WorldWideScience

Sample records for reserved water rights

  1. Contested water rights

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ansink, E.J.H.; Weikard, H.P.

    2009-01-01

    In many international river basins disputes over property rights to water lead to inefficient water allocation and a waste of resources. In this paper, we examine how contested water rights impede water trade. To show this, we use a model in which property rights to water are contested because

  2. Contested water rights

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ansink, Erik; Weikard, Hans Peter

    In many international river basins disputes over property rights to water lead to inefficient water allocation and a waste of resources. In this paper, we examine how contested water rights impede water trade. To show this, we use a model in which property rights to water are contested because

  3. Right hemisphere role in cognitive reserve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Ian H

    2014-06-01

    High levels of education, occupational complexity, and/or premorbid intelligence are associated with lower levels of cognitive impairment than would be expected from a given brain pathology. This has been observed across a range of conditions including Alzheimer's disease (Roe et al., 2010), stroke (Ojala-Oksala et al., 2012), traumatic brain injury (Kesler et al., 2003), and penetrating brain injury (Grafman, 1986). This cluster of factors, which seemingly protect the brain from expressing symptoms of damage, has been termed "cognitive reserve" (Stern, 2012). The current review considers one possible neural network, which may contribute to cognitive reserve. Based on the evidence that the neurotransmitter, noradrenaline mediates cognitive reserve's protective effects (Robertson, 2013) this review identifies the neurocognitive correlates of noradrenergic (NA) activity. These involve a set of inter-related cognitive processes (arousal, sustained attention, response to novelty, and awareness) with a strongly right hemisphere, fronto-parietal localization, along with working memory, which is also strongly modulated by NA. It is proposed that this set of processes is one plausible candidate for partially mediating the protective effects of cognitive reserve. In addition to its biological effects on brain structure and function, NA function may also facilitate networks for arousal, novelty, attention, awareness, and working memory, which collectively provide for a set of additional, cognitive, mechanisms that help the brain adapt to age-related changes and disease. It is hypothesized that to the extent that the lateral surface of the right prefrontal lobe and/or the right inferior parietal lobe maintain structural (white and gray matter) and functional integrity and connectivity, cognitive reserve should benefit and behavioral expression of pathologic damage should thus be mitigated. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. rights reserved Geophysical Identification of Hydrothermally Altered ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    the pole to the magnetic data aided in mapping of various hydrothermally altered structures that may favour gold mineralisation. The interpretation of the aero data set has enhanced a lot of ... water serves as a concentrating, transporting and depositing agent through faults (structures) to the earth's surface. Hydrothermal ...

  5. Water quality and water rights in Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacDonnell, L.J.

    1989-07-01

    The report begins with a review of early Colorado water quality law. The present state statutory system of water quality protection is summarized. Special attention is given to those provisions of Colorado's water quality law aimed at protecting water rights. The report then addresses several specific issues which involve the relationship between water quality and water use. Finally, recommendations are made for improving Colorado's approach to integrating quality and quantity concerns

  6. Final joint environmental assessment for the construction and routine operation of a 12-kilovolt (KV) overhead powerline right-of-way, and formal authorization for a 10-inch and 8-inch fresh water pipeline right-of-way, Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 1, Kern County, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-10-01

    The purpose and need of the proposed action, which is the installation of an overhead powerline extension from an Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 1 (NPR-1) power source to the WKWD Station A, is to significantly reduce NPR-1`s overall utility costs. While the proposed action is independently justified on its own merits and is not tied to the proposed NPR-1 Cogeneration Facility, the proposed action would enable DOE to tie the NPR-1 fresh water pumps at Station A into the existing NPR-1 electrical distribution system. With the completion of the cogeneration facility in late 1994 or early 1995, the proposed action would save additional utility costs. This report deals with the environmental impacts of the construction of the powerline and the water pipeline. In addition, information is given about property rights and attaining permission to cross the property of proposed affected owners.

  7. All rights reserved Competitive Adsorption of Xylene and Toluene on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    2018-03-23

    Mar 23, 2018 ... organic solvents (diesel, kerosene, gasoline, toluene and m-xylene), with and without agitation. The result showed that modified magnesium bentonite swelled more than the unmodified and the order of the swelling factor is; m- xylene > toluene > gasoline > diesel > DPK > water. However, when the assay ...

  8. All rights reserved Assessment of groundwater vulnerability and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    2017-12-12

    Dec 12, 2017 ... construction of a vulnerability map for the study aquifer in Zanjan plain. The parameters used in the DRASTIC model are depth-to-water table, net recharge, aquifer media, soil media, topography, impact of vadose zone, and hydraulic conductivity. The overlying index, GIS and AHP were used with the ...

  9. 36 CFR 293.11 - Water rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Water rights. 293.11 Section...-PRIMITIVE AREAS § 293.11 Water rights. Nothing in the regulations in this part constitutes an expressed or implied claim or denial on the part of the Department of Agriculture as to exemption from State water laws. ...

  10. 50 CFR 35.12 - Water rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Water rights. 35.12 Section 35.12 Wildlife... NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM WILDERNESS PRESERVATION AND MANAGEMENT General Rules § 35.12 Water rights... the Department of the Interior as to exemption from State water laws. ...

  11. Human right to water and conventionality control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana N. Martínez

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Humanity faces the challenge of achieving the sustainability of water resources supply for the satisfaction of human needs and ofensuring the sustainability of the natural ecosystems for the achievement of sustainable human development and the quality of life of present and future generations. For this reason the recognition of access to water as a Human Right has fundamental significance. We proceed to analyze the international instruments that provide content and legal basis to the human right to water and the obligations of States. In this context, we deal with the constitutional reception of human right to water in Argentina in the constitutional reform of 1994 and the control of conventionality as guarantor of access to water, which has led to different domestic courts to consider cases in which a violation ofthe right to water was proved.

  12. 25 CFR 213.17 - Government reserves right to purchase minerals produced.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Government reserves right to purchase minerals produced. 213.17 Section 213.17 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS... Leases § 213.17 Government reserves right to purchase minerals produced. In time of war or other public...

  13. Cultural pluralism in international human rights law: the role of reservations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donders, Y.; Vrdoljak, A.F.

    2013-01-01

    This chapter addresses cultural pluralism in international human rights law by analysing one specific aspect of international law, namely reservations to human rights treaties. It has been argued that reservations "…are a legitimate, perhaps even desirable, means of accounting for cultural,

  14. Cultural Pluralism in International Human Rights Law: The Role of Reservations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donders, Y.

    2013-01-01

    This paper addresses cultural pluralism in international human rights law by analysing reservations to human rights treaties. It has been argued that reservations "…are a legitimate, perhaps even desirable, means of accounting for cultural, religious, or political value diversity across nations".

  15. The human right to water: the importance of domestic and productive water rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Ralph P; Van Koppen, Barbara; Van Houweling, Emily

    2014-12-01

    The United Nations (UN) Universal Declaration of Human Rights engenders important state commitments to respect, fulfill, and protect a broad range of socio-economic rights. In 2010, a milestone was reached when the UN General Assembly recognized the human right to safe and clean drinking water and sanitation. However, water plays an important role in realizing other human rights such as the right to food and livelihoods, and in realizing the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women. These broader water-related rights have been recognized but have not yet been operationalized. This paper unravels these broader water-related rights in a more holistic interpretation of existing international human rights law. By focusing on an emerging approach to water services provision--known as 'domestic-plus' services--the paper argues how this approach operationalizes a comprehensive range of socio-economic rights in rural and peri-urban areas. Domestic-plus services provide water for domestic and productive uses around homesteads, which challenges the widespread practice in the public sector of planning and designing water infrastructure for a single-use. Evidence is presented to show that people in rural communities are already using their water supplies planned for domestic uses to support a wide range of productive activities. Domestic-plus services recognize and plan for these multiple-uses, while respecting the priority for clean and safe drinking water. The paper concludes that domestic-plus services operationalize the obligation to progressively fulfill a comprehensive range of indivisible socio-economic rights in rural and peri-urban areas.

  16. Water resources of the Red Lake Indian Reservation, northwestern Minnesota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruhl, J.F.

    1991-01-01

    This report presents the results of a study by the U.S. Geological Survey, done in cooperation with the Red Lake Indian Reservation Tribal Council, to evaluate the water resources of the contiguous Red Lake Indian Reservation. Water resources of the contiguous Red Lake Indian Reservation meet the present (1989) needs for potable supply and other household uses. In addition, they provide ecological, recreational, and aesthetic benefits.

  17. Water resources of the White Earth Indian Reservation, northwestern Minnesota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruhl, J.F.

    1989-01-01

    Water resources in the White Earth Indian Reservation meet the present (1988) needs for potable supply and other household uses and provide valuable ecological, recreational, and aesthetic benefits. Total annual water use in the Reservation is about 460 million gallons per year. Domestic supply from privately owned wells and municipal systems accounts for roughly three-fourths of the water use, and irrigation of croplands and nurseries accounts for approximately one-fourth, depending on rainfall.

  18. Reliability assessment of reserved water disposal with erodible fuse plug

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kosichenko Yuriy Mikhaylovich

    Full Text Available Water disposal constructions are one of the most responsible constructions of reservoir hydrosystem, that’s why the a lot of attention was always paid to the problems of estimating and providing their reliability and safety. The most important function of such objects is providing reliability and safety of other hydraulic constructions and economic assets in afterbay and water head. The authors offer estimation method for reliability and faultless performance of reserved water disposal with erodible fuse plug on low-head water development. In order to estimate the reliability of reserved water disposal with erodible fuse plug the Bayesian treatment was used. The calculation of diagnoses (states of reserved water disposal isoffered in case of diagnostic properties k 1 and k 2. One of the main demands placed onreserved water disposals is erosion of soil plug in case of flood discharge exeedance over the estimated frequency with the full opening of the waste sluice.

  19. 36 CFR 251.14 - Conditions, rules and regulations to govern exercise of timber rights reserved in conveyance to...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... precautions to prevent pollution of the air, soil, and water, in operation hereunder. (12) All activities by... perform currently as weather and soil conditions permit, the following erosion control work on portions of... regulations to govern exercise of timber rights reserved in conveyance to the United States. 251.14 Section...

  20. Right fronto-insular white matter tracts link cognitive reserve and pain in migraine patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez-Beldarrain, Marian; Oroz, Isabel; Zapirain, Begoña Garcia; Ruanova, Begoña Fernandez; Fernandez, Yolanda Garcia; Cabrera, Alberto; Anton-Ladislao, Ane; Aguirre-Larracoechea, Urko; Garcıa-Monco, Juan Carlos

    2015-01-01

    Structural white matter abnormalities in pain-modulating, regions are present in migraine. Whether they are associated with pain chronification and with cognitive reserve is unclear. Prospective, cohort, six-month study of adult patients with episodic or chronic migraine, and controls. Cognitive reserve, quality of life, impact of pain on daily living, depression and anxiety were assessed. Participants underwent a diffusion-tensor MRI to establish the integrity of white matter tracts of three regions of interest (ROIs) implicated in pain modulation, emotion, cognition and resilience (anterior insula, anterior cingulate gyrus, and uncinate fasciculus). Fifty-two individuals were enrolled: 19 episodic migraine patients, 18 chronic migraine patients, and 15 controls. The analysis of the fractional anisotropy in the ROIs showed that those patients with the poorest prognosis (i.e., those with chronic migraine despite therapy at six months--long-term chronic migraneurs) had a significantly lower fractional anisotropy in the right ROIs. Participants with higher cognitive reserve also had greater fractional anisotropy in the right anterior insula and both cingulate gyri. Multivariate analysis showed a significant association between cognitive reserve, migraine frequency, and fractional anisotropy in the right-sided regions of interest. Long-term chronic migraine patients show abnormalities in anterior white matter tracts, particularly of the right hemisphere, involved in pain modulation emotion, cognition and resilience. Robustness in these areas is associated with a higher cognitive reserve, which in turn might result in a lower tendency to migraine chronification.

  1. Fuel handling pool and safety water reserve for a PWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costes, D.

    1990-01-01

    This pool is characterized by a shutter generally in cylindrical form, fixed around the reactor vessel head and control rod drive mechanisms and removable sealed to the floor of the pool. This disposition allows the water to be held outside the shutter during reactor operation and gives an emergency water reserve in case of primary coolant circuit break. This pool always empty can be used for storing spent fuel [fr

  2. 31 CFR 309.10 - Tenders; reservation of right to reject.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... BILLS § 309.10 Tenders; reservation of right to reject. In considering the acceptance of tenders, the highest prices offered will be accepted in full down to the amount required, and if the same price appears in two or more tenders and it is necessary to accept only a part of the amount offered at such price...

  3. Coronary reserve of the right ventricle evaluated by double dose Tl-201 scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugihara, Hiroki; Adachi, Haruhiko; Nakagawa, Hiroaki

    1985-01-01

    Thallium-201 double dose scintigraphy was applied to exercise to estimate the coronary blood flow reserve of the left and right ventricles and this was compared with the degree of coronary artery stenosis. As an index of coronary reserve we measured the rate of change of blood flow distribution (ΔF) calculated from the change in myocardial radioactivity following thallium-201 injections, once at rest and once during exercise. With submaximal exercise the increases in ΔF of the left ventricle were less in patients with ischemic heart disease than in the control subjects, and were less as the number of diseased coronary vessels increased. The increases of ΔF of the right ventricle were less in patients with stenosis of the proximal portion of the right coronary artery than in patients without stenosis and in the control subjects. The more severe the stenosis of the proximal portion of the right coronary artery, the smaller the ΔF of the right ventricle. These results indicate that evaluation of the ΔF in the left and right ventricles is useful in estimating coronary artery stenosis. (author)

  4. Water Privatization: A Threat to Human Rights?

    OpenAIRE

    Pavelich, Kelly

    2017-01-01

    In developing countries, women often have responsibilities that are water dependent, such as collecting water and tending to the sick (Sewpaul, 2008: 45) As unpolluted water supplies diminish, these tasks become increasingly difficult to accomplish. Women face greater threats to their security as they are forced to walk farther, occasionally into dangerous areas, and lose several hours of their day, potentially reducing the household income and resulting in missed economic opportunities (Sewp...

  5. Contested Territories: Water Rights and the Struggles over Indigenous Livelihoods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boelens, R.A.; Duarte, B.; Manosalvas Nicolalde, R.; Mena Vásconez, P.A.; Roa Avendaño, T.; Vera-Delgado, J.

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the threats to Indigenous water rights and territories in the Andean countries. It analyzes how water and water rights are embedded in Indigenous territories, and how powerful actors and intervention projects tend to undermine local societies and indigenous livelihoods by

  6. 78 FR 21343 - New Ski Area Water Rights Clause

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-10

    ... Forest Service New Ski Area Water Rights Clause AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of meeting... rights clause for ski area permits issued by the Forest Service. There will be several stations at the... Service will consider in developing a new ski area water rights clause. There will be another opportunity...

  7. Dobutamine enhances both contractile function and energy reserves in hypoperfused canine right ventricle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, K D; Downey, H F; Bian, X; Fu, M; Mallet, R T

    2000-12-01

    Although the beta(1)-adrenergic agent dobutamine is used clinically to provide inotropic support to the failing myocardium, it could jeopardize the myocardium by depleting energy reserves. This investigation delineated the contractile and energetic effects of low versus high dobutamine doses in the hypoperfused right ventricular (RV) myocardium. The right coronary artery (RCA) of anesthetized dogs was cannulated for controlled perfusion with arterial blood, and regional RV contractile function was measured. RCA perfusion pressure was lowered from 100 mmHg baseline to 40 mmHg, and flow fell by 54%. At 15-min hypoperfusion, dobutamine was infused into the RCA at either 0.01 (low-dose dobutamine) or 0.06 microgram. kg(-1). min(-1) (high-dose dobutamine) for 15 min. Regional power (systolic segment shortening x isometric developed force x heart rate) stabilized at 63% of baseline during hypoperfusion. Low-dose dobutamine restored power to baseline but did not increase RV myocardial O(2) consumption (MVO(2)) and thus increased myocardial O(2) utilization efficiency (O(2)UE:power/MVO(2)). At 5 min, high-dose dobutamine enhancement of power was similar to that of low-dose dobutamine, but by 15 min, power and O(2)UE fell to untreated levels. Remarkably, low-dose dobutamine tripled cytosolic phosphorylation potential; in contrast, high-dose dobutamine lowered phosphorylation potential to 45% of the untreated value. Analyses of glucose uptake and glycolytic intermediates revealed sustained enhancement of glycolysis by low-dose dobutamine, but glycolysis became limited at glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase during high-dose dobutamine treatment. In summary, low-dose dobutamine improved mechanical performance and efficiency of the hypoperfused RV myocardium while increasing myocardial energy reserves, but high-dose dobutamine failed to sustain improved function and depleted energy reserves. Dobutamine is capable of improving both contractile function and cellular

  8. Fundamental questions about water rights and market reallocation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Olen Paul

    2004-09-01

    Water markets have many advantages for water reallocation. However, water markets do not always function efficiently because the property rights structure was not designed for market transactions. The potential for successful markets can be determined by looking at the 10 fundamental questions relevant to water rights. The questions are relevant to any system of water rights, but the examples used are largely from the western United States. The questions are designed to raise issues about the basic structure of a water rights system. After discussing these issues, the paper turns to recommendations on how a water rights structure could be modified to facilitate markets. The recommendations are not meant to be an end point but are intended too stimulate discussion.

  9. Echocardiographic assessment of right ventricular contractile reserve in patients with pulmonary hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Ana Rita; Loureiro, Maria José; Lopes, Liliana; Cotrim, Carlos; Lopes, Luís; Repolho, Débora; Pereira, Hélder

    2014-03-01

    Right ventricular function is a major determinant of prognosis in pulmonary hypertension. The aim of this study was to assess and compare right ventricular contractile reserve in healthy subjects (controls) and in subjects with pulmonary hypertension (cases). In this prospective study of seven cases and seven controls undergoing treadmill stress echocardiography, right ventricular S-wave velocity, tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion (TAPSE), right ventricular fractional area change (RVFAC) and stroke volume index were assessed at rest and with exercise. The increase in each parameter between rest and exercise for cases and controls was analyzed and the magnitude of change in each parameter with exercise between cases and controls was compared. A significant increase in S-wave velocity was observed in cases (rest: 9.4 ± 3.1; exercise: 13.7 ± 4.8 cm/s [p < 0.05]). In controls there was a statistically significant increase in S-wave velocity (12.9 ± 2.3 to 23.0 ± 7.2 cm/s [p < 0.005]), TAPSE (25.7 ± 2.4 to 31.0 ± 3.5 mm [p < 0.05]) and RVFAC (53.8 ± 14.7% to 64.4 ± 9.9% [p < 0.005]). The magnitude of change in S-wave velocity (cases: 4.3 ± 3.3; controls: 10.1 ± 5.5 cm/s [p < 0.05]), TAPSE (cases: 0.6 ± 2.5; controls: 5.3 ± 3.8 mm [p < 0.05]) and RVFAC (cases: -0.4 ± 11.8; controls: 10.6 ± 5.9% [p < 0.05]) was significantly different between cases and controls. S-wave velocity, TAPSE and RVFAC increased significantly with exercise in controls. S-wave velocity was the only parameter that showed a significant increase in cases, although the magnitude of this increase was significantly less than in controls. Copyright © 2013 Sociedade Portuguesa de Cardiologia. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  10. Myocardial flow reserve in patients with a systemic right ventricle after atrial switch repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, T P; Humes, R A; Muzik, O; Kottamasu, S; Karpawich, P P; Di Carli, M F

    2001-06-15

    The purpose of this study was to assess myocardial blood flow (MBF) and flow reserve in systemic right ventricles (RV) in long-term survivors of the Mustard operation. There is a high prevalence of systemic RV dysfunction and impaired exercise performance in long-term survivors of the Mustard operation. A mismatch between myocardial blood supply and systemic ventricular work demand has been proposed as a potential mechanism. We assessed MBF at rest and during intravenous adenosine hyperemia in 11 long-term survivors of a Mustard repair (age 18+/-5 years, median age at repair 0.7 years, follow-up after repair 17+/-5 years) and 13 healthy control subjects (age 23+/-7 years), using N-13 ammonia and positron emission tomography imaging. There was no difference in basal MBF between the systemic RV of survivors of the Mustard operation and the systemic left ventricle (LV) of healthy control subjects (0.80+/-0.19 vs. 0.74+/-0.15 ml/g/min, respectively, p = NS). However, the hyperemic flows were significantly lower in systemic RVs than they were in systemic LVs (2.34+/-0.0.69 vs. 3.44+/-0.62 ml/g/min respectively, p LVs (2.93+/-0.63 vs. 4.74+/-1.09, respectively, p < 0.01). Myocardial flow reserve is impaired in systemic RVs in survivors of the Mustard operation. This may contribute to systemic ventricular dysfunction in these patients.

  11. Avoiding Mazibuko : water security and constitutional rights in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The 2009 judgment by the Constitutional Court of South Africa in Mazibuko v City of Johannesburg is seen by many as a watershed in the interpretation of the fundamental constitutional right of access to water. The Constitutional Court ruled that the right of access to sufficient water does not require that the state provide ...

  12. Some comments on water rights in South Africa | Gabru ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Access to the limited water resources in South Africa has been historically dominated by those with access to land and economic power, as a result of which the majority of South ... the right to have access to sufficient food and water and has resulted in the rare opportunity for South Africa to reform its water laws completely.

  13. The trade of virtual water: do property rights matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ankai

    2016-04-01

    My paper examines the determinants of the virtual water trade - embodied in the trade of agriculture products - by estimating a structural gravity model. In particular, it tests the relationship between property rights and the export of water-intensive agricultural products based on water footprint data in Mekonnen and Hoekstra (2011, 2012). Using two different measures of property rights protection, I show that countries with weaker property rights have an apparent comparative advantage in the trade of water-intensive products. After controlling for the economic size, natural resource endowments, and possible effects of reverse causality, the trade flow of virtual water is negatively and significantly correlated with the property rights index of the exporting country. Holding other factors constant, one point increase in the property rights index of a country is associated with a 24% - 36% decrease in its virtual water export, whereas a 1% increase in the natural resource protection index of a country is associated with a 16% decrease in its virtual water export. This paper is the first empirical work that tests the relationship between property rights and trade of water-intensive products, offering a new perceptive in the debate of virtual water trade. The findings provide a possible explanation on the paradoxical evidence that some countries with scarce water resources export water-intensive products. The result is important not only in terms of its theoretical relevance, but also its policy implications. As prescribed by the model of trade and property rights, when countries with weaker property rights open to international trade, they are more likely to over-exploit and thus expedite the depletion of natural resources.

  14. Some comments on water rights in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Gabru

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Human life, as with all animal and plant life on the planet, is dependent upon fresh water. Water is not only needed to grow food, generate power and run industries, but it is also needed as a basic part of human life. Human dependency upon water is evident through history, which illustrates that human settlements have been closely linked to the availability and supply of fresh water. Access to the limited water resources in South Africa has been historically dominated by those with access to land and economic power, as a result of which the majority of South Africans have struggled to secure the right to water. Apartheid era legislation governing water did not discriminate directly on the grounds of race, but the racial imbalance in ownership of land resulted in the disproportionate denial to black people of the right to water. Beyond racial categorisations, the rural and poor urban populations were traditionally especially vulnerable in terms of the access to the right. The enactment of the Constitution of the Republic of South Africa 1996, brought the South African legal system into a new era, by including a bill of fundamental human rights (Bill of Rights. The Bill of Rights makes provision for limited socio-economic rights. Besides making provision for these human rights, the Constitution also makes provision for the establishment of state institutions supporting constitutional democracy. The Constitution has been in operation since May 1996. At this stage, it is important to take stock and measure the success of the implementation of these socio-economic rights. This assessment is important in more ways than one, especially in the light of the fact that many lawyers argued strongly against the inclusion of the second and third generation of human rights in a Bill of Rights. The argument was that these rights are not enforceable in a court of law and that they would create unnecessary expectations of food, shelter, health, water and the

  15. Contested Territories: Water Rights and the Struggles over Indigenous Livelihoods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rutgerd Boelens

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the threats to Indigenous water rights and territories in the Andean countries. It analyzes how water and water rights are embedded in Indigenous territories, and how powerful actors and intervention projects tend to undermine local societies and indigenous livelihoods by developing large-scale water infrastructure. Three cases illustrate the encroachment process. In Colombia, the Embera Katio people’s water territory is colonized by a large-scale hydropower development project. In Ecuador, large-scale drinking water development for megacities aims the water belonging to the Oyacachi community’s indigenous highland territory. In Peru, communal water rights of the Colca Valley indigenous peasantry are under threat because of large-scale irrigation development. As the cases show, Indigenous peoples and communities actively contest the undermining and subordination of their water and territorial rights through a myriad of multi-scalar livelihood defense strategies. The challenges that indigenous peoples face to defend their water-based livelihoods are, however, enormous and growing every day.

  16. Women’s rights: from bad to worse? Assessing the evolution of incompatible reservations to the CEDAW Convention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marijke de Pauw

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women is the most important international human rights instrument for the protection of women's rights worldwide. It is, however, also one of the main UN human rights treaties to which the largest number of reservations has been made. As far-reaching reservations to human rights treaties are detrimental to the effective protection of human rights, this gave rise to the debate on the need to apply a reservations system to such treaties that allows for the efficient protection of their integrity. More specifically, it resulted in the severability approach and treaty bodies claiming their competence to assess reservations' compatibility. This article aims to contribute to the academic research on reservations to the CEDAW Convention, by studying the evolution of reservation-making to this human rights treaty from a comparative perspective from its entry into force until the present. Through this analysis, the article aims to identify trends and shifts in this practice over time, allowing for a more detailed assessment of the increasing number of incompatible reservations, the Committee's progress towards a more active approach on reservations, and State's increasing willingness to object to reservations they find incompatible.

  17. Out of the Mainstream. Water Rights, Politics and Identity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boelens, R.A.; Getches, D.; Guevara-Gil, A.

    2010-01-01

    Water is not only a source of life and culture. It is also a source of power, conflicting interests and identity battles. Rights to materially access, culturally organize and politically control water resources are poorly understood by mainstream scientific approaches and hardly addressed by current

  18. Water Reserves Program. An adaptation strategy to prevent imbalance of water in nature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salinas-Rodriguez, S. A.; López Pérez, M.; Barrios Ordóñez, J.; Wickel, B.; Villón Bracamonte, R. A.

    2013-12-01

    Freshwater ecosystems occupy approximately 1% of the earth's surface yet possess about 12% of all known animal species. By virtue of their position in the landscape they connect terrestrial and coastal marine biomes and provide and sustain ecosystem services vital to the health and persistence of human communities. These services include the supply of water for food production, urban and industrial consumption, among others. Over the past century many freshwater ecosystems around the world have been heavily modified or lost due to the alteration of flow regimes (e.g. damming, canalization, diversion, over-abstraction). The synergistic impacts of land use change, changes in flows, chemical deterioration, and climate change have left many systems and their species very little room to adjust to change, while future projections indicate a steady increase imbalance in water demand for food and energy production and water supply to suit the needs of a growing world population. In Mexico, the focus has been to secure water for human development and maximize economic growth, which has resulted in allocation of water beyond available amounts, and that in many river basins has led imbalance of water in nature. As a consequence episodic water scarcity severely constrains freshwater ecosystems and the services they provide. Climatic change and variability are presenting serious challenges to a country that already is experiencing serious strain on its water resources. However, freshwater ecosystems are recognized by law as legitimate user of water, and mandate a flow allocation for the environment ('water reserve' or 'environmental flows'). Based on this legal provision the Mexican government through the National Water Commission (Conagua), with support of the Alliance WWF - Fundación Gonzalo Río Arronte, and the Interamerican Development Bank, has launched a national program to identify and implement 'water reserves': basins where environmental flows will be secured and

  19. Estimation of potential fresh water reserves in icebergs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. S. Krass

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available According to the forecast of the global shortage of fresh water it is expected that the global demand for drink‑ ing water will be increased up to 400 km3 per a year. As the main potential resources of drinking water it is proposed to use table Antarctic icebergs. Mathematical and phenomenological models of heat exchange between the icebergs and the environment, and a process of melting of ices floes in the warm sea water are discussed. The ablation processes on the daily and lower surfaces of icebergs at different modes of towing them to points of utilization is analyzed. The most optimal technology is to fill tankers with water taken from the freshwater layer under icebergs, and then subsequent delivery of the water to points of utilization. Using of the phenomenon of fresh-salt stratified Lake Vanda is considered as one of promising technologies of the industrial water production.

  20. Water Reserves Program. An adaptation strategy to balance water in nature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez Perez, M.; Barrios, E.; Salinas-Rodriguez, S.; Wickel, B.; Villon, R. A.

    2013-05-01

    Freshwater ecosystems occupy approximately 1% of the earth's surface yet possess about 12% of all known animal species. By virtue of their position in the landscape they connect terrestrial and coastal marine biomes and provide and sustain ecosystem services vital to the health and persistence of human communities. These services include the supply of water for food production, urban and ind ustrial consumption, among others. Over the past century many freshwater ecosystems around the world have been heavily modified or lost due to the alteration of flow regimes (e.g. due to damming, canalization, diversion, over-abstraction). The synergistic impacts of land use change, changes in flows, chemical deterioration, and climate change have left many systems and their species very little room to adjust to change, while future projections indicate a steady increase in water demand for food and energy production and water supply to suit the needs of a growing world population. In Mexico, the focus has been to secure water for human development and maximize economic growth, which has resulted in allocation of water beyond available amounts. As a consequence episodic water scarcity severely constrains freshwater ecosystems and the services they provide. Climatic change and variability are presenting serious challenges to a country that already is experiencing serious strain on its water resources. However, freshwater ecosystems are recognized by law as legitimate user of water, and mandate a flow allocation for the environment ("water reserve" or "environmental flows"). Based on this legal provision the Mexican government through the National Water Commission (Conagua), with support of the Alliance WWF - Fundación Gonzalo Río Arronte, and the Interamerican Development Bank, has launched a national program to identify and implement "water reserves": basins where environmental flows will be secured and allocated and where the flow regime is then protected before over

  1. Water Rights in Bolivia — After the Water War | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2010-12-08

    Dec 8, 2010 ... Achieving Water Rights Consensus in Bolivia This was the challenge: help broker broad-based consensus on water legislation in Bolivia in the wake of violent social conflict over water rights — and after 32 previous attempts at introducing water legislation had failed. A daunting task, yet IDRC-supported ...

  2. Property, legal pluralism, and water rights: the critical analysis of water governance and the politics of recognizing "local" rights

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roth, D.; Boelens, R.; Zwarteveen, M.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we assess the impact of Franz von Benda-Beckmann's work in the field of water rights. We argue that his contributions to understanding water, a field dominated by engineers and economists, cannot be overestimated. Over the years, Franz's nuanced and empathic anthropological attitude,

  3. Water resources of No Name Valley, Colville Indian Reservation, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cline, Denzel R.

    1978-01-01

    No Name Creek valley is a trough cut in granitic bedrock in north-central Washington. A low topographic divide in the northern third of the valley separates it into the No Name Creek basin on the south and Omak Creek basin on the north. Omak Creek is the larger stream and enters the valley through a narrow gorge in the eastern granite wall. Partly filled with unconsolidated sand, gravel, and silt to depths as great as 163 feet, the valley contains a ground-water reservoir which supplies four irrigation wells and several domestic-supply wells. The ground-water reservoir also feeds springs which give rise to No Name Creek, and it contributes some water to Omak Creek to the north. Under conditions of the pre-1976 development the ground-water divide was naturally about 3,000 feet north of Omak Creek gorge, and about 580 acre-feet of leakage from Omak Creek recharges the No Name Creek ground-water reservoir. By 1977, ground-water withdrawal of 994 acre-feet per year in No Name Creek basin had caused the ground-water divide to shift to a position about 4,000 feet north of the topographic divide. This increased the drainage area contributing to the No Name Creek ground-water reservoir for about three months so that during a year of normal flow a total of about 600 acre-feet of leakage from Omak Creek can be captured. It is postulated that as much as 1,100 acre-feet per year can be pumped in the central part of the reservoir. This pumpage would cause the ground-water divide to shift farther north, resulting in the capture of additional recharge from Omak Creek; the total leakage would be about 700 acre-feet per year. (Woodard-USGS)

  4. The Right to Water in the Case-Law of the Inter-American Court of Human Rights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jimena Murillo Chávarro

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The human right to water is nowadays more broadly recognised, mainly due to the essential societal function that this resource plays; likewise, because of the present water scarcity is generating conflicts between its different uses. Thus, this right aims at protecting human beings by guaranteeing access to clean water that is essential to satisfy vital human needs. Similarly, access to clean water is an important element to guarantee other rights including the right to life and health. The recognition of the right to water is mainly achieved in two ways: as a new and independent right and as a subordinate or derivative right. Concerning the latter, the right to water can emanate from civil and political rights, such as the right to life; or can be derived from economic, social and cultural rights, including the right to health, the right to an adequate standard of living, and the right to housing. This contribution explores the position of the Inter-American Court of Human Rights regarding the right to water, and analyses whether the Court has recognised the right to water and, if so, in which manner.

  5. Getting water right: A case study in water yield modelling based on precipitation data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pessacg, Natalia; Flaherty, Silvia; Brandizi, Laura; Solman, Silvina; Pascual, Miguel

    2015-12-15

    2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. The Human Right to Water in Law and Implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norbert Brunner

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Recent concerns about alleged insufficient water provision to the poor in Detroit, USA, has put the Human Right to Water (HRW into the international discussion. The paper asks: “To what extent did international human rights treaties make HRW judiciable?” and “How did government policies implement it?” In a cross-country comparison of performance indicators, merely accepting HRW has not been helpful in promoting affordable access to potable water or sanitation facilities close to the home, amongst the reasons being deficiencies in water-governance. Case-law confirmed that with respect to affordable access HRW obliges governments to a “progressive realization” only, also in countries accepting HRW (India, South Africa. The paper focuses on the resulting positive state obligation to establish funding programs for better water and sanitation services and analyzes funding policies by a mathematical model of policy goals. It identifies two viable goals namely the successful support for the poor, as in developing countries, and the most economic use of public funds, as in industrialized countries. Other goals conceivable for the model have been tried in the past and failed.

  7. Spinning Reserve from Pump Load: A Technical Findings Report to the California Department of Water Resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirby, BJ

    2005-05-06

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), at the request of the California Energy Commission and the U.S. Department of Energy, is investigating opportunities for electrical load to provide the ancillary service of spinning reserve to the electric grid. The load would provide this service by stopping for a short time when there is a contingency on the grid such as a transmission line or generator outage. There is a possibility that a significant portion of the California Independent System Operator's (CAISO's) spinning reserve requirement could be supplied from the California Department of Water Resources (CDWR) pumping load. Spinning reserve has never been supplied from load before, and rule changes would be needed to allow it. In this report, we are presenting technical findings on the possibility of supplying spinning reserve from pumping system load. In parallel, we are pursuing the needed rule changes with the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC), the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC), the Western Electricity Coordinating Council (WECC), and the CAISO. NERC and FERC have agreed that they have no prohibition against supplying spinning reserve from load. The WECC Minimum Operability Reliability Criteria working group has agreed that the concept should be considered, and they are presently discussing the needed tariff and rule changes. Presently, spinning reserve is provided by generation that is actually spinning but is operating at low power levels and can be ramped up quickly to provide reserve power. In a sense, this is an inefficient and environmentally unfriendly way of providing reserves because it requires the generator to operate at a low power level that may be inefficient and may discharge more pollutants per kW than operating at rated power. It would be better if this generation capacity were in a position to bid into the energy market. Providing an additional supply of spinning reserve would tend to reduce prices for

  8. A water quality management strategy for regionally protected water through health risk assessment and spatial distribution of heavy metal pollution in 3 marine reserves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yinan; Chu, Chunli; Li, Tong; Xu, Shengguo; Liu, Lei; Ju, Meiting

    2017-12-01

    Severe water pollution and resource scarcity is a major problem in China, where it is necessary to establish water quality-oriented monitoring and intelligent watershed management. In this study, an effective watershed management method is explored, in which water quality is first assessed using the heavy metal pollution index and the human health risk index, and then by classifying the pollution and management grade based on cluster analysis and GIS visualization. Three marine reserves in Tianjin were selected and analyzed, namely the Tianjin Ancient Coastal Wetland National Nature Reserve (Qilihai Natural Reserve), the Tianjin DaShentang Oyster Reef National Marine Special Reserve (DaShentang Reserve), and the Tianjin Coastal Wetland National Marine Special Reserve (BinHai Wetland Reserve) which is under construction. The water quality and potential human health risks of 5 heavy metals (Pb, As, Cd, Hg, Cr) in the three reserves were assessed using the Nemerow index and USEPA methods. Moreover, ArcGIS10.2 software was used to visualize the heavy metal index and display their spatial distribution. Cluster analysis enabled classification of the heavy metals into 4 categories, which allowed for identification of the heavy metals whose pollution index and health risks were highest, and, thus, whose control in the reserve is a priority. Results indicate that heavy metal pollution exists in the Qilihai Natural Reserve and in the north and east of the DaShentang Reserve; furthermore, human health risks exist in the Qilihai Natural Reserve and in the BinHai Wetland Reserve. In each reserve, the main factor influencing the pollution and health risk were high concentrations of As and Pb that exceed the corresponding standards. Measures must be adopted to control and remediate the pollutants. Furthermore, to protect the marine reserves, management policies must be implemented to improve water quality, which is an urgent task for both local and national governments. Copyright

  9. All rights reserved

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    Relationship between Relative Humidity and the Dew Point Temperature in Benin City,. Nigeria. 1,3,*UKHUREBOR, KE; 2ABIODUN, IC; 3BAKARE, F. 1Department of Physics, Edo University, Iyamho, Edo State, Nigeria. 2Department of Physics, Federal University, Otuoke, Bayelsa State, Nigeria. 3Department of Physics ...

  10. All rights reserved

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    atmosphere. For this reason, man has always explored means of measuring different parameters of the weather. With the advancement in technology, new methods and equipment have been developed to measure, collect and monitor weather information and today a whole field of study called meteorology is dedicated to it ...

  11. Water security and the right to water in Southern Africa: An overview ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Through four cases from Botswana, South Africa, Zambia and Zimbabwe the paper addresses selected aspects of the varied water issues, in particular the constitutional right to water and how that impacts on water security within the region. The literature and case law reviewed in the paper indicate that while there are ...

  12. After the Water War — Achieving Water Rights Consensus in Bolivia ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2010-12-08

    Dec 8, 2010 ... This was the challenge: help broker broad-based consensus on water legislation in Bolivia in the wake of violent social conflict over water rights — and after 32 previous attempts at introducing water legislation had failed. A daunting task, yet IDRC-supported Bolivian researchers took it on and triumphed, ...

  13. The human right of access to drinking water: a continental analysis based on World Water Forums

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenzo Zorzi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available At the end of the 1980s, development and human rights were treated as separate issues, with distinct and divergent strategies and goals. After two decades, our understanding of the issue has evolved, and it has become clear that there is no way to separate the two issues. Currently, interest in human rights is increasing, and is focusing particularly on developing a consensus based upon international standards in order to promote and protect such rights. In this context, after numerous negotiations, the right to access potable water has come to be understood as a human right. This paper discusses the issue of water as a human right based upon the analysis of the World Water Forum which has existed since 1997 and involves the public, private and scientific sectors. The qualitative textual analysis was based upon documentation of these events.

  14. 10 CFR 433.7 - Water used to achieve energy efficiency. [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Water used to achieve energy efficiency. [Reserved] 433.7 Section 433.7 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY STANDARDS FOR THE DESIGN... Water used to achieve energy efficiency. [Reserved] ...

  15. 10 CFR 435.7 - Water used to achieve energy efficiency. [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Water used to achieve energy efficiency. [Reserved] 435.7 Section 435.7 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY STANDARDS FOR NEW FEDERAL... Buildings. § 435.7 Water used to achieve energy efficiency. [Reserved] ...

  16. Irrigation, risk aversion, and water right priority under water supply uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Man; Xu, Wenchao; Rosegrant, Mark W.

    2017-09-01

    This paper explores the impacts of a water right's allocative priority—as an indicator of farmers' risk-bearing ability—on land irrigation under water supply uncertainty. We develop and use an economic model to simulate farmers' land irrigation decision and associated economic returns in eastern Idaho. Results indicate that the optimal acreage of land irrigated increases with water right priority when hydroclimate risk exhibits a negatively skewed or right-truncated distribution. Simulation results suggest that prior appropriation enables senior water rights holders to allocate a higher proportion of their land to irrigation, 6 times as much as junior rights holders do, creating a gap in the annual expected net revenue reaching up to 141.4 acre-1 or 55,800 per farm between the two groups. The optimal irrigated acreage, expected net revenue, and shadow value of a water right's priority are subject to substantial changes under a changing climate in the future, where temporal variation in water supply risks significantly affects the profitability of agricultural land use under the priority-based water sharing mechanism.

  17. Echocardiographic and hemodynamic determinants of right coronary artery flow reserve and phasic flow pattern in advanced non-ischemic cardiomyopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mady Charles

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In patients with advanced non-ischemic cardiomyopathy (NIC, right-sided cardiac disturbances has prognostic implications. Right coronary artery (RCA flow pattern and flow reserve (CFR are not well known in this setting. The purpose of this study was to assess, in human advanced NIC, the RCA phasic flow pattern and CFR, also under right-sided cardiac disturbances, and compare with left coronary circulation. As well as to investigate any correlation between the cardiac structural, mechanical and hemodynamic parameters with RCA phasic flow pattern or CFR. Methods Twenty four patients with dilated severe NIC were evaluated non-invasively, even by echocardiography, and also by cardiac catheterization, inclusive with Swan-Ganz catheter. Intracoronary Doppler (Flowire data was obtained in RCA and left anterior descendent coronary artery (LAD before and after adenosine. Resting RCA phasic pattern (diastolic/systolic was compared between subgroups with and without pulmonary hypertension, and with and without right ventricular (RV dysfunction; and also with LAD. RCA-CFR was compared with LAD, as well as in those subgroups. Pearson's correlation analysis was accomplished among echocardiographic (including LV fractional shortening, mass index, end systolic wall stress more hemodynamic parameters with RCA phasic flow pattern or RCA-CFR. Results LV fractional shortening and end diastolic diameter were 15.3 ± 3.5 % and 69.4 ± 12.2 mm. Resting RCA phasic pattern had no difference comparing subgroups with vs. without pulmonary hypertension (1.45 vs. 1.29, p = NS either with vs. without RV dysfunction (1.47 vs. 1.23, p = NS; RCA vs. LAD was 1.35 vs. 2.85 (p Conclusion In patients with chronic advanced NIC, RCA phasic flow pattern has a mild diastolic predominance, less marked than in LAD, with no effects from pulmonary artery hypertension or RV dysfunction. There is no significant correlation between any cardiac mechanical-structural or

  18. Comparison of fractional flow reserve of composite Y-grafts with saphenous vein or right internal thoracic arteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glineur, David; Boodhwani, Munir; Poncelet, Alain; De Kerchove, Laurent; Etienne, Pierre Yves; Noirhomme, Philippe; Deceuninck, Paul; Michel, Xavier; El Khoury, Gebrine; Hanet, Claude

    2010-09-01

    Composite Y-grafts, using the left internal thoracic artery as the inflow, allow a more efficient use of conduits without the need to touch a diseased ascending aorta. Among other conduits, the saphenous vein graft may be an alternative to the radial artery in elderly patients. We evaluated the hemodynamic characteristics of 17 composite Y-grafts made with the left internal thoracic artery anastomosed to the left anterior descending coronary artery in all cases and with either the free right internal thoracic artery (RITA group, n = 10) or a saphenous vein graft (SVG group, n = 7) implanted proximally to the left internal thoracic artery and distally to the circumflex territory 6 months after the operation. At baseline, the pressure gradient measured with a 0.014-inch pressure wire was minimal between the aorta and the internal thoracic artery stem (2 +/- 1 mm Hg), the internal thoracic artery and left anterior descending (4 +/- 2 mm Hg), the internal thoracic artery and left circumflex (3 +/- 1 mm Hg), and the saphenous vein graft and left circumflex (2 +/- 2 mm Hg). During hyperemia induced by adenosine, the pressure gradient increased significantly to 6 +/- 2 mm Hg in the internal thoracic artery stem, 9 +/- 4 mm Hg in the internal thoracic artery and left anterior descending artery, 9 +/- 3 mm Hg in the internal thoracic artery and left circumflex, and 7 +/- 4 mm Hg in the saphenous vein graft and left circumflex. Fractional flow reserve was 0.94 +/- 0.02 in internal thoracic artery stem, 0.90 +/- 0.04 mm Hg in the internal thoracic artery and left anterior descending, 0.91 +/- 0.03 mm Hg in the internal thoracic artery and left circumflex, and 0.92 +/- 0.06 mm Hg in the saphenous vein graft and left circumflex. No difference between the two types of composite Y-grafts was observed for pressure gradients or fractional flow reserve measured in internal thoracic artery stem or in distal branches. Composite Y-grafts with saphenous vein or right internal thoracic

  19. Climate change, water rights, and water supply: The case of irrigated agriculture in Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wenchao; Lowe, Scott E.; Adams, Richard M.

    2014-12-01

    We conduct a hedonic analysis to estimate the response of agricultural land use to water supply information under the Prior Appropriation Doctrine by using Idaho as a case study. Our analysis includes long-term climate (weather) trends and water supply conditions as well as seasonal water supply forecasts. A farm-level panel data set, which accounts for the priority effects of water rights and controls for diversified crop mixes and rotation practices, is used. Our results indicate that farmers respond to the long-term surface and ground water conditions as well as to the seasonal water supply variations. Climate change-induced variations in climate and water supply conditions could lead to substantial damages to irrigated agriculture. We project substantial losses (up to 32%) of the average crop revenue for major agricultural areas under future climate scenarios in Idaho. Finally, farmers demonstrate significantly varied responses given their water rights priorities, which imply that the distributional impact of climate change is sensitive to institutions such as the Prior Appropriation Doctrine.

  20. Impact of water stress on growth reserves and re-growth of Themeda ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... carbohydrates (TNCC) and water-soluble protein (WSPC) as growth reserves after defoliation were determined in the indigenous C4 semi-arid grass species Themeda triandra during three growth stages (vegetative, piping and reproductive) and in three plant parts (roots, stubble and leaves). Four water stress treatments ...

  1. Preliminary findings on water quality of ricing lakes on White Earth Reservation, MN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wild rice is a cultural and economic staple of the Anishinaabe People of White Earth. Changes in land use within the watershed may impact the water quality of ricing lakes on the reservation. The purpose of this discussion is to report the preliminary findings of water quality analysis of samples ta...

  2. Water resources of the Santa Ysabel and Mesa Grande Indian Reservations, San Diego County, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freckleton, John R.

    1981-01-01

    The Santa Ysabel (consisting of three tracts) and Mesa Grande Indian Reservations are in north-central San Diego County, Calif. On both reservations fractured and weathered igneous and metamorphic rocks and alluvium are water bearing; however, no wells are known to derive their water entirely from alluvium. Well yields range from 2.5 to 250 gallons per minute. Springs occur where saturated fractured or weathered material intersects the land surface. Spring discharge ranged from 0 gallon per minute (November 1979) to 9.4 gallons per minute (November 1979). Few data are available for the surface water characteristics of the study area. One-time measurements of discharge at selected stream sites were made in late November 1979 and late May 1980; discharges ranged from less than 0.01 cubic foot per second to an estimated 3 cubic feet per second. Further study of the surface-water systems would provide a basis for estimating their development potential. The existing water-supply development on the Santa Ysabel Indian Reservation is adequate for the present residents. The Mesa Grande reservation was unoccupied in 1952, was reportedly unoccupied in November 1979, and has no developed water supply. Additional water can be developed for both reservations from the igneous and metamorphic rock, from presently undeveloped springs, and from perennial reaches of the larger streams. Except for excessive iron and sodium at some ground-water sites and excessive sodium at a few surface-water sites, the water is of suitable quality for domestic and agricultural use. (USGS)

  3. Impact of right atrial pressure on decision-making using fractional flow reserve (FFR) in elective percutaneous intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Layland, Jamie; Wilson, Andrew M; Whitbourn, Robert J; Burns, Andrew T; Somaratne, Jithendra; Leitl, George; Macisaac, Andrew I

    2013-08-10

    We undertook a prospective study to assess the impact of routine incorporation of right atrial pressure into the calculation of FFR in a real world elective PCI cohort. 42 patients with stenoses in 2 separate epicardial vessels at coronary angiography were studied. Using a temperature and pressure sensing guidewire (TPSG) FFR and FFRRAP were performed in the target vessel pre and post PCI and in a non-target vessel. FFR was defined as Pd/Pa, FFRRAP as Pd-Pv/Pa-Pv where Pv was right atrial pressure and Pd/Pa were the hyperemic distal and proximal arterial pressures respectively. Mean RAP was 9.1 ± 0.7 mmHg. Mean FFR was significantly lower when RAP was included in the calculation (FFRRAP 0.77 ± 0.19 vs. FFR 0.80 ± 0.16, pcalculation of FFR resulted in a significant difference in the FFR value (FFR Pre-PCI 0.69 ± 0.02 vs. FFRRAP Pre-PCI 0.63 ± 0.03, pcalculate FFR prior to PCI, an additional 9 patients would have been re-categorised to an FFR ≤ 0.8. Following PCI, mean FFR was lower when RAP was incorporated (Post PCI FFRRAP 0.93±0.05 vs. Post PCI FFR 0.95 ± 0.06, pcalculation of FFR significantly alters FFR values and may potentially reclassify lesions below ischaemic thresholds. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Rights

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    About 20 percent of Malawians are Moslems (CIA 2001). 5 . 'Property grabbing” occurs when the relatives of a deceased man take all matrimo- nial property, leaving the widow and children with hardly anything (WLSA 2000). References. Armstrong, Alice. 1993. 'lnternalising International Women's Rights Norms', in.

  5. Public participation and water use rights | King | Potchefstroom ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Although the National Water Act 36 of 1998 (the NWA) seeks to provide a framework for ensuring the sustainable use of water resources, its application has been hindered by capacity and enforcement constraints, a legacy of water pollution (primarily as a result of mining and industrial activities), and poor resource ...

  6. Mechanisms for water allocation and water rights in Europe and the Netherlands : lessons from a general public law perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Rijswick, Marleen

    2015-01-01

    This article focuses on the allocation and regulation of water rights. Although there is a general concern about the allocation and restriction of the right to use scarce water resources, there is also a debate regarding the implementation of a public right to water in general and, in particular,

  7. Community Engaged Cumulative Risk Assessment of Exposure to Inorganic Well Water Contaminants, Crow Reservation, Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, John T.; Lefthand, Myra J.; Young, Sara L.; Kindness, Larry; Other Medicine, Roberta; Ford, Timothy E.; Dietrich, Eric; Parker, Albert E.; Hoover, Joseph H.; Camper, Anne K.

    2018-01-01

    An estimated 11 million people in the US have home wells with unsafe levels of hazardous metals and nitrate. The national scope of the health risk from consuming this water has not been assessed as home wells are largely unregulated and data on well water treatment and consumption are lacking. Here, we assessed health risks from consumption of contaminated well water on the Crow Reservation by conducting a community-engaged, cumulative risk assessment. Well water testing, surveys and interviews were used to collect data on contaminant concentrations, water treatment methods, well water consumption, and well and septic system protection and maintenance practices. Additive Hazard Index calculations show that the water in more than 39% of wells is unsafe due to uranium, manganese, nitrate, zinc and/or arsenic. Most families’ financial resources are limited, and 95% of participants do not employ water treatment technologies. Despite widespread high total dissolved solids, poor taste and odor, 80% of families consume their well water. Lack of environmental health literacy about well water safety, pre-existing health conditions and limited environmental enforcement also contribute to vulnerability. Ensuring access to safe drinking water and providing accompanying education are urgent public health priorities for Crow and other rural US families with low environmental health literacy and limited financial resources. PMID:29304032

  8. Market-based instruments for water policy: the market for water rights in Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Redaelli, C.

    2008-01-01

    Market instruments have been often proposed with the aim of improving the efficient allocation of use rights over natural resources. This article analyzes the potential of market mechanisms in the field of water resources and focuses attention on the experience of Chile, one of the few cases in which water markets have been implemented on a wide scale. Evidence from the Chilean case is discussed in order to verify theoretical hypotheses and to outline the potential benefits but also the many drawbacks of these instruments. [it

  9. Reconnaissance of water resources of the Upper Klickitat River Basin, Yakima Indian Reservation, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cline, Denzel R.

    1975-01-01

    Large quantities of ground water and surface water are available in Washington County. Major sources of ground water are the Gosport Sand and Lisbon Formation undifferentiated, the Miocene Series undifferentiated, and alluvium and low terrace deposits. The Miocene, the most productive source of ground water, will yield 0.5 to 1.0 mgd (million gallons per day) per well and is a potential source of larger supplies in most of the county. The quantity of potable water available is governed largely by geologic structures. Average flows of the Tombigbee and Mobile Rivers in the southeast corner of the county are 18,200 and 39,400 mgd. Average runoff originating in the county is about 1,100 mgd or 1 mgd per square mile. Water in aquifers tapped by wells generally contains less than 500 mg/l (milligrams per liter) dissolved solids. The water generally is soft to moderately hard. Water in streams is soft to moderately hard and low in dissolved solids. Estimated water use in 1966 was 43.5 mgd of which 10.9 mgd was ground water and 32.6 mgd was surface water. Lava flows underlie the entire basin, and unconsolidated sedimentary deposits overlie the lavas in the Camas Prairie-Glenwood area and in small areas elsewhere. A spring supplies water to much of the Camas Prairie-Glenwood area through a public system, so not many wells are used now. About 56 million gallons (110 acre-feet) of ground water was used in 1974. The unconsolidated deposits yield from 1 to 500 gallons per minute of water to wells, and the basalt can yield more than 100 gallons per minute and possibly several thousand gallons per minute to deep wells. Ground-water recharge and discharge on the reservation is estimated to average 550,000 acre-feet per year.

  10. Quality assessment of pollution indicators in marine water at critical locations of the Gulf of Mannar Biosphere Reserve, Tuticorin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajendran, Viji; Nirmaladevi D, Shrinithivihahshini; Srinivasan, Balakrishnan; Rengaraj, Chithradevi; Mariyaselvam, Sheelamary

    2018-01-01

    The present study focused on the shoreline environment of urban and industrial areas, and the aim of this study was to assess the coastal water quality in the Gulf of Mannar Biosphere Reserve. Water samples were collected from five different coastal sites during the premonsoon and monsoon seasons. The samples were analyzed following the standard methods. The results showed that the levels of microbiological indicators in the samples highly exceeded the regional and national standard seawater permissible limits, and environmental parameters such as the total suspended solid and dissolved oxygen were affected significantly (p<0.05). To identify frequent pollution indicators, their levels should be estimated to determine possible pollution in coastal ecosystems due to human interventions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Equity in water and sanitation: developing an index to measure progressive realization of the human right.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luh, Jeanne; Baum, Rachel; Bartram, Jamie

    2013-11-01

    We developed an index to measure progressive realization for the human right to water and sanitation. While in this study we demonstrate its application to the non-discrimination and equality component for water, the conceptual approach of the index can be used for all the different components of the human right. The index was composed of one structural, one process, and two outcome indicators and is bound between -1 and 1, where negative values indicate regression and positive values indicate progressive realization. For individual structural and process indicators, only discrete values such as -1, -0.5, 0, 0.5, and 1 were allowed. For the outcome indicators, any value between -1 and 1 was possible, and a State's progress was evaluated using rates of change. To create an index that would allow for fair comparisons between States and across time, these rates of change were compared to benchmarked rates, which reflect the maximum rates a State can achieve. Using this approach, we calculated the index score for 56 States in 2010 for which adequate data were available and demonstrated that these index scores were not dependent on factors such as achieved level of coverage or gross national income. The proposed index differs from existing measures of inequality as it measures rate of change and not level of achievement, and thus addresses the principle of progressive realization that is fundamental to human rights. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  12. Sustainable Development and the Right to Water in Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Díaz-Pulido, Angélica-Paola; Chingaté-Hernández, Nathalie; Muñoz-Moreno, Diana-Paola; Olaya-González, Wilmar-Rolando; Perilla-Castro, Carolina; Sánchez-Ojeda, Federico; Sánchez-González, Karen

    2010-01-01

    Water, considered as an environmental resource and as an economic and social good, should be part of the Colombian public agenda, not only not only in terms of the use and preservation of hydro resources, but also in terms of the social implications of its possession and use. The world wide preoccupation with the diminution of natural resources, species extinction and water shortage has its origins in the seventies. One of the results was the establishment of international conventions and agr...

  13. Hydrology and water quality of the Forest County Potawatomi Indian Reservation, Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lidwin, R.A.; Krohelski, J.T.

    1993-01-01

    This report presents data from a study by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Forest County Potawatomi Community of Wisconsin, to document the hydrology and water quality of the Potawatomi Indian Reservation in southern Forest County. Data were collected from October 1981 through September 1987.  

  14. Developing America's Shale Reserves - Water Strategies For A Sustainable Future (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shephard, L. E.; Oshikanlu, T.

    2013-12-01

    The development of shale oil and gas reserves over the last several years has had a significant impact on securing America's energy future while making substantial contributions to our nation's economic prosperity. These developments have also raised serious concerns about potential detrimental impacts to our environment (i.e., land, air and water) with much media attention focused on the impacts to our nation's fresh water supply. These concerns are being discussed across the nation often with little or no distinction that the nature of the water issues vary depending on local circumstances (e.g., depth of aquifer and reservoir zone, water demand and availability, availability of discharge wells, regulatory framework, etc.) and regional shale reservoir development strategies (depth of wells, length of laterals, fluid-type used for fracturing, etc.). Growing concerns over long standing drought conditions in some areas and competing demands for water from other sectors (e.g., agriculture, domestic, etc.) add even greater uncertainty relative to fresh water. Water demands for gas and oil wells vary from region to region but nominally range from 10 to 15 acre feet of water (4 to 6 million gallons) for drilling and hydraulic fracturing applications. Flowback water from the hydraulic fracturing process varies and can range from 5 to 40 % of the water used for drilling and 'fracing'. Produced water can be substantial, leading to significant volumes of 'disposed water' where injection wells are available. A science-based systems approach to water lifecycle management that incorporates leading-edge technology development and considers economic and social impacts is critical for the long-term sustainable development of shale reserves. Various water recycling and reuse technologies are being deployed within select regions across the nation with each having limited success depending on region. The efficacy of reuse technology will vary based on produced water quantity and

  15. Principal-subordinate hierarchical multi-objective programming model of initial water rights allocation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Wu

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The principal-subordinate hierarchical multi-objective programming model of initial water rights allocation was developed based on the principle of coordinated and sustainable development of different regions and water sectors within a basin. With the precondition of strictly controlling maximum emissions rights, initial water rights were allocated between the first and the second levels of the hierarchy in order to promote fair and coordinated development across different regions of the basin and coordinated and efficient water use across different water sectors, realize the maximum comprehensive benefits to the basin, promote the unity of quantity and quality of initial water rights allocation, and eliminate water conflict across different regions and water sectors. According to interactive decision-making theory, a principal-subordinate hierarchical interactive iterative algorithm based on the satisfaction degree was developed and used to solve the initial water rights allocation model. A case study verified the validity of the model.

  16. Effects of Water Rights and Other Factors on Water Management by Farmers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andriyas, S.; McKee, M.; Hardy, T. B.

    2009-12-01

    Water used for irrigation is a major portion of the total water diversions in the western United States. Depending on irrigation rights and uncertainty in water availability due to variability in the natural hydrological cycle, significant cuts in irrigation supply can result in low-flow years. Irrigators respond to these and other uncertainties (e.g., future potential yields and commodity prices) in their decisions on the allocation of inputs to farm production, including irrigation water. This paper seeks to understand the determinants in farmers’ decisions to irrigate, and presents the results of an analysis of the behavior of irrigators with respect to their day-by-day irrigation decisions. The analyses are based on the use of agent-based models that simulate crop growth, evapotranspiration, soil moisture balance, and irrigator behavior and decision-making. The study site is located near Delta, Utah, and involves farms on approximately 30 square miles of irrigated land. The analyses address factors such as stage of crop growth, crop health, financial constraints, climatic conditions, and opportunity for leasing of water.

  17. Disputes over land and water rights in gold mining

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stoltenborg, Didi; Boelens, Rutgerd

    2016-01-01

    This article analyzes different visions and positions in a conflict between the developer of an open-pit mine in Mexico and project opponents using the echelons of rights analysis framework, distinguishing four layers of dispute: contested resources; contents of rules and regulations;

  18. Willingness to pay for water and water rights definition: study among smallholder irrigators in Limpopo Province, South Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Speelman, S.; Haese, D' M.F.C.; Frija, A.; Farolfi, S.; Haese, D' L.

    2009-01-01

    Internationally there is growing understanding that water rights are important and that a lack of effective water rights systems creates major problems for the management of increasingly scarce water supplies. In South Africa the smallholder irrigation sector faces two major challenges. Firstly

  19. The impact of the water rights definition on smallholder irrigators' willingness to pay for water in Limpopo province, South Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Speelman, S.; Farolfi, S.; Haese, D' M.F.C.; Frija, A.; Haese, D' L.

    2010-01-01

    Water rights are currently receiving increased attention from scholars and policymakers due to the growing understanding that ill-defined water rights impair efficient use. In South Africa, smallholder irrigation faces problems of low water use efficiency and cost recovery of government investments.

  20. The Recognition of Dual Character of Water: Human Right and of the Nature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Paiva Marques Júnior

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The water transcends the status of human rights, also being recognized as a right of nature. The conformation of the human right to drinking water is a corollary of social demands molded by Letters Constitutional of Bolivia and Ecuador, which has spread across the planet from the UN General Assembly resolution RES / 64/292/2010. The research has scope to investigate the recognition of access to drinking water as a human right and right of nature, advocated by the New Constitutionalism Democratic Latin American against a context of scarcity and need for enhancement of water resources for life on Planet Earth.

  1. Property, legal pluralism, and water rights: the critical analysis of water governance and the politics of recognizing “local” rights

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roth, D.; Boelens, R.A.; Zwarteveen, M.Z.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we assess the impact of Franz von Benda-Beckmann's work in the field of water rights. We argue that his contributions to understanding water, a field dominated by engineers and economists, cannot be overestimated. Over the years, Franz's nuanced and empathic anthropological attitude,

  2. Coupling biophysical processes and water rights to simulate spatially distributed water use in an intensively managed hydrologic system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Bangshuai; Benner, Shawn G.; Bolte, John P.; Vache, Kellie B.; Flores, Alejandro N.

    2017-07-01

    Humans have significantly altered the redistribution of water in intensively managed hydrologic systems, shifting the spatiotemporal patterns of surface water. Evaluating water availability requires integration of hydrologic processes and associated human influences. In this study, we summarize the development and evaluation of an extensible hydrologic model that explicitly integrates water rights to spatially distribute irrigation waters in a semi-arid agricultural region in the western US, using the Envision integrated modeling platform. The model captures both human and biophysical systems, particularly the diversion of water from the Boise River, which is the main water source that supports irrigated agriculture in this region. In agricultural areas, water demand is estimated as a function of crop type and local environmental conditions. Surface water to meet crop demand is diverted from the stream reaches, constrained by the amount of water available in the stream, the water-rights-appropriated amount, and the priority dates associated with particular places of use. Results, measured by flow rates at gaged stream and canal locations within the study area, suggest that the impacts of irrigation activities on the magnitude and timing of flows through this intensively managed system are well captured. The multi-year averaged diverted water from the Boise River matches observations well, reflecting the appropriation of water according to the water rights database. Because of the spatially explicit implementation of surface water diversion, the model can help diagnose places and times where water resources are likely insufficient to meet agricultural water demands, and inform future water management decisions.

  3. A legal-ethical analysis of reproductive endocrinologists' right to refuse ovulation induction to patients with diminished ovarian reserve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karipcin, Fethiye Sinem; Hossain, Amjad; Phelps, John Y

    2011-11-01

    Review of the legal and ethical basis for reproductive endocrinologists to refuse ovulation induction to patients with diminished ovarian reserve. The Lexis-Nexis search engine was used to perform a legal review pertaining to refusal of treatment. Ethical opinions of medical organizations were also reviewed. Federal antidiscrimination laws provide legal recourse for patients with diminished ovarian reserve who are denied ovulation induction. However, the same laws also permit refusal of care when there is bona fide medical justification to decline services. In addition, the codes of ethics for relevant professional organizations support physicians' decisions to refuse treatment when treatment is futile. Although it is ethically and legally permissible to deny ovulation induction to patients with diminished ovarian reserve when medically justified, refusal may invite retaliatory litigation. Counseling remains a cornerstone in directing these patients to options with more potential for success, such as donor eggs and adoption.

  4. Stream flow unaffected by Eucalyptus plantation harvesting implicates water use by the native forest streamside reserve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip J. Smethurst

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Study region: Tropical Atlantic Forest region, Brazil. Study focus: The temporal and spatial dynamics of soil water, water table depth and stream flow in relation to precipitation and the harvesting and regrowth cycle of a Eucalyptus grandis hybrid plantation in a headwater catchment. This landscape contains a mosaic of eucalypt plantation grown for pulpwood on plateau tops and native forest reserves in gullies. Instead of harvesting the native forest to test this effect, we conducted a virtual experiment using a soil and hydrological model (HYDRUS. New hydrological insights: Plantation harvest had little effect on steam flow, despite a 6–11 m rise in water table level under the plantation area. This result suggests that the native forest reserve intercepted groundwater moving laterally between the plantation and the stream. Measured and simulated runoff coefficients were similarly low (5% and 3%, respectively, but simulated removal of the native forest led to an increase to 38%. Therefore, plantation management in this type of landscape is likely to have little impact on stream flows where there is an intact native rainforest reserve beside the stream. Keywords: Eucalyptus plantation, Hydrology, Harvesting, Native forest, Stream flow, Modelling

  5. 100 years of California’s water rights system: patterns, trends and uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grantham, Theodore E.; Viers, Joshua H.

    2014-08-01

    For 100 years, California’s State Water Resources Control Board and its predecessors have been responsible for allocating available water supplies to beneficial uses, but inaccurate and incomplete accounting of water rights has made the state ill-equipped to satisfy growing societal demands for water supply reliability and healthy ecosystems. Here, we present the first comprehensive evaluation of appropriative water rights to identify where, and to what extent, water has been dedicated to human uses relative to natural supplies. The results show that water right allocations total 400 billion cubic meters, approximately five times the state’s mean annual runoff. In the state’s major river basins, water rights account for up to 1000% of natural surface water supplies, with the greatest degree of appropriation observed in tributaries to the Sacramento and San Joaquin Rivers and in coastal streams in southern California. Comparisons with water supplies and estimates of actual use indicate substantial uncertainty in how water rights are exercised. In arid regions such as California, over-allocation of surface water coupled with trends of decreasing supply suggest that new water demands will be met by re-allocation from existing uses. Without improvements to the water rights system, growing human and environmental demands portend an intensification of regional water scarcity and social conflict. California’s legal framework for managing its water resources is largely compatible with needed reforms, but additional public investment is required to enhance the capacity of the state’s water management institutions to effectively track and regulate water rights.

  6. 36 CFR 251.18 - Rights-of-way reserved by the grantor on lands conveyed to the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... reservation shall be paid for at rates to be prescribed by the Forest Officer in charge, which rates shall be the usual stumpage prices charged in the locality in sales of national forest timber of the same kind or species; for injury to timber, second growth, and reproduction, the amount of actual damage shall...

  7. Season-ahead streamflow forecast informed tax strategies for semi-arid water rights markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delorit, J. D.; Block, P. J.

    2016-12-01

    In many semi-arid regions multisectoral demands stress available water supplies. The Elqui River valley of north central Chile, which draws on limited capacity reservoirs supplied largely by annually variable snowmelt, is one of these cases. This variability forces water managers to develop demand-based allocation strategies which have typically resulted in water right volume reductions, applied equally per right. Compounding this issue is often deferred or delayed infrastructure investments, which has been linked Chile's Coasian approach to water markets, under which rights holders do not pay direct procurement costs, non-use fees, nor taxes. Here we build upon our previous research using forecasts of likely water rights reductions, informed by season-ahead prediction models of October-January (austral growing season) streamflow, to construct annual, forecast-sensitive, per right tax. We believe this tax, to be borne by right holders, will improve the beneficial use of water resources by stimulating water rights trading and improving system efficiency by generating funds for infrastructure investment, thereby reducing free-ridership and conflict between rights holders. Research outputs will include sectoral per right tax assessments, tax revenue generation, Elqui River valley economic output, and water rights trading activity.

  8. Geology and ground water of the Red Lake area, Navajo Indian Reservation, Arizona and New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akers, J.P.; McClymonds, N.E.; Harshbarger, John William

    1962-01-01

    The Red Lake area in the Navajo Indian Reservation, Arizona and New Mexico, was studied by the U.S. Geological Survey to determine if 1 mgd (mil- lion gallons per day) of water could be obtained for the requirements of a proposed sawmill. Geologic mapping and stratigraphic studies indicated three favorable areas where ground water may be developed. Test holes were drilled under contract in the areas, and pumping tests indicate that 500,000 gpd (gal- lons per day) is available from alluvium along Tohdildonih Wash near Frog Rock, 100,000 gpd is available from the Shinarump member of the Chinle forma- tion and the De Chelly sandstone near Red Lake, and 800,000 gpd is available from alluvium and cinder beds in lapiUi tuff in Buell Park, an eroded diatreme. The diatreme at Buell Park is about 2% miles in diameter. It was formed by several explosions in which lapilli tuff and cinders were erupted. These materials, together with later basaltic intrusive and extrusive rock, now fill the diatreme. The tuff and cinders are water bearing, 'and they receive re- charge from rainwater and snowmelt moving through overlying alluvium and from storage in the De Chelly sandstone which encloses the east half of the diatreme. The quality of water from all areas is suitable for domestic use. However, special treatment may be necessary to make the water suitable for pulp processing.

  9. [Influence of surface water availability on mammal distributions in Nonggang National Nature Reserve, Guangxi, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Tian-Bo; Sung, Yik-Hei; Bosco Chan, Pui-Lok; Meng, Yuan-Jun; Wan, Pak-Ho

    2013-06-01

    Surface water is a major limiting factor affecting animal activities in karst ecosystems. From March, 2006 to June, 2007 and from October, 2010 to May, 2011, infra-red camera traps were installed along animal trails and temporary rain pools in Nonggang National Nature Reserve, Guangxi, China, to monitor mammal diversity and relative abundance. In total, 19 species from 17 genera, 12 families, and 5 orders were recorded, including two State Key Protection Class I species, the François' langur (Trachypithecus francoisi) and Assam macaque (Macaca assamensis). Although 42% of species only occurred in one of the microhabitats, differences in species assemblages between trails and pools were not significant. The results of our observation indicated that camera trapping was effective in monitoring medium to large sized mammals, and for recording illegal hunting. In addition, our results suggest that authorities should reinforce patrolling, especially at water pools during the dry season, and eradicate unsustainable extraction of underground water. Moreover, based on the advantages of large inhibited environments to animal species, especially to large predators, we also recommend connecting the three isolated sections of the reserve to promote species recovery and dispersal.

  10. 49 CFR 195.412 - Inspection of rights-of-way and crossings under navigable waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Inspection of rights-of-way and crossings under navigable waters. 195.412 Section 195.412 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation... Inspection of rights-of-way and crossings under navigable waters. (a) Each operator shall, at intervals not...

  11. Human rights approach to water in the Ethiopian context: legal and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The supply of accessible, adequate, clean and drinkable water in order to improve the quality of life has remained a challenge for many countries. One possible way of ensuring accessibility to clean water is to articulate it from a human rights perspective. International human right instruments have recently been invoked to ...

  12. Summary of Surface-Water Quality, Ground-Water Quality, and Water Withdrawals for the Spirit Lake Reservation, North Dakota

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Vinning, Kevin C; Cates, Steven W

    2006-01-01

    .... The data were collected intermittently from 1948 through 2004 and were compiled from U.S. Geological Survey databases, North Dakota State Water Commission databases, and Spirit Lake Nation tribal agencies...

  13. Northern Cheyenne Reservation Coal Bed Natural Resource Assessment and Analysis of Produced Water Disposal Options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaochang Wo; David A. Lopez; Jason Whiteman Sr.; Bruce A. Reynolds

    2004-07-01

    Coalbed methane (CBM) development in the Powder River Basin (PRB) is currently one of the most active gas plays in the United States. Monthly production in 2002 reached about 26 BCF in the Wyoming portion of the basin. Coalbed methane reserves for the Wyoming portion of the basin are approximately 25 trillion cubic feet (TCF). Although coal beds in the Powder River Basin extend well into Montana, including the area of the Northern Cheyenne Indian Reservation, the only CBM development in Montana is the CX Field, operated by the Fidelity Exploration, near the Wyoming border. The Northern Cheyenne Reservation is located on the northwest flank of the PRB in Montana with a total land of 445,000 acres. The Reservation consists of five districts, Lame Deer, Busby, Ashland, Birney, and Muddy Cluster and has a population of 4,470 according to the 2000 Census. The CBM resource represents a significant potential asset to the Northern Cheyenne Indian Tribe. Methane gas in coal beds is trapped by hydrodynamic pressure. Because the production of CBM involves the dewatering of coalbed to allow the release of methane gas from the coal matrix, the relatively large volume of the co-produced water and its potential environmental impacts are the primary concerns for the Tribe. Presented in this report is a study conducted by the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) and the Montana Bureau of Mines and Geology (MBMG) in partnership with the Northern Cheyenne Tribe to assess the Tribe’s CBM resources and evaluate applicable water handling options. The project was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) through the Native American Initiative of the National Petroleum Technology Office, under contract DEAC07- 99ID13727. Matching funds were granted by the MBMG in supporting the work of geologic study and mapping conducted at MBMG.

  14. Land and water resources for environmental research on Oak Ridge Reservation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dahlman, R.C.; Kitchings, J.T.; Elwood, J.W.

    1977-01-01

    Resources for environmental research on the Oak Ridge Reservation are analogous to the highly complex, physical and engineering facilities of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Consequently, land and water resources have been committed to comprehensive research for the purpose of providing relevant, scientific insights on environmental problems associated with ERDA's programs. Diverse aquatic, terrestrial, and agricultural ecosystems are designated for short- and long-term research related to environmental impacts or benefits of different energy technologies. Examples of ecosystems employed in this research include hardwood and pine forests, grasslands and pastures, free-flowing streams and impounded reservoirs, field plots, contaminated environmental natural areas, an array of animal habitats, and calibrated watersheds. Some of the characteristic biota of habitat ecosystems are described in the document. Documentation and planning for use of these lands, waters, and biotic resources also respond to the broad issue of appropriate usage of Federal lands.

  15. Appropriation System: water rights in the western United States; water pollution problems peculiar to the uranium industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Worcester, T.E.

    1976-01-01

    The legal framework surrounding water rights acquisition and usage in the western United States and the steps which should be taken in analyzing potential sources of water are dealt with. Some of the applicable water pollution control laws and regulations are discussed briefly

  16. Water resources of the Satus Creek Basin, Yakima Indian Reservation, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mundorff, Maurice John; MacNish, Robert D.; Cline, Denzel R.

    1976-01-01

    The Satus Creek basin lies on the east flank of the Cascade Range in south-central Washington. The basin is entirely within the Yakima Indian Reservation and is bordered and drained on the east by the Yakima River. Average annual precipitation ranges from about 35 inches in the western upland to less than 10 inches in the eastern lowland. This amounts to a yearly total of about 562,000 acre-feet, most of which falls in the upland. Much of the precipitation falls as snow, and the streamflow from the upland reflects this fact, having a high sustained runoff during the snowmelt months of April, May, and June. In 1973 about 176 ,000 acre-feet of water was carried by canals for irrigation of about 19,000 acres in the lowland; of this quantity, about 173 ,000 acre-feet was imported from the adjoining Toppenish Creek basin. This high application rate of about 9.25 acre-feet of water per acre is largely responsible for severe waterlogging problems in many parts of the lowland. Relieving artesian heads by pumping, combined with reduced application and improved drainage, could alleviate the waterlogging, and free water for use in the irrigation of presently nonirrigated parts of the basin. Young volcanic rocks (basalt) in the southwestern, upland part of the basin receive nearly 70,000 acre-feet a year in recharge from precipitation and, although much of this water is what sustains the high base flows of the streams draining the rocks, the remaining water offers potential for development as a high-altitude source for irrigation water. (Woodard-USGS)

  17. Vegetative response to water availability on the San Carlos Apache Reservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrakis, Roy; Wu, Zhuoting; McVay, Jason; Middleton, Barry R.; Dye, Dennis G.; Vogel, John M.

    2016-01-01

    On the San Carlos Apache Reservation in east-central Arizona, U.S.A., vegetation types such as ponderosa pine forests, pinyon-juniper woodlands, and grasslands have significant ecological, cultural, and economic value for the Tribe. This value extends beyond the tribal lands and across the Western United States. Vegetation across the Southwestern United States is susceptible to drought conditions and fluctuating water availability. Remotely sensed vegetation indices can be used to measure and monitor spatial and temporal vegetative response to fluctuating water availability conditions. We used the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS)-derived Modified Soil Adjusted Vegetation Index II (MSAVI2) to measure the condition of three dominant vegetation types (ponderosa pine forest, woodland, and grassland) in response to two fluctuating environmental variables: precipitation and the Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI). The study period covered 2002 through 2014 and focused on a region within the San Carlos Apache Reservation. We determined that grassland and woodland had a similar moderate to strong, year-round, positive relationship with precipitation as well as with summer SPEI. This suggests that these vegetation types respond negatively to drought conditions and are more susceptible to initial precipitation deficits. Ponderosa pine forest had a comparatively weaker relationship with monthly precipitation and summer SPEI, indicating that it is more buffered against short-term drought conditions. This research highlights the response of multiple, dominant vegetation types to seasonal and inter-annual water availability. This research demonstrates that multi-temporal remote sensing imagery can be an effective tool for the large scale detection of vegetation response to adverse impacts from climate change and support potential management practices such as increased monitoring and management of drought-affected areas. Different

  18. Analysis of heavy metals concentration in water and sediment in the Hara biosphere reserve, southern Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowrouzi, Mohsen; Mansouri, Borhan; Nabizadeh, Sahar; Pourkhabbaz, Alireza

    2014-02-01

    This study determined the concentration of heavy metals (Al, Cr, Cu, and Zn) in water and sediments at nine sites in the Hara biosphere reserve of southern Iran during the summer and winter 2010. Determination of Al, Cr, Cu, and Zn in water was carried out by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometer (Shimadzu, AA 610s) and in sediment by flame atomic absorption spectrometer (Perkin Elmer, AA3030). Results showed that the heavy metal concentrations in the water samples decreased in the sequence of Zn > Al > Cu > Cr, while in sediment samples were Cr > Zn > Cu > Al. Data analysis indicated that with the exception of Al, there was a Pearson's correlation coefficient between pH and Cu, Zn, and Cr at α = 0.01, 0.05, and 0.001 in sediment (in winter), respectively. There were also significant differences between heavy metals of Cr, Cu, and Zn during the two seasons (p < 0.001) in the water and sediment.

  19. Residential Water Demand in a Mexican Biosphere Reserve: Evidence of the Effects of Perceived Price

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Antonio Almendarez-Hernández

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to provide empirical evidence for policy-makers of water management, evaluate the applicability of economic variables such as price and other factors that affect demand, and determine the impact thereof on decision-making surrounding water management in the El Vizcaino Biosphere Reserve in Mexico. We estimated a dynamic function with an average price specification, as well as price perception specification. Findings demonstrated that consumers tend to react to perceived average price but not to the marginal price. Furthermore, long-term price elasticity was found to be higher than short-term elasticity, and both elasticities were found to be inelastic. Inelastic elasticities, coupled with rising prices, generate substantial revenues with which to improve water planning and supply quality and to expand service coverage. The results suggest that users’ level of knowledge surrounding price is a key factor to take into account when restructuring rates, especially in situations where consumers do not readily possess the necessary information about their rate structure and usage within a given billing period. Furthermore, the results can help water management policy-makers to achieve goals of economic efficiency, social equity, and environmental sustainability.

  20. Water Rights on Community Lands: LandMark’s Findings from 100 Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liz Alden Wily

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes whether national laws acknowledge indigenous peoples and other rural communities in 100 countries as owners of waters that arise within their lands. Results derive from information collected by LandMark to score the legal status of community land tenure. Findings are positive; half of all countries recognize communities as lawful possessors of water on their lands. Three quarters permit communities to manage the distribution and use of water on their lands. While 71 percent of countries declare water to be a public resource, this belies the substantial existence of privately owned water. In 29 percent of countries, private water is an identified legal category, and in many other countries obtainable rights to water are sufficiently substantial to imply lawful possession. Communities are beneficiaries mainly where customary rights are accorded status as property rights, or where ownership of public lands and water are devolved to rural collectives. However, opposite trends of nationalization and regulation of water suggest that while legal recognition of community land ownership may rise in the future, this will not necessarily include waters on the land. Irrespective of tenure, rural communities in 72 of 77 countries (93.5 percent are legally assured access to water for domestic purposes. This is consistent with the rising definition of safe drinking water as a human right, although access does not necessarily come free of cost.

  1. Privatisation and water governance in Africa: implications of a rights-based approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oladejo Olowu

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Early in the post-independence era, the control of water resources in many African states was a task of central planning. Regrettably, water management soon became a miry adventure in most African states largely because of warped planning and implementation. This article examines the phenomenon of private sector involvement in water resources management and seeks to understand the effect of such involvement on the right to water in Africa in the context of the Millennium Development Goals. The article explores the continuing relationship between African governments and non-state actors in the management of water resources in the privatisation age. The article further analyses the role of various national water governance initiatives vis-à-vis the efficient management of water resources and the sharp contradictions in their frameworks from a rights-based perspective. It evaluates the normative frameworks of access to water as a human right in Africa and contends that the human being must be placed at the centre of water discourses in assessing all role actors and their responsibilities. Extrapolating from experiences from various states within and outside Africa, this article advocates a rights-based approach to water issues and its value for the ultimate purpose of human- centred development.

  2. Sustainable access to safe drinking water: fundamental human right in the international and national scene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celso Maran de Oliveira

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Access to potable water is absolutely essential to the maintenance of life, as well as to provide regular exercise of other human rights. The lack of access to water in sufficient quantity or access to non-potable water may cause serious and irreparable damage to people. This paper investigates the evolution of international and national recognition of this fundamental human right, whether implicit or explicit. This was accomplished by the study of international human rights treaties, bibliographic information on water resources and their corresponding legal systems, national and international. The results suggest that sustainable access to drinking water is a fundamental human right in the context of international relations and the State. Further, even without explicitly stating this right in the Constitution of 1988, Brazil has incorporated the main international provisions on the subject, but this right must be acknowledged according to the principles of non-typical fundamental rights and the dignity of the human person. This right should be universally guaranteed by the Government in sufficient quantity and quality, regardless of the economic resources of individuals.

  3. Wild Water Buffalo Bubalus arnee in Koshi Tappu Wildlife Reserve, Nepal: status, population and conservation importance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.B. Khatri

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The Asiatic Wild Water Buffalo Bubalus arnee is an endangered species restricted to South and Southeast Asia. Nepal’s only population survives in the Koshi Tappu Wildlife Reserve which is located on the floodplain of the Koshi River, a tributary of Ganga. This species is under threat due to high anthropogenic pressure ranging from habitat deterioration to hybridization with domestic buffalo. Yet, the population has grown from 63 in 1976 to 219 in 2009, despite the decline in the calf/cow ratio. The present study conducted in 2009 used the block count method. The count showed the presence of a backcrossed population of 74 in addition to the total of 219 individuals. At present, a number of conservation and livelihood interventions have been undertaken to safeguard the biodiversity, particularly the wild buffalo population in the Koshi Tappu Wildlife Reserve. The community-based sustainable management approach benefiting both conservation and livelihood of local people is necessary to ensure the long term conservation of the species

  4. Water Management in the Camargue Biosphere Reserve: Insights from Comparative Mental Models Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raphael Mathevet

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Mental models are the cognitive representations of the world that frame how people interact with the world. Learning implies changing these mental models. The successful management of complex social-ecological systems requires the coordination of actions to achieve shared goals. The coordination of actions requires a level of shared understanding of the system or situation; a shared or common mental model. We first describe the elicitation and analysis of mental models of different stakeholder groups associated with water management in the Camargue Biosphere Reserve in the Rhône River delta on the French Mediterranean coast. We use cultural consensus analysis to explore the degree to which different groups shared mental models of the whole system, of stakeholders, of resources, of processes, and of interactions among these last three. The analysis of the elicited data from this group structure enabled us to tentatively explore the evidence for learning in the nonstatute Water Board; comprising important stakeholders related to the management of the central Rhône delta. The results indicate that learning does occur and results in richer mental models that are more likely to be shared among group members. However, the results also show lower than expected levels of agreement with these consensual mental models. Based on this result, we argue that a careful process and facilitation design can greatly enhance the functioning of the participatory process in the Water Board. We conclude that this methodology holds promise for eliciting and comparing mental models. It enriches group-model building and participatory approaches with a broader view of social learning and knowledge-sharing issues.

  5. Summary of water resources for the Campo, Cuyapaipe, La Posta, and Manzanita Indian Reservations and vicinity, San Diego County, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyle, W.R.; Downing, D.J.

    1978-01-01

    Since 1945, precipitation and runoff in California on the Campo, Cuyapaipe, La Posta, and Manzanita Indian Reservations and surrounding areas generally have been below normal, and ground-water levels are declining. Most of the water is of excellent quality. The analysis of water from one well on the Campo Reservation indicates a concentration of nitrate that exceeds the recommended limit established in 1972 by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Most wells and springs in the study area yield water for domestic purposes. The yields range from less than 1 gallon per minute to 210 gallons per minute. Most of the water is produced from shallow aluvial-filled channels or from consolidated rocks that are deeply weathered locally or highly fractured. The well data show that insufficient water is available on the four reservations for large-scale irrigation. (Woodard-USGS)

  6. Legal pluralism in the area of human rights: water and sanitation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Obani, P.; Gupta, J.

    2014-01-01

    Access to clean drinking water and adequate sanitation and hygiene facilities is crucial to achieving social and environmental sustainability. We examine the global human water and sanitation right from a legal pluralism perspective to see if it is indifferent to, competes with, accommodates, or is

  7. A detailed analysis of evolution of water rights in South Africa: An ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study reviews the changing scene of water rights in South Africa over the last three and a half centuries and concludes that they have come full circle, with some modifications, since the invoking of Dutch rule in the Cape in 1652 AD. The study stipulates that adoption of a modern rights structure is a welcome change ...

  8. The right of access to sufficient water in South Africa: How far have ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It has become internationally recognised that the right of access to water is fundamental to life and health. Furthermore, it is indispensable for leading a life of human dignity.The South African Constitution expressly recognises this right. This paper examines to what extent the South African government has met its obligation ...

  9. Groundwater and the Right to Water in a Context of Crisis

    OpenAIRE

    Villar, Pilar Carolina

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The water crisis tends to intensify the use of groundwater, which supplies almost half of Brazilian population. Despite that, its management is precarious. The article analyses the role of groundwater and its management in the current context of water crisis and forward the need to ensure the human right to water. The methodology used is the documentary analysis of literature, legislation, international documents and governmental reports. The fragilities over management and the priva...

  10. Effects of produced waters at oilfield production sites on the Osage Indian Reservation, northeastern Oklahoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otton, James K.; Asher-Bolinder, Sigrid; Owen, Douglass E.; Hall, Laurel

    1997-01-01

    The authors conducted limited site surveys in the Wildhorse and Burbank oilfields on the Osage Indian Reservation, northeastern Oklahoma. The purpose was to document salt scarring, erosion, and soil and water salinization, to survey for radioactivity in oilfield equipment, and to determine if trace elements and naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) were present in soils affected by oilfield solid waste and produced waters. These surveys were also designed to see if field gamma spectrometry and field soil conductivity measurements were useful in screening for NORM contamination and soil salinity at these sites. Visits to oilfield production sites in the Wildhorse field in June of 1995 and 1996 confirmed the presence of substantial salt scarring, soil salinization, and slight to locally severe erosion. Levels of radioactivity on some oil field equipment, soils, and road surfaces exceed proposed state standards. Radium activities in soils affected by tank sludge and produced waters also locally exceed proposed state standards. Laboratory analyses of samples from two sites show moderate levels of copper, lead, and zinc in brine-affected soils and pipe scale. Several sites showed detectable levels of bromine and iodine, suggesting that these trace elements may be present in sufficient quantity to inhibit plant growth. Surface waters in streams at two sampled sites exceed total dissolved solid limits for drinking waters. At one site in the Wildhorse field, an EM survey showed that saline soils in the upper 6m extend from a surface salt scar downvalley about 150 m. (Photo [95k]: Dead oak trees and partly revegetated salt scar at Site OS95-2 in the Wildhorse field, Osage County, Oklahoma.) In the Burbank field, limited salt scarring and slight erosion occurs in soils at some sites and low to moderate levels of radioactivity were observed in oil field equipment at some sites. The levels of radioactivity and radium observed in some soils and equipment at these

  11. Ownership relations and the right to water in the epoch of mass migrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolić Dušan Ž.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available For a long time in the past water had been treated as common goods which was supposed to be equally available to all members of the social community. Nevertheless, throughout the time, circumstances have changed. The emergence and incremental strengthening of an individual ownership have contributed to the transformation of social relations being established with regard to the use of water resources. Owners of immovable property immediately connected to the sources, are, pursuant to the principle of priority, entitled to use the water for their needs and those of their households (prior tempore, potior iure. According to the traditional view, the neighbours were obliged to restrain from the use of water, up until the property owner met his needs, within the limits of the so called regular use. Following the same logic, a privileged owner of the immovable property could also demand from all other persons not to interfere with his use of water resources (ius excludendi tertii. Namely, entitlement to use water was of an accessory nature and it belonged to the corpus of ownership right, which could, as an absolute right, be enforced against anybody (erga omnes. Later on an independent and transferable right to use water resources was established and its holders could become a state, a local community, a private legal and natural person, regardless of the ownership right over an immovable property connected to the water resource. Meanwhile the understanding of the right of ownership has substantially changed. It is no longer considered an absolute in its original sense. Constitutions of some countries and decisions of the highest national and supranational courts stipulate that the ownership has a social function and that it may be limited in the public interest. Likewise, an entitlement to use water resources may be restricted in the interest of social community, and as the practice of some countries testifies, also in the interest of other natural

  12. CONCESSION AS A PRECONDITION FOR RELATIVELY RESERVED RIGHTS OF THE FOREIGNERS IN THE REPUBLIC OF MACEDONIA: THE CASE OF SMALL HYDROELECTRIC PLANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katerina Kocevska

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Concession as a precondition for relatively reserved right, gives the foreigners almost equal rights as domestic citizens of the Republic of Macedonia. My goal is to address the legal aspects and the procedure of giving the right to concession. This paper is mainly qualitative research of desk work on International private Law, Law on Public procurements, Law on concessions and Public Private Partnerships in the Republic of Macedonia along with a case study on Concession on power plants in the Republic of Macedonia. Renewable energies are the future, which is why law researchers and law makers need to contribute in making of better laws that adapt to upcoming events in the energy field.

  13. 36 CFR 294.2 - Navigation of aircraft within airspace reservation over the Boundary Waters Canoe Area Wilderness...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Navigation of aircraft within airspace reservation over the Boundary Waters Canoe Area Wilderness, Superior National Forest, Minnesota... Boundary Waters Canoe Area Wilderness, Superior National Forest, Minnesota. (a) Description of areas...

  14. Development cooperation in water and sanitation: is it based on the human rights framework?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colin Brown

    Full Text Available Abstract The water and sanitation sector is verifiably receiving increased attention and funding through international development cooperation. Not least because of the way that it affects incentives and institutions in partner countries, development cooperation can have either positive or negative effects on human rights though. The consolidated frameworks for the human rights to water and sanitation is becoming linked to the international community’s coordinated development efforts, as evidenced notably in the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. However, a review of major funders’ official policies for development cooperation in the sector suggests that many only partially endorse the frameworks for the human rights to water and sanitation. An observation of development cooperation flows to the sector allows the hypothesis to be advanced that worldwide inequalities in access to these services may be reduced through a full and clear application of the human rights framework in development cooperation activities. The article presents findings of this research and explores key stakes for development cooperation in the water and sanitation sector that are relevant for their ability to either negatively or positively contribute to the realization of human rights.

  15. Environmental flow calculation for the maintenance of the water reserve of the Piaxtla River, Sinaloa, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guadalupe de la Lanza Espino

    2014-03-01

    status to be achieved within the watershed to maintain the integrity of existing ecosystems or when they believe that they are degraded, contributing to the recovery or rehabilitation; and annual percentage rate recommended for environmental protection. Based on this, the purpose of this study was to quantify the river flow of the Piaxtla river, in the state of Sinaloa. The river runoff data bases for 36 and nine years were compared, showed differences mainly between the frequency of maximum runoff and its origin, and indicated that it is advisable to use a data base of more than 20 years. However, results were similar in the final calculation of the environmental or ecological river flows; that is to say, total runoff volume was 62.1% considering 36 years and 57.7% for nine years of information. We conclude that the ecological importance of Piaxtla river was very high and the use of water pressure was low (considering that database runoff only included until 1999 and did not take into account population growth and activities. To determine the final volume reserved for the environment or ecological flow, could be estimated not only with a database of 36 years, but for nine years also confirming that those rivers that have databases of 10 years can the methodology used hydrological indicated by the NMX said. Particularly in this study it was determined that for parameters more detailed as the volume of the base rate of the annual volume, according to the frequency of occurrence, both very dry years, dry, average and wet, and influence of meteorological events that determine periods separate return, it is advisable to use minimum data bases as brand NMX 20 years.

  16. Influence of the Institutional Structure of Surface Water Rights on Agricultural Production in the Central Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, K.; Burchfield, E. K.

    2017-12-01

    California's Central Valley region is one of the most productive agricultural systems on the planet. The high levels of agricultural production in this region require large amounts of fresh water for irrigation. However, the long-term availability of water required to sustain such levels of agricultural production has been questioned following the latest drought in California. In this study, we use Bayesian multilevel spatiotemporal modeling techniques to examine the influence of the institutional structure of surface water rights in the Central Valley on agricultural production during the recent drought. The R-INLA package is employed to account for spatial processes that have the potential to influence the effects of water right structures on crop productivity as well as on extent of cultivation. Model results suggest that seniority in surface water access significantly improves crop productivity on cultivated lands, but does not directly affect the ability to maintain cultivated extent. In addition, results suggest that areas with more junior surface water rights tend to reduce extent of cultivation, but maintain crop productivity, as cumulative drought stress increases.

  17. AVOIDING MAZIBUKO: WATER SECURITY AND CONSTITUTIONAL RIGHTS IN SOUTHERN AFRICAN CASE LAW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ed Couzens

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The 2009 judgment by the Constitutional Court of South Africa in Mazibuko v City of Johannesburg is seen by many as a watershed in the interpretation of the fundamental constitutional right of access to water. The Constitutional Court ruled that the right of access to sufficient water does not require that the state provide every person upon demand and without more with sufficient water. Nor does the obligation confer on any person a right to claim "sufficient water" from the state immediately. Reactions to the judgment have been consistently negative, with criticisms largely focusing on the Court's apparent lack of appreciation for the situation of the very poor. It is not easy, however, to overturn a decision of the Constitutional Court and South Africa will need to work within the constraints of the precedent for many years to come. It is suggested in this article that two subsequent, recent judgments (one of the Supreme Court of Appeal in South Africa, City of Cape Town v Strümpher, 2012, and one of the High Court in Zimbabwe, Mushoriwa v City of Harare, 2014 show how it might be possible for courts to avoid the Mazibuko precedent and yet give special attention to water-related rights. Both cases concerned spoliation applications in common law, but both were decided as though access to water supply and water-related rights allow a court to give weight to factors other than the traditional grounds for a spoliation order. It can be argued that in both cases the unlawfulness necessary for a spoliation order arose from a combination of dispossession and breach of rights in respect of a very particular and special kind of property. In the arid and potentially water-stressed Southern African region, and in the context of extreme and apparently increasing poverty, there will undoubtedly be more court cases to come involving access to water. Conclusions are drawn as to how the two judgments considered might offer a way to ameliorate the harsh

  18. Towards a sustainable human right to water : Supporting vulnerable people and protecting water resources with Suriname as a case study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Misiedjan, D.J.E.

    2017-01-01

    This study answers a key question: how can the concept of sustainable development contribute to the sustainable realization of the human right to water for vulnerable people, by taking the following approaches. This was answered in the following ways. Firstly, by widening the scope of vulnerability

  19. Farmers' laws and irrigation : water rights and dispute management in the hills of Nepal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poudel, R.

    2000-01-01

    The title of my Thesis is "Farmers' Laws and Irrigation: Water Rights and Dispute Management in the Hills of Nepal". This is based on a research I conducted in the Thulotar Kulo irrigation system in Nepal, during 1997 and 1998. Thulotar Kulo is a farmer-managed irrigation

  20. Women's Right to Water for Agricultural Use in the Sahel (Mauritanie ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Women's Right to Water for Agricultural Use in the Sahel (Mauritanie, Niger, Sénégal). Rural women in the Sahel are dynamic and important actors in the subsistence of their communities, especially in a context of male migration and the exploitation of hydro development for agriculture. This grant will allow the Réseau ...

  1. 1/33 SOME COMMENTS ON WATER RIGHTS IN SOUTH AFRICA N ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    sanitation, electricity and water supply, transport and communications. Article 24 of CRC obliges state parties to implement children's rights to health by taking appropriate measures to combat disease and malnutrition within the framework of primary health care. It specifically requires that readily available technology should ...

  2. Separating The Baby From The Bath Water: Women\\'s Rights And ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... lobbied to have that constitution adopted. The defeat of the constitution, the authors assert amounted to throwing away the baby with the bath water. It also negated gains that seemed so close to being realised setting the quest for gender equality back considerably. East African Journal of Peace and Human Rights Vol.

  3. Women's Rights and Access to Water and Sanitation in Asian Cities ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Women's Rights and Access to Water and Sanitation in Asian Cities. Lack of safe, affordable, accessible and dignified sanitation facilities is the daily reality of poor women in cities around the world. The nongovernmental organization, Women in Cities International (WICI), is exploring methods for addressing the problem in ...

  4. Inconvenient Human Rights: Water and Sanitation in Sweden's Informal Roma Settlements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Martha F; Ryan, Natasha

    2017-12-01

    Following an increase in Roma migration under the European "freedom of movement" laws, Swedish municipalities initiated more than 80 evictions of informal Roma settlements on the grounds of poor sanitation between 2013 and 2016. These evictions echo policies from earlier in the 20th century, when Roma living in Sweden were often marginalized through the denial of access to water and sanitation facilities. The recent Swedish evictions also follow similar government actions across Europe, where Roma settlements are controlled through the denial of access to water and sanitation. However, access to water and sanitation-central aspects of human health-are universal human rights that must be available to all people present in a jurisdiction, regardless of their legal status. The evictions described here violated Sweden's obligations under both European and international human rights law. More positive government responses are required, such as providing shelters or camping sites, setting up temporary facilities, and directly engaging with communities to address water and sanitation issues. The authors conclude by providing guidance on how states and municipalities can meet their human rights obligations with respect to water and sanitation for vulnerable Roma individuals and informal settlements in their communities.

  5. Ground-water/surface-water interaction in nearshore areas of Three Lakes on the Grand Portage Reservation, northeastern Minnesota, 2003-04

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Perry M.

    2006-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the Grand Portage Band of Chippewa Indians, applied three techniques to assess ground-water/surface-water interaction in nearshore areas of three lakes (North, Teal, and Taylor) on the Grand Portage Reservation in northeastern Minnesota. At each lake, analyses of existing aerial photographs, in-situ temperature measurements of shoreline lake sediment, and chemical analyses of surface water and pore water were conducted. Surface-water and pore-water samples were analyzed for major constituents, nutrients, and stable isotopes of oxygen and hydrogen. Bulk precipitation samples were collected and analyzed (1) for nutrient concentrations to determine nutrient input to the lakes through atmospheric deposition and (2) for stable isotope ratios of oxygen and hydrogen to determine a meteoric waterline that was needed for the stable isotope analyses of surface-water and pore-water samples.

  6. EU Water Governance: Striking the Right Balance between Regulatory Flexibility and Enforcement?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivia O. Green

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Considering the challenges and threats currently facing water management and the exacerbation of uncertainty by climate change, the need for flexible yet robust and legitimate environmental regulation is evident. The European Union took a novel approach toward sustainable water resource management with the passage of the EU Water Framework Directive in 2000. The Directive promotes sustainable water use through long-term protection of available water resources, progressively reduces discharges of hazardous substances in ground and surface waters, and mitigates the effects of floods and droughts. The lofty goal of achieving good status of all waters requires strong adaptive capacity, given the large amounts of uncertainty in water management. Striking the right balance between flexibility in local implementation and robust and enforceable standards is essential to promoting adaptive capacity in water governance, yet achieving these goals simultaneously poses unique difficulty. Applied resilience science reveals a conceptual framework for analyzing the adaptive capacity of governance structures that includes multiple overlapping levels of control or coordination, information flow horizontally and vertically, meaningful public participation, local capacity building, authority to respond to changed circumstances, and robust monitoring, system feedback, and enforcement. Analyzing the Directive through the lens of resilience science, we highlight key elements of modern European water management and their contribution to the resilience of the system and conclude that the potential lack of enforcement and adequate feedback of monitoring results does not promote managing for resilience. However, the scale-appropriate governance aspects of the EU approach promotes adaptive capacity by enabling vertical and horizontal information flow, building local capacity, and delegating control at multiple relevant scales.

  7. Using transthoracic Doppler echocardiography to diagnose reduced coronary flow velocity reserve in the posterior descending coronary artery in children with elevated right ventricular pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimada, Shunsuke; Harada, Kenji; Toyono, Manatomo; Tamura, Masamichi; Takada, Goro

    2007-12-01

    Advances in transthoracic Doppler echocardiography enable noninvasive measurements of coronary flow velocity and coronary flow velocity reserve (CFVR) in the posterior descending coronary artery (PD). To evaluate CFVR in the PD of children with elevated right ventricular (RV) pressure, 19 children with RV pressure overload and 13 age-matched controls with normal RV pressure were studied using transthoracic Doppler echocardiography. Average peak flow velocity (APV) was measured at rest and in hyperemic conditions (intravenous administration of adenosine of 0.16 mg.kg(-1).min(-1)). Compared with controls, the PD CFVR was significantly reduced in the patients with elevated RV pressure (1.87+/-0.42 vs 2.49+/-0.55, pvelocity.

  8. The dilemma of contact: voluntary isolation and the impacts of gas exploitation on health and rights in the Kugapakori Nahua Reserve, Peruvian Amazon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Napolitano, Dora A; Ryan, Aliya S S

    2007-01-01

    Many small groups of indigenous peoples in the Amazon basin avoid and resist direct encounters with outsiders. As far as we know, they do so because of appalling experiences in earlier encounters with national society. When contacted today, they are extremely vulnerable to introduced diseases and exploitation. In this paper we draw on our experience in the Kugapakori Nahua Reserve for isolated peoples in SE Peru to discuss some of the current debates about whether isolated peoples should be contacted and how best to respect their right to life, health, autonomy and territory. The remote headwater regions where isolated peoples sought refuge during the last century are increasingly sought after for resource extraction. In particular, the extraction of oil and gas is increasing throughout the Peruvian Amazon. In the second part of the paper we give some examples of how oil/gas companies and the energy sector in Peru have affected the well-being of the peoples in this reserve in the 21st century. If this trend is not reversed the impacts for isolated peoples will be irreparable

  9. Challenges and Opportunities for Tribal Waters: Addressing Disparities in Safe Public Drinking Water on the Crow Reservation in Montana, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, John T; Kindness, Larry; Realbird, James; Eggers, Margaret J; Camper, Anne K

    2018-03-21

    Disparities in access to safe public drinking water are increasingly being recognized as contributing to health disparities and environmental injustice for vulnerable communities in the United States. As the Co-Directors of the Apsaálooke Water and Wastewater Authority (AWWWA) for the Crow Tribe, with our academic partners, we present here the multiple and complex challenges we have addressed in improving and maintaining tribal water and wastewater infrastructure, including the identification of diverse funding sources for infrastructure construction, the need for many kinds of specialized expertise and long-term stability of project personnel, ratepayer difficulty in paying for services, an ongoing legacy of inadequate infrastructure planning, and lack of water quality research capacity. As a tribal entity, the AWWWA faces additional challenges, including the complex jurisdictional issues affecting all phases of our work, lack of authority to create water districts, and additional legal and regulatory gaps-especially with regards to environmental protection. Despite these obstacles, the AWWWA and Crow Tribe have successfully upgraded much of the local water and wastewater infrastructure. We find that ensuring safe public drinking water for tribal and other disadvantaged U.S. communities will require comprehensive, community-engaged approaches across a broad range of stakeholders to successfully address these complex legal, regulatory, policy, community capacity, and financial challenges.

  10. Influential third party on water right conflict: A Game Theory approach to achieve the desired equilibrium (case study: Ilam dam, Iran).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanjanian, Hossein; Abdolabadi, Hamid; Niksokhan, Mohammad Hossein; Sarang, Amin

    2018-05-15

    Allocating water to organizational stakeholders poses a vital challenge to water managers. Organizations which benefit from water as the primary factor input attempt to achieve their objectives using cost-effective and quick-return strategies, such as increasing the water rights. In such circumstances, lack of water probably results in the conflict. Recognizing the management approaches, organizational priorities, and the stakeholders' influence power can play a dominant role in analyzing the future of such conflicts. In this paper, we analyzed the conflict of water allocation in Ilam dam among organizational stakeholders. We defined the strategies based on the background of the game and organizational objectives. The influence power of stakeholders and the numerical weights of strategies were quantified based on the expert judgment method. The relative priorities of strategies were then calculated for each state of the conflict. We used the GMCR + model to study the actions of stakeholders. Results suggest that the Jihad Agriculture Organization and the Water and Wastewater Company withdraw more water; hence, there exists no water to meet the environmental water right. In this case, the participation of the third party, such as the Governorship and the Justice can change the future of the conflict, and result in moving to the optimal state. However, results from Inverse GMCR analysis demonstrate that Justice is the most influential third party that can move the conflict towards a desired equilibrium (optimal case). Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Historical analysis (2000-2005) of the coastal water quality in San Andrés Island, SeaFlower Biosphere Reserve, Caribbean Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavio, Brigitte; Palmer-Cantillo, Shelly; Mancera, J Ernesto

    2010-07-01

    To understand the coastal water quality of San Andrès Island, and provide tools for the management of its marine resources, we present the historical analysis of the island monitoring, which includes ammonia, nitrites, nitrate, phosphates, fecal and total coliforms. The anthropogenic pressure on the coastal system is heavy, with water nutrification, posing at risk seagrass and coral ecosystems. During dry season, biologically available nitrogen is 3-9 times higher than the maximum recommended for coral reefs, while during wet season values are 2-6.4 times the maximum. Biologically available phosphorous is also high, 1-8 times the maximum during dry season, 2-13 times during wet season. In some sites the concentration of pathogenic bacteria is above the limits set by law for primary and secondary contact. It is urgent to improve the management of sewage discharge, the main polluting source of San Andres coastal waters. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Surface-water quality, Oneida Reservation and vicinity, Wisconsin, 1997-98

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Morgan A.; Scudder, Barbara C.; Richards, Kevin D.

    2000-01-01

    Streamwater samples were collected at 19 sites in the vicinity of the Oneida Tribe of Indians of Wisconsin Reservation. Samples were collected during 5 sampling periods in 1997-98. Field measurements were made and samples were analyzed for nutrients, suspended sediment, major ions, and pesticides.

  13. Evaluation of stable isotopes of water to determine rainwater infilitration in soils under conservation reserve program

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) is a USDA program introduced in 1985 to reduce soil erosion by increasing vegetative cover of highly erodible land. Participation in the CRP is done via contracts (10-15 years in length) and currently the total area of land under contract is set to decline as p...

  14. Effects of Watering and Fertilization on Carbohydrate Reserves in Sugar Maple Seedlings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clayton M., Jr. Carl; John R. Donnelly; Boyd W. Post

    1978-01-01

    Sugar maple seedlings, grown under three nutrient and three moisture levels, were analyzed after three growing seasons for starch and ethanol-soluble sugars. Analytical procedures are detailed in the appendix. Fertilization did not affect carbohydrate levels in stems or roots. Water stress caused a significant reduction in the amount of carbohydrates in stems and roots...

  15. Right practice, right place: A conservation planning toolbox for meeting water quality goals in the Corn Belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    With increasing recognition that regional nutrient pollution problems will only be solved using edge-of-field and beyond-field practices, conservation planners now face the challenge of identifying the most appropriate practices and practice locations to deliver water quality outcomes. We have deve...

  16. Rooted Rights Systems in Turbulent Water: The Dynamics of Collective Fishing Rights in La Albufera, Valencia, Spain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boelens, R.A.; Claudin, V.

    2015-01-01

    Valencia's Albufera Lake is a wetlands area where different sociolegal systems interact. Its El Palmar community is governed by customary laws for fishing and territorial control. These exist alongside, yet in tension with, governmental laws. This article examines the dynamics of fishing rights,

  17. Rooted rights systems in turbulent waters: the dynamics of collective fishing rights in La Albufera, Valencia, Spain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boelens, R.; Claudin, V.

    2015-01-01

    Valencia's Albufera Lake is a wetlands area where different sociolegal systems interact. Its El Palmar community is governed by customary laws for fishing and territorial control. These exist alongside, yet in tension with, governmental laws. This article examines the dynamics of fishing rights,

  18. Effects of reduced water quality on coral reefs in and out of no-take marine reserves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenger, Amelia S; Williamson, David H; da Silva, Eduardo T; Ceccarelli, Daniela M; Browne, Nicola K; Petus, Caroline; Devlin, Michelle J

    2016-02-01

    Near-shore marine environments are increasingly subjected to reduced water quality, and their ability to withstand it is critical to their persistence. The potential role marine reserves may play in mitigating the effects of reduced water quality has received little attention. We investigated the spatial and temporal variability in live coral and macro-algal cover and water quality during moderate and major flooding events of the Fitzroy River within the Keppel Bay region of the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park from 2007 to 2013. We used 7 years of remote sensing data on water quality and data from long-term monitoring of coral reefs to quantify exposure of coral reefs to flood plumes. We used a distance linear model to partition the contribution of abiotic and biotic factors, including zoning, as drivers of the observed changes in coral and macro-algae cover. Moderate flood plumes from 2007 to 2009 did not affect coral cover on reefs in the Keppel Islands, suggesting the reef has intrinsic resistance against short-term exposure to reduced water quality. However, from 2009 to 2013, live coral cover declined by ∼ 50% following several weeks of exposure to turbid, low salinity water from major flood plume events in 2011 and subsequent moderate events in 2012 and 2013. Although the flooding events in 2012 and 2013 were smaller than the flooding events between 2007 to 2009, the ability of the reefs to withstand these moderate floods was lost, as evidenced by a ∼ 20% decline in coral cover between 2011 to 2013. Although zoning (no-take reserve or fished) was identified a significant driver of coral cover, we recorded consistently lower coral cover on reserve reefs than on fished reefs throughout the study period and significantly lower cover in 2011. Our findings suggest that even reefs with an inherent resistance to reduced water quality are not able to withstand repeated disturbance events. The limitations of reserves in mitigating the effects of reduced water

  19. Human rights and the challenges of science and technology: Commentary on Meier et al. "Translating the human right to water and sanitation into public policy reform" and Hall et al. "The human right to water: the importance of domestic and productive water rights".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marks, Stephen P

    2014-12-01

    The expansion of the corpus of international human rights to include the right to water and sanitation has implications both for the process of recognizing human rights and for future developments in the relationships between technology, engineering and human rights. Concerns with threats to human rights resulting from developments in science and technology were expressed in the early days of the United Nations (UN), along with the recognition of the ambitious human right of everyone "to enjoy the benefits of scientific progress and its applications." This comment explores the hypothesis that the emerging concepts most likely to follow recognition of the human right to water primarily involve issues of science and technology, such as access to medicines or clean and healthy environment. Many threats to human rights from advances in science, which were identified in the past as potential, have become real today, such as invasion of privacy from electronic recording, deprivation of health and livelihood as a result of climate change, or control over individual autonomy through advances in genetics and neuroscience. This comment concludes by urging greater engagement of scientists and engineers, in partnership with human rights specialists, in translating normative pronouncements into defining policy and planning interventions.

  20. Architectural Survey of a Water Tower in Youngstown Air Reserve Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-15

    made accessible through the World Wide Web (WWW) at URL: http://www.cecer.army.mil ERDC/CERL TR-10-28 5 2 Historic Context This chapter... Mountains (Spreng 1992, pp 130-141). In the 1950s, water tank design evolved with improvements in design, ma- terials, and construction techniques...visual focus point within and adjacent to the base complex. It is the tallest structure found within an environment of restricted height of

  1. Legal disputes as a proxy for regional conflicts over water rights in Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, Diego; Godoy-Faúndez, Alex; Lillo, Mario; Alvez, Amaya; Delgado, Verónica; Gonzalo-Martín, Consuelo; Menasalvas, Ernestina; Costumero, Roberto; García-Pedrero, Ángel

    2016-04-01

    Water demand and climate variability increases competition and tension between water users -agricultural, industrial, mining, hydropower- and local communities. Since 1981, the Water Code has regulated water allocation through private individual property rights, fostering markets as the distribution mechanism among users. When legal conflicts occur between parties, it is the responsibility of the courts to settle the conflict. The aim of this research is twofold: first, to apply a geographical approach by mapping water conflicts using legal disputes reaching the higher courts as a proxy for conflict intensity and second, to explain the diversity of water disputes and how they vary regionally. We built a representative database with a sample of 1000 legal records corresponding to decisions issued by the Supreme Court and 17 courts of appeal throughout the country from 1981 to 2014. For geo-tagging, all records were transformed to plain text and analyzed to find words matching the entries of a geographical thesaurus, allowing records to be linked to geographical locations. The geo-tagging algorithm is capable of automatically populating a searchable database. Several maps were constructed using a color scale to visualize conflict intensity. Legal disputes represent different types of conflicts among water users, such as competition between agriculture and hydropower. Processed data allowed the identification of the regional variation of conflicts. The spatial pattern for the intensity of conflicts related to specific sections of the Water Code is explained in terms of the main geographical, climatic and productive characteristics of Chile. Geo-tagging legal records shows a strong potential to understand and define regional variation of water conflicts. However, data availability would become a barrier if measures to improve data management were not taken. Regarding the institutional framework, the same regulations for water management rules are applied throughout the

  2. Aguas Diversas. Derechos de agua y pluralidad legal en las comunidades andinas = Diverse Waters. Water rights and legal pluralism in Andean communities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boelens, R.A.

    2009-01-01

    Water rights and property relations have become pivotal issues in water debates, reforms and intervention programs. Governments, development agencies and expert centers tend to consider 'water rights' as merely standard black boxes that juxtapose the frameworks of positivist technical and economist

  3. The human right to water and sanitation: a new perspective for public policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Colin; Neves-Silva, Priscila; Heller, Léo

    2016-03-01

    The recognition of the human right to water and sanitation (HRtWS) by the United Nations General Assembly and Human Rights Council in 2010 constituted a significant political measure whose direct consequences are still being assessed. Previous to this date, the HRtWS and its link to a healthy life and adequate standard of living had been recognised in diverse legal and judicial spheres worldwide, in some cases under the pressure of the initiatives of strong social movements. However, while the HRtWS is recognised by the UN State Members, it constitutes a concept in construction that has not been approached and interpreted in consensual ways by all concerned stakeholders. The present article presents a formal definition of this right with a base in human rights regulation. It attempts to dialogue with the different existing perspectives regarding the impact of its international recognition as a human right. It then elucidates the progressive development of the HRtWS in law and jurisprudence. Finally, it considers the urgency and challenge of monitoring the HRtWS and discusses important implications for public policies.

  4. The human right to water and sanitation: a new perspective for public policies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colin Brown

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The recognition of the human right to water and sanitation (HRtWS by the United Nations General Assembly and Human Rights Council in 2010 constituted a significant political measure whose direct consequences are still being assessed. Previous to this date, the HRtWS and its link to a healthy life and adequate standard of living had been recognised in diverse legal and judicial spheres worldwide, in some cases under the pressure of the initiatives of strong social movements. However, while the HRtWS is recognised by the UN State Members, it constitutes a concept in construction that has not been approached and interpreted in consensual ways by all concerned stakeholders. The present article presents a formal definition of this right with a base in human rights regulation. It attempts to dialogue with the different existing perspectives regarding the impact of its international recognition as a human right. It then elucidates the progressive development of the HRtWS in law and jurisprudence. Finally, it considers the urgency and challenge of monitoring the HRtWS and discusses important implications for public policies.

  5. Development cooperation in water and sanitation: is it based on the human rights framework?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Colin; Heller, Léo

    2017-07-01

    The water and sanitation sector is verifiably receiving increased attention and funding through international development cooperation. Not least because of the way that it affects incentives and institutions in partner countries, development cooperation can have either positive or negative effects on human rights though. The consolidated frameworks for the human rights to water and sanitation is becoming linked to the international community's coordinated development efforts, as evidenced notably in the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. However, a review of major funders' official policies for development cooperation in the sector suggests that many only partially endorse the frameworks for the human rights to water and sanitation. An observation of development cooperation flows to the sector allows the hypothesis to be advanced that worldwide inequalities in access to these services may be reduced through a full and clear application of the human rights framework in development cooperation activities. The article presents findings of this research and explores key stakes for development cooperation in the water and sanitation sector that are relevant for their ability to either negatively or positively contribute to the realization of human rights. Resumen El sector de agua y saneamiento ha recibido creciente atención y financiación a través de la cooperación internacional para el desarrollo. La cooperación para el desarrollo puede tener efectos tanto positivos cuanto negativos sobre los derechos humanos. El hito que consolida los derechos humanos al agua y al saneamiento están articulados a esfuerzos de cooperación para el desarrollo promovidos por la comunidad internacional, como se evidencia en la Agenda 2030 para el Desarrollo Sostenible. Sin embargo, una revisión de las políticas oficiales de los principales financiadores del sector sugiere que muchos de ellos aprueban solo parcialmente los hitos de los derechos humanos al agua y el

  6. Weekend Warriors for Water: Combating Water Scarcity in West Africa with United States Army National Guard and Reserve Forces

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-09

    any other provision of law , no person shall be subject to any penalty for failing to comply with a collection of information if it does not display a...personal goals. To the former members of 3d Platoon, 92d Chemical Company , 3d Infantry Division, thank you for giving me faith in myself and the Army...solutions (U.S. Water Partnership 2017). Other Organizations There are a plethora of private and public companies , agencies, and governments that strive to

  7. Simulation of groundwater flow and interaction of groundwater and surface water on the Lac du Flambeau Reservation, Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juckem, Paul F.; Fienen, Michael N.; Hunt, Randall J.

    2014-01-01

    The Lac du Flambeau Band of Lake Superior Chippewa and Indian Health Service are interested in improving the understanding of groundwater flow and groundwater/surface-water interaction on the Lac du Flambeau Reservation (Reservation) in southwest Vilas County and southeast Iron County, Wisconsin, with particular interest in an understanding of the potential for contamination of groundwater supply wells and the fate of wastewater that is infiltrated from treatment lagoons on the Reservation. This report describes the construction, calibration, and application of a regional groundwater flow model used to simulate the shallow groundwater flow system of the Reservation and water-quality results for groundwater and surface-water samples collected near a system of waste-water-treatment lagoons. Groundwater flows through a permeable glacial aquifer that ranges in thickness from 60 to more than 200 feet (ft). Seepage and drainage lakes are common in the area and influence groundwater flow patterns on the Reservation. A two-dimensional, steady-state analytic element groundwater flow model was constructed using the program GFLOW. The model was calibrated by matching target water levels and stream base flows through the use of the parameter-estimation program, PEST. Simulated results illustrate that groundwater flow within most of the Reservation is toward the Bear River and the chain of lakes that feed the Bear River. Results of analyses of groundwater and surface-water samples collected downgradient from the wastewater infiltration lagoons show elevated levels of ammonia and dissolved phosphorus. In addition, wastewater indicator chemicals detected in three downgradient wells and a small downgradient stream indicate that infiltrated wastewater is moving southwest of the lagoons toward Moss Lake. Potential effects of extended wet and dry periods (within historical ranges) were evaluated by adjusting precipitation and groundwater recharge in the model and comparing the

  8. Viewpoint – The Right Irrigation? Policy Directions for Agricultural Water Management in Sub-Saharan Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce Lankford

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available In July 2009, in the closing moments of the G8 meeting in Italy, President Obama responded to a question from the floor regarding investments in Africa to tackle food security and poverty. His answer (quoted below included the phrase "the right irrigation". This opinion piece reflects on the phrase, places it within a policy debate and suggests that the development community can respond to Obama’s call for the 'right irrigation' in sub‐ Saharan Africa by taking a comprehensive approach that utilises a mixture of technologies, builds on local capabilities, brings sound engineering know‐how, is supported by a range of other services, and acknowledges other water needs within catchments. Cost‐effectiveness and community ownership will be important.

  9. [Cholera Vibrio biofilm: production, characterization and role in reservation of causative agent in water environment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulikalova, E S; Urbanovich, L Ia; Sappo, S G; Mironova, L V; Markov, E Iu; Mal'nik, V V; Korzun, V M; Mitkeeva, S K; Balakhonov, S V

    2015-01-01

    Experimental production, characterization and evaluation of the role of cholera vibrio biofilm. 33 strains of Vibrio cholerae eltor O1 and V. cholerae O139 of various epidemic significance and origin were studied in a series of experiments by bacteriologic, microscopic (light-optic, luminescent, scanning electron microscopy), molecular genetics, spectrophotometric and statistical methods. Formation of a biofilm involving inter-cellular bonds, pili and extracellular material and variability of the microorganism (RO-phenotype and transition into uncultivable forms) was shown at various temperature and substrate conditions. A more pronounced ability to form biofilms was detected for strains isolated from environmental samples compared with isolated from clinical material regardless of their epidemic significance. Toxigenic strains of eltor biovar (from surface reservoirs during cholera outbreaks) have demonstrated the highest parameters of optical density compared with toxigenic clinical isolates and non-toxigenic O1 and O139 serogroup cultures. The presence of mbaA1 and mbaA2, vpsR, toxR, hapA genes is common for strains that form a biofilm. The data obtained confirm the role of biofilm in reservation of cholera vibrio strains of various epidemic significance in saprophytic phase of microorganism existence.

  10. Molecular Approach to Microbiological Examination of Water Quality in the Grand Bay National Estuarine Research Reserve (NERR) in Mississippi, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishinhi, Stephen S.; Tchounwou, Paul B.; Farah, Ibrahim O.

    2013-01-01

    Grand Bay National Estuarine Research Reserve (NERR) is an important ecosystem in the Mississippi Gulf Coast. It serves as important nursery areas for juveniles of many species of fish. The bay is also used for fishing, crabbing, oyster togging, boating as well as recreation. Like in other aquatic environments, this bay may be contaminated by microorganisms including pathogenic bacteria. The objective of this study was to evaluate the microbiological quality of water in the Grand Bay NERR and determine the levels and potential source(s) of human fecal pollution. To achieve this goal, water samples were collected aseptically every month in Bayou Heron, Bayou Cumbest, Point Aux Chenes Bay and Bangs Lake. Enterococci were concentrated from water samples by membrane filtration according to the methodology outlined in USEPA Method 1600. After incubation, DNA was extracted from bacteria colonies on the membrane filters by using QIAamp DNA extraction kit. Water samples were also tested for the presence of traditional indicator bacteria including: heterotrophic plate count, total coliforms, fecal coliforms, and Enterococcus bacteria. The marker esp gene was detected in one site of Bayou Cumbest, an area where human populations reside. Data from this study indicates higher concentrations of indicator bacteria compared to the recommended acceptable levels. Presence of esp marker and high numbers of indicator bacteria suggest a public health concern for shellfish and water contact activities. Hence, control strategies should be developed and implemented to prevent further contamination of the Grand bay NERR waters. PMID:23761974

  11. SOIL AND WATER MICROORGANISM DIVERSITY OF MANGROVE FOREST OF TELUK KELUMPANG, SELAT LAUT AND SELAT SEBUKU NATURAL RESERVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wawan Halwany

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Mangrove is a unique ecosystem that has complex biotic and abiotic components. Soil and water microorganisms have function as decomposer in mangrove forest ecosystem. This paper studies the soil and water microorganisms' diversity, their potential, function in ecosystem and their role as environmental parameters in mangrove area of Teluk Kelumpang, Selat Laut and Selat Sebuku Natural Reserve (Kelautku Natural Reserve. Data of soil and water microorganisms were recorded from soil and water samplings then analyzed in the laboratory. Results show that benthos in Selat Sebuku figure the highest diversity index. Anadara granosa is one of the common benthos found in Selat Sebuku. In contrary the phytoplankton in Selat Sebuku is the lowest value compared to the other two locations, due to the settlements in the locations and it was suspected that Selat Sebuku has a relatively larger wave exposure than the two other locations. In addition, input of organic matters from the settlements in Teluk Kelumpang and Selat Laut is also effected by the growth of phytoplankton. Cyanophyta found in Teluk Kelumpang and Selat Laut was genera of Oscillatoria that showed high tolerance genera to the environment conditions.

  12. Coping with copepods: do right whales (Eubalaena glacialis) forage visually in dark waters?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cronin, Thomas W; Fasick, Jeffry I; Schweikert, Lorian E; Johnsen, Sönke; Kezmoh, Lorren J; Baumgartner, Mark F

    2017-04-05

    North Atlantic right whales ( Eubalaena glacialis ) feed during the spring and early summer in marine waters off the northeast coast of North America. Their food primarily consists of planktonic copepods, Calanus finmarchicus , which they consume in large numbers by ram filter feeding. The coastal waters where these whales forage are turbid, but they successfully locate copepod swarms during the day at depths exceeding 100 m, where light is very dim and copepod patches may be difficult to see. Using models of E. glacialis visual sensitivity together with measurements of light in waters near Cape Cod where they feed and of light attenuation by living copepods in seawater, we evaluated the potential for visual foraging by these whales. Our results suggest that vision may be useful for finding copepod patches, particularly if E. glacialis searches overhead for silhouetted masses or layers of copepods. This should permit the whales to locate C. finmarchicus visually throughout most daylight hours at depths throughout their foraging range. Looking laterally, the whales might also be able to see copepod patches at short range near the surface.This article is part of the themed issue 'Vision in dim light'. © 2017 The Author(s).

  13. Water quality data collected by the the National Estuarine Research Reserve System's System-wide Monitoring Program (NERRS SWMP), 1996 - 1998 (NODC Accession 0000789)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Estuarine Research Reserve System's System-wide Monitoring Program (NERRS SWMP) collected water quality data in 22 reserves in the United States and...

  14. Arctic lake physical processes and regimes with implications for winter water availability and management in the national petroleum reserve alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Benjamin M.; Arp, C.D.; Hinkel, Kenneth M.; Beck, R.A.; Schmutz, J.A.; Winston, B.

    2009-01-01

    Lakes are dominant landforms in the National Petroleum Reserve Alaska (NPRA) as well as important social and ecological resources. Of recent importance is the management of these freshwater ecosystems because lakes deeper than maximum ice thickness provide an important and often sole source of liquid water for aquatic biota, villages, and industry during winter. To better understand seasonal and annual hydrodynamics in the context of lake morphometry, we analyzed lakes in two adjacent areas where winter water use is expected to increase in the near future because of industrial expansion. Landsat Thematic Mapper and Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus imagery acquired between 1985 and 2007 were analyzed and compared with climate data to understand interannual variability. Measured changes in lake area extent varied by 0.6% and were significantly correlated to total precipitation in the preceding 12 months (p growth models were used to better understand seasonal hydrodynamics, surface area-to-volume relations, winter water availability, and more permanent changes related to geomorphic change. Together, these results describe how lakes vary seasonally and annually in two critical areas of the NPRA and provide simple models to help better predict variation in lake-water supply. Our findings suggest that both overestimation and underestimation of actual available winter water volume may occur regularly, and this understanding may help better inform management strategies as future resource use expands in the NPRA. ?? 2008 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

  15. The impact of cost recovery and sharing system on water policy implementation and human right to water: a case of Ileje, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kibassa, Deusdedit

    2011-01-01

    In Tanzania, the National Water Policy (NAWAPO) of 2002 clearly stipulates that access to water supply and sanitation is a right for every Tanzanian and that cost recovery is the foundation of sustainable service delivery. To meet these demands, water authorities have introduced cost recovery and a water sharing system. The overall objective of this study was to assess the impact of cost recovery and the sharing system on water policy implementation and human rights to water in four villages in the Ileje district. The specific objectives were: (1) to assess the impact of cost recovery and the sharing system on the availability of water to the poor, (2) to assess user willingness to pay for the services provided, (3) to assess community understanding on the issue of water as a human right, (4) to analyse the implications of the results in relation to policies on human rights to water and the effectiveness of the implementation of the national water policy at the grassroots, and (5) to establish the guidelines for water pricing in rural areas. Questionnaires at water demand, water supply, ability and willingness to pay and revenue collection were the basis for data collection. While 36.7% of the population in the district had water supply coverage, more than 73,077 people of the total population of 115,996 still lacked access to clean and safe water and sanitation services in the Ileje district. The country's rural water supply coverage is 49%. Seventy-nine percent of the interviewees in all four villages said that water availability in litres per household per day had decreased mainly due to high water pricing which did not consider the income of villagers. On the other hand, more than 85% of the villagers were not satisfied with the amount they were paying because the services were still poor. On the issue of human rights to water, more than 92% of the villagers know about their right to water and want it exercised by the government. In all four villages, more than

  16. Strategic analysis of a water rights conflict in the south western United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philpot, Simone; Hipel, Keith; Johnson, Peter

    2016-09-15

    A strategic analysis of the ongoing conflict between Nevada and Utah, over groundwater allocation at Snake Valley, is carried out in order to investigate ways on how to resolve this dispute. More specifically, the Graph Model for Conflict Resolution is employed to formally model and analyze this conflict using the decision support system called GMCR+. The conflict analysis findings indicate that the dispute is enduring because of a lack of incentive and opportunity for any party to move beyond the present circumstances. Continued negotiations are not likely to resolve this conflict. A substantial change in the preferences or options of the disputants, or new governance tools will be required to move this conflict forward. This may hold lessons for future groundwater conflicts. It is, however, increasingly likely that the parties will require a third party intervention, such as equal apportionment by the US Supreme Court. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Influence of the seasonality of stream flows on water use rights criteria: a case study of the Paraopeba river basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Marcel Barros da Silva

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Brazil has one of the most modern laws of water resource management in the world. Among its management and planning tools, the granting of water use rights allows water resource management agencies to control water usage both quantitatively and qualitatively. Given the importance of the granting of water use rights as an instrument of water usage control, this paper sought to analyze the criteria used to grant water use rights considering the influence of the seasonality of yearly stream flows, with the objective of establishing a technical, scientific basis for decision-making by water resource management agencies. The quantitative effects of adopting four-month and six-month seasonal period criteria were analyzed in comparison to the annual periods of stream flow references Q7,10, Q90, and Q95 in order to quantify the relative differences in water availability between the stream flow references adopted for water use rights purposes. In the analysis of Q7,10, the results showed that applying seasonal criteria may increase the amount of water available for water use grants in the periods of higher water availability by up to 126%. Meanwhile, stream flows associated to the permanence of 90% (Q90 and 95% (Q95 showed increases of up to 99% during the rainy period. During the dry period, however, water availability decreased by up to 24.5% in comparison with the annual period criteria calculation base period. Results showed that stream flow analysis based on seasonal criteria provides more flexibility of water availability for water use grants during certain periods of the year.

  18. Arctic lake physical processes and regimes with implications for winter water availability and management in the national petroleum reserve alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Benjamin M.; Arp, C.D.; Hinkel, Kenneth M.; Beck, R.A.; Schmutz, J.A.; Winston, B.

    2009-01-01

    Lakes are dominant landforms in the National Petroleum Reserve Alaska (NPRA) as well as important social and ecological resources. Of recent importance is the management of these freshwater ecosystems because lakes deeper than maximum ice thickness provide an important and often sole source of liquid water for aquatic biota, villages, and industry during winter. To better understand seasonal and annual hydrodynamics in the context of lake morphometry, we analyzed lakes in two adjacent areas where winter water use is expected to increase in the near future because of industrial expansion. Landsat Thematic Mapper and Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus imagery acquired between 1985 and 2007 were analyzed and compared with climate data to understand interannual variability. Measured changes in lake area extent varied by 0.6% and were significantly correlated to total precipitation in the preceding 12 months (p relation, the modeled lake area extent from 1985 to 2007 showed no long-term trends. In addition, high-resolution aerial photography, bathymetric surveys, water-level monitoring, and lake-ice thickness measurements and growth models were used to better understand seasonal hydrodynamics, surface area-to-volume relations, winter water availability, and more permanent changes related to geomorphic change. Together, these results describe how lakes vary seasonally and annually in two critical areas of the NPRA and provide simple models to help better predict variation in lake-water supply. Our findings suggest that both overestimation and underestimation of actual available winter water volume may occur regularly, and this understanding may help better inform management strategies as future resource use expands in the NPRA. ?? 2008 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

  19. Simulation of Intra- or transboundary surface-water-rights hierarchies using the farm process for MODFLOW-2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, W.; Hanson, R.T.

    2007-01-01

    Water-rights driven surface-water allocations for irrigated agriculture can be simulated using the farm process for MODFLOW-2000. This paper describes and develops a model, which simulates routed surface-water deliveries to farms limited by streamflow, equal-appropriation allotments, or a ranked prior-appropriation system. Simulated diversions account for deliveries to all farms along a canal according to their water-rights ranking and for conveyance losses and gains. Simulated minimum streamflow requirements on diversions help guarantee supplies to senior farms located on downstream diverting canals. Prior appropriation can be applied to individual farms or to groups of farms modeled as "virtual farms" representing irrigation districts, irrigated regions in transboundary settings, or natural vegetation habitats. The integrated approach of jointly simulating canal diversions, surface-water deliveries subject to water-rights constraints, and groundwater allocations is verified on numerical experiments based on a realistic, but hypothetical, system of ranked virtual farms. Results are discussed in light of transboundary water appropriation and demonstrate the approach's suitability for simulating effects of water-rights hierarchies represented by international treaties, interstate stream compacts, intrastate water rights, or ecological requirements. ?? 2007 ASCE.

  20. Assessment of endothelial function and myocardial flow reserve using 15O-water PET without attenuation correction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuffier, Stephane; Joubert, Michael; Bailliez, Alban; Legallois, Damien; Belin, Annette; Redonnet, Michel; Agostini, Denis; Manrique, Alain

    2016-01-01

    Myocardial blood flow (MBF) measurement using positron emission tomography (PET) from the washout rate of 15 O-water is theoretically independent of tissue attenuation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of not using attenuation correction in the assessment of coronary endothelial function and myocardial flow reserve (MFR) using 15 O-water PET. We retrospectively processed 70 consecutive 15 O-water PET examinations obtained at rest and during cold pressor testing (CPT) in patients with dilated cardiomyopathy (n = 58), or at rest and during adenosine infusion in heart transplant recipients (n = 12). Data were reconstructed with attenuation correction (AC) and without attenuation correction (NAC) using filtered backprojection, and MBF was quantified using a single compartmental model. The agreement between AC and NAC data was assessed using Lin's concordance correlation coefficient followed by Bland-Altman plot analysis. Regarding endothelial function, NAC PET showed poor reproducibility and poor agreement with AC PET data. Conversely, NAC PET demonstrated high reproducibility and a strong agreement with AC PET for the assessment of MFR. Non-attenuation-corrected 15 O-water PET provided an accurate measurement of MFR compared to attenuation-corrected PET. However, non-attenuation-corrected PET data were less effective for the assessment of endothelial function using CPT in this population. (orig.)

  1. Assessment of endothelial function and myocardial flow reserve using {sup 15}O-water PET without attenuation correction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuffier, Stephane; Joubert, Michael; Bailliez, Alban [EA 4650, Normandie Universite, Caen (France); Legallois, Damien [EA 4650, Normandie Universite, Caen (France); Caen University Hospital, Department of Cardiology, Caen (France); Belin, Annette [Caen University Hospital, Department of Cardiac Surgery, Caen (France); Redonnet, Michel [Rouen University Hospital, Department of Cardiac Surgery, Rouen (France); Agostini, Denis [EA 4650, Normandie Universite, Caen (France); Caen University Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Caen (France); Manrique, Alain [EA 4650, Normandie Universite, Caen (France); Caen University Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Caen (France); Cyceron PET Centre, Caen (France)

    2016-02-15

    Myocardial blood flow (MBF) measurement using positron emission tomography (PET) from the washout rate of {sup 15}O-water is theoretically independent of tissue attenuation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of not using attenuation correction in the assessment of coronary endothelial function and myocardial flow reserve (MFR) using {sup 15}O-water PET. We retrospectively processed 70 consecutive {sup 15}O-water PET examinations obtained at rest and during cold pressor testing (CPT) in patients with dilated cardiomyopathy (n = 58), or at rest and during adenosine infusion in heart transplant recipients (n = 12). Data were reconstructed with attenuation correction (AC) and without attenuation correction (NAC) using filtered backprojection, and MBF was quantified using a single compartmental model. The agreement between AC and NAC data was assessed using Lin's concordance correlation coefficient followed by Bland-Altman plot analysis. Regarding endothelial function, NAC PET showed poor reproducibility and poor agreement with AC PET data. Conversely, NAC PET demonstrated high reproducibility and a strong agreement with AC PET for the assessment of MFR. Non-attenuation-corrected {sup 15}O-water PET provided an accurate measurement of MFR compared to attenuation-corrected PET. However, non-attenuation-corrected PET data were less effective for the assessment of endothelial function using CPT in this population. (orig.)

  2. Geohydrology and effects of water use in the Black Mesa area, Navajo and Hopi Indian Reservations, Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eychaner, James H.

    1983-01-01

    The N aquifer is the main source of water in the 5,400-square-mile Black Mesa area in the Navajo and Hopi Indian Reservations in northeastern Arizona. The N aquifer consists of the Navajo Sandstone and parts of the underlying Kayenta Formation and Wingate Sandstone of Jurassic and Triassic age. Maximum saturated thickness of the aquifer is about 1,050 feet in the northwestern part of the area, and the aquifer thins to extinction to the southeast. Water is under confined conditions in the central 3,300 square miles of the area. To the east, north, and west of Black Mesa, the aquifer is exposed at the surface, and water is unconfined. The aquifer was in equilibrium before about 1965. Recharge of about 13,000 acre-feet per year was balanced primarily by discharge near Moenkopi Wash and Laguna Creek and by evapotranspiration. At least 180 million acre-feet of water was in storage. The estimated average hydraulic conductivity of the aquifer is 0.65 foot per day. The confined storage coefficient is estimated to be about 0.0004 where the aquifer is thickest, and the estimated unconfined storage coefficient ranges from 0.10 to 0.15. Ground-water withdrawals that averaged 5,300 acre-feet per year from 1976 to 1979 have caused water levels to decline in wells in the confined part of the aquifer. Withdrawals include an average of 3,700 acre-feet per year to supply a coal-slurry pipeline from a coal mine on Black Mesa. Six observation wells equipped with water-level recorders have been used to monitor aquifer response. The water level in one well 32 miles south of the mine declined 17 feet from 1972 through 1979 and 3.5 feet during 1979. A mathematical model of the N aquifer was developed and calibrated for equilibrium and nonequilibrium conditions. The model was used in part to improve estimates of aquifer characteristics and the water budget, and it successfully reproduced the observed response of the aquifer through 1979. The model results indicate that about 95 percent of

  3. Using Landsat-based evapotranspiration data to assess the linkages between water right transfers and economic transactions in southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senay, G. B.; Velpuri, N. M.; Schauer, M.; Friedrichs, M.; Singh, R. K.

    2017-12-01

    We used 31 years (1984-2014) of cloud-free Landsat data (3,396 Landsat scenes) to estimate evapotranspiration over the southwestern United States using the Operational Simplified Surface Energy Balance (SSEBop) model. We focused on some of California's most agriculture-intensive watersheds (8 central valley watersheds and Palo Verde Irrigation District (PVID)). Farmers in southern California (including PVID) have water rights on the Colorado River. After meeting competing demands for agriculture (irrigation) and rural domestic use, the Colorado River is diverted to meet urban water demands in southern California. Due to the population growth and increasing domestic use, farmers have entered a special agreement to transfer their water rights under the fallowing program to the Metropolitan Water District (MWD) of southern California. MWD supplies water to 19 million people, more than half of California's population, and is the largest supplier of treated water in the United States. In this study, we presented the total annual volumetric water use in the Palo Verde Irrigation District since 1984 and computed historical annual crop water saved due to a fallowing program. We then converted volumetric water saved to total payouts to farmers in dollars and estimated the number of beneficiary households in the Greater Los Angeles area. It is interesting to see that nearly 120,000 acre-feet of water was transferred from PVID to MWD in 2011 and the cost of water payouts were over $20 million. This water saving met the demands of over 325,000 households in the Greater Los Angeles area. This analysis helps to a) demonstrate an approach to estimate and compare annual water use and water payments/savings using satellite data, b) monitor water rights compliance in an irrigation district, c) demonstrate the impact of water savings, and d) understand the interconnections between land-water management and socio-economic transactions across multiple spatio-temporal scales.

  4. Interval Optimization Model Considering Terrestrial Ecological Impacts for Water Rights Transfer from Agriculture to Industry in Ningxia, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Lian; Li, Chunhui; Cai, Yanpeng; Wang, Xuan

    2017-06-14

    In this study, an interval optimization model is developed to maximize the benefits of a water rights transfer system that comprises industry and agriculture sectors in the Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region in China. The model is subjected to a number of constraints including water saving potential from agriculture and ecological groundwater levels. Ecological groundwater levels serve as performance indicators of terrestrial ecology. The interval method is applied to present the uncertainty of parameters in the model. Two scenarios regarding dual industrial development targets (planned and unplanned ones) are used to investigate the difference in potential benefits of water rights transfer. Runoff of the Yellow River as the source of water rights fluctuates significantly in different years. Thus, compensation fees for agriculture are calculated to reflect the influence of differences in the runoff. Results show that there are more available water rights to transfer for industrial development. The benefits are considerable but unbalanced between buyers and sellers. The government should establish a water market that is freer and promote the interest of agriculture and farmers. Though there has been some success of water rights transfer, the ecological impacts and the relationship between sellers and buyers require additional studies.

  5. Evaluation of simplified stream-aquifer depletion models for water rights administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sophocleous, Marios; Koussis, Antonis; Martin, J.L.; Perkins, S.P.

    1995-01-01

    We assess the predictive accuracy of Glover's (1974) stream-aquifer analytical solutions, which are commonly used in administering water rights, and evaluate the impact of the assumed idealizations on administrative and management decisions. To achieve these objectives, we evaluate the predictive capabilities of the Glover stream-aquifer depletion model against the MODFLOW numerical standard, which, unlike the analytical model, can handle increasing hydrogeologic complexity. We rank-order and quantify the relative importance of the various assumptions on which the analytical model is based, the three most important being: (1) streambed clogging as quantified by streambed-aquifer hydraulic conductivity contrast; (2) degree of stream partial penetration; and (3) aquifer heterogeneity. These three factors relate directly to the multidimensional nature of the aquifer flow conditions. From these considerations, future efforts to reduce the uncertainty in stream depletion-related administrative decisions should primarily address these three factors in characterizing the stream-aquifer process. We also investigate the impact of progressively coarser model grid size on numerically estimating stream leakage and conclude that grid size effects are relatively minor. Therefore, when modeling is required, coarser model grids could be used thus minimizing the input data requirements.

  6. Screening of Bread Wheat Genotypes for Stem Reserves Remobilization, Relative Water Content and Osmotic Adjustment under Drought Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z Soleimani

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Drought one of the most important global threats against bread wheat production. In order to identify physiological traits associated with drought tolerance, 52 bread wheat varieties were cultured under two normal and drought stress condition in a randomized complete block desigen with three replications. RWC (in three independent times, leaf rolling, leaf silvering, days to flowering, days to maturity and stem reserve remobilization were investigeted. Also in a pot experiment osmotic adjustment of the varieties were measured at seedling stage. varieties Star and Bezostaya had the highest RWC (0.79 and 0.78, respectively. Osmotic adjustment in Rasol and Unknown11 were highest (0.58 and 0.56, respectively. Varieties Tipik, Unknown11 and Azar2 showed the least decrease in thousand grain weight after spraying with KI (4.8, 5.5 and 5.5, respectively. Also varieties Dez, Gaspard and MV-17 have the highest degree of leaf silvering and varieties Niknejad, Star and Kohdasht under drought stress were able than the other varieties bring their leaves to form a rolling and cope with water deficit. Under drought stress, Varieties Alborz, Zagros and Inia were observed premature than the other varieties and Gaspard and Kaslojen varieties were observed late mature than the other varieties. Altogetehr varieties Kohdasht, Star and Bezostaya can be used as genetic resources for leaf water retention under drought stress condition for imjproving other varieties. Also as Azar2 and Unknown11 had highest amount of thousand grain weight under normal condition and simoultanously showed high ability in stem reserves remobilization they can be selected as parents in crosses for improving these traits.

  7. Effects of the Structure of Water Rights on Agricultural Production During Drought: A Spatiotemporal Analysis of California's Central Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, K. S.; Burchfield, E. K.

    2017-10-01

    California's Central Valley region has been called the "bread-basket" of the United States. The region is home to one of the most productive agricultural systems on the planet. Such high levels of agricultural productivity require large amounts of fresh water for irrigation. However, the long-term availability of water required to sustain high levels of agricultural production is being called into question following the latest drought in California. In this paper, we use Bayesian multilevel spatiotemporal modeling techniques to examine the influence of the structure of surface water rights in the Central Valley on agricultural production during the recent drought. California is an important place to study these dynamics as it is the only state to recognize the two dominant approaches to surface water management in the United States: riparian and appropriative rights. In this study, Bayesian spatiotemporal modeling is employed to account for spatial processes that have the potential to influence the effects of water right structures on agricultural production. Results suggest that, after accounting for spatiotemporal dependencies in the data, seniority in surface water access significantly improves crop health and productivity on cultivated lands but does not independently affect the ability to maintain cultivated extent. In addition, agricultural productivity in watersheds with more junior surface water rights shows less sensitivity to cumulative drought exposure than other watersheds, however the extent of cultivation in these same watersheds is relatively more sensitive to cumulative drought exposure.

  8. Biological and chemical evaluation of sewage water pollution in the Rietvlei nature reserve wetland area, South Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oberholster, P.J. [CSIR Natural Resources and the Environment, P.O. Box 395, Pretoria 0001 (South Africa)], E-mail: anna.oberholster@up.ac.za; Botha, A.-M. [Department of Genetics, University of Pretoria, Hillcrest, Pretoria ZA002 (South Africa); Cloete, T.E. [Department of Microbiology and Plant Pathology, University of Pretoria, Hillcrest, Pretoria ZA002 (South Africa)

    2008-11-15

    Macroinvertebrate communities in Rietvlei nature reserve wetland area and their relationship with water quality were studied with the aim to evaluate their use as potential indicators of pollution. Sampling locations were selected to include outlets from swage effluent, agricultural and informal residential runoff. A large increase in nutrient concentrations was observed downstream from discharged treated sewage with an associated decrease in species richness. Bioassays performed included: Daphnia magna, Hydra attenuate, Lactuca sativa, Allium cepa and Pyxicephalus adspersus. The highest percentage of lethality response to a screen (100% concentration) of sampled wetland water by test specimens were observed at the point source input of the Hartbeespoort treated sewage plant. Data generated from the AUSRIVAS method and multitrophic level bioassays revealed the deterioration of the wetland possibly due to factors such as increasing urbanization, industrialization, agriculture runoff and rapid human settlement in the Hennops River catchment area and its principal tributaries. - Bioassays confirmed the degradation of a freshwater wetland system due to effluent from a variety of sources.

  9. Biological and chemical evaluation of sewage water pollution in the Rietvlei nature reserve wetland area, South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oberholster, P.J.; Botha, A.-M.; Cloete, T.E.

    2008-01-01

    Macroinvertebrate communities in Rietvlei nature reserve wetland area and their relationship with water quality were studied with the aim to evaluate their use as potential indicators of pollution. Sampling locations were selected to include outlets from swage effluent, agricultural and informal residential runoff. A large increase in nutrient concentrations was observed downstream from discharged treated sewage with an associated decrease in species richness. Bioassays performed included: Daphnia magna, Hydra attenuate, Lactuca sativa, Allium cepa and Pyxicephalus adspersus. The highest percentage of lethality response to a screen (100% concentration) of sampled wetland water by test specimens were observed at the point source input of the Hartbeespoort treated sewage plant. Data generated from the AUSRIVAS method and multitrophic level bioassays revealed the deterioration of the wetland possibly due to factors such as increasing urbanization, industrialization, agriculture runoff and rapid human settlement in the Hennops River catchment area and its principal tributaries. - Bioassays confirmed the degradation of a freshwater wetland system due to effluent from a variety of sources

  10. Relevance of the Paraná River hydrology on the fluvial water quality of the Delta Biosphere Reserve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puig, Alba; Olguín Salinas, Héctor F; Borús, Juan A

    2016-06-01

    The increasing frequency of extreme events in large rivers may affect not only their flow, but also their water quality. In the present study, spatial and temporal changes in fluvial physico-chemical variables were analyzed in a mega-river delta during two extreme hydrological years (La Niña-El Niño) and related to potential explanatory factors. Basic water variables were evaluated in situ at 13 points (distant 2-35 km from each other) in watercourses of the Delta Biosphere Reserve (890 km(2)) in the Lower Paraná River (Argentina) in nine surveys (October 2008-July 2010) without meteorological tides. Samples for laboratory analyses were collected from each main river. Multivariate tests by permutations were applied. The period studied was influenced by a drought, within a long period dominated by low flows combined with dry weather and wildfires, and a large (10 years of recurrence) and prolonged (7 months) flood. The hydrological phase, followed by the season and the hydrological year (according to the ENSO event) were the principal explanatory factors of the main water quality changes, whereas the drainage sub-basin and the fluvial environment (river or stream) were secondary explanatory factors. During the drought period, conductivity, turbidity, and associated variables (e.g., major ions, silicon, and iron concentrations) were maximal, whereas real color was minimal. In the overbanking flood phase, pH and dissolved oxygen concentration were minimal, whereas real color was maximal. Dissolved oxygen saturation was also low in the receding flood phase and total major ion load doubled after the arrival of the overbanking stage. The water quality of these watercourses may be affected by the combination of several influences, such as the Paraná River flow, the pulses with sediments and solutes from the Bermejo River, the export of the Delta floodplain properties mainly by the flood, the season, and the saline tributaries to the Lower Paraná River. The high

  11. The Quest for Standard Tests in Prioritizing Water Use Rights in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Moreover, there are problems of depletion, pollution, water grabbing, wastage of water, and water crisis that are attributable to lack of comprehensive regulations, or confusions in putting policy options. The regulatory tools lack clarity and sufficiency with regard to the incorporation of standard tests. There is thus the need for ...

  12. Contested water rights in post-apartheid South Africa: The struggle for

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The National Water Act (1998) of South Africa provides strong tools to redress inequities inherited from the past. However, a decade after the introduction of the Act, access to water is still skewed along racial lines. This paper analyses the various ways in which the Water Act is contested, based on empirical data detailing ...

  13. Alouette project water use plan (April 15, 2009)[Revised for acceptance for the comptroller of water rights

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caryula, C.

    2009-04-15

    In September 1996, the original water use plan for BC Hydro's Alouette project was implemented including changes to the operation of the Alouette project to improve fish habitat in the Alouette River, and to reduce flood risk and provisions for a downstream fish monitoring program. The water use plan also included provisions to review and assess the efficacy of meeting the plan's original objectives after 10 years. This document presented a review of the water use plan. It provided a description of the works, including location and existing works; Alouette River hydrology; operating conditions for facilities; program for additional information; implementation of recommendations; expected water management implications; records and reports; plan review; and notification procedures. It was concluded that the proposed conditions in the 2009 water use plan are not expected to affect other current licensed users of water associated with Alouette Lake reservoir or Alouette River below Alouette Dam. 2 tabs., 2 figs., 1 appendix.

  14. Water quality, meteorological, and nutrient data collected by the the National Estuarine Research Reserve System's System-wide Monitoring Program (NERRS SWMP), 1994 - 2005 (NODC Accession 0019215)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Estuarine Research Reserve System's System-wide Monitoring Program (NERRS SWMP) collected water quality, meteorological, and nutrient data in 25...

  15. Computed tomography myocardial perfusion vs {sup 15}O-water positron emission tomography and fractional flow reserve

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, Michelle C.; Dweck, Marc R.; Golay, Saroj K. [University of Edinburgh/British Heart Foundation Centre for Cardiovascular Science, Edinburgh (United Kingdom); Mirsadraee, Saeed; Weir, Nicholas W.; Fletcher, Alison; Lucatelli, Christophe; Reid, John H. [University of Edinburgh, Clinical Research Imaging Centre, Edinburgh (United Kingdom); MacGillivray, Tom; Van Beek, Edwin J.R.; Newby, David E. [University of Edinburgh/British Heart Foundation Centre for Cardiovascular Science, Edinburgh (United Kingdom); University of Edinburgh, Clinical Research Imaging Centre, Edinburgh (United Kingdom); Cruden, Nicholas L.; Henriksen, Peter A.; Uren, Neal [Edinburgh Heart Centre, Royal Infirmary of Edinburgh, Edinburgh (United Kingdom); McKillop, Graham; Patel, Dilip [Department of Radiology, Royal Infirmary of Edinburgh, Edinburgh (United Kingdom); Lima, Joao A.C. [Johns Hopkins Hospital, Departments of Medicine and Radiology, Baltimore, MD (United States)

    2017-03-15

    Computed tomography (CT) can perform comprehensive cardiac imaging. We compared CT coronary angiography (CTCA) and CT myocardial perfusion (CTP) with {sup 15}O-water positron emission tomography (PET) and invasive coronary angiography (ICA) with fractional flow reserve (FFR). 51 patients (63 (61-65) years, 80 % male) with known/suspected coronary artery disease (CAD) underwent 320-multidetector CTCA followed by ''snapshot'' adenosine stress CTP. Of these 22 underwent PET and 47 ICA/FFR. Obstructive CAD was defined as CTCA stenosis >50 % and CTP hypoperfusion, ICA stenosis >70 % or FFR <0.80. PET hyperaemic myocardial blood flow (MBF) was lower in obstructive than non-obstructive territories defined by ICA/FFR (1.76 (1.32-2.20) vs 3.11 (2.44-3.79) mL/(g/min), P < 0.001) and CTCA/CTP (1.76 (1.32-2.20) vs 3.12 (2.44-3.79) mL/(g/min), P < 0.001). Baseline and hyperaemic CT attenuation density was lower in obstructive than non-obstructive territories (73 (71-76) vs 86 (84-88) HU, P < 0.001 and 101 (96-106) vs 111 (107-114) HU, P 0.001). PET hyperaemic MBF corrected for rate pressure product correlated with CT attenuation density (r = 0.579, P < 0.001). There was excellent per-patient sensitivity (96 %), specificity (85 %), negative predictive value (90 %) and positive predictive value (94 %) for CTCA/CTP vs ICA/FFR. CT myocardial attenuation density correlates with {sup 15}O-water PET MBF. CTCA and CTP can accurately identify obstructive CAD. (orig.)

  16. Food and drinking water safety: Can risk assessment help us to get our priorities right?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denner, W.H.B.

    1992-01-01

    Huge resources are devoted worldwide by governments and food producers to ensure that food and water are produced with due regard to the safety of consumers. This inevitably involves some form of risk assessment but in the field of food safety a formalised process of risk assessment has been slow to develop. An ad hoc mosaic or approaches has evolved which varies not only between countries but sometimes within countries as well. This may not be unexpected considering the vast variety of kinds of food hazards (table 1). Not only do food-related hazards themselves vary widely, so do the effects which they can cause. For example microorganisms can cause mild stomach upsets or death within a few hours depending upon the organism involved. For chemical contaminants in food the potential effects are usually less acute although no less serious. Many of the chemicals of concern are believed to be carcinogens whose effects might only be realised after many years of exposure. Nutritional imbalances may result in an increased risk from diseases, such as heart disease and cancer, which can also arise from other causes. In these latter examples it is often difficult to relate cause to effect even when extensive epidemiological evidence is available. It is important to understand the enormous diversity in possible food-related hazards before describing the assessment of risks associated with them. This great diversity makes it unlikely that any single approach to risk assessment can suit all situations. This means that making comparisons between risks from different hazards is extremely difficult. In fact trying to allocate resources in a logical way between all the different kinds of food-related hazards is a major problem in itself. For with finite resources there is always the danger of finding that focusing on one area of concern results in a potential risk elsewhere being neglected. The aim of this paper is to take a general look at some of the issues facing those with

  17. Interval Optimization Model Considering Terrestrial Ecological Impacts for Water Rights Transfer from Agriculture to Industry in Ningxia, China

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, Lian; Li, Chunhui; Cai, Yanpeng; Wang, Xuan

    2017-01-01

    In this study, an interval optimization model is developed to maximize the benefits of a water rights transfer system that comprises industry and agriculture sectors in the Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region in China. The model is subjected to a number of constraints including water saving potential from agriculture and ecological groundwater levels. Ecological groundwater levels serve as performance indicators of terrestrial ecology. The interval method is applied to present the uncertainty of pa...

  18. Water as a Human Right for the Middle East and North Africa

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    All these global intergovernmental conferences and their resulting declarations and action plans pointed out the need for water for drinking (humans and livestock), food production, electricity generation, environmental conservation and industrial developments. The importance of access to clean water and sanitation was ...

  19. Water as a Human Right for the Middle East and North Africa | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2008-07-11

    Jul 11, 2008 ... Access to safe drinking water and proper sanitation is essential for human survival and for maintenance of a decent quality of life. Currently, more than a billion people do not have access to safe drinking water and more than 2 billion people lack proper sanitation. In 1992, the United Nations proclaimed that ...

  20. Water Management, Partnerships, Rights, and Market Trends: An Overview for Army Installation Managers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    were studied and compared in 15 Arizona communities. These communities, many of which had increasing block pricing, were Buckeye, Casa Grande, Chandler...article=1005& amp ;context=books_repor ts_studies Colorado Springs Utilities, “2008–2012 Water Conservation Plan,” January 30, 2008. As of November 2, 2015...readingroom.law.gsu.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=2070& amp ;context=gsulr Denver Water, “2012 Billing Rates,” undated. DiNatale, Kelly, “Purple

  1. Ecological improvements to hydroelectric power plants under EEG. Guidance to environmental verifiers and water rights authorities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyr, Christoph; Pfeifer, Hansjoerg; Schnell, Johannes; Hanfland, Sebastian

    2011-11-01

    The use of hydropower as a renewable form of energy is experiencing a renaissance due to the energy transition in Bavaria. The fishery evaluate not uncritically this development, because hydroelectric plants generally normally represent a considerable intervention in water and therefore in the habitat of the fish. In this case it should be noted that just often not even the minimum requirements of ecology are fulfilled at existing plants according to the Federal Water Act. [de

  2. Water-right and water-allocation procedures of farmers' managed perennial spate irrigation systems of mithawan watershed, D.G. Khan, Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, M.; Ahmad, S.

    2007-01-01

    A study was conducted on water rights, water allocation and local institutions prevailing in the perennial spate irrigation systems of Mithawan watershed o D.G. Khan District of Punjab. The Study Area was selected is the Mthawan watershed on the D.G. Khan-Quetta Road almost 70 kms from D.G. Khan and 10 km away from the road, representing real-life operating systems. Small-scale isolated and large-scale contiguous perennial spate irrigation systems were selected for study. A three-prong methodology was designed covering (a) interactive dialogue of the focus groups to document the community-perceptions regarding systems water-rights, water allocation and local institution prevailing in the area; (b) structured interviews to document systematic data regarding some of the study-aspects; and (c) diagnostic surveys to document some of the measured data regarding scheme performance. Water rights and allocation procedures both in small-scale isolated and large-scale Contiguous perennial spate irrigation-system are very clearly defined and do not change with time and space. Local institutions like Biradri and Muchi take care of just allocation of water. An irrigator is deputed who takes care of allocated time among various tribes. At the same time, the community is bringing more area under irrigation. Obviously it has increased water-requirements and in turn management of irrigation system. Previously they were reconstructing the diversion structure only. Present expansion in irrigated area has increased the necessity of maintaining the water-conveyance network more frequently, particularly at critical sections. However, the realization regarding water-losses still needs to be promoted. The linkages of resource-management with water-productivity are going to be the future area of consideration in theses systems, due to expansion of the system largely because of increased population and urge to increase their livelihood. (author)

  3. Using historical political ecology to understand the present: water, reeds, and biodiversity in the Camargue Biosphere Reserve, southern France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raphael Mathevet

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Exploring both ecological and political-economic histories sheds light on the long-term effects of social and environmental changes. Wetlands provide an excellent context for examining the re-working of society-nature relations in a landscape over a long duration. Wetland conditions and social-ecological dynamics show changes rapidly and visibly because they are frequently re-engineered to account for changes in both technology and social preferences. Wetlands are subject to multiple, concurrent property and access regimes that have consequences for both management and ecosystem health. We discuss the social-natural history of the Scamandre Marshes in the western part of the Camargue Biosphere Reserve using a historical political ecology approach to analyze the shifting dynamics between power relations under a variety of political-economic arrangements, and the ecology of the marsh environment. The approach highlights how historical political ecology is a means of identifying historical socio-natures and how European or national conservation actors' constructions of a place as "natural" affect its use, conservation, and management. We show that contemporary ecological dynamics are best explained by past conflicts related to property claims, access to natural resources, and their effects on the flows and composition of water in the marsh. A general model of wetland transformation stresses repeated cycles of stability and upheaval, emphasizing that the lack of historical analysis threatens both wetlands and conflict resolution. No landscape is produced locally or ahistorically. We emphasize here that history is not only a hallmark of political ecology, but a way of understanding ecological changes that can help advance biodiversity conservation science and policy.

  4. An Equity Autopsy: Exploring the Role of Water Rights in Water Allocations and Impacts for the Central Valley Project during the 2012–2016 California Drought

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zachary P. Sugg

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Entrenched Western water rights regimes may appear to function relatively well in wet years, but extreme drought events can expose the kinds of harsh ecological and socio-economic outcomes that the hard edges of prior appropriation inherently generate. During the 2012–2016 California drought some irrigators received little or no water at all in consecutive years while others received comparatively large allocations. This paper focuses on the role that California’s water rights priority system and its administration via Central Valley Project contracts have played in generating disproportionate water allocations and impacts during the drought. The analysis is structured around two key questions: (a in what ways does strict adherence to a priority system of water allocations produce inequitable socio-ecological outcomes during severe drought? (b how might the system be changed to foster outcomes that are more equitable and fair, and with less costly and less serious conflicts in a non-stationary climate future marked by extreme events? Using an equity perspective, I draw from the doctrine of equitable apportionment to imagine a water rights regime that is better able to create a fairer distribution of drought impacts while meaningfully elevating the importance of future generations and increasing adaptive capacity.

  5. Printed in Uganda. All rights reserved

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Much attention has been given to almost all agents that cause losses to crops with the possible exception of vertebrate pests of which comparatively littleis known in relation to farming activities. Due to the paucity of information on vertebrate pests there is very little or no indication of what damage is caused by which.

  6. rights reserved Geophysical Identification of Hydrothermally Altered

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    1984) that primary gold deposits are associated with ... parallel flight lines. Additional flight lines are flown in the perpendicular direction to assist in data processing. These large volumes of measurements then are processed into a digital ...

  7. Addressing the Human Rights Issues of Water and Sanitation in Fako division (Cameroon) Legal Framework and the Realization of the Sustainable Development Goals

    OpenAIRE

    Suh, Louis

    2016-01-01

    This study favours the argument of water and sanitation being an indispensable comodity for human existence. A strong reason why there is an express recognition at both national level and international level of the right to water and sanitation. The Right to water and sanitation as defined by this study is the right of all humans without distinction to have access to water for domestic and personal use and proper sanitation. The paper limits the study to the Fako division of the republic ...

  8. Contested water rights in post-apartheid South Africa: The struggle ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2010-03-25

    Mar 25, 2010 ... Introduction. Water use and management practices are a result of ongoing processes of negotiation ... required to meet basic human needs and maintain environmental sustainability is guaranteed as a .... The creation of homelands was a central element of this strategy. Comprising no more than 14% of the ...

  9. Women's rights and access to water and sanitation in Delhi | CRDI ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    To improve water and sanitation services for women in New Delhi's low-income communities by understanding the needs of women and girls in relation to basic service delivery, and facilitating better relationships between residents and their local governments. The challenge. In low-income resettlement areas on the fringes ...

  10. Women's rights and access to water and sanitation in Delhi | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2012-04-24

    Apr 24, 2012 ... Research focus To improve water and sanitation services for women in New Delhi's low-income communities by understanding the needs of women and girls in relation to basic service delivery, and facilitating better relationships between residents and their local governments.

  11. Women's Rights and Access to Water and Sanitation in Asian Cities ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    WICI will partner with nongovernmental organizations at two sites in Delhi to determine how poverty, tenure, and lack of access to water, sanitation and other services affect women; develop a set of options for each community and promote it to the local government; and ... Les chaînes de valeur comme leviers stratégiques.

  12. Ground-survey and water-quality data for selected wetlands on or near the Lower Brule Indian Reservation in South Dakota, 2012-13

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neitzert, Kathleen M.; Thompson, Ryan F.

    2015-08-20

    Numerous lakes, ponds, and wetlands are located within the Lower Brule Indian Reservation. Wetlands are an important resource providing aquatic habitat for plants and animals, and acting as a natural water filtration system. Several of the wetlands on or near the reservation are of particular interest, but information on the physical and biological integrity of these wetlands was needed to provide a base-line reference when planning for future water management needs. A reconnaissance-level study of selected wetlands on and near the Lower Brule Indian Reservation was completed in 2012–13 by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Lower Brule Sioux Tribe using ground surveys and water-quality analyses. Ground surveys of six wetland areas (Dorman Slough, Little Bend Wetlands, Miller Pond, Potter Slough, an unnamed slough, and West Brule Community wetlands) were completed to map land, water, vegetation, and man-made features of the selected wetland areas using real-time kinematic global navigation satellite systems equipment. Water samples were collected from four of the selected wetlands. Two separate waterbodies were sampled at one of the wetlands for a total of five sampling locations. Water samples were analyzed for physical properties, selected inorganics, metals, nutrients, and suspended sediment. Concentrations of calcium, sodium, and sulfate were greater at the two wetland sites fed by ground water, compared to the wetland sites fed by surface runoff.

  13. Stuttered swallowing: Electric stimulation of the right insula interferes with water swallowing. A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shoemaker J

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Various functional resonance imaging, magnetoencephalographic and lesion studies suggest the involvement of the insular cortex in the control of swallowing. However, the exact location of insular activation during swallowing and its functional significance remain unclear. Case presentation Invasive electroencephalographic monitoring was performed in a 24-year-old man with medically intractable stereotyped nocturnal hypermotor seizures due to a ganglioglioma. During stimulation of the right inferior posterior insular cortex with depth electrodes the patient spontaneously reported a perception of a "stutter in swallowing". Stimulation of the inferior posterior insular cortex at highest intensity (4 mA was also associated with irregular and delayed swallows. Swallowing was not impaired during stimulation of the superior posterior insular cortex, regardless of stimulation intensity. Conclusions These results indicate that the right inferior posterior insular cortex is involved in the neural circuitry underlying the control of swallowing.

  14. Bridge over troubled water: An emerging right to access to the internet

    OpenAIRE

    Qerimi, Qerim

    2017-01-01

    This article is about the internet and its place in the current international legal order. The more precise inquiry concerns identifying the probable emergence of a legal entitlement, as opposed to the predominant focus on legal limitations or consequences of abuse of the right, to access to the internet. It seeks to identify the sources and shape of any such entitlement, along with investigating pertinent trends in political, legal, and judicial decision-making. It proposes the ...

  15. Land security and the challenges of realizing the human right to water and sanitation in the slums of Mumbai, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murthy, Sharmila L

    2012-12-15

    Addressing the human right to water and sanitation in the slums of Mumbai, India requires disentangling the provision of basic services from a more complicated set of questions around land security and land ownership. Millions of slum-dwellers in Mumbai lack adequate access to safe drinking water and sanitation, which places them at risk for waterborne diseases. Many slums are located in hazardous areas such as flood plains, increasing their susceptibility to climate change-related weather patterns. Access to water and sanitation in slums generally hinges on whether a dwelling was created prior to January 1, 1995, because those constructed created prior to that date have greater land security. Although the so-called "1995 cut-off rule" looms large in Mumbai slum policy, a closer reading of the relevant laws and regulations suggests that access to water and sanitation could be expanded to slums created after January 1, 1995. State and municipal governments already have the authority to expand access to water services; they just need to exercise their discretion. However, slums located on central government land are in a more difficult position. Central government agencies in Mumbai have often refused to allow the state and municipal governments to rehabilitate or improve access to services for slums located on their land. As a result, an argument could be made that by interfering with the efforts of sub-national actors to extend water and sanitation to services to slum-dwellers, the central government of India is violating its obligations to respect the human right to water and sanitation under international and national jurisprudence. Copyright © 2012 Murthy. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/), which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are

  16. Evaluating impacts of climate change on future water scarcity in an intensively managed semi-arid region using a coupled model of biophysical processes and water rights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, B.; Flores, A. N.; Benner, S. G.

    2017-12-01

    In semiarid and arid regions where water supply is intensively managed, future water scarcity is a product of complex interactions between climate change and human activities. Evaluating future water scarcity under alternative scenarios of climate change, therefore, necessitates modeling approaches that explicitly represent the coupled biophysical and social processes responsible for the redistribution of water in these regions. At regional scales a particular challenge lies in adequately capturing not only the central tendencies of change in projections of climate change, but also the associated plausible range of variability in those projections. This study develops a framework that combines a stochastic weather generator, historical climate observations, and statistically downscaled General Circulation Model (GCM) projections. The method generates a large ensemble of daily climate realizations, avoiding deficiencies of using a few or mean values of individual GCM realizations. Three climate change scenario groups reflecting the historical, RCP4.5, and RCP8.5 future projections are developed. Importantly, the model explicitly captures the spatiotemporally varying irrigation activities as constrained by local water rights in a rapidly growing, semi-arid human-environment system in southwest Idaho. We use this modeling framework to project water use and scarcity patterns under the three future climate change scenarios. The model is built using the Envision alternative futures modeling framework. Climate projections for the region show future increases in both precipitation and temperature, especially under the RCP8.5 scenario. The increase of temperature has a direct influence on the increase of the irrigation water use and water scarcity, while the influence of increased precipitation on water use is less clear. The predicted changes are potentially useful in identifying areas in the watershed particularly sensitive to water scarcity, the relative importance of

  17. Do Water Rights Affect Technical Efficiency and Social Disparities of Crop Production in the Mediterranean? The Spanish Ebro Basin Evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Quiroga

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The coming agenda for the European Common Agricultural Policy includes more incentives for the environmental compliance of farmer’s activities. This will be particularly important in the case of water risk management in Mediterranean countries. Among the new challenges is the need to evaluate some of the instruments necessary to comply with the Water Framework Directive requirements that emphasize the management of water demand to achieve the environmental targets. Here we analyze the implications of changing water rights as a policy response to these challenges. We analyze two important aspects of the decision: (i the effects on the crop productivity and efficiency and (ii the effects on the rural income distribution. We provide the empirical estimations for the marginal effects on the two considered aspects. First, we calculate a stochastic frontier production function for five representative crops using historical data to estimate technical efficiency. Second, we use a decomposition of the Gini coefficient to estimate the impact of irrigation rights changes on yield disparity. In our estimates, we consider both bio-physical and socio-economic aspects to conclude that there are long term implications on both efficiency and social disparities. We find disparities in the adaptation strategies depending on the crop and the region analyzed.

  18. Proper Management Of Irrigation Water And Nitrogen Fertilizer To Improve Spinach Yield And Reserve Environment Using 15N Tracer Technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    GADALLA, A.M.; GALAL, Y.G.M.; ISMAIL, M.M.; EL DEGWY, S.A.; HAMDY, A.; HAMED, L.M.

    2010-01-01

    The effect of water regime and N-fertilizer application rate and modality of its application were studied by the aim of identifying the most proper and effective combination of the above studied variables that provide a satisfactory spinach yield as well as to minimize the rational use of chemical nitrogen fertilizers to save the surrounding environment and to achieve a good water saving. The results indicated that reasonable production of spinach crop could be achieved by using 75% of the recommended rate of nitrogen fertilizer combined with 80% of the required water. It means that 20% of the required water could be saved as well as 25% of the required quantity of N-fertilizer. Similarly, the splitting of N-fertilizer into two equal doses prevented the excess of nitrate to be moved to the underground water lowering its concentration in the blades and plant leaves. Drip irrigation system accompanied with proper water scheduling regime and good fertilizer application practices is considered as a useful management practice that could be applied to improve the sandy soil productivity.

  19. Water use competition scenarios during the upcoming development of shale gas reserves across the Mexican Eagle Ford play Image already added

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arciniega, S.; Breña-Naranjo, J. A.; Hernaández Espriú, A.; Pedrozo-Acuña, A.

    2017-12-01

    Mexico has significant shale oil and gas resources mainly contained within the Mexican part of the Eagle Ford play (Mex-EF), in the Burgos Basin located in northern Mexico. Over the last years, concerns about the water use associated to shale gas development using hydraulic fracturing (HF) have been increasing in the United States and Canada. In Mexico, the recent approval of a new energy bill allows the exploration, development and production of shale gas reserves. However, several of the Mexican shale gas resources are located in water-limited environments, such as the Mex-EF. The lack of climate and hydrological gauging stations across this region constrains information about how much freshwater from surface and groundwater sources is available and whether its interannual water availability is sufficient to satisfy the water demand by other users (agricultural, urban) of the region This work projects the water availability across the Mex-EF and its water use derived from the expansion of unconventional gas developments over the next 15 years. Water availability is estimated using a water balance approach, where the irrigation's groundwater withdrawals time series were reconstructed using remote sensing products (vegetation index and hydrological outputs from LSMs) and validated with in situ observed water use at three different irrigation districts of the region. Water use for HF is inferred using type curves of gas production, flowback and produced (FP) water and curves of drilled wells per year from the US experience, mainly from the Texas-EF play. Scenarios that combine freshwater use and FP water use for HF are developed and the spatial distribution of HF well pads is projected using random samples with a range of wells' horizontal length. This proposed methodology can be applied in other shale formations of the world under water stress and it also helps to determine whether water scarcity can be a limiting factor for the shale gas industry over the next

  20. Variation in responses of fishes across multiple reserves within a network of marine protected areas in temperate waters.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard M Starr

    Full Text Available Meta-analyses of field studies have shown that biomass, density, species richness, and size of organisms protected by no-take marine reserves generally increase over time. The magnitude and timing of changes in these response variables, however, vary greatly and depend upon the taxonomic groups protected, size and type of reserve, oceanographic regime, and time since the reserve was implemented. We conducted collaborative, fishery-independent surveys of fishes for seven years in and near newly created marine protected areas (MPAs in central California, USA. Results showed that initially most MPAs contained more and larger fishes than associated reference sites, likely due to differences in habitat quality. The differences between MPAs and reference sites did not greatly change over the seven years of our study, indicating that reserve benefits will be slow to accumulate in California's temperate eastern boundary current. Fishes in an older reserve that has been closed to fishing since 1973, however, were significantly more abundant and larger than those in associated reference sites. This indicates that reserve benefits are likely to accrue in the California Current ecosystem, but that 20 years or more may be needed to detect significant changes in response variables that are due to MPA implementation. Because of the high spatial and temporal variability of fish recruitment patterns, long-term monitoring is needed to identify positive responses of fishes to protection in the diverse set of habitats in a dynamic eastern boundary current. Qualitative estimates of response variables, such as would be obtained from an expert opinion process, are unlikely to provide an accurate description of MPA performance. Similarly, using one species or one MPA as an indicator is unlikely to provide sufficient resolution to accurately describe the performance of multiple MPAs.

  1. Sustainability of High Intensity Forest Management with Respect to Water QuaIity and Site Nutrient Reserves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virginia R. Tolbert; Carl C. Trettin; Dale W. Johnson; John W. Parsons; Allan E. Houston; David A. Mays

    2001-01-01

    Ensuring sustainability of intensively managed woody crops requires determining soil and water quality effects using a combination of field data and modeling projections. Plot- and catchrnent-scale research, models, and meta-analyses are addressing nutrient availability, site quality, and measures to increase short-rotation woody crop (SRWC) productivity and site...

  2. Collective rights in a modernizing North - on institutionalizing Sámi and local rights to land and water in northern Norway

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sandberg, Audun

    2008-01-01

    The struggle by indigenous groups to have their rights acknowledged does not only take place through the action arenas of national political and constitutional processes, but also through active work through international bodies. Thus indigenous rights will often become arguments for

  3. Effects of irrigating with wastewater on ground-water quality at Fort Carson Military Reservation golf course near Colorado Springs, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edelmann, Patrick

    1984-01-01

    Fort Carson Military Reservation has used treatment wastewater for irrigation of the Fort Carson golf course since 1971. The effect of applied wastewater on groundwater quality at Fort Carson golf course was evaluated using water levels and water-quality data from 20 observation wells. The water-quality constituents analyzed included dissolved solids, major ions, nutrients, detergents, dissolved organic carbon, chemical and biological oxygen demand, and trace elements. Effects of the applied wastewater on ground-water quality for most constituents were obscured by large areal variations and by high concentrations of the constituents upgradient from the golf course. The sources of nitrogen observed in the ground water beneath the golf course were applied wastewater, applied fertilizer, leachate from the organic-rich shale, and from unknown upgradient sources. Nitrogen loading at the golf course from wastewater and applied fertilizer was estimated to be 18 ,900 pounds per year. After 10 years, less than 1 percent of the nitrogen applied was actually present in the ground water. Loss of nitrogen to the atmosphere as nitrous oxides, absorption, and to fixation by grass resulted in the much smaller concentrations observed in the ground water. (USGS)

  4. Getting the Right Answers for the Right Reasons: Toward Predictive Molecular Simulations of Water with Many-Body Potential Energy Functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paesani, Francesco

    2016-09-20

    The central role played by water in fundamental processes relevant to different disciplines, including chemistry, physics, biology, materials science, geology, and climate research, cannot be overemphasized. It is thus not surprising that, since the pioneering work by Stillinger and Rahman, many theoretical and computational studies have attempted to develop a microscopic description of the unique properties of water under different thermodynamic conditions. Consequently, numerous molecular models based on either molecular mechanics or ab initio approaches have been proposed over the years. However, despite continued progress, the correct prediction of the properties of water from small gas-phase clusters to the liquid phase and ice through a single molecular model remains challenging. To large extent, this is due to the difficulties encountered in the accurate modeling of the underlying hydrogen-bond network in which both number and strength of the hydrogen bonds vary continuously as a result of a subtle interplay between energetic, entropic, and nuclear quantum effects. In the past decade, the development of efficient algorithms for correlated electronic structure calculations of small molecular complexes, accompanied by tremendous progress in the analytical representation of multidimensional potential energy surfaces, opened the doors to the design of highly accurate potential energy functions built upon rigorous representations of the many-body expansion (MBE) of the interaction energies. This Account provides a critical overview of the performance of the MB-pol many-body potential energy function through a systematic analysis of energetic, structural, thermodynamic, and dynamical properties as well as of vibrational spectra of water from the gas to the condensed phase. It is shown that MB-pol achieves unprecedented accuracy across all phases of water through a quantitative description of each individual term of the MBE, with a physically correct representation

  5. Water area variations in seasonal lagoons from the Biosphere Reserve of "La Mancha Húmeda" (Spain) determined by remote sensing classification methods and data mining techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dona, Carolina; Niclòs, Raquel; Chang, Ni-Bin; Caselles, Vicente; Sánchez, Juan Manuel; Camacho, Antonio

    2015-04-01

    La Mancha Húmeda is a wetland-rich area located in central Spain that was designated as a Biosphere reserve in 1980. This area includes several dozens of temporal lagoons, mostly saline, whose water level fluctuates and usually become dry during the warmest season. Water inflows into these lagoons come from both runoff of very small catchment and, in some cases, from groundwater although some of them also receive wastewater from nearby towns. Most lack surface outlets and they behave as endorheic systems, with the main water withdrawal due to evaporation causing salt accumulation in the lake beds. Under several law protection coverage additional to that of Biosphere Reserve, including Ramsar and Natura 2000 sites, management plans are being developed in order to accomplish the goals enforced by the European Water Framework Directive and the Habitats Directive, which establish that all EU countries have to achieve a good ecological status and a favorable conservation status of these sites, and especially of their water bodies. A core task to carry out the management plans is the understanding of the hydrological trend of these lagoons with a sound monitoring scheme. To do so, an estimation of the temporal evolution of the flooded area for each lagoon, and its relationship with meteorological patterns, which can be achieved using remote sensing technologies, is a key procedure. The current study aims to develop a remote sensing methodology capable of estimating the changing water coverage areas in each lagoon with satellite remote sensing images and ground truth data sets. ETM+ images onboard Landsat-7 were used to fulfill this goal. These images are useful to monitor small-to-medium size water bodies due to its 30-m spatial resolution. In this work several methods were applied to estimate the wet and dry pixels, such as water and vegetation indexes, single bands, supervised classification methods and genetic programming. All of the results were compared with ground

  6. Environmental Assessment for the Strategic Petroleum Reserve West Hackberry Facility Raw Water Intake Pipeline Replacement Cameron and Calcasieu Parishes, Louisiana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    N/A

    2004-08-31

    The proposed action and three alternatives, including a No Build alternative, were evaluated along the existing RWIPL alignment to accommodate the placement of the proposed RWIPL. Construction feasibility, reasonableness and potential environmental impacts were considered during the evaluation of the four actions (and action alternatives) for the proposed RWIPL activities. Reasonable actions were identified as those actions which were considered to be supported by common sense and sound technical principles. Feasible actions were those actions which were considered to be capable of being accomplished, practicable and non-excessive in terms of cost. The evaluation process considered the following design specifications, which were determined to be important to the feasibility of the overall project. The proposed RWIPL replacement project must therefore: (1) Comply with the existing design basis and criteria, (2) Maintain continuity of operation of the facility during construction, (3)Provide the required service life, (4) Be cost effective, (5)Improve the operation and maintenance of the pipeline, and (6) Maintain minimal environmental impact while meeting the performance requirements. Sizing of the pipe, piping construction materials, construction method (e.g., open-cut trench, directional drilling, etc.) and the acquisition of new Right-of-Way (ROW) were additionally evaluated in the preliminary alternative identification, selection and screening process.

  7. Swim speed, behavior, and movement of North Atlantic right whales (Eubalaena glacialis in coastal waters of northeastern Florida, USA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James H W Hain

    Full Text Available In a portion of the coastal waters of northeastern Florida, North Atlantic right whales (Eubalaena glacialis occur close to shore from December through March. These waters are included within the designated critical habitat for right whales. Data on swim speed, behavior, and direction of movement--with photo-identification of individual whales--were gathered by a volunteer sighting network working alongside experienced scientists and supplemented by aerial observations. In seven years (2001-2007, 109 tracking periods or "follows" were conducted on right whales during 600 hours of observation from shore-based observers. The whales were categorized as mother-calf pairs, singles and non-mother-calf pairs, and groups of 3 or more individuals. Sample size and amount of information obtained was largest for mother-calf pairs. Swim speeds varied within and across observation periods, individuals, and categories. One category, singles and non mother-calf pairs, was significantly different from the other two--and had the largest variability and the fastest swim speeds. Median swim speed for all categories was 1.3 km/h (0.7 kn, with examples that suggest swim speeds differ between within-habitat movement and migration-mode travel. Within-habitat right whales often travel back-and-forth in a north-south, along-coast, direction, which may cause an individual to pass by a given point on several occasions, potentially increasing anthropogenic risk exposure (e.g., vessel collision, fishing gear entanglement, harassment. At times, mothers and calves engaged in lengthy stationary periods (up to 7.5 h that included rest, nursing, and play. These mother-calf interactions have implications for communication, learning, and survival. Overall, these behaviors are relevant to population status, distribution, calving success, correlation to environmental parameters, survey efficacy, and human-impacts mitigation. These observations contribute important parameters to

  8. Swim speed, behavior, and movement of North Atlantic right whales (Eubalaena glacialis) in coastal waters of northeastern Florida, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hain, James H W; Hampp, Joy D; McKenney, Sheila A; Albert, Julie A; Kenney, Robert D

    2013-01-01

    In a portion of the coastal waters of northeastern Florida, North Atlantic right whales (Eubalaena glacialis) occur close to shore from December through March. These waters are included within the designated critical habitat for right whales. Data on swim speed, behavior, and direction of movement--with photo-identification of individual whales--were gathered by a volunteer sighting network working alongside experienced scientists and supplemented by aerial observations. In seven years (2001-2007), 109 tracking periods or "follows" were conducted on right whales during 600 hours of observation from shore-based observers. The whales were categorized as mother-calf pairs, singles and non-mother-calf pairs, and groups of 3 or more individuals. Sample size and amount of information obtained was largest for mother-calf pairs. Swim speeds varied within and across observation periods, individuals, and categories. One category, singles and non mother-calf pairs, was significantly different from the other two--and had the largest variability and the fastest swim speeds. Median swim speed for all categories was 1.3 km/h (0.7 kn), with examples that suggest swim speeds differ between within-habitat movement and migration-mode travel. Within-habitat right whales often travel back-and-forth in a north-south, along-coast, direction, which may cause an individual to pass by a given point on several occasions, potentially increasing anthropogenic risk exposure (e.g., vessel collision, fishing gear entanglement, harassment). At times, mothers and calves engaged in lengthy stationary periods (up to 7.5 h) that included rest, nursing, and play. These mother-calf interactions have implications for communication, learning, and survival. Overall, these behaviors are relevant to population status, distribution, calving success, correlation to environmental parameters, survey efficacy, and human-impacts mitigation. These observations contribute important parameters to conservation biology

  9. Right Where, Right When?

    OpenAIRE

    Graham, Beryl

    2015-01-01

    This exhibition catalogue essay was invited by the curator of The Lowry, Salford, for her Right Here, Right Now exhibition. The international artists included Thomson and Craighead, Timo Arnall, Mishka Henner and Daniel Rozin.

  10. Collective rights in a modernizing North - on institutionalizing Sámi and local rights to land and water in northern Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Audun Sandberg

    2008-07-01

    and constitutional changes in the modern world. The way such changes take place is nowadays more often through the incorporation of various forms of treaties and international charters into national legislation rather than direct negotiations between sovereign states and indigenous ‘tribes’, ‘clans’ or ethnic minority groups. However, when it comes to acknowledging the rights of ownership and possession of the peoples concerned over the lands which they traditionally occupy, these seem to be among the most difficult constitutional processes modern states can undertake. Thus they not only take much longer time than the granting of civil and political rights, but they also involve complex analytical exercises in order to understand the processes connected to the settling of indigenous land claims. This article analyses one such process in a nested and multi-tier system with parallel initiatives for institutional change.

  11. Using Water and Agrochemicals in the Soil, Crop and Vadose Environment (WAVE Model to Interpret Nitrogen Balance and Soil Water Reserve Under Different Tillage Managements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zare Narjes

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Applying models to interpret soil, water and plant relationships under different conditions enable us to study different management scenarios and then to determine the optimum option. The aim of this study was using Water and Agrochemicals in the soil, crop and Vadose Environment (WAVE model to predict water content, nitrogen balance and its components over a corn crop season under both conventional tillage (CT and direct seeding into mulch (DSM. In this study a corn crop was cultivated at the Irstea experimental station in Montpellier, France under both CT and DSM. Model input data were weather data, nitrogen content in both the soil and mulch at the beginning of the season, the amounts and the dates of irrigation and nitrogen application. The results show an appropriate agreement between measured and model simulations (nRMSE < 10%. Using model outputs, nitrogen balance and its components were compared with measured data in both systems. The amount of N leaching in validation period were 10 and 8 kgha–1 in CT and DSM plots, respectively; therefore, these results showed better performance of DSM in comparison with CT. Simulated nitrogen leaching from CT and DSM can help us to assess groundwater pollution risk caused by these two systems.

  12. Relations between total phosphorus and orthophosphorus concentrations and rainfall, surface-water discharge, and groundwater levels in Big Cypress Seminole Indian Reservation, Florida, 2014–16

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBride, W. Scott; Sifuentes, Dorothy F.

    2018-02-06

    The Seminole Tribe of Florida (the Tribe) is partnering with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency to develop a numeric phosphorus criterion for the 52,000-acre Big Cypress Seminole Indian Reservation (BCSIR), which is located downgradient of the Everglades Agricultural Area, and of other public and private lands, in southeastern Hendry County and northwestern Broward County in southern Florida. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the Tribe, used water-quality data collected between October 2014 and September 2016 by the Tribe and the South Florida Water Management District (SFWMD), along with data from rainfall gages, surface-water stage and discharge gages, and groundwater monitoring wells, to (1) examine the relations between local hydrology and measured total phosphorus (TP) and orthophosphorus (OP) concentrations and (2) identify explanatory variables for TP concentrations. Of particular concern were conditions when TP exceeded 10 parts per billion (ppb) (0.01 milligram per liter [mg/L]) given that the State of Florida and the Miccosukee Tribe of Indians Alligator Alley Reservation (located downstream of the BCSIR) have adopted a 10-ppb maximum TP criterion for surface waters.From October 2014 to September 2016, the Tribe collected 47–52 samples at each of nine water-quality sites for analysis of TP and OP, except at one site where 28 samples were collected. For all sites sampled, concentrations of TP (as phosphorus [P]) ranged from less than 0.002 mg/L (2 ppb) to a maximum of nearly 0.50 mg/L (500 ppb), whereas concentrations of OP (as P), the reactive form of inorganic phosphorus readily absorbed by plants and (or) abiotically absorbed, ranged from less than 0.003 mg/L (3 ppb) to a maximum of 0.24 mg/L (240 ppb). The median and interquartile ranges of concentrations of TP and OP in the samples collected in 2014–16 by the Tribe were similar to the median and interquartile ranges of concentrations in samples collected by the SFWMD at

  13. Relationship between myocardial flow reserve by oxygen-15 water positron emission tomography in the subacute phase of myocardial infarction and left ventricular remodeling in the chronic phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohara, Minako; Yukiiri, Kazushi; Masugata, Hisashi

    2008-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to examine the effects of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEI) or angiotensin receptor blockers (ARB) on myocardial flow reserve in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) in the subacute phase using oxygen-15 positron emission tomography (PET) and to elucidate the relationship between the myocardial flow reserve and remodeling in the chronic phase. Sixty patients who had been treated with coronary angioplasty within 12 h after the onset of AMI were enrolled. Patients were divided into an enalapril (ACEI) group and a candesartan (ARB) group. The myocardial flow reserve was measured by oxygen-15 water PET in the subacute phase from the 20th to the 30th day after the onset of AMI. Left ventriculography was performed to measure the left ventricular ejection fraction in the chronic phase about 6 months after the onset. Ten patients (33%) in the enalapril group and 4 patients (13%) in the candesartan group stopped taking their respective medications within a few days of starting, because of side effects such as cough or hypotension. Thus, the prevalence of medication intolerance was higher in the enalapril group. The myocardial flow reserve in the subacute phase and the left ventricular ejection fraction in the chronic phase were lower in the enalapril group (2.08±0.30 and 42±6%) than in the candesartan group (2.25±0.20 and 49±5%) (p<0.05). The myocardial flow reserve significantly correlated with the left ventricular ejection fraction in all patients (r=0.45, p<0.01). The myocardial flow reserve assessed by PET in the subacute phase after AMI was found to be related to left ventricular remodeling in the chronic phase. (author)

  14. "We only have access as a favor, don't we?" The perception of homeless population on the human rights to water and sanitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neves-Silva, Priscila; Martins, Giselle Isabele; Heller, Léo

    2018-03-26

    The human rights to water and sanitation (HRWS) state that all human beings have the right to safe access to water and sanitation in a non-discriminatory manner. However, vulnerable populations frequently have these rights violated, which impacts their health and quality of life, exacerbating social exclusion as in the case of homeless people. In Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais State, Brazil, 1,827 people were living on the streets in 2013. This study presents the evaluation of the conditions and perceptions of this population on their rights to water and sanitation access. It has been observed that access to both water and sanitation is precarious and that the normative content, as well as the human rights principles, are highly violated. In conclusion, we observed that this group suffers violations of HRWS and that these are associated with the violation of other rights such as the right to the city, dwelling and health. Such violations have negative impacts on the economic and social life of this group, increasing discrimination and exclusion. This study draws attention to the importance of encouraging the social participation of this group in the decision-making processes of water and sanitation management within the framework of HRWS, in its capacity to be a tool for social transformation, generating empowerment, promoting health, dignity and citizenship.

  15. Water

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Wyk, Llewellyn V

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available to explore desalination for future capacity. Water is essential to life: the human body is about 75 percent water, with up to 85 percent of brain cells liquid. Around 71 percent of the planet is covered in water, but 97,5 percent of it is salt water... risen to 90 percent, leaving only 10 percent for animals and plants. Yet 40 percent of the water used globally is for sanitation and other uses in buildings. The operation of buildings places a strain on raw water reserves, while wastewater and sewage...

  16. Right patient, Right blood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Selberg, Hanne; Madsen, Trine Stougaard

    2014-01-01

    : The objective of the current study was to test workshops focusing on procedures of safe blood transfusion by combining theory and practice, integrating current guidelines on safe blood transfusion and hereby help students to better recognize and handle errors and adverse reactions. Methods: 372 third year......Right patient, Right Blood Simulation based training in blood transfusion practice in nursing education Background: In spite of strict checking procedures to handling transfusion of blood severe adverse reactions are likely to happen and the major cause of morbidity occurs to be liable to human...... errors. Nursing students have limited possibility to practice safe blood transfusion during clinical placements. We introduced simulation-based workshops to reinforce safe transfusion practice and thus increase patient safety but equally important to bridge the gap between theory and practice. Objectives...

  17. Piranema Field: developing economically small reserves in deep waters; Campo de Piracema: o desafio de desenvolver economicamente pequenas reservas em aguas profundas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandao, Renilton M. [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    Piranema Field is located southeast of the city of Aracaju, in deep waters, sub-basin of Sergipe, about 25 km from the coast, with water depth varying from 200 and 2,000 meters. The biggest challenges for the production of this field, with high quality oil (41 to 44 API), were small reserves, the presence of large submarine canyons separating various geological structures and difficulty installation of pipelines and wax formation in production lines, which could cause its blocking. After several studies, we decided to exploit in two phases, using an FPSO (Floating Production Storage and Offloading), cylindrical, completely innovative, whose cost of construction could make the project economically attractive and gas produced entirely re-injected, which would increase considerably recovery factor. The development will be in two phases, with the first one lasting about 7 years and the second 4 years. It is expected a recovery factor of around 40% over the eleven years of production, with a peak production of around 30,000 bbl/d. The total project cost will be $ 1.1 bi, including investments, operating costs and taxes. (author)

  18. Quantifying Streamflow Variations in Ungauged Lake Basins by Integrating Remote Sensing and Water Balance Modelling: A Case Study of the Erdos Larus relictus National Nature Reserve, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kang Liang

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Hydrological predictions in ungauged lakes are one of the most important issues in hydrological sciences. The habitat of the Relict Gull (Larus relictus in the Erdos Larus relictus National Nature Reserve (ELRNNR has been seriously endangered by lake shrinkage, yet the hydrological processes in the catchment are poorly understood due to the lack of in-situ observations. Therefore, it is necessary to assess the variation in lake streamflow and its drivers. In this study, we employed the remote sensing technique and empirical equation to quantify the time series of lake water budgets, and integrated a water balance model and climate elasticity method to further examine ELRNNR basin streamflow variations from1974 to 2013. The results show that lake variations went through three phases with significant differences: The rapidly expanding sub-period (1974–1979, the relatively stable sub-period (1980–1999, and the dramatically shrinking sub-period (2000–2013. Both climate variation (expressed by precipitation and evapotranspiration and human activities were quantified as drivers of streamflow variation, and the driving forces in the three phases had different contributions. As human activities gradually intensified, the contributions of human disturbances on streamflow variation obviously increased, accounting for 22.3% during 1980–1999 and up to 59.2% during 2000–2013. Intensified human interferences and climate warming have jointly led to the lake shrinkage since 1999. This study provides a useful reference to quantify lake streamflow and its drivers in ungauged basins.

  19. Systematic Environmental Impact Assessment for Non-natural Reserve Areas: A Case Study of the Chaishitan Water Conservancy Project on Land Use and Plant Diversity in Yunnan, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-Xin Zhu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Environmental impact assessment (EIA before and after the establishment of a Water Conservancy Project (WCP is of great theoretical and practical importance for assessing the effectiveness of ecological restoration efforts. WCPs rehabilitate flood-damaged areas or other regions hit by disasters by controlling and redistributing surface water and groundwater. Using Geographic Information System (GIS and Composite Evaluation Index (CEI in predictive modeling, we studied the degree to which a WCP could change land use, plant communities, and species diversity in Yunnan, China. Via modeling, we quantified likely landscape pattern changes and linked them to naturality (i.e., the percentage of secondary vegetation types, diversity, and stability together with the human interferences (e.g., conservation or restoration project of an ecosystem. The value of each index was determined by the evaluation system, and the weight percentage was decided through Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP. We found that minor land-use changes would occur after the Chaishitan WCP was theoretically established. The greatest decline was farmland (0.079%, followed by forest (0.066%, with the least decline in water bodies (0.020%. We found 1,076 vascular plant species (including subspecies, varieties and form belonging to 165 families and 647 genera in Chaishitan irrigation area before the water conservancy establishment. The naturality and diversity decreased 11.18 and 10.16% respectively. The CEI was 0.92, which indicated that Chaishitan WCP will enhance local landscape heterogeneity, and it will not deteriorate local ecological quality. Our study proposes a comprehensive ecological evaluation system for this WCP and further suggests the importance of including the ecological and environmental consequences of the WCP, along with the well-established socioeconomic evaluation systems for non-natural reserve areas. We conclude that the Chaishitan WCP will have minor

  20. Bechtel Jacobs Company LLC Sampling and Analysis Plan for the Water Resources Restoration Program for Fiscal Year 2009, Oak Ridge Reservation, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ketelle R.H.

    2008-09-25

    The Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) Water Resources Restoration Program (WRRP) was established by the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) in 1996 to implement a consistent approach to long-term environmental monitoring across the ORR. The WRRP has four principal objectives: (1) to provide the data and technical analysis necessary to assess the performance of completed Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA) actions on the ORR; (2) to perform monitoring to establish a baseline against which the performance of future actions will be gauged and to support watershed management decisions; (3) to perform interim-status and post-closure permit monitoring and reporting to comply with Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA) requirements; and (4) to support ongoing waste management activities associated with WRRP activities. Water quality projects were established for each of the major facilities on the ORR: East Tennessee Technology Park (ETTP); Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), including Bethel Valley and Melton Valley; and the Y-12 National Security Complex (Y-12 Complex or Y-12), including Bear Creek Valley (BCV), Upper East Fork Poplar Creek (UEFPC), and Chestnut Ridge. Off-site (i.e., located beyond the ORR boundary) sampling requirements are also managed as part of the Y-12 Water Quality Project (YWQP). Offsite locations include those at Lower East Fork Poplar Creek (LEFPC), the Clinch River/Poplar Creek (CR/PC), and Lower Watts Bar Reservoir (LWBR). The Oak Ridge Associated Universities (ORAU) South Campus Facility (SCF) is also included as an 'off-site' location, although it is actually situated on property owned by DOE. The administrative watersheds are shown in Fig. A.l (Appendix A). The WRRP provides a central administrative and reporting function that integrates and coordinates the activities of the water quality projects, including preparation and administration of the WRRP Sampling and

  1. Water quality, meteorological, and nutrient data collected by the the National Estuarine Research Reserve System's System-wide Monitoring Program (NERRS SWMP) from January 1, 1995 to August 1, 2011 (NODC Accession 0052765)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Estuarine Research Reserve System's System-wide Monitoring Program (NERRS SWMP) collected water quality, meteorological, and nutrient data in 26...

  2. Implementation of Fisheries Enhancement Opportunities on the Coeur d'Alene Reservation; Coeur d'Alene Tribe Fish, Water, and Wildlife Program, REVISED 2002 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vitale, Angelo; Lamb, Dave; Scott, Jason

    2004-04-01

    effects on the quality of the water in the Coeur d'Alene River and Coeur d'Alene Lake. Effluents from tailings and mining waste have contributed vast quantities of trace heavy metals to the system. Poor agricultural and forest practices have also contributed to the degradation of water quality and habitat suitability for resident salmonids. Increased sediment loads from agricultural runoff and recent and recovering clearcuts, and increases in water temperature due to riparian canopy removal may be two of the most important problems currently affecting westslope cutthroat trout. Increases in water temperature have reduced the range of resident salmonids to a fraction of its historic extent. Within this new range, sediment has reduced the quality of both spawning and rearing habitats. Historically, municipal waste contributed large quantities of phosphates and nitrogen that accelerated the eutrophication process in Coeur d'Alene Lake. However, over the last 25 years work has been completed to reduce the annual load of these materials. Wastewater treatment facilities have been established near all major municipalities in and around the basin. Species interactions with introduced exotics as well as native species are also acting to limit cutthroat trout populations. Two mechanisms are at work: interspecific competition, and species replacement. Competition occurs when two species utilize common resources, the supply of which is short; or if the resources are not in short supply, they harm each other in the process of seeking these resources. Replacement occurs when some environmental or anthropogenic change (e.g., habitat degradation, fishing pressure, etc.) causes the decline or elimination of one species and another species, either native or introduced, fills the void left by the other. In 1994, the Northwest Power Planning Council adopted the recommendations set forth by the Coeur d'Alene Tribe to improve the Reservation fishery. These recommended

  3. Difference in myocardial flow reserve between patients with dilated cardiomyopathy and those with dilated phase of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Evaluation by 15O-water PET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohba, Muneo; Kambara, Naoshige; Hosokawa, Ryohei

    2007-01-01

    The clinical features of patients with the dilated phase of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (DHCM) may resemble those of patients with dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM); that is, systolic dysfunction and left ventricular dilatation. Myocardial flow reserve (MFR) is impaired in patients with nonischemic cardiomyopathy, and the reduced MFR may be related to poor prognosis. Several studies report that the mortality rate for patients with DHCM is higher than for DCM, but the difference between these 2 cardiomyopathies is still unclear. The purpose of this study was to assess the MFR of these 2 cardiomyopathies, using 15 O-water positron emission tomography (PET) to elucidate their differences. In total 30 patients were investigated: 23 with DCM (Group A) and 7 with DHCM (Group B). All those who were in a stable condition underwent cardiac catheterization. Myocardial blood flow (MBF) at rest and under adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP) infusion was measured by 15 O-water PET, and the MFR was calculated. There were no significant differences in the hemodynamics of the 2 groups. The mean MFR in DHCM was significantly lower than that in DCM (1.49±0.31 vs 2.62±1.08; p=0.042), whereas MBF at rest did not differ (DCM vs DHCM: 0.66±0.20 vs 0.49±0.05 ml·min -1 ·g -1 ; no significance (NS)). The MFR in both Group A and B was significantly decreased compared with the normal controls (MFR in normal controls: 5.15±1.64, p=0.00015, 0.00013, respectively). These results suggest that impaired vasodilatation (ie, dysfunction of the microcirculation) is more severe in patients with DHCM than in patients with DCM, even though patients' characteristics and hemodynamics do not differ. (author)

  4. Simulated groundwater flow in the Ogallala and Arikaree aquifers, Rosebud Indian Reservation area, South Dakota - Revisions with data through water year 2008 and simulations of potential future scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Andrew J.; Putnam, Larry D.

    2010-01-01

    The Ogallala and Arikaree aquifers are important water resources in the Rosebud Indian Reservation area and are used extensively for irrigation, municipal, and domestic water supplies. Drought or increased withdrawals from the Ogallala and Arikaree aquifers in the Rosebud Indian Reservation area have the potential to affect water levels in these aquifers. This report documents revisions and recalibration of a previously published three-dimensional, numerical groundwater-flow model for this area. Data for a 30-year period (water years 1979 through 2008) were used in steady-state and transient numerical simulations of groundwater flow. In the revised model, revisions include (1) extension of the transient calibration period by 10 years, (2) the use of inverse modeling for steady-state calibration, (3) model calibration to base flow for an additional four surface-water drainage basins, (4) improved estimation of transient aquifer recharge, (5) improved delineation of vegetation types, and (6) reduced cell size near large capacity water-supply wells. In addition, potential future scenarios were simulated to assess the potential effects of drought and increased groundwater withdrawals.The model comprised two layers: the upper layer represented the Ogallala aquifer and the lower layer represented the Arikaree aquifer. The model’s grid had 168 rows and 202 columns, most of which were 1,640 feet (500 meters) wide, with narrower rows and columns near large water-supply wells. Recharge to the Ogallala and Arikaree aquifers occurs from precipitation on the outcrop areas. The average recharge rates used for the steady-state simulation were 2.91 and 1.45 inches per year for the Ogallala aquifer and Arikaree aquifer, respectively, for a total rate of 255.4 cubic feet per second (ft3/s). Discharge from the aquifers occurs through evapotranspiration, discharge to streams as base flow and spring flow, and well withdrawals. Discharge rates for the steady-state simulation were 171

  5. Water

    OpenAIRE

    Hertie School of Governance

    2010-01-01

    All human life depends on water and air. The sustainable management of both is a major challenge for today's public policy makers. This issue of Schlossplatz³ taps the streams and flows of the current debate on the right water governance.

  6. Evaluation of Phytoremediation of Coal Bed Methane Product Water and Waters of Quality Similar to that Associated with Coal Bed Methane Reserves of the Powder River Basin, Montana and Wyoming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James Bauder

    2008-09-30

    U.S. emphasis on domestic energy independence, along with advances in knowledge of vast biogenically sourced coalbed methane reserves at relatively shallow sub-surface depths with the Powder River Basin, has resulted in rapid expansion of the coalbed methane industry in Wyoming and Montana. Techniques have recently been developed which constitute relatively efficient drilling and methane gas recovery and extraction techniques. However, this relatively efficient recovery requires aggressive reduction of hydrostatic pressure within water-saturated coal formations where the methane is trapped. Water removed from the coal formation during pumping is typically moderately saline and sodium-bicarbonate rich, and managed as an industrial waste product. Current approaches to coalbed methane product water management include: surface spreading on rangeland landscapes, managed irrigation of agricultural crop lands, direct discharge to ephermeral channels, permitted discharge of treated and untreated water to perennial streams, evaporation, subsurface injection at either shallow or deep depths. A Department of Energy-National Energy Technology Laboratory funded research award involved the investigation and assessment of: (1) phytoremediation as a water management technique for waste water produced in association with coalbed methane gas extraction; (2) feasibility of commercial-scale, low-impact industrial water treatment technologies for the reduction of salinity and sodicity in coalbed methane gas extraction by-product water; and (3) interactions of coalbed methane extraction by-product water with landscapes, vegetation, and water resources of the Powder River Basin. Prospective, greenhouse studies of salt tolerance and water use potential of indigenous, riparian vegetation species in saline-sodic environments confirmed the hypothesis that species such as Prairie cordgrass, Baltic rush, American bulrush, and Nuttall's alkaligrass will thrive in saline-sodic environments

  7. Quantitative assessment of regional myocardial flow reserve using Tc-99m-sestamibi imaging. Comparison with results of O-15 water PET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsukamoto, Takahiro; Ito, Yoshinori; Noriyasu, Kazuyuki; Morita, Koichi; Katoh, Chietsugu; Okamoto, Hiroshi; Tamaki, Nagara

    2005-01-01

    The aims of this study were to develop a method for quantitative estimation of the myocardial blood flow index (MBFI) and myocardial flow reserve (MFR) of the whole left ventricle using 99m technetium (Tc-99m)-sestamibi imaging. Twenty-two patients with suspected coronary artery disease and 7 controls underwent both Tc-99m-sestamibi imaging and O-15 water positron emission tomography (PET). The global MBFI was calculated on the basis of the microsphere model from the ratio of the myocardial count to the area under the time-activity curve on the aortic arch. The regional MBFI was calculated from the relative distributions of Tc-99m-sestamibi uptake values. The regional MBFI and MFR (Tc-MFR) obtained using single-photon emission computed tomography were compared with the myocardial blood flow (MBF) and MFR (PET-MFR) obtained using PET as the gold standard. Regional MBFI significantly correlated with the MBF obtained using PET. Regional Tc-MFR also correlated with the regional PET-MER, with some underestimation. These results indicate that regional MBF and MFR may be estimated by dynamic Tc-99m-sestamibi imaging and can be used for the early detection and estimation of the functional severity of coronary lesions without the need for a PET camera. (author)

  8. Land tenure and water rights in Thailand and Vietnam : challenges for ethnic minorities in mountainous forest regions

    OpenAIRE

    Neef, A.; Hager, J.; Wirth, T.; Schwarzmeier, R.; Heidhues, F.

    2006-01-01

    Ethnie minorities in the mountainous forest regions of northern Thailand and northern Vietnam live in a particularly restrictive political, social and economic environment. Widespread degradation of land, water and forest resources has adverse effects on the livelihoods of these groups. Given the dramatically increasing scarcity of natural resources, regulation of resource access and allocation are becoming fundamental for the development of sustainable resource management, ...

  9. Getting the basic rights - the role of water, sanitation and hygiene in maternal and reproductive health: a conceptual framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Oona M R; Benova, Lenka; Gon, Giorgia; Afsana, Kaosar; Cumming, Oliver

    2015-03-01

    To explore linkages between water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) and maternal and perinatal health via a conceptual approach and a scoping review. We developed a conceptual framework iteratively, amalgamating three literature-based lenses. We then searched literature and identified risk factors potentially linked to maternal and perinatal health. We conducted a systematic scoping review for all chemical and biological WASH risk factors identified using text and MeSH terms, limiting results to systematic reviews or meta-analyses. The remaining 10 complex behavioural associations were not reviewed systematically. The main ways poor WASH could lead to adverse outcomes are via two non-exclusive categories: 1. 'In-water' associations: (a) Inorganic contaminants, and (b) 'water-system' related infections, (c) 'water-based' infections, and (d) 'water borne' infections. 2. 'Behaviour' associations: (e) Behaviours leading to water-washed infections, (f) Water-related insect-vector infections, and (g-i) Behaviours leading to non-infectious diseases/conditions. We added a gender inequality and a life course lens to the above framework to identify whether WASH affected health of mothers in particular, and acted beyond the immediate effects. This framework led us to identifying 77 risk mechanisms (67 chemical or biological factors and 10 complex behavioural factors) linking WASH to maternal and perinatal health outcomes. WASH affects the risk of adverse maternal and perinatal health outcomes; these exposures are multiple and overlapping and may be distant from the immediate health outcome. Much of the evidence is weak, based on observational studies and anecdotal evidence, with relatively few systematic reviews. New systematic reviews are required to assess the quality of existing evidence more rigorously, and primary research is required to investigate the magnitude of effects of particular WASH exposures on specific maternal and perinatal outcomes. Whilst major gaps exist

  10. Disputes over land and water rights in gold mining : The case of Cerro de San Pedro, Mexico

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stoltenborg, D.; Boelens, R.

    2016-01-01

    This article analyzes different visions and positions in a conflict between the developer of an open-pit mine in Mexico and project opponents using the echelons of rights analysis framework, distinguishing four layers of dispute: contested resources; contents of rules and regulations;

  11. Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leopold, Luna Bergere; Baldwin, Helene L.

    1962-01-01

    What do you use water for?If someone asked you this question you would probably think right away of water for drinking. Then you would think of water for bathing, brushing teeth, flushing the toilet. Your list would get longer as you thought of water for cooking, washing the dishes, running the garbage grinder. Water for lawn watering, for play pools, for swimming pools, for washing the car and the dog. Water for washing machines and for air conditioning. You can hardly do without water for fun and pleasure—water for swimming, boating, fishing, water-skiing, and skin diving. In school or the public library, you need water to wash your hands, or to have a drink. If your home or school bursts into flames, quantities of water are needed to put it out.In fact, life to Americans is unthinkable without large supplies of fresh, clean water. If you give the matter a little thought, you will realize that people in many countries, even in our own, may suffer from disease and dirt simply because their homes are not equipped with running water. Imagine your own town if for some reason - an explosion, perhaps - water service were cut off for a week or several weeks. You would have to drive or walk to a neighboring town and bring water back in pails. Certainly if people had to carry water themselves they might not be inclined to bathe very often; washing clothes would be a real chore.Nothing can live without water. The earth is covered by water over three-fourths of its surface - water as a liquid in rivers, lakes and oceans, and water as ice and snow on the tops of high mountains and in the polar regions. Only one-quarter of our bodies is bone and muscle; the other three-fourths is made of water. We need water to live, and so do plants and animals. People and animals can live a long time without food, but without water they die in a few days. Without water, everything would die, and the world would turn into a huge desert.

  12. [New nutrient medium for the cultivation and isolation of the plague microbe ChDS-37 as an element of the mobilization reserve of specialized antiepidemic teams of the Russian Inspectorate for the Protection of Consumer Rights and Human Welfare].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazrukho, A B; Kaminskiĭ, D I; Lomov, Yu M; Telesmanich, N P; Rozhkov, K K; Alutin, I M; Pukhov, Yu M; Prometnoĭ, V I; Fetsaĭlova, O P; Bulakhova, O G; Firsova, I A; Smolikova, L M; Bozhko, N V; Ivanova, V S; Burlakova, O S; Verkina, L M; Trukhachev, A L; Akulova, M V

    2011-04-01

    A new nutrient medium has been designed to culture and isolate the plague microbe ChDS-37 on the basis of the pancreatic digest of baker's yeast. The results of laboratory tests of the designed medium, by using 10 plague microbe strains and those of approval during the tactical and special training of a specialized antiepidemic team (SAET), suggest that the medium has some advantage over reference media and creates prerequisites for being incorporated into the mobilization reserve of a SAET.

  13. Results of analyses of fur samples from the San Joaquin Kit Fox and associated soil and water samples from the Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 1, Tupman, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suter, G.W. II; Rosen, A.E.; Beauchamp, J.J. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)); Kato, T.T. (EG and G Energy Measurements, Inc., Tupman, CA (United States))

    1992-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether analysis of the elemental content of fur from San Joaquin kit foxes (Vulpes macrotis mutica) and of water and soil from kit fox habitats could be used to make inferences concerning the cause of an observed decline in the kit fox population on Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 1 (NPR-1). Fur samples that had been collected previously from NPR-1, another oil field (NPR-2), and two sites with no oil development were subjected to neutron activation analysis. In addition, soil samples were collected from the home ranges of individual foxes from undisturbed portions of major soil types on NPR-1 and from wastewater samples were collected from tanks and sumps and subjected to neutron activation analysis. Most elemental concentrations in fur were highest at Camp Roberts and lowest on the undeveloped portions of NPR-I. Fur concentrations were intermediate on the developed oil fields but were correlated with percent disturbance and with number of wells on NPR-1 and NPR-2. The fact that most elements covaried across the range of sites suggests that some pervasive source such as soil was responsible. However, fur concentrations were not correlated with soft concentrations. The kit foxes on the developed portion of NPR-1 did not have concentrations of elements in fur relative to other sites that would account for the population decline in the early 1980s. The oil-related elements As, Ba, and V were elevated in fox fur from oil fields, but only As was sufficiently elevated to suggest a risk of toxicity in individual foxes. However, arsenic concentrations suggestive of sublethal toxicity were found in only 0.56% of foxes from developed oil fields, too few to account for a population decline.

  14. A comparative analysis of extended water cloud model and backscatter modelling for above-ground biomass assessment in Corbett Tiger Reserve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Yogesh; Singh, Sarnam; Chatterjee, R. S.; Trivedi, Mukul

    2016-04-01

    Forest biomass acts as a backbone in regulating the climate by storing carbon within itself. Thus the assessment of forest biomass is crucial in understanding the dynamics of the environment. Traditionally the destructive methods were adopted for the assessment of biomass which were further advanced to the non-destructive methods. The allometric equations developed by destructive methods were further used in non-destructive methods for the assessment, but they were mostly applied for woody/commercial timber species. However now days Remote Sensing data are primarily used for the biomass geospatial pattern assessment. The Optical Remote Sensing data (Landsat8, LISS III, etc.) are being used very successfully for the estimation of above ground biomass (AGB). However optical data is not suitable for all atmospheric/environmental conditions, because it can't penetrate through clouds and haze. Thus Radar data is one of the alternate possible ways to acquire data in all-weather conditions irrespective of weather and light. The paper examines the potential of ALOS PALSAR L-band dual polarisation data for the estimation of AGB in the Corbett Tiger Reserve (CTR) covering an area of 889 km2. The main focus of this study is to explore the accuracy of Polarimetric Scattering Model (Extended Water Cloud Model (EWCM) with respect to Backscatter model in the assessment of AGB. The parameters of the EWCM were estimated using the decomposition components (Raney Decomposition) and the plot level information. The above ground biomass in the CTR ranges from 9.6 t/ha to 322.6 t/ha.

  15. Water rights of the head reach farmers in view of a water supply scenario at the extension area of the Babai Irrigation Project, Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adhikari, B.; Verhoeven, R.; Troch, P.

    The farmer managed irrigation systems (FMIS) represent those systems which are constructed and operated solely by the farmers applying their indigenous technology. The FMIS generally outperform the modern irrigation systems constructed and operated by the government agencies with regard to the water delivery effectiveness, agricultural productivity etc., and the presence of a sound organization responsible to run the FMIS, often referred to as the ‘social capital’, is the key to this success. This paper studies another important aspect residing in the FMIS: potentials to expand the irrigation area by means of their proper rehabilitation and modernization. Taking the case study of the Babai Irrigation Project in Nepal, it is demonstrated that the flow, which in the past was used to irrigate the 5400 ha area covered by three FMIS, can provide irrigation to an additional 8100 ha in the summer, 4180 ha vegetables in the winter and 1100 ha maize in the spring season after the FMIS rehabilitation. The “priority water rights” of the FMIS part have been evaluated based on relevant crop water requirement calculations and is found to be equal to 85.4 million m 3 per year. Consequently, the dry season irrigation strategy at the extension area could be worked out based on the remaining flow. By storing the surplus discharge of the monsoon and autumn in local ponds, and by consuming them in dry period combined with nominal partial irrigation practice, wheat and mustard can be cultivated over about 4000 ha of the extension area. Furthermore, storage and surface irrigation both contribute to the groundwater recharge. The conjunctive use of ground, surface and harvested water might be the mainstream in the future for a sustainable irrigation water management in the region.

  16. Disagreement between Hydrological and Land Surface models on the water budgets in the Arctic: why is this and which of them is right?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blyth, E.; Martinez-de la Torre, A.; Ellis, R.; Robinson, E.

    2017-12-01

    The fresh-water budget of the Artic region has a diverse range of impacts: the ecosystems of the region, ocean circulation response to Arctic freshwater, methane emissions through changing wetland extent as well as the available fresh water for human consumption. But there are many processes that control the budget including a seasonal snow packs building and thawing, freezing soils and permafrost, extensive organic soils and large wetland systems. All these processes interact to create a complex hydrological system. In this study we examine a suite of 10 models that bring all those processes together in a 25 year reanalysis of the global water budget. We assess their performance in the Arctic region. There are two approaches to modelling fresh-water flows at large scales, referred to here as `Hydrological' and `Land Surface' models. While both approaches include a physically based model of the water stores and fluxes, the Land Surface models links the water flows to an energy-based model for processes such as snow melt and soil freezing. This study will analyse the impact of that basic difference on the regional patterns of evapotranspiration, runoff generation and terrestrial water storage. For the evapotranspiration, the Hydrological models tend to have a bigger spatial range in the model bias (difference to observations), implying greater errors compared to the Land-Surface models. For instance, some regions such as Eastern Siberia have consistently lower Evaporation in the Hydrological models than the Land Surface models. For the Runoff however, the results are the other way round with a slightly higher spatial range in bias for the Land Surface models implying greater errors than the Hydrological models. A simple analysis would suggest that Hydrological models are designed to get the runoff right, while Land Surface models designed to get the evapotranspiration right. Tracing the source of the difference suggests that the difference comes from the treatment

  17. North Inlet-Winyah Bay National Estuarine Research Reserve's (NERR) Estuarine Water Quality Data for the North Inlet and Winyah Bay Estuaries, Georgetown, South Carolina: 1993-2002

    Data.gov (United States)

    Baruch Institute for Marine and Coastal Sciences, Univ of South Carolina — The North Inlet Estuary and the adjacent lower northeastern section of the Winyah Bay Estuary were designated as part of the National Estuarine Research Reserve...

  18. Whose Rights?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aktor, Mikael

    2016-01-01

    The debate over ritual infant male circumcision has increasingly been thematized as a Human Rights issue. But the claims on such rights seem highly conflicting. In particular, the rights of the child seems to conflict with the freedom of religion of parents, the rights of religious and ethnic...

  19. How to put plant root uptake into a soil water flow model [version 1; referees: 2 approved, 1 approved with reservations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuejun Dong

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The need for improved crop water use efficiency calls for flexible modeling platforms to implement new ideas in plant root uptake and its regulation mechanisms. This paper documents the details of modifying a soil infiltration and redistribution model to include (a dynamic root growth, (b non-uniform root distribution and water uptake, (c the effect of water stress on plant water uptake, and (d soil evaporation. The paper also demonstrates strategies of using the modified model to simulate soil water dynamics and plant transpiration considering different sensitivity of plants to soil dryness and different mechanisms of root water uptake. In particular, the flexibility of simulating various degrees of compensated uptake (whereby plants tend to maintain potential transpiration under mild water stress is emphasized. The paper also describes how to estimate unknown root distribution and rooting depth parameters by the use of a simulation-based searching method. The full documentation of the computer code will allow further applications and new development.

  20. Geohydrology and water resources of the Papago Farms--Great Plain area, Papago Indian Reservation, Arizona, and the upper Rio Sonoyta area, Sonora, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollett, Kenneth J.

    1985-01-01

    The Papago Farms-Great Plain and upper Rio Sonoyta study area includes about 490 square miles in south-central Arizona and north-central Sonora, Mexico. The area is characterized by a broad, deep, sediment-filled basin bounded by low, jagged fault-block mountains. The climate is arid to semiarid. The climate and abundant ground water provide favorable conditions for irrigated agriculture. Annual precipitation averages 5 to 8 inches per year on the desert floor. Runoff, which occurs as intermittent streamflow and sheetflow, is too short lived and too laden with suspended sediment to be a reliable source for irrigation or public supply. Nearly all the water used to irrigate more than 5,000 cultivated acres in the study area is withdrawn from the unconsolidated to partly consolidated basin fill. The ground water occurs in the deposits under unconfined (water-table) conditions with a saturated thickness that ranges from zero along the mountain fronts to more than 8,000 feet in the center of the basin. The amount of recoverable ground water in storage to a depth of 400 feet below the 1978-80 water table is estimated to be about 10 million acre-feet. Depths to water range from about 500 feet near the southern boundary of the study area to about 150 feet in the center of the study area. Ground water enters the area principally as underflow beneath the San Simon and Chukut Kuk Washes and as recharge along the mountain fronts. On the basis of model results, annual inflow to the ground-water system is estimated to be about 4,390 acre-feet. Ground water moves through the study area along paths that encircle a virtually impermeable unit in the basin center, termed 'the lakebed-clay deposits,' and moves westward to an outflow point beneath the Rio Sonoyta south of Cerro La Nariz. Rates of water movement range from less than I foot per year in clays to about 160 feet per year in well-sorted, coarse stream-channel deposits. Transmissivities along the basin margins range from 10

  1. Children's Rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlene, Vickie J.

    1992-01-01

    Provides a sampling of citations in the ERIC database on children's rights. Includes human rights education, United Nations' conventions, state takeovers of local school districts, and federal law as it affects student rights. Covers child abuse, corporal punishment, child welfare, and child advocacy. (DK)

  2. A proteção do direito fundamental à água em perspectiva internacional e comparada / The Protection of the Fundamental Right to Water in International and Comparative Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Bernal Pulido

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose – Analyzing the adjudication of the constitutional right to water in comparative law and its theoretical and practical implications. Methodology/approach/design – A theoretical and jurisprudential analysis of the standards of reasonableness, the minimum core and proportionality, used in different jurisdictions for adjudicating claims grounded in the constitutional right to water. Findings – The advantages and disadvantages of reasonableness, the minimum core and proportionality as standards for adjudicating the constitutional right to water. Practical implications – The article shows that the adjudication of the employment of the principle of proportionality is the best comparative practice concerning the adjudication of the constitutional right to water. Originality/value – The text fills a gap on the topic, especially in light of the problems arising out of localized water crises or economic, social or legal disputes over water use in scenarios of scarcity.

  3. Natural Rights and Human Rights

    OpenAIRE

    Nasser Qorban Nia

    2013-01-01

    Any human rights bereft of philosophical and anthropological foundations are susceptible to weakness and vulnerability. The question as to how from a logical point of view we arrive at the conclusion that the fact of being a human accords us with rights is one that has been provided with several answers. Belief in the natural rights is justification for some prominent proponents. However, in spite of serious challenges facing the proponents of natural rights, it is possible to consider the...

  4. All rights reserved Development of Headspace Solid-Phase ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    affecting the performance of the GC-MS system and require optimization in .... subsequent analysis. The time was selected to reduce the total time of analysis, since efficient extraction can also be achieved prior to equilibrium provided all other factors are ... stirring rate can lead to the vibration of the fiber which could lead to ...

  5. All rights reserved Variation in Body Weight, Organ Weight and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    Variation in Body Weight, Organ Weight and Haematological Parameters of Rats Fed ... Biochemistry Department, University of Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria ... These changes were significantly different (P<0.05).The absolute and relative organ (liver, heart, kidney, pancreas, spleen and lungs) weight changes of the ...

  6. rights reserved Identification of some human pathogenic fungi using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    extraction buffer (2% Triton X-100, 1% SDS, 100. mM NaCl, 10 mM Tris-HCl, pH 8.0,1 mM. Na2EDTA). The suspension was centrifuged for 5 min at 13,500 rpm. The supernatant was transferred to a new micro-centrifuge tube, and the nucleic acids were precipitated by adding 1 ml absolute ethanol. Suspensions were mixed ...

  7. rights reserved Relationship between ABO Blood Groups and Lipid

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    (1977) for the determination of high-density cholesterol in serum was employed. Low density lipoproteins and very low density lipoproteins (LDL and VLDL) and chylomicron fractions are precipitated quantitatively by the addition of phosphotungstic acid in the presence of magnesium ions. After centrifugation, the cholesterol.

  8. rights reserved Assessment of Indigenous Bacteria from Biodiesel ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    doi.org/10.4314/jasem.v22i2.12 ... Keywords: Biodiesel, bioremediation, bacteria, effluent, hydrocarbon. Indigenous soil Microorganisms are tiny colonies of .... refinery waste-contaminated site and an aviation gasoline contaminated site.

  9. rights reserved Generalization and Modification of Hardy-Littlewood ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    2018-03-20

    Mar 20, 2018 ... Keywords: Maximal function, Hardy-Littlewood Maximal Functions, Borel measure, Fourier coefficient. Maximal functions arise very natural in analysis, for proving theorems about the existence almost everywhere of limits, for controlling pointwise important objects such as the Poisson Integrals or for.

  10. All rights reserved Intermolecular Model Potentials and Virial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    Key words: Equation of state, virial coefficients, speed of sound, intermolecular potentials. The virial equation of state (EOS) is based on ... general equation of state method that can predict volumetric and caloric thermodynamic ... standard cubic foot of gas per day and at the current price of $ 3.3 per 1000 cubic foot set by ...

  11. rights reserved Numerical Solution of the Differential Equation for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    2017-12-10

    Dec 10, 2017 ... ABSTRACT: Rice blast disease is one of the diseases that causes damage to rice yield in Thailand. This research aims to simulate the severity of rice blast disease using the EPIRICE model for Khao Dawk Mali 105 that caused by. Pyricularia oryzae in Prachin Buri, Thailand, and evaluate the simulation ...

  12. All rights reserved Performance Evaluation of a Locally Fabricated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    efficiency when considering the life cycle of the fuel. (Bribián et al., 2011). An oven is a thermally insulated .... Test and Analysis: After fabrication of the sawdust fired oven, it was tested with the cake to evaluate its ... The Equipment used for determining the temperature, the time taking and mass, are the thermometer,.

  13. rights reserved Assessment of Home-Based Nigerian Engineers on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    ABSTRACT: The objectives of this paper are to identify possible gaps in identification, evaluation, analysis, implementation and effectiveness of risk ... balance risk costs with mission benefits. Risk management planning is the process of .... text analytics, business intelligence, and data visualizations. Microsoft Excel software ...

  14. All rights reserved Variation in Body Weight, Organ Weight and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    The result showed that the treated flour supported growth but had no definite effect on other parameters ... Seven (7) diets were formulated using corn starch, ... cooked kudzu and diet eight (8) was the reference diet (nutrend). The diets were formulated to provide. 16% protein. A total of forty(40) weaning albino rats of the ...

  15. JASEM ISSN 1119- All rights reserved Numerical Solution of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    2017-12-10

    Dec 10, 2017 ... ABSTRACT: Rice blast disease is one of the diseases that causes damage to rice yield in Thailand. This research aims to simulate the severity of rice blast disease using the EPIRICE model for Khao Dawk Mali 105 that caused by. Pyricularia oryzae in Prachin Buri, Thailand, and evaluate the simulation ...

  16. rights reserved Protective Effects of Aqueous Extract of Cinnamon ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    biochemical analysis. In control rats (Fig. 1), kidney sections showed normal glomeruli with an intact. Bowman's capsule and convoluted tubules whereas. STZ-treated group of rats (Fig. 2) showed glomerular congestion, inflammatory cells infiltration, necrosis and tubular dilations with nuclei bulging into the lumen. However ...

  17. rights reserved Determination of the Viability of Chicken Feather as ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    Attribution License (CCL), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the .... Belarmino et al, 2012). Feather barbs show honeycomb hollow shaped hollow cells in the cross- section direction, the presence of a honeycomb structure will provide for the accumulations of liquids.

  18. All rights reserved Assessment of groundwater vulnerability and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    2017-12-12

    1351. Full-text Available Online at https://www.ajol.info/index.php/jasem .... To do this, a digital elevation model (DEM) of the study area was generated using .... management and development, because consider full details of the ...

  19. All rights reserved Investigation of the physical and mechanical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    table 1 below. The reduction formula is valid for moisture content of 8% to 23%. Table 1: Correction Factor, α. State of stress α (for all wood specie). Modulus of Elasticity (MOE). 0.02. Modulus of Rupture (MOR). 0.04. Shear Parallel to grain. 0.03. Compression parallel to the grain/perpendicular. 0.05. Tensile parallel to grain.

  20. All rights reserved Optimization of bioethanol production from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    ABSTRACT: In this study, bioethanol production from the simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) of pineapple peels using cellulase and Saccharomyces cerevisiae was investigated. A three-factor Box-behnken design. (BBD) and response surface methodology (RSM) were employed to study the effect of ...

  1. Righting wrongs and reforming rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivey, Laurie C

    2014-03-01

    Discusses issues faced by LGBT people, such as a lack of equal civil rights and the need for extra legal and financial protection for families because partners cannot be married. The author notes that, in our society, it is no longer acceptable to be racist, but it is still okay to be homophobic. The many campaigns against gay marriage and efforts in the legislature to prevent change toward equal civil rights and protections are prime examples. In our current political climate, two things are very clear: (a) homophobia is freely tolerated and (b) the times are changing as we inch closer to equal rights every day. We are "righting wrongs and reforming rights."

  2. Recourse right

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopes, M.R.M.

    1979-01-01

    The recourse right concerning nuclear power plants is analysed. It is emphasized that in the Brazilian civil liability legislation, the operator has this right against who admitted it through a written contract or against the individual who has acted or omitted to act whith the intent to provoke nuclear incidents. (A.L.S.L.) [pt

  3. Water - The radiological health of rivers: releases are very much controlled downstream power plants. What do hospital releases represent? The Seine reserves a surprise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2015-01-01

    After a brief presentation of the role of the IRSN in the control of the radioactivity present in waters and in the control and follow-up of all sources of radioactivity, a first article briefly present the hydro-collector network, indicates that some point samplings of sediment and aquatic species are performed, that a national network of beacons for a continuous radioactivity measurement is installed in the main French rivers, downstream nuclear installations, and that advanced measurement techniques are used to detect very small level of tritium. Maps giving a brief indication of the radiological condition of the Loire and Rhone are provided. A second article addresses the control of releases downstream power plants, and evokes the legal context and the associated objectives and produced documents. The third article discusses the risk associated with hospital wastes and releases (liquid and solid effluents), how radioactivity is controlled between the hospital and tap water distribution. The last article reports and comments the results obtained by an analysis of historical pollutions trapped in the sediments of the Seine: 40 year-old traces of plutonium have been discovered, due to an accidental release from a CEA installation in Fontenay-aux-Roses, with no detrimental impact on population or on sewer workers

  4. Working rights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babić Jovan

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The first part of the article focuses on 'Employment at will', a scheme in which all obligations and rights of employers and employees are subject to negotiation and explicit agreement of the parties in the working process. Free consent and almost absolute freedom to terminate the relations are features of this scheme. The second part of the article deals with the issue of the right to work and rights in the working place. As restrictions of the freedom contained in the original Employment at Will scheme, all these rights have to be justified from the moral point of view. The third part deals with due process in the workplace, especially regarding the issue of layoffs.

  5. Doing the right things right

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Pernille Hammar; Hussmann, Peter Munkebo; Jensen, Helge Elbrønd

    2009-01-01

    Are we doing the right things and are we doing them right? These questions should be subject to constant attention within Higher Education Institutions in pursuit of high quality educations and attracting students nationally as well as internationally. And due to the international development...

  6. Biosphere reserves: Attributes for success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Cuong, Chu; Dart, Peter; Hockings, Marc

    2017-03-01

    Biosphere reserves established under the UNESCO Man and the Biosphere Program aim to harmonise biodiversity conservation and sustainable development. Concerns over the extent to which the reserve network was living up to this ideal led to the development of a new strategy in 1995 (the Seville Strategy) to enhance the operation of the network of reserves. An evaluation of effectiveness of management of the biosphere reserve network was called for as part of this strategy. Expert opinion was assembled through a Delphi Process to identify successful and less successful reserves and investigate common factors influencing success or failure. Ninety biosphere reserves including sixty successful and thirty less successful reserves in 42 countries across all five Man and the Biosphere Program regions were identified. Most successful sites are the post-Seville generation while the majority of unsuccessful sites are pre-Seville that are managed as national parks and have not been amended to conform to the characteristics that are meant to define a biosphere reserve. Stakeholder participation and collaboration, governance, finance and resources, management, and awareness and communication are the most influential factors in the success or failure of the biosphere reserves. For success, the biosphere reserve concept needs to be clearly understood and applied through landscape zoning. Designated reserves then need a management system with inclusive good governance, strong participation and collaboration, adequate finance and human resource allocation and stable and responsible management and implementation. All rather obvious but it is difficult to achieve without commitment to the biosphere reserve concept by the governance authorities. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... www.girlshealth.gov/ Home Nutrition Nutrition basics Water Water Did you know that water makes up more ... to drink more water Other drinks How much water do you need? top Water is very important, ...

  8. [Patients' rights].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bert, Giorgio; Morello, Enrico; Quadrino, Silvana

    2018-02-01

    Forty years have passed since the publication of the "Patients' Rights Charter" (included in a separate section at the end of the work: "Patients' rights: a critical guide to understanding and usage of civil hospital facilities"), but it still remains remarkably topical. We here provide an analysis of the original Charter (1975) taking into consideration the changes that have occurred in sensitivity to gender, cultural as well as socioeconomic differences, the right to body privacy and to continuity of care, the key role of general practitioners, the reciprocal relations in the information and decision-making processes with shared diagnostic and therapeutic pathways and active patient participation, which mandates that adequate education in communication and care strategies be provided to all caregivers.

  9. Employee Rights

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheuer, Steen

    2016-01-01

    , on the one hand, and what is considered as equitable (in accordance with employment rights) by employees, on the other. Since equality in reward counts for more among a considerable fraction of employees, while equity in contribution counts more for most employers, this is an inherent dilemma, constantly...

  10. Human rights

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gaay Fortman, B. de

    2006-01-01

    Human rights reflect a determined effort to protect the dignity of each and every human being against abuse of power. This endeavour is as old as human history. What is relatively new is the international venture for the protection of human dignity through internationally accepted legal standards

  11. Human Rights

    OpenAIRE

    Schlundt, Marie Gertz

    2011-01-01

    The project intends to investigate to what extent and under what conditions, United Nations human rights conventions have been internalized in the minimally democratic and isolated state of the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea (DPRK). The ‘spiral model’ of Risse et al (1999) will be used as the theoretical framework for the project. This framework sets out to understand the process of socialization by which principled ideas held by individuals become norms in the sense of collective unde...

  12. Abortion and human rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Dorothy

    2010-10-01

    Abortion has been a reality in women's lives since the beginning of recorded history, typically with a high risk of fatal consequences, until the last century when evolutions in the field of medicine, including techniques of safe abortion and effective methods of family planning, could have ended the need to seek unsafe abortion. The context of women's lives globally is an important but often ignored variable, increasingly recognised in evolving human rights especially related to gender and reproduction. International and regional human rights instruments are being invoked where national laws result in violations of human rights such as health and life. The individual right to conscientious objection must be respected and better understood, and is not absolute. Health professional organisations have a role to play in clarifying responsibilities consistent with national laws and respecting reproductive rights. Seeking common ground using evidence rather than polarised opinion can assist the future focus. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Cognitive reserve in aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, A M; Stern, Y

    2011-06-01

    Cognitive reserve explains why those with higher IQ, education, occupational attainment, or participation in leisure activities evidence less severe clinical or cognitive changes in the presence of age-related or Alzheimer's disease pathology. Specifically, the cognitive reserve hypothesis is that individual differences in how tasks are processed provide reserve against brain pathology. Cognitive reserve may allow for more flexible strategy usage, an ability thought to be captured by executive functions tasks. Additionally, cognitive reserve allows individuals greater neural efficiency, greater neural capacity, and the ability for compensation via the recruitment of additional brain regions. Taking cognitive reserve into account may allow for earlier detection and better characterization of age-related cognitive changes and Alzheimer's disease. Importantly, cognitive reserve is not fixed but continues to evolve across the lifespan. Thus, even late-stage interventions hold promise to boost cognitive reserve and thus reduce the prevalence of Alzheimer's disease and other age-related problems.

  14. Branding water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolnicar, Sara; Hurlimann, Anna; Grün, Bettina

    2014-06-15

    Branding is a key strategy widely used in commercial marketing to make products more attractive to consumers. With the exception of bottled water, branding has largely not been adopted in the water context although public acceptance is critical to the implementation of water augmentation projects. Based on responses from 6247 study participants collected between 2009 and 2012, this study shows that (1) different kinds of water - specifically recycled water, desalinated water, tap water and rainwater from personal rainwater tanks - are each perceived very differently by the public, (2) external events out of the control of water managers, such as serious droughts or floods, had a minimal effect on people's perceptions of water, (3) perceptions of water were stable over time, and (4) certain water attributes are anticipated to be more effective to use in public communication campaigns aiming at increasing public acceptance for drinking purposes. The results from this study can be used by a diverse range of water stakeholders to increase public acceptance and adoption of water from alternative sources. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  15. Reproductive Rights are Human Rights

    OpenAIRE

    Jacqueline Pitanguy

    1999-01-01

    Jacqueline Pitanguy outlines the political context of the ICPD +5 process on the basis of her work in Brazil and internationally on reproductive rights. She argues that the women's movement has to continue to lobby hard to decrease the gap between what has been promised and the reality of most women's lives, particularly in the context of the cuts in state funding towards social and health services. Development (1999) 42, 11–14. doi:10.1057/palgrave.development.1110002

  16. Right to life, right to end of life: some considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitello, Lucia; Sansoni, Julita

    2012-01-01

    Human rights have undergone constant evolution. Recently, however, new generations of rights are developing: from political and civil rights to social and economic rights, so much so that this period may be defined as the age of human rights. Many differences exist between moral rules and judicial law. While moral rights are not necessarily recorded in statutory law, some judicial laws, which are capable of being imposed and/or appealed within a true territorial government, originate from moral rules. Common sense has reservations about whether human rights can be labelled as laws in a rudimentary way; instead, society places human rights in the category of moral rights. These moral rights, in fact, are not the fruit of compromise, but are absolute and essential to the inner self. Throughout this article, the evolution of end of life rights is discussed, with particular regard to how those rights are directly correlated to organ transplantation.

  17. Inconvenient Human Rights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Natasha

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Following an increase in Roma migration under the European “freedom of movement” laws, Swedish municipalities initiated more than 80 evictions of informal Roma settlements on the grounds of poor sanitation between 2013 and 2016. These evictions echo policies from earlier in the 20th century, when Roma living in Sweden were often marginalized through the denial of access to water and sanitation facilities. The recent Swedish evictions also follow similar government actions across Europe, where Roma settlements are controlled through the denial of access to water and sanitation. However, access to water and sanitation—central aspects of human health—are universal human rights that must be available to all people present in a jurisdiction, regardless of their legal status. The evictions described here violated Sweden’s obligations under both European and international human rights law. More positive government responses are required, such as providing shelters or camping sites, setting up temporary facilities, and directly engaging with communities to address water and sanitation issues. The authors conclude by providing guidance on how states and municipalities can meet their human rights obligations with respect to water and sanitation for vulnerable Roma individuals and informal settlements in their communities. PMID:29302163

  18. COGNITIVE RESERVE IN AGING

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Adrienne M.; Stern, Yaakov

    2011-01-01

    Cognitive reserve explains why those with higher IQ, education, occupational attainment, or participation in leisure activities evidence less severe clinical or cognitive changes in the presence of age-related or Alzheimer’s disease pathology. Specifically, the cognitive reserve hypothesis is that individual differences in how tasks are processed provide reserve against brain pathology. Cognitive reserve may allow for more flexible strategy usage, an ability thought to be captured by executive functions tasks. Additionally, cognitive reserve allows individuals greater neural efficiency, greater neural capacity, and the ability for compensation via the recruitment of additional brain regions. Taking cognitive reserve into account may allow for earlier detection and better characterization of age-related cognitive changes and Alzheimer’s disease. Importantly, cognitive reserve is not fixed but continues to evolve across the lifespan. Thus, even late-stage interventions hold promise to boost cognitive reserve and thus reduce the prevalence of Alzheimer’s disease and other age-related problems. PMID:21222591

  19. HYDROCARBONS RESERVES IN VENEZUELA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez Cruz, D.J.

    2007-07-01

    Venezuela is an important player in the energy world, because of its hydrocarbons reserves. The process for calculating oil and associated gas reserves is described bearing in mind that 90% of the gas reserves of Venezuela are associated to oil. Likewise, an analysis is made of the oil reserves figures from 1975 to 2003. Reference is also made to inconsistencies found by international experts and the explanations offered in this respect by the Ministry of Energy and Petroleum (MENPET) and Petroleos de Venezuela (PDVSA) regarding the changes that took place in the 1980s. In turn, Hubbert's Law is explained to determine peak production of conventional oil that a reservoir or field will reach, as well as its relationship with remaining reserves. Emphasis is placed on the interest of the United Nations on this topic. The reserves of associated gas are presented along with their relationship with the different crude oils that are produced and with injected gas, as well as with respect to the possible changes that would take place in the latter if oil reserves are revised. Some recommendations are submitted so that the MENPET starts preparing the pertinent policies ruling reserves. (auth)

  20. Ovarian reserve parameters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentzen, J G; Forman, Julie Lyng; Pinborg, Anja

    2012-01-01

    2-5 of the menstrual cycle or during withdrawal bleeding, blood sampling and transvaginal sonography was performed. After adjusting for age, ovarian reserve parameters were lower among users than among non-users of hormonal contraception: serum AMH concentration by 29.8% (95% CI 19.9 to 38...... was observed between duration of hormonal-contraception use and ovarian reserve parameters. No dose-response relation was found between the dose of ethinyloestradiol and AMH or AFC. This study indicates that ovarian reserve markers are lower in women using sex steroids for contraception. Thus, AMH...... concentration and AFC may not retain their accuracy as predictors of ovarian reserve in women using hormonal contraception. Serum anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) concentration is an indirect marker of the number of small follicles in the ovary and thereby the ovarian reserve. The AMH concentration is now widely...

  1. Escassez de recursos, custos dos direitos e reserva do possível na jurisprudência do STF Resource limitation, cost of rights and the 'under reserve of the possibilities' clause in the Brazilian Federal Supreme Court case-law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Wei Liang Wang

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo analisa os temas da escassez de recursos, custos dos direitos e cláusula de reserva do possível na jurisprudência do Supremo Tribunal Federal brasileiro. Por meio do estudo dessas decisões, procuro, primeiramente, descobrir em que tipo de matéria esses temas são comumente debatidos nos julgamentos do Supremo Tribunal Federal. Em um segundo momento, procuro entender a forma como o tribunal trata esses temas em sua jurisprudência e os critérios utilizados em suas análises. Por fim, busco examinar se a análise jurídica dos ministros leva em consideração preocupações relativas às conseqüências econômicas e distributivas das decisões. A pesquisa de acórdãos foi feita com base nestes três temas: direito à saúde, direito à educação e intervenção federal por não pagamento de precatórios. Em uma primeira fase, analiso o tratamento dado aos custos dos direitos, à reserva do possível e à escassez de recursos dentro de cada um desses temas. E, em um segundo momento, cruzo os resultados obtidos em cada tema para mostrar as diferenças de tratamento.This article presents an analysis the concepts of costs of rights, resource limitation and the "under reserve of the possibilities" clause are featured in the Brazilian Federal Supreme Court case-law. By analyzing Brazilian Supreme Court's decisions, my aim is to verify, firstly, in which subjects these themes appear more frequently. Secondly, I intend to assess how this court deals with the referred themes in its case law and what are the criteria applied. finally, I attempt to examine if the judges decision making process takes into consideration economic and distributive consequences. The survey on court decisions was based on three categories of legal discussions: right to health, right to education, and federal intervention for the non-payment of judicial debts. Initially, I examine the treatment received by the concepts of costs of rights, resource limitation

  2. Skyline Reservation System

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — Flight reservation application used for in-country flights by USAID and DoS staff in Afghanistan. The application is managed and maintained by the vendor and USAID...

  3. Cerebral correlates of cognitive reserve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whalley, Lawrence J; Staff, Roger T; Fox, Helen C; Murray, Alison D

    2016-01-30

    Cognitive reserve is a hypothetical concept introduced to explain discrepancies between severity of clinical dementia syndromes and the extent of dementia pathology. We examined cognitive reserve in a research programme that followed up a non-clinical sample born in 1921 or 1936 and IQ-tested age 11 years in 1932 or 1947. Structural MRI exams were acquired in about 50% of the sample from whom a subsample were recruited into an additional fMRI study. Here, we summarise findings from seven inter-related studies. These support an understanding of cognitive reserve as a balance between positive life course activity-driven experiences and the negative effects of brain pathologies including cerebrovascular disease and total and regional brain volume loss. Hypothesised structural equation models illustrate the relative causal effects of these positive and negative contributions. Cognitive reserve is considered in the context of choice of interventions to prevent dementia and the opposing effects of cerebrovascular disease and Alzheimer like brain appearances. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Handbook on loss reserving

    CERN Document Server

    Schmidt, Klaus; Schnaus, Anja

    2016-01-01

    This handbook presents the basic aspects of actuarial loss reserving. Besides the traditional methods, it also includes a description of more recent ones and a discussion of certain problems occurring in actuarial practice, like inflation, scarce data, large claims, slow loss development, the use of market statistics, the need for simulation techniques and the task of calculating best estimates and ranges of future losses. In property and casualty insurance the provisions for payment obligations from losses that have occurred but have not yet been settled usually constitute the largest item on the liabilities side of an insurer's balance sheet. For this reason, the determination and evaluation of these loss reserves is of considerable economic importance for every property and casualty insurer. Actuarial students, academics as well as practicing actuaries will benefit from this overview of the most important actuarial methods of loss reserving by developing an understanding of the underlying stochastic models...

  5. Lithium reserves and resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, R.K.

    1978-01-01

    As a result of accelerating research efforts in the fields of secondary batteries and thermonuclear power generation, concern has been expressed in certain quarters regarding the availability, in sufficient quantities, of lithium. As part of a recent study by the National Research Council on behalf of the Energy Research and Development Administration, a subpanel was formed to consider the outlook for lithium. Principal areas of concern were reserves, resources and the 'surplus' available for energy applications after allowing for the growth in current lithium applications. Reserves and resources were categorized into four classes ranging from fully proved reserves to resources which are probably dependent upon the marketing of co-products to become economically attractive. Because of the proprietary nature of data on beneficiation and processing recoveries, the tonnages of available lithium are expressed in terms of plant feed. However, highly conservative assumptions have been made concerning mining recoveries and these go a considerable way to accounting for total losses. Western World reserves and resources of all classes are estimated at 10.6 million tonnes Li of which 3.5 million tonnes Li are located in the United States. Current United States capacity, virtually equivalent to Western World capacity, is 4700 tonnes Li and production in 1976 approximated to 3500 tonnes Li. Production for current applications is expected to grow to approx. 10,000 tonnes in year 2000 and 13,000 tonnes a decade later. The massive excess of reserves and resources over that necessary to support conventional requirements has limited the amount of justifiable exploration expenditures; on the last occasion, there was a a major increase in demand (by the USAEA) reserves and capacity were increased rapidly. There are no foreseeable reasons why this shouldn't happen again when the need is clear. (author)

  6. Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... environment and your health: Green living Sun Water Health effects of water pollution How to protect yourself from water pollution Air ... can hurt your health. Learn more about the health effects of polluted water. You can also learn more ... Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Here are ...

  7. SUIKERBOSRAND NATURE RESERVE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Suikerbosrand Nature Reserve and fts educational facilities are run by the Transvaal. Division of. Nature Conservation. ... tion and the education facilities provided. The former are utilized mainly by the general public ... artist Paul Bosman (already reviewed in the EEASA newsletter). The co-founders of the Foundation are.

  8. Session 7: Reserve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bailey, R.; Crockford, G.

    2001-01-01

    The reserve session was devoted to some issues that came up through the workshop, which were grouped into three main areas: The Global Accelerator Network, Problems of stress and how to get organized to minimize them, What should an operations group be responsible for? This paper summarizes the discussions that took place. (author)

  9. School Shootings Stun Reservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borja, Rhea R.; Cavanagh, Sean

    2005-01-01

    This article deals with the impact brought by the school shootings at Red Lake Indian Reservation in Minnesota to the school community. A deeply troubled 16-year-old student shot and killed seven other people and himself at a high school. The nation's deadliest school attack since the 1999 slayings at Colorado's suburban Columbine High School took…

  10. SUIKERBOSRAND NATURE RESERVE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    reserve, the total length being 66 km with six overnight huts. There are also the BokmakiePie. Nature Troil. and the Cheetah Interpretive Troil. which can be used by day visitors. The former has two loops, one of 10 km and another of 17 km. The. Cheetah Troil. is much shorter and various points of interest are interpreted en ...

  11. 7 CFR 1780.8 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false [Reserved] 1780.8 Section 1780.8 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) WATER AND WASTE LOANS AND GRANTS General Policies and Requirements § 1780.8 [Reserved] ...

  12. 7 CFR 1779.79 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false [Reserved] 1779.79 Section 1779.79 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) WATER AND WASTE DISPOSAL PROGRAMS GUARANTEED LOANS § 1779.79 [Reserved] ...

  13. 7 CFR 1780.5 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false [Reserved] 1780.5 Section 1780.5 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) WATER AND WASTE LOANS AND GRANTS General Policies and Requirements § 1780.5 [Reserved] ...

  14. 7 CFR 1779.82 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false [Reserved] 1779.82 Section 1779.82 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) WATER AND WASTE DISPOSAL PROGRAMS GUARANTEED LOANS § 1779.82 [Reserved] ...

  15. 7 CFR 1779.74 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false [Reserved] 1779.74 Section 1779.74 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) WATER AND WASTE DISPOSAL PROGRAMS GUARANTEED LOANS § 1779.74 [Reserved] ...

  16. 7 CFR 1780.12 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false [Reserved] 1780.12 Section 1780.12 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) WATER AND WASTE LOANS AND GRANTS General Policies and Requirements § 1780.12 [Reserved] ...

  17. 7 CFR 1779.26 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false [Reserved] 1779.26 Section 1779.26 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) WATER AND WASTE DISPOSAL PROGRAMS GUARANTEED LOANS § 1779.26 [Reserved] ...

  18. The Strategic Petroleum Reserve

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-01-01

    The Strategic Petroleum Reserve program was set into motion by the 1975 Energy Policy and Conservation Act (EPCA). By 1990, 590 million barrels of oil had been placed in storage. Salt domes along the Gulf Coast offered ideal storage. Both sweet'' and sour'' crude oil have been acquired using various purchase options. Drawdown, sale, and distribution of the oil would proceed according to guidelines set by EPCA in the event of a severe energy supply disruption. (SM)

  19. [Hypertrophy and coronary reserve].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motz, W; Scheler, S

    2008-12-01

    Left ventricular hypertrophy represents the structural mechanism of adaptation of the left ventricle as the answer of a chronic pressure overload in arterial hypertension. Initially an increment in left ventricular wall thickness occurs. In this stadium of "concentric hypertrophy" LV systolic wall stress, LV ejection fraction and myocardial oxygen consumption per weight unit myocardium remain unchanged. In the further time course of disease LV dilatation will be present. In this phase of "excentric hypertrophy" LV systolic wall stress and myocardial oxygen consumption per weight unit myocardium rise and LV ejection fraction decreases. Patients with arterial hypertension frequently complain of angina pectoris. Angina pectoris and the positive exercise tolerance test or the positive myocardial scintigraphy are the consequence of the impaired coronary flow reserve. The coronary flow reserve is diminished due to structural and functional changes of the coronary circulation. ACE-inhibitors and AT1-receptor blockers cause a significant improvement of coronary flow reserve and regression of both left ventricular hypertrophy and myocardial fibrosis.

  20. Water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chovanec, A.; Grath, J.; Kralik, M.; Vogel, W.

    2002-01-01

    An up-date overview of the situation of the Austrian waters is given by analyzing the status of the water quality (groundwater, surface waters) and water protection measures. Maps containing information of nitrate and atrazine in groundwaters (analyses at monitoring stations), nitrate contents and biological water quality of running waters are included. Finally, pollutants (nitrate, orthophosphate, ammonium, nitrite, atrazine etc.) trends in annual mean values and median values for the whole country for the years 1992-1999 are presented in tables. Figs. 5. (nevyjel)

  1. FINAL REPORT WIND POWER WARM SPRINGS RESERVATION TRIBAL LANDS DOE GRANT NUMBER DE-FG36-07GO17077 SUBMITTED BY WARM SPRINGS POWER & WATER ENTERPRISES A CORPORATE ENTITY OF THE CONFEDERATED TRIBES OF WARM SPRINGS WARM SPRINGS, OREGON

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jim Manion; Michael Lofting; Wil Sando; Emily Leslie; Randy Goff

    2009-03-30

    Wind Generation Feasibility Warm Springs Power and Water Enterprises (WSPWE) is a corporate entity owned by the Confederated Tribes of the Warm Springs Reservation, located in central Oregon. The organization is responsible for managing electrical power generation facilities on tribal lands and, as part of its charter, has the responsibility to evaluate and develop renewable energy resources for the Confederated Tribes of Warm Springs. WSPWE recently completed a multi-year-year wind resource assessment of tribal lands, beginning with the installation of wind monitoring towers on the Mutton Mountains site in 2003, and collection of on-site wind data is ongoing. The study identified the Mutton Mountain site on the northeastern edge of the reservation as a site with sufficient wind resources to support a commercial power project estimated to generate over 226,000 MWh per year. Initial estimates indicate that the first phase of the project would be approximately 79.5 MW of installed capacity. This Phase 2 study expands and builds on the previously conducted Phase 1 Wind Resource Assessment, dated June 30, 2007. In order to fully assess the economic benefits that may accrue to the Tribes through wind energy development at Mutton Mountain, a planning-level opinion of probable cost was performed to define the costs associated with key design and construction aspects of the proposed project. This report defines the Mutton Mountain project costs and economics in sufficient detail to allow the Tribes to either build the project themselves or contract with a developer under the most favorable terms possible for the Tribes.

  2. Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Marion County, Indiana Salt Lake County, Utah Seattle-King County, Washington Tools and Training CLPPP CAP Healthy ... wish to use tap water for drinking or cooking, especially when the water has been off and ...

  3. Fractional Reserve Banking

    OpenAIRE

    Andreasen, Niels; Bjerregaard, Mads; Lund, Jonas; Olsen, Ove Bitsch; Rasmussen, Andreas Dalgas

    2012-01-01

    Projektet er bygget op omkring kritisk realisme, som er det gennemgående videnskabelige fundament til undersøgelsen af hvilke strukturelle grunde der er til finansiel ustabilitet i Danmark. Projektet går i dybden med Fractional Reserve Banking og incitamentsstrukturen i banksystemet. Vi bevæger os både på det makro- og mikroøkonomiske niveau i analysen. På makro niveau bruger vi den østrigske skole om konjunktur teori (The Positive Theory of the Cycle). På mikro niveau arbejder vi med princip...

  4. Ecological improvements to hydroelectric power plants under EEG. Guidance to environmental verifiers and water rights authorities; Oekologische Verbesserungsmassnahmen an Wasserkraftanlagen gemaess EEG. Leitfaden fuer Umweltgutachter und Wasserrechtsbehoerden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyr, Christoph; Pfeifer, Hansjoerg [EVIT GmbH Ingenieurbuero Unternehmensberatung, Muenchen (Germany); Schnell, Johannes; Hanfland, Sebastian [Landesfischereiverband Bayern e.V., Muenchen (Germany)

    2011-11-15

    The use of hydropower as a renewable form of energy is experiencing a renaissance due to the energy transition in Bavaria. The fishery evaluate not uncritically this development, because hydroelectric plants generally normally represent a considerable intervention in water and therefore in the habitat of the fish. In this case it should be noted that just often not even the minimum requirements of ecology are fulfilled at existing plants according to the Federal Water Act. [German] Die Nutzung der Wasserkraft als regenerative Energieform erlebt aufgrund der Energiewende in Bayern derzeit eine Art Renaissance. Die Fischerei bewertet diese Entwicklung nicht unkritisch, stellen Wasserkraftanlagen in der Regel doch einen erheblichen Eingriff in Gewaesser und somit den Lebensraum der Fische dar. Dabei ist festzustellen, dass gerade an bestehenden Anlagen haeufig nicht einmal die Mindestanforderungen der Oekologie erfuellt werden, wie sie das Wasserhaushaltsgesetz vorschreibt.

  5. Human rights and citizenship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojić-Mitrović Marta

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The phenomenon of universal human rights, as described in the Universal declaration of human rights in 1948 doesn’t seem to be able to exert itself as truly universal. For this, there are two reasons: one is politico-legal in nature, and the other is conceptual. From a politico-legal point of view, human rights are a practice which is perceived as law, a precedent which is still taking place, the illusion of law, a custom practice by a few which aims to become the law of all, practice/”law” which came into being as the consequence of specific historical and political circumstances but strives to impose itself as a kind of universal logos, independent from the geopolitical relations of power. From the conceptual point of view, human rights as they have been determined, are inextricably bound up with the concept of citizenship, but the nation-state is not the universally optimal polis/social order, through which a universal human whose rights are to be protected can be defined. Human rights, as they are defined, are too culturally and historically specific in order to become universal. As an example, I will give the different treatment received by persons of different citizenship in situations in which their lives are in peril. It turns out that human rights are less (or not at all protected if the persons in need aren’t perceived as fullfledged members of the group, and hence, cannot fully participate in political life. That is to say, people who are perceived as non-citizens or whose citizenship is perceived as less valuable, and especially those whose existence has been reduced to survival are being politically dehumanized. Human rights remain reserved for so-called active citizens, those who have influence over matters of public importance, which points us to the conclusion that the practice of protecting human rights is completely politicized. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 177027: Multietnicitet, multikulturalnost

  6. North Inlet-Winyah Bay National Estuarine Research Reserve’s (NERR) Estuarine Surface Water Nutrient, Suspended Sediment, and Chlorophyll a Data for the North Inlet and Winyah Bay Estuaries, Georgetown, South Carolina: 2002-2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    Baruch Institute for Marine and Coastal Sciences, Univ of South Carolina — National Estuarine Research Reserve System The National Estuarine Research Reserve System was established by the Coastal Zone Management Act of 1972 (as amended) and...

  7. Are uranium reserves adequate?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2006-01-01

    Against a backdrop of growing concerns about global warming and geopolitical pressures on fossil energies, especially natural gas and oil, interest in nuclear power has revived considerably. Conscious of its addiction to oil and reeling from a series of gigantic blackouts, the United States, in the words of its president, must 'aggressively move forward with the construction of nuclear power plants'. Some European countries have approved new power plant construction (Finland and France), while the more reserved ones (Belgium, Germany and Sweden) have begun to show a change in attitude. Asia, meanwhile, is host to the planet's largest number of potential nuclear construction projects in this first half of the 21. century. All these signs point to a sharp rise in uranium consumption, the basic fuel for these plants. But are there enough resources to support a nuclear revival on a planetary scale? The publication of the Red Book on uranium in late May 2006 was an opportunity for Thierry Dujardin, Deputy Director of Science and Development at the OECD's Nuclear Energy Agency, to take stock of resources. He gives his opinion in this paper

  8. Science serving people. IAEA-supported projects are helping countries apply the right tools to fight food, health, and water problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    A new booklet 'Science Serving People' features stories about how IAEA-supported projects are making a difference in many poorer countries. The stories describe applications of nuclear science and technology that are being used through technical cooperation channels to overcome challenges of water scarcity, food shortage, malnutrition, malaria, environmental degradation and many other problems. They also illustrate how the complementary development, safety, and security initiatives of the IAEA are fostering atoms for peace in the developing world. Extreme poverty and deprivation remain a problem of monumental proportions at the dawn of the 21st century, notes IAEA Director General Mohamed ElBaradei in the booklet's Introduction. Through effective partnerships, collaborative research, and strategic direction, the IAEA is contributing to global efforts to help the poor. IAEA programmes have entered an important phase, he said, in which scientific contributions to Member States are yielding very sizeable human benefits. It's clear that science and technology must be better mobilized to meet the needs of the poor, emphasizes Jeffrey Sachs, Director of the Earth Institute at Columbia University, USA, and Special Advisor to UN Secretary-General Kofi Annan. The UN agencies, such as the IAEA, have a great role to play, he says in the booklet's Foreword. This is especially so, he points out, if they act as a bridge between the activities of advanced- country and developing country scientific centres, and if they help to harness the advances of world science for the poor as well as the rich. The bottom line, he concludes, is that rich countries should expand support for those United Nations organizations that can help in solving the unique problems confronting the world's poorest peoples. The booklet features stories on managing water resources, promoting food security, focusing science on health problems, new tools for environmental management, and strengthening nuclear

  9. Climate Change, Human Rights, and Social Justice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Barry S; Patz, Jonathan A

    2015-01-01

    The environmental and health consequences of climate change, which disproportionately affect low-income countries and poor people in high-income countries, profoundly affect human rights and social justice. Environmental consequences include increased temperature, excess precipitation in some areas and droughts in others, extreme weather events, and increased sea level. These consequences adversely affect agricultural production, access to safe water, and worker productivity, and, by inundating land or making land uninhabitable and uncultivatable, will force many people to become environmental refugees. Adverse health effects caused by climate change include heat-related disorders, vector-borne diseases, foodborne and waterborne diseases, respiratory and allergic disorders, malnutrition, collective violence, and mental health problems. These environmental and health consequences threaten civil and political rights and economic, social, and cultural rights, including rights to life, access to safe food and water, health, security, shelter, and culture. On a national or local level, those people who are most vulnerable to the adverse environmental and health consequences of climate change include poor people, members of minority groups, women, children, older people, people with chronic diseases and disabilities, those residing in areas with a high prevalence of climate-related diseases, and workers exposed to extreme heat or increased weather variability. On a global level, there is much inequity, with low-income countries, which produce the least greenhouse gases (GHGs), being more adversely affected by climate change than high-income countries, which produce substantially higher amounts of GHGs yet are less immediately affected. In addition, low-income countries have far less capability to adapt to climate change than high-income countries. Adaptation and mitigation measures to address climate change needed to protect human society must also be planned to protect

  10. A review of selected inorganic surface water quality-monitoring practices: are we really measuring what we think, and if so, are we doing it right?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horowitz, Arthur J.

    2013-01-01

    Successful environmental/water quality-monitoring programs usually require a balance between analytical capabilities, the collection and preservation of representative samples, and available financial/personnel resources. Due to current economic conditions, monitoring programs are under increasing pressure to do more with less. Hence, a review of current sampling and analytical methodologies, and some of the underlying assumptions that form the bases for these programs seems appropriate, to see if they are achieving their intended objectives within acceptable error limits and/or measurement uncertainty, in a cost-effective manner. That evaluation appears to indicate that several common sampling/processing/analytical procedures (e.g., dip (point) samples/measurements, nitrogen determinations, total recoverable analytical procedures) are generating biased or nonrepresentative data, and that some of the underlying assumptions relative to current programs, such as calendar-based sampling and stationarity are no longer defensible. The extensive use of statistical models as well as surrogates (e.g., turbidity) also needs to be re-examined because the hydrologic interrelationships that support their use tend to be dynamic rather than static. As a result, a number of monitoring programs may need redesigning, some sampling and analytical procedures may need to be updated, and model/surrogate interrelationships may require recalibration.

  11. The Ecological Reserve: Towards a common understanding for river ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2006-07-03

    Jul 3, 2006 ... tem, not only water (Box 1). The importance of the way that the resource has been redefined lies in the recognition that the water in rivers provides benefits to people without ever leaving the water course. The Reserve allocation therefore gives effect to the definition of the Reserve (Box 1) through its role of ...

  12. Positive rights, negative rights and health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Andrew

    2010-12-01

    In the current debate about healthcare reform in the USA, advocates for government-ensured universal coverage assume that health care is a right. Although this position is politically popular, it is sometimes challenged by a restricted view of rights popular with libertarians and individualists. The restricted view of rights only accepts 'negative' rights as legitimate rights. Negative rights, the argument goes, place no obligations on you to provide goods to other people and thus respect your right to keep the fruits of your labour. A classic enumeration of negative rights includes life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness. Positive rights, by contrast, obligate you either to provide goods to others, or pay taxes that are used for redistributive purposes. Health care falls into the category of positive rights since its provision by the government requires taxation and therefore redistribution. Therefore, the libertarian or individualist might argue that health care cannot be a true right. This paper rejects the distinction between positive and negative rights. In fact, the protection of both positive and negative rights can place obligations on others. Furthermore, because of its role in helping protect equality of opportunity, health care can be tied to the rights to life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness. There is, therefore, good reason to believe that health care is a human right and that universal access should be guaranteed. The practical application, by governments and non-governmental organisations, of several of the arguments presented in this paper is also discussed.

  13. Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Sanmuga Priya

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Phytoremediation through aquatic macrophytes treatment system (AMATS for the removal of pollutants and contaminants from various natural sources is a well established environmental protection technique. Water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes, a worst invasive aquatic weed has been utilised for various research activities over the last few decades. The biosorption capacity of the water hyacinth in minimising various contaminants present in the industrial wastewater is well studied. The present review quotes the literatures related to the biosorption capacity of the water hyacinth in reducing the concentration of dyestuffs, heavy metals and minimising certain other physiochemical parameters like TSS (total suspended solids, TDS (total dissolved solids, COD (chemical oxygen demand and BOD (biological oxygen demand in textile wastewater. Sorption kinetics through various models, factors influencing the biosorption capacity, and role of physical and chemical modifications in the water hyacinth are also discussed.

  14. Implementation of Fisheries Enhancement Opportunities on the Coeur d'Alene Reservation; Coeur d'Alene Tribe Fish, Water, and Wildlife Program, Progress Report 1996-1998.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vitale, Angelo; Bailey, Dee; Peters, Ron

    2003-06-01

    As part of an ongoing project to restore fisheries resources in tributaries located on the Coeur d'Alene Indian Reservation, this report details the activities of the Coeur d'Alene Tribe's Fisheries Program for FY 1997 and 1998. This report (1) analyses the effect introduced species and water quality have on the abundance of native trout in Coeur d'Alene Lake and selected target tributaries; (2) details results from an ongoing mark-recapture study on predatory game fish; (3) characterizes spawning habitats in target tributaries and evaluates the effects of fine sediment on substrate composition and estimated emergence success; and (4) provides population estimates for westslope cutthroat trout in target tributaries. Low dissolved oxygen values in the hypolimnion of Coeur d'Alene Lake continue to be a cause for concern with regard to available fisheries habitat. Four sample sites in 1997 and eight sample sites in 1998 had measured levels of dissolved oxygen below what is considered optimum (6.0 mg/L) for cutthroat trout. As well, two sample points located north of the Coeur d'Alene River showed hypolimnetic dissolved oxygen deficits. This could lead to a more serious problem associated with the high concentration of heavy metals bound up in the sediment north of the Coeur d'Alene River. Most likely these oxygen deficits are a result of allochthonous input of organic matter and subsequent decomposition. Sediment loading from tributaries continues to be a problem in the lake. The build up of sediments at the mouths of all incoming tributaries results in the modification of existing wetlands and provides ideal habitat for predators of cutthroat trout, such as northern pike and largemouth bass. Furthermore, increased sediment deposition provides additional substrate for colonization by aquatic macrophytes, which serve as forage and habitat for other non-native species. There was no significant difference in the relative abundance of

  15. Communication rights: Fundamental human rights for all.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLeod, Sharynne

    2018-02-01

    The right to communicate includes the right to "freedom of opinion and expression" and rights and freedoms "without distinction of … language". The 70th anniversary of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights is a time to celebrate and reflect on communication as a human right, particularly with respect to Article 19 and its relationship to national and international conventions, declarations, policies and practices. This review profiles articles from the special issue of International Journal of Speech-Language Pathology (volume 20, issue 1) addressing communication rights from four perspectives: (1) communication rights of all people; (2) communication rights of people with communication disabilities; (3) communication rights of children and (4) communication rights relating to language. Divergent perspectives from across the globe are considered. First-hand accounts of people whose right to communicate is compromised/upheld are included and perspectives are provided from people with expertise and advocacy roles in speech-language pathology, audiology, linguistics, education, media, literature and law, including members of the International Communication Project. Three steps are outlined to support communication rights: acknowledge people - adjust the communication style - take time to listen. Future advocacy for communication rights could be informed by replicating processes used to generate the Yogyakarta Principles.

  16. Summary of technical testimony in the Colorado Water Division 1 Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nancy (Tech. Coord.) Gordon

    1995-01-01

    The Colorado Water Division 1 Water Rights Trial was one of the most significant federal reserved instream flow water rights cases to occur since the Supreme Court of the United States ruled in the case of United States v. New Mexico in 1978. This document summarize the large amount of technical data and information pertaining to the disciplines of geomorphology,...

  17. 18 CFR 4.91 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 4.91 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE FEDERAL POWER ACT LICENSES, PERMITS, EXEMPTIONS, AND DETERMINATION OF PROJECT COSTS Exemption of Small Conduit Hydroelectric Facilities § 4.91 [Reserved] ...

  18. Towards sustainable water management in Algeria

    KAUST Repository

    Drouiche, Nadjib

    2012-12-01

    Algeria aspires to protect its water resources and to provide a sustainable answer to water supply and management issues by carrying out a national water plan. This program is in line with all projects the Algerian Government is implementing to improve its water sector performance. The water strategy focuses on desalination for the coastal cities, medium-sized dams to irrigate the inland mountains and high plateau, and ambitious water transfer projects interconnecting Algeria\\'s 65 dams to bring water to water scarce parts of the country. Waste water treatment and water reclamation technologies are also highly sought after. The main objective of the country\\'s water policy consists on providing sufficient potable water for the population supply. This objective is undertaken by increasing the water resources and availability. © 2012 Desalination Publications. All rights reserved.

  19. Environmental status of the Hanford Reservation for CY-1974

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fix, J.J.

    1975-09-01

    Environmental data collected at the Hanford Reservation during 1974 showed continued compliance of Hanford operations with all applicable State and Federal regulations. Data are presented on levels of radioactivity in samples of surface air, drinking water, Columbia River water and other surface waters, soil, and tissues of wild animals and water fowl collected at various locations

  20. Right heart ventriculography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angiography - right heart ... The catheter will be moved forward into the right side of the heart. As the catheter is advanced, the doctor can record pressures from the right atrium and right ventricle. Contrast material ("dye") is ...

  1. 12 CFR 269b.310 - Appeal rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Appeal rights. 269b.310 Section 269b.310 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM CHARGES OF UNFAIR LABOR PRACTICES Appeal from the Center's Determination § 269b.310 Appeal rights. Where...

  2. 25 CFR 135.23 - Refusal of water delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Refusal of water delivery. 135.23 Section 135.23 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FINANCIAL ACTIVITIES CONSTRUCTION ASSESSMENTS, CROW... District § 135.23 Refusal of water delivery. The right is reserved to refuse the delivery of water to any...

  3. Fractional Reserve in Banking System

    OpenAIRE

    Valkonen, Maria

    2016-01-01

    This thesis is aimed to provide understanding of the role of the fractional reserve in the mod-ern banking system worldwide and particularly in Finland. The fractional reserve banking is used worldwide, but the benefits of this system are very disputable. On the one hand, experts say that the fractional reserve is a necessary instrument for the normal business and profit making. On the other hand, sceptics openly criticize the fractional reserve system and blame it for fiat money (money n...

  4. 38 CFR 36.4362 - Rights and restrictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Rights and restrictions... Rights and restrictions. (a) Declarant's rights and restrictions—(1) Disclosure and reasonableness of reserved rights. Any right reserved by the declarant must be reasonable and set forth in the declaration...

  5. Eating right during pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prenatal care - eating right ... is hard work for a woman's body. Eating right is one of the best things you can ... a well-rounded diet with all of the right nutrients and getting at least 30 minutes of ...

  6. Your Health Information Rights

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to Protect Your Health Information Your Health Information Rights The Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of ... Rights . Protect Patients’ Health Information and Their Privacy Rights The US Dept. of Health and Human Services ...

  7. Localizing human rights

    OpenAIRE

    Feyter, De, Koen

    2007-01-01

    International human rights lawyers tend to focus on establishing the universality of human rights rather than on improving the usefulness of human rights in addressing local problems. This paper draws attention to the need to make human rights more locally relevant, particularly in a context of economic globalisation. Human rights can be made more locally relevant by interpreting existing global norms in the light of needs identified by community organisations, and by developing human rights ...

  8. North Inlet-Winyah Bay National Estuarine Research Reserve's (NERR) Estuarine Surface Water Nutrient, Suspended Sediment, and Chlorophyll a Data for the North Inlet and Winyah Bay Estuaries, Georgetown, South Carolina: 1993-2001

    Data.gov (United States)

    Baruch Institute for Marine and Coastal Sciences, Univ of South Carolina — A one 1000 ml (one Liter) water sample was collected every 20 days at 2 hour and 4 minute intervals for 2 complete tidal cycles (26 hours) with an ISCO automated...

  9. Nuclear, uranium, reserves, sustainability, independence; Nucleaire, Uranium, reserves, durabilite, independance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Acket, C

    2007-06-15

    In order to evaluate the energy independence concerning the nuclear energy, the author takes the state of the art about the uranium. He details the fuel needs, the reserves on the base of the today available techniques, the reserves on the base of the future techniques and concludes positively on the energy independence for the nuclear. (A.L.B.)

  10. Cognitive reserve and appraisal in multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Carolyn E; Snook, Erin; Quaranto, Brian; Benedict, Ralph H B; Rapkin, Bruce D; Vollmer, Timothy

    2013-01-01

    Cognitive appraisal processes underlying self-report affect the interpretation of patient-reported outcomes. These processes are relevant to resilience and adaptability, and may relate to how cognitive reserve protects against disability in multiple sclerosis (MS). To describe how passive and active indicators of cognitive reserve relate to QOL appraisal processes in MS. Cross-sectional data (n=860) were drawn from the North American Research Committee on MS (NARCOMS) Registry, from whom additional survey data were collected. Cognitive reserve was measured using the Stern and Sole-Padulles measures. Using the quality of life appraisal profile (QOLAP), we assessed how MS patients conceptualize their experiences and how that impacts how they report their quality of life. Multivariate analysis of variance was used to compare groups within sets of appraisal parameters, and t-tests or chi-square tests were used to compare mean item responses within appraisal parameters for continuous or dichotomous variables, respectively. People high in passive or active reserve report different conceptualizations of QOL, different types of goals, and considering different types of experiences and standards of comparison in responding to QOL questionnaires, as compared to low-reserve individuals. Although item response patterns were slightly different between passive and active indicators, they generally reflect a tendency in high-reserve individuals to emphasize the positive, focus on aspects of their life that are more controllable, and less based in fantasy. MS patients high in cognitive reserve differ in their cognitive appraisals from their low reserve counterparts. These appraisal metrics may predict disease course and other important clinical outcomes in MS patients. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. 49 CFR 1106.6 - Reservation of Jurisdiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Reservation of Jurisdiction. 1106.6 Section 1106.6 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) SURFACE TRANSPORTATION BOARD, DEPARTMENT... § 1106.6 Reservation of Jurisdiction. The Board reserves the right to require a SIP in cases other than...

  12. Marine ecology: reserves do have a key role in fisheries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Callum

    2012-06-05

    A new study of the Great Barrier Reef proves a 100-year old conjecture correct: marine reserves do replenish populations in surrounding fishing grounds, while modern reserve networking theory is validated by exchange of offspring of animals among protected areas. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Double Outlet Right Ventricle

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Right Ventricle Menu Topics Topics FAQs Double Outlet Right Ventricle Double outlet right ventricle (DORV) is a rare form of congenital heart disease. Article Info En español Double outlet right ventricle (DORV) is a rare form of congenital ...

  14. The construction of rights

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dowding, Keith; Hees, Martin van

    The paper examines the sense in which rights can be said to exist. We examine various approaches to the definition and analysis of rights, focusing in particular on the compossibility of rights. Concentrating on three existing approaches to rights-social choice-theoretic, game-theoretic, and

  15. The Forgotten Property Rights

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markussen, Thomas; Tarp, Finn; Van Den Broeck, Katleen

    Studies of land property rights usually focus on tenure security and transfer rights. Rights to determine how to use the land are regularly ignored. However, in transition economies such as Vietnam and China, user rights are often limited. Relying on a unique Vietnamese panel data set at both...

  16. Human Rights, History of

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Baets, Antoon; Wright, James

    2015-01-01

    In this article, six basic debates about human rights are clarified from a historical perspective: the origin of human rights as moral rights connected to the natural law doctrine and opposed to positive rights; the wave of criticism of their abstract and absolute character by nineteenth-century

  17. Rights, goals, and capabilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hees, M.V.B.P.M

    This article analyses the relationship between rights and capabilities in order to get a better grasp of the kind of consequentialism that the capability theory represents. Capability rights have been defined as rights that have a capability as their object (rights to capabilities). Such a

  18. Intervention and Human Rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Arthur J.

    1988-01-01

    Defends the right of nations to criticize human rights violations within other nations. Pointing out that the human rights protections cannot be left to domestic jurisdiction, Goldberg cites numerous treaties and declarations which make human rights protection a matter of international law. (GEA)

  19. Right colon cancer: Left behind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gervaz, P; Usel, M; Rapiti, E; Chappuis, P; Neyroud-Kaspar, I; Bouchardy, C

    2016-09-01

    Prognosis of colon cancer (CC) has steadily improved during the past three decades. This trend, however, may vary according to proximal (right) or distal (left) tumor location. We studied if improvement in survival was greater for left than for right CC. We included all CC recorded at the Geneva population-based registry between 1980 and 2006. We compared patients, tumor and treatment characteristics between left and right CC by logistic regression and compared CC specific survival by Cox models taking into account putative confounders. We also compared changes in survival between CC location in early and late years of observation. Among the 3396 CC patients, 1334 (39%) had right-sided and 2062 (61%) left-sided tumors. In the early 1980s, 5-year specific survival was identical for right and left CCs (49% vs. 48%). During the study period, a dramatic improvement in survival was observed for patients with left-sided cancers (Hazard ratio [HR]: 0.42, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.29-0.62, p colon cancer patients, those with right-sided lesions have by far the worse prognosis. Change of strategic management in this subgroup is warranted. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Youth Problems on Indian Reservations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Underhill, Ruth M., Ed.

    Juvenile delinquency was identified as the major problem affecting youth on Indian reservations. Causes for delinquency which were discussed included culture conflict, expectation of failure, unemployment, failure of homes and parents, discrimination, inadequate education, off-reservation schools, and alcoholism. Needs identified by tribal leaders…

  1. Can Creativity Predict Cognitive Reserve?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmiero, Massimiliano; Di Giacomo, Dina; Passafiume, Domenico

    2016-01-01

    Cognitive reserve relies on the ability to effectively cope with aging and brain damage by using alternate processes to approach tasks when standard approaches are no longer available. In this study, the issue if creativity can predict cognitive reserve has been explored. Forty participants (mean age: 61 years) filled out: the Cognitive Reserve…

  2. [Right lung cancer with right aortic arch].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawaguchi, Yasuo; Noriyuki, T; Kuroda, Y; Kuranishi, F; Nakahara, M; Fukuda, T; Ishizaki, Y; Hotta, R; Akimoto, E; Mori, H

    2008-02-01

    An abnormal shadow was detected on chest X-ray mass screening in an asymptomatic 63-year-old man. The further examinations revealed the shadow to be primary lung cancer (Rt. S6. adenocarcinoma, cT2N0M0, c-stage IB) with right aortic arch. We used 3 dimentional-computed tomography (3D-CT) to assess an anatomical feature of vessels in detail. The right lower lobectomy and the dissection of medi astinal lymph nodes was performed. We confirmed no abnormal anatomy of pulmonary artery and vein at surgery, and it was possible to perform right lower lobectomy with the common procedure. Since lymph node was found by intraopetrative pathological examination, since no metastasis from interlobar to subcarinal lymph node was found, we did not perform dissection of upper mediastinal dissection, which was equivalent to ND2a lymph nodes dissection of the left lung cancer in General Rule for Clinical and Pathological Record of Lung Cancer. The patient with right aortic arch is known to have variant anatomy of other intrathoracic vessels occasionally. 3D-CT was quite useful in assessing anatomical feature, and enabled us to perform safe operation.

  3. [Elective abortions, a right to defend].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaccabri, Annie

    2015-12-01

    Every year in France, almost 210 000 women request a termination of an unwanted pregnancy. Two thirds of them were however using a form of contraception, hence the importance, for caregivers, of encouraging women to find the method which works best for them. The right to abortion is the fruit of a long fight for a woman's right to control her own body. It is a right which must be protected. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Time resolved analysis of water drainage in porous asphalt concrete using neutron radiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulikakos, L D; Sedighi Gilani, M; Derome, D; Jerjen, I; Vontobel, P

    2013-07-01

    Porous asphalt as a road surface layer controls aquaplaning as rain water can drain through its highly porous structure. The process of water drainage through this permeable layer is studied using neutron radiography. Time-resolved water configuration and distribution within the porous structure are reported. It is shown that radiography depicts the process of liquid water transport within the complex geometry of porous asphalt, capturing water films, filled dead end pores and water islands. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. 78 FR 70542 - Reserve Forces Policy Board (RFPB); Notice of Federal Advisory Committee Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-26

    ... identification of Defense Support of Civilian Authorities requirements. The Subcommittee on Personnel plans to..., issues impacting reserve organizations, the right balance of Active and Reserve Component forces, and...

  6. The right data for the right decision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chockie, A.D.; Olson, J.L.; Thurber, J.A.

    1988-01-01

    This paper identifies and discusses a number of issues associated with the development and use of performance indicators for commercial nuclear power plants. The paper reviews the objectives of various users of performance indicators and addresses the problem of applying the right performance indicators to the needs of these users. The analysis concludes with a brief discussion of how the different user objectives of performance indicators can lead to conflicts over the definition and implementation of performance indicator systems

  7. Estimating Foreign Exchange Reserve Adequacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Hakim

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Accumulating foreign exchange reserves, despite their cost and their impacts on other macroeconomics variables, provides some benefits. This paper models such foreign exchange reserves. To measure the adequacy of foreign exchange reserves for import, it uses total reserves-to-import ratio (TRM. The chosen independent variables are gross domestic product growth, exchange rates, opportunity cost, and a dummy variable separating the pre and post 1997 Asian financial crisis. To estimate the risky TRM value, this paper uses conditional Value-at-Risk (VaR, with the help of Glosten-Jagannathan-Runkle (GJR model to estimate the conditional volatility. The results suggest that all independent variables significantly influence TRM. They also suggest that the short and long run volatilities are evident, with the additional evidence of asymmetric effects of negative and positive past shocks. The VaR, which are calculated assuming both normal and t distributions, provide similar results, namely violations in 2005 and 2008.

  8. Cognitive Reserve Scale and ageing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene León

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The construct of cognitive reserve attempts to explain why some individuals with brain impairment, and some people during normal ageing, can solve cognitive tasks better than expected. This study aimed to estimate cognitive reserve in a healthy sample of people aged 65 years and over, with special attention to its influence on cognitive performance. For this purpose, it used the Cognitive Reserve Scale (CRS and a neuropsychological battery that included tests of attention and memory. The results revealed that women obtained higher total CRS raw scores than men. Moreover, the CRS predicted the learning curve, short-term and long-term memory, but not attentional and working memory performance. Thus, the CRS offers a new proxy of cognitive reserve based on cognitively stimulating activities performed by healthy elderly people. Following an active lifestyle throughout life was associated with better intellectual performance and positive effects on relevant aspects of quality of life.

  9. Teaching Human Rights Law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berman, Howard R.

    1985-01-01

    The international community has developed a system of human rights law relevant to many areas of legal encounter, which American law schools have been slow to incorporate into curricula. Teaching human rights law provides an opportunity for law schools to enrich the learning process and contribute creatively to the respect for rights in society.…

  10. Special Section: Human Rights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frydenlund, Knut; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Eleven articles examine human rights in Europe. Topics include unemployment, human rights legislation, role of the Council of Europe in promoting human rights, labor unions, migrant workers, human dignity in industralized societies, and international violence. Journal available from Council of Europe, Directorate of Press and Information, 67006…

  11. Colonial Voting Rights

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Besselink, L.F.M.

    2008-01-01

    This case note discusses recent cases on voting rights for the European Parliament in Gibraltar and the Dutch Carribean countries, as well as the case of (lack of) voting rights for Carribean Dutch citizens for the national parliament in the European Court of Human Rights. It highlights the manner

  12. Fractional Reserve Banking: Some Quibbles

    OpenAIRE

    Bagus, Philipp; Howden, David

    2010-01-01

    We explore several unaddressed issues in George Selgin’s (1988) claim that the best monetary system to maintain monetary equilibrium is a fractional reserve free banking one. The claim that adverse clearing balances would limit credit expansion in a fractional reserve free banking system is more troublesome than previously reckoned. Both lengthened clearing periods and interbank agreements render credit expansion unrestrained. “The theory of free banking” confuses increases in money held with...

  13. Reserve Retirement Equality: Treating Reserves Fairly While Saving Taxpayer Dollars

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-09

    rata .121 For example, a Reserve who performs the equivalent of five years of active duty, will receive one-fourth the retired pay of his active duty...4,225 per month.124 But because reserve-retirement benefits are based on pro rata years of service, this officer’s years of service for retirement...purposes are 3,146 retirement points divided by 360.125 This results in 8.74 years pro rata years of service.126 His retirement benefits thus are

  14. Parasite infection rates of impala (Aepyceros melampus) in fenced game reserves in relation to reserve characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezenwa, V.O.

    2004-01-01

    Under certain conditions reserves can pose a threat to wildlife conservation by increasing the transmission of parasites and pathogens. In this study, I investigated associations between reserve characteristics including area, density and species richness and parasite infection rates in impala (Aepyceros melampus). Using coprological methods to measure gastrointestinal parasitism rates of impala inhabiting five fully or partially fenced game reserves in central Kenya, I found that bovid species richness was correlated with parasite taxa richness across reserves, and that prevalence rates of multi-host strongyle nematodes were higher in reserves with more species. In addition, reserve size was also implicated as a potential predictor of infection risk. Overall, these results suggest that wildlife inhabiting highly diverse and small reserves may suffer from higher than normal rates of infection. Given the potential debilitating effects increases in parasitism can have on wildlife, these results underscore the importance of considering parasite transmission dynamics in the management of small, fenced protected areas. ?? 2003 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. RIGHT TO EXTIMACY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iuri Bolesina

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available From the constitutionalization of law and through the contributions of the phenomenology-hermeneutics, this paper aims a legal study about a possibility right to extimacy. Thus, the free development of the personality is approached. Next, it is studied the idea of extimacy, from the author Serge Tisseron. Then, the three assumptions of the right to extimacy are worked. Lastly, it is suggested the legal construction of the right to extimacy. It is concluded that, in general terms, the extimacy is the socially active and enjoyed life of the intimacy, which has no specific protection. It is understood that the right to extimacy has nature of fundamental right of the personality, implicit and attached to the right to intimacy and to the right of free speech, which protects immediately the existential good of the extimacy and mediately the development of the personal identity.

  16. Demand as frequency controlled reserve

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Z.; Togeby, M.; OEstergaard, J.

    2008-09-15

    Using demand as frequency controlled reserve (DFR) is an emerging technology which allow demand to participate actively in maintaining the system operation without reducing the energy service delivered to the customer and without need of user interaction. The basic premise is that traditional frequency controlled reserves from power plants and interconnections with neighbouring systems can be costly, slow and not fulfil the need for future power grids with a high share of wind power and fewer central power plants, and an intention to perform flexible operation such as is landing. Electricity demands, on the other hand, have advantages as frequency reserve including fast activation speed, smooth linear activation, low expected costs, and well-dispersed in the distribution grid. The main challenge of DFR is new methods for monitoring the available capacity. This project has investigated the technology of using electricity demands for providing frequency reserve to power systems. Within the project the potential and economy of DFR compatible loads in Denmark has been investigated, control logic has been designed, power system impact has been investigated, potential business models has been evaluated and an implementation strategy has been suggested. The tasks and goals of the project have been successfully accomplished based on which the conclusion and future recommendation are made. This project has developed the DFR technology that enables electricity demands to autonomously disconnect or reconnect to the grid in response to system frequency variations. The developed DFR technology is proved to be a promising technology from several perspectives. Technically, using DFR is feasible to provide reserves and enhance power system frequency control, while fulfilling technical requirements such as linear activation (or reconnection) according to frequency (or time). Environmentally, the DFR technology is pollution free in contrast to traditional reserves from generation

  17. The right and development: the nuclear right

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coimbra, Guilhermina Lavos.

    1986-02-01

    The author analyses some juridical instruments signed among Brazil and his commercial partners in the nuclear field: the way as it has been reflected and it has modeled the Brazilian Nuclear Program - BNP. It is very much important a Nuclear Law/Bill of the Nuclear Rights directed to the uranium and the BNP defense. It is compared the Brazilian petroleum situation, before 1952, with the present uranium situation. It is purposed a Constitutional disposal, protecting the uranium and all the other nuclear strategic minerals state monopoly, to be inserted in the next Brazilian Constitution and the URANIOBRAS creation, similar to PETROBRAS. (author). 163 refs

  18. Improved Effectiveness of Reserve Forces During Reserve Duty Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treadaway, Harry H.

    The problem areas of motivation, job enrichment, recruiting, and retention are addressed from the viewpoint of the behavioral scientist. Special attention is given to relating job enrichment and motivation techniques, as successfully demonstrated in industry, to the United State Army Reserve. Research method utilized was a literature review…

  19. Spinning Reserve From Responsive Loads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirby, B.J.

    2003-04-08

    Responsive load is the most underutilized reliability resource available to the power system today. It is currently not used at all to provide spinning reserve. Historically there were good reasons for this, but recent technological advances in communications and controls have provided new capabilities and eliminated many of the old obstacles. North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC), Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC), Northeast Power Coordinating Council (NPCC), New York State Reliability Council (NYSRC), and New York Independent System Operator (NYISO) rules are beginning to recognize these changes and are starting to encourage responsive load provision of reliability services. The Carrier ComfortChoice responsive thermostats provide an example of these technological advances. This is a technology aimed at reducing summer peak demand through central control of residential and small commercial air-conditioning loads. It is being utilized by Long Island Power Authority (LIPA), Consolidated Edison (ConEd), Southern California Edison (SCE), and San Diego Gas and Electric (SDG&E). The technology is capable of delivering even greater response in the faster spinning reserve time frame (while still providing peak reduction). Analysis of demand reduction testing results from LIPA during the summer of 2002 provides evidence to back up this claim. It also demonstrates that loads are different from generators and that the conventional wisdom, which advocates for starting with large loads as better ancillary service providers, is flawed. The tempting approach of incrementally adapting ancillary service requirements, which were established when generators were the only available resources, will not work. While it is easier for most generators to provide replacement power and non-spinning reserve (the slower response services) than it is to supply spinning reserve (the fastest service), the opposite is true for many loads. Also, there is more financial

  20. Extractive reserves in Brazilian Amazonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fearnside, P.M (National Institute for Research in the Amazon, Manaus-Amazonas (Brazil))

    1989-06-01

    In 1985 an opportunity arose for maintaining tracts of Amazonian forest under sustainable use. Brazil's National Council of Rubber Tappers and the Rural Worker's Union proposed the creation of a set of reserves of a new type, called extractive reserves. The first six are being established in one of the Brazilian states most threatened by deforestatation. The creation of extractive reserves grants legal protection to forest land traditionally used by rubber tappers, Brazil-nut gatherers, and other extractivists. The term extrativismo (extractivism) in Brazil refers to removing nontimber forest products, such as latex, resins, and nuts, without felling the trees. Approximately 30 products are collected for commercial sale. Many more types of forest materials are gathered, for example as food and medicines, for the extractivists' own use. The reserve proposal is attractive for several reasons related to social problems. It allows the rubber tappers to continue their livelihood rather than be expelled by deforestation. However, it is unlikely that sufficient land will be set aside as extractive reserves to employ all the tappers. Displaced rubber tappers already swell the ranks of urban slum dwellers in Brazil's Amazonian cities, and they have become refugees to continue their profession in the forests of neighboring countries, such as Bolivia.

  1. Health Rights and Realization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rushton, Simon

    2016-01-01

    In their hypothesis published in IJHPM, Lisa Forman and colleagues examined the prominence of the right to health and sexual and reproductive health rights (as well as related language) in four of the key reports that fed into the process of negotiating the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). Now that the SDGs have been formally adopted, this comment builds on some of the insights of Forman and colleagues to examine the extent to which those rights have been incorporated in SDGs 3 and 5. I argue that sexual and reproductive health rights are relatively well-covered within the SDGs. In terms of the right to health, however, the picture is much less clear. Some of the elements that make up that right are present and correct, but the SDGs have delivered no coherent vision of how a ‘right to health’ might actually be realized. An important task facing global health and human rights advocates is to continue pushing human rights framings so that progress is made both on meeting the SDGs and on realizing the right to health. PMID:27239886

  2. THE RESALE RIGHT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana-Maria MARINESCU

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses one of the most important rights of the authors of original works of art namely: the resale right. It will be analyzed the subject matter of the resale right, the works of art to which the resale right relates, the rates applicable to the resale right, the persons entitled to receive royalties, the term of protection of the resale right, third-country nationals entitled to receive royalties and the right to obtain information. Also, the article will refer to the EU Directive in the field: Directive 2001/84/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 27 September 2001 on the resale right for the benefit of the author of an original work of art. It will be the subject of the article, also, the European Court of Justice jurisprudence related to the resale right, for example the judgment in the case C-518/08 (VEGAP vs. ADAGP, underlying that, in the light of the objectives pursued by Directive 2001/84, Member States may make their own legislative choice in determining the categories of persons capable of benefiting from the resale right after the death of the author of a work of art. One of parts of the article, will analyses the collective management for the resale right, especially: the terms of the collective management, forms of the collective management and examples. For all the above mentioned reasons, the article will refer to the main aspects of the resale right in a comprehensive manner and will analyses in a scientifically manner this very important right of the authors of original works of art.

  3. Unquenched thirst: the need for a constitutionally recognized right to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal of Sustainable Development Law and Policy (The) ... As demonstrated in South Africa, the codification of the right to water in its constitution has improved access to adequate water, sparked government concern and ... Is constitutional recognition of the right to water an adequate alternative to privatization of water?

  4. Moisture movement in soils on the Hanford Reservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brownell, L.E.; Isaacson, R.E.; Sloughter, J.P.; Veatch, M.D.

    1971-01-01

    Methods being studied are as follows: the thermodynamic method based on water potential and thermocouple psychrometers; the tracer method using atmospheric tritium; the annual water balance based on the annual heat balance; the field lysimeter using thermocouple psychrometers; the influence of soil breathing as a result of changes in barometric pressure; and the influence of soil stratification. Progress to date has involved the installation of thermocouple psychrometers from the surface to the water table 310 feet below. These instruments are in the process of equilibration. Isothermal methods of analyzing water potential must be extended to include nonisothermal conditions which are dominant at the Hanford Reservation. Tracer techniques using tritium analyses of soil samples have successfully demonstrated that archaic water exists in virgin soil at the Hanford Reservation from a depth of approximately 7 meters to the water table, indicating that percolation has been limited to lesser depths. The annual heat balance indicates that quantities of water many times greater than the annual average precipitation of 16 centimeters can be evaporated from the soils at the Hanford Reservation during a normal summer. This indicates that the critical precipitation (P/sub c/) value may be greater than 30 to 50 centimeters of water. More precise values of the Bowen's ratio for the Hanford Reservation are required to refine this computation. The field lysimeter is perhaps the most direct method of determining the critical precipitation values for the Hanford Reservation but as yet has not been used

  5. Hydrocarbon Reserves: Abundance or Scarcity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    IFP and the OAPEC jointly organize a regular international seminar dealing with world oil-related problems appearing in the news. For the first time, this seminar has been opened to oil and gas company specialists, service companies, research centers and independents. This year's theme concerns oil and gas reserves: are they abundant or are we headed towards the shortages announced by some experts? This theme is especially topical in that: oil and gas currently meet two thirds of world energy needs and almost completely dominate the transport sector; the reserves declared by the OAPEC countries account for nearly half of world reserves; the price of a barrel of oil went through the roof in 2004; world energy demand is growing fast and alternative sources of energy are far from ready to take over from oil and gas in the next few decades. Since the reserves correspond to the volume it is technically and economically viable to produce, the seminar has, of course, dealt with the technical and economic questions that arise in connection with exploration and production, but it has also considered changes in the geopolitical context. Presentations by the leading companies of the OAPEC countries and by the IFP group were completed by presentation from the International Energy Agency (IEA), the United States Geological Survey (USGS), the IHS Energy Group, Total and Gaz de France. This document gathers the transparencies of the following presentations: Hydrocarbon reserves in OAPEC members countries: current and future (M. Al-Lababidi); Non OAPEC liquid reserves and production forecasts (Y. Mathieu); World oil and gas resources and production outlook (K. Chew); Global investments in the upstream (F. Birol); Total's policy in the oil and gas sector (C. de Margerie); Gaz de France's policy in the oil and gas sector (J. Abiteboul); NOC/IOC's opportunities in OPEC countries (I. Sandrea); Relationships between companies, countries and investors: How they may impact on the growth

  6. Hydrocarbon Reserves: Abundance or Scarcity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    IFP and the OAPEC jointly organize a regular international seminar dealing with world oil-related problems appearing in the news. For the first time, this seminar has been opened to oil and gas company specialists, service companies, research centers and independents. This year's theme concerns oil and gas reserves: are they abundant or are we headed towards the shortages announced by some experts? This theme is especially topical in that: oil and gas currently meet two thirds of world energy needs and almost completely dominate the transport sector; the reserves declared by the OAPEC countries account for nearly half of world reserves; the price of a barrel of oil went through the roof in 2004; world energy demand is growing fast and alternative sources of energy are far from ready to take over from oil and gas in the next few decades. Since the reserves correspond to the volume it is technically and economically viable to produce, the seminar has, of course, dealt with the technical and economic questions that arise in connection with exploration and production, but it has also considered changes in the geopolitical context. Presentations by the leading companies of the OAPEC countries and by the IFP group were completed by presentation from the International Energy Agency (IEA), the United States Geological Survey (USGS), the IHS Energy Group, Total and Gaz de France. This document gathers the transparencies of the following presentations: Hydrocarbon reserves in OAPEC members countries: current and future (M. Al-Lababidi); Non OAPEC liquid reserves and production forecasts (Y. Mathieu); World oil and gas resources and production outlook (K. Chew); Global investments in the upstream (F. Birol); Total's policy in the oil and gas sector (C. de Margerie); Gaz de France's policy in the oil and gas sector (J. Abiteboul); NOC/IOC's opportunities in OPEC countries (I. Sandrea); Relationships between companies, countries and investors: How they may

  7. Demand as Frequency Controlled Reserve

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Zhao; Østergaard, Jacob; Togeby, Mikael

    2011-01-01

    Relying on generation side alone is deemed insufficient to fulfill the system balancing needs for future Danish power system, where a 50% wind penetration is outlined by the government for year 2025. This paper investigates using the electricity demand as frequency controlled reserve (DFR) as a new...... balancing measure, which has a high potential and can provide many advantages. Firstly, the background of the research is reviewed, including conventional power system reserves and the electricity demand side potentials. Subsequently, the control logics and corresponding design considerations for the DFR...

  8. Are human rights universal?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zurbuchen, Simone

    2010-12-01

    It is often held that the universality of human rights can best be defended on the basis of the idea of an "overlapping consensus". This paper contends that some of the most prominent philosophical human rights conceptions that have recently been proposed ("basis-driven" conceptions) cannot be reconciled with this idea. It is however possible to sketch an alternative strategy for defending the universality of human rights.

  9. Rights Under Pressure

    OpenAIRE

    O Cinneide, C. P.

    2017-01-01

    Human rights law faces a crisis of legitimacy, both in the UK and across much of the wider democratic world. A drumbeat of media criticism focusing on the alleged incompatibility of human rights norms with both ‘common sense’ and the principle of democratic self-government has grown louder, while sceptical voices can increasingly be heard in academia and elsewhere questioning whether the legal protection of human rights has ‘gone too far’. In response, rights enthusiasts have clung to old ver...

  10. The Forgotten Property Rights

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markussen, Thomas; Tarp, Finn; Van Den Broeck, Katleen

    2011-01-01

    Studies of land property rights usually focus on tenure security and transfer rights. Rights to determine how to use the land are regularly ignored. However, user rights are often limited. Relying on a unique Vietnamese panel data set at both household and plot levels, we show that crop choice...... restrictions are widespread and prevent crop diversification. Restrictions do not decrease household income, but restricted households work harder, and there are indications that they are supplied with higher quality inputs. Our findings are consistent with the view that it is possible to intervene effectively...

  11. Nature of Human Rights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos López Dawson

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In the formation of a new Constitution the constituents will require to know or reach an agreement on the nature of human rights; then, to determine how the State will enforce the respect to those rights. To do so, it is necessary to resort to the history and evolution of these rights, and the present work aims to contribute to an efficient productive debate about the nature of human rights, so that citizens can decide on the understanding that this is a thoughtful democratic and humanistic founded decision. The analysis is in the actual technical-ideological republican system which correspond to the current state of international law

  12. Rights of Identity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Kofman

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A person’s identity is their sense of who and what they are, of who stands in significant relations to them, and of what is valuable to them. This is inevitably very broad, an immediate implication of which is that the concept of identity taken alone cannot do significant normative work. In some cases a person’s identity is bound up with the evil that they do or wish to do, and cannot thereby give them any right to do it. In other cases very powerful elements of a person’s identity – such as their attachment to loved ones – is certainly related to important rights, but it is not entirely clear that one needs the concept of identity to explicate or justify these rights; the deep involvement of their identity is arguably a byproduct of other important values in these cases (such as love, and those values can do the grounding work of the rights by themselves and more simply and clearly. Nevertheless, when suitably qualified, a person’s identity is central to accounting for important political rights. These ranges from rights to participate in cultural practices of one’s group, which sometimes implies duties on governments to support minorities threatened with extinction, to – at the outer limit – rights to arrange political administration. These rights are connected to both autonomy and fairness. Cultural rights are often taken either to be opposed to autonomy, or at best instrumental to personal autonomy (by providing ‘options’, but in fact, the ideal of autonomy, expressed by Mill as being the author of one’s life, requires that one be in control of significant aspects of one’s identity. Significant aspects of one’s identity are collectively determined within a culture. Cultures are not static, and their development is particularly affected by political boundaries. A fundamental right of autonomy implies, therefore, that groups be allowed, within reasonable constraints of general feasibility and stability, to arrange

  13. 77 FR 40253 - Reserve Account

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-09

    .... The commentators represented Rural Development employees who work with the Multi-Family Housing Direct... their annual over-inflated tax bills and assessments. As a result, rent income funding that could be..., as rents cannot be raised to an amount that will cover all current and future reserve expenses...

  14. Demand as Frequency Controlled Reserve

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Zhao; Togeby, Mikael; Østergaard, Jacob

    This report summaries the research outcomes of the project ‘Demand as Frequency Controlled Reserve (DFR)’, which has received the support from Energinet.dk’s PSO program, Grant no. 2005-2-6380. The objective of this project is to investigate the technology of using electricity demands for providing...

  15. Race, Rights and Rebels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Suárez-Krabbe, Julia

    An analysis of the evolution of the overlapping histories of human rights and development, and an exploration of the alternatives, through the lens of indigenous and other southern theories and epistemologies......An analysis of the evolution of the overlapping histories of human rights and development, and an exploration of the alternatives, through the lens of indigenous and other southern theories and epistemologies...

  16. The right to life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr.Sc. Stavri Sinjari

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The right to life constitutes one of the main human rights and freedoms, foreseen by article 21 of the Albanian Constitution and article 2 of European Human Rights Convention. No democratic or totalitarian society can function without guarantees and protection of the human right to life We intend to address these issues on our article: What is life. What we legally understand with life. When the life starts and finish. How this right has evolved. Which is the state interest on protecting the life. Should we consider that the life is the same for all. Should the state interfere at any cost to protect the life. Is there any criminal charge for responsible persons to the violation of this right. Is this issue treated by European Human Rights Court. What are the Albanian legal provisions on protection of this right. This research is performed mainly according to a comparative and analytical methodology. Comperative analysis will be present almost throughout the paper. Treatment of issues of this research will be achieved through a system comparable with international standards in particular and the most advanced legislation in this area. At the same time, this research is conducted by analytical and statistical data processing. We believe that our research will make a modest contribution, not only to the legal literature, but also to criminal policy makers, law makers, lawyers and attorneys.

  17. Human Rights in Prisons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jefferson, Andrew M.; Gaborit, Liv Stoltze

    Drawing on participatory action research conducted in Sierra Leone, Kosovo and the Philippines, Human Rights in Prisons analyses encounters between rights-based non-governmental organisations and prisons. It explores the previously under-researched perspectives of prison staff and prisoners...

  18. A Human Rights Glossary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flowers, Nancy

    1998-01-01

    Presents a human rights glossary that includes definitions of basic terms, treaties, charters, and groups/organizations that have been featured in previous articles in this edition of "Update on Law-Related Education"; the human rights terms have been compiled as part of the celebration of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights…

  19. CIVIL RIGHTS AND MINORITIES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    HARTMAN, PAUL

    A MAJOR INTENT OF THE CONSTITUTION AND ITS AMENDMENTS, TO GUARANTEE EQUAL RIGHTS TO ALL CITIZENS REGARDLESS OF RACE, CREED, OR COLOR, HAS BEEN REINFORCED BY THE CIVIL RIGHTS STATUTES OF MANY STATES. IN SOME STATES SUCH LAWS HAVE BEEN ON RECORD FOR THREE-QUARTERS OF A CENTURY. IN OTHER STATES THE SAME CONSTITUTIONAL INTENT HAS BEEN DENIED BY…

  20. Trade Union Rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maier, Heribert; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Excerpts addresses from an international symposium regarding workers' education, human rights, labor standards and law, socioeconomic factors, trade unions, workers' rights, professionalism, and globalization. Includes a background paper, "Participation of Workers and Their Organizations in the Field of International Labour Standards and the…

  1. Urbanization and human rights

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mihr, A.

    Urban governance on the basis of human rights can help to set up problem solving mechanisms to guarantee social peace, economic growth and political participation.If states both integrate more in international or regional human rights regime and give more autonomy to urban governments and local

  2. Denialism and Human Rights

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moerland, Roland; Nelen, Hans; Willems, Jan CM

    2016-01-01

    The safeguarding of human rights remains highly problematic, despite the proliferation of human rights instruments and the many actions taken by a variety of actors, such as governmental and non-governmental organizations, (individual) states and the international community over the past decades.

  3. The Right to Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varvara Coman

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, we set ourselves to analyze a subject, which, due to its importance andextreme complexity, generated many discussions and controversies both at national and international level:the right to life. The great evolution of the contemporary society and the progress registered in various fieldsbrought into the attention of the states, international organizations, specialists in the field and public opinionthe pressing problem of interpreting the content and limits of the human fundamental rights and liberties. Weset ourselves to analyze the main international instruments regulating the right to life and to identify thesituations where determining the content of this fundamental right in necessary. Without the intent of acomplete work, we understand, throughout this study, to highline the great importance of the right to liferespecting for the entire humanity.

  4. Bioethics and "Rightness".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Arthur W

    2017-03-01

    If bioethics seeks to affect what people do and don't do as they respond to the practical issues that confront them, then it is useful to take seriously people's sense of rightness. Rightness emerges from the fabric of a life-including the economy of its geography, the events of its times, its popular culture-to be what the sociologist Pierre Bourdieu calls a predisposition. It is the product of a way of life and presupposes continuing to live that way. Rightness is local and communal, holding in relationship those who share the same predisposing sense of how to experience. Rightness is an embodied way of evaluating what is known to matter and choosing among possible responses. Bioethics spends considerable time on what people should do and on the arguments that support recommended actions. It might spend more time on what shapes people's sense of the rightness of what they feel called to do. © 2017 The Hastings Center.

  5. Autonomy and minority rights

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barten, Ulrike

    2008-01-01

    in the cultural, educational, religious and social sectors which have of course are exercised in a limited territory; however, do not threaten the state's sovereignty in the same way as independent political decisions could do. How far minority rights have the same dimensions, will be another issue. Minorities......'? I will look at this in connection with minority rights, as minority rights accord special rights and procedures to a specific group. For example, minorities have sometimes far reaching competences in the educational field: setting up and running their own schools and to a certain degree also decide......, are they at odds with each other or do they possibly overlap? This last possibility would be that minority rights are so extensive that they actually amount to autonomy. Autonomy has a range of dimensions and one must distinguish between political autonomy which is largely territorial in nature and autonomy...

  6. 75 FR 65613 - National Estuarine Research Reserve System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-26

    ... reserve; and the plans for future land acquisition and facility development to support reserve operations... decision makers; and added significant monitoring of emergent marsh vegetation, invasive species, water... headquarters building with a 4500 square foot structure to support research, stewardship, and the coastal...

  7. The Ecological Reserve: Towards a common understanding for river ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The legal requirement for an Ecological Reserve established in South Africa\\'s water law is commonly regarded by stakeholders as being in direct competition with the needs of humans. This has resulted in much debate and varying interpretations of the meaning and purpose of the Ecological Reserve. However, the ...

  8. 25 CFR 151.11 - Off-reservation acquisitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Off-reservation acquisitions. 151.11 Section 151.11 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER LAND ACQUISITIONS § 151.11 Off-reservation acquisitions. The Secretary shall consider the following requirements in evaluating tribal...

  9. 7 CFR 1779.31-1779.32 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false [Reserved] 1779.31-1779.32 Section 1779.31-1779.32 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) WATER AND WASTE DISPOSAL PROGRAMS GUARANTEED LOANS §§ 1779.31-1779.32 [Reserved] ...

  10. 7 CFR 1779.91-1779.93 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false [Reserved] 1779.91-1779.93 Section 1779.91-1779.93 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) WATER AND WASTE DISPOSAL PROGRAMS GUARANTEED LOANS §§ 1779.91-1779.93 [Reserved] ...

  11. 7 CFR 1779.35-1779.36 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false [Reserved] 1779.35-1779.36 Section 1779.35-1779.36 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) WATER AND WASTE DISPOSAL PROGRAMS GUARANTEED LOANS §§ 1779.35-1779.36 [Reserved] ...

  12. 7 CFR 1779.66-1779.68 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false [Reserved] 1779.66-1779.68 Section 1779.66-1779.68 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) WATER AND WASTE DISPOSAL PROGRAMS GUARANTEED LOANS §§ 1779.66-1779.68 [Reserved] ...

  13. 7 CFR 1779.60-1779.62 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false [Reserved] 1779.60-1779.62 Section 1779.60-1779.62 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) WATER AND WASTE DISPOSAL PROGRAMS GUARANTEED LOANS §§ 1779.60-1779.62 [Reserved] ...

  14. 7 CFR 1779.18-1779.19 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false [Reserved] 1779.18-1779.19 Section 1779.18-1779.19 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) WATER AND WASTE DISPOSAL PROGRAMS GUARANTEED LOANS §§ 1779.18-1779.19 [Reserved] ...

  15. 7 CFR 1779.14-1779.16 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false [Reserved] 1779.14-1779.16 Section 1779.14-1779.16 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) WATER AND WASTE DISPOSAL PROGRAMS GUARANTEED LOANS §§ 1779.14-1779.16 [Reserved] ...

  16. 7 CFR 1779.21-1779.23 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false [Reserved] 1779.21-1779.23 Section 1779.21-1779.23 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) WATER AND WASTE DISPOSAL PROGRAMS GUARANTEED LOANS §§ 1779.21-1779.23 [Reserved] ...

  17. 7 CFR 1779.49-1779.51 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false [Reserved] 1779.49-1779.51 Section 1779.49-1779.51 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) WATER AND WASTE DISPOSAL PROGRAMS GUARANTEED LOANS §§ 1779.49-1779.51 [Reserved] ...

  18. 7 CFR 1779.70-1779.72 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false [Reserved] 1779.70-1779.72 Section 1779.70-1779.72 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) WATER AND WASTE DISPOSAL PROGRAMS GUARANTEED LOANS §§ 1779.70-1779.72 [Reserved] ...

  19. 7 CFR 1779.76-1779.77 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false [Reserved] 1779.76-1779.77 Section 1779.76-1779.77 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) WATER AND WASTE DISPOSAL PROGRAMS GUARANTEED LOANS §§ 1779.76-1779.77 [Reserved] ...

  20. 7 CFR 1779.44-1779.46 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false [Reserved] 1779.44-1779.46 Section 1779.44-1779.46 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) WATER AND WASTE DISPOSAL PROGRAMS GUARANTEED LOANS §§ 1779.44-1779.46 [Reserved] ...

  1. 7 CFR 1779.86-1779.87 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false [Reserved] 1779.86-1779.87 Section 1779.86-1779.87 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) WATER AND WASTE DISPOSAL PROGRAMS GUARANTEED LOANS §§ 1779.86-1779.87 [Reserved] ...

  2. 7 CFR 1779.38-1779.41 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false [Reserved] 1779.38-1779.41 Section 1779.38-1779.41 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) WATER AND WASTE DISPOSAL PROGRAMS GUARANTEED LOANS §§ 1779.38-1779.41 [Reserved] ...

  3. 7 CFR 1779.97-1779.99 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false [Reserved] 1779.97-1779.99 Section 1779.97-1779.99 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) WATER AND WASTE DISPOSAL PROGRAMS GUARANTEED LOANS §§ 1779.97-1779.99 [Reserved] ...

  4. 7 CFR 1779.10-1779.11 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false [Reserved] 1779.10-1779.11 Section 1779.10-1779.11 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) WATER AND WASTE DISPOSAL PROGRAMS GUARANTEED LOANS §§ 1779.10-1779.11 [Reserved] ...

  5. 7 CFR 1779.5-1779.7 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false [Reserved] 1779.5-1779.7 Section 1779.5-1779.7 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) WATER AND WASTE DISPOSAL PROGRAMS GUARANTEED LOANS §§ 1779.5-1779.7 [Reserved] ...

  6. 7 CFR 1779.54-1779.58 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false [Reserved] 1779.54-1779.58 Section 1779.54-1779.58 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) WATER AND WASTE DISPOSAL PROGRAMS GUARANTEED LOANS §§ 1779.54-1779.58 [Reserved] ...

  7. Optimal allocation of physical water resources integrated with virtual water trade in water scarce regions: A case study for Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Quanliang; Li, Yi; Zhuo, La; Zhang, Wenlong; Xiong, Wei; Wang, Chao; Wang, Peifang

    2018-02-01

    of urban and environment, and the unbalance between water supply and demand could be filled by virtual water import in water scarce regions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Hydrologic conditions and water-quality conditions following underground coal mining in the North Fork of the Right Fork of Miller Creek drainage basin, Carbon and Emery Counties, Utah, 2004-2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkowske, C.D.; Cillessen, J.L.; Brinton, P.N.

    2007-01-01

    In 2004 and 2005, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Bureau of Land Management, reassessed the hydrologic system in and around the drainage basin of the North Fork of the Right Fork (NFRF) of Miller Creek, in Carbon and Emery Counties, Utah. The reassessment occurred 13 years after cessation of underground coal mining that was performed beneath private land at shallow depths (30 to 880 feet) beneath the NFRF of Miller Creek. This study is a follow-up to a previous USGS study of the effects of underground coal mining on the hydrologic system in the area from 1988 to 1992. The previous study concluded that mining related subsidence had impacted the hydrologic system through the loss of streamflow over reaches of the perennial portion of the stream, and through a significant increase in dissolved solids in the stream. The previous study also reported that no substantial differences in spring-water quality resulted from longwall mining, and that no clear relationship between mining subsidence and spring discharge existed.During the summers of 2004 and 2005, the USGS measured discharge and collected water-quality samples from springs and surface water at various locations in the NFRF of Miller Creek drainage basin, and maintained a streamflow-gaging station in the NFRF of Miller Creek. This study also utilized data collected by Cyprus–Plateau Mining Corporation from 1992 through 2001.Of thirteen monitored springs, five have discharge levels that have not returned to those observed prior to August 1988, which is when longwall coal mining began beneath the NFRF of Miller Creek. Discharge at two of these five springs appears to fluctuate with wet and dry cycles and is currently low due to a drought that occurred from 1999–2004. Discharge at two other of the five springs did not increase with increased precipitation during the mid-1990s, as was observed at other monitored springs. This suggests that flowpaths to these springs may have been altered by

  9. Uranium reserves and exploration activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meehan, R.J.

    1975-01-01

    The strategy that ERDA plans to employ regarding resource appraisal is outlined. All types of uranium occurrences will be evaluated as sources of domestic ore reserves. Industry's exploration efforts will be compiled. These data will include information on land acquisition and costs, footage drilled and costs, estimates of exploration activities and expenditures, exploration for non-sandstone deposits, exploration in non-established areas, and foreign exploration plans and costs. Typical data in each of these areas are given

  10. Gas reserves, discoveries and production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saniere, A.

    2006-01-01

    Between 2000 and 2004, new discoveries, located mostly in the Asia/Pacific region, permitted a 71% produced reserve replacement rate. The Middle East and the offshore sector represent a growing proportion of world gas production Non-conventional gas resources are substantial but are not exploited to any significant extent, except in the United States, where they account for 30% of U.S. gas production. (author)

  11. Demand Response Spinning Reserve Demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eto, Joseph H.; Nelson-Hoffman, Janine; Torres, Carlos; Hirth,Scott; Yinger, Bob; Kueck, John; Kirby, Brendan; Bernier, Clark; Wright,Roger; Barat, A.; Watson, David S.

    2007-05-01

    The Demand Response Spinning Reserve project is a pioneeringdemonstration of how existing utility load-management assets can providean important electricity system reliability resource known as spinningreserve. Using aggregated demand-side resources to provide spinningreserve will give grid operators at the California Independent SystemOperator (CAISO) and Southern California Edison (SCE) a powerful, newtool to improve system reliability, prevent rolling blackouts, and lowersystem operating costs.

  12. Indian Reserves: Canada's Developing Nations

    OpenAIRE

    Musto, Richard J.

    1990-01-01

    Indian reserves are the most visible reminder of the separation of aboriginal people from the rest of Canada and other Canadians. Illness patterns and social conditions in Native communities closely parallel those in developing nations. While they continue to have a large burden of infectious diseases, these groups also have an increased incidence of chronic and lifestyle diseases as well as environment-related conditions. Similarities can be seen in urban areas between immigrants from abroad...

  13. Deuteronomy and Human Rights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Braulik

    1998-08-01

    Full Text Available If one compares the articles of the "Universal Declaration of Human Rights" dated December 10th, 1948, with the regulations of the book of Deuteronomy, one detects a surprising abundance of correspondences, or at least of similar tendencies, between them. As the social theorists of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, the architects of the catalogue of Human Rights, knew the Scripture very well. References to Deuteronomy are historically well probable and factually hardly coincidental. Deuteronomy rightly boasts about its social laws (4:8 that are unique in the Ancient Near East. The paper orientates itself to the short formula of Human Rights and at the same time to the normative basic character of each human right, as it is formulated in the first article of the declaration: "liberty", "equality", "fraternity". Each of these basic categories are concretised in terms of several Deuteronomic regulations and prove themselves to be central matters of concern within the YHWH religion. Finally, it is outlined how the connection between Deuteronomy and modem expressions of human rights might be explained, and further it is shown what actually makes up the peculiarity of biblical thinking on human rights.

  14. 25 CFR 135.6 - Refusal of water delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Refusal of water delivery. 135.6 Section 135.6 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FINANCIAL ACTIVITIES CONSTRUCTION ASSESSMENTS, CROW... delivery. The right is reserved to the United States to refuse the delivery of water to each of the said...

  15. Gentrification and Occupancy Rights

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huber, Jakob; Wolkenstein, Gregor Fabio

    2018-01-01

    What, if anything, is wrong with gentrification? This paper addresses this question from the perspective of normative political theory. We argue that gentrification is a wrong insofar as it involves a violation of city-dwellers occupancy rights. We distinguish these rights from other forms...... of territorial rights, and discuss the different implications of the argument for urban governance. If we agree on the ultimate importance of being able to pursue one’s located life-plans, the argument goes, we must also agree on limiting the impact on gentrification on people’s lives. Limiting gentrification...

  16. Colonial Voting Rights

    OpenAIRE

    Besselink, L.F.M.

    2008-01-01

    This case note discusses recent cases on voting rights for the European Parliament in Gibraltar and the Dutch Carribean countries, as well as the case of (lack of) voting rights for Carribean Dutch citizens for the national parliament in the European Court of Human Rights. It highlights the manner in which the ECJ and ECtHR are at odds on the same issue (but in different context), and how this context is determined by the way these courts wish to conceive of constitutional relations between E...

  17. Water Resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abira, M.A.

    1997-01-01

    Water is essential for life and ecological sustenance; its availability is essential component of national welfare and productivity.The country's socio-economic activities are largely dependent on the natural endowment of water resources. Kenya's water resources comprises of surface waters (rivers, lakes and wetlands) and ground water. Surface water forms 86% of total water resources while the rest is ground water Geological, topographical and climatic factors influence the natural availability and distribution of water with the rainfall distribution having the major influence. Water resources in Kenya are continuously under threat of depletion and quality degradation owing to rising population, industrialization, changing land use and settlement activities as well as natural changes. However, the anticipated climate change is likely to exacerbate the situation resulting in increased conflict over water use rights in particular, and, natural resource utilisation in general. The impacts of climate change on the water resources would lead to other impacts on environmental and socio-economic systems

  18. Nearly Nice Right Triangles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Bob

    1989-01-01

    Relationships among the sides are developed for right triangles whose sides are in the ratios 1:3, 1:4, and 1:5. The golden ratio appears in the results which can be used in secondary mathematics. (DC)

  19. Right Whale Critical Habitat

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data represent the critical habitat for Right Whale as designated by Federal Register Vol. 59, No. 28805, May 19, 1993, Rules and Regulations.

  20. Extraterritorial Human Rights Obligations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amsinck Boie, Hans Nikolaj; Torp, Kristian

    The book addresses the issue of corporate respect for human rights by examining if and how states are obligated to ensure that corporations originating from their jurisdiction respect human rights when they operate abroad. The existence of such a duty is much debated by academics at national...... and international level, and in an attempt to bring something new to the table, the book examines both if states have extraterritorial obligations in regard to their corporations and what can be required of states under such an obligation. The complex issue of states and corporate respect for human rights cannot...... adequately be addressed without including the approach to the problem taken in practice; Corporate Social Responsibility, CSR. The book therefore draws upon the concept of CSR and the approaches developed here and discusses whether states may utilize the CSR-based concept of human rights due diligence...

  1. Data Rights and Responsibilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyndham, Jessica M.

    2015-01-01

    A human-rights-based analysis can be a useful tool for the scientific community and policy makers as they develop codes of conduct, harmonized standards, and national policies for data sharing. The human rights framework provides a shared set of values and norms across borders, defines rights and responsibilities of various actors involved in data sharing, addresses the potential harms as well as the benefits of data sharing, and offers a framework for balancing competing values. The right to enjoy the benefits of scientific progress and its applications offers a particularly helpful lens through which to view data as both a tool of scientific inquiry to which access is vital and as a product of science from which everyone should benefit. PMID:26297755

  2. Extraterritorial Human Rights Obligations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amsinck Boie, Hans Nikolaj; Torp, Kristian

    adequately be addressed without including the approach to the problem taken in practice; Corporate Social Responsibility, CSR. The book therefore draws upon the concept of CSR and the approaches developed here and discusses whether states may utilize the CSR-based concept of human rights due diligence...... and international level, and in an attempt to bring something new to the table, the book examines both if states have extraterritorial obligations in regard to their corporations and what can be required of states under such an obligation. The complex issue of states and corporate respect for human rights cannot......The book addresses the issue of corporate respect for human rights by examining if and how states are obligated to ensure that corporations originating from their jurisdiction respect human rights when they operate abroad. The existence of such a duty is much debated by academics at national...

  3. Urbanization and human rights

    OpenAIRE

    Mihr, A.

    2010-01-01

    Urban governance on the basis of human rights can help to set up problem solving mechanisms to guarantee social peace, economic growth and political participation.If states both integrate more in international or regional human rights regime and give more autonomy to urban governments and local authorities, many of these issues of urbanization can be solved. Where people organize themselves on local levels and in neighborhood initiatives, new forms of governance mechanisms evolve. These mecha...

  4. rights reserved Assessment of Heavy Metal Contents of End-Of-Life ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    2018-03-18

    Mar 18, 2018 ... of end-of-life computing equipment with the attendant challenge of environmentally sound management, especially in developing countries. This study ... replacement of CRT with newer and advanced technologies such as liquid ... polyethylene package and kept for analysis. For the. CRT glass, 10 g each ...

  5. All rights reserved www.ajol.infoand www.bioline.org.br/ja Impact of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    *Corresponding author E-mail:eferoland@yahoo.com; ruwadiae@unilag.edu.ng. JASEM ISSN 1119-8362 ... A total of 7626 individuals of the organism comprising 2,371juveniles, 3586 immature adults and 2,034of spawning adults were collected from the study area. Highest ..... thereby implicating temperature as a major.

  6. All rights reserved www.ajol.info and www.bioline.org.br/ja Drought ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    and from the Sahara desert in the north to the. Savannas of the south (Tarhule et al., 2002). Past drought occurrence over this region affects agricultural activities, thus brought crop failure ... by about 60 percent which results in famine in the. Northern Nigeria. This inconsistency in the precipitation amount is expected to get ...

  7. All rights reserved www.ajol.info and www.bioline.org.br/ja Drought ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    NASA and U.S Geological Survey for the provision of the Satellite data used for this study. I would also like to appreciate the National Space Research and. Development Agency, Abuja (NASRDA) Nigeria for the data released for this project, thank you very much. REFERENCES. Agnew, CT (2000). Using the SPI to identify ...

  8. All rights reserved and www.bioline.org.br/ja Assessment of Tree ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF HORSFALL

    inevitable loss of genetic resources at all levels. Ideally, conservation ... exploitation of some targeted species for economic, social and spiritual .... Blighia sapida. Ackee, Bread fruit. 57. 13. 14. Bombax buonopozense. Eso. 62. 23. 15. Bridelia micrantha. Coast goldleaf. 41. 15. 16. Calophyllum inophyllum. Borneo Mahogany ...

  9. Foreign Exchange Reserves: Bangladesh Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Zahangir Alam

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This study is about foreign exchangereserves of Bangladesh. The mainpurpose of this study is to the influence of exchange rates on foreign exchangereserves to the Bangladesh context.  Both the primary and secondary data has been used inthis study. The primary data has been collected through a structuredquestionnaire from 50 respondents. The secondary data, namely Bangladeshforeign exchange reserves (FER, Bangladesh current account balance (CAB,Bangladesh capital andfinancial account balance (CFAB, and BDT/USD exchange rates (ER.  This study covers yearly data from July 01,1996 to June 30, 2005 and quarterly data from July 01, 2005 to June 30, 2012. Findingsof this study shows that out of the selected 16 factors affecting foreignexchange reserves, exchange rates occupy the first position, weighted averagescore (WAS being 4.56. Foreign exchange reserves (FER and current accountbalance (CAB have increased by 502.9087% and 1451.218%,whereas capital and financial account (CFAB has decreased by -649.024% on June30, 2012 compared to June 30, 1997. The influence of other factors heldconstant, as ER changes by 285.6894 units due to one unit change in FER, onaverage in the same direction which represents that ER has positive effect on theFER and this relationship is statistically significant.  62.1526 percentof the variation in FER is explained by ER. The outcomes of Breusch-Godfrey test (LM test, ARCHtest, and the Normality test are that there is a serial correlation among residuals, the variance of residuals is notconstant, and the residuals are not normally distributed.

  10. Brain reserve and cognitive reserve in multiple sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocca, Maria A.; Leavitt, Victoria M.; Riccitelli, Gianna; Comi, Giancarlo; DeLuca, John; Filippi, Massimo

    2013-01-01

    Objective: We first tested the brain reserve (BR) hypothesis in multiple sclerosis (MS) by examining whether larger maximal lifetime brain volume (MLBV; determined by genetics) protects against disease-related cognitive impairment, and then investigated whether cognitive reserve (CR) gained through life experience (intellectually enriching leisure activities) protects against cognitive decline independently of MLBV (BR). Methods: Sixty-two patients with MS (41 relapsing-remitting MS, 21 secondary progressive MS) received MRIs to estimate BR (MLBV, estimated with intracranial volume [ICV]) and disease burden (T2 lesion load; atrophy of gray matter, white matter, thalamus, and hippocampus). Early-life cognitive leisure was measured as a source of CR. We assessed cognitive status with tasks of cognitive efficiency and memory. Hierarchical regressions were used to investigate whether higher BR (ICV) protects against cognitive impairment, and whether higher CR (leisure) independently protects against cognitive impairment over and above BR. Results: Cognitive status was positively associated with ICV (R2 = 0.066, p = 0.017). An ICV × disease burden interaction (R2 = 0.050, p = 0.030) revealed that larger ICV attenuated the impact of disease burden on cognition. Controlling for BR, higher education (R2 = 0.047, p = 0.030) and leisure (R2 = 0.090, p = 0.001) predicted better cognition. A leisure × disease burden interaction (R2 = 0.037, p = 0.030) showed that leisure independently attenuated the impact of disease burden on cognition. Follow-up analyses revealed that BR protected against cognitive inefficiency, not memory deficits, whereas CR was more protective against memory deficits than cognitive inefficiency. Conclusion: We provide evidence of BR in MS, and show that CR independently protects against disease-related cognitive decline over and above BR. Lifestyle choices protect against cognitive impairment independently of genetic factors outside of one's control

  11. RIGHTS, RULES, AND DEMOCRACY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard S. Kay, University of Connecticut-School of Law, Estados Unidos

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Democracy require protection of certain fundamental rights, but can we expect courts to follow rules? There seems little escape from the proposition that substantive constitutional review by an unelected judiciary is a presumptive abridgement of democratic decision-making. Once we have accepted the proposition that there exist human rights that ought to be protected, this should hardly surprise us. No one thinks courts are perfect translators of the rules invoked before them on every occasion. But it is equally clear that rules sometimes do decide cases. In modern legal systems the relative roles of courts and legislators with respect to the rules of the system is a commonplace. Legislatures make rules. Courts apply them in particular disputes. When we are talking about human rights, however, that assumption must be clarified in at least one way. The defense of the practice of constitutional review in this article assumes courts can and do enforce rules. This article also makes clear what is the meaning of “following rules”. Preference for judicial over legislative interpretation of rights, therefore, seems to hang on the question of whether or not judges are capable of subordinating their own judgment to that incorporated in the rules by their makers. This article maintains that, in general, entrenched constitutional rules (and not just constitutional courts can and do constrain public conduct and protect human rights. The article concludes that the value judgments will depend on our estimate of the benefits we derive from the process of representative self-government. Against those benefits we will have to measure the importance we place on being able to live our lives with the security created by a regime of human rights protected by the rule of law. Keywords: Democracy. Human Rights. Rules. Judicial Review.

  12. Realizing the right to development in Nigeria: an examination of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The United Nations General Assembly has, through several Conventions, emphasized the need for the full realization of the right to development, alongside the rights to food and clean water, the right to shelter and the right to housing. According to the United Nations, if Economic Social and Cultural Rights (ESCR) are ...

  13. Autonomy and minority rights

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barten, Ulrike

    2008-01-01

    to a specific group. The question never posed is, if there is a point and in that case at what point the group can actually talk about being autonomous. Is there a minimum in the number of special rights and procedures that has to be reached in order for the package of rights to qualify as ‘granting autonomy......'? I will look at this in connection with minority rights, as minority rights accord special rights and procedures to a specific group. For example, minorities have sometimes far reaching competences in the educational field: setting up and running their own schools and to a certain degree also decide...... with kin-states face a two-way situation regarding autonomy. First there is the autonomy from the home-state - the state the minority exists in. Secondly, though, there is the question of autonomy from the kin-state: How autonomous is a minority when it is (partly) financed by the kin-state? The discussion...

  14. Scientists and Human Rights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makdisi, Yousef

    2012-02-01

    The American Physical Society has a long history of involvement in defense of human rights. The Committee on International Freedom of Scientists was formed in the mid seventies as a subcommittee within the Panel On Public Affairs ``to deal with matters of an international nature that endangers the abilities of scientists to function as scientists'' and by 1980 it was established as an independent committee. In this presentation I will describe some aspects of the early history and the impetus that led to such an advocacy, the methods employed then and how they evolved to the present CIFS responsibility ``for monitoring concerns regarding human rights for scientists throughout the world''. I will also describe the current approach and some sample cases the committee has pursued recently, the interaction with other human rights organizations, and touch upon some venues through which the community can engage to help in this noble cause.

  15. Right bundle branch block

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bussink, Barbara E; Holst, Anders Gaarsdal; Jespersen, Lasse

    2013-01-01

    AimsTo determine the prevalence, predictors of newly acquired, and the prognostic value of right bundle branch block (RBBB) and incomplete RBBB (IRBBB) on a resting 12-lead electrocardiogram in men and women from the general population.Methods and resultsWe followed 18 441 participants included.......5%/2.3% in women, P Right bundle branch block was associated with significantly...... increased all-cause and cardiovascular mortality in both genders with age-adjusted hazard ratios (HR) of 1.31 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.11-1.54] and 1.87 (95% CI, 1.48-2.36) in the gender pooled analysis with little attenuation after multiple adjustment. Right bundle branch block was associated...

  16. Giant right atrial myxoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valdes Martin, Alexander; Ortega Torres, Yanela Yordanka; Hevia Sanchez, Luis

    2012-01-01

    Primary tumors of the heart are rare, their estimated incidence ranging between 0.0017-0.19%, and among them cardiac myxomas are the most common (50%). Right atrial localization is uncommon, occurring only in 15-20% of cases. Their clinical presentation ranges from an asymptomatic status to the presence of constitutional symptoms or symptoms pointing to the presence of cardiac obstruction or pulmonary embolism. A case is presented of a 36-year-old male patient with a history of asthenia, palpitations and reduced functional capacity. Transthoracic echocardiography revealed a large mass in the right atrium which prolapsed into the right ventricle and obstructed the tricuspid valve. The patient underwent cardiopulmonary bypass surgery and the mass (9x9 cm) was removed without any complication. Histological examination confirmed the diagnosis of myxoma.

  17. Rail passengers rights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đurđev Dušanka J.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The legal framework of rail passengers rights is set out in a combination of international and European law: an international measure, the rather unwieldy Uniform Rules concerning the Contract for International Carriage of Passengers and Luggage by Rail, forming part of the Convention concerning International Carriage by Rail of 9 May 1980 (as amended by the Vilnius Protocol of 3 June 1999 ['CIV'], lays down a basic framework which is then fleshed out by more recent EU legislation, Regulation (EC No 1371/2007 on Rail Passengers ' Rights and Obligations. Regulation 1371/2007/EC on rail passenger rights and obligations sets out minimum quality standards that have to be guaranteed to all passengers on all lines. .

  18. Right upper quadrant pain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ralls, P.W.; Colletti, P.M.; Boswell, W.D. Jr.; Halls, J.M.

    1984-01-01

    Historically, assessment of acute right upper quadrant abdominal pain has been a considerable clinical challenge. While clinical findings and laboratory data frequently narrow the differential diagnosis, symptom overlap generally precludes definitive diagnosis among the various diseases causing acute right upper quadrant pain. Fortunately, the advent of newer diagnostic imaging modalities has greatly improved the rapidity and reliability of diagnosis in these patients. An additional challenge to the physician, with increased awareness of the importance of cost effectiveness in medicine, is to select appropriate diagnostic schema that rapidly establish accurate diagnoses in the most economical fashion possible. The dual goals of this discussion are to assess not only the accuracy of techniques used to evaluate patients with acute right upper quadrant pain, but also to seek out cost-effective, coordinated imaging techniques to achieve this goal

  19. The Community of Rights

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærgård, Jonas Ross

    2012-01-01

    The article presents the argument that in order to have human rights in the years of the French Revolution it was necessary to be and act in accordance with an ambiguous concept of the natural. While the idea of the natural or of human nature could be an inclusive and universal one, it could also...... be used in a particularistic and excluding way which was the case in the legislation of Maximilien de Robespierre’s Terror Regime. Situated somewhere between inclusion in and exclusion from the community of rights, the playwright and political activist Olympe de Gouges sought to propagate an understanding...

  20. Protection of personality rights

    OpenAIRE

    Strejcová, Klára

    2016-01-01

    The thesis deals with the legal regulation of protection of personality rights. According to the certain changes in personality protection legal regulation caused by recent adoption of new Civil Code, Law no. 89/2012 Coll., the topic appears to be up to date. The aim of this thesis is to bring current legal regulation of this issue in its general terms. The thesis is divided into eight chapters. The first chapter explains basic terms such as personality and general right of personality. Secon...

  1. Finding the right balance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Toke Haunstrup

    2011-01-01

    and their considerations about the possibility of moving together with a partner (again). The interviews suggest a widespread ambiguity among solo-livers as they emphasize the positive qualities of living alone at the same time as they express a hope of meeting “the right one” to move together with and share their life...... of individual independence while at the same time sharing the daily life with their partner. In order to secure the “right balance”, they consider different “strategies” such as having “one’s own room” in the shared dwelling or living-apart-together as a permanent solution....

  2. Choosing the right technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Milan, Christian; Nielsen, Mads Pagh; Bojesen, Carsten

    2014-01-01

    . These systems not only require an optimal design with respect to the installed capacities but also the right choice in combining the available technologies assuring a cost-effective solution. e aim of this paper is to present an optimization methodology for residential on-site energy supply systems based...... on mixed integer linear programming. The methodology chooses the right combination of technologies and sizes the components based on on-site weather data and expected consumption profiles. Through this approach the fluctuations of RES as well as the user behavior are taken into account already during...

  3. A right to strike?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, K; Western, G

    1997-07-01

    During 1995, there was a major shift in the United Kingdom in the debate of whether it is right for nurses to strike. The Royal College of Nursing, the former advocate of a non-industrial action policy, moved towards the UNISON position that industrial action is ethical in some circumstances, as well as the necessary thing to do. The authors, both nurses and UNISON officials, look at the reasons for this change and why UNISON's historical position sees industrial action as an effective weapon in defending services, as well as wages and jobs. It can be right to strike.

  4. Business and Human Rights

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buhmann, Karin

    This article analyses the United Nations (UN) Guidelines on Business and Human Rights adopted in 2011 by the UN Human Rights Council from the perspective of Transnational Business Governance Interactions (TBGI) analytical framework (Eberlein et al. 2014). The article identifies and discusses...... that the UN Guiding Principles are unique in several respects of relevance to transnational business governance interaction and indicate the relevance of the TBGI approach to public regulatory transnational business governance initiatives. The analysis of the Guiding Principles as interactional transnational...... business governance suggests that this form of governance offers prospects for public institutions as a means towards regulating global sustainability concerns....

  5. Z' reservation at LEP2

    CERN Document Server

    Montagna, G.; Piccinini, F.; Renard, F.M.; Verzegnassi, C.

    1995-01-01

    We consider the possibility that one extra Z\\equiv Z' exists with arbitrary mass and fermion couplings that do not violate (charged) lepton universality. We show that, in such a situation, a functional relationship is generated between the \\underline{deviations} from the SM values of three leptonic observables of two-fermion production at future e^+e^- colliders that is completely independent of the values of the Z' mass and couplings. This selects a certain region in the 3-d space of the deviations that is \\underline{characteristic} of the model (Z' "reservation"). As a specific and relevant example, we show the picture that would emerge at LEP2 under realistic experimental conditions.

  6. Osmosis is not driven by water dilution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Eric M; Myers, David R

    2013-04-01

    There is a misconception among plant scientists that osmosis is driven by the tendency of solutes to dilute water. In this opinion article, we discuss the quantitative and qualitative failures of this view, and go on to review the correct kinetic picture of osmosis as it appears in physics textbooks. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Water spectral pattern as holistic marker for water quality monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovacs, Zoltan; Bázár, György; Oshima, Mitsue; Shigeoka, Shogo; Tanaka, Mariko; Furukawa, Akane; Nagai, Airi; Osawa, Manami; Itakura, Yukari; Tsenkova, Roumiana

    2016-01-15

    Online water quality monitoring technologies have been improving continuously. At the moment, water quality is defined by the respective range of few chosen parameters. However, this strategy requires sampling and it cannot provide evaluation of the entire water molecular system including various solutes. As it is nearly impossible to monitor every single molecule dissolved in water, the objective of our research is to introduce a complimentary approach, a new concept for water screening by observing the water molecular system changes using aquaphotomics and Quality Control Chart method. This approach can continuously provide quick information about any qualitative change of water molecular arrangement without taking into account the reason of the alteration of quality. Different species and concentrations of solutes in aqueous systems structure the water solvent differently. Aquaphotomics investigates not the characteristic absorption bands of the solute in question, but the solution absorption at vibrational bands of water's covalent and hydrogen bonds that have been altered by the solute. The applicability of the proposed concept is evaluated by monitoring the water structural changes in different aqueous solutions such as acid, sugar, and salt solutions at millimolar concentration level and in ground water. The results show the potential of the proposed approach to use water spectral pattern monitoring as bio marker of water quality. Our successful results open a new venue in water quality monitoring by offering a quick and cost effective method for continuous screening of water molecular arrangement. Instead of the regular analysis of individual physical or chemical parameters, with our method - as a complementary tool - the structural changes of water molecular system used as a mirror reflecting even small disturbances in water can indicate the necessity of further detailed analysis by conventional methods. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. At Right Angles

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 17; Issue 9. At Right Angles. Shailesh A Shirali. Information and Announcements Volume 17 Issue 9 September 2012 pp 920-920. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: https://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/017/09/0920-0920 ...

  9. Access Rights Distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. M. Pestunova

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The main aspects of the development of the information system, which grants users the rights for access to automated information system resources on the basis of the organization business-processes, are considered. The conceptual, informational, functional models of the system, as well as a model, which allows to realize control while using various formal models (RBAC, DAC, MAC, are described.

  10. The Consumer Rights Directive

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luzak, J.A.; Mak, V.; Hartkamp, A.S.; Sieburgh, C.H.; Keus, L.A.D.; Kortmann, J.S.; Wissink, M.H.

    2014-01-01

    This contribution discusses the impact of the CRD on Dutch private law. How will the new directive influence consumer rights and how does this fit with existing law? Considering the background of the directive and its importance for European consumer law, however, we discuss these questions in the

  11. At Right Angles

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 17; Issue 9. At Right Angles. Shailesh A Shirali. Information and Announcements Volume 17 Issue 9 September 2012 pp 920-920. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/017/09/0920-0920 ...

  12. Adjudicating socioeconomic rights

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Christo Heunis

    It is trite to say that the adjudication of socio-economic rights is a new enterprise in South African jurisprudence, as it is to the jurisprudence of many other jurisdictions. Professor van Rensburg's paper seeks to analyse the influence of political, socio-economic and cultural considerations on the interpretation and application ...

  13. Intellectual Property Rights Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alkærsig, Lars; Beukel, Karin; Reichstein, Toke

    Intellectual Property Rights Management explores how the entire toolbox of intellectual property (IP) protection and management are successfully combined and how firms generate value from IP. In particular, this book provides a framework of archetypes which firms will be able to self...

  14. Intellectual property rights management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alkærsig, Lars; Beukel, Karin; Reichstein, Toke

    Intellectual Property Rights Management explores how the entire toolbox of intellectual property (IP) protection and management are successfully combined and how firms generate value from IP. In particular, this book provides a framework of archetypes which firms will be able to self...

  15. Digital Rights Management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koster, P.; Jonker, Willem; Blanken, Henk; de Vries, A.P.; Blok, H.E.; Feng, L.

    2007-01-01

    Digital Rights Management, or DRM for short, is a much-discussed topic nowadays. The main reason for this is that DRM technology is often mentioned in the context of protection of digital audio and video content, for example to avoid large scale copying of CDs and DVDs via peer-to-peer networks in

  16. [Tuberculosis and human rights].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagai, Hideaki; Inagaki, Tomokazu; Toyoda, Emiko; Kawabe, Yoshiko; Fujiwara, Keiko; Masuyama, Hidenori; Takahashi, Shigeru

    2005-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) patients must be hospitalized while the smear of sputum is positive because TB spreads through air. Cooperation of a patient is important in order to complete the treatment of TB. However, a small number of patients are noncooperative for the treatment and may sometimes refuse it. At this symposium, we discussed about whether we could restrict the human rights of noncooperative TB patients. Although the patients' human rights must be protected, we also have to protect the human rights of people who may receive TB infection. The balance of the both people's rights is fully considered in the TB control policy. It is epoch-making that the TB society took up the theme about the human rights' restriction of TB patients. Five speakers presented their papers from each position. There were presentations about the scientific evidence of isolation, the actual cases, the situation of the United States, and the legal view on the human rights' restriction of TB patients. The present situation and the legal problems in Japan became clear at this symposium. We need further discussion about the human rights' restriction of TB patients for the revision of the Tuberculosis Protection Act and have to obtain the national consensus on it. 1. The evidence for isolation: Emiko TOYODA (International Medical Center of Japan) To determine appropriate periods of respiratory isolation, available biological, clinical, and epidemiological issues and data were studied. Although absolute lack of infectiousness requires consecutive culture negative and it takes too long and impractical periods. There seems to be no established evidence for noncontagiousness after 2 to 3 weeks effective treatment. Practically conversion to 3 negative consecutive smear results may used as a surrogate for noninfectiousness, even though a small risk of transmission still be present. Chemical isolation has been more important and administration with DOT should be indicated to keep compliance. 2

  17. Tackling Human Rights

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLester, Susan

    2005-01-01

    In 2003, four high school students from the Tashkent International School in the capital city confronted the issue of their nation's human rights problems head on by researching the topic and publishing their findings on the Web. The site, "Uzbekistan: Opaque Reality," was created as an entry for the non-profit Global SchoolNet's Doors…

  18. A right to reproduce?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emson, H E

    1992-10-31

    Conscious control of the environment by homo sapiens has brought almost total release from the controls of ecology that limit the population of all other species. After a mere 10,000 years, humans have brought the planet close to collapse, and all the debate in the world seems unlikely to save it. A combination of uncontrolled breeding and rapacity is propelling us down the slippery slope 1st envisioned by Malthus, dragging the rest of the planet along. Only the conscious control, and most likely voluntary, reimposition of controls on breeding will reduce the overgrowth of humans, and we have far to go in that direction. "According to the United Nations Universal Declaration of Human Rights (1948, articles 16[I] and 16 [III]), Men and women of full age without any limitation due to race, nationality or religion have the right to marry and to found a family ... the family is the natural and fundamental group unit of society." The rhetoric of rights without the balancing of responsibilities is wrong in health care, and even more wrong in the context of world population. The mind-set of dominance and exploitation over the rest of creation has meant human reluctance to admit participation in a system where every part is interdependent. We must balance the right to reproduce with it responsible use, valuing interdependence, understanding, and respect with a duty not to unbalance, damage, or destroy. It is long overdue that we discard every statement of right that is unmatched by the equivalent duty and responsibility.

  19. Microbial quality of drinking water from microfiltered water dispensers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacchetti, R; De Luca, G; Dormi, A; Guberti, E; Zanetti, F

    2014-03-01

    A comparison was made between the microbial quality of drinking water obtained from Microfiltered Water Dispensers (MWDs) and that of municipal tap water. A total of 233 water samples were analyzed. Escherichia coli (EC), enterococci (ENT), total coliforms (TC), Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and heterotrophic plate count (HPC) at 22 °C and 37 °C were enumerated. In addition, information was collected about the principal structural and functional characteristics of each MWD in order to study the various factors that might influence the microbial quality of the water. EC and ENT were not detected in any of the samples. TC were never detected in the tap water but were found in 5 samples taken from 5 different MWDs. S. aureus was found in a single sample of microfiltered water. P. aeruginosa was found more frequently and at higher concentrations in the samples collected from MWDs. The mean HPCs at 22 °C and 37 °C were significantly higher in microfiltered water samples compared to those of the tap water. In conclusion, the use of MWDs may increase the number of bacteria originally present in tap water. It is therefore important to monitor the quality of the dispensed water over time, especially if it is destined for vulnerable users. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  20. Parents: Avoid Kids Foot Problems with the Right Shoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Print | Share Avoid Kids Foot Problems with the Right Shoes Before you head to the store to ... College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons (ACFAS), All Rights Reserved. Privacy Statement | Disclaimer | Terms and Conditions | Site ...

  1. Arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soni, Roopali; Oade, Yvette

    2011-08-24

    Arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy (ARVC) is a rare inherited disease of the heart muscle that causes ventricular tachyarrhythmias and sudden death in young people and athletes. It results in fibrofatty replacement of the right ventricle, and the subepicardial region of the left ventricle. It is the most common cause of sudden cardiac death in young people after hypertrophic heart disease. Diagnosis can be difficult and at present there is no cure for ARVC. Prevention of sudden death is the most important management strategy. Paediatricians need to be aware of the possibility of ARVC in adolescents and young adults presenting with palpitations, fatigue, syncope or cardiac arrest. The authors present two cases of apparently healthy teenage boys who died suddenly and unexpectedly. Postmortem examination of the myocardium was strongly suggestive of ARVC in both cases.

  2. Rights to Language

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Phillipson, Robert

    language and power issues. Drawn from all parts of the world, the contributors are active in a range of scientific and professional areas including bilingual education; sociolinguistics; the sociology of education, law and language; economics and language; linguistics; sign language; racism; communication......; discourse analysis; language policy; minority issues; and language pedagogy. The book situates issues of minorities and bilingual education in broader perspectives of human rights, power and the ecology of language. It aims at a distillation of themes that are central to an understanding of language rights...... topics can cross-fertilize each other, and that our understanding of the issues can benefit from coverage that is global, reflective and committed. A website with additional resource material to this book can be found at http://babel.ruc.dk/-robert/. Brings together scholarship in language, education...

  3. Arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vignolo Puglia, W.; Freire Colla, D.; Rivara Urrutia, D.; Lujambio Grene, M.; Arbiza Bruno, T.; Oliveira, G.; Cobas Rodriguez, J.

    1997-01-01

    The arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia is a condition predominantly well defined with arrhythmic events. We analyze three cases diagnosed by the group. These cases were presented as ventricular tachycardia with a morphology of left bundle branch block, presenting one of them aborted sudden death in evolution. The baseline electrocardiogram and signal averaging were abnormal in two of the three cases, like the echocardiogram. The electrophysiological study was able to induce in the three patients with sustained monomorphic ventricular tachycardia morphology of left bundle branch block. The definitive diagnosis was made by right ventriculography in two cases and magnetic resonance imaging in the other. Treatment included antiarrhythmic drugs in the three cases and the placement of an automatic defibrillator which survived a sudden death (Author)

  4. Territory, Rights and Mobility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Chenchen

    2014-01-01

    The overarching objective of this dissertation is to conceptualise the spatiality of citizenship through an exposure to its various others – especially to mobile subjectivity. In particular, it examines the changing patterns of territorialising space, distributing rights and regulating mobility...... the governing structure and the acts of the governed that rupture, resist or appropriate it. In this framework, the thesis first of all looks at the spatial configurations of national citizenship by analysing the trajectories in which the interrelated concepts of territory, rights and mobility participate...... Tunnel project as one that involves competing patterns of territoriality and manifests the dynamics between facilitated and obstructed mobilities at a moving border. However, the permeability of this border is partly enabled by the uneven and ambiguous configurations of Schengenland itself, and draws...

  5. Business and Human Rights

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buhmann, Karin

    2015-01-01

    This article analyses the United Nations (UN) Guidelines on Business and Human Rights adopted in 2011 by the UN Human Rights Council from the perspective of transnational business governance interactions (TBGI) analytical framework.1 The article identifies and discusses dimensions of interaction...... and components of regulatory governance which characterize the Guiding Principles, focusing in particular on rule formation and implementation. The article notes that the Guiding Principles actively enrolled other actors for the rule-making process, ensuring support in a politically and legally volatile field...... in several areas of relevance to transnational business governance interaction and indicates the relevance of the TBGI approach to public regulatory transnational business governance initiatives. The analysis of the Guiding Principles as interactional transnational business governance suggests that this form...

  6. Evaluating Human Rights INGOs

    OpenAIRE

    Graffeo, Elizabeth Marie

    2010-01-01

    Over the past several decades, the numbers of international nongovernmental organizations (INGOs) that focus on tackling human rights issues have grown rapidly. These organizations operate internationally and work with governments, legislatures, social movement leaders, activists, donors, and individual citizens. As the number of operating INGOs has risen dramatically, researchers have simultaneously begun to investigate the possibility of creating a global civil society that would govern its...

  7. Asking the Right Questions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richter, Line

    Based on fieldwork in Mali this paper discusses the role of anthropology (and the anthropologist) in a large public health research project on children's health. In the uncertainty and disquiet that comes with the battle to combat and avoid diseases in a setting where poverty and abysmal diseases......, is the ability to move beyond even the best hidden assumptions and question our own questions, thereby enabling us to ask the right questions....

  8. Prior User Rights

    OpenAIRE

    Carl Shapiro

    2006-01-01

    Keywords: patents, innovation, oligopoly JEL codes: L13, O31. ABSTRACT: Many inventions, great and small, are discovered independently at roughly the same time by two or more individuals or organizations. Famous examples include the light bulb (Edison and Swan), the telephone (Bell and Gray), and the integrated circuit (Kilby and Noyce). Such independent invention is common for minor technological improvements. How should property rights to an invention be defined and awarde...

  9. Homoaffectivity and Human Rights

    OpenAIRE

    Luiz Mott

    2006-01-01

    The civil union between persons of the same sex is analyzed in this essay through the discussion of the roots of the anti-homosexual prejudice and the fight for the citizenship of gays, lesbians and transgenders in Brazil, and through listing the different manifestations of homofobia in our social environment. We deconstruct the contrary opinions against the homosexual marriage, justifying with etho-historical evidences the extending of equal rights to the couples of the same s...

  10. The surface right

    OpenAIRE

    Del Risco Sotil, Luis Felipe

    2017-01-01

    This article addresses over the regulation of the surface right in the Peruvian Law along with its main points of contact with other important institutions in the field of real estate. The author points the evolution of this figure in the Peruvian legislation and determinates its legal nature and its characteristics, establishing its relation with the principle of real estate accession property and the implications of the transitional division that the surface generates. In other relevant asp...

  11. Right atrial lipoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pêgo-Fernandes Paulo M.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Benign cardiac tumors are rare, and lipomas are among those less frequently found. We report the case of a 48-year-old male complaining of high blood pressure and epistaxis in the last 2 months, with a diagnosis of right atrial lipoma established on echocardiography, magnetic resonance imaging, and anatomicopathological examination. The tumor was successfully removed, and up to 42 months after surgical excision, no evidence of tumor relapse was observed.

  12. Peak regulation right

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, Z. |; Ren, Z.; Li, Z.; Zhu, R.

    2005-01-01

    A peak regulation right concept and corresponding transaction mechanism for an electricity market was presented. The market was based on a power pool and independent system operator (ISO) model. Peak regulation right (PRR) was defined as a downward regulation capacity purchase option which allowed PRR owners to buy certain quantities of peak regulation capacity (PRC) at a specific price during a specified period from suppliers. The PRR owner also had the right to decide whether or not they would buy PRC from suppliers. It was the power pool's responsibility to provide competitive and fair peak regulation trading markets to participants. The introduction of PRR allowed for unit capacity regulation. The PRR and PRC were rated by the supplier, and transactions proceeded through a bidding process. PRR suppliers obtained profits by selling PRR and PRC, and obtained downward regulation fees regardless of whether purchases are made. It was concluded that the peak regulation mechanism reduced the total cost of the generating system and increased the social surplus. 6 refs., 1 tab., 3 figs

  13. Double chambered right ventricle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Chul Koo; Yu, Yun Jeong; Yeon, Kyung Mo; Han, Man Chung [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1983-12-15

    Fourteen cases of double chambered right ventricle were diagnosed angiographically and of these nine cases were confirmed after operation and autopsy at Seoul National University Hospital in recent four years since 1979. The clinical and radiological findings with the emphasis on the cinecardiographic findings were analysed. The summaries of the analysis are as follows: 1. Among 14 cases, 6 cases were male and 8 cases were female. Age distribution was from 4 years to 36 years. 2. In chest x-ray findings, pulmonary vascularity was increased in 8 cases, decreased in 4 cases, and normal in 2 cases. Cardiomegaly was observed in 8 cases and other showed normal heart size. 3. In cinecardiography, 11 cases had interventricular septal defect. Among these 11 cases, VSD located in proximal high pressure chamber was in 2 cases and located in distal low pressure chamber was in 9 cases. 4. The location of aberrant muscle bundle in sinus portion of right ventricle was in 8 cases. In the rest 6 cases, the aberrant muscle bundle was located below the infundibulum of right ventricle. 5. For accurate diagnosis and differential diagnosis with other congenital cardiac anomalies such as Tetralogy of Fallot or isolated pulmonic stenosis, biplane cineangiography and catheterization is an essential procedure.

  14. Double chambered right ventricle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Chul Koo; Yu, Yun Jeong; Yeon, Kyung Mo; Han, Man Chung

    1983-01-01

    Fourteen cases of double chambered right ventricle were diagnosed angiographically and of these nine cases were confirmed after operation and autopsy at Seoul National University Hospital in recent four years since 1979. The clinical and radiological findings with the emphasis on the cinecardiographic findings were analysed. The summaries of the analysis are as follows: 1. Among 14 cases, 6 cases were male and 8 cases were female. Age distribution was from 4 years to 36 years. 2. In chest x-ray findings, pulmonary vascularity was increased in 8 cases, decreased in 4 cases, and normal in 2 cases. Cardiomegaly was observed in 8 cases and other showed normal heart size. 3. In cinecardiography, 11 cases had interventricular septal defect. Among these 11 cases, VSD located in proximal high pressure chamber was in 2 cases and located in distal low pressure chamber was in 9 cases. 4. The location of aberrant muscle bundle in sinus portion of right ventricle was in 8 cases. In the rest 6 cases, the aberrant muscle bundle was located below the infundibulum of right ventricle. 5. For accurate diagnosis and differential diagnosis with other congenital cardiac anomalies such as Tetralogy of Fallot or isolated pulmonic stenosis, biplane cineangiography and catheterization is an essential procedure

  15. Oak Ridge Reservation environmental report for 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobs, V.A.; Wilson, A.R.

    1990-10-01

    This two-volume report, the Oak Ridge Reservation Environmental Report for 1989, is the nineteenth in an annual series that began in 1971. It reports the results of a comprehensive, year-round program to monitor the impact of operations at the three major US Department of Energy (DOE) production and research installations in Oak Ridge on the immediate areas' and surrounding region's groundwater and surface waters, soil, air quality, vegetation and wildlife, and through these multiple and varied pathways, the resident human population. Information is presented for the environmental monitoring Quality Assurance (QA) Program, audits and reviews, waste management activities, land special environmental studies. Data are included for the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), and Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant (ORGDP). Volume 1 presents narratives, summaries, and conclusions based on environmental monitoring at the three DOE installations and in the surrounding environs during calendar year (CY) 1989. Volume 1 is intended to be a ''stand-alone'' report about the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) for the reader who does not want an in-depth review of 1989 data. Volume 2 presents the detailed data from which these conclusions have been drawn and should be used in conjunction with Volume 1

  16. Oak Ridge Reservation environmental report for 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacobs, V.A.; Wilson, A.R. (eds.)

    1990-10-01

    This two-volume report, the Oak Ridge Reservation Environmental Report for 1989, is the nineteenth in an annual series that began in 1971. It reports the results of a comprehensive, year-round program to monitor the impact of operations at the three major US Department of Energy (DOE) production and research installations in Oak Ridge on the immediate areas' and surrounding region's groundwater and surface waters, soil, air quality, vegetation and wildlife, and through these multiple and varied pathways, the resident human population. Information is presented for the environmental monitoring Quality Assurance (QA) Program, audits and reviews, waste management activities, land special environmental studies. Data are included for the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), and Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant (ORGDP). Volume 1 presents narratives, summaries, and conclusions based on environmental monitoring at the three DOE installations and in the surrounding environs during calendar year (CY) 1989. Volume 1 is intended to be a stand-alone'' report about the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) for the reader who does not want an in-depth review of 1989 data. Volume 2 presents the detailed data from which these conclusions have been drawn and should be used in conjunction with Volume 1.

  17. Extrapolating phosphorus production to estimate resource reserves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaccari, David A; Strigul, Nikolay

    2011-08-01

    Various indicators of resource scarcity and methods for extrapolating resource availability are examined for phosphorus. These include resource lifetime, and trends in resource price, ore grade and discovery rates, and Hubbert curve extrapolation. Several of these indicate increasing scarcity of phosphate resources. Calculated resource lifetime is subject to a number of caveats such as unanticipated future changes in resource discovery, mining and beneficiation technology, population growth or per-capita demand. Thus it should be used only as a rough planning index or as a relative indicator of potential scarcity. This paper examines the uncertainty in one method for estimating available resources from historical production data. The confidence intervals for the parameters and predictions of the Hubbert curves are computed as they relate to the amount of information available. These show that Hubbert-type extrapolations are not robust for predicting the ultimately recoverable reserves or year of peak production of phosphate rock. Previous successes of the Hubbert curve are for cases in which there exist alternative resources, which is not the situation for phosphate. It is suggested that data other than historical production, such as population growth, identified resources and economic factors, should be included in making such forecasts. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Uncovering regional disparity of China's water footprint and inter-provincial virtual water flows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Huijuan; Geng, Yong; Fujita, Tsuyoshi; Fujii, Minoru; Hao, Dong; Yu, Xiaoman

    2014-12-01

    With rapid economic development in China, water crisis is becoming serious and may impede future sustainable development. The uneven distribution of water resources further aggravates such a problem. Under such a circumstance, the concepts of water footprint and virtual water have been proposed in order to respond water scarcity problems. This paper focuses on studying provincial disparity of China's water footprints and inter-provincial virtual water trade flows by adopting inter-regional input-output (IRIO) method. The results show that fast developing areas with larger economic scales such as Guangdong, Jiangsu, Shandong, Zhejiang, Shanghai and Xinjiang had the largest water footprints. The most developed and water scarce areas such as Shanghai, Beijing, Tianjin and Shandong intended to import virtual water, a rational choice for mitigating their water crisis. Xinjiang, Jiangsu, Heilongjiang, Inner Mongolia, Guangxi and Hunan, had the largest per GDP water intensities and were the main water import regions. Another key finding is that agriculture water footprint was the main part in water footprint composition and water export trade. On the basis of these findings, policy implications on agriculture geographical dispersion, consumption behavior changes, trade structure adjustment and water use efficiency improvement are further discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Pursuing the Right to an Effective Remedy for Human Rights ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Undoubtedly, global and regional human rights instruments clearly entrench the right to an effective remedy for a human rights violation. The substantive nature of the right to an effective remedy makes it relevant to the realisation of the right to equality as well as the right to equal protection under the law. Cameroon, as a ...

  20. Getting the balance right

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    This 8 page leaflet is published by the Nuclear Electricity Information Group (NEIG) which is made up of eight different bodies working within the nuclear industry. It aims to present a balanced outline of the facts needed to form an opinion about energy policy in the UK. It looks at the price of electricity, other sources of electricity, (oil and coal, solar power, wind power, water power), safety in the nuclear industry, nuclear waste disposal and risks from radiation. The NEIG is in favour of a balanced energy programme with nuclear energy being only a part of the overall scheme. (U.K.)

  1. Homoaffectivity and Human Rights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Mott

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available The civil union between persons of the same sex is analyzed in this essay through the discussion of the roots of the anti-homosexual prejudice and the fight for the citizenship of gays, lesbians and transgenders in Brazil, and through listing the different manifestations of homofobia in our social environment. We deconstruct the contrary opinions against the homosexual marriage, justifying with etho-historical evidences the extending of equal rights to the couples of the same sex, including the legal recognition of the civil union.

  2. Right hepatic artery aneurysm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernal, Astrid Del Pilar Ardila; Loures, Paulo; Calle, Juan Cristóbal Ospina; Cunha, Beatriz; Córdoba, Juan Camilo

    2016-01-01

    We report a case of an aneurysm of the right hepatic artery and its multidisciplinary management by general surgery, endoscopy and radiology services. Being a case of extremely low incidence, it is important to show its diagnostic and therapeutic approach. RESUMO Relatamos um caso de aneurisma da artéria hepática direita conduzido de forma multidisciplinar pelos Serviços de Cirurgia Geral, Endoscopia e Radiologia. Em se tratando de caso de incidência baixíssima, é importante mostrar o enfoque diagnóstico e terapêutico usado em seu manejo.

  3. Intellectual Property Rights Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alkærsig, Lars; Beukel, Karin; Reichstein, Toke

    Intellectual Property Rights Management explores how the entire toolbox of intellectual property (IP) protection and management are successfully combined and how firms generate value from IP. In particular, this book provides a framework of archetypes which firms will be able to self-identify wit...... to large organization but also reflect the practices and operations that reside in SMEs. This volume also utilizes labor market and firm data to determine whether there is a definitive relationship between IP and economic performance on the firm level....

  4. Einstein was right!

    CERN Document Server

    Hess, Karl

    2014-01-01

    All modern books on Einstein emphasize the genius of his relativity theory and the corresponding corrections and extensions of the ancient space-time concept. However, Einstein's opposition to the use of probability in the laws of nature and particularly in the laws of quantum mechanics is criticized and often portrayed as outdated. The author of Einstein Was Right! takes a unique view and shows that Einstein created a ""Trojan horse"" ready to unleash forces against the use of probability as a basis for the laws of nature. Einstein warned that the use of probability would, in the final analys

  5. [Single coronary artery and right aortic arch].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Quintana, Efrén; Rodríguez-González, Fayna

    2015-01-01

    Coronary anomalies are mostly asymptomatic and diagnosed incidentally during coronary angiography or echocardiography. However, they must be taken into account in the differential diagnosis of angina, dyspnea, syncope, acute myocardial infarction or sudden death in young patients. The case is presented of two rare anomalies, single coronary artery originating from right sinus of Valsalva and right aortic arch, in a 65 year-old patient with atherosclerotic coronary artery disease treated percutaneously. Copyright © 2014 Sociedad Española de Arteriosclerosis. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  6. Civil and Constitutional Rights of Adjudicated Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landess, Jacqueline

    2016-01-01

    Mental health clinicians serving child and adolescent patients are frequently asked to evaluate youth who have been arrested for various offenses or who are otherwise involved with the juvenile justice system. To help orient clinicians and other stakeholders involved with such cases, this article describes the evolution of the juvenile justice system and summarizes the history and current status of the civil and constitutional rights of youth involved in the adjudicatory process. This article also points out key areas in which due process rights are still evolving, particularly in the case of status offenders. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Federal Reserve System Semiannual Regulatory Agenda

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-20

    ... [The Regulatory Plan and Unified Agenda of Federal Regulatory and Deregulatory Actions] [Federal Reserve System Semiannual Regulatory Agenda ] Part XXI Federal Reserve System Semiannual Regulatory Agenda... Flexibility Agenda AGENCY: Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System. ACTION: Semiannual regulatory...

  8. DNA Polymerase Fidelity: Beyond Right and Wrong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washington, M Todd

    2016-11-01

    Accurate DNA replication depends on the ability of DNA polymerases to discriminate between correctly and incorrectly paired nucleotides. In this issue of Structure, Batra et al. (2016) show the structural basis for why DNA polymerases do not efficiently add correctly paired nucleotides immediately after incorporating incorrectly paired ones. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Octopus movement: push right, go left.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooper, Scott L

    2015-05-04

    Octopus arms have essentially infinite degrees of freedom. New research shows that, despite this potentially great complexity, to locomote octopuses simply elongate one or more arms, thus pushing the body in the opposite direction, and do so without activating the arms in an ordered pattern. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. [Secularism in hospital, between rights and obligations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bui-Xuan, Olivia

    2016-10-01

    Public hospitals are subject to specific regulations with regard to secularism, which must respect the nursing staff as well as the patients. The relevant legislation attempts to find a balance between freedom of belief and religious expression on the one hand, and the smooth running of the public hospital service on the other. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. Getting the right training and job.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deschamps, Claude

    2011-08-01

    The authors discuss the factors to be considered in selecting locations in which to train and to practice, and in conducting successful interviews and site visits. The advantages and disadvantages of different types of surgical practice (ie, solo vs group) are also reviewed, as are issues surrounding negotiations related to contracts, benefits, and covenants. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. RIGHTS CONTENT ON DESIGNS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ovidia IONESCU

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Our intellect characterizes us and helps us make a difference in life. Due to our intellect we can understand the world around us, our personality is shaped and developed and, depending on such development, we can learn new things that are beneficial to us both as individuals and the humankind as a whole. Intellectual property focuses on the intellect and the protection of everything that is a creation, represents an important element of day-to-day life and ensures the adequate progress of things deriving from and related to said aspect. Authors are the creators of intellectual property, and their creation must be protected. Furthermore, they benefit from a protection system, respectively a protection title, as well as patrimonial and non-patrimonial rights in connection with their achieved creation and in full dependence thereupon.

  13. Philanthropy and Human Rights

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Øjvind

    2013-01-01

    in Germany, England, France and USA. In each tradition is developed special features of the concept of philanthropy. The four traditions are summarized in the UN universal human rights, which has become the common normative reference for global philanthropy. In this way philanthropy has become, in a modern......, and normally utilized to promote one’s own prestige in the city-state. In Roman context, universal humanism, humanitas, was invented. This universal perspective was also supported by Christianity. It is this universal concept of philanthropy which is the foundation for the different philanthropic traditions...... sense, a charitable act with the aim to promote human happiness independent of gender, class, race, etc. This is the genealogy of the modern understanding of philanthropy, which will be developed in this paper....

  14. Experiment, right or wrong

    CERN Document Server

    Franklin, Allan

    2008-01-01

    In Experiment, Right or Wrong, Allan Franklin continues his investigation of the history and philosophy of experiment presented in his previous book, The Neglect of Experiment. In this new study, Franklin considers the fallibility and corrigibility of experimental results and presents detailed histories of two such episodes: 1) the experiment and the development of the theory of weak interactions from Fermi's theory in 1934 to the V-A theory of 1957 and 2) atomic parity violation experiments and the Weinberg-Salam unified theory of electroweak interactions of the 1970s and 1980s. In these episodes Franklin demonstrates not only that experimental results can be wrong, but also that theoretical calculations and the comparison between experiment and theory can also be incorrect. In the second episode, Franklin contrasts his view of an "evidence model" of science in which questions of theory choice, confirmation, and refutation are decided on the basis of reliable experimental evidence, with that proposed by the ...

  15. Right colonic diverticulitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, In Kyu

    2010-08-01

    Although right colonic diverticultis (RCD) has been reported to be a rare disease in Western countries, RCD is a common diagnosis, with an incidence per 2.9-17 case of appendicitis, in Korea. Many Western studies have reported that it is difficult to differentiate the presenting symptoms of RCD from those of appendicitis before surgery because the signs and symptoms are similar. However, performing a computed tomography scan after the application of the diagnostic criteria for RCD has increased the preoperative RCD diagnostic rate. Treatment strategies have been difficult to define for this condition due to its low preoperative diagnosis rate. However, recent reports have shown that conservative medical treatment of uncomplicated RCD can be recommended and that such treatment is effective due to the benign and self-limited natural history of RCD. Therefore, in this review, we discuss the controversies surrounding RCD management.

  16. Rights to Language

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Phillipson, Robert

    topics can cross-fertilize each other, and that our understanding of the issues can benefit from coverage that is global, reflective and committed. A website with additional resource material to this book can be found at http://babel.ruc.dk/-robert/. Brings together scholarship in language, education......This work brings together cutting-edge scholarship in language, education and society from all parts of the world. Celebrating the 60th birthday of Tove Skutnabb-Kangas, it is inspired by her work in minority, indigenous and immigrant education; multilingualism; linguistic human rights; and global...... language and power issues. Drawn from all parts of the world, the contributors are active in a range of scientific and professional areas including bilingual education; sociolinguistics; the sociology of education, law and language; economics and language; linguistics; sign language; racism; communication...

  17. Intellectual Property Rights Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alkærsig, Lars; Beukel, Karin; Reichstein, Toke

    Intellectual Property Rights Management explores how the entire toolbox of intellectual property (IP) protection and management are successfully combined and how firms generate value from IP. In particular, this book provides a framework of archetypes which firms will be able to self......-identify with and which will allow companies to focus on the IP and IP Management issues most relevant to them. By doing so, the authors offer further insights as to the use of IP and IP management practices across firms. By looking at empirical data covering the population of firms, the findings not only pertain...... to large organization but also reflect the practices and operations that reside in SMEs. This volume also utilizes labor market and firm data to determine whether there is a definitive relationship between IP and economic performance on the firm level....

  18. River water quality modelling: II

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shanahan, P.; Henze, Mogens; Koncsos, L.

    1998-01-01

    The U.S. EPA QUAL2E model is currently the standard for river water quality modelling. While QUAL2E is adequate for the regulatory situation for which it was developed (the U.S. wasteload allocation process), there is a need for a more comprehensive framework for research and teaching. Moreover......, and to achieve robust model calibration. Mass balance problems arise from failure to account for mass in the sediment as well as in the water column and due to the fundamental imprecision of BOD as a state variable. (C) 1998 IAWQ Published by Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved....

  19. Identification and characterization of steady and occluded water in drinking water distribution systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Huiyan; Zhao, Peng; Zhang, Hongwei; Tian, Yimei; Chen, Xi; Zhao, Weigao; Li, Mei

    2015-01-01

    Deterioration and leakage of drinking water in distribution systems have been a major issue in the water industry for years, which are associated with corrosion. This paper discovers that occluded water in the scales of the pipes has an acidic environment and high concentration of iron, manganese, chloride, sulfate and nitrate, which aggravates many pipeline leakage accidents. Six types of water samples have been analyzed under the flowing and stagnant periods. Both the water in the exterior of the tubercles and stagnant water carry suspended iron particles, which explains the occurrence of "red water" when the system hydraulic conditions change. Nitrate is more concentrated in occluded water under flowing condition in comparison with that in flowing water. However, the concentration of nitrate in occluded water under stagnant condition is found to be less than that in stagnant water. A high concentration of manganese is found to exist in steady water, occluded water and stagnant water. These findings impact secondary pollution and the corrosion of pipes and containers used in drinking water distribution systems. The unique method that taking occluded water from tiny holes which were drilled from the pipes' exteriors carefully according to the positions of corrosion scales has an important contribution to research on corrosion in distribution systems. And this paper furthers our understanding and contributes to the growing body of knowledge regarding occluded environments in corrosion scales. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. A metabolism perspective on alternative urban water servicing options using water mass balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farooqui, Tauheed A; Renouf, Marguerite A; Kenway, Steven J

    2016-12-01

    Urban areas will need to pursue new water servicing options to ensure local supply security. Decisions about how best to employ them are not straightforward due to multiple considerations and the potential for problem shifting among them. We hypothesise that urban water metabolism evaluation based a water mass balance can help address this, and explore the utility of this perspective and the new insights it provides about water servicing options. Using a water mass balance evaluation framework, which considers direct urban water flows (both 'natural' hydrological and 'anthropogenic' flows), as well as water-related energy, we evaluated how the use of alternative water sources (stormwater/rainwater harvesting, wastewater/greywater recycling) at different scales influences the 'local water metabolism' of a case study urban development. New indicators were devised to represent the water-related 'resource efficiency' and 'hydrological performance' of the urban area. The new insights gained were the extent to which alternative water supplies influence the water efficiency and hydrological performance of the urban area, and the potential energy trade-offs. The novel contribution is the development of new indicators of urban water resource performance that bring together considerations of both the 'anthropogenic' and 'natural' water cycles, and the interactions between them. These are used for the first time to test alternative water servicing scenarios, and to provide a new perspective to complement broader sustainability assessments of urban water. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.