulate synthetic earthquake catalogs for subsequent estimation of seismic ground motion hazard. We demonstrate the method by applying it to the Groningen gas field. A compaction model for the field calibrated using various geodetic data allows reservoir strain due to gas extraction to be expressed as a function of both spatial position and time since the start of production. Fitting with a generalized logistic function gives an empirical expression for the dependence of α on reservoir compaction. Probability density maps for earthquake event locations can then be calculated from the compaction maps. Predicted seismic moment is shown to be strongly dependent on planned gas production.

  14. Optimum control parameters and long-term productivity of geothermal reservoirs using coupled thermo-hydraulic process modelling


    Aliyu, Musa D.; Chen, Hua-Peng


    Knowing the long-term performance of geothermal energy extraction is crucial to decision-makers and reservoir engineers for optimal management and sustainable utilisation. This article presents a three dimensional, numerical model of coupled thermo-hydraulic processes, in a deep heterogeneous geothermal reservoir overlain and underlain by impermeable layers, with discrete fracture. The finite element method is employed in modelling the reservoir, after conducting a verification study to test ...

  15. Forecasting monthly inflow discharge of the Iffezheim reservoir using data-driven models (United States)

    Zhang, Qing; Aljoumani, Basem; Hillebrand, Gudrun; Hoffmann, Thomas; Hinkelmann, Reinhard


    River stream flow is an essential element in hydrology study fields, especially for reservoir management, since it defines input into reservoirs. Forecasting this stream flow plays an important role in short or long-term planning and management in the reservoir, e.g. optimized reservoir and hydroelectric operation or agricultural irrigation. Highly accurate flow forecasting can significantly reduce economic losses and is always pursued by reservoir operators. Therefore, hydrologic time series forecasting has received tremendous attention of researchers. Many models have been proposed to improve the hydrological forecasting. Due to the fact that most natural phenomena occurring in environmental systems appear to behave in random or probabilistic ways, different cases may need a different methods to forecast the inflow and even a unique treatment to improve the forecast accuracy. The purpose of this study is to determine an appropriate model for forecasting monthly inflow to the Iffezheim reservoir in Germany, which is the last of the barrages in the Upper Rhine. Monthly time series of discharges, measured from 1946 to 2001 at the Plittersdorf station, which is located 6 km downstream of the Iffezheim reservoir, were applied. The accuracies of the used stochastic models - Fiering model and Auto-Regressive Integrated Moving Average models (ARIMA) are compared with Artificial Intelligence (AI) models - single Artificial Neural Network (ANN) and Wavelet ANN models (WANN). The Fiering model is a linear stochastic model and used for generating synthetic monthly data. The basic idea in modeling time series using ARIMA is to identify a simple model with as few model parameters as possible in order to provide a good statistical fit to the data. To identify and fit the ARIMA models, four phase approaches were used: identification, parameter estimation, diagnostic checking, and forecasting. An automatic selection criterion, such as the Akaike information criterion, is utilized

  16. Improved characterization of reservoir behavior by integration of reservoir performances data and rock type distributions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davies, D.K.; Vessell, R.K. [David K. Davies & Associates, Kingwood, TX (United States); Doublet, L.E. [Texas A& M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)] [and others


    An integrated geological/petrophysical and reservoir engineering study was performed for a large, mature waterflood project (>250 wells, {approximately}80% water cut) at the North Robertson (Clear Fork) Unit, Gaines County, Texas. The primary goal of the study was to develop an integrated reservoir description for {open_quotes}targeted{close_quotes} (economic) 10-acre (4-hectare) infill drilling and future recovery operations in a low permeability, carbonate (dolomite) reservoir. Integration of the results from geological/petrophysical studies and reservoir performance analyses provide a rapid and effective method for developing a comprehensive reservoir description. This reservoir description can be used for reservoir flow simulation, performance prediction, infill targeting, waterflood management, and for optimizing well developments (patterns, completions, and stimulations). The following analyses were performed as part of this study: (1) Geological/petrophysical analyses: (core and well log data) - {open_quotes}Rock typing{close_quotes} based on qualitative and quantitative visualization of pore-scale features. Reservoir layering based on {open_quotes}rock typing {close_quotes} and hydraulic flow units. Development of a {open_quotes}core-log{close_quotes} model to estimate permeability using porosity and other properties derived from well logs. The core-log model is based on {open_quotes}rock types.{close_quotes} (2) Engineering analyses: (production and injection history, well tests) Material balance decline type curve analyses to estimate total reservoir volume, formation flow characteristics (flow capacity, skin factor, and fracture half-length), and indications of well/boundary interference. Estimated ultimate recovery analyses to yield movable oil (or injectable water) volumes, as well as indications of well and boundary interference.

  17. Two Monthly Continuous Dynamic Model Based on Nash Bargaining Theory for Conflict Resolution in Reservoir System.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehran Homayounfar

    Full Text Available So far many optimization models based on Nash Bargaining Theory associated with reservoir operation have been developed. Most of them have aimed to provide practical and efficient solutions for water allocation in order to alleviate conflicts among water users. These models can be discussed from two viewpoints: (i having a discrete nature; and (ii working on an annual basis. Although discrete dynamic game models provide appropriate reservoir operator policies, their discretization of variables increases the run time and causes dimensionality problems. In this study, two monthly based non-discrete optimization models based on the Nash Bargaining Solution are developed for a reservoir system. In the first model, based on constrained state formulation, the first and second moments (mean and variance of the state variable (water level in the reservoir is calculated. Using moment equations as the constraint, the long-term utility of the reservoir manager and water users are optimized. The second model is a dynamic approach structured based on continuous state Markov decision models. The corresponding solution based on the collocation method is structured for a reservoir system. In this model, the reward function is defined based on the Nash Bargaining Solution. Indeed, it is used to yield equilibrium in every proper sub-game, thereby satisfying the Markov perfect equilibrium. Both approaches are applicable for water allocation in arid and semi-arid regions. A case study was carried out at the Zayandeh-Rud river basin located in central Iran to identify the effectiveness of the presented methods. The results are compared with the results of an annual form of dynamic game, a classical stochastic dynamic programming model (e.g. Bayesian Stochastic Dynamic Programming model, BSDP, and a discrete stochastic dynamic game model (PSDNG. By comparing the results of alternative methods, it is shown that both models are capable of tackling conflict issues in

  18. A simple multistage closed-(box+reservoir model of chemical evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caimmi R.


    Full Text Available Simple closed-box (CB models of chemical evolution are extended on two respects, namely (i simple closed-(box+reservoir (CBR models allowing gas outflow from the box into the reservoir (Hartwick 1976 or gas inflow into the box from the reservoir (Caimmi 2007 with rate proportional to the star formation rate, and (ii simple multistage closed-(box+reservoir (MCBR models allowing different stages of evolution characterized by different inflow or outflow rates. The theoretical differential oxygen abundance distribution (TDOD predicted by the model maintains close to a continuous broken straight line. An application is made where a fictitious sample is built up from two distinct samples of halo stars and taken as representative of the inner Galactic halo. The related empirical differential oxygen abundance distribution (EDOD is represented, to an acceptable extent, as a continuous broken line for two viable [O/H]-[Fe/H] empirical relations. The slopes and the intercepts of the regression lines are determined, and then used as input parameters to MCBR models. Within the errors (-+σ, regression line slopes correspond to a large inflow during the earlier stage of evolution and to low or moderate outflow during the subsequent stages. A possible inner halo - outer (metal-poor bulge connection is also briefly discussed. Quantitative results cannot be considered for applications to the inner Galactic halo, unless selection effects and disk contamination are removed from halo samples, and discrepancies between different oxygen abundance determination methods are explained.

  19. Geological Site Descriptive Model. A strategy for the model development during site investigations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munier, Raymond; Stenberg, Leif [Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., Stockholm (Sweden); Stanfors, Roy [Roy Stanfors Consulting, Lund (Sweden); Milnes, Allan Geoffrey [GEA Consulting, Uppsala (Sweden); Hermanson, Jan [Golder Associates, Stockholm (Sweden); Triumf, Carl-Axel [Geovista, Luleaa (Sweden)


    The Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB) is at present conducting site investigations as a preliminary to building an underground nuclear waste disposal facility in Sweden. This report presents a methodology for constructing, visualising and presenting 3-dimensional geological models, based on data from the site investigations. The methodology integrates with the overall work-flow of the site investigations, from the collection of raw data to the complete site description, as proposed in several earlier technical reports. Further, it is specifically designed for interaction with SICADA - SKB's Site Characterisation Database - and RVS - SKB's Rock Visualisation System. This report is one in a series of strategy documents intended to demonstrate how modelling is to be performed within each discipline. However, it also has a wider purpose, since the geological site descriptive model provides the basic geometrical framework for all the other disciplines. Hence, the wider aim is to present a practical and clear methodology for the analysis and interpretation of input data for use in the construction of the geology-based 3D geometrical model. In addition to the various aspects of modelling described above, the methodology presented here should therefore also provide: guidelines and directives on how systematic interpretation and integration of geo-scientific data from the different investigation methods should be carried out; guidelines on how different geometries should be created in the geological models; guidelines on how the assignment of parameters to the different geological units in RVS should be accomplished; guidelines on the handling of uncertainty at different points in the interpretation process. In addition, it should clarify the relation between the geological model and other models used in the processes of site characterisation, repository layout and safety analysis. In particular, integration and transparency should be

  20. Evaluation of flow regime of turbidity currents entering Dez Reservoir using extended shallow water model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valery Ivanovich ELFIMOV


    Full Text Available In this study, the performance of the extended shallow water model (ESWM in evaluation of the flow regime of turbidity currents entering the Dez Reservoir was investigated. The continuity equations for fluid and particles and the Navier-Stokes equations govern the entire flow of turbidity currents. The shallow water equations governing the flow of the depositing phase of turbidity currents are derived from these equations. A case study was conducted on the flow regime of turbidity currents entering the Dez Reservoir in Iran from January 2002 to July 2003. Facing a serious sedimentation problem, the dead storage of the Dez Reservoir will be full in the coming 10 years, and the inflowing water in the hydropower conduit system is now becoming turbid. Based on the values of the dimensionless friction number ( and dimensionless entrainment number ( of turbidity currents, and the coefficient of determination between the observed and predicted deposit depths (R2 = 0.86 for the flow regime of negligible friction and negligible entrainment (NFNE, the flow regime of turbidity currents coming into the Dez Reservoir is considered to be NFNE. The results suggest that the ESWM is an appropriate approach for evaluation of the flow regime of turbidity currents in dam reservoirs where the characteristics of turbidity currents, such as the deposit depth, must be evaluated.

  1. Geologic simulation model for a hypothetical site in the Columbia Plateau. [AEGIS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petrie, G.M.; Zellmer, J.T.; Lindberg, J.W.; Foley, M.G.


    This report describes the structure and operation of the Assessment of Effectiveness of Geologic Isolation Systems (AEGIS) Geologic Simulation Model, a computer simulation model of the geology and hydrology of an area of the Columbia Plateau, Washington. The model is used to study the long-term suitability of the Columbia Plateau Basalts for the storage of nuclear waste in a mined repository. It is also a starting point for analyses of such repositories in other geologic settings. The Geologic Simulation Model will aid in formulating design disruptive sequences (i.e. those to be used for more detailed hydrologic, transport, and dose analyses) from the spectrum of hypothetical geological and hydrological developments that could result in transport of radionuclides out of a repository. Quantitative and auditable execution of this task, however, is impossible without computer simulation. The computer simulation model aids the geoscientist by generating the wide spectrum of possible future evolutionary paths of the areal geology and hydrology, identifying those that may affect the repository integrity. This allows the geoscientist to focus on potentially disruptive processes, or series of events. Eleven separate submodels are used in the simulation portion of the model: Climate, Continental Glaciation, Deformation, Geomorphic Events, Hydrology, Magmatic Events, Meteorite Impact, Sea-Level Fluctuations, Shaft-Seal Failure, Sub-Basalt Basement Faulting, and Undetected Features. Because of the modular construction of the model, each submodel can easily be replaced with an updated or modified version as new information or developments in the state of the art become available. The model simulates the geologic and hydrologic systems of a hypothetical repository site and region for a million years following repository decommissioning. The Geologic Simulation Model operates in both single-run and Monte Carlo modes.

  2. 3D subsurface modelling reveals the shallow geology of Amsterdam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schokker, J.; Bakker, M.A.W.; Dubelaar, C.W.; Dambrink, R.M.; Harting, R.


    Amsterdam is situated on the coastal-deltaic plain of the western Netherlands. Its geographical position brought the city prosperity, but also created huge challenges associated with heterogeneous and often adverse ground conditions. This paper explores the geology of Amsterdam to a depth of c. 100

  3. Model of erosion–landslide interaction in the context of the reservoir ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science; Volume 122; Issue 6. Model of erosion–landslide interaction in the context of the reservoir water level variations (East Siberia, Russia): Factors, environment and mechanisms. Oksana Mazaeva Viktoria Khak Elena Kozyreva. Volume 122 Issue 6 December 2013 pp 1515- ...

  4. Model-based workflows for optimal long-term reservoir mangement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeuwenburgh, O.; Egberts, P.; Chitu, A.; Wilschut, F.


    Life-cycle optimization is the process of finding field operation strategies that aim to optimize recovery or economic value with a long-term (years to decades) horizon. A reservoir simulation model is therefore generally appropriate and sufficient to explore the impact of different recovery

  5. Modeling phytoplankton community in reservoirs. A comparison between taxonomic and functional groups-based models. (United States)

    Di Maggio, Jimena; Fernández, Carolina; Parodi, Elisa R; Diaz, M Soledad; Estrada, Vanina


    In this paper we address the formulation of two mechanistic water quality models that differ in the way the phytoplankton community is described. We carry out parameter estimation subject to differential-algebraic constraints and validation for each model and comparison between models performance. The first approach aggregates phytoplankton species based on their phylogenetic characteristics (Taxonomic group model) and the second one, on their morpho-functional properties following Reynolds' classification (Functional group model). The latter approach takes into account tolerance and sensitivity to environmental conditions. The constrained parameter estimation problems are formulated within an equation oriented framework, with a maximum likelihood objective function. The study site is Paso de las Piedras Reservoir (Argentina), which supplies water for consumption for 450,000 population. Numerical results show that phytoplankton morpho-functional groups more closely represent each species growth requirements within the group. Each model performance is quantitatively assessed by three diagnostic measures. Parameter estimation results for seasonal dynamics of the phytoplankton community and main biogeochemical variables for a one-year time horizon are presented and compared for both models, showing the functional group model enhanced performance. Finally, we explore increasing nutrient loading scenarios and predict their effect on phytoplankton dynamics throughout a one-year time horizon. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Model design for predicting extreme precipitation event impacts on water quality in a water supply reservoir (United States)

    Hagemann, M.; Jeznach, L. C.; Park, M. H.; Tobiason, J. E.


    Extreme precipitation events such as tropical storms and hurricanes are by their nature rare, yet have disproportionate and adverse effects on surface water quality. In the context of drinking water reservoirs, common concerns of such events include increased erosion and sediment transport and influx of natural organic matter and nutrients. As part of an effort to model the effects of an extreme precipitation event on water quality at the reservoir intake of a major municipal water system, this study sought to estimate extreme-event watershed responses including streamflow and exports of nutrients and organic matter for use as inputs to a 2-D hydrodynamic and water quality reservoir model. Since extreme-event watershed exports are highly uncertain, we characterized and propagated predictive uncertainty using a quasi-Monte Carlo approach to generate reservoir model inputs. Three storm precipitation depths—corresponding to recurrence intervals of 5, 50, and 100 years—were converted to streamflow in each of 9 tributaries by volumetrically scaling 2 storm hydrographs from the historical record. Rating-curve models for concentratoin, calibrated using 10 years of data for each of 5 constituents, were then used to estimate the parameters of a multivariate lognormal probability model of constituent concentrations, conditional on each scenario's storm date and streamflow. A quasi-random Halton sequence (n = 100) was drawn from the conditional distribution for each event scenario, and used to generate input files to a calibrated CE-QUAL-W2 reservoir model. The resulting simulated concentrations at the reservoir's drinking water intake constitute a low-discrepancy sample from the estimated uncertainty space of extreme-event source water-quality. Limiting factors to the suitability of this approach include poorly constrained relationships between hydrology and constituent concentrations, a high-dimensional space from which to generate inputs, and relatively long run

  7. Updates to watershed modeling in the Potholes Reservoir basin, Washington-a supplement to Scientific Investigation Report 2009-5081 (United States)

    Mastin, Mark


    A previous collaborative effort between the U.S. Geological Survey and the Bureau of Reclamation resulted in a watershed model for four watersheds that discharge into Potholes Reservoir, Washington. Since the model was constructed, two new meteorological sites have been established that provide more reliable real-time information. The Bureau of Reclamation was interested in incorporating this new information into the existing watershed model developed in 2009, and adding measured snowpack information to update simulated results and to improve forecasts of runoff. This report includes descriptions of procedures to aid a user in making model runs, including a description of the Object User Interface for the watershed model with details on specific keystrokes to generate model runs for the contributing basins. A new real-time, data-gathering computer program automates the creation of the model input files and includes the new meteorological sites. The 2009 watershed model was updated with the new sites and validated by comparing simulated results to measured data. As in the previous study, the updated model (2012 model) does a poor job of simulating individual storms, but a reasonably good job of simulating seasonal runoff volumes. At three streamflow-gaging stations, the January 1 to June 30 retrospective forecasts of runoff volume for years 2010 and 2011 were within 40 percent of the measured runoff volume for five of the six comparisons, ranging from -39.4 to 60.3 percent difference. A procedure for collecting measured snowpack data and using the data in the watershed model for forecast model runs, based on the Ensemble Streamflow Prediction method, is described, with an example that uses 2004 snow-survey data.

  8. 3D modelling of a dolomitized syn-sedimentary structure: an exhumed potential analogue of hydrocarbon reservoir. (United States)

    Martinelli, Mattia; Franceschi, Marco; Massironi, Matteo; Bistacchi, Andrea; Di Cuia, Raffaele; Rizzi, Alessandro


    further increase the potential creation of potential hydrocarbon traps. These complex conditions are visible in a syn-sedimentary structure spectacularly exposed on the Monte Testo (Trentino, Italy). In this contribution, we present a 3D geo-model of this structure, obtained with SKUA-gOcad, based on 3D photogrammetric modelling, detailed geological mapping and structural analysis, porosity analysis carried out on representative sections, and geostatistical simulation of porosity on dolomitized bodies. Thanks to the 3D model we obtained: i) a thickness map of the Rotzo Formation that allow us to understand which faults were active during the deposition of the formation and which areas could have been more suitable for hydrocarbon accumulation; ii) a geometric and volumetric model of the structure that permitted us to study the porosity distribution and to define the potential volume of hydrocarbons that could be hosted by a similar structure. These results were eventually extrapolated to the entire platform, providing clues on the hydrocarbon potential of similar buried geologic bodies.

  9. Numerical modeling of fluid effects on seismic properties of fractured magmatic geothermal reservoirs (United States)

    Grab, Melchior; Quintal, Beatriz; Caspari, Eva; Maurer, Hansruedi; Greenhalgh, Stewart


    Seismic investigations of geothermal reservoirs over the last 20 years have sought to interpret the resulting tomograms and reflection images in terms of the degree of reservoir fracturing and fluid content. Since the former provides the pathways and the latter acts as the medium for transporting geothermal energy, such information is needed to evaluate the quality of the reservoir. In conventional rock physics-based interpretations, this hydro-mechanical information is approximated from seismic velocities computed at the low-frequency (field-based) and high-frequency (lab-based) limits. In this paper, we demonstrate how seismic properties of fluid-filled, fractured reservoirs can be modeled over the full frequency spectrum using a numerical simulation technique which has become popular in recent years. This technique is based on Biot's theory of poroelasticity and enables the modeling of the seismic velocity dispersion and the frequency dependent seismic attenuation due to wave-induced fluid flow. These properties are sensitive to key parameters such as the hydraulic permeability of fractures as well as the compressibility and viscosity of the pore fluids. Applying the poroelastic modeling technique to the specific case of a magmatic geothermal system under stress due to the weight of the overlying rocks requires careful parameterization of the model. This includes consideration of the diversity of rock types occurring in the magmatic system and examination of the confining-pressure dependency of each input parameter. After the evaluation of all input parameters, we use our modeling technique to determine the seismic attenuation factors and phase velocities of a rock containing a complex interconnected fracture network, whose geometry is based on a fractured geothermal reservoir in Iceland. Our results indicate that in a magmatic geothermal reservoir the overall seismic velocity structure mainly reflects the lithological heterogeneity of the system, whereas

  10. Calibration and Validation of the SWAT2000 Watershed Model for Phosphorus Loading to the Cannonsville Reservoir (United States)

    Tolson, B. A.; Shoemaker, C. A.


    A comprehensive modeling effort was undertaken to simulate phosphorus (P) loading to the Cannonsville Reservoir in upstate New York. The Cannonsville Reservoir is one of the City of New York's drinking water supply reservoirs and drains an 1178 km2 watershed that is predominantly agricultural (dairy farming) and forested. The occurrence of eutrophic conditions in the reservoir, due to excessive P loading, resulted in the reservoir being classified as `phosphorus restricted'. This classification restricts future economic growth in the watershed when the growth directly or indirectly increases P loadings. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT2000) was used to model the P loading to the reservoir in order to help investigate the effectiveness of proposed management options for reducing P loading. SWAT2000 is a distributed watershed model developed by the Agricultural Research Service of the United States Department of Agriculture. This study is the first to apply SWAT2000 for P loading predictions in the Northeast US. SWAT2000 model development with respect to P focused initially on developing Cannonsville Watershed specific P inputs. Agricultural practices in the watershed were generalized, initial soil P levels were determined using aggregated watershed-wide soil P test results, manure spreading was based on the available manure masses as projected from local cattle population estimates and manure production characteristics were based on local manure studies. Ten years of daily P loading data were available for calibration and validation of the model. Additional bi-weekly sampling data of surface water P concentrations across the watershed were also utilized to test the spatial performance of the model. Comparison with measured data and further analysis of model equations showed that the model equations for sediment generation under snow melt conditions required modifications. In addition a number of P model parameters required calibration. Calibration results

  11. Productivity Analysis of Volume Fractured Vertical Well Model in Tight Oil Reservoirs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiahang Wang


    Full Text Available This paper presents a semianalytical model to simulate the productivity of a volume fractured vertical well in tight oil reservoirs. In the proposed model, the reservoir is a composite system which contains two regions. The inner region is described as formation with finite conductivity hydraulic fracture network and the flow in fracture is assumed to be linear, while the outer region is simulated by the classical Warren-Root model where radial flow is applied. The transient rate is calculated, and flow patterns and characteristic flowing periods caused by volume fractured vertical well are analyzed. Combining the calculated results with actual production data at the decline stage shows a good fitting performance. Finally, the effects of some sensitive parameters on the type curves are also analyzed extensively. The results demonstrate that the effect of fracture length is more obvious than that of fracture conductivity on improving production in tight oil reservoirs. When the length and conductivity of main fracture are constant, the contribution of stimulated reservoir volume (SRV to the cumulative oil production is not obvious. When the SRV is constant, the length of fracture should also be increased so as to improve the fracture penetration and well production.

  12. Reservoir Modeling Combining Geostatistics with Markov Chain Monte Carlo Inversion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zunino, Andrea; Lange, Katrine; Melnikova, Yulia


    , multi-step forward model (rock physics and seismology) and to provide realistic estimates of uncertainties. To generate realistic models which represent samples of the prior distribution, and to overcome the high computational demand, we reduce the search space utilizing an algorithm drawn from...

  13. Pore-scale modeling of wettability effects on CO2-brine displacement during geological storage (United States)

    Basirat, Farzad; Yang, Zhibing; Niemi, Auli


    Wetting properties of reservoir rocks and caprocks can vary significantly, and they strongly influence geological storage of carbon dioxide in deep saline aquifers, during which CO2 is supposed to displace the resident brine and to become permanently trapped. Fundamental understanding of the effect of wettability on CO2-brine displacement is thus important for improving storage efficiency and security. In this study, we investigate the influence of wetting properties on two-phase flow of CO2 and brine at the pore scale. A numerical model based on the phase field method is implemented to simulate the two-phase flow of CO2-brine in a realistic pore geometry. Our focus is to study the pore-scale fluid-fluid displacement mechanisms under different wetting conditions and to quantify the effect of wettability on macroscopic parameters such as residual brine saturation, capillary pressure, relative permeability, and specific interfacial area. Our simulation results confirm that both the trapped wetting phase saturation and the normalized interfacial area increase with decreasing contact angle. However, the wetting condition does not appear to influence the CO2 breakthrough time and saturation. We also show that the macroscopic capillary pressures based on the pressure difference between inlet and outlet can differ significantly from the phase averaging capillary pressures for all contact angles when the capillary number is high (log Ca > -5). This indicates that the inlet-outlet pressure difference may not be a good measure of the continuum-scale capillary pressure. In addition, the results show that the relative permeability of CO2 can be significantly lower in strongly water-wet conditions than in the intermediate-wet conditions.

  14. 3-D Reservoir and Stochastic Fracture Network Modeling for Enhanced Oil Recovery, Circle Ridge Phosphoria/Tensleep Reservoir, and River Reservation, Arapaho and Shoshone Tribes, Wyoming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    La Pointe, Paul R.; Hermanson, Jan


    The goal of this project is to improve the recovery of oil from the Circle Ridge Oilfield, located on the Wind River Reservation in Wyoming, through an innovative integration of matrix characterization, structural reconstruction, and the characterization of the fracturing in the reservoir through the use of discrete fracture network models.

  15. Iterative refinement of implicit boundary models for improved geological feature reproduction (United States)

    Martin, Ryan; Boisvert, Jeff B.


    Geological domains contain non-stationary features that cannot be described by a single direction of continuity. Non-stationary estimation frameworks generate more realistic curvilinear interpretations of subsurface geometries. A radial basis function (RBF) based implicit modeling framework using domain decomposition is developed that permits introduction of locally varying orientations and magnitudes of anisotropy for boundary models to better account for the local variability of complex geological deposits. The interpolation framework is paired with a method to automatically infer the locally predominant orientations, which results in a rapid and robust iterative non-stationary boundary modeling technique that can refine locally anisotropic geological shapes automatically from the sample data. The method also permits quantification of the volumetric uncertainty associated with the boundary modeling. The methodology is demonstrated on a porphyry dataset and shows improved local geological features.

  16. Assessment of effectiveness of geologic isolation systems. Geologic-simulation model for a hypothetical site in the Columbia Plateau. Volume 2: results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foley, M.G.; Petrie, G.M.; Baldwin, A.J.; Craig, R.G.


    This report contains the input data and computer results for the Geologic Simulation Model. This model is described in detail in the following report: Petrie, G.M., et. al. 1981. Geologic Simulation Model for a Hypothetical Site in the Columbia Plateau, Pacific Northwest Laboratory, Richland, Washington. The Geologic Simulation Model is a quasi-deterministic process-response model which simulates, for a million years into the future, the development of the geologic and hydrologic systems of the ground-water basin containing the Pasco Basin. Effects of natural processes on the ground-water hydrologic system are modeled principally by rate equations. The combined effects and synergistic interactions of different processes are approximated by linear superposition of their effects during discrete time intervals in a stepwise-integration approach.

  17. A Combined Thermodynamic and Kinetic Model for Barite Prediction at Oil Reservoir Conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhen Wu, Bi Yun

    of this research was to develop a model, based on thermodynamics and kinetics, for predicting barite precipitation rates in saline waters at the pressures and temperatures of oil bearing reservoirs, using the geochemical modelling code PHREEQC. This task is complicated by the conditions where traditional methods...... of the literature (PhD Study 1). The reviewed dataset was used as starting point for geochemical speciation modelling and applied to predict the stability of sulphate minerals in North Sea oil field brines. Second, for modelling of high salinity solutions using the Pitzer ion interaction approach, the temperature......In marine environments, barite (BaSO4) is a key proxy that has been used for understanding the biological and chemical evolution of oceans and for tracking the origin of fluids. In the oil industry, barite scale can clog pipelines and pores in the reservoirs, reducing oil yield. The goal...

  18. Water Resource Assessment in KRS Reservoir Using Remote Sensing and GIS Modelling (United States)

    Manubabu, V. H.; Gouda, K. C.; Bhat, N.; Reddy, A.


    In the recent time the fresh water resource becomes very important because of various reasons like population growth, pollution, over exploitation of the ground water resources etc. As there is no efficient and proper measures for recharging ground water exists and also the climatological impacts on water resources like global warming exacerbating water shortages, growing populations and rising demand for freshwater in agriculture, industry, and energy production. There is a need and challenging task for analyzing the future changes in regional water availability and it is also very much necessary to asses and predict the fresh water present in a lake or reservoir to make better decision making in the optimal usage of surface water. In the present study is intended to provide a practical discussion of methodology that deals with how to asses and predict amount of surface water available in the future using Remote Sensing(RS) data , Geographical Information System(GIS) techniques, and GCM (Global Circulation Model). Basically the study emphasized over one of the biggest reservoir i.e. the Krishna Raja Sagara (KRS) reservoir situated in the state of Karnataka in India. Multispectral satellite images like IRS LISS III and Landsat L8 from different open source web portals like NRSC-Bhuvan and NASA Earth Explorer respectively are used for the present analysis. The multispectral satellite images are used to identify the temporal changes of the water quantity in the reservoir for the period 2000 to 2014. Also the water volume are being calculated using Advances Space born Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) Global DEM over the reservoir basin. The hydro meteorological parameters are also studied using multi-source observed data and the empirical water budget models for the reservoir in terms of rainfall, temperature, run off, water inflow and outflow etc. are being developed and analyzed. Statistical analysis are also carried out to quantify the relation

  19. Enhanced genetic algorithm optimization model for a single reservoir operation based on hydropower generation: case study of Mosul reservoir, northern Iraq. (United States)

    Al-Aqeeli, Yousif H; Lee, T S; Abd Aziz, S


    Achievement of the optimal hydropower generation from operation of water reservoirs, is a complex problems. The purpose of this study was to formulate and improve an approach of a genetic algorithm optimization model (GAOM) in order to increase the maximization of annual hydropower generation for a single reservoir. For this purpose, two simulation algorithms were drafted and applied independently in that GAOM during 20 scenarios (years) for operation of Mosul reservoir, northern Iraq. The first algorithm was based on the traditional simulation of reservoir operation, whilst the second algorithm (Salg) enhanced the GAOM by changing the population values of GA through a new simulation process of reservoir operation. The performances of these two algorithms were evaluated through the comparison of their optimal values of annual hydropower generation during the 20 scenarios of operating. The GAOM achieved an increase in hydropower generation in 17 scenarios using these two algorithms, with the Salg being superior in all scenarios. All of these were done prior adding the evaporation (Ev) and precipitation (Pr) to the water balance equation. Next, the GAOM using the Salg was applied by taking into consideration the volumes of these two parameters. In this case, the optimal values obtained from the GAOM were compared, firstly with their counterpart that found using the same algorithm without taking into consideration of Ev and Pr, secondly with the observed values. The first comparison showed that the optimal values obtained in this case decreased in all scenarios, whilst maintaining the good results compared with the observed in the second comparison. The results proved the effectiveness of the Salg in increasing the hydropower generation through the enhanced approach of the GAOM. In addition, the results indicated to the importance of taking into account the Ev and Pr in the modelling of reservoirs operation.

  20. Bedrock geology Forsmark. Modelling stage 2.3. Description of the bedrock geological map at the ground surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephens, Michael B.; Bergman, Torbjoern (Geological Survey of Sweden, Uppsala (Sweden)); Isaksson, Hans (GeoVista AB, Luleaa (Sweden)); Petersson, Jesper (SwedPower AB, Stockholm (Sweden))


    A description of the bedrock geological map of the ground surface at the Forsmark site is presented here. This map is essentially a 2D model for the distribution of different types of rock unit on this surface. Besides showing the distribution of these rock units, the bedrock geological map also displays the distribution of some deformation zones that intersect the ground surface. It also presents information bearing on the position and form of outcrops, the location and projection of boreholes drilled during the site investigation programme, subordinate rock types, the occurrence of abandoned mines or exploration prospects, measurements of ductile structures in outcrops, inferred form lines, key minerals, and the occurrence of mylonite and cataclastic rock. Bedrock data from outcrops and excavations, airborne and ground magnetic data and information from the uppermost part of boreholes have all been used in the construction of the geological map. The description has also made use of complementary analytical data bearing on the composition and age of the rocks as well gamma-ray spectrometry and gravity data. Uncertainty in the position of the boundaries between rock units over the mapped area are addressed in a qualitative manner. Four model versions of the bedrock geological map have been delivered to SKB's GIS database (bedrock geological map, Forsmark, versions 1.1, 1.2, 2.2 and 2.3) at different times during the site investigation programme. The Forsmark area is situated along the coast of the Baltic Sea in northern Uppland, Sweden, in a region where the overall level of ductile strain in the bedrock is high. This high-strain region extends several tens of kilometres across the WNW-ENE to NW-SE strike of the rocks in this part of the Fennoscandian Shield. At Forsmark, the coastal region is composed partly of high-strain belts, which formed under amphibolite-facies metamorphic conditions, and partly of tectonic lenses, where the bedrock is also affected by

  1. Coupling of a reservoir model and of a poro-mechanical model. Application to the study of the compaction of petroleum reservoirs and of the associated subsidence; Couplage d'un modele de gisement et d'un modele mecanique. Application a l'etude de la compaction des reservoirs petroliers et de la subsidence associee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bevillon, D.


    The aim of this study is to provide a better description of the rock contribution to fluid flows in petroleum reservoirs. The production of oil/gas in soft highly compacting reservoirs induces important reduction of the pore volume, which increases oil productivity. This compaction leads to undesirable effects such as surface subsidence or damage of well equipment. Analysis of compaction and subsidence can be performed using either engineering reservoir models or coupled poro-mechanical models. Poro-mechanical model offers a rigorous mechanical framework, but does not permit a complete description of the fluids. The reservoir model gives a good description of the fluid phases, but the description of the mechanic phenomenon is then simplified. To satisfy the set of equations (mechanical equilibrium and diffusivity equations), two simulators can be used together sequentially. Each of the two simulators solves its own system independently, and information passed both directions between simulators. This technique is usually referred to the partially coupled scheme. In this study, reservoir and hydro-mechanical simulations show that reservoir theory is not a rigorous framework to represent the evolution of the high porous rocks strains. Then, we introduce a partially coupled scheme that is shown to be consistent and unconditionally stable, which permits to describe correctly poro-mechanical theory in reservoir models. (author)

  2. A different approach to coupling a reservoir simulator with a surface facilities model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trick, M. D. [Neotechnology Consultants Ltd., (United States)


    A method for coupling FORGAS, a commercial multiphase gas deliverability forecasting program and the commercial black oil reservoir simulator ECLIPSE 100 through Open Eclipse, a network simulator that uses a Parallel Virtual Machine interface, is proposed. The proposed procedure is claimed to yield a significant reduction in computation time without loss in accuracy or function. Commercial availability is another advantage claimed for this integrated model. A variety of other integrated models previously described in the literature are also reviewed. 17 refs., 1 tab.

  3. Comparative study of models for predicting permeability from nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) logs in two Chinese tight sandstone reservoirs (United States)

    Xiao, Liang; Liu, Xiao-Peng; Zou, Chang-Chun; Hu, Xiao-Xin; Mao, Zhi-Qiang; Shi, Yu-Jiang; Guo, Hao-Peng; Li, Gao-Ren


    Based on the analysis of mercury injection capillary pressure (MICP) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) experimental data for core plugs, which were drilled from two Chinese tight sandstone reservoirs, permeability prediction models, such as the classical SDR, Timur-Coates, the Swanson parameter, the Capillary Parachor, the R10 and R35 models, are calibrated to estimating permeabilities from field NMR logs, and the applicabilities of these permeability prediction models are compared. The processing results of several field examples show that the SDR model is unavailable in tight sandstone reservoirs. The Timur-Coates model is effective once the optimal T 2cutoff can be acquired to accurately calculate FFI and BVI from field NMR logs. The Swanson parameter model and the Capillary Parachor model are not always available in tight sandstone reservoirs. The R35 based model cannot effectively work in tight sandstone reservoirs, while the R10 based model is optimal in permeability prediction.

  4. Optimization of Multipurpose Reservoir Systems Using Power Market Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pereira-Cardenal, S. J.; Mo, B.; Riegels, N.


    Hydroeconomic models have been used to determine policies for efficient allocation of scarce water resources. Hydropower benefits are typically represented through exogenous electricity prices, but these do not consider the effect that the power market can have on the hydropower release policy...... and vice versa. To improve the representation of hydropower benefits in hydroeconomic models, an application of stochastic dynamic programming, known as the water value method, was used to maximize irrigation benefits while minimizing the costs of power generation within a power market. The method yields...

  5. Estimates of Nitrogen Removal in U.S. Streams and Reservoirs from the SPARROW Watershed Model (United States)

    Alexander, R. B.; Smith, R. A.; Schwarz, G. E.; Nolan, J. V.; Boyer, E. W.


    Greater understanding is needed of the biotic and abiotic processes that remove nitrogen (N) from streams and reservoirs to quantify transport to downstream coastal waters where eutrophication is a major concern. Recent studies have improved estimates of N removal rates (e.g., denitrification, biological uptake) over small spatial scales in low-order streams. However, limited knowledge of the factors that explain the large variation in literature removal rates has made it difficult to accurately predict N transport through the range of stream and reservoir sizes that link sources to downstream waters. Spatially referenced watershed models (SPARROW) have been used to statistically estimate long-term mean-annual rates of total nitrogen removal in streams and reservoirs over large spatial scales. These rates are estimated as a function of physical and hydraulic properties (channel depth, water travel time) that influence the contact and exchange of water with benthic sediment. We recently refined our SPARROW model structure with expanded descriptions of climatic, topographic, and other surficial features of terrestrial and aquatic landscapes. We find that the net rates of N removal decline from about 0.3 day-1 of water travel time in streams with depths less than 0.5 meters to negligible quantities in large rivers (greater than 4 meters). These rates are generally consistent with those of earlier regional and national SPARROW models and with measured rates from the literature (adjusted for water travel time) over the reported range of stream depths. A settling velocity of approximately 8 meters year-1 is estimated for lakes and reservoirs and agrees well with literature rates for lakes where denitrification is the predominant removal process. We applied these removal rates within the SPARROW stream and reservoir network to estimate the regional-scale N transport and delivery to U.S. coastal waters.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shirley P. Dutton; Eugene M. Kim; Ronald F. Broadhead; Caroline L. Breton; William D. Raatz; Stephen C. Ruppel; Charles Kerans


    The Permian Basin of west Texas and southeast New Mexico has produced >30 Bbbl (4.77 x 10{sup 9} m{sup 3}) of oil through 2000, most of it from 1,339 reservoirs having individual cumulative production >1 MMbbl (1.59 x 10{sup 5} m{sup 3}). These significant-sized reservoirs are the focus of this report. Thirty-two Permian Basin oil plays were defined, and each of the 1,339 significant-sized reservoirs was assigned to a play. The reservoirs were mapped and compiled in a Geographic Information System (GIS) by play. Associated reservoir information within linked data tables includes Railroad Commission of Texas reservoir number and district (Texas only), official field and reservoir name, year reservoir was discovered, depth to top of the reservoir, production in 2000, and cumulative production through 2000. Some tables also list subplays. Play boundaries were drawn for each play; the boundaries include areas where fields in that play occur but are <1 MMbbl (1.59 x 10{sup 5} m{sup 3}) of cumulative production. This report contains a summary description of each play, including key reservoir characteristics and successful reservoir-management practices that have been used in the play. The CD accompanying the report contains a pdf version of the report, the GIS project, pdf maps of all plays, and digital data files. Oil production from the reservoirs in the Permian Basin having cumulative production >1 MMbbl (1.59 x 10{sup 5} m{sup 3}) was 301.4 MMbbl (4.79 x 10{sup 7} m{sup 3}) in 2000. Cumulative Permian Basin production through 2000 from these significant-sized reservoirs was 28.9 Bbbl (4.59 x 10{sup 9} m{sup 3}). The top four plays in cumulative production are the Northwest Shelf San Andres Platform Carbonate play (3.97 Bbbl [6.31 x 10{sup 8} m{sup 3}]), the Leonard Restricted Platform Carbonate play (3.30 Bbbl 5.25 x 10{sup 8} m{sup 3}), the Pennsylvanian and Lower Permian Horseshoe Atoll Carbonate play (2.70 Bbbl [4.29 x 10{sup 8} m{sup 3}]), and the San Andres

  7. Hydrodynamic And Water Quality Surrogate Modeling For Reservoir Operation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aguilar Lopez, J.P.; Andel, Schalk Jan Van; Werner, M; Solomatine, D.P.; Piasecki, M


    Data for water management is increasingly easy to access, it has finer spatial and temporal resolution, and it is available from various sources. Precipitation data can be obtained from meteorological stations, radar, satellites and weather models. Land use data is also available from different

  8. Modelling fully-coupled Thermo-Hydro-Mechanical (THM) processes in fractured reservoirs using GOLEM: a massively parallel open-source simulator (United States)

    Jacquey, Antoine; Cacace, Mauro


    Utilization of the underground for energy-related purposes have received increasing attention in the last decades as a source for carbon-free energy and for safe storage solutions. Understanding the key processes controlling fluid and heat flow around geological discontinuities such as faults and fractures as well as their mechanical behaviours is therefore of interest in order to design safe and sustainable reservoir operations. These processes occur in a naturally complex geological setting, comprising natural or engineered discrete heterogeneities as faults and fractures, span a relatively large spectrum of temporal and spatial scales and they interact in a highly non-linear fashion. In this regard, numerical simulators have become necessary in geological studies to model coupled processes and complex geological geometries. In this study, we present a new simulator GOLEM, using multiphysics coupling to characterize geological reservoirs. In particular, special attention is given to discrete geological features such as faults and fractures. GOLEM is based on the Multiphysics Object-Oriented Simulation Environment (MOOSE). The MOOSE framework provides a powerful and flexible platform to solve multiphysics problems implicitly and in a tightly coupled manner on unstructured meshes which is of interest for the considered non-linear context. Governing equations in 3D for fluid flow, heat transfer (conductive and advective), saline transport as well as deformation (elastic and plastic) have been implemented into the GOLEM application. Coupling between rock deformation and fluid and heat flow is considered using theories of poroelasticity and thermoelasticity. Furthermore, considering material properties such as density and viscosity and transport properties such as porosity as dependent on the state variables (based on the International Association for the Properties of Water and Steam models) increase the coupling complexity of the problem. The GOLEM application aims

  9. Model documentation for relations between continuous real-time and discrete water-quality constituents in Cheney Reservoir near Cheney, Kansas, 2001--2009 (United States)

    Stone, Mandy L.; Graham, Jennifer L.; Gatotho, Jackline W.


    Cheney Reservoir, located in south-central Kansas, is one of the primary water supplies for the city of Wichita, Kansas. The U.S. Geological Survey has operated a continuous real-time water-quality monitoring station in Cheney Reservoir since 2001; continuously measured physicochemical properties include specific conductance, pH, water temperature, dissolved oxygen, turbidity, fluorescence (wavelength range 650 to 700 nanometers; estimate of total chlorophyll), and reservoir elevation. Discrete water-quality samples were collected during 2001 through 2009 and analyzed for sediment, nutrients, taste-and-odor compounds, cyanotoxins, phytoplankton community composition, actinomycetes bacteria, and other water-quality measures. Regression models were developed to establish relations between discretely sampled constituent concentrations and continuously measured physicochemical properties to compute concentrations of constituents that are not easily measured in real time. The water-quality information in this report is important to the city of Wichita because it allows quantification and characterization of potential constituents of concern in Cheney Reservoir. This report updates linear regression models published in 2006 that were based on data collected during 2001 through 2003. The update uses discrete and continuous data collected during May 2001 through December 2009. Updated models to compute dissolved solids, sodium, chloride, and suspended solids were similar to previously published models. However, several other updated models changed substantially from previously published models. In addition to updating relations that were previously developed, models also were developed for four new constituents, including magnesium, dissolved phosphorus, actinomycetes bacteria, and the cyanotoxin microcystin. In addition, a conversion factor of 0.74 was established to convert the Yellow Springs Instruments (YSI) model 6026 turbidity sensor measurements to the newer YSI

  10. On the effects of adaptive reservoir operating rules in hydrological physically-based models (United States)

    Giudici, Federico; Anghileri, Daniela; Castelletti, Andrea; Burlando, Paolo


    Recent years have seen a significant increase of the human influence on the natural systems both at the global and local scale. Accurately modeling the human component and its interaction with the natural environment is key to characterize the real system dynamics and anticipate future potential changes to the hydrological regimes. Modern distributed, physically-based hydrological models are able to describe hydrological processes with high level of detail and high spatiotemporal resolution. Yet, they lack in sophistication for the behavior component and human decisions are usually described by very simplistic rules, which might underperform in reproducing the catchment dynamics. In the case of water reservoir operators, these simplistic rules usually consist of target-level rule curves, which represent the average historical level trajectory. Whilst these rules can reasonably reproduce the average seasonal water volume shifts due to the reservoirs' operation, they cannot properly represent peculiar conditions, which influence the actual reservoirs' operation, e.g., variations in energy price or water demand, dry or wet meteorological conditions. Moreover, target-level rule curves are not suitable to explore the water system response to climate and socio economic changing contexts, because they assume a business-as-usual operation. In this work, we quantitatively assess how the inclusion of adaptive reservoirs' operating rules into physically-based hydrological models contribute to the proper representation of the hydrological regime at the catchment scale. In particular, we contrast target-level rule curves and detailed optimization-based behavioral models. We, first, perform the comparison on past observational records, showing that target-level rule curves underperform in representing the hydrological regime over multiple time scales (e.g., weekly, seasonal, inter-annual). Then, we compare how future hydrological changes are affected by the two modeling

  11. Computer Modeling of the Displacement Behavior of Carbon Dioxide in Undersaturated Oil Reservoirs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ju Binshan


    Full Text Available The injection of CO2 into oil reservoirs is performed not only to improve oil recovery but also to store CO2 captured from fuel combustion. The objective of this work is to develop a numerical simulator to predict quantitatively supercritical CO2 flooding behaviors for Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR. A non-isothermal compositional flow mathematical model is developed. The phase transition diagram is designed according to the Minimum Miscibility Pressure (MMP and CO2 maximum solubility in oil phase. The convection and diffusion of CO2 mixtures in multiphase fluids in reservoirs, mass transfer between CO2 and crude and phase partitioning are considered. The governing equations are discretized by applying a fully implicit finite difference technique. Newton-Raphson iterative technique was used to solve the nonlinear equation systems and a simulator was developed. The performances of CO2 immiscible and miscible flooding in oil reservoirs are predicted by the new simulator. The distribution of pressure and temperature, phase saturations, mole fraction of each component in each phase, formation damage caused by asphaltene precipitation and the improved oil recovery are predicted by the simulator. Experimental data validate the developed simulator by comparison with simulation results. The applications of the simulator in prediction of CO2 flooding in oil reservoirs indicate that the simulator is robust for predicting CO2 flooding performance.

  12. Proactive modeling of water quality impacts of extreme precipitation events in a drinking water reservoir. (United States)

    Jeznach, Lillian C; Hagemann, Mark; Park, Mi-Hyun; Tobiason, John E


    Extreme precipitation events are of concern to managers of drinking water sources because these occurrences can affect both water supply quantity and quality. However, little is known about how these low probability events impact organic matter and nutrient loads to surface water sources and how these loads may impact raw water quality. This study describes a method for evaluating the sensitivity of a water body of interest from watershed input simulations under extreme precipitation events. An example application of the method is illustrated using the Wachusett Reservoir, an oligo-mesotrophic surface water reservoir in central Massachusetts and a major drinking water supply to metropolitan Boston. Extreme precipitation event simulations during the spring and summer resulted in total organic carbon, UV-254 (a surrogate measurement for reactive organic matter), and total algae concentrations at the drinking water intake that exceeded recorded maximums. Nutrient concentrations after storm events were less likely to exceed recorded historical maximums. For this particular reservoir, increasing inter-reservoir transfers of water with lower organic matter content after a large precipitation event has been shown in practice and in model simulations to decrease organic matter levels at the drinking water intake, therefore decreasing treatment associated oxidant demand, energy for UV disinfection, and the potential for formation of disinfection byproducts. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Petroleum geology of Cook Inlet basin - an exploration model (United States)

    Magoon, L.B.; Claypool, G.E.


    Oil exploration commenced onshore adjacent to lower Cook Inlet on the Iniskin Peninsula in 1900, shifted with considerable success to upper Cook Inlet from 1957 through 1965, then returned to lower Cook Inlet in 1977 with the COST well and Federal OCS sale. Lower Cook Inlet COST No. 1 well, drilled to a total depth of 3,775.6 m, penetrated basinwide unconformities at the tops of Upper Cretaceous, Lower Cretaceous, and Upper Jurassic strata at 797.1, 1,540.8, and 2,112.3 m, respectively. Sandstone of potential reservoir quality is present in the Cretaceous and lower Tertiary rocks. All siltstones and shales analyzed are low (0 to 0.5 wt. %) in oil-prone organic matter, and only coals are high in humic organic matter. At total depth, vitrinite readings reached a maximum ave age reflectance of 0.65. Several indications of hydrocarbons were present. Oil analyses suggest that oils from the major fields of the Cook Inlet region, most of which produce from the Tertiary Hemlock Conglomerate, have a common source. More detailed work on stable carbon isotope ratios and the distribution of gasoline-range and heavy (C12+) hydrocarbons confirms this genetic relation among the major fields. In addition, oils from Jurassic rocks under the Iniskin Peninsula and from the Hemlock Conglomerate at the southwestern tip of the Kenai lowland are members of the same or a very similar oil family. The Middle Jurassic strata of the Iniskin Peninsula are moderately rich in organic carbon (0.5 to 1.5 wt. %) and yield shows of oil and of gas in wells and in surface seeps. Extractable hydrocarbons from this strata are similar in chemi al and isotopic composition to the Cook Inlet oils. Organic matter in Cretaceous and Tertiary rocks is thermally immature in all wells analyzed. Oil reservoirs in the major producing fields are of Tertiary age and unconformably overlie Jurassic rocks; the pre-Tertiary unconformity may be significant in exploration for new oil reserves. The unconformable relation

  14. Full field reservoir modeling of shale assets using advanced data-driven analytics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soodabeh Esmaili


    Full Text Available Hydrocarbon production from shale has attracted much attention in the recent years. When applied to this prolific and hydrocarbon rich resource plays, our understanding of the complexities of the flow mechanism (sorption process and flow behavior in complex fracture systems - induced or natural leaves much to be desired. In this paper, we present and discuss a novel approach to modeling, history matching of hydrocarbon production from a Marcellus shale asset in southwestern Pennsylvania using advanced data mining, pattern recognition and machine learning technologies. In this new approach instead of imposing our understanding of the flow mechanism, the impact of multi-stage hydraulic fractures, and the production process on the reservoir model, we allow the production history, well log, completion and hydraulic fracturing data to guide our model and determine its behavior. The uniqueness of this technology is that it incorporates the so-called “hard data” directly into the reservoir model, so that the model can be used to optimize the hydraulic fracture process. The “hard data” refers to field measurements during the hydraulic fracturing process such as fluid and proppant type and amount, injection pressure and rate as well as proppant concentration. This novel approach contrasts with the current industry focus on the use of “soft data” (non-measured, interpretive data such as frac length, width, height and conductivity in the reservoir models. The study focuses on a Marcellus shale asset that includes 135 wells with multiple pads, different landing targets, well length and reservoir properties. The full field history matching process was successfully completed using this data driven approach thus capturing the production behavior with acceptable accuracy for individual wells and for the entire asset.

  15. Developing an integrated 3D-hydrodynamic and emerging contaminant model for assessing water quality in a Yangtze Estuary Reservoir. (United States)

    Xu, Cong; Zhang, Jingjie; Bi, Xiaowei; Xu, Zheng; He, Yiliang; Gin, Karina Yew-Hoong


    An integrated 3D-hydrodynamic and emerging contaminant model was developed for better understanding of the fate and transport of emerging contaminants in Qingcaosha Reservoir. The reservoir, which supplies drinking water for nearly half of Shanghai's population, is located in Yangtze Delta. The integrated model was built by Delft3D suite, a fully integrated multidimensional modeling software. Atrazine and Bisphenol A (BPA) were selected as two representative emerging contaminants for the study in this reservoir. The hydrodynamic model was calibrated and validated against observations from 2011 to 2015 while the integrated model was calibrated against observations from 2014 to 2015 and then applied to explore the potential risk of high atrazine concentrations in the reservoir driven by agriculture activities. Our results show that the model is capable of describing the spatial and temporal patterns of water temperature, salinity and the dynamic distributions of two representative emerging contaminants (i.e. atrazine and BPA) in the reservoir. The physical and biodegradation processes in this study were found to play a crucial role in determining the fate and transport of atrazine and BPA in the reservoir. The model also provides an insight into the potential risk of emerging contaminants and possible mitigation thresholds. The integrated approach can be a very useful tool to support policy-makers in the future management of Qingcaosha Reservoir. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Optimization of Geothermal Well Placement under Geological Uncertainty (United States)

    Schulte, Daniel O.; Arnold, Dan; Demyanov, Vasily; Sass, Ingo; Geiger, Sebastian


    Well placement optimization is critical to commercial success of geothermal projects. However, uncertainties of geological parameters prohibit optimization based on a single scenario of the subsurface, particularly when few expensive wells are to be drilled. The optimization of borehole locations is usually based on numerical reservoir models to predict reservoir performance and entails the choice of objectives to optimize (total enthalpy, minimum enthalpy rate, production temperature) and the development options to adjust (well location, pump rate, difference in production and injection temperature). Optimization traditionally requires trying different development options on a single geological realization yet there are many possible different interpretations possible. Therefore, we aim to optimize across a range of representative geological models to account for geological uncertainty in geothermal optimization. We present an approach that uses a response surface methodology based on a large number of geological realizations selected by experimental design to optimize the placement of geothermal wells in a realistic field example. A large number of geological scenarios and design options were simulated and the response surfaces were constructed using polynomial proxy models, which consider both geological uncertainties and design parameters. The polynomial proxies were validated against additional simulation runs and shown to provide an adequate representation of the model response for the cases tested. The resulting proxy models allow for the identification of the optimal borehole locations given the mean response of the geological scenarios from the proxy (i.e. maximizing or minimizing the mean response). The approach is demonstrated on the realistic Watt field example by optimizing the borehole locations to maximize the mean heat extraction from the reservoir under geological uncertainty. The training simulations are based on a comprehensive semi

  17. Hydrography - HYDROGRAPHY_HIGHRES_WATERBODYDISCRETE_NHD_USGS: Lakes, Ponds, Reservoirs, Swamps, and Marshes in Watersheds of Indiana (U. S. Geological Survey, 1:24,000, Polygon Shapefile) (United States)

    NSGIC State | GIS Inventory — HYDROGRAPHY_HIGHRES_WATERBODYDISCRETE_NHD_USGS.SHP is a polygon shapefile that contains features of lakes, ponds, reservoirs, swamps and marshes in watersheds in and...

  18. Mathematical programming (MP) model to determine optimal transportation infrastructure for geologic CO2 storage in the Illinois basin (United States)

    Rehmer, Donald E.

    Analysis of results from a mathematical programming model were examined to 1) determine the least cost options for infrastructure development of geologic storage of CO2 in the Illinois Basin, and 2) perform an analysis of a number of CO2 emission tax and oil price scenarios in order to implement development of the least-cost pipeline networks for distribution of CO2. The model, using mixed integer programming, tested the hypothesis of whether viable EOR sequestration sites can serve as nodal points or hubs to expand the CO2 delivery infrastructure to more distal locations from the emissions sources. This is in contrast to previous model results based on a point-to- point model having direct pipeline segments from each CO2 capture site to each storage sink. There is literature on the spoke and hub problem that relates to airline scheduling as well as maritime shipping. A large-scale ship assignment problem that utilized integer linear programming was run on Excel Solver and described by Mourao et al., (2001). Other literature indicates that aircraft assignment in spoke and hub routes can also be achieved using integer linear programming (Daskin and Panayotopoulos, 1989; Hane et al., 1995). The distribution concept is basically the reverse of the "tree and branch" type (Rothfarb et al., 1970) gathering systems for oil and natural gas that industry has been developing for decades. Model results indicate that the inclusion of hubs as variables in the model yields lower transportation costs for geologic carbon dioxide storage over previous models of point-to-point infrastructure geometries. Tabular results and GIS maps of the selected scenarios illustrate that EOR sites can serve as nodal points or hubs for distribution of CO2 to distal oil field locations as well as deeper saline reservoirs. Revenue amounts and capture percentages both show an improvement over solutions when the hubs are not allowed to come into the solution. Other results indicate that geologic

  19. A three-dimensional gravity model of the geologic structure of Long Valley caldera

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carle, S.F.; Goldstein, N.E.


    Several attempts to define and interpret this anomaly have been made in the past using 2-D and 3-D models. None of the previous interpretations have yielded definitive results, but in fairness, the interpretation here has benefited from a larger gravity data base and more subsurface control than available to previous workers. All published 3-D models simplistically assumed constant density of fill. All 2-D models suffered from the inherent three-dimensionality of the complicated density structure of Long Valley caldera. In addition, previous interpreters have lacked access to geological data, such as well lithologies and density logs, seismic refraction interpretations, suface geology, and structural geology interpretations. The purpose of this study is to use all available gravity data and geological information to constrain a multi-unit, 3-D density model based on the geology of Long Valley caldera and its vicinity. Insights on the geologic structure of the caldera fill can help other geophysical interpretations in determining near-surface effects so that deeper structure may be resolved. With adequate control on the structure of the caldera fill, we are able to examine the gravity data for the presence of deeper density anomalies in the crust. 20 refs., 7 figs.

  20. Geostatistically consistent history matching of 3D oil-and-gas reservoir models (United States)

    Zakirov, E. S.; Indrupskiy, I. M.; Liubimova, O. V.; Shiriaev, I. M.; Anikeev, D. P.


    An approach for geostatistically consistent matching of 3D flow simulation models and 3D geological models is proposed. This approach uses an optimization algorithm based on identification of the parameters of the geostatistical model (for example, the variogram parameters, such as range, sill, and nugget effect). Here, the inverse problem is considered in the greatest generality taking into account facies heterogeneity and the variogram anisotropy. The correlation dependence parameters (porosity-to-log permeability) are clarified for each single facies.

  1. Modeling energy flow in a large Neotropical reservoir: a tool do evaluate fishing and stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronaldo Angelini

    Full Text Available Recently, there is an increasing perception that the ecosystem approach gives important insights to support fisheries stock assessment and management. This paper aims to quantify energy flows in the Itaipu Reservoir (Brazil and to simulate increase of the fishing effort of some species, using Ecopath with Ecosim software, which could allow inferences on stability. Therefore, two steady-state Itaipu models were built (1983-87 and 1988-92. Results showed that: a there are no differences between models, and results on aging trends do not vary over time indicating that fishery does not alter the ecosystem as a whole; b results of fisheries simulations are approximate to mono-specific stock assessment for the same species and periods; c many authors believe that tropical ecosystems are environments where biotic and abiotic oscillations are annual and sometimes unexpected, but the results found for the Itaipu Reservoir indicate that stability was met after 16 years.

  2. Analytical modeling of coupled flow and geomechanics for vertical fractured well in tight gas reservoirs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Ruifei


    Full Text Available The mathematical model of coupled flow and geomechanics for a vertical fractured well in tight gas reservoirs was established. The analytical modeling of unidirectional flow and radial flow was achieved by Laplace transforms and integral transforms. The results show that uncoupled flow would lead to an overestimate in performance of a vertical fractured well, especially in the later stage. The production rate decreases with elastic modulus because porosity and permeability decrease accordingly. Drawdown pressure should be optimized to lower the impact of coupled flow and geomechanics as a result of permeability decreasing. Production rate increases with fracture half-length significantly in the initial stage and becomes stable gradually. This study could provide a theoretical basis for effective development of tight gas reservoirs.

  3. Application of reservoir characterization and advanced technology to improve recovery and economic in a lower quality shallow shelf carbonate reservoir. First quarter 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, A.M.


    The focus of the project is to show that the use of advanced technology can improve the economics of CO{sub 2} projects in low permeability reservoirs. The approach involves the use of tomography, 3-D seismic and detailed petrophysical descriptions to enhance reservoir characterization. Cyclic CO{sub 2} stimulations and model designed frac treatments will be used to increase and facilitate oil recovery to improve project economics. The detailed reservoir characterization will be used to create a geological model for use in simulation to arrive at an optimum operating plan to be instituted during the second budget period. Objectives to be accomplished during the third quarter include: (1) Complete petrophysical description on cores from observation wells. (2) Apply petrophysical data to geologic model. (3) Conduct additional laboratory analysis on cores and fluids. (4) Refine 3-D seismic interpretations. (5) Complete tomography surveys. (6) Process tomography data. (7) Establish relationship between seismic and tomography interpretations. (8) Conduct preliminary simulator runs with improved geologic model. (9) Evaluate results of cyclic CO{sub 2} stimulation treatments. (10) Design frac treatment for linear flood fronts. All of the above objectives were worked on during the current quarter and the overall project is fairly well on schedule. The area of greatest concern time-wise is reservoir simulation. The simulator depends on the geologic model, which in turn depends on the petrophysical, 3-D seismic and tomography interpretations. Hence, the final geologic model won`t be available until all of the reservoir characterization work is completed.

  4. Modelling sub-daily latent heat fluxes from a small reservoir (United States)

    McGloin, Ryan; McGowan, Hamish; McJannet, David; Burn, Stewart


    Accurate methods of latent heat flux quantification are essential for water management and for use in hydrological and meteorological models. Currently the effect of small lakes in most numerical weather prediction modelling systems is either entirely ignored or crudely parameterized. In order to test methods for modelling hourly latent heat flux from small water bodies, this study compares results from several modelling approaches to values measured by the eddy covariance method at an agricultural reservoir in southeast Queensland, Australia. Mass transfer estimates of LE calculated using the theoretical mass transfer model and using the Tanny et al. (2008) and Sacks et al. (1994) bulk transfer coefficients showed the best relationship with measured values under a range of meteorological conditions. The theoretical model showed the strongest correlation with measured values, while the Tanny et al. (2008) and Sacks et al. (1994) models had regression equation slopes with the closest proximity to 1. Latent heat fluxes estimated using the Granger and Hedstrom (2011) evaporation model, that was specifically developed for use at small reservoirs, showed a poor relationship with measured values, particularly in stable atmospheric conditions. The 1-dimensional hydrodynamics model, DYRESM, was used to obtain predictions of hourly latent heat flux without the use of water surface temperature measurements. DYRESM estimates of latent heat flux showed a slightly worse relationship with measured values than those predicted using the traditional mass transfer models (which used measurements of water surface temperature). However, DYRESM performed considerably better than the Granger and Hedstrom (2011) model.

  5. Evaluation of flow regime of turbidity currents entering Dez Reservoir using extended shallow water model


    Valery Ivanovich ELFIMOV; Hamid KHAKZAD


    In this study, the performance of the extended shallow water model (ESWM) in evaluation of the flow regime of turbidity currents entering the Dez Reservoir was investigated. The continuity equations for fluid and particles and the Navier-Stokes equations govern the entire flow of turbidity currents. The shallow water equations governing the flow of the depositing phase of turbidity currents are derived from these equations. A case study was conducted on the flow regime of turbidity currents e...

  6. Proposed geologic model based on geophysical well logs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diaz C, S.; Puente C, I.; de la Pena L, A.


    An investigation of the subsurface based on a qualitative interpretation of well logs was carried out at Cerro Prieto to obtain information on the distribution of the different lithofacies that make up a deltaic depositional system. The sedimentological interpretation derived from the resistivity and spontaneous potential are shown in several cross-sections of the field. In addition to the sedimentological interpretation, a map of the structural geology of the region based on well logs and available geophysical information was prepared, including the results of gravity and seismic refraction surveys. The depth to the zone of hydrothermal alteration described by Elders (1980) was found by means of temperature, electrical, and radioactive logs. Two maps showing the configuration of the top of this anomaly show a clear correlation with the gravity anomalies found in the area.

  7. Processing-optimised imaging of analog geological models by electrical capacitance tomography (United States)

    Ortiz Alemán, C.; Espíndola-Carmona, A.; Hernández-Gómez, J. J.; Orozco Del Castillo, MG


    In this work, the electrical capacitance tomography (ECT) technique is applied in monitoring internal deformation of geological analog models, which are used to study structural deformation mechanisms, in particular for simulating migration and emplacement of allochtonous salt bodies. A rectangular ECT sensor was used for internal visualization of analog geologic deformation. The monitoring of analog models consists in the reconstruction of permittivity images from the capacitance measurements obtained by introducing the model inside the ECT sensor. A simulated annealing (SA) algorithm is used as a reconstruction method, and is optimized by taking full advantage of some special features in a linearized version of this inverse approach. As a second part of this work our SA image reconstruction algorithm is applied to synthetic models, where its performance is evaluated in comparison to other commonly used algorithms such as linear back-projection and iterative Landweber methods. Finally, the SA method is applied to visualise two simple geological analog models. Encouraging results were obtained in terms of the quality of the reconstructed images, as interfaces corresponding to main geological units in the analog model were clearly distinguishable in them. We found reliable results quite useful for real time non-invasive monitoring of internal deformation of analog geological models.

  8. Transient flowing-fluid temperature modeling in reservoirs with large drawdowns

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    N Chevarunotai; A R Hasan; C S Kabir; R Islam


    Modern downhole temperature measurements indicate that bottomhole fluid temperature can be significantly higher or lower than the original reservoir temperature, especially in reservoirs where high...

  9. Geologic conceptual model of the municipality of Sete Lagoas (MG, Brazil) and the surroundings. (United States)

    Galvão, Paulo; Hirata, Ricardo; Cordeiro, Arnaldo; Barbati, Daniela; Peñaranda, Jorge


    The study area is located in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil, among the municipalities of Pedro Leopoldo, Matozinhos, and Sete Lagoas, with Velhas River as the eastern boundary. It is located in the São Francisco Craton, where carbonated argillo-arenaceous sediments are emplaced giving origin to the Bambuí Group, in the São Francisco Basin. Despite the geological knowledge previously developed, the region needs work on integration and detailing of such information. For this reason, the main objective was to contribute to the quality of the geologic cartography, the spatial distribution, and the structural framework geometry. Thus, geologic mapping, aerial photography interpretation, and evaluation of 270 lithologic well profiles were carried out. It was possible to establish a new geologic perspective of the region by obtaining the detailed geologic map of the municipality of Sete Lagoas, 14 geologic cross sections, and a geologic conceptual model. The study showed that the area is within a basin border, presenting a geometry conditioned by horst and graben system controlled by faulting. This structural feature displaced stratigraphic sequences positioning them side by side with lithologic sequences with different ages.

  10. Geologic conceptual model of the municipality of Sete Lagoas (MG, Brazil and the surroundings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The study area is located in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil, among the municipalities of Pedro Leopoldo, Matozinhos, and Sete Lagoas, with Velhas River as the eastern boundary. It is located in the São Francisco Craton, where carbonated argillo-arenaceous sediments are emplaced giving origin to the Bambuí Group, in the São Francisco Basin. Despite the geological knowledge previously developed, the region needs work on integration and detailing of such information. For this reason, the main objective was to contribute to the quality of the geologic cartography, the spatial distribution, and the structural framework geometry. Thus, geologic mapping, aerial photography interpretation, and evaluation of 270 lithologic well profiles were carried out. It was possible to establish a new geologic perspective of the region by obtaining the detailed geologic map of the municipality of Sete Lagoas, 14 geologic cross sections, and a geologic conceptual model. The study showed that the area is within a basin border, presenting a geometry conditioned by horst and graben system controlled by faulting. This structural feature displaced stratigraphic sequences positioning them side by side with lithologic sequences with different ages.

  11. Hybrid Stochastic Forecasting Model for Management of Large Open Water Reservoir with Storage Function (United States)

    Kozel, Tomas; Stary, Milos


    The main advantage of stochastic forecasting is fan of possible value whose deterministic method of forecasting could not give us. Future development of random process is described better by stochastic then deterministic forecasting. Discharge in measurement profile could be categorized as random process. Content of article is construction and application of forecasting model for managed large open water reservoir with supply function. Model is based on neural networks (NS) and zone models, which forecasting values of average monthly flow from inputs values of average monthly flow, learned neural network and random numbers. Part of data was sorted to one moving zone. The zone is created around last measurement average monthly flow. Matrix of correlation was assembled only from data belonging to zone. The model was compiled for forecast of 1 to 12 month with using backward month flows (NS inputs) from 2 to 11 months for model construction. Data was got ridded of asymmetry with help of Box-Cox rule (Box, Cox, 1964), value r was found by optimization. In next step were data transform to standard normal distribution. The data were with monthly step and forecast is not recurring. 90 years long real flow series was used for compile of the model. First 75 years were used for calibration of model (matrix input-output relationship), last 15 years were used only for validation. Outputs of model were compared with real flow series. For comparison between real flow series (100% successfully of forecast) and forecasts, was used application to management of artificially made reservoir. Course of water reservoir management using Genetic algorithm (GE) + real flow series was compared with Fuzzy model (Fuzzy) + forecast made by Moving zone model. During evaluation process was founding the best size of zone. Results show that the highest number of input did not give the best results and ideal size of zone is in interval from 25 to 35, when course of management was almost same for

  12. Water quality control in Third River Reservoir (Argentina using geographical information systems and linear regression models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Ledesma


    Full Text Available Water quality is traditionally monitored and evaluated based upon field data collected at limited locations. The storage capacity of reservoirs is reduced by deposits of suspended matter. The major factors affecting surface water quality are suspended sediments, chlorophyll and nutrients. Modeling and monitoring the biogeochemical status of reservoirs can be done through data from remote sensors. Since the improvement of sensors’ spatial and spectral resolutions, satellites have been used to monitor the interior areas of bodies of water. Water quality parameters, such as chlorophyll-a concentration and secchi disk depth, were found to have a high correlation with transformed spectral variables derived from bands 1, 2, 3 and 4 of LANDSAT 5TM satellite. We created models of estimated responses in regard to values of chlorophyll-a. To do so, we used population models of single and multiple linear regression, whose parameters are associated with the reflectance data of bands 2 and 4 of the sub-image of the satellite, as well as the data of chlorophyll-a obtained in 25 selected stations. According to the physico-chemical analyzes performed, the characteristics of the water in the reservoir of Rio Tercero, correspond to somewhat hard freshwater with calcium bicarbonate. The water was classified as usable as a source of plant treatment, excellent for irrigation because of its low salinity and low residual sodium carbonate content, but unsuitable for animal consumption because of its low salt content.

  13. Trophic State and Toxic Cyanobacteria Density in Optimization Modeling of Multi-Reservoir Water Resource Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Sulis


    Full Text Available The definition of a synthetic index for classifying the quality of water bodies is a key aspect in integrated planning and management of water resource systems. In previous works [1,2], a water system optimization modeling approach that requires a single quality index for stored water in reservoirs has been applied to a complex multi-reservoir system. Considering the same modeling field, this paper presents an improved quality index estimated both on the basis of the overall trophic state of the water body and on the basis of the density values of the most potentially toxic Cyanobacteria. The implementation of the index into the optimization model makes it possible to reproduce the conditions limiting water use due to excessive nutrient enrichment in the water body and to the health hazard linked to toxic blooms. The analysis of an extended limnological database (1996–2012 in four reservoirs of the Flumendosa-Campidano system (Sardinia, Italy provides useful insights into the strengths and limitations of the proposed synthetic index.

  14. Trophic state and toxic cyanobacteria density in optimization modeling of multi-reservoir water resource systems. (United States)

    Sulis, Andrea; Buscarinu, Paola; Soru, Oriana; Sechi, Giovanni M


    The definition of a synthetic index for classifying the quality of water bodies is a key aspect in integrated planning and management of water resource systems. In previous works [1,2], a water system optimization modeling approach that requires a single quality index for stored water in reservoirs has been applied to a complex multi-reservoir system. Considering the same modeling field, this paper presents an improved quality index estimated both on the basis of the overall trophic state of the water body and on the basis of the density values of the most potentially toxic Cyanobacteria. The implementation of the index into the optimization model makes it possible to reproduce the conditions limiting water use due to excessive nutrient enrichment in the water body and to the health hazard linked to toxic blooms. The analysis of an extended limnological database (1996-2012) in four reservoirs of the Flumendosa-Campidano system (Sardinia, Italy) provides useful insights into the strengths and limitations of the proposed synthetic index.

  15. Modelling of water inflow to the Kolyma reservoir in historical and future climates (United States)

    Lebedeva, Liudmila; Makarieva, Olga; Ushakov, Mikhail


    Kolyma hydropower plant is the most important electricity producer in the Magadan region, North of Russian Far East. North-Eastern Russia has sparse hydrometeorological network. The density is one hydrological gauge per 10 250 km2. Assessment of water inflow to the Kolyma reservoir is complicated by mountainous relief with altitudes more than 2000 m a.s.l., continuous permafrost and sparse data. The study aimed at application of process-based hydrological model to simulate water inflow to the Kolyma reservoir in historical time period and according to projections of future climate. Watershed area of the Kolyma reservoir is 61 500 km2. Dominant landscapes are mountainous tundra and larch forest. The Hydrograph model used in the study explicitly simulates heat and water dynamics in the soil profile thus is able to reflect ground thawing/freezing and change of soil storage capacity through the summer in permafrost environments. The key model parameters are vegetation and soil properties that relate to land surface classes. They are assessed based on field observations and literature data, don't need calibration and could be transferred to other basins with similar landscapes. Model time step is daily, meteorological input are air temperature, precipitation and air moisture. Parameter set that was firstly developed in the small research basins of the Kolyma water-balance station was transferred to middle and large river basins in the region. Precipitation dependences on altitude and air temperature inversions are accounted for in the modelling routine. Successful model application to six river basins with areas from 65 to 42600 km2 within the watershed of the Kolyma reservoir suggests that simulation results for the water inflow to the reservoir are satisfactory. Modelling according to projections of future climate change showed that air temperature increase will likely lead to earlier snowmelt and lower freshet peaks but doesn't change total inflow volume. The study

  16. A Novel Integrated Approach to Modelling of Depletion-Induced Change in Full Permeability Tensor of Naturally Fractured Reservoirs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Izadi


    Full Text Available More than half of all hydrocarbon reservoirs are Naturally Fractured Reservoirs (NFRs, in which production forecasting is a complicated function of fluid flow in a fracture-matrix system. Modelling of fluid flow in NFRs is challenging due to formation heterogeneity and anisotropy. Stress sensitivity and depletion effect on already-complex reservoir permeability add to the sophistication. Horizontal permeability anisotropy and stress sensitivity are often ignored or inaccurately taken into account when simulating fluid flow in NFRs. The aim of this paper is to present an integrated approach for evaluating the dynamic and true anisotropic nature of permeability in naturally fractured reservoirs. Among other features, this approach considers the effect of reservoir depletion on reservoir permeability tensor, allowing more realistic production forecasts. In this approach the NFR is discretized into grids for which an analytical model yields full permeability tensors. Then, fluid flow is modelled using the finite-element method to obtain pore-pressure distribution within the reservoir. Next, another analytical model evaluates the change in the aperture of individual fractures as a function of effective stress and rock mechanical properties. The permeability tensor of each grid is then updated based on the apertures obtained for the current time step. The integrated model proceeds according to the next prescribed time increments.

  17. A dam-reservoir module for a semi-distributed hydrological model (United States)

    de Lavenne, Alban; Thirel, Guillaume; Andréassian, Vazken; Perrin, Charles; Ramos, Maria-Helena


    Developing modeling tools that help to assess the spatial distribution of water resources is a key issue to achieve better solutions for the optimal management of water availability among users in a river basin. Streamflow dynamics depends on (i) the spatial variability of rainfall, (ii) the heterogeneity of catchment behavior and response, and (iii) local human regulations (e.g., reservoirs) that store and control surface water. These aspects can be successfully handled by distributed or semi-distributed hydrological models. In this study, we develop a dam-reservoir module within a semi-distributed rainfall-runoff model (de Lavenne et al. 2016). The model runs at the daily time step, and has five parameters for each sub-catchment as well as a streamflow velocity parameter for flow routing. Its structure is based on two stores, one for runoff production and one for routing. The calibration of the model is performed from upstream to downstream sub-catchments, which efficiently uses spatially-distributed streamflow measurements. In a previous study, Payan et al. (2008) described a strategy to implement a dam module within a lumped rainfall-runoff model. Here we propose to adapt this strategy to a semi-distributed hydrological modelling framework. In this way, the specific location of existing reservoirs inside a river basin is explicitly accounted for. Our goal is to develop a tool that can provide answers to the different issues involved in spatial water management in human-influenced contexts and at large modelling scales. The approach is tested for the Seine basin in France. Results are shown for model performance with and without the dam module. Also, a comparison with the lumped GR5J model highlights the improvements obtained in model performance by considering human influences more explicitly, and by facilitating parameter identifiability. This work opens up new perspectives for streamflow naturalization analyses and scenario-based spatial assessment of water


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    P. Ortoleva; J. Comer; A. Park; D. Payne; W. Sibo; K. Tuncay


    Key natural gas reserves in Rocky Mountain and other U.S. basins are in reservoirs with economic producibility due to natural fractures. In this project, we evaluate a unique technology for predicting fractured reservoir location and characteristics ahead of drilling based on a 3-D basin/field simulator, Basin RTM. Recommendations are made for making Basin RTM a key element of a practical E&P strategy. A myriad of reaction, transport, and mechanical (RTM) processes underlie the creation, cementation and preservation of fractured reservoirs. These processes are often so strongly coupled that they cannot be understood individually. Furthermore, sedimentary nonuniformity, overall tectonics and basement heat flux histories make a basin a fundamentally 3-D object. Basin RTM is the only 3-D, comprehensive, fully coupled RTM basin simulator available for the exploration of fractured reservoirs. Results of Basin RTM simulations are presented, that demonstrate its capabilities and limitations. Furthermore, it is shown how Basin RTM is a basis for a revolutionary automated methodology for simultaneously using a range of remote and other basin datasets to locate reservoirs and to assess risk. Characteristics predicted by our model include reserves and composition, matrix and fracture permeability, reservoir rock strength, porosity, in situ stress and the statistics of fracture aperture, length and orientation. Our model integrates its input data (overall sedimentation, tectonic and basement heat flux histories) via the laws of physics and chemistry that describe the RTM processes to predict reservoir location and characteristics. Basin RTM uses 3-D, finite element solutions of the equations of rock mechanics, organic and inorganic diagenesis and multi-phase hydrology to make its predictions. As our model predicts reservoir characteristics, it can be used to optimize production approaches (e.g., assess the stability of horizontal wells or vulnerability of fractures to

  19. A Combined Thermodynamic and Kinetic Model for Barite Prediction at Oil Reservoir Conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhen Wu, Bi Yun

    of this research was to develop a model, based on thermodynamics and kinetics, for predicting barite precipitation rates in saline waters at the pressures and temperatures of oil bearing reservoirs, using the geochemical modelling code PHREEQC. This task is complicated by the conditions where traditional methods...... to calculate ion activity fail and for which barite reaction rates have not been determined. The model development consisted of three subprojects: first, to identify a consistent set of parameters to describe the thermodynamics of the Ba2+-SO42--H2O system at standard state conditions, based on detailed review...... observations. This information can help planning mitigation and optimise costs in oil production....

  20. Geometric modelling of channel present in reservoir petroleum using Bezier splines; Modelagem da geometria de paleocanais presentes em reservatorios petroliferos usando splines de Bezier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araujo, Carlos Eduardo S. [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande, PB (Brazil). Programa de Recursos Humanos 25 da ANP]. E-mail:; Silva, Rosana M. da [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande, PB (Brazil). Dept. de Matematica e Estatistica]. E-mail:


    This work presents an implementation of a synthetic model of a channel found in oil reservoir. The generation these models is one of the steps to the characterization and simulation of the equal probable three-dimensional geological scenery. O implemented model was obtained from fitting techniques of geometric modeling of curves and surfaces to the geological parameters (width, thickness, sinuosity and preferential direction) that defines the form to be modeled. The parameter sinuosity is related with the parameter wave length and the local amplitude of the channel, the parameter preferential direction indicates the way of the flow and the declivity of the channel. The modeling technique used to represent the surface of the channel is the sweeping technique, the consist in effectuate a translation operation from a curve along a guide curve. The guide curve, in our implementation, was generated by the interpolation of points obtained form sampled values or simulated of the parameter sinuosity, using the cubic splines of Bezier technique. A semi-ellipse, determinate by the parameter width and thickness, representing a transversal section of the channel, is the transferred curve through the guide curve, generating the channel surface. (author)

  1. Is the groundwater reservoir linear? Learning from data in hydrological modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Fenicia


    Full Text Available Although catchment behaviour during recession periods is better identifiable than in other periods, the representation of hydrograph recession is often weak in hydrological simulations. Among the various aspects that influence model performance during low flows, in this paper we concentrate on those more inherently related to the modelling, such as the development of a suitable model conceptualization, and the choice of an appropriate calibration strategy. In this context we develop a methodology where the calibration procedure is combined with an iterative process of model improvement, to obtain an optimal model configuration that performs well both during low flows and high flows. The methodology starts by calculating a synthetic master recession curve that represents the long-term recession of a given catchment. Subsequently, using a simple reservoir model, we determine the storage-discharge relation that simulates the slow hydrograph component. This relation is determined without making any a-priori assumption on its form and is inferred from discharge data available through an iterative process. Next, high flow related parameters are recalibrated separately, to avoid that the simulation of low discharges is neglected in favour of a higher performance in simulating peak discharges. This methodology is applied on several catchments in Luxembourg, and as a result we determined that in all catchments except one (where human interference is high within the chosen model structure a linear reservoir describes best the observed groundwater behaviour. This result is used to trigger a discussion as to the general suitability of the use of a linear groundwater reservoir in hydrological modelling.

  2. Three-dimensional geologic model of the southeastern Espanola Basin, Santa Fe County, New Mexico (United States)

    Pantea, Michael P.; Hudson, Mark R.; Grauch, V.J.S.; Minor, Scott A.


    This multimedia model and report show and describe digital three-dimensional faulted surfaces and volumes of lithologic units that confine and constrain the basin-fill aquifers within the Espanola Basin of north-central New Mexico. These aquifers are the primary groundwater resource for the cities of Santa Fe and Espanola, six Pueblo nations, and the surrounding areas. The model presented in this report is a synthesis of geologic information that includes (1) aeromagnetic and gravity data and seismic cross sections; (2) lithologic descriptions, interpretations, and geophysical logs from selected drill holes; (3) geologic maps, geologic cross sections, and interpretations; and (4) mapped faults and interpreted faults from geophysical data. Modeled faults individually or collectively affect the continuity of the rocks that contain the basin aquifers; they also help define the form of this rift basin. Structure, trend, and dip data not previously published were added; these structures are derived from interpretations of geophysical information and recent field observations. Where possible, data were compared and validated and reflect the complex relations of structures in this part of the Rio Grande rift. This interactive geologic framework model can be used as a tool to visually explore and study geologic structures within the Espanola Basin, to show the connectivity of geologic units of high and low permeability between and across faults, and to show approximate dips of the lithologic units. The viewing software can be used to display other data and information, such as drill-hole data, within this geologic framework model in three-dimensional space.

  3. Modeling mineral alterations in shale reservoirs in contact with CO2 (United States)

    Maier, Uli; Tatomir, Alexandru; Sauter, Martin


    Hydraulic fracturing as well as CO2 storage, if in contact with cap rocks, can lead to alterations of the mineral phase of shale reservoirs driven by the changes in fluid composition and pressure. Underlying concepts describing the shifts in geochemical equilibria are discussed for typical shale gas mineral compositions using the geochemical codes Phreeqc and MIN3P, which have recently been upgraded to cope with the conditions of pressure and temperature in deep reservoirs. Models using field data from Heletz oil field (Israel) and the North-west-German sedimentary basins are presented. Alterations of the mineral phase over time are elucidated and their consequences on flow and transport properties of the shale gas formation.

  4. Multi-objective game-theory models for conflict analysis in reservoir watershed management. (United States)

    Lee, Chih-Sheng


    This study focuses on the development of a multi-objective game-theory model (MOGM) for balancing economic and environmental concerns in reservoir watershed management and for assistance in decision. Game theory is used as an alternative tool for analyzing strategic interaction between economic development (land use and development) and environmental protection (water-quality protection and eutrophication control). Geographic information system is used to concisely illustrate and calculate the areas of various land use types. The MOGM methodology is illustrated in a case study of multi-objective watershed management in the Tseng-Wen reservoir, Taiwan. The innovation and advantages of MOGM can be seen in the results, which balance economic and environmental concerns in watershed management and which can be interpreted easily by decision makers. For comparison, the decision-making process using conventional multi-objective method to produce many alternatives was found to be more difficult. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Brittleness modelling of shale gas reservoir: Case study of Pematang formation, Central Sumatera basin (United States)

    Haris, A.; Iskandarsyah, Riyanto, A.


    The Pematang formation, which is located at Central Sumatera basin become the prospective shale gas reservoir in the Kisaran area. It is shown by a large potential amount of gas and oil in place. However, there is still a lack of information about the shale properties in this field so it becomes a big challenge for developing the shale gas exploration. Based on the core and petrophysical analysis, it is shown that the formation is dominated by shale and some part is laminated by sand layers. There is a significantly large deposit of shale underneath sand layer. This paper aims to perform the brittleness modeling, which is based on the integration of geophysical and geomechanical data. In the application, the brittleness distribution map is used to delineate the brittle zone of the shale reservoir that has potential to be fractured by using an artificial hydraulic fracturing. The brittleness modeling is performed by using Statistic Linear Gaussian Simulation (SLGS) approach based on the 3D seismic data and the well log data. The brittleness map shows that the potential shale reservoir to be fractured, which is indicated by brittleness index greater than 0.5, is distributed in the eastern part and the north-eastern part of the study area at the depth range of 6308 feet to 7432 feet.

  6. Modeling of land use and reservoir effects on nonpoint source pollution in a highly agricultural basin (United States)

    Wu, Yiping; Liu, Shu-Guang


    Nonpoint source (NPS) pollution is tightly linked to land use activities that determine the sources and magnitudes of pollutant loadings to stream water. The pollutant loads may also be alleviated within reservoirs because of the physical interception resulting from changed hydrological regimes and other biochemical processes. It is important but challenging to assess the NPS pollution processes with human effects due to the measurement limitations. The objective of this study is to evaluate the effects of human activities such as land uses and reservoir operation on the hydrological and NPS pollution processes in a highly agricultural area-the Iowa River Basin-using the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT). The evaluation of model performance at multiple sites reveals that SWAT can consistently simulate the daily streamflow, and monthly/annual sediment and nutrient loads (nitrate nitrogen and mineral phosphorus) in the basin. We also used the calibrated model to estimate the trap efficiencies of sediment (~78%) and nutrients (~30%) in the Coralville Reservoir within the basin. These non-negligible effects emphasize the significance of incorporating the sediment and nutrient removal mechanisms into watershed system studies. The spatial quantification of the critical NPS pollution loads can help identify hot-spot areas that are likely locations for the best management practices.

  7. Conversion of the Bayou Choctaw geological site characterization report to a three-dimensional model.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stein, Joshua S. (Sandia National Laboratories, Carlsbad, NM); Rautman, Christopher Arthur


    The geologic model implicit in the original site characterization report for the Bayou Choctaw Strategic Petroleum Reserve Site near Baton Rouge, Louisiana, has been converted to a numerical, computer-based three-dimensional model. The original site characterization model was successfully converted with minimal modifications and use of new information. The geometries of the salt diapir, selected adjacent sedimentary horizons, and a number of faults have been modeled. Models of a partial set of the several storage caverns that have been solution-mined within the salt mass are also included. Collectively, the converted model appears to be a relatively realistic representation of the geology of the Bayou Choctaw site as known from existing data. A small number of geometric inconsistencies and other problems inherent in 2-D vs. 3-D modeling have been noted. Most of the major inconsistencies involve faults inferred from drill hole data only. Modem computer software allows visualization of the resulting site model and its component submodels with a degree of detail and flexibility that was not possible with conventional, two-dimensional and paper-based geologic maps and cross sections. The enhanced visualizations may be of particular value in conveying geologic concepts involved in the Bayou Choctaw Strategic Petroleum Reserve site to a lay audience. A Microsoft WindowsTM PC-based viewer and user-manipulable model files illustrating selected features of the converted model are included in this report.

  8. Geostatistical simulation of geological architecture and uncertainty propagation in groundwater modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    He, Xiulan

    be compensated by model parameters, e.g. when hydraulic heads are considered. However, geological structure is the primary source of uncertainty with respect to simulations of groundwater age and capture zone. Operational MPS based software has been on stage for just around ten years; yet, issues regarding......Groundwater modeling plays an essential role in modern subsurface hydrology research. It’s generally recognized that simulations and predictions by groundwater models are associated with uncertainties that originate from various sources. The two major uncertainty sources are related to model...... geological structures of these three sites provided appropriate conditions for testing the methods. Our study documented that MPS is an efficient approach for simulating geological heterogeneity, especially for non-stationary system. The high resolution of geophysical data such as SkyTEM is valuable both...

  9. A machine learning approach to the potential-field method for implicit modeling of geological structures (United States)

    Gonçalves, Ítalo Gomes; Kumaira, Sissa; Guadagnin, Felipe


    Implicit modeling has experienced a rise in popularity over the last decade due to its advantages in terms of speed and reproducibility in comparison with manual digitization of geological structures. The potential-field method consists in interpolating a scalar function that indicates to which side of a geological boundary a given point belongs to, based on cokriging of point data and structural orientations. This work proposes a vector potential-field solution from a machine learning perspective, recasting the problem as multi-class classification, which alleviates some of the original method's assumptions. The potentials related to each geological class are interpreted in a compositional data framework. Variogram modeling is avoided through the use of maximum likelihood to train the model, and an uncertainty measure is introduced. The methodology was applied to the modeling of a sample dataset provided with the software Move™. The calculations were implemented in the R language and 3D visualizations were prepared with the rgl package.

  10. Presenting 3-D models of geological materials on the World Wide Web (United States)

    Marschallinger, R.; Johnson, S. E.


    In this article, we show how current World Wide Web technology can be used to present computerized 3-D models of geological materials. Unlike traditional, paper-based publishing, World Wide Web documents can incorporate several visualization techniques, some of which allow interactive user control. The concepts behind still images, animations, video sequences, object movies and virtual reality models are introduced. The advantages and pitfalls of the different visualization techniques are described, and their potential for the communication of 3-D models of geological materials is discussed. Web-resources providing the necessary browsing, playback and interaction software as well as specific authoring tools are referenced. In the HTML version of this article, which can be found on the accompanying CD-ROM, examples of 3-D macro- and microstructure reconstructions of geological materials are included as color images, animated sequences and interactive 3-D models.

  11. Fractured reservoir discrete feature network technologies. Annual report, March 7, 1996--February 28, 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dershowitz, W.S.; La Pointe, P.R.; Einstein, H.H.; Ivanova, V.


    This report describes progress on the project, {open_quotes}Fractured Reservoir Discrete Feature Network Technologies{close_quotes} during the period March 7, 1996 to February 28, 1997. The report presents summaries of technology development for the following research areas: (1) development of hierarchical fracture models, (2) fractured reservoir compartmentalization and tributary volume, (3) fractured reservoir data analysis, and (4) integration of fractured reservoir data and production technologies. In addition, the report provides information on project status, publications submitted, data collection activities, and technology transfer through the world wide web (WWW). Research on hierarchical fracture models included geological, mathematical, and computer code development. The project built a foundation of quantitative, geological and geometrical information about the regional geology of the Permian Basin, including detailed information on the lithology, stratigraphy, and fracturing of Permian rocks in the project study area (Tracts 17 and 49 in the Yates field). Based on the accumulated knowledge of regional and local geology, project team members started the interpretation of fracture genesis mechanisms and the conceptual modeling of the fracture system in the study area. Research on fractured reservoir compartmentalization included basic research, technology development, and application of compartmentalized reservoir analyses for the project study site. Procedures were developed to analyze compartmentalization, tributary drainage volume, and reservoir matrix block size. These algorithms were implemented as a Windows 95 compartmentalization code, FraCluster.

  12. Numerical Modeling and Investigation of Fluid-Driven Fracture Propagation in Reservoirs Based on a Modified Fluid-Mechanically Coupled Model in Two-Dimensional Particle Flow Code

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Zhou


    Full Text Available Hydraulic fracturing is a useful tool for enhancing rock mass permeability for shale gas development, enhanced geothermal systems, and geological carbon sequestration by the high-pressure injection of a fracturing fluid into tight reservoir rocks. Although significant advances have been made in hydraulic fracturing theory, experiments, and numerical modeling, when it comes to the complexity of geological conditions knowledge is still limited. Mechanisms of fluid injection-induced fracture initiation and propagation should be better understood to take full advantage of hydraulic fracturing. This paper presents the development and application of discrete particle modeling based on two-dimensional particle flow code (PFC2D. Firstly, it is shown that the modeled value of the breakdown pressure for the hydraulic fracturing process is approximately equal to analytically calculated values under varied in situ stress conditions. Furthermore, a series of simulations for hydraulic fracturing in competent rock was performed to examine the influence of the in situ stress ratio, fluid injection rate, and fluid viscosity on the borehole pressure history, the geometry of hydraulic fractures, and the pore-pressure field, respectively. It was found that the hydraulic fractures in an isotropic medium always propagate parallel to the orientation of the maximum principal stress. When a high fluid injection rate is used, higher breakdown pressure is needed for fracture propagation and complex geometries of fractures can develop. When a low viscosity fluid is used, fluid can more easily penetrate from the borehole into the surrounding rock, which causes a reduction of the effective stress and leads to a lower breakdown pressure. Moreover, the geometry of the fractures is not particularly sensitive to the fluid viscosity in the approximate isotropic model.

  13. Reactive Transport Modeling and Geophysical Monitoring of Bioclogging at Reservoir Scale (United States)

    Surasani, V.; Commer, M.; Ajo Franklin, J. B.; Li, L.; Hubbard, S. S.


    In Microbial-Enhanced-Hydrocarbon-Recovery (MEHR), preferential bioclogging targets the growth of the biofilms (def. immobilized biopolymers with active cells embodied in it) in highly permeable thief zones to enhance sweep efficiency in oil reservoirs. During MEHR, understanding and controlling bioclogging is hindered by the lack of advanced modeling and monitoring tools; these deficiencies contribute to suboptimal performance. Our focus in this study was on developing a systematic approach to understand and monitor bioclogging at the reservoir scale using a combination of reactive transport modeling and geophysical imaging tools (EM & seismic). In this study, we created a realistic reservoir model from a heterogeneous gas reservoir in the Southern Sacramento basin, California; the model well (Citizen Green #1) was characterized using sonic, electrical, nuclear, and NMR logs for hydrologic and geophysical properties. From the simplified 2D log data model, a strip of size 150m x75m with several high permeability streaks is identified for bioclogging simulation experiments. From the NMR log data it is observed that a good linear correlation exist between logarithmic permeability (0.55- 3.34 log (mD)) versus porosity (0.041-0.28). L. mesenteroides was chosen as the model bacteria. In the presence of sucrose, it enzymatically catalyzes the production of dextran, a useful bioclogging agent. Using microbial kinetics from our laboratory experiment and reservoir heterogeneity, a reactive transport model (RTM) is established for two kinds of bioclogging treatments based on whether microbes are present in situ or are supplied externally. In both cases, sucrose media (1.5 M) is injected at the rate of 1 liter/s for 20 days into the center of high permeable strip to stimulate microbes. Simulations show that the high dextran production was deep into the formation from the injection well. This phenomenon can be explained precisely with bacterial kinetics and injection rate. In

  14. Use of GRASP, a finite element program, to model faulted gas reservoir of the southern North Sea Basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collins, P.A.; Goldwater, M.H.; Taylor, B.A.


    This study describes a single-phase, 2-dimensional reservoir simulation program called GRASP (gas reservoir areal simulation program) and its use in modeling gas reservoirs in the southern North Sea. The design of the program is outlined, placing special emphasis on those features which have proved to be of greatest value during its application to various gas fields. These include the ability to describe pressure discontinuities across faults and overlapping gas-bearing strata within the context of a 2-dimensional model. The provision of a network analysis model to describe the surface gathering system allows the program to be used either for history matching or for predicting the future reservoir behavior. In the latter case, facilities are provided which allow the consequences of different operating strategies to be investigated. GRASP has been designed, not as a research tool, but as a practical aid to reservoir analysis. Most published applications of finite element methods have considered only small regular reservoirs. In the present study, particular attention is directed toward the difficulties encountered in designing a program capable of describing large, realistic reservoirs. 14 references.

  15. Setting up The Geological information and modelling Thematic Core Service for EPOS (United States)

    Grellet, Sylvain; Häner, Rainer; Pedersen, Mikael; Lorenz, Henning; Carter, Mary; Cipolloni, Carlo; Robida, François


    Geological data and models are key assets for the EPOS community. The Geological information and modelling Thematic Core Service of EPOS is being designed as an efficient and sustainable access system for geological multi-scale data assets for EPOS through the integration of distributed infrastructure components (nodes) of geological surveys, research institutes and the international drilling community (ICDP/IODP). The TCS will develop and take benefit of the synergy between the existing data infrastructures of the Geological Surveys of Europe (EuroGeoSurveys / OneGeology-Europe / EGDI) and of the large amount of information produced by the research organisations. These nodes will offer a broad range of resources including: geological maps, borehole data, borehole associated observations (borehole log data, groundwater level, groundwater quality…) and archived information on physical material (samples, cores), geological models (3D, 4D), geohazards, geophysical data such as active seismic data and other analyses of rocks, soils and minerals. The services will be implemented based on international standards (such as INSPIRE, IUGS/CGI, OGC, W3C, ISO) in order to guarantee their interoperability with other EPOS TCS as well as their compliance with INSPIRE European Directive or international initiatives (such as OneGeology). We present the implementation of the thematic core services for geology and modelling, including scheduling of the development of the different components. The activity with the OGC groups already started in 2016 through an ad-hoc meeting on Borehole and 3D/4D and the way both will be interlinked will also be introduced. This will provide future virtual research environments with means to facilitate the use of existing information for future applications. In addition, workflows will be established that allow the integration of other existing and new data and applications. Processing and the use of simulation and visualization tools will

  16. Integrated workflow for characterizing and modeling fracture network in unconventional reservoirs using microseismic data (United States)

    Ayatollahy Tafti, Tayeb

    We develop a new method for integrating information and data from different sources. We also construct a comprehensive workflow for characterizing and modeling a fracture network in unconventional reservoirs, using microseismic data. The methodology is based on combination of several mathematical and artificial intelligent techniques, including geostatistics, fractal analysis, fuzzy logic, and neural networks. The study contributes to scholarly knowledge base on the characterization and modeling fractured reservoirs in several ways; including a versatile workflow with a novel objective functions. Some the characteristics of the methods are listed below: 1. The new method is an effective fracture characterization procedure estimates different fracture properties. Unlike the existing methods, the new approach is not dependent on the location of events. It is able to integrate all multi-scaled and diverse fracture information from different methodologies. 2. It offers an improved procedure to create compressional and shear velocity models as a preamble for delineating anomalies and map structures of interest and to correlate velocity anomalies with fracture swarms and other reservoir properties of interest. 3. It offers an effective way to obtain the fractal dimension of microseismic events and identify the pattern complexity, connectivity, and mechanism of the created fracture network. 4. It offers an innovative method for monitoring the fracture movement in different stages of stimulation that can be used to optimize the process. 5. Our newly developed MDFN approach allows to create a discrete fracture network model using only microseismic data with potential cost reduction. It also imposes fractal dimension as a constraint on other fracture modeling approaches, which increases the visual similarity between the modeled networks and the real network over the simulated volume.

  17. Reservoir observers: Model-free inference of unmeasured variables in chaotic systems. (United States)

    Lu, Zhixin; Pathak, Jaideep; Hunt, Brian; Girvan, Michelle; Brockett, Roger; Ott, Edward


    Deducing the state of a dynamical system as a function of time from a limited number of concurrent system state measurements is an important problem of great practical utility. A scheme that accomplishes this is called an "observer." We consider the case in which a model of the system is unavailable or insufficiently accurate, but "training" time series data of the desired state variables are available for a short period of time, and a limited number of other system variables are continually measured. We propose a solution to this problem using networks of neuron-like units known as "reservoir computers." The measurements that are continually available are input to the network, which is trained with the limited-time data to output estimates of the desired state variables. We demonstrate our method, which we call a "reservoir observer," using the Rössler system, the Lorenz system, and the spatiotemporally chaotic Kuramoto-Sivashinsky equation. Subject to the condition of observability (i.e., whether it is in principle possible, by any means, to infer the desired unmeasured variables from the measured variables), we show that the reservoir observer can be a very effective and versatile tool for robustly reconstructing unmeasured dynamical system variables.

  18. Reservoir observers: Model-free inference of unmeasured variables in chaotic systems (United States)

    Lu, Zhixin; Pathak, Jaideep; Hunt, Brian; Girvan, Michelle; Brockett, Roger; Ott, Edward


    Deducing the state of a dynamical system as a function of time from a limited number of concurrent system state measurements is an important problem of great practical utility. A scheme that accomplishes this is called an "observer." We consider the case in which a model of the system is unavailable or insufficiently accurate, but "training" time series data of the desired state variables are available for a short period of time, and a limited number of other system variables are continually measured. We propose a solution to this problem using networks of neuron-like units known as "reservoir computers." The measurements that are continually available are input to the network, which is trained with the limited-time data to output estimates of the desired state variables. We demonstrate our method, which we call a "reservoir observer," using the Rössler system, the Lorenz system, and the spatiotemporally chaotic Kuramoto-Sivashinsky equation. Subject to the condition of observability (i.e., whether it is in principle possible, by any means, to infer the desired unmeasured variables from the measured variables), we show that the reservoir observer can be a very effective and versatile tool for robustly reconstructing unmeasured dynamical system variables.

  19. Evaluating Geothermal Potential in Germany by Numerical Reservoir Modeling of Engineered Geothermal Systems (United States)

    Jain, Charitra; Vogt, Christian; Clauser, Christoph


    We model hypothetical Engineered Geothermal System (EGS) reservoirs by solving coupled partial differential equations governing fluid flow and heat transport. Building on EGS's strengths of inherent modularity and storage capability, it is possible to implement multiple wells in the reservoir to extend the rock volume accessible for circulating water in order to increase the heat yield. By varying parameters like flow rates and well-separations in the subsurface, this study looks at their long-term impacts on the reservoir development. This approach allows us to experiment with different placements of the engineered fractures and propose several EGS layouts for achieving optimized heat extraction. Considering the available crystalline area and accounting for the competing land uses, this study evaluates the overall EGS potential and compares it with those of other used renewables in Germany. There is enough area to support 13450 EGS plants, each with six reversed-triplets (18 wells) and an average electric power of 35.3MWe. When operated at full capacity, these systems can collectively supply 4155TWh of electric energy in one year which would be roughly six times the electric energy produced in Germany in the year 2011. Engineered Geothermal Systems make a compelling case for contributing towards national power production in a future powered by a sustainable, decentralized energy system.

  20. Integrated hydrologic and hydrodynamic modeling to assess water exchange in a data-scarce reservoir (United States)

    Wu, Binbin; Wang, Guoqiang; Wang, Zhonggen; Liu, Changming; Ma, Jianming


    Integrated hydrologic and hydrodynamic modeling is useful in evaluating hydrodynamic characteristics (e.g. water exchange processes) in data-scarce water bodies, however, most studies lack verification of the hydrologic model. Here, water exchange (represented by water age) was investigated through integrated hydrologic and hydrodynamic modeling of the Hongfeng Reservoir, a poorly gauged reservoir in southwest China. The performance of the hydrologic model and parameter replacement among sub-basins with hydrological similarity was verified by historical data. Results showed that hydrological similarity based on the hierarchical cluster analysis and topographic index probability density distribution was reliable with satisfactory performance of parameter replacement. The hydrodynamic model was verified using daily water levels and water temperatures from 2009 and 2010. The water exchange processes in the Hongfeng Reservoir are very complex with temporal, vertical, and spatial variations. The temporal water age was primarily controlled by the variable inflow and outflow, and the maximum and minimum ages for the site near the dam were 406.10 d (15th June) and 90.74 d (3rd August), respectively, in 2010. Distinct vertical differences in water age showed that surface flow, interflow, and underflow appeared alternately, depending on the season and water depth. The worst water exchange situation was found in the central areas of the North Lake with the highest water ages in the bottom on both 15th June and 3rd August, in 2010. Comparison of the spatial water ages revealed that the more favorable hydraulic conditions on 3rd August mainly improved the water exchange in the dam areas and most areas of the South Lake, but had little effect on the bottom layers of the other deepest areas in the South and North Lakes. The presented framework can be applied in other data-scarce waterbodies worldwide to provide better understanding of water exchange processes.

  1. Two-dimensional numerical modelling of dissolved and particulate pollutant transport in the Three Gorges Reservoir (United States)

    Hu, W.; Wang, L.-J.; Chen, H.; Holbach, A.; Zheng, B.-H.; Norra, S.; Westrich, B.


    After impoundment of the Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR) in 2003, hydrological regimes of the Yangtze River, upstream and downstream of the Three Gorges Dam, have been changed enormously, leading to significant environmental, ecological and social impacts. Nutrients and pollutants from agriculture, industry and municipalities are of concern due to their impact on the aquatic environment and hence, transport behavior of sediment associated pollutants must be modeled and analyzed to establish a sustainable water reservoir management. As part of the Chinese-German Yangtze-Project [1], two-dimensional numerical model TELEMAC is applied to study the dissolved and particulate pollutant transport at different locations of concern in the TGR. In-situ measurement campaigns for morphology and water quality data using mobile measuring device (MINIBAT) are carried out to provide detailed information for the different water bodies at different time. Additional morphological data are taken from cross-section profiles in the literature, the digital elevation model (DEM) of Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) from CGIAR. Daily and hourly water level and discharge, suspended sediment concentration and pollutant loads are obtained from the authorities and extracted from literature. The model describes the spatial-temporal flow field, transport and dispersion of sediment associated pollutants with emphasis on the dynamic interaction and mutual influence of the river Yangtze, its major tributaries and adjacent lagoon-like dead water bodies due to the 30 meter annual reservoir water level fluctuation. Since algae bloom, especially in the tributaries and side arms of the mainstream, is one of the major issues occurred after 2003, the results of the numerical modeling together with the statistical analysis of the MINIBAT measurements are used for the eutrophication status analysis. Acknowledgments The Yangtze-Project is funded by the Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF

  2. Modeling Highly Buoyant Flows in the Castel Giorgio: Torre Alfina Deep Geothermal Reservoir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giorgio Volpi


    Full Text Available The Castel Giorgio-Torre Alfina (CG-TA, central Italy is a geothermal reservoir whose fluids are hosted in a carbonate formation at temperatures ranging between 120°C and 210°C. Data from deep wells suggest the existence of convective flow. We present the 3D numerical model of the CG-TA to simulate the undisturbed natural geothermal field and investigate the impacts of the exploitation process. The open source finite-element code OpenGeoSys is applied to solve the coupled systems of partial differential equations. The commercial software FEFLOW® is also used as additional numerical constraint. Calculated pressure and temperature have been calibrated against data from geothermal wells. The flow field displays multicellular convective patterns that cover the entire geothermal reservoir. The resulting thermal plumes protrude vertically over 3 km at Darcy velocity of about 7⁎10-8 m/s. The analysis of the exploitation process demonstrated the sustainability of a geothermal doublet for the development of a 5 MW pilot plant. The buoyant circulation within the geothermal system allows the reservoir to sustain a 50-year production at a flow rate of 1050 t/h. The distance of 2 km, between the production and reinjection wells, is sufficient to prevent any thermal breakthrough within the estimated operational lifetime. OGS and FELFOW results are qualitatively very similar with differences in peak velocities and temperatures. The case study provides valuable guidelines for future exploitation of the CG-TA deep geothermal reservoir.

  3. Characterization of oil and gas reservoir heterogeneity. Annual report, November 1, 1990--October 31, 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    The objective of the cooperative research program is to characterize Alaskan reservoirs in terms of their reserves, physical and chemical properties, geologic configuration and structure, and the development potential. The tasks completed during this period include: (1) geologic reservoir description of Endicott Field; (2) petrographic characterization of core samples taken from selected stratigraphic horizons of the West Sak and Ugnu (Brookian) wells; (3) development of a polydispersed thermodynamic model for predicting asphaltene equilibria and asphaltene precipitation from crude oil-solvent mixtures, and (4) preliminary geologic description of the Milne Point Unit.

  4. Sweet spot identification in underexplored shales using multidisciplinary reservoir characterization and key performance indicators : Example of the Posidonia Shale Formation in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ter Heege, Jan; Zijp, Mart; Nelskamp, Susanne; Douma, Lisanne; Verreussel, Roel; Ten Veen, Johan; de Bruin, Geert; Peters, Rene


    Sweet spot identification in underexplored shale gas basins needs to be based on a limited amount of data on shale properties in combination with upfront geological characterization and modelling, because actual production data is usually absent. Multidisciplinary reservoir characterization and

  5. Sweet spot identification in underexplored shales using multidisciplinary reservoir characterization and key performance indicators: example of the Posidonia Shale Formation in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heege, J.H. ter; Zijp, M.H.A.A.; Nelskamp, S.; Douma, L.A.N.R.; Verreussel, R.M.C.H.; Veen, J.H. ten; Bruin, G. de; Peters, M.C.A.M.


    Sweet spot identification in underexplored shale gas basins needs to be based on a limited amount of data on shale properties in combination with upfront geological characterization and modelling, because actual production data is usually absent. Multidisciplinary reservoir characterization and

  6. Opportunities to improve oil productivity in unstructured deltaic reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    This report contains presentations presented at a technical symposium on oil production. Chapter 1 contains summaries of the presentations given at the Department of Energy (DOE)-sponsored symposium and key points of the discussions that followed. Chapter 2 characterizes the light oil resource from fluvial-dominated deltaic reservoirs in the Tertiary Oil Recovery Information System (TORIS). An analysis of enhanced oil recovery (EOR) and advanced secondary recovery (ASR) potential for fluvial-dominated deltaic reservoirs based on recovery performance and economic modeling as well as the potential resource loss due to well abandonments is presented. Chapter 3 provides a summary of the general reservoir characteristics and properties within deltaic deposits. It is not exhaustive treatise, rather it is intended to provide some basic information about geologic, reservoir, and production characteristics of deltaic reservoirs, and the resulting recovery problems.

  7. A reservoir morphology database for the conterminous United States (United States)

    Rodgers, Kirk D.


    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Reservoir Fisheries Habitat Partnership, combined multiple national databases to create one comprehensive national reservoir database and to calculate new morphological metrics for 3,828 reservoirs. These new metrics include, but are not limited to, shoreline development index, index of basin permanence, development of volume, and other descriptive metrics based on established morphometric formulas. The new database also contains modeled chemical and physical metrics. Because of the nature of the existing databases used to compile the Reservoir Morphology Database and the inherent missing data, some metrics were not populated. One comprehensive database will assist water-resource managers in their understanding of local reservoir morphology and water chemistry characteristics throughout the continental United States.

  8. Marine and fluvial facies modelling at petroleum reservoir scale; Modelisation des heterogeneites lithologiques a l'echelle du reservoir petrolier en milieu marin et fluviatile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leflon, B.


    When modelling a petroleum reservoir, well data are very useful to model properties at a sub-seismic scale. Petrophysical properties like porosity or permeability are linked to the rock-type. Two methods based on well data have been developed to model facies. The first one is used to model marine carbonates deposits. The geometry of sedimentary layers is modelled through a special parameterization of the reservoir similar to Wheeler space. The time parameter is defined along the well paths thanks to correlations. The layer thickness is then extrapolated between wells. A given relationship between facies and bathymetry of sedimentation makes it possible to compute bathymetry along the well paths. Bathymetry is then extrapolated from wells and a reference map using the concept of accommodation. The model created this way is stratigraphically consistent. Facies simulation can then be constrained by the computed bathymetry. The second method describes a novel approach to fluvial reservoirs modelling. The core of the method lies in the association of a fairway with the channels to be simulated. Fairways are positioned so that all data are taken in account; they can be stochastic if unknown or explicitly entered if identified on seismic data. A potential field is defined within the fairway. Specifying a transfer function to map this potential field to thickness results in generating a channel inside the fairway. A residual component is stochastically simulated and added to the potential field creating realistic channel geometries. Conditioning to well data is obtained by applying the inverse transfer function at the data location to derive thickness values that will constrain the simulation of residuals. (author)


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul La Pointe; Jan Hermanson; Robert Parney; Thorsten Eiben; Mike Dunleavy; Ken Steele; John Whitney; Darrell Eubanks; Roger Straub


    This report describes the results made in fulfillment of contract DE-FG26-00BC15190, ''3-D Reservoir and Stochastic Fracture Network Modeling for Enhanced Oil Recovery, Circle Ridge Phosphoria/Tensleep Reservoir, Wind River Reservation, Arapaho and Shoshone Tribes, Wyoming''. The goal of this project is to improve the recovery of oil from the Tensleep and Phosphoria Formations in Circle Ridge Oilfield, located on the Wind River Reservation in Wyoming, through an innovative integration of matrix characterization, structural reconstruction, and the characterization of the fracturing in the reservoir through the use of discrete fracture network models. Fields in which natural fractures dominate reservoir permeability, such as the Circle Ridge Field, often experience sub-optimal recovery when recovery processes are designed and implemented that do not take advantage of the fracture systems. For example, a conventional waterflood in a main structural block of the Field was implemented and later suspended due to unattractive results. It is estimated that somewhere less than 20% of the OOIP in the Circle Ridge Field have been recovered after more than 50 years' production. Marathon Oil Company identified the Circle Ridge Field as an attractive candidate for several advanced IOR processes that explicitly take advantage of the natural fracture system. These processes require knowledge of the distribution of matrix porosity, permeability and oil saturations; and understanding of where fracturing is likely to be well-developed or poorly developed; how the fracturing may compartmentalize the reservoir; and how smaller, relatively untested subthrust fault blocks may be connected to the main overthrust block. For this reason, the project focused on improving knowledge of the matrix properties, the fault block architecture and to develop a model that could be used to predict fracture intensity, orientation and fluid flow/connectivity properties. Knowledge

  10. Numerical Modeling of Fluid Migration and Propagation of Multiple Hydraulic Fractures in Crystalline Geothermal Reservoir (United States)

    Yoon, Jeoung Seok; Zang, Arno; Zimmermann, Günter; Stephansson, Ove; Min, Ki-Bok


    This paper presents discrete element based numerical model which is applied to simulation of multiple stage hydraulic fracturing in crystalline granitic geothermal reservoir. Target site modeled locates in south of state of Saxony Germany. Particle Flow Code 2D (Itasca) is used in which fluid flow algorithm and moment tensor based seismicity computation algorithm are implemented. Crystalline rock layer to be stimulated locates at 4-6 km depth with relative low density of pre-existing joints and faults. Hydraulic stimulation is modeled with five stages of fluid injection with distance of several hundreds of meters. Hydraulic fracturing is done on the stages from toe to heel direction along a series of sub-horizontally drilled wellbore with constant rate of fluid injection. Fracture propagation paths and induced seismic events are documented based on their time of occurrence and their magnitude. In addition to the evolution of the fracture propagation path and distribution of the induced events, migration of the injected fluid is investigated in space and time. This is to see how the results relate to the fluid migration front in low permeability crystalline reservoir subjected to multiple stage hydraulic fracturing. Moreover, this paper addresses advantages and disadvantages of the inclined drilling of the wellbore in low permeability reservoir and multi-stage fracturing setting. We try to seek an optimum inclination of the drilling in relation to the gradients and magnitudes of the in situ stresses, which are horizontal minimum and vertical stresses. Preliminary modeling results show that inclination angle of the drilling has a significant effect on lowering of the stress shadow effect and level of induced seismicity in terms of total number, magnitudes and the Gutenberg-Richter relation.

  11. Construction of 3-D geologic framework and textural models for Cuyama Valley groundwater basin, California (United States)

    Sweetkind, Donald S.; Faunt, Claudia C.; Hanson, Randall T.


    Groundwater is the sole source of water supply in Cuyama Valley, a rural agricultural area in Santa Barbara County, California, in the southeasternmost part of the Coast Ranges of California. Continued groundwater withdrawals and associated water-resource management concerns have prompted an evaluation of the hydrogeology and water availability for the Cuyama Valley groundwater basin by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Water Agency Division of the Santa Barbara County Department of Public Works. As a part of the overall groundwater evaluation, this report documents the construction of a digital three-dimensional geologic framework model of the groundwater basin suitable for use within a numerical hydrologic-flow model. The report also includes an analysis of the spatial variability of lithology and grain size, which forms the geologic basis for estimating aquifer hydraulic properties. The geologic framework was constructed as a digital representation of the interpreted geometry and thickness of the principal stratigraphic units within the Cuyama Valley groundwater basin, which include younger alluvium, older alluvium, and the Morales Formation, and underlying consolidated bedrock. The framework model was constructed by creating gridded surfaces representing the altitude of the top of each stratigraphic unit from various input data, including lithologic and electric logs from oil and gas wells and water wells, cross sections, and geologic maps. Sediment grain-size data were analyzed in both two and three dimensions to help define textural variations in the Cuyama Valley groundwater basin and identify areas with similar geologic materials that potentially have fairly uniform hydraulic properties. Sediment grain size was used to construct three-dimensional textural models that employed simple interpolation between drill holes and two-dimensional textural models for each stratigraphic unit that incorporated spatial structure of the textural data.

  12. Geological maps and models: are we certain how uncertain they are? (United States)

    Mathers, Steve; Waters, Colin; McEvoy, Fiona


    Geological maps and latterly 3D models provide the spatial framework for geology at diverse scales or resolutions. As demands continue to rise for sustainable use of the subsurface, use of these maps and models is informing decisions on management of natural resources, hazards and environmental change. Inaccuracies and uncertainties in geological maps and models can impact substantially on the perception, assessment and management of opportunities and the associated risks . Lithostratigraphical classification schemes predominate, and are used in most geological mapping and modelling. The definition of unit boundaries, as 2D lines or 3D surfaces is the prime objective. The intervening area or volume is rarely described other than by its bulk attributes, those relating to the whole unit. Where sufficient data exist on the spatial and/or statistical distribution of properties it can be gridded or voxelated with integrity. Here we only discuss the uncertainty involved in defining the boundary conditions. The primary uncertainty of any geological map or model is the accuracy of the geological boundaries, i.e. tops, bases, limits, fault intersections etc. Traditionally these have been depicted on BGS maps using three line styles that reflect the uncertainty of the boundary, e.g. observed, inferred, conjectural. Most geological maps tend to neglect the subsurface expression (subcrops etc). Models could also be built with subsurface geological boundaries (as digital node strings) tagged with levels of uncertainty; initial experience suggests three levels may again be practicable. Once tagged these values could be used to autogenerate uncertainty plots. Whilst maps are predominantly explicit and based upon evidence and the conceptual the understanding of the geologist, models of this type are less common and tend to be restricted to certain software methodologies. Many modelling packages are implicit, being driven by simple statistical interpolation or complex algorithms

  13. Inverse Problems in Geosciences: Modelling the Rock Properties of an Oil Reservoir

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lange, Katrine

    to handle the large scale problems of the petroleum industry. But for now most of the study is based on simplified and idealised models. We have proposed a method for efficient and accurate interpolation of rock properties from seismic data. It is based on a recently published paper on interpolation of rock...... the method can be further improved by an orthogonal transformation of the attribute space. We have formulated a closed form expression of an a priori probability density function that quantifies the statistical probability of models describing the rock properties of a reservoir. This can be used to evaluate...... the probability that a model adhere to prior knowledge by having specific multiple-point statistics, for instance, learned from a training image. Existing methods efficiently sample an a priori probability density function to create a set of acceptable models; but they cannot evaluate the probability of a model...

  14. Forward modeling of seepage of reservoir dam based on ground penetrating radar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xueli WU


    Full Text Available The risk of the reservoir dam seepage will bring the waste of water resources and the loss of life and property. The ground penetrating radar (GPR is designed as a daily inspection system of dams to improve the existing technology which can't determine the actual situation of the dam seepage tunnel coordinates. The finite difference time domain (FDTD is used to solve the Yee's grids discreatization in two-dimensional space, and its electromagnetic distribution equation is obtained as well. Based on the actual structure of reservoir dam foundation, the ideal model of air layer, concrete layer, clay layer and two water seepage holes is described in detail, and the concrete layer interference model with limestone interference point is established. The system architecture is implemented by using MATLAB, and the forward modeling is performed. The results indicate that ground penetrating radar can be used for deep target detection. Through comparing the detection spectrum of three kinds of frequency electromagnetic wave by changing the center frequency of the GPR electromagnetic wave of 50 MHz, 100 MHz and 200 MHz, it is concluded that the scanning result is more accurate at 100 MHz. At the same time, the simulation results of the interference model show that this method can be used for the detection of complex terrain.

  15. Modeling of Gas Production from Shale Reservoirs Considering Multiple Transport Mechanisms. (United States)

    Guo, Chaohua; Wei, Mingzhen; Liu, Hong


    Gas transport in unconventional shale strata is a multi-mechanism-coupling process that is different from the process observed in conventional reservoirs. In micro fractures which are inborn or induced by hydraulic stimulation, viscous flow dominates. And gas surface diffusion and gas desorption should be further considered in organic nano pores. Also, the Klinkenberg effect should be considered when dealing with the gas transport problem. In addition, following two factors can play significant roles under certain circumstances but have not received enough attention in previous models. During pressure depletion, gas viscosity will change with Knudsen number; and pore radius will increase when the adsorption gas desorbs from the pore wall. In this paper, a comprehensive mathematical model that incorporates all known mechanisms for simulating gas flow in shale strata is presented. The objective of this study was to provide a more accurate reservoir model for simulation based on the flow mechanisms in the pore scale and formation geometry. Complex mechanisms, including viscous flow, Knudsen diffusion, slip flow, and desorption, are optionally integrated into different continua in the model. Sensitivity analysis was conducted to evaluate the effect of different mechanisms on the gas production. The results showed that adsorption and gas viscosity change will have a great impact on gas production. Ignoring one of following scenarios, such as adsorption, gas permeability change, gas viscosity change, or pore radius change, will underestimate gas production.

  16. Sediment trapping analysis of flood control reservoirs in Upstream Ciliwung River using SWAT Model (United States)

    Rofiq Ginanjar, Mirwan; Putra, Santosa Sandy


    The plans of Sukamahi dam and Ciawi dam construction for Jakarta flood risk reduction purpose had been proposed as feasible solutions to be implemented. However, the risk of the dam outlets clogging, caused by the sediment, is important to be anticipated. The prediction of the max sediment concentration in the reservoir is crucial for the dam operation planning. It is important to avoid the flood outlet tunnel clogging. This paper present a hydrologic sediment budget model of The Upstream Ciliwung River Basin, with flood control dam existence scenarios. The model was constructed within SWAT (Soil and Water Assessment Tools) plugin and run inside the QGIS framework. The free hydrological data from CFSR, soil data from FAO, and topographical data from CGIAR-CSI were implemented as the model input. The model resulted the sediment concentration dynamics of the Sukamahi and Ciawi reservoirs, on some suspended sediment parameter ranges. The sediment trapping efficiency was also computed by different possible dam capacity alternatives. The research findings will give a scientific decision making base for the river authority, in term of flood control dam planning, especially in The Upstream Ciliwung River Basin.

  17. Modeling of Gas Production from Shale Reservoirs Considering Multiple Transport Mechanisms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaohua Guo

    Full Text Available Gas transport in unconventional shale strata is a multi-mechanism-coupling process that is different from the process observed in conventional reservoirs. In micro fractures which are inborn or induced by hydraulic stimulation, viscous flow dominates. And gas surface diffusion and gas desorption should be further considered in organic nano pores. Also, the Klinkenberg effect should be considered when dealing with the gas transport problem. In addition, following two factors can play significant roles under certain circumstances but have not received enough attention in previous models. During pressure depletion, gas viscosity will change with Knudsen number; and pore radius will increase when the adsorption gas desorbs from the pore wall. In this paper, a comprehensive mathematical model that incorporates all known mechanisms for simulating gas flow in shale strata is presented. The objective of this study was to provide a more accurate reservoir model for simulation based on the flow mechanisms in the pore scale and formation geometry. Complex mechanisms, including viscous flow, Knudsen diffusion, slip flow, and desorption, are optionally integrated into different continua in the model. Sensitivity analysis was conducted to evaluate the effect of different mechanisms on the gas production. The results showed that adsorption and gas viscosity change will have a great impact on gas production. Ignoring one of following scenarios, such as adsorption, gas permeability change, gas viscosity change, or pore radius change, will underestimate gas production.

  18. Numerical Well Testing Interpretation Model and Applications in Crossflow Double-Layer Reservoirs by Polymer Flooding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haiyang Yu


    Full Text Available This work presents numerical well testing interpretation model and analysis techniques to evaluate formation by using pressure transient data acquired with logging tools in crossflow double-layer reservoirs by polymer flooding. A well testing model is established based on rheology experiments and by considering shear, diffusion, convection, inaccessible pore volume (IPV, permeability reduction, wellbore storage effect, and skin factors. The type curves were then developed based on this model, and parameter sensitivity is analyzed. Our research shows that the type curves have five segments with different flow status: (I wellbore storage section, (II intermediate flow section (transient section, (III mid-radial flow section, (IV crossflow section (from low permeability layer to high permeability layer, and (V systematic radial flow section. The polymer flooding field tests prove that our model can accurately determine formation parameters in crossflow double-layer reservoirs by polymer flooding. Moreover, formation damage caused by polymer flooding can also be evaluated by comparison of the interpreted permeability with initial layered permeability before polymer flooding. Comparison of the analysis of numerical solution based on flow mechanism with observed polymer flooding field test data highlights the potential for the application of this interpretation method in formation evaluation and enhanced oil recovery (EOR.

  19. Induced polarization effect in reservoir rocks and its modeling based on generalized effective-medium theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Burtman


    Full Text Available One of the major tasks of the petroleum resource-efficient technologies (pREFFIT is the development and improvement of the methods of exploration for energy resources. This review paper summarizes the results of the research on induced polarization (IP effect in reservoir rocks conducted by the University of Utah Consortium for Electromagnetic Modeling and Inversion (CEMI and TechnoImaging. The electrical IP effect in hydrocarbon (HC bearing reservoir rocks having nonmetallic minerals is usually associated with membrane polarization, which is caused by a variation in the mobility of the ions throughout the rock structure. This mobility is related to the size and shape of the pores filled with electrolyte and the double electrical layers. We have studied the IP response of multiphase porous systems by conducting complex resistivity (CR frequency-domain IP measurements for two different groups of samples: sands and sandstones containing salt water in pores and those whose unsaturated pores were filled with synthetic oil. We have also studied selected carbonate reservoir formations, typical of some major HC deposits. The generalized effective-medium theory of induced polarization (GEMTIP was used to analyze the IP parameters of the measured responses. This paper presents a conceptual model of polarizing clusters to explain the observed IP phenomena. The results of this study show that the HC bearing sands and sandstone samples and carbonate rocks are characterized by a significant IP response. These experimental observations, compared with the theoretical modeling based on the GEMTIP approach, confirm earlier geophysical experiments with the application of the IP method for HC exploration.

  20. Geo3DML: A standard-based exchange format for 3D geological models (United States)

    Wang, Zhangang; Qu, Honggang; Wu, Zixing; Wang, Xianghong


    A geological model (geomodel) in three-dimensional (3D) space is a digital representation of the Earth's subsurface, recognized by geologists and stored in resultant geological data (geodata). The increasing demand for data management and interoperable applications of geomodelscan be addressed by developing standard-based exchange formats for the representation of not only a single geological object, but also holistic geomodels. However, current standards such as GeoSciML cannot incorporate all the geomodel-related information. This paper presents Geo3DML for the exchange of 3D geomodels based on the existing Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) standards. Geo3DML is based on a unified and formal representation of structural models, attribute models and hierarchical structures of interpreted resultant geodata in different dimensional views, including drills, cross-sections/geomaps and 3D models, which is compatible with the conceptual model of GeoSciML. Geo3DML aims to encode all geomodel-related information integrally in one framework, including the semantic and geometric information of geoobjects and their relationships, as well as visual information. At present, Geo3DML and some supporting tools have been released as a data-exchange standard by the China Geological Survey (CGS).

  1. Large reservoirs: Chapter 17 (United States)

    Miranda, Leandro E.; Bettoli, Phillip William


    expressed effects, such as turbidity and water quality, zooplankton density and size composition, or fish growth rates and assemblage composition, are the upshot of large-scale factors operating outside reservoirs and not under the direct control of reservoir managers. Realistically, abiotic and biotic conditions in reservoirs are shaped by factors working inside and outside reservoirs, with the relative importance of external factors differing among reservoirs. With this perspective, large reservoirs are viewed from a habitat standpoint within the framework of a conceptual model in which individual reservoir characteristics are influenced by both local- and landscape-scale factors (Figure 17.1). In the sections that follow, how each element of this hierarchical model influences habitat and fish assemblages in reservoirs is considered. Important in-reservoir habitat issues and reservoirs as part of larger systems, where reservoir management requires looking for real solutions outside individual reservoirs are described.

  2. The three-dimensional regional geological model of the Mura-Zala Basin, northeastern Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dejan Šram


    Full Text Available The Mura-Zala sedimentary Basin is a Neogene basin with many competing geopotentials, spanning parts of Slovenia, Austria, Croatia and Hungary. Here we present the 3D regional geological model of the Slovenian part of the Mura-Zala Basin, which was developed to integrate the latest information on the geological structure of NE Slovenia and to publish the model in an open-access mode for easier and faster assessment of geopotentials. This was achieved through the harmonisation of the legacy geological models, the reinterpretation of 145 borehole logs, the construction of the 3D numerical geological model in JewelSuiteTM, and delivering it into a 3D-Explorer environment. The model comprises nine lithostratigraphical units. The Pre-Neogene basement rocks are covered by the Haloze Formation; the Špilje Formation – Badenian and Sarmatian; the Lendava Formation – turbidites and slope; the Mura Formation – delta front and delta plain; and the alluvial Ptuj-Grad Formation. The model has two principal shortcomings, related to currently unavailable seismic reflction data faults were not implemented, and the Quaternary formations were not delimited. The model is useful for regional-scale studies and may reduce geological risks related to exploration in NE Slovenia. It will also support a better assessment of geopotentials and a more feasible approach to their development, and, eventually, will enable the harmonized management of our subsurface in 3D space. This can be achieved using the 3D-Explorer platform which enables the creation of arbitrary vertical cross-sections, horizontal slices and virtual boreholes.

  3. Modelling tools for integrating geological, geophysical and contamination data for characterization of groundwater plumes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balbarini, Nicola

    on borehole investigations to collect the geological, hydrological, and contaminant data. These data are integrated in conceptual and mathematical models describing the lithology, the groundwater flow, and the distribution of contaminant concentrations. Models are needed to analyze the potential risks to all...... in modelling tools used for investigations of contaminated sites. This thesis presents the development of modelling tools to integrate DCIP methods with geological, hydrological and contaminant concentration data. The developed tools describe groundwater flow to meandering streams, map the distribution...... factors, including stream channel geometry. In this study, numerical models simulating groundwater flow to synthetic sinuous streams and to a real meandering stream were developed. Comparison of the models showed that groundwater discharge to streams is greatly affected by the geometry of meanders...

  4. Forecasting of dissolved oxygen in the Guanting reservoir using an optimized NGBM (1,1) model. (United States)

    An, Yan; Zou, Zhihong; Zhao, Yanfei


    An optimized nonlinear grey Bernoulli model was proposed by using a particle swarm optimization algorithm to solve the parameter optimization problem. In addition, each item in the first-order accumulated generating sequence was set in turn as an initial condition to determine which alternative would yield the highest forecasting accuracy. To test the forecasting performance, the optimized models with different initial conditions were then used to simulate dissolved oxygen concentrations in the Guanting reservoir inlet and outlet (China). The empirical results show that the optimized model can remarkably improve forecasting accuracy, and the particle swarm optimization technique is a good tool to solve parameter optimization problems. What's more, the optimized model with an initial condition that performs well in in-sample simulation may not do as well as in out-of-sample forecasting. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. Mapping three-dimensional geological features from remotely-sensed images and digital elevation models (United States)

    Morris, Kevin Peter

    Accurate mapping of geological structures is important in numerous applications, ranging from mineral exploration through to hydrogeological modelling. Remotely sensed data can provide synoptic views of study areas enabling mapping of geological units within the area. Structural information may be derived from such data using standard manual photo-geologic interpretation techniques, although these are often inaccurate and incomplete. The aim of this thesis is, therefore, to compile a suite of automated and interactive computer-based analysis routines, designed to help a the user map geological structure. These are examined and integrated in the context of an expert system. The data used in this study include Digital Elevation Model (DEM) and Airborne Thematic Mapper images, both with a spatial resolution of 5m, for a 5 x 5 km area surrounding Llyn Cow lyd, Snowdonia, North Wales. The geology of this area comprises folded and faulted Ordo vician sediments intruded throughout by dolerite sills, providing a stringent test for the automated and semi-automated procedures. The DEM is used to highlight geomorphological features which may represent surface expressions of the sub-surface geology. The DEM is created from digitized contours, for which kriging is found to provide the best interpolation routine, based on a number of quantitative measures. Lambertian shading and the creation of slope and change of slope datasets are shown to provide the most successful enhancement of DEMs, in terms of highlighting a range of key geomorphological features. The digital image data are used to identify rock outcrops as well as lithologically controlled features in the land cover. To this end, a series of standard spectral enhancements of the images is examined. In this respect, the least correlated 3 band composite and a principal component composite are shown to give the best visual discrimination of geological and vegetation cover types. Automatic edge detection (followed by line

  6. 2D Model Study of CO2 Plumes in Saline Reservoirs by Borehole Resistivity Tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Said A. al Hagrey


    Full Text Available The performance of electrical resistivity tomography (ERT in boreholes is studied numerically regarding changes induced by CO2 sequestration in deep saline reservoirs. The new optimization approach is applied to generate an optimized data set of only 4% of the comprehensive set but of almost similar best possible resolution. Diverse electrode configurations (mainly tripotential α and β are investigated with current flows and potential measurements in different directions. An extensive 2.5D modeling (>100,000 models is conducted systematically as a function of multiparameters related to hydrogeology, CO2 plume, data acquisition and methodology. ERT techniques generally are capable to resolve storage targets (CO2 plume, saline host reservoir, and impermeable cap rock, however with the common smearing effects and artefacts. Reconstructed tomograms show that the optimized and multiply oriented configurations have a better-spatial resolution than the lateral arrays with splitting of potential and current electrode pairs between boreholes. The later arrays are also more susceptible to telluric noise but have a lower level of measurement errors. The resolution advance of optimized and multiply oriented configurations is confirmed by lower values for ROI (region of index and residual (relative model difference. The technique acceptably resolves targets with an aspect ratio down to 0.5.

  7. Modeling flow in nanoporous, membrane reservoirs and interpretation of coupled fluxes (United States)

    Geren, Filiz

    The average pore size in unconventional, tight-oil reservoirs is estimated to be less than 100 nm. At this pore size, Darcy flow is no longer the dominating flow mechanism and a combination of diffusive flows determines the flow characteristics. Concentration driven self-diffusion has been well known and included in the flow and transport models in porous media. However, when the sizes of the pores and pore-throats decrease down to the size of the hydrocarbon molecules, the porous medium acts like a semi-permeable membrane, and the size of the pore openings dictates the direction of transport between adjacent pores. Accordingly, characterization of flow and transport in tight unconventional plays requires understanding of their membrane properties. This Master of Science thesis first highlights the membrane properties of nanoporous, unconventional reservoirs and then discusses how filtration effects can be incorporated into the models of transport in nanoporous media within the coupled flux concept. The effect of filtration on fluid composition and its impact on black-oil fluid properties like bubble point pressure is also demonstrated. To define filtration and filtration pressure in unconventional, tight-oil reservoirs, analogy to chemical osmosis is applied two pore systems connected with a pore throat, which shows membrane properties. Because the pore throat selectivity permits the passage of fluid molecules by their sizes, given a filtration pressure difference between the two pore systems, the concentration difference between the systems is determined by flash calculations. The results are expressed in the form of filtration (membrane) efficiency, which is essential parameter to define coupled fluxes for porous media flow.

  8. Modeling Water-Quality Loads to the Reservoirs of the Upper Trinity River Basin, Texas, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taesoo Lee


    Full Text Available The Upper Trinity River Basin (TRB is the most populated river basin and one of the largest water suppliers in Texas. However, sediment and nutrient loads are reducing the capacity of reservoirs and degrading water quality. The objectives of this study are to calibrate and validate the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT model for ten study watersheds within the Upper TRB in order to assess nutrient loads into major reservoirs in the basin an