Sample records for reserved leveraging biotechnology

  1. Insect gut microbiome - An unexploited reserve for biotechnological application. (United States)

    Krishnan, Muthukalingan; Bharathiraja, Chinnapandi; Pandiarajan, Jeyaraj; Prasanna, Vimalanathan Arun; Rajendhran, Jeyaprakash; Gunasekaran, Paramasamy


    Metagenomics research has been developed over the past decade to elucidate the genomes of the uncultured microorganisms with an aim of understanding microbial ecology. On the other hand, it has also been provoked by the increasing biotechnological demands for novel enzymes, antibiotic and signal mimics. The gut microbiota of insects plays crucial roles in the growth, development and environmental adaptation to the host insects. Very recently, the insect microbiota and their genomes (microbiome), isolated from insects were recognized as a major genetic resources for bio-processing industry. Consequently, the exploitation of insect gut microbiome using metagenomic approaches will enable us to find novel biocatalysts and to develop innovative strategies for identifying smart molecules for biotechnological applications. In this review, we discuss the critical footstep in extraction and purification of metagenomic DNA from insect gut, construction of metagenomic libraries and screening procedure for novel gene identification. Recent innovations and potential applications in bioprocess industries are highlighted.



    Sporleder, Thomas L.; Moss, Leeann E.; Nickels, Lori A.


    Firms in general, and high technology firms such as biotechnology firms in particular, are both a set of assets in place and growth opportunities. This has important implications for managerial decision-making. Knowledge capital motivates exploitation of growth options, which affects firm cash flow. In turn, the level and volatility of firm cash flow influences firm financing decisions. Previous studies suggest that knowledge capital can influence both the location and capital structure of fi...

  3. Knowledge Capital, Intangible Assets, and Leverage: Evidence from U.S. Agricultural Biotechnology Firms


    Sporleder, Thomas L.; Moss, Leeann E.


    Agricultural biotechnology firms are high technology companies. Firms in general, and high technology firms in particular, are a set of both assets in place and growth opportunities. This has important implications for managerial decision-making. Knowledge capital motivates exploitation of growth options, which affects firm cash flow. In turn, the level and volatility of firm cash flow influences firm financing decisions. Previous studies suggest that knowledge capital can influence both the ...

  4. Biotechnology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewanika, Mbikusita Mwananyanda


    The article sets out to explain in simple terms the main concepts of Biotechnology beginning with traditional biotechnology to modern biotechnology. It outlines fundamentals of Recombinant Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA), Genetically Modified Organisms (GMOs) and Genetic Engineering. The article offers a discussion of the benefits, disadvantages and the general public and policy concerns regarding genetically modified organisms

  5. Biotechnology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The guidelines of the Biotechnology Program are research and development aiming to develop and manufacture products of pharmaceutical interest. This Program has two main research areas, namely Pituitary Hormones and Biopharmaceuticals. The first one comprises a group with a long experience on Recombinant Human Pituitary Hormone synthesis, purification and characterization. The Biopharmaceutical area is dedicated to the research of isolation, structural analysis and biological activities in different biological system of macromolecules. The Animal Laboratory Division of IPEN is responsible for the breeding and production of small laboratory animal.

  6. Biotechnology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The guidelines of the Biotechnology Program are research and development aiming at developing and manufacturing products of pharmaceutical interest. This Program has two main research areas, namely Pituitary Hormones and Biopharmaceuticals. The first one comprises a group with a long experience on Recombinant Human Pituitary Hormone synthesis, purification and characterization. Up to now they have worked mostly with human growth hormone (hGH), human prolactin (hPRL), human thyrotropin (hTSH), human follicle stimulating hormone (hFSH) and human luteotropin (hLH), with a particular emphasis on glycoprotein carbohydrate structures. An important research line is devoted to Growth Hormone Gene Therapy, working mostly on animal models: immunocompetent and immunodeficient-dwarf mice. For several years this development has been based on ex vivo grafting of transduced keratinocytes, while more recently very promising results have been obtained with the injections and electroporation of naked plasmid DNA. Besides research, they have also activities in the Biotechnological Production and Downstream Processing of the same recombinant hormones, which are produced in both E. coli and mammalian cells and in the development of joint-ventures with the National Industry. The biological effects of radiation on cells are also studied, specially concerning the administration of {sup 131}I together with thyroid-stimulating hormone in thyroid cancer. The Biopharmaceutical area is dedicated to the research of isolation, structural analysis and biological activities in different biological systems of macromolecules. These macromolecules are peptides or proteins, either native or recombinant with medical or pharmaceutical interest. During this period new proteins related to serine protease activity, breast cancer development and angiogenesis were described. The effects of ionizing radiation on macromolecules have also been investigated to detoxify animal venoms in order to improve antigens

  7. Biotechnology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    The guidelines of the Biotechnology Program are research and development aiming at developing and manufacturing products of pharmaceutical interest. This Program has two main research areas, namely Pituitary Hormones and Biopharmaceuticals. The first one comprises a group with a long experience on Recombinant Human Pituitary Hormone synthesis, purification and characterization. Up to now they have worked mostly with human growth hormone (hGH), human prolactin (hPRL), human thyrotropin (hTSH), human follicle stimulating hormone (hFSH) and human luteotropin (hLH), with a particular emphasis on glycoprotein carbohydrate structures. An important research line is devoted to Growth Hormone Gene Therapy, working mostly on animal models: immunocompetent and immunodeficient-dwarf mice. For several years this development has been based on ex vivo grafting of transduced keratinocytes, while more recently very promising results have been obtained with the injections and electroporation of naked plasmid DNA. Besides research, they have also activities in the Biotechnological Production and Downstream Processing of the same recombinant hormones, which are produced in both E. coli and mammalian cells and in the development of joint-ventures with the National Industry. The biological effects of radiation on cells are also studied, specially concerning the administration of 131 I together with thyroid-stimulating hormone in thyroid cancer. The Biopharmaceutical area is dedicated to the research of isolation, structural analysis and biological activities in different biological systems of macromolecules. These macromolecules are peptides or proteins, either native or recombinant with medical or pharmaceutical interest. During this period new proteins related to serine protease activity, breast cancer development and angiogenesis were described. The effects of ionizing radiation on macromolecules have also been investigated to detoxify animal venoms in order to improve antigens for

  8. Embedded Leverage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frazzini, Andrea; Heje Pedersen, Lasse

    find that asset classes with embedded leverage offer low risk-adjusted returns and, in the cross-section, higher embedded leverage is associated with lower returns. A portfolio which is long low-embedded-leverage securities and short high-embedded-leverage securities earns large abnormal returns...

  9. Monitoring Leverage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geanakoplos, John; Heje Pedersen, Lasse


    We argue that leverage is a central element of economic cycles and discuss how leverage can be properly monitored. While traditionally the interest rate has been regarded as the single key feature of a loan, we contend that the size of the loan, i.e., the leverage, is in fact a more important...... measure of systemic risk. Indeed, systemic crises tend to erupt when highly leveraged economic agents are forced to deleverage, sending the economy into recession. We emphasize the importance of measuring both the average leverage on old loans (which captures the economy's vulnerability) and the leverage...... offered on new loans (which captures current credit conditions) since the economy enters a crisis when leverage on new loans is low and leverage on old loans is high. While leverage plays an important role in several economic models, the data on leverage is model-free and simply needs to be collected...

  10. Leverage bubble (United States)

    Yan, Wanfeng; Woodard, Ryan; Sornette, Didier


    Leverage is strongly related to liquidity in a market and lack of liquidity is considered a cause and/or consequence of the recent financial crisis. A repurchase agreement is a financial instrument where a security is sold simultaneously with an agreement to buy it back at a later date. Repurchase agreement (repo) market size is a very important element in calculating the overall leverage in a financial market. Therefore, studying the behavior of repo market size can help to understand a process that can contribute to the birth of a financial crisis. We hypothesize that herding behavior among large investors led to massive over-leveraging through the use of repos, resulting in a bubble (built up over the previous years) and subsequent crash in this market in early 2008. We use the Johansen-Ledoit-Sornette (JLS) model of rational expectation bubbles and behavioral finance to study the dynamics of the repo market that led to the crash. The JLS model qualifies a bubble by the presence of characteristic patterns in the price dynamics, called log-periodic power law (LPPL) behavior. We show that there was significant LPPL behavior in the market before that crash and that the predicted range of times predicted by the model for the end of the bubble is consistent with the observations.

  11. Leveraging voice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frølunde, Lisbeth


    researchers improve our practices and how could digital online video help offer more positive stories about research and higher education? How can academics in higher education be better to tell about our research, thereby reclaiming and leveraging our voice in a post-factual era? As higher education...... continues to engage with digital and networked technologies it becomes increasingly relevant to question why and how academics could (re) position research knowledge in the digital and online media landscape of today and the future. The paper highlights methodological issues that arise in relation...... to the use of digital online video in research communication in particular the researcher's positioning vis a vis the representation of knowledge. A spectrum of positioning possibilities for the researcher on video is proposed – as facilitator, storyteller, and/or dialogist. The spectrum is seen as related...

  12. Biotechnology worldwide and the 'European Biotechnology Thematic Network' Association (EBTNA). (United States)

    Bruschi, F; Dundar, M; Gahan, P B; Gartland, K; Szente, M; Viola-Magni, M P; Akbarova, Y


    The European Biotechnology Congress 2011 held under the auspices of the European Biotechnology Thematic Network Association (EBTNA) in conjunction with the Turkish Medical Genetics Association brings together a broad spectrum of biotechnologists from around the world. The subsequent abstracts indicate the manner in which biotechnology has permeated all aspects of research from the basic sciences through to small and medium enterprises and major industries. The brief statements before the presentation of the abstracts aim to introduce not only Biotechnology in general and its importance around the world, but also the European Biotechnology Thematic Network Association and its aims especially within the framework of education and ethics in biotechnology. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Biotechnology bibliographies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beaudette, L.A.; McCready, R.G.L.


    This bibliography consists of articles and scientific papers on biotechnology in areas in which BIOMINET is currently involved. The reports are categorized in four areas: 1) acid mine drainage (coals and metals) and bioadsorption of metals; 2) solution mining; 3) metabolism and physiology of Thiobacillus and other microorganisms; and 4) bacterial leaching of metals.

  14. Avian Biotechnology. (United States)

    Nakamura, Yoshiaki


    Primordial germ cells (PGCs) generate new individuals through differentiation, maturation and fertilization. This means that the manipulation of PGCs is directly linked to the manipulation of individuals, making PGCs attractive target cells in the animal biotechnology field. A unique biological property of avian PGCs is that they circulate temporarily in the vasculature during early development, and this allows us to access and manipulate avian germ lines. Following the development of a technique for transplantation, PGCs have become central to avian biotechnology, in contrast to the use of embryo manipulation and subsequent transfer to foster mothers, as in mammalian biotechnology. Today, avian PGC transplantation combined with recent advanced manipulation techniques, including cell purification, cryopreservation, depletion, and long-term culture in vitro, have enabled the establishment of genetically modified poultry lines and ex-situ conservation of poultry genetic resources. This chapter introduces the principles, history, and procedures of producing avian germline chimeras by transplantation of PGCs, and the current status of avian germline modification as well as germplasm cryopreservation. Other fundamental avian reproductive technologies are described, including artificial insemination and embryo culture, and perspectives of industrial applications in agriculture and pharmacy are considered, including poultry productivity improvement, egg modification, disease resistance impairment and poultry gene "pharming" as well as gene banking.

  15. The costly benefits of opposing agricultural biotechnology. (United States)

    Apel, Andrew


    Rigorous application of a simple definition of what constitutes opposition to agricultural biotechnology readily encompasses a wide array of key players in national and international systems of food production, distribution and governance. Even though the sum of political and financial benefits of opposing agricultural biotechnology appears vastly to outweigh the benefits which accrue to providers of agricultural biotechnology, technology providers actually benefit from this opposition. If these barriers to biotechnology were removed, subsistence farmers still would not represent a lucrative market for improved seed. The sum of all interests involved ensures that subsistence farmers are systematically denied access to agricultural biotechnology. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Essays on leveraged buyouts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mao, Y.


    This dissertation consists of three chapters on private equity (PE) investments. The first chapter studies the earnings manipulation preceding the public-to-private leveraged buyouts (LBOs), the incentives underlying the earnings manipulation, and the effectiveness of accounting regulation (the

  17. The rise (and decline?) of biotechnology. (United States)

    Kinch, Michael S


    Since the 1970s, biotechnology has been a key innovator in drug development. An analysis of FDA-approved therapeutics demonstrates pharmaceutical companies outpace biotechs in terms of new approvals but biotechnology companies are now responsible for earlier-stage activities (patents, INDs or clinical development). The number of biotechnology organizations that contributed to an FDA approval began declining in the 2000s and is at a level not seen since the 1980s. Whereas early biotechnology companies had a decade from first approval until acquisition, the average acquisition of a biotechnology company now occurs months before their first FDA approval. The number of hybrid organizations that arise when pharmaceutical companies acquire biotechnology is likewise declining, raising questions about the sustainability of biotechnology. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Financing drug discovery via dynamic leverage. (United States)

    Montazerhodjat, Vahid; Frishkopf, John J; Lo, Andrew W


    We extend the megafund concept for funding drug discovery to enable dynamic leverage in which the portfolio of candidate therapeutic assets is predominantly financed initially by equity, and debt is introduced gradually as assets mature and begin generating cash flows. Leverage is adjusted so as to maintain an approximately constant level of default risk throughout the life of the fund. Numerical simulations show that applying dynamic leverage to a small portfolio of orphan drug candidates can boost the return on equity almost twofold compared with securitization with a static capital structure. Dynamic leverage can also add significant value to comparable all-equity-financed portfolios, enhancing the return on equity without jeopardizing debt performance or increasing risk to equity investors. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  19. Editorial: Biotechnology Journal brings more than biotechnology. (United States)

    Jungbauer, Alois; Lee, Sang Yup


    Biotechnology Journal always brings the state-of-the-art biotechnologies to our readers. Different from other topical issues, this issue of Biotechnology Journal is complied with a series of exiting reviews and research articles from spontaneous submissions, again, addressing society's actual problems and needs. The progress is a real testimony how biotechnology contributes to achievements in healthcare, better utilization of resources, and a bio-based economy. Copyright © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Editorial: Biotechnology Journal's diverse coverage of biotechnology. (United States)

    Wink, Michael


    This issue of Biotechnology Journal is a regular issue edited by Prof. Michael Wink. The issue covers all the major focus areas of the journal, including medical biotechnology, synthetic biology, and novel biotechnological methods. Copyright © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Leveraging the geospatial advantage (United States)

    Ben Butler; Andrew Bailey


    The Wildland Fire Decision Support System (WFDSS) web-based application leverages geospatial data to inform strategic decisions on wildland fires. A specialized data team, working within the Wildland Fire Management Research Development and Application group (WFM RD&A), assembles authoritative national-level data sets defining values to be protected. The use of...

  2. Biotechnology organizations in action

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norus, Jesper

    This volume analyzes the dynamics and interactive processes among the players (individuals, institutions, and organizations/firms) that have constituted and legitimized the development of the biotechnology industries. The unit of analysis is small entrepreneurial firms developing biotechnological...

  3. Biotechnology Towards Energy Crops. (United States)

    Margaritopoulou, Theoni; Roka, Loukia; Alexopoulou, Efi; Christou, Myrsini; Rigas, Stamatis; Haralampidis, Kosmas; Milioni, Dimitra


    New crops are gradually establishing along with cultivation systems to reduce reliance on depleting fossil fuel reserves and sustain better adaptation to climate change. These biological assets could be efficiently exploited as bioenergy feedstocks. Bioenergy crops are versatile renewable sources with the potential to alternatively contribute on a daily basis towards the coverage of modern society's energy demands. Biotechnology may facilitate the breeding of elite energy crop genotypes, better suited for bio-processing and subsequent use that will improve efficiency, further reduce costs, and enhance the environmental benefits of biofuels. Innovative molecular techniques may improve a broad range of important features including biomass yield, product quality and resistance to biotic factors like pests or microbial diseases or environmental cues such as drought, salinity, freezing injury or heat shock. The current review intends to assess the capacity of biotechnological applications to develop a beneficial bioenergy pipeline extending from feedstock development to sustainable biofuel production and provide examples of the current state of the art on future energy crops.

  4. Development of health biotechnology in developing countries: can private-sector players be the prime movers? (United States)

    Abuduxike, Gulifeiya; Aljunid, Syed Mohamed


    Health biotechnology has rapidly become vital in helping healthcare systems meet the needs of the poor in developing countries. This key industry also generates revenue and creates employment opportunities in these countries. To successfully develop biotechnology industries in developing nations, it is critical to understand and improve the system of health innovation, as well as the role of each innovative sector and the linkages between the sectors. Countries' science and technology capacities can be strengthened only if there are non-linear linkages and strong interrelations among players throughout the innovation process; these relationships generate and transfer knowledge related to commercialization of the innovative health products. The private sector is one of the main actors in healthcare innovation, contributing significantly to the development of health biotechnology via knowledge, expertise, resources and relationships to translate basic research and development into new commercial products and innovative processes. The role of the private sector has been increasingly recognized and emphasized by governments, agencies and international organizations. Many partnerships between the public and private sector have been established to leverage the potential of the private sector to produce more affordable healthcare products. Several developing countries that have been actively involved in health biotechnology are becoming the main players in this industry. The aim of this paper is to discuss the role of the private sector in health biotechnology development and to study its impact on health and economic growth through case studies in South Korea, India and Brazil. The paper also discussed the approaches by which the private sector can improve the health and economic status of the poor. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Leverage Aversion and Risk Parity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asness, Clifford; Frazzini, Andrea; Heje Pedersen, Lasse


    The authors show that leverage aversion changes the predictions of modern portfolio theory: Safer assets must offer higher risk-adjusted returns than riskier assets. Consuming the high risk-adjusted returns of safer assets requires leverage, creating an opportunity for investors with the ability...... to apply leverage. Risk parity portfolios exploit this opportunity by equalizing the risk allocation across asset classes, thus overweighting safer assets relative to their weight in the market portfolio....

  6. Stochastic volatility and stochastic leverage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Veraart, Almut; Veraart, Luitgard A. M.

    This paper proposes the new concept of stochastic leverage in stochastic volatility models. Stochastic leverage refers to a stochastic process which replaces the classical constant correlation parameter between the asset return and the stochastic volatility process. We provide a systematic...... models which allow for a stochastic leverage effect: the generalised Heston model and the generalised Barndorff-Nielsen & Shephard model. We investigate the impact of a stochastic leverage effect in the risk neutral world by focusing on implied volatilities generated by option prices derived from our new...

  7. 13 CFR 107.1230 - Draw-downs by Licensee under SBA's Leverage commitment. (United States)


    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Draw-downs by Licensee under SBA's... Commitments by Sba to Reserve Leverage for A Licensee § 107.1230 Draw-downs by Licensee under SBA's Leverage... for a draw against SBA's Leverage commitment, you authorize SBA, or any agent or trustee SBA...

  8. Progress towards the 'Golden Age' of biotechnology. (United States)

    Gartland, K M A; Bruschi, F; Dundar, M; Gahan, P B; Viola Magni, M p; Akbarova, Y


    Biotechnology uses substances, materials or extracts derived from living cells, employing 22 million Europeans in a € 1.5 Tn endeavour, being the premier global economic growth opportunity this century. Significant advances have been made in red biotechnology using pharmaceutically and medically relevant applications, green biotechnology developing agricultural and environmental tools and white biotechnology serving industrial scale uses, frequently as process feedstocks. Red biotechnology has delivered dramatic improvements in controlling human disease, from antibiotics to overcome bacterial infections to anti-HIV/AIDS pharmaceuticals such as azidothymidine (AZT), anti-malarial compounds and novel vaccines saving millions of lives. Green biotechnology has dramatically increased food production through Agrobacterium and biolistic genetic modifications for the development of 'Golden Rice', pathogen resistant crops expressing crystal toxin genes, drought resistance and cold tolerance to extend growth range. The burgeoning area of white biotechnology has delivered bio-plastics, low temperature enzyme detergents and a host of feedstock materials for industrial processes such as modified starches, without which our everyday lives would be much more complex. Biotechnological applications can bridge these categories, by modifying energy crops properties, or analysing circulating nucleic acid elements, bringing benefits for all, through increased food production, supporting climate change adaptation and the low carbon economy, or novel diagnostics impacting on personalized medicine and genetic disease. Cross-cutting technologies such as PCR, novel sequencing tools, bioinformatics, transcriptomics and epigenetics are in the vanguard of biotechnological progress leading to an ever-increasing breadth of applications. Biotechnology will deliver solutions to unimagined problems, providing food security, health and well-being to mankind for centuries to come. Copyright © 2013

  9. Leverage Aversion and Risk Parity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asness, Clifford; Frazzini, Andrea; Heje Pedersen, Lasse


    The authors show that leverage aversion changes the predictions of modern portfolio theory: Safer assets must offer higher risk-adjusted returns than riskier assets. Consuming the high risk-adjusted returns of safer assets requires leverage, creating an opportunity for investors with the ability ...

  10. 2001 Industry Studies: Biotechnology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library


    .... The applications of biotechnology, such as medicine, agribusiness, forensics, informatics and the defense sector, offer many benefits, but also bring some risk, requiring public policy decisions...

  11. Biotechnology essay competition: biotechnology and sustainable food practices. (United States)

    Peng, Judy; Schoeb, Helena; Lee, Gina


    Biotechnology Journal announces our second biotechnology essay competition with the theme "biotechnology and sustainable food practices", open to all undergraduate students. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Nigerian Journal of Biotechnology

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nigerian Journal of Biotechnology is a publisher of multidisciplinary peer-reviews original research works and critical reviews on interdisciplinary studies in Biotechnology, Agriculture, Food and Environment interface; and is published twice a year. It serves scientists in the field of Agriculture, Food science and Technology; ...

  13. Biotechnology in China

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hamer, Dean H; Kung, Shain-dow


    ... and Shain-dow Kung Center for Agricultural Biotechnology Maryland Biotechnology Institute Department of Botany University of Maryland College Park, Maryland Committee on Scholarly Communication with the People's Republic of China National Academy of Sciences National Academy Press Washington, DC 1989 i Copyrightthe cannot be not from bo...

  14. New challenges in microalgae biotechnology. (United States)

    Valverde, Federico; Romero-Campero, Francisco J; León, Rosa; Guerrero, Miguel G; Serrano, Aurelio


    Photosynthetic protists, also called microalgae, have been systematically studied for more than a century. However, only recently broad biotechnological applications have fostered a novel wave of research on their potentialities as sustainable resources of renewable energy as well as valuable industrial and agro-food products. At the recent VII European Congress of Protistology held in Seville, three outstanding examples of different research strategies on microalgae with biotechnological implications were presented, which suggested that integrative approaches will produce very significant advances in this field in the next future. In any case, intense research and the application of systems biology and genetic engineering techniques are absolutely essential to reach the full potential of microalgae as cell-factories of bio-based products and, therefore, could contribute significantly to solve the problems of biosustainability and energy shortage. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  15. Mechatronics design principles for biotechnology product development. (United States)

    Mandenius, Carl-Fredrik; Björkman, Mats


    Traditionally, biotechnology design has focused on the manufacture of chemicals and biologics. Still, a majority of biotechnology products that appear on the market today is the result of mechanical-electric (mechatronic) construction. For these, the biological components play decisive roles in the design solution; the biological entities are either integral parts of the design, or are transformed by the mechatronic system. This article explains how the development and production engineering design principles used for typical mechanical products can be adapted to the demands of biotechnology products, and how electronics, mechanics and biology can be integrated more successfully. We discuss three emerging areas of biotechnology in which mechatronic design principles can apply: stem cell manufacture, artificial organs, and bioreactors. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Modern Biotechnology in China (United States)

    Wang, Qing-Zhao; Zhao, Xue-Ming

    In recent years, with the booming economy, the Chinese government has increased its financial input to biotechnology research, which has led to remarkable achievements by China in modern biotechnology. As one of the key parts of modern biotechnology, industrial biotechnology will be crucial for China's sustainable development in this century. This review presents an overview of Chinese industrial biotechnology in last 10 years. Modern biotechnology had been classified into metabolic engineering and systems biology framework. Metabolic engineering is a field of broad fundamental and practical concept so we integrated the related technology achievements into the real practices of many metabolic engineering cases, such as biobased products production, environmental control and others. Now metabolic engineering is developing towards the systems level. Chinese researchers have also embraced this concept and have contributed invaluable things in genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics and related bioinformatics. A series of advanced laboratories or centers were established which will represent Chinese modern biotechnology development in the near future. At the end of this review, metabolic network research advances have also been mentioned.

  17. Traditional Chinese Biotechnology (United States)

    Xu, Yan; Wang, Dong; Fan, Wen Lai; Mu, Xiao Qing; Chen, Jian

    The earliest industrial biotechnology originated in ancient China and developed into a vibrant industry in traditional Chinese liquor, rice wine, soy sauce, and vinegar. It is now a significant component of the Chinese economy valued annually at about 150 billion RMB. Although the production methods had existed and remained basically unchanged for centuries, modern developments in biotechnology and related fields in the last decades have greatly impacted on these industries and led to numerous technological innovations. In this chapter, the main biochemical processes and related technological innovations in traditional Chinese biotechnology are illustrated with recent advances in functional microbiology, microbial ecology, solid-state fermentation, enzymology, chemistry of impact flavor compounds, and improvements made to relevant traditional industrial facilities. Recent biotechnological advances in making Chinese liquor, rice wine, soy sauce, and vinegar are reviewed.

  18. Fungal biodiversity to biotechnology. (United States)

    Chambergo, Felipe S; Valencia, Estela Y


    Fungal habitats include soil, water, and extreme environments. With around 100,000 fungus species already described, it is estimated that 5.1 million fungus species exist on our planet, making fungi one of the largest and most diverse kingdoms of eukaryotes. Fungi show remarkable metabolic features due to a sophisticated genomic network and are important for the production of biotechnological compounds that greatly impact our society in many ways. In this review, we present the current state of knowledge on fungal biodiversity, with special emphasis on filamentous fungi and the most recent discoveries in the field of identification and production of biotechnological compounds. More than 250 fungus species have been studied to produce these biotechnological compounds. This review focuses on three of the branches generally accepted in biotechnological applications, which have been identified by a color code: red, green, and white for pharmaceutical, agricultural, and industrial biotechnology, respectively. We also discuss future prospects for the use of filamentous fungi in biotechnology application.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John I. Bruce


    Full Text Available Biotechnology as a science includes various aspects of the management and manipulation of biological systems. Recent advances in immunology, molecular biology, cell culture and other associated areas provide an opportunity for scientists to move biology out of the laboratory and into the realms of society. This has many implications which mankind on a whole may not be prepared to cope with at this time. This new capability has been referred to as "Biotechnology". Biotechnology has also been defined as "the integrated use of biochemistry, microbiology, and chemical engineering in order to achieve the capacities of microbes and culture cells". Genetic engineering which includes gene splicing and recombinant DNA-cloning is an example of a recent offshoot of biotechnology. Because of the advent of biotechnology, one can now think of the prospect of engineering tomorrows vaccines. In the past, vaccine development has been laborious and in many instances an unrewarding task. After years of effort only a handful of safe, effective vaccines have emerged. In the biotechnology arena, new methodologies and strategies for immunizing humans and domestic animals against infectious diseases are providing new hope for discovering successful vaccines. While most of the effort in the past has focused on viral vaccine development, attention is now being directed towards vaccines for protection against parasitic diseases. Currently, considerable effort is being made to develop vaccines for malaria, coccidiosis (in fowl, cholera, malaria, schistosomiasis and trypanosomiasis among others.

  20. Biotechnology Patenting in the BRICS Countries: Strategies and Dynamics. (United States)

    Streltsova, Ekaterina; Linton, Jonathan D


    The BRICS countries (Brazil, Russia, India, China, South Africa) account for 25% of global biotechnology patents. To understand the current and future landscape of the domain, it is important to better understand the capacity of these contributors. Here, we consider the thematic priorities, strategies, and key players of the BRICS countries in biotechnology patenting. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Leverage points for sustainability transformation. (United States)

    Abson, David J; Fischer, Joern; Leventon, Julia; Newig, Jens; Schomerus, Thomas; Vilsmaier, Ulli; von Wehrden, Henrik; Abernethy, Paivi; Ives, Christopher D; Jager, Nicolas W; Lang, Daniel J


    Despite substantial focus on sustainability issues in both science and politics, humanity remains on largely unsustainable development trajectories. Partly, this is due to the failure of sustainability science to engage with the root causes of unsustainability. Drawing on ideas by Donella Meadows, we argue that many sustainability interventions target highly tangible, but essentially weak, leverage points (i.e. using interventions that are easy, but have limited potential for transformational change). Thus, there is an urgent need to focus on less obvious but potentially far more powerful areas of intervention. We propose a research agenda inspired by systems thinking that focuses on transformational 'sustainability interventions', centred on three realms of leverage: reconnecting people to nature, restructuring institutions and rethinking how knowledge is created and used in pursuit of sustainability. The notion of leverage points has the potential to act as a boundary object for genuinely transformational sustainability science.

  2. Commercialization of animal biotechnology. (United States)

    Faber, D C; Molina, J A; Ohlrichs, C L; Vander Zwaag, D F; Ferré, L B


    Commercialization of animal biotechnology is a wide-ranging topic for discussion. In this paper, we will attempt to review embryo transfer (ET) and related technologies that relate to food-producing mammals. A brief review of the history of advances in biotechnology will provide a glimpse to present and future applications. Commercialization of animal biotechnology is presently taking two pathways. The first application involves the use of animals for biomedical purposes. Very few companies have developed all of the core competencies and intellectual properties to complete the bridge from lab bench to product. The second pathway of application is for the production of animals used for food. Artificial insemination (AI), embryo transfer, in vitro fertilization (IVF), cloning, transgenics, and genomics all are components of the toolbox for present and future applications. Individually, these are powerful tools capable of providing significant improvements in productivity. Combinations of these technologies coupled with information systems and data analysis, will provide even more significant change in the next decade. Any strategies for the commercial application of animal biotechnology must include a careful review of regulatory and social concerns. Careful review of industry infrastructure is also important. Our colleagues in plant biotechnology have helped highlight some of these pitfalls and provide us with a retrospective review. In summary, today we have core competencies that provide a wealth of opportunities for the members of this society, commercial companies, producers, and the general population. Successful commercialization will benefit all of the above stakeholders. Copyright 2002 Elsevier Science Inc.

  3. Leveraging Synergiesn in Global Sourcing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Englyst, Linda; Stegmann Mikkelsen, Ole; Johansen, John


    Leveraging synergies in global sourcing is not a straightforward task, and requires a balanced approach to organizing, taking into consideration a number of situational factors. These include, but are not limited to, strategic significance, product specificity, market complexity, coherency and th...... case company, investigated through a historical review and explorative interviews regarding recent experiences and improvement ideas....

  4. Biotechnological production of vanillin. (United States)

    Priefert, H; Rabenhorst, J; Steinbüchel, A


    Vanillin is one of the most important aromatic flavor compounds used in foods, beverages, perfumes, and pharmaceuticals and is produced on a scale of more than 10 thousand tons per year by the industry through chemical synthesis. Alternative biotechnology-based approaches for the production are based on bioconversion of lignin, phenolic stilbenes, isoeugenol, eugenol, ferulic acid, or aromatic amino acids, and on de novo biosynthesis, applying fungi, bacteria, plant cells, or genetically engineered microorganisms. Here, the different biosynthesis routes involved in biotechnological vanillin production are discussed.

  5. Agave biotechnology: an overview. (United States)

    Nava-Cruz, Naivy Y; Medina-Morales, Miguel A; Martinez, José L; Rodriguez, R; Aguilar, Cristóbal N


    Agaves are plants of importance both in Mexican culture and economy and in other Latin-American countries. Mexico is reported to be the place of Agave origin, where today, scientists are looking for different industrial applications without compromising its sustainability and preserving the environment. To make it possible, a deep knowledge of all aspects involved in production process, agro-ecological management and plant biochemistry and physiology is required. Agave biotechnology research has been focusing on bio-fuels, beverages, foods, fibers, saponins among others. In this review, we present the advances and challenges of Agave biotechnology.

  6. Colloids in Biotechnology

    CERN Document Server

    Fanun, Monzer


    Colloids have come a long way from when Thomas Graham coined the term colloid to describe 'pseudo solutions'. This book enables scientists to close the gap between extensive research and translation into commercial options in biomedicine and biotechnology. It covers biosurfactants and surface properties, phase behavior, and orientational change of surfactant mixtures with peptides at the interface. It also covers adsorption of polymers and biopolymers on the surface and interface, discusses colloidal nanoparticles and their use in biotechnology, and delves into bioadhesion and microencapsulati

  7. Disclosing Biology Teachers' Beliefs about Biotechnology and Biotechnology Education (United States)

    Fonseca, Maria Joao; Costa, Patricio; Lencastre, Leonor; Tavares, Fernando


    Teachers have been shown to frequently avoid addressing biotechnology topics. Aiming to understand the extent to which teachers' scarce engagement in biotechnology teaching is influenced by their beliefs and/or by extrinsic constraints, such as practical limitations, this study evaluates biology teachers' beliefs about biotechnology and…

  8. Concepts in Biotechnology An Affordable Overview of Biotechnology ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 2; Issue 9. Concepts in Biotechnology An Affordable Overview of Biotechnology Through Self Study ... Author Affiliations. Narayan S Punekar1. Molecular Enzymology Group, Biotechnology Centre, Indian Institute of Technology, Mumbai 400 076, India.

  9. National Center for Biotechnology Information (United States)

    ... to NCBI Sign Out NCBI National Center for Biotechnology Information Search database All Databases Assembly Biocollections BioProject ... Search Welcome to NCBI The National Center for Biotechnology Information advances science and health by providing access ...

  10. Biotechnological advances in Lilium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakhshaie, Mehdi; Khosravi, Solmaz; Azadi, Pejman; Bagheri, Hedayat; Tuyl, van Jaap M.


    Modern powerful techniques in plant biotechnology have been developed in lilies (Lilium spp., Liliaceae) to propagate, improve and make new phenotypes. Reliable in vitro culture methods are available to multiply lilies rapidly and shorten breeding programs. Lilium is also an ideal model plant to

  11. TSCA Biotechnology Notifications Status (United States)

    This Notifications Table lists only those submissions received under the Biotechnology Regulation, beginning in 1998. From the Table, you can link to a brief summary of select submission and, in many cases, to a fact sheet on the decision reached by OPPT.

  12. Biotechnology of trees: Chestnut (United States)

    C.D. Nelson; W.A. Powell; S.A. Merkle; J.E. Carlson; F.V. Hebard; N Islam-Faridi; M.E. Staton; L. Georgi


    Biotechnology has been practiced on chestnuts (Castanea spp.) for many decades, including vegetative propagation, controlled crossing followed by testing and selection, genetic and cytogenetic mapping, genetic modifi cation, and gene and genome sequencing. Vegetative propagation methods have ranged from grafting and rooting to somatic embryogenesis, often in...

  13. State responses to biotechnology. (United States)

    Harris, Rebecca C


    This article reviews biotechnology legislation in the 50 states for 11 policy areas spanning 1990-2010, an era of immense growth in biotechnology, genetic knowledge, and significant policy development. Policies regarding health insurance, life insurance, long-term care insurance, DNA data bank collection, biotech research protection, biotech promotion and support, employment discrimination, genetic counselor licensing, human cloning, and genetic privacy each represent major policy responses arising from biotechnology and coinciding with key areas of state regulation (insurance, criminal justice, economic development, labor law, health and safety, privacy, and property rights). This analysis seeks to answer three questions regarding biotechnology legislation at the state level: who is acting (policy adoption), when is policy adopted (policy timing), and what is policy doing (policy content). Theoretical concerns examine state ideology (conservative or liberal), policy type (economic or moral), and the role of external events (federal law, news events, etc.) on state policy adoption. Findings suggest ideological patterns in adoption, timing, and content of biotech policy. Findings also suggest economic policies tend to be more uniform in content than moral policies, and findings also document a clear link between federal policy development, external events, and state policy response.

  14. Biotechnology in weed control (United States)

    Biotechnology can be used to enhance the management of weeds in several ways. Crops have been made resistant to herbicides by inserting transgenes that impart herbicide resistance into the plant genome. Glyphosate and glufosinate-resistant crops are commercialized in North America and crops made res...

  15. African Journal of Biotechnology

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The African Journal of Biotechnology (AJB), a new broad-based journal, was founded on two key tenets: To publish the most exciting research in all areas of applied biochemistry, industrial microbiology, molecular biology, genomics and proteomics, food and agricultural technologies, and metabolic engineering. Secondly ...

  16. Biotechnology: interferon patent contested. (United States)

    Earl, C; Beardsley, T

    Biogen, a biotechnology company based in Cambridge, Mass., and Geneva, Switzerland, has been notified by the European Patent Office that it will receive a product patent for its alpha interferon synthesized by recombinant DNA technology. Genentech, a San Francisco company which claims priority for producing mature interferon, is planning a vigorous appeal of the decision.

  17. Biotechnology and Innovation Systems

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    His main research activities are connected to science and technology policies and national and local systems of innovation in less developed countries. ...... of the Brazilian productive structure in energy-related areas – bio-fuels, oil, and so on – biotechnology research has started to target energy-related activities. However ...

  18. Biotechnological Innovations in Aquaculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mangesh M. Bhosale


    Full Text Available Aquaculture is gaining commendable importance to meet the required protein source for ever increasing human population. The aquaculture industry is currently facing problems on developing economically viable production systems by reducing the impact on environment. Sustainable and enhanced fish production from aquaculture may be better achieved through application of recent biotechnological innovations. Utilisation of transgenic technology has led to production of fishes with faster growth rate with disease resistance. The full advantage of this technology could not be achieved due to concern of acceptance for Genetically Modified Organisms (GMOs. The biotechnological intervention in developing plant based feed ingredient in place of fish meal which contain high phosphorus is of prime area of attention for fish feed industry. The replacement of fish meal will also reduce fish feed cost to a greater extent. Year round fish seed production of carps through various biotechnological interventions is also need of the hour. This paper discusses technical, environmental and managerial considerations regarding the use of these biotechnological tools in aquaculture along with the advantages of research application and its commercialization.

  19. Biotechnologies and Human Dignity (United States)

    Sweet, William; Masciulli, Joseph


    In this article, the authors review some contemporary cases where biotechnologies have been employed, where they have had global implications, and where there has been considerable debate. The authors argue that the concept of dignity, which lies at the center of such documents as the 2005 Universal Declaration on Bioethics and Human Rights, the…

  20. Infusing Authentic Inquiry into Biotechnology (United States)

    Hanegan, Nikki L.; Bigler, Amber


    Societal benefit depends on the general public's understandings of biotechnology (Betsch in World J Microbiol Biotechnol 12:439-443, 1996; Dawson and Cowan in Int J Sci Educ 25(1):57-69, 2003; Schiller in Business Review: Federal Reserve Bank of Philadelphia (Fourth Quarter), 2002; Smith and Emmeluth in Am Biol Teach 64(2):93-99, 2002). A National Science Foundation funded survey of high school biology teachers reported that hands-on biotechnology education exists in advanced high school biology in the United States, but is non-existent in mainstream biology coursework (Micklos et al. in Biotechnology labs in American high schools, 1998). The majority of pre-service teacher content preparation courses do not teach students appropriate content knowledge through the process of inquiry. A broad continuum exists when discussing inquiry-oriented student investigations (Hanegan et al. in School Sci Math J 109(2):110-134, 2009). Depending on the amount of structure in teacher lessons, inquiries can often be categorized as guided or open. The lesson can be further categorized as simple or authentic (Chinn and Malhotra in Sci Educ 86(2):175-218, 2002). Although authentic inquiries provide the best opportunities for cognitive development and scientific reasoning, guided and simple inquiries are more often employed in the classroom (Crawford in J Res Sci Teach 37(9):916-937, 2000; NRC in Inquiry and the national science education standards: a guide for teaching and learning, 2000). For the purposes of this study we defined inquiry as "authentic" if original research problems were resolved (Hanegan et al. in School Sci Math J 109(2):110-134, 2009; Chinn and Malhotra in Sci Educ 86(2):175-218, 2002; Roth in Authentic school science: knowing and learning in open-inquiry science laboratories, 1995). The research question to guide this study through naturalistic inquiry research methods was: How will participants express whether or not an authentic inquiry experience enhanced

  1. Leverage effect in energy futures

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krištoufek, Ladislav


    Roč. 45, č. 1 (2014), s. 1-9 ISSN 0140-9883 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GP14-11402P Grant - others:GA ČR(CZ) GAP402/11/0948 Program:GA Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : energy commodities * leverage effect * volatility * long-term memory Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 2.708, year: 2014

  2. 13 CFR 108.1230 - Draw-downs by NMVC Company under SBA's Leverage commitment. (United States)


    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Draw-downs by NMVC Company under...) Conditional Commitments by Sba to Reserve Leverage for A Nmvc Company § 108.1230 Draw-downs by NMVC Company... submitting a request for a draw against SBA's Leverage commitment, you authorize SBA, or any agent or trustee...

  3. Operating Leverage over the Business Cycle


    Bhattacharjee, A.; Higson, C.; Holly, S.


    Operating leverage describes the extent to which a firm's operating costs are fixed in the short run. The effect of operating leverage is to amplify the impact on profit of a change in revenues; an effect which is further amplified by financial leverage and by asymmetry in the tax system. In this paper we provide empirical estimates of operating leverage at the firm level, using a long panel of data on UK quoted firms. We report sectoral differences in operating leverage around the business c...

  4. Environmental Biotechnology in China (United States)

    Liu, Shuang Jiang; Liu, Lei; Chaudhry, Muhammad Tausif; Wang, Lei; Chen, Ying Guang; Zhou, Qi; Liu, He; Chen, Jian

    Environmental biotechnology has emerged as an important measure to tackle the environmental pollution as China experiences great economic success. Over the past decade, much emphasis has been paid to the following fields in environmental biotechnology: microbial degradation of toxic and organic chemicals, bio-treatment of wastewater, waste recycling. The Chinese researchers have done a lot of work to understand the natural degradation processes for organic and toxic compounds and finally to clean these compounds from polluted environments. For the treatment of wastewater, many new processes were proposed and optimized to meet the more strict effluent standards in China. Finally, more and more attention has been paid to the reuse of discharged wastes. In this chapter we review the development in the above fields.

  5. Flashing light in microalgae biotechnology. (United States)

    Abu-Ghosh, Said; Fixler, Dror; Dubinsky, Zvy; Iluz, David


    Flashing light can enhance photosynthesis and improve the quality and quantity of microalgal biomass, as it can increase the products of interest by magnitudes. Therefore, the integration of flashing light effect into microalgal cultivation systems should be considered. However, microalgae require a balanced mix of the light/dark cycle for higher growth rates, and respond to light intensity differently according to the pigments acquired or lost during the growth. This review highlights recently published results on flashing light effect on microalgae and its applications in biotechnology, as well as the recently developed bioreactors designed to fulfill this effect. It also discusses how this knowledge can be applied in selecting the optimal light frequencies and intensities with specific technical properties for increasing biomass production and/or the yield of the chemicals of interest by microalgae belonging to different genera. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. DNA polymerases and biotechnological applications. (United States)

    Aschenbrenner, Joos; Marx, Andreas


    A multitude of biotechnological techniques used in basic research as well as in clinical diagnostics on an everyday basis depend on DNA polymerases and their intrinsic capability to replicate DNA strands with astoundingly high fidelity. Applications with fundamental importance to modern molecular biology, including the polymerase chain reaction and DNA sequencing, would not be feasible without the advances made in characterizing these enzymes over the course of the last 60 years. Nonetheless, the still growing application scope of DNA polymerases necessitates the identification of novel enzymes with tailor-made properties. In the recent past, DNA polymerases optimized for diverse PCR and sequencing applications as well as enzymes that accept a variety of unnatural substrates for the synthesis and reverse transcription of modified nucleic acids have been developed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Biotechnology for renewable chemicals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borodina, Irina; Kildegaard, Kanchana Rueksomtawin; Jensen, Niels Bjerg


    The majority of the industrial organic chemicals are derived from fossil sources. With the oil and gas resources becoming limiting, biotechnology offers a sustainable alternative for production ofchemicals from renewable feedstocks. Yeast is an attractive cell factory forsustainable production...... for the production of non-native 3-hydroxypropionic acid (3HP).3HP can be chemically dehydrated into acrylic acid and thus can serve as a biosustainable building block for acrylate-based products (diapers, acrylic paints, acrylic polymers, etc.)...

  8. Biotechnology in maize breeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mladenović-Drinić Snežana


    Full Text Available Maize is one of the most important economic crops and the best studied and most tractable genetic system among monocots. The development of biotechnology has led to a great increase in our knowledge of maize genetics and understanding of the structure and behaviour of maize genomes. Conventional breeding practices can now be complemented by a number of new and powerful techniques. Some of these often referred to as molecular methods, enable scientists to see the layout of the entire genome of any organism and to select plants with preferred characteristics by "reading" at the molecular level, saving precious time and resources. DNA markers have provided valuable tools in various analyses ranging from phylogenetic analysis to the positional cloning of genes. Application of molecular markers for genetic studies of maize include: assessment of genetic variability and characterization of germ plasm, identification and fingerprinting of genotypes, estimation of genetic distance, detection of monogamic and quantitative trait loci, marker assisted selection, identification of sequence of useful candidate genes, etc. The development of high-density molecular maps which has been facilitated by PCR-based markers, have made the mapping and tagging of almost any trait possible and serve as bases for marker assisted selection. Sequencing of maize genomes would help to elucidate gene function, gene regulation and their expression. Modern biotechnology also includes an array of tools for introducing or deieting a particular gene or genes to produce plants with novel traits. Development of informatics and biotechnology are resulted in bioinformatic as well as in expansion of microarrey technique. Modern biotechnologies could complement and improve the efficiency of traditional selection and breeding techniques to enhance agricultural productivity.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. I. Artiukhova


    Full Text Available Summary. The article presents data on the development of technology and qualitative research, bio-products «Healing-1». One of the promising directions in food biotechnology is the development of new integrated starter-based consortia of microorganisms, which have higher activity compared with cultures prepared using pure cultures. So it was interesting studies on the development of new biotechnology and bio-based microbial consortium of lactic acid bacteria. Based on the analysis of biotechnological properties of native cultures created a new consortium of microorganisms containing lactic acid streptococci and bacilli, allowing the maximum extent possible to implement the physiological, biochemical and technological potential of microorganisms. Scientifically substantiated and experimentally developed a new biotechnology production of bioproducts «Healing-1», obtained on the basis of microbial consortium with broad spectrum antimicrobial activity. Experimentally investigated quality parameters of organic food «Healing-1» using a new microbial consortium as freshly prepared and during storage. Found that antagonistic activity of microflora bio «Healing-1» with respect to pathogenic and conditionally pathogenic bacteria, as well as its resistance to substances in the gastrointestinal tract of man is more pronounced compared to bioproducts obtained using a separate starter, members of the microbial consortium. It should be noted a more pronounced synthesis of exopolysaccharides in bioproduct «Healing-1», which leads to increased viscosity of the system and improves the consistency of bio. New bioproducts have good organoleptic characteristics and contain a high number of viable cells of lactic acid bacteria. High stability and survival of lactic acid bacteria during storage. In the study of attacked proteins bioproducts digestive proteinases «in vitro» found that the fermentation of milk microbial consortium increases the digestibility

  10. Practicing environmental biotechnology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce E.Rittmann


    Full Text Available Environmental biotechnology involves ″managing microbial communities to provide services to society″.Its success comes from partnering with prokaryotic microorganisms,whose wideranging metabolic capabilities can be harnessed to destroy pollutants and to generate renewable materials.Partnering with microorganisms requires that we understand them well,and important advances in molecular microbial ecology,analytical chemistry,and mathematical modeling are making it possible to look inside the black box of microbial communities.Also crucial is translating the understanding to biotechnological processes that ″work for the microorganisms so that they work for us″.Successful translation demands novel reactor designs,application of advanced materials,and partnering with practitioners and users.The Swette Center for Environmental Biotechnology,founded in at Arizona State University in 2005,brings together the science and engineering tools in an interdisciplinary environment.The Center emphasizes teamwork and collaborations with research and practice partners around the world.Three new technologies illustrate how the Center applies these principles to ″work for the microorganisms″:the H2-based membrane biofilm reactor (MBfR for reducing many oxidized contaminants in water,the microbial electrochemical cells (MXCs for converting organic wastes into renewable products,and Intimately Coupled PhotoBioCatalysis (ICPBC to detoxify very difficult to biodegrade organic pollutants.

  11. Biotechnology's foreign policy. (United States)

    Feldbaum, Carl


    From its inception, biotechnology has been a uniquely international enterprise. An American and an Englishman working together elucidated the structure of DNA almost 50 years ago; more recently, the Human Genome Project linked researchers around the world, from the Baylor College of Medicine in Houston to the Beijing Human Genome Center. Today our industry's researchers hail from African villages and Manhattan high rises; from Munich and Melbourne; from London, Ontario, and London, England; from Scotland and Nova Scotia--New Scotland; from Calcutta and Calgary. But in the beginning, the infrastructure that supported these efforts--intellectual property, venture capital, streamlined technology transfer--was less widely dispersed and the world's brightest biotech researchers clustered in only half a dozen scientific Meccas. Previous technological revolutions have spread around the world. Following in their footsteps, biotechnology's global diaspora seems inevitable, especially since governments are promoting it. But as our science and business emigrate from early strongholds in the United States, Canada and Europe across oceans and borders and into new cultures, international tensions over biotechnology continue to grow. In just the last few years, controversies have rolled over R&D spending priorities, genetic patents, bioprospecting, transgenic agriculture and drug pricing. My premise today is that our industry needs to formulate its first foreign policy, one which is cognizant of the miserable judgments and mistakes of other industries--and avoids them.

  12. Biotechnology in soybean breeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudarić Aleksandra


    Full Text Available Biotechnology can be defined broadly as a set of tools that allows scientists to genetically characterize or improve living organisms. Several emerging technologies, such as molecular characterization and genetic transformation, are already being used extensively for the purpose of plant improvement. Other emerging sciences, including genomics and proteomics, are also starting to impact plant improvement. Tools provided by biotechnology will not replace classical breeding methods, but rather will help provide new discoveries and contribute to improved nutritional value and yield enhancement through greater resistance to disease, herbicides and abiotic factors. In soybeans, biotechnology has and will continue to play a valuable role in public and private soybean breeding programs. Based on the availability and combination of conventional and molecular technologies, a substantial increase in the rate of genetic gain for economically important soybean traits can be predicted in the next decade. In this paper, a short review of technologies for molecular markers analysis in soybean is given as well as achievements in the area of genetic transformation in soybean.

  13. Construction Biotechnology: a new area of biotechnological research and applications. (United States)

    Stabnikov, Viktor; Ivanov, Volodymyr; Chu, Jian


    A new scientific and engineering discipline, Construction Biotechnology, is developing exponentially during the last decade. The major directions of this discipline are selection of microorganisms and development of the microbially-mediated construction processes and biotechnologies for the production of construction biomaterials. The products of construction biotechnologies are low cost, sustainable, and environmentally friendly microbial biocements and biogrouts for the construction ground improvement. The microbial polysaccharides are used as admixtures for cement. Microbially produced biodegradable bioplastics can be used for the temporarily constructions. The bioagents that are used in construction biotechnologies are either pure or enrichment cultures of microorganisms or activated indigenous microorganisms of soil. The applications of microorganisms in the construction processes are bioaggregation, biocementation, bioclogging, and biodesaturation of soil. The biotechnologically produced construction materials and the microbially-mediated construction technologies have a lot of advantages in comparison with the conventional construction materials and processes. Proper practical implementations of construction biotechnologies could give significant economic and environmental benefits.

  14. "Othering" agricultural biotechnology: Slovenian media representation of agricultural biotechnology. (United States)

    Zajc, Jožica; Erjavec, Karmen


    While studies on media representations of agricultural biotechnology mostly analyse media texts, this work is intended to fill a research gap with an analysis of journalistic interpretations of media representations. The purpose of this project was to determine how news media represent agricultural biotechnology and how journalists interpret their own representations. A content and critical discourse analysis of news texts published in the Slovenian media over two years and in-depth interviews with their authors were conducted. News texts results suggest that most of the news posts were "othering" biotechnology and biotechnologists: biotechnology as a science and individual scientists are represented as "they," who are socially irresponsible, ignorant, arrogant, and "our" enemies who produce unnatural processes and work for biotechnology companies, whose greed is destroying people, animals, and the environment. Most journalists consider these representations to be objective because they have published the biotechnologists' opinions, despite their own negative attitudes towards biotechnology.

  15. Biotechnology: reality or dream

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantinov Kosana


    Full Text Available The development of molecular biology and molecular genetics, especially of the recombinant DNA technology enabled improvement of experimental methods that provide manipulation within a cell-free system, such as cell and tissue cultures. Such methods resulted in the development of different new technologies with specific properties in relation to the conventional definitions. According to PERSLEY and lantin (2000 the following components are essential for the contemporary biotechnology: (i genomics - a molecular characterization of all genes and gene products of an organism (ii bioinformatics - the assembly of data from genomic analysis into accessible forms; (iii transformation - the introduction of genes controlling a trait of interest into a genome of a desired organism (micro organisms, plants, animal systems. By the application of cotemporary biotechnology new methods in the field of diagnostic are developed such as rapid and more accurate identification of the presence and absence of genes in the genome of the organism of interest (identification of pathogens prenatal diagnostics, molecular markers assisted breeding for plants, etc. The traits of an organism are determined by its genetic material, i.e. by a molecule of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA. watson and crick (1953 were the first scientists to describe the structure of DNA as a double-stranded helix. Higher organisms contain a set of linear DNA molecules - chromosomes and a full set of chromosomes of an organism is a genome. Each genome is divided into a series of functional units, i.e. genes. The traits of an organism depend on genes, but their expression depends not only on genes but also on many other factors, including whether a gene, controlling the trait, expresses, specific cells in which it expresses and specially the mode by which the gene and its product interact with the environment. A special aspect within the application of biotechnology occurs as an interaction of a

  16. The impact of plant biotechnology on food allergy. (United States)

    Herman, Eliot M; Burks, A Wesley


    Concerns about food allergy and its societal growth are intertwined with the growing advances in plant biotechnology. The knowledge of plant genes and protein structures provides the key foundation to understanding biochemical processes that produce food allergy. Biotechnology offers the prospect of producing low-allergen or allergen null plants that could mitigate the allergic response. Modified low-IgE binding variants of allergens could be used as a vaccine to build immunotolerance in sensitive individuals. The potential to introduce new allergens into the food supply by biotechnology products is a regulatory concern. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. The biotechnology and bioeconomy landscape in Malaysia. (United States)

    Arujanan, Mahaletchumy; Singaram, Muthu


    Since 1990s Malaysia aspired to make biotechnology and bioeconomy as her engines of economic growth to utlise the abundance of natural resources and biodiversity. The public sector plays an integral role in developing the sector and various incentives are in place for the private sector to be actively involved and to forge collaboration with the public sector. The country launched its National Biotechnology Policy in 2005 and later launched its National Bioeconomy Programme in 2010 to become the first country in South East Asia and second in Asia after China to have such an initiative. Malaysia is also very proactive in its biosafety law and regulations and has most of the related legal instrument in place. A lot of success has been recorded since the inception of the National Biotechnology Policy in terms of job creation, contribution to GDP through biobusinesses and investment from foreign companies, but the sector is not spared from challenges too. Due to the nature of the discipline that is multidisciplinary and that requires huge amount of investment, expertise and political will, there are a lot of barriers before the country emerges as a bioeconomy player. This paper discusses the public policies, initiatives and funding mechanisms in place in Malaysia that drive its research, development and commercialisation in the area of biotechnology and bioeconomy. The authors also discuss the challenges faced in Malaysia in implementing the policies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Jurković


    Full Text Available Research studies in the area of biotechnologies in fruit growing started at the Agricultural Institute Osijek in 2006 with the establishment of the first experimental in vitro laboratory for micropropagation. The laboratory started an active research related to the Project "Biotechnological methods in fruit tree identification, selection and propagation" Project is part of program "Preservation and revitalization of grape and fruit autochthonous cultivars". The goal of this research is to determine genetic differences between autochthonous and introduced cultivars of cherry as well as cultivars and types of sour cherry, to find and optimize a method for fast recovery of clonal material. A great number of cherry cultivars and types within the population of cv. Oblacinska sour cherry exists in Croatia. A survey with the purpose of selecting autochthonous cultivars for further selection has been done in previous research. Differences have been found in a number of important agronomic traits within the populations of cv. Oblačinska sour cherry. Autochthonous cherry cultivars are suspected to be synonyms of known old cultivars which were introduced randomly and have been naturalized under a local name. Identification and description of cultivars and types of fruits is based on special visible properties which were measurable or notable. In this approach difficulties arise from the effect of non-genetic factors on expression of certain traits. Genetic-physiological problem of S allele autoincompatibility exists within cherry cultivars. Therefore it is necessary to put different cultivars in the plantation to pollinate each other. Apart form the fast and certain sort identification independent of environmental factors, biotechnological methods based on PCR enable faster virus detection compared with classical serologic methods and indexing and cover a wider range of plant pathogens including those undetectable by other methods. Thermotherapy and

  19. Why High Leverage is Optimal for Banks


    Harry DeAngelo; René M. Stulz


    Liquidity production is a central role of banks. We show that, under idealized conditions, high leverage is optimal for banks when there is a market premium for (socially valuable) liquid financial claims and no deviations from Modigliani and Miller (1958) due to agency problems, deposit insurance, taxes, or any other distortions. Our model can explain (i) why bank leverage increased over the last 150 years or so, (ii) why high bank leverage per se does not necessarily cause systemic risk, an...

  20. Concepts in Biotechnology An Affordable Overview of Biotechnology ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 2; Issue 9. Concepts in Biotechnology An Affordable Overview of Biotechnology Through Self Study and Open Learning Graduates. Narayan S Punekar. Book Review Volume 2 Issue 9 September 1997 pp 77-78 ...

  1. Leveraging Digital Innovation in Healthcare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brown, Carol V.; Jensen, Tina Blegind; Aanestad, Margun


    and security concerns, fragmented markets, and misaligned incentives across stakeholders. The panel will focus on this apparent paradox and highlight the potential of big data, cloud and mobile computing for achieving better health. The panel co-chairs will introduce differences in healthcare delivery...... investments in digital infrastructures. New technologies are leveraged to achieve widespread 24x7 disease management, patients’ wellbeing, home-based healthcare and other patient-centric service innovations. Yet, digital innovations in healthcare face barriers in terms of standardization, data privacy...... landscapes in selected countries. Then panelists with expertise in digital data streams, cloud, and mobile computing will present concrete examples of healthcare service innovations that have the potential to address one or more of the global goals. ECIS attendees are invited to join a debate about...

  2. Development of biotechnology in India. (United States)

    Ghose, T K; Bisaria, V S


    India has embarked upon a very ambitious program in biotechnology with a view to harnessing its available human and unlimited biodiversity resources. It has mainly been a government sponsored effort with very little private industry participation in investment. The Department of Biotechnology (DBT) established under the Ministry of Science and Technology in 1986 was the major instrument of action to bring together most talents, material resources, and budgetary provisions. It began sponsoring research in molecular biology, agricultural and medical sciences, plant and animal tissue culture, biofertilizers and biopesticides, environment, human genetics, microbial technology, and bioprocess engineering, etc. The establishment of a number of world class bioscience research institutes and provision of large research grants to some existing universities helped in developing specialized centres of biotechnology. Besides DBT, the Department of Science & Technology (DST), also under the Ministry of S&T, sponsors research at universities working in the basic areas of life sciences. Ministry of Education's most pioneering effort was instrumental in the creation of Biochemical Engineering Research Centre at IIT Delhi with substantial assistance from the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Zurich, Switzerland to make available state-of-the-art infrastructure for education, training, and research in biochemical engineering and biotechnology in 1974. This initiative catalysed biotechnology training and research at many institutions a few years later. With a brief introduction, the major thrust areas of biotechnology development in India have been reviewed in this India Paper which include education and training, agricultural biotechnology, biofertilizers and biopesticides, tissue culture for tree and woody species, medicinal and aromatic plants, biodiversity conservation and environment, vaccine development, animal, aquaculture, seri and food biotechnology, microbial

  3. Forest biotechnology and environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kopriva, S.; Rennenberg, H. [Freiburg Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Forstbotanik und Baumphysiologie


    Forest biotechnology is a relatively young area of applied plant molecular biology that presently concentrates on (i) manipulation of lignin content and composition, (ii) pathogen-, pesticide-, and stress resistance, and (iii) improvement of growth. Transgenic trees have a great potential also in other areas of applied and environmental research, e.g. in the production of phytochemicals and in phytoremediation of polluted soils. To implement the use of biotechnology for these and other purposes improvement of the acceptance in public of genetic engineering general, and the application of transgenic technologies to trees species in particular, is essential. (orig.) [German] Bei der forstlichen Biotechnologie handelt es sich um ein vergleichsweise junges Gebiet der angewandten pflanzlichen Molekularbiologie, das sich derzeit auf folgende Fragestellungen konzentriert: (a) Manipulation des Ligningehalts und der Lignin-Zusammensetzung; (b) Verbesserung der Resistenz gegenueber Pathogenen, Pestiziden und verschiedenen Formen von Stress; (c) Verbesserung des Wachstums. Transgene Baeume haben darueber hinaus ein grosses Potential fuer andere Gebiete der angewandten Forschung und der Umweltforschung, so z.B. fuer die Produktion pflanzlicher Naturstoffe und die Phytosanierung belasteter Boeden. Um die Verwendung biotechnologischer Verfahren fuer diese und andere Zwecke zu implementieren, ist es dringend erforderlich, die Akzeptanz von 'genetic engineering' im allgemeinen und den Einsatz von Technologien zur Herstellung transgener Baeume im besonderen in der Oeffentlichkeit zu verbessern. (orig.)

  4. Biotechnology, genetic conservation and sustainable use of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... agriculture, silviculture, horticulture, environment and other important issues. This paper reviews some biotechnological tools that could be harnessed in promoting conservation and sustainable use of bioresources. Key words: Bioresources, genetic conservation, biotechnology. African Journal of Biotechnology Vol. 2 (12) ...

  5. Fostering biotechnology entrepreneurship in developing countries

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    the growing science base, biotechnology companies can successfully be located and thrive in these countries. The rewards which can flow from the successful exploitation of research should encourage investment in biotechnological activities. Key words: Entrepreneur, biotechnology, investment. INTRODUCTION.

  6. Department of Biotechnology | Women in Science | Initiatives ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Department of Biotechnology. Department of Biotechnology Awards; National Woman Bioscientist Awards; Biotech Product & Process Development & Commercialization Awards; Awardees of National Bioscience Awards for Career Development. Department of Biotechnology Awardees. Year: 2012 Innovative Young ...

  7. Environmental biotechnology: concepts and applications

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Winter, Josef; Jördening, Hans-Joachim


    ... for the - development of new and environmentally improved production technologies with less purified substrates and generation of fewer by-products - bioproducts as non-toxic matters, mostly recyclable. Some impressive studies on industrial applications of biotechnology are published in two OECD reports, which summarized, that biotechnology has the potential o...

  8. A Case for Teaching Biotechnology (United States)

    Lazaros, Edward; Embree, Caleb


    Biotechnology is an innovative field that is consistently growing in popularity. It is important that students are taught about this technology at an early age, so they are motivated to join the field, or at least motivated to become informed citizens and consumers (Gonzalez, et al, 2013). An increase in biotechnology knowledge can result in an…

  9. Teachers' Concerns about Biotechnology Education (United States)

    Borgerding, Lisa A.; Sadler, Troy D.; Koroly, Mary Jo


    The impacts of biotechnology are found in nearly all sectors of society from health care and food products to environmental issues and energy sources. Despite the significance of biotechnology within the sciences, it has not become a prominent trend in science education. In this study, we seek to more fully identify biology teachers' concerns…

  10. Preface: Biocatalysis and Agricultural Biotechnology (United States)

    This book was assembled with the intent of bringing together current advances and in-depth reviews of biocatalysis and agricultural biotechnology with emphasis on bio-based products and agricultural biotechnology. Recent energy and food crises point out the importance of bio-based products from ren...

  11. Biotechnology Outlines for Classroom Use. (United States)

    Paolella, Mary Jane


    Presents a course outline for the study of biotechnology at the high school or college level. The outline includes definitions, a history, and the vocabulary of biotechnology. Presents a science experiment to analyze the effects of restriction enzymes on DNA. (MDH)

  12. Determinants of Leverage and Agency problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, A.; Dijk, R.


    In this paper we empirically investigate the determinants of leverage and agency problems and we examine the relationships between leverage and agency problems. As in Titman and Wessels (1988) we use structural equations modeling with latent variables. In contrast to Titman and Wessels (1988), who

  13. Egyptian Journal of Biotechnology: Journal Sponsorship

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Egyptian Journal of Biotechnology: Journal Sponsorship. Journal Home > About the Journal > Egyptian Journal of Biotechnology: Journal Sponsorship. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  14. Nigerian Journal of Biotechnology: Journal Sponsorship

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nigerian Journal of Biotechnology: Journal Sponsorship. Journal Home > About the Journal > Nigerian Journal of Biotechnology: Journal Sponsorship. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  15. Biotechnological advances in Lilium. (United States)

    Bakhshaie, Mehdi; Khosravi, Solmaz; Azadi, Pejman; Bagheri, Hedayat; van Tuyl, Jaap M


    Modern powerful techniques in plant biotechnology have been developed in lilies (Lilium spp., Liliaceae) to propagate, improve and make new phenotypes. Reliable in vitro culture methods are available to multiply lilies rapidly and shorten breeding programs. Lilium is also an ideal model plant to study in vitro pollination and embryo rescue methods. Although lilies are recalcitrant to genetic manipulation, superior genotypes are developed with improved flower colour and form, disease resistance and year round forcing ability. Different DNA molecular markers have been developed for rapid indirect selection, genetic diversity evaluation, mutation detection and construction of Lilium linkage map. Some disease resistance-QTLs are already mapped on the Lilium linkage map. This review presents latest information on in vitro propagation, genetic engineering and molecular advances made in lily.

  16. Strategy as stretch and leverage. (United States)

    Hamel, G; Prahalad, C K


    Global competition is not just product versus product or company versus company. It is mind-set versus mind-set. Driven to understand the dynamics of competition, we have learned a lot about what makes one company more successful than another. But to find the root of competitiveness--to understand why some companies create new forms of competitive advantage while others watch and follow--we must look at strategic mind-sets. For many managers, "being strategic" means pursuing opportunities that fit the company's resources. This approach is not wrong, Gary Hamel and C.K. Prahalad contend, but it obscures an approach in which "stretch" supplements fit and being strategic means creating a chasm between ambition and resources. Toyota, CNN, British Airways, Sony, and others all displaced competitors with stronger reputations and deeper pockets. Their secret? In each case, the winner had greater ambition than its well-endowed rivals. Winners also find less resource-intensive ways of achieving their ambitious goals. This is where leverage complements the strategic allocation of resources. Managers at competitive companies can get a bigger bang for their buck in five basic ways: by concentrating resources around strategic goals; by accumulating resources more efficiently; by complementing one kind of resource with another; by conserving resources whenever they can; and by recovering resources from the market-place as quickly as possible. As recent competitive battles have demonstrated, abundant resources can't guarantee continued industry leadership.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  17. Bioceres: AG Biotechnology from Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Feeney


    Full Text Available In this case we present a business decision-making situation in which the CEO of an Argentine Ag Biotech company, Bioceres, has to decide the best way to commercialize a new drought-tolerant transgenic technology. The company was founded by twenty three farmers, who shared a common dream that Argentina could become a benchmark in the development of Ag biotechnology. The case has strategic and financial implications, as well as decision-making situation involving a joint venture with an American biotechnology company. It also introduces to discussion the business models of Ag biotechnology companies in developing countries.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Ramona PECINGINĂ


    Full Text Available Biotechnology is the integral application of biological and engineering sciences for the technological use of living organisms, biologically active acellular structures and molecular analogues for the production of goods and services.The role of biotechnology is very important in the food industry; this is a biotechnology because agro-food raw materials are biological products and therefore their conservation until consumption, fresh or industrialization involves the control of the enzymatic activity of the vegetal and animal tissues or of the microflora contamination.

  19. Public attitude towards modern biotechnology | Amin | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article reviews the literature related to the main idea of the study, rooting from the definition of biotechnology, global status of commercialized biotechnology products, and global and local public attitudes towards modern biotechnology and past models for attitude towards modern biotechnology. The first section of the ...

  20. Proceedings of the International Symposium on Biotechnology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    This is a book of abstracts of oral communications and posters that were presented during the International Symposium on Biotechnology that was held in Sfax, Tunisia from May 4th to 8th, 2008. The following themes were covered : - Biotechnology for animal and human health and biopharmaceuticals; - Microbial and environmental biotechnology; - Agricultural, Food and marine biotechnology

  1. Environmental biotechnology for sustainability. (United States)

    Verstraete, W


    In the post-industrial society, waste management is integrated in the concepts of responsibility, reliability and continuity. Therefore industry and public office are obliged to implement the concepts of structured environmental management systems more and more strictly. The endpoints are dependent on the type of wastes and on the priorities set by society. They will with time evolve towards more restriction of all kinds of emissions. This will require increasing inputs of labour, information technology and energy into waste treatment and overall waste management. Particularly for aqueous and gaseous wastes that are not contained, continuously improving treatment with maximum re-use and minimum dissipation in the ecosphere will be the trend of the future. Moreover, the public in general and the individual citizen in particular will request to have (bio)assays to monitor regularly and autonomously the quality of his environment. Such advanced waste management requires considerable energy input. It thus may come in conflict with current concerns about CO2-emissions and the Kyoto agreements. Innovative approaches to combine waste management and the International Climate Change Partnership (ICCP) directives, for instance by implementing biological carbon sequestration, are therefore warranted. Biotechnology has a major role to play particularly in terms of advanced treatment down to ng/l-levels and in terms of validating the quality of the environment by means of powerful and intelligent bio-monitoring devices.

  2. Leveraging ITIL to Govern AOC Information Technology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Weaver , III, Robert V


    ...) seeks to transform its antiquated AOC Information Technology (IT) management function into an agile enterprise capable of leveraging cutting-edge technology by aligning the AOC's infrastructure with its organizational strategies and vision...

  3. Leveraging Chaos in Continuous Thrust Trajectory Design (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A trajectory design tool is sought to leverage chaos and nonlinear dynamics present in multi-body gravitational fields to design ultra-low energy transfer...

  4. Hedge Ratios for short and leveraged ETFs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leo Schubert


    Full Text Available Exchange Traded Funds (ETFs exist for stock-, bond- and commodity markets. In most cases the underlying of an ETF is an index. Fund management today uses the active and passive way to construct a portfolio. ETFs can be used for passive portfolio management. Then ETFs with positive leverage factors are preferred. In the frame of active portfolio also the ETFs with negative leverage factors can be applied for the hedge or cross hedge of a portfolio. These hedging possibilities will be analyzed in this paper. Short ETFs exist with different leverage factors. In Europe, the leverage factors 1 (e.g. ShortDAX ETF and 2 (e.g. DJ STOXX 600 Double Short are offered while in the financial markets of the United States factors from 1 to 4 can be found. To investigate the effect of the different leverage factors and other parameters Monte Carlo Simulation was used. The results show e.g. that higher leverage factors achieve higher profits as well as losses. In the case, that a bearish market is supposed, minimizing the variance of the hedge seem not to be until to get better hedging results, due to a very skewed return distribution of the hedge. The risk measure target-shortfall-probability confirms the use of the standard hedge weightings which depend only on the leverage factor. This characteristic remains, when a portfolio has to be hedged instead of the underlying index of the short ETF. For portfolios which have a low correlation with the index return should not be used high leverage factors for hedging, due to the higher volatility and target-shortfall-probability.

  5. Systemic Risk, Bank's Capital Buffer, and Leverage


    Wibowo, Buddi


    This paper measures individual bank's impact on banking systemic risk and examines the effect of individual bank's capital buffer and leverage to bank's systemic risk impact in Indonesia during 2010-2014. Using Merton's distance-to-default to measure systemic risk, the study shows a significant negative relationship between bank's capital buffer and systemic risk. High capital buffer tends to lowering bank's impact on systemic risk. Bank's leverage level also influences its contribution to sy...

  6. 17 CFR 31.15 - Reporting to leverage customers. (United States)


    ... customers. 31.15 Section 31.15 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION LEVERAGE TRANSACTIONS § 31.15 Reporting to leverage customers. Each leverage transaction merchant shall furnish in writing directly to each leverage customer: (a) Promptly upon the repurchase, resale...

  7. 17 CFR 31.6 - Registration of leverage commodities. (United States)


    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Registration of leverage commodities. 31.6 Section 31.6 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION LEVERAGE TRANSACTIONS § 31.6 Registration of leverage commodities. (a) Registration of leverage commodities...

  8. Strategic management of biotechnology agents. (United States)

    Huber, S L


    The use of biologic response modifiers to demonstrate a value-driven approach to strategic management by pharmacists is described. To participate in decisions on the use of technology in their institutions, pharmacists must practice strategic management. This process includes environmental scanning, analysis of clinical and pharmacoeconomic data, and development of clinical management approaches. It is ideal for analyzing biologic response modifiers such as filgrastim and sargramostim. Emphasis must be placed on maximizing the fit among the products, the institution, and the health care environment. Pharmacists will find plentiful opportunities for clinical management with biotechnology agents. Practitioners who specialize in determining the total cost of care by using pharmacoeconomic methods are needed, as are practitioners trained to monitor the complicated biotechnology agents. Also, the institution needs to forecast accurately the impact of emerging biotechnology agents. If pharmacists can develop and control clinical, pharmacoeconomic, and reimbursement information databases for biotechnology agents, the pharmacy profession will be in a strong position to meet the challenges of biotechnology and realize the inherent opportunities.

  9. The impact of industrial biotechnology. (United States)

    Soetaert, Wim; Vandamme, Erick


    In this review, the impact of industrial (or "white") biotechnology can have on our society and economy is discussed. An overview is given of industrial biotechnology and its applications in a number of product categories ranging from food ingredients, vitamins, bio-colorants, solvents, plastics and biofuels. The use of fossil resources is compared with renewable resources as the preferred feedstock for industrial biotechnology. A brief discussion is also given of the expected changes in society and technology, ranging from the shift in the supply of resources, the growing need for efficiency and sustainability of the production systems, changing consumer perception and behaviour and changing agricultural systems and practices. Many of these changes are expected to speed up the transition from a fossil-based to a bio-based economy and society.

  10. Is biotechnology the new alchemy? (United States)

    Kirkham, Georgiana


    In this article I examine similarities between the science and ethics of biotechnology on the one hand, and those of alchemy on the other, and show that the understanding of nature and naturalness upon which many contemporary ethical responses to biotechnology are predicated is, in fact, significantly similar to the understanding of nature that was the foundation of the practice of alchemy. In doing so I demonstrate that the ethical issues and social responses that are currently arising from advances in the field of biotechnology are interestingly similar to those that arose in reaction to the practice and prevalence of alchemy from its inception in Europe in the mid-twelfth century until at least the early modern period. I argue that a proper conception of the ethical issues and a sensible interpretation of the power and the promise of the science of biotechnology are most likely if we understand such attitudes to nature, and to the ethical issues surrounding technological and scientific developments, in terms of an historical and cultural continuum. That is, we should regard biotechnology as merely the latest in a string of technological and scientific developments rather than, as is often alleged, as something entirely new, requiring its own special ethical response. Finally, I suggest that examining the parallels between the ethical issues generated by alchemy and by biotechnology show us that such issues are best situated and discussed within a framework of virtue ethics, as it allows us to think seriously about the relationship between art and nature and the proper role of humans in relation to their technology.

  11. Sitaxsentan (ICOS-Texas Biotechnology). (United States)

    Wu-Wong, J R


    ICOS-Texas Biotechnology is developing the endothelin A (ETA) receptor antagonist, sitaxsentan, for the potential treatment of pulmonary hypertension, congestive heart failure (CHF), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and subarachnoid hemorrhage [205713], [302200]. The compound is in phase IIa trials as an iv formulation for CHF and has completed phase I safety trials as an oral formulation [272071]. Phase II/III trials for pulmonary hypertension are planned for the first quarter of 2001 [3945711]. In June 2000, ICOS and Texas Biotechnology established a joint venture to develop and commercialize endothelin antagonists [370007]. US-05591761 was issued to Texas in January 1997, covering TBC-11251 and several related isomers [2309301.

  12. Patenting Biotechnological Inventions in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Raspor


    Full Text Available The patent system has been able to provide the protection for the achievements of different technologies and in that way it has supported further development and growth of the industry where those achievements were implemented. Modern technologies like information technology and biotechnology with genetic engineering that appeared in the 70s have overgrown the frames of the existing patent system because of their exponential development during the last thirty years. Industry that invests a huge amount of money in these technologies, especially in the field of biotechnology, where the results are very uncertain, has started to claim changes in the patent system.

  13. Proteomics meets blue biotechnology: a wealth of novelties and opportunities. (United States)

    Hartmann, Erica M; Durighello, Emie; Pible, Olivier; Nogales, Balbina; Beltrametti, Fabrizio; Bosch, Rafael; Christie-Oleza, Joseph A; Armengaud, Jean


    Blue biotechnology, in which aquatic environments provide the inspiration for various products such as food additives, aquaculture, biosensors, green chemistry, bioenergy, and pharmaceuticals, holds enormous promise. Large-scale efforts to sequence aquatic genomes and metagenomes, as well as campaigns to isolate new organisms and culture-based screenings, are helping to push the boundaries of known organisms. Mass spectrometry-based proteomics can complement 16S gene sequencing in the effort to discover new organisms of potential relevance to blue biotechnology by facilitating the rapid screening of microbial isolates and by providing in depth profiles of the proteomes and metaproteomes of marine organisms, both model cultivable isolates and, more recently, exotic non-cultivable species and communities. Proteomics has already contributed to blue biotechnology by identifying aquatic proteins with potential applications to food fermentation, the textile industry, and biomedical drug development. In this review, we discuss historical developments in blue biotechnology, the current limitations to the known marine biosphere, and the ways in which mass spectrometry can expand that knowledge. We further speculate about directions that research in blue biotechnology will take given current and near-future technological advancements in mass spectrometry. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Biotechnology developments in Uganda and associated challenges ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... biotechnology programmes and strengthening interactions among the actors both locally and internationally; integrating biotechnology into institutional programmes and regulatory instruments; putting in place technology management policies and developing capacities for their implementation; encouraging private sector ...

  15. Applied thermodynamics: A new frontier for biotechnology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mollerup, Jørgen


    The scientific career of one of the most outstanding scientists in molecular thermodynamics, Professor John M. Prausnitz at Berkeley, reflects the change in the agenda of molecular thermodynamics, from hydrocarbon chemistry to biotechnology. To make thermodynamics a frontier for biotechnology...

  16. Modernizing the Regulatory System for Biotechnology Products (United States)

    This Web page describes the continuing effort to modernize the federal regulatory system for biotechnology products as well as clarify various roles of EPA, FDA and USDA in evaluating new biotechnology products.

  17. Running on Empty? The Compensatory Reserve Index (United States)


    and HR,31 more blood pressure oscillations,32 and greater vasoconstrictor reserve,33 compared with low-tolerant individuals. By leveraging recent... vasoconstrictor reserves. Clin Auton Res. 2012; 22:123Y130. 32. Rickards CA, Ryan KL, Cooke WH, Convertino VA. Tolerance to central hypovolemia: the


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. P. Buchatsky


    Full Text Available The latest progress in biotechnology on fish aquaculture and different modern methods of investigations for increasing of fish productivity in aquaculture are analyzed. Except for the applied aspect, the use of modern biotechnological methods of investigations opens new possibilities for fundamental researches of sex-determining mechanisms, polyploidy, distant hybridization, and developmental biology of bony fishes. Review contains examples of utilizing modern biotechnology methods to obtain transgenic fishes with accelerated growth and for designing surrogate fishes. Methods for receiving unisexual shoals of salmon and sturgeon female fishes with the view of obtaining a large quantity of caviar, as well as receiving sterile (triploid fishes are analyzed. Great attention is given to androgenesis, particularly to disperm one, in connection with the problem of conserving rare and vanishing fish species using only sperm genetic material. Examples how distant hybrids may be obtained with the use of disperm androgenesis and alkylated DNA are given. Methods of obtaining fish primordium germ cells, recent developments in cultivation of fish stem cells and their use in biotechnology, as well as ones of transplantation of oogonium and spermatogonium to obtain surrogate fishes. The examples of successful experiments on spermatogonial xenotransplantation and characteristic of antifreezing fish proteins and also the prospect of their practical usage are given.

  19. The Development of Plant Biotechnology. (United States)

    Torrey, John G.


    Examines major lines of thought leading to what is meant by plant biotechnology, namely, the application of existing techniques of plant organ, tissue, and cell culture, plant molecular biology, and genetic engineering to the improvement of plants and of plant productivity for the benefit of man. (JN)

  20. The Future of Plant Biotechnology (United States)

    Plant biotechnology has been wildly successful and has literally transformed plant agriculture. There are still undulating concerns about safety and sustainability that critics demand to be addressed. In that light, there are some biotechnoloogies that are being developed that might not only improve...

  1. Acinetobacter: environmental and biotechnological applications ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Among microbial communities involved in different ecosystems such as soil, freshwater, wastewater and solid wastes, several strains belonging to the genus of Acinetobacter have been attracting growing interest from medical, environmental and a biotechnological point of view. Bacteria of this genus are known to be ...

  2. Biotechnological applications of bacterial cellulases

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Menéndez, E.; García-Fraile, Paula; Rivas, R.


    Roč. 2, č. 3 (2015), s. 163-182 ISSN 2306-5354 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.30.0003 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : Biotechnological applications * Bacterial cellulases * Cellulose degradation Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology

  3. Biological Constraints in Algal Biotechnology

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Torzillo, G.; Pushparaj, B.; Masojídek, Jiří; Vonshak, A.


    Roč. 8, - (2003), s. 338-348 ISSN 0006-3592 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LN00A141 Institutional research plan: CEZ:MSM 123100001 Keywords : outdoor cultures * photobioreactors * oxygen stress Subject RIV: EI - Biotechnology ; Bionics Impact factor: 2.173, year: 2003

  4. Re-Framing Biotechnology Regulation. (United States)

    Peck, Alison

    Biotechnology is about to spill the banks of federal regulation. New genetic engineering techniques like CRISPR-Cas9 promise revolutionary breakthroughs in medicine, agriculture, and public health—but those techniques would not be regulated under the terms of the Coordinated Framework for Regulation of Biotechnology. This revolutionary moment in biotechnology offers an opportunity to correct the flaws in the framework, which was hastily patched together at the advent of the technology. The framework has never captured all relevant technologies, has never satisfied the public that risk is being effectively managed, and has never been accessible to small companies and publicly-funded labs that increasingly are positioned to make radical, life-saving innovations. This Article offers a proposal for new legislation that would reshape biotechnology regulation to better meet these goals. Key reforms include tying regulation to risk rather than technology category; consolidating agency review; capturing distinct regulatory expertise through inter-agency consultations; creating a clearinghouse to help guide applicants and disseminate information; setting up more comprehensive monitoring of environmental effects; and providing federal leadership to fill key data gaps and address socio-economic impacts.

  5. Ethical perception of modern biotechnology

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Sep 30, 2011 ... ensure food security and to boost the country's economy. (Latifah et al., 2007). Successful development and commercialisation of modern biotechnology products in. *Corresponding author. E-mail:, Tel: + 603-. 89216907. Fax: +603-89252976. Abbreviations: GMOs, Genetically modified ...

  6. Seminar on Nano-biotechnology

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 13; Issue 12. Seminar on Nano-biotechnology. Information and Announcements Volume 13 Issue 12 December 2008 pp 1191-1191. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: ...

  7. Biotechnological sulphide removal with oxygen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buisman, C.


    This thesis deals with the development of a new process for biotechnological sulphide removal from wastewater, in which it is attempted to convert sulphide into elemental sulphur by colourless sulphur bacteria. The toxicity, corrosive properties, unpleasant odor and high oxygen demand of sulphide

  8. Leveraging the Development of Inclusive and Sustainable ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    This project aims to leverage information and knowledge for the development of sustainable and inclusive agricultural value chains through strategic use of ITCs. ... chains, and measure their impact on the competitiveness of small farmers, on the sustainability of the value chain, and on poverty reduction and food security.

  9. Biotechnology: Challenge for the food industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popov Stevan


    Full Text Available According to the broadest definition, biotechnology is the use of living matter (plants, animals and microorganisms in industry, environment protection, medicine and agriculture. Biotechnology takes a key position in the field of food processing during thousands of years. Last about fifty years brought dynamical development of knowledges in the natural sciences especially in domain of genetics and manipulation of genes. Biotechnology for which active role in the on-coming times could be foreseen, not only with respect of R&D, but also in general technological development represents scope of priority in the USA and in European Union (EU as well. It is accepted that the results achieved in biotechnology oversize scientific domain and find their entrance into economics, legislation, quality of life and even of politics. Corresponding with the definition of biotechnology as "the integration of natural sciences and engineering in the application of microorganisms, cells, their components and molecular analogues in production (General assembly of the European federation for Biotechnology, 1989 European Commission (1999 adopted the biotechnological taxonomy, i.e. fields and sub-fields of biotechnology. R&D activities in this domain are oriented to eight fields and branched through them. Fields of biotechnology (EC, 1999 are: 1 Plant biotechnology (agricultural cultivars, trees, bushes etc; 2 Animal biotechnology; 3 Biotechnology in environment protection; 4 Industrial biotechnology (food, feed, paper, textile, pharmaceutical and chemical productions; 5 Industrial biotechnology (production of cells and research of cells - producers of food and of other commodities; 6 Development of humane and veterinarian diagnostics (therapeutical systems 7 Development of the basic biotechnology, and 8 Nontechnical domains of biotechnology. In concordance with some judgments, in the World exist about 4000 biotechnological companies. World market of biotechnological

  10. Biotechnological production of vanillin using immobilized enzymes. (United States)

    Furuya, Toshiki; Kuroiwa, Mari; Kino, Kuniki


    Vanillin is an important and popular plant flavor, but the amount of this compound available from plant sources is very limited. Biotechnological methods have high potential for vanillin production as an alternative to extraction from plant sources. Here, we report a new approach using immobilized enzymes for the production of vanillin. The recently discovered oxygenase Cso2 has coenzyme-independent catalytic activity for the conversion of isoeugenol and 4-vinylguaiacol to vanillin. Immobilization of Cso2 on Sepabeads EC-EA anion-exchange carrier conferred enhanced operational stability enabling repetitive use. This immobilized Cso2 catalyst allowed 6.8mg yield of vanillin from isoeugenol through ten reaction cycles at a 1mL scale. The coenzyme-independent decarboxylase Fdc, which has catalytic activity for the conversion of ferulic acid to 4-vinylguaiacol, was also immobilized on Sepabeads EC-EA. We demonstrated that the immobilized Fdc and Cso2 enabled the cascade synthesis of vanillin from ferulic acid via 4-vinylguaiacol with repetitive use of the catalysts. This study is the first example of biotechnological production of vanillin using immobilized enzymes, a process that provides new possibilities for vanillin production. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Mannan biotechnology: from biofuels to health. (United States)

    Yamabhai, Montarop; Sak-Ubol, Suttipong; Srila, Witsanu; Haltrich, Dietmar


    Mannans of different structure and composition are renewable bioresources that can be widely found as components of lignocellulosic biomass in softwood and agricultural wastes, as non-starch reserve polysaccharides in endosperms and vacuoles of a wide variety of plants, as well as a major component of yeast cell walls. Enzymatic hydrolysis of mannans using mannanases is essential in the pre-treatment step during the production of second-generation biofuels and for the production of potentially health-promoting manno-oligosaccharides (MOS). In addition, mannan-degrading enzymes can be employed in various biotechnological applications, such as cleansing and food industries. In this review, fundamental knowledge of mannan structures, sources and functions will be summarized. An update on various aspects of mannan-degrading enzymes as well as the current status of their production, and a critical analysis of the potential application of MOS in food and feed industries will be given. Finally, emerging areas of research on mannan biotechnology will be highlighted.

  12. Halophiles, coming stars for industrial biotechnology. (United States)

    Yin, Jin; Chen, Jin-Chun; Wu, Qiong; Chen, Guo-Qiang


    Industrial biotechnology aims to produce chemicals, materials and biofuels to ease the challenges of shortage on petroleum. However, due to the disadvantages of bioprocesses including energy consuming sterilization, high fresh water consumption, discontinuous fermentation to avoid microbial contamination, highly expensive stainless steel fermentation facilities and competing substrates for human consumption, industrial biotechnology is less competitive compared with chemical processes. Recently, halophiles have shown promises to overcome these shortcomings. Due to their unique halophilic properties, some halophiles are able to grow in high pH and high NaCl containing medium under higher temperature, allowing fermentation processes to run contamination free under unsterile conditions and continuous way. At the same time, genetic manipulation methods have been developed for halophiles. So far, halophiles have been used to produce bioplastics polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA), ectoines, enzymes, and bio-surfactants. Increasing effects have been made to develop halophiles into a low cost platform for bioprocessing with advantages of low energy, less fresh water consumption, low fixed capital investment, and continuous production. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Scientific underpinnings of biotechnology regulatory frameworks. (United States)

    Gleim, Savannah; Smyth, Stuart J


    Part of what is presently missing at domestic regulatory levels (and that is important at the international level as well) is a detailed understanding of what the rules of, and for, regulation should be, who the actors, stakeholders and major decision makers are and finally, how to get agreement about the rules. Greater insights into the system of rules that underpin regulatory frameworks for agri-food and biotechnology products in genetically modified (GM) crop- adopting nations will provide value by clarifying the evidence used to commercialize these technologies. This article examines the public documents available from Canada, the United States, the European Union and the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development regarding the development of regulatory risk assessment frameworks for products of biotechnology to determine what science grounds these frameworks. The documentation used to provide the initial structure to the existing regulatory frameworks identifies the linkages, connections and relationships that exist between science, risk assessment and regulatory policy. The relationship between risk and regulation has never been more critical to the commercialization of innovative agricultural products. Documenting the role of science-based risk assessment in regulations and how this has changed over the 20 years of experience in regulating GM crops will identify changes in the risk/regulation relationship. Crown Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Leveraging e-learning in medical education. (United States)

    Lewis, Kadriye O; Cidon, Michal J; Seto, Teresa L; Chen, Haiqin; Mahan, John D


    e-Learning has become a popular medium for delivering instruction in medical education. This innovative method of teaching offers unique learning opportunities for medical trainees. The purpose of this article is to define the present state of e-learning in pediatrics and how to best leverage e-learning for educational effectiveness and change in medical education. Through addressing under-examined and neglected areas in implementation strategies for e-learning, its usefulness in medical education can be expanded. This study used a systematic database review of published studies in the field of e-learning in pediatric training between 2003 and 2013. The search was conducted using educational and health databases: Scopus, ERIC, PubMed, and search engines Google and Hakia. A total of 72 reference articles were suitable for analysis. This review is supplemented by the use of "e-Learning Design Screening Questions" to define e-learning design and development in 10 randomly selected articles. Data analysis used template-based coding themes and counting of the categories using descriptive statistics.Our search for pediatric e-learning (using Google and Hakia) resulted in six well-defined resources designed to support the professional development of doctors, residents, and medical students. The majority of studies focused on instructional effectiveness and satisfaction. There were few studies about e-learning development, implementation, and needs assessments used to identify the institutional and learners' needs. Reviewed studies used various study designs, measurement tools, instructional time, and materials for e-learning interventions. e-Learning is a viable solution for medical educators faced with many challenges, including (1) promoting self-directed learning, (2) providing flexible learning opportunities that would offer continuous (24h/day/7 days a week) availability for learners, and (3) engaging learners through collaborative learning communities to gain

  15. Macroeconomic Dynamics of Assets, Leverage and Trust (United States)

    Rozendaal, Jeroen C.; Malevergne, Yannick; Sornette, Didier

    A macroeconomic model based on the economic variables (i) assets, (ii) leverage (defined as debt over asset) and (iii) trust (defined as the maximum sustainable leverage) is proposed to investigate the role of credit in the dynamics of economic growth, and how credit may be associated with both economic performance and confidence. Our first notable finding is the mechanism of reward/penalty associated with patience, as quantified by the return on assets. In regular economies where the EBITA/Assets ratio is larger than the cost of debt, starting with a trust higher than leverage results in the highest long-term return on assets (which can be seen as a proxy for economic growth). Therefore, patient economies that first build trust and then increase leverage are positively rewarded. Our second main finding concerns a recommendation for the reaction of a central bank to an external shock that affects negatively the economic growth. We find that late policy intervention in the model economy results in the highest long-term return on assets. However, this comes at the cost of suffering longer from the crisis until the intervention occurs. The phenomenon that late intervention is most effective to attain a high long-term return on assets can be ascribed to the fact that postponing intervention allows trust to increase first, and it is most effective to intervene when trust is high. These results are derived from two fundamental assumptions underlying our model: (a) trust tends to increase when it is above leverage; (b) economic agents learn optimally to adjust debt for a given level of trust and amount of assets. Using a Markov Switching Model for the EBITA/Assets ratio, we have successfully calibrated our model to the empirical data of the return on equity of the EURO STOXX 50 for the time period 2000-2013. We find that dynamics of leverage and trust can be highly nonmonotonous with curved trajectories, as a result of the nonlinear coupling between the variables. This

  16. Biotechnological exploitation of microalgae. (United States)

    Gangl, Doris; Zedler, Julie A Z; Rajakumar, Priscilla D; Martinez, Erick M Ramos; Riseley, Anthony; Włodarczyk, Artur; Purton, Saul; Sakuragi, Yumiko; Howe, Christopher J; Jensen, Poul Erik; Robinson, Colin


    Microalgae are a diverse group of single-cell photosynthetic organisms that include cyanobacteria and a wide range of eukaryotic algae. A number of microalgae contain high-value compounds such as oils, colorants, and polysaccharides, which are used by the food additive, oil, and cosmetic industries, among others. They offer the potential for rapid growth under photoautotrophic conditions, and they can grow in a wide range of habitats. More recently, the development of genetic tools means that a number of species can be transformed and hence used as cell factories for the production of high-value chemicals or recombinant proteins. In this article, we review exploitation use of microalgae with a special emphasis on genetic engineering approaches to develop cell factories, and the use of synthetic ecology approaches to maximize productivity. We discuss the success stories in these areas, the hurdles that need to be overcome, and the potential for expanding the industry in general. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email:

  17. 7 CFR 4290.1130 - Leverage fees payable by RBIC. (United States)


    ... SERVICE AND RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE RURAL BUSINESS INVESTMENT COMPANY (âRBICâ) PROGRAM Financial Assistance for RBICs (Leverage) General Information About Obtaining Leverage § 4290.1130...

  18. Agriculture and bio-technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamaguchi, Hikoyuki


    The Japanese agriculture is going to be influenced by bio-technology. New style of production will be introduced through the entrance of other type of enterprises causing considerable change in agricultural fields. Bio-technology is a technology which utmost utilizes the functions of the living organism. Its practical target is to manifestate a new function by deliberately endowing it to an organism. Major technique is gene manipulation, tissue culture and utilization of microorganism and cells as well as the utilization of the biomass resources and a production means in the vegetable plant using nutricious solution. This report especially describes the following matters. Recombinant DNA (Super mouse, etc). Cell fusion (Monoclonal antigen, etc). Nucleus transplantation. Chromosome manipulation (Creation of tripoloid, etc). tissue culture (Growing of virus-free seedling, etc). Production of useful substances. Biomass (Forestry, Ocean, Livestock). (2 figs, 3 tabs, 12 refs)

  19. [Biotechnological aspects in "loco" larvae]. (United States)

    Inestrosa, N C; Labarca, R; Perelman, A; Campos, E O; Araneda, R; González, M; Brandan, E; Sánchez, J P; González-Plaza, R


    The biology of planktotrophic larvae of Concholepas concholepas is the main bottleneck towards developing biotechnologies to rear this muricid. Data concerning planktonic larvae development, diets and environmental signals triggering larval settlement and recruitment is scarce. We have begun the study of the molecular and cell biology of embryos, larvae and recruits having as a final goal, the development of appropriate biotechnologies to rear this gastropod. First, an inverse ratio between BuChE and AChE enzyme activities was established. This ratio may be a precise developmental marker for this species. Second, for the first time a phosphoinositide related regulatory pathway is reported in a muricid, opening a new approach to the biotechnological management of larvae. Third, the relation between sulfate in sea water and larval motility was studied. Concentrations below 125 microM sulfate decreases larval motility. The sulfate is incorporated in proteoglycans which participate in different developmental phenomena. Lastly, a genomic Concholepas concholepas DNA sequence, similar to that of a human growth hormone probe was detected. This is very interesting since growth factors are key molecules during development, growth and are involved in food conversion rates in fish and also, in a variety of marine invertebrates.

  20. Interface of nuclear and biotechnologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castro Diaz-Balart, F.


    Addressing nuclear and biotechnologies in the International Year of Physics should begin by highlighting the important role that this science has played in the development of both branches of science and technologies. The first as a direct consequence of the Theory of Relativity, the further was considerably influenced by Schroedinger's remarks that there must be a code of some kind that allowed molecules in cells to carry information, making a connection between genes and proteins. Both, like any highly technical endeavor, have also in common that the use of technologies demands a vast accumulation of knowledge, i.e. volumes of scientific research, engineering analysis, strict regulatory controls and a huge amount of information combined with a complex assortment of people with the required educational background, expertise and skills to master it. This presentation briefly explores the ways in which nuclear technology has been used in the last decades of the 20th century in the field of biomedicine applications, which includes the use of radiation to obtain accurate images as well as in diagnosis and therapy. The paper looks at the present prospects of some nuclear methods and instrumentation in the so-called Red biotechnology and its genetically engineered therapeutic agents and diagnostic tests as well as some related perspectives in the field of bioinformatics. As an example of biotechnology being successfully applied to health problems in developing countries the presentation gives an outlook of relevant Cuban achievements in this field. (author)

  1. Short-Selling, Leverage and Systemic Risk


    Pais, Amelia; Stork, Philip A.


    During the Global Financial Crisis, regulators imposed short-selling bans to protect financial institutions. The rationale behind the bans was that “bear raids”, driven by short-sellers, would increase the individual and systemic risk of financial institutions, especially for institutions with high leverage. This study uses Extreme Value Theory to estimate the effect of short-selling on financial institutions’ individual and systemic risks in France, Italy and Spain; it also analyses the rela...

  2. Biotechnology information service of the GDR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poetzsch, E.


    The paper gives a survey of the biotechnology information in the GDR and describes the establishment of the Biotechnology Information Service of the GDR (BioInfo GDR). BioInfo GDR is a referral database and is to provide information on information sources available in the GDR, and on institutions working in the various fields of biotechnology in the GDR. In addition, some general problems of the building and use of databases are discussed. (author). 8 refs

  3. Cancer Biotechnology | Center for Cancer Research (United States)

    Biotechnology advances continue to underscore the need to educate NCI fellows in new methodologies. The Cancer Biotechnology course will be held on the NCI-Frederick campus on January 29, 2016 (Bldg. 549, Main Auditorium) and the course will be repeated on the Bethesda campus on February 9, 2016 (Natcher Balcony C). The latest advances in DNA, protein and image analysis will be presented. Clinical and postdoctoral fellows who want to learn about new biotechnology advances are encouraged to attend this course.

  4. Editorial: Latest methods and advances in biotechnology. (United States)

    Lee, Sang Yup; Jungbauer, Alois


    The latest "Biotech Methods and Advances" special issue of Biotechnology Journal continues the BTJ tradition of featuring the latest breakthroughs in biotechnology. The special issue is edited by our Editors-in-Chief, Prof. Sang Yup Lee and Prof. Alois Jungbauer and covers a wide array of topics in biotechnology, including the perennial favorite workhorses of the biotech industry, Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell and Escherichia coli. Copyright © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Biotechnology: Challenge for the food industry


    Popov Stevan


    According to the broadest definition, biotechnology is the use of living matter (plants, animals and microorganisms) in industry, environment protection, medicine and agriculture. Biotechnology takes a key position in the field of food processing during thousands of years. Last about fifty years brought dynamical development of knowledges in the natural sciences especially in domain of genetics and manipulation of genes. Biotechnology for which active role in the on-coming times could be fore...

  6. Spring 2008 Industry Study: Biotechnology Industry

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Anttonen, John; Darnauer, Trish; Douglas, Tim; Ferrari, John; Zimdahl, Jennifer; Hall, Ian M; King, William; Klotzsche, Carl; Miller, Doug; Packard, Doug; Renegar, Mike; Rimback, Ed; Rogers, Gordon; Schnedar, Chris; Sekulovski, Zoran


    Defined broadly as the manipulation of genetic material in living organisms or the derivatives thereof, biotechnology represents a veritable gold mine of possibilities for improving the human condition...

  7. Biotechnological uses of archaeal extremozymes. (United States)

    Eichler, J


    Archaea have developed a variety of molecular strategies to survive the often harsh environments in which they exist. Although the rules that allow archaeal enzymes to fulfill their catalytic functions under extremes of salinity, temperature or pressure are not completely understood, the stability of these extremophilic enzymes, or extremozymes, in the face of adverse conditions has led to their use in a variety of biotechnological applications in which such tolerances are advantageous. In the following, examples of commercially important archaeal extremozymes are presented, potentially useful archaeal extremozyme sources are identified and solutions to obstacles currently hindering wider use of archaeal extremozymes are discussed.

  8. Biotechnology, Industry Study, Spring 2009 (United States)

    2009-01-01 12 In 2007, the US share of world production was 42.6% for corn, 32.0% for soybeans , 9.3% for wheat, and 1.5...for rice. Of global exports, the US accounted for 64.5% for corn, 39.4% for soybeans , 32.1% for wheat, and 9.7% for rice. Jim Monke, CRS Report...papers.cfm?abstract_id=1321054 28 Monsanto Company, "Conversations About Plant Biotechnology," April 25, 2009, gmo /asp

  9. Leveraging human genetics to guide drug target discovery. (United States)

    Stitziel, Nathan O; Kathiresan, Sekar


    Identifying appropriate molecular targets is a critical step in drug development. Despite many advantages, the traditional tools of observational epidemiology and cellular or animal models of disease can be misleading in identifying causal pathways likely to lead to successful therapeutics. Here, we review some favorable aspects of human genetics studies that have the potential to accelerate drug target discovery. These include using genetic studies to identify pathways relevant to human disease, leveraging human genetics to discern causal relationships between biomarkers and disease, and studying genetic variation in humans to predict the potential efficacy and safety of inhibitory compounds aimed at molecular targets. We present some examples taken from studies of plasma lipids and coronary artery disease to highlight how human genetics can accelerate therapeutics development. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Leverage and Deepening Business Cycle Skewness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Henrik; Petrella, Ivan; Ravn, Søren Hove


    We document that the U.S. economy has been characterized by an increasingly negative business cycle asymmetry over the last three decades. This finding can be explained by the concurrent increase in the financial leverage of households and firms. To support this view, we devise and estimate......, booms become progressively smoother and more prolonged than busts. We are therefore able to reconcile a more negatively skewed business cycle with the Great Moderation in cyclical volatility. Finally, in line with recent empirical evidence, financially-driven expansions lead to deeper contractions...

  11. Students' Knowledge of, and Attitudes towards Biotechnology Revisited, 1995-2014: Changes in Agriculture Biotechnology but Not in Medical Biotechnology (United States)

    Chen, Shao-Yen; Chu, Yih-Ru; Lin, Chen-Yung; Chiang, Tzen-Yuh


    Modern biotechnology is one of the most important scientific and technological revolutions in the 21st century, with an increasing and measurable impact on society. Development of biotechnology curriculum has become important to high school bioscience classrooms. This study has monitored high school students in Taiwan on their knowledge of and…

  12. Food biotechnology: benefits and concerns. (United States)

    Falk, Michael C; Chassy, Bruce M; Harlander, Susan K; Hoban, Thomas J; McGloughlin, Martina N; Akhlaghi, Amin R


    Recent advances in agricultural biotechnology have highlighted the need for experimental evidence and sound scientific judgment to assess the benefits and risks to society. Nutrition scientists and other animal biologists need a balanced understanding of the issues to participate in this assessment. To date most modifications to crop plants have benefited producers. Crops have been engineered to decrease pesticide and herbicide usage, protect against stressors, enhance yields and extend shelf life. Beyond the environmental benefits of decreased pesticide and herbicide application, consumers stand to benefit by development of food crops with increased nutritional value, medicinal properties, enhanced taste and esthetic appeal. There remains concern that these benefits come with a cost to the environment or increased risk to the consumer. Most U.S. consumers are not aware of the extent that genetically modified foods have entered the marketplace. Consumer awareness of biotechnology seems to have increased over the last decade, yet most consumers remain confused over the science. Concern over the impact on the safety of the food supply remains low in the United States, but is substantially elevated in Europe. Before a genetically engineered crop is introduced into commerce it must pass regulatory scrutiny by as many as four different federal regulatory bodies to ensure a safe food supply and minimize the risk to the environment. Key areas for more research are evaluation of the nutritional benefits of new crops, further investigation of the environmental impact, and development of better techniques to identify and track genetically engineered products.

  13. Biotechnology for Solar System Exploration (United States)

    Steele, A.; Maule, J.; Toporski, J.; Parro-Garcia, V.; Briones, C.; Schweitzer, M.; McKay, D.

    With the advent of a new era of astrobiology missions in the exploration of the solar system and the search for evidence of life elsewhere, we present a new approach to this goal, the integration of biotechnology. We have reviewed the current list of biotechnology techniques, which are applicable to miniaturization, automatization and integration into a combined flight platform. Amongst the techniques reviewed are- The uses of antibodies- Fluorescent detection strategies- Protein and DNA chip technology- Surface plasmon resonance and its relation to other techniques- Micro electronic machining (MEMS where applicable to biologicalsystems)- nanotechnology (e.g. molecular motors)- Lab-on-a-chip technology (including PCR)- Mass spectrometry (i.e. MALDI-TOF)- Fluid handling and extraction technologies- Chemical Force Microscopy (CFM)- Raman Spectroscopy We have begun to integrate this knowledge into a single flight instrument approach for the sole purpose of combining several mutually confirming tests for life, organic and/or microbial contamination, as well as prebiotic and abiotic organic chemicals. We will present several innovative designs for new instrumentation including pro- engineering design drawings of a protein chip reader for space flight and fluid handling strategies. We will also review the use of suitable extraction methodologies for use on different solar system bodies.

  14. Spatial Diversity of Biotechnology Centres in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorocki Sławomir


    Full Text Available Biotechnology is considered one of the key advanced technology sectors of the future. Its development is conditional on basic research in technologically advanced research institutes and appropriately qualified human resources. The optimum environment stimulating the development of biotechnology is that of production centres having joint industrial and R&D operations.

  15. Undergraduate Biotechnology Students' Views of Science Communication (United States)

    Edmondston, Joanne Elisabeth; Dawson, Vaille; Schibeci, Renato


    Despite rapid growth of the biotechnology industry worldwide, a number of public concerns about the application of biotechnology and its regulation remain. In response to these concerns, greater emphasis has been placed on promoting biotechnologists' public engagement. As tertiary science degree programmes form the foundation of the biotechnology…

  16. South-South Collaboration in Health Biotechnology

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    To map entrepreneurial collaboration we conducted a brief survey on collaborations of health biotechnology/pharmaceutical firms in developing nations. The survey was sent to firms in five developing countries that have been identified as having relatively strong health biotechnology sectors, Brazil, China, Cuba, India and ...

  17. Biotechnology - The role of perceptions of consumers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Van Heerden


    Full Text Available The development of Biotechnology is aimed at creating improved products. Without the acceptance of biotechnology enhancements by consumers, the development of new products will be hampered. Consumers in different countries perceive genetic engineering differently. In this article the views of foreign and local consumers are investigated.

  18. Biotechnology issues in four Malaysian mainstream newspapers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Biotechnology has been identified as the new engine of growth for the transformation of Malaysia into a developed nation by 2020. The objective of this paper is to analyze the impact of National Policy on biotechnology on media reporting in four Malaysian newspapers. Towards this end, a content analysis of four Malaysian ...

  19. Assessment of technology generating institutions in biotechnology ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Assessment of technology generating institutions in biotechnology innovation system of South-Eastern Nigeria. ... Results of the study revealed that some of the institutions have been involved in biotechnology research for the past two decades but have only significantly invested on bio-processing (58.8%) and cell and ...

  20. Some limitations of the biotechnological revolution | Onyia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this paper is to challenge and possibly change the notion that biotechnology alone is the magic wand that brings solution to all of agriculture's pitfalls, by clarifying misconceptions concerning these underlying assumptions. The article reviews some of the highlights of modern plant biotechnology and ...

  1. Journal of Tropical Microbiology and Biotechnology

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Journal of Tropical Microbiology and Biotechnology (JTMB) formerly Journal of Tropical Microbiology gives preeminence to the central role of modern biotechnology and microorganisms as tools and targets in current research, which is largely multidisciplinary. JTMB covers a broad range of topics, such as disease ...

  2. Assessment of technology generating institutions in biotechnology ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    May 18, 2009 ... farmers on the potentials of biotechnology for food security is expedient. Key words: Biotechnology, innovation system, ... security, increases in agricultural productivity is required. Furthermore, Bunders et al. (1996) had earlier ..... This may be as a result of “publish or perish” syndrome in the universities.

  3. Biotechnology and species development in aquaculture | Ayoola ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The use of biotechnology in various aspects of human endeavour have obviously created a great impact but not without some risks. Not withstanding, there is still the need for its adoption as more of the already adopted biotechnologies are being improved upon with lesser demerits. Aquaculture is not also left out in the ...

  4. Biotechnology in plant nutrient management for agricultural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The potential benefits of biotechnology are extraordinary and traverse sectors like agriculture, environment, health, industry, bio-informatics, and human resource development. In agriculture, biotechnology research has helped to improve the understanding of diseases, to improve the diagnosis and treatment of diseases, ...

  5. Agricultural biotechnology research and development in Ethiopia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ethiopia is an agrarian country that can have enormous benefit from the applications of biotechnology for increasing its agricultural productivity. The country is at initial stages of research and development in agricultural biotechnology with scattered efforts underway in various public institutions. Research efforts and ...

  6. Comparative genomics of biotechnologically important yeasts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Riley, Robert; Haridas, Sajeet; Wolfe, Kenneth H; Lopes, Mariana R; Hittinger, Chris Todd; Göker, Markus; Salamov, Asaf A; Wisecaver, Jennifer H; Long, Tanya M; Calvey, Christopher H; Aerts, Andrea L; Barry, Kerrie W; Choi, Cindy; Clum, Alicia; Coughlan, Aisling Y; Deshpande, Shweta; Douglass, Alexander P; Hanson, Sara J; Klenk, Hans-Peter; LaButti, Kurt M; Lapidus, Alla; Lindquist, Erika A; Lipzen, Anna M; Meier-Kolthoff, Jan P; Ohm, Robin A; Otillar, Robert P; Pangilinan, Jasmyn L; Peng, Yi; Rokas, Antonis; Rosa, Carlos A; Scheuner, Carmen; Sibirny, Andriy A; Slot, Jason C; Stielow, J Benjamin; Sun, Hui; Kurtzman, Cletus P; Blackwell, Meredith; Grigoriev, Igor V; Jeffries, Thomas W


    Ascomycete yeasts are metabolically diverse, with great potential for biotechnology. Here, we report the comparative genome analysis of 29 taxonomically and biotechnologically important yeasts, including 16 newly sequenced. We identify a genetic code change, CUG-Ala, in Pachysolen tannophilus in the

  7. Biotechnology in Aquaculture: Prospects and Challenges | Edun ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Increased public demands for fish and dwindling natural marine habitats have encouraged scientists to study ways that biotechnology can increase the production of fish and shellfish. Biotechnology allows scientists to identify and combine traits in fish and shellfish to increase productivity and improve quality. This article ...

  8. Biotechnology Education and the Internet. ERIC Digest. (United States)

    Lee, Thomas

    The world of modern biotechnology is based on recent developments in molecular biology, especially those in genetic engineering. Since this is a relatively new and rapidly advancing field of study, there are few traditional sources of information and activities. This digest highlights biotechnology resources including those that can be found on…

  9. The current biotechnology outlook in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khairiah Salwa MOKHTAR


    Full Text Available Blessed with extremely rich biodiversity, Malaysia is all geared up to explore new high technology to utilize the advantage it possesses whilst to protect its environment. Biotechnology has been identified as an appropriate driver that can deliver economic gains through research and development, improvement of food security, creation of entrepreneurial opportunities for industrial growth, health and environmental sustainability. This paper attempts to address the evolution of biotechnology institutions and the stumbling blocks in developing the Malaysian biotechnology industry. This paper identifies three main impediments in the current Malaysian biotechnology, namely lack of skilled human capital; weak industrial base; and lack of commercialization effort. Besides, a set of strategies are discussed with aim to further improve and strengthen the Malaysian biotechnology industry. In general, the arguments are presented by mapping out the symbiotic relationship between data from elite interviews, archival data and observations.

  10. Termites as targets and models for biotechnology. (United States)

    Scharf, Michael E


    Termites have many unique evolutionary adaptations associated with their eusocial lifestyles. Recent omics research has created a wealth of new information in numerous areas of termite biology (e.g., caste polyphenism, lignocellulose digestion, and microbial symbiosis) with wide-ranging applications in diverse biotechnological niches. Termite biotechnology falls into two categories: (a) termite-targeted biotechnology for pest management purposes, and (b) termite-modeled biotechnology for use in various industrial applications. The first category includes several candidate termiticidal modes of action such as RNA interference, digestive inhibition, pathogen enhancement, antimicrobials, endocrine disruption, and primer pheromone mimicry. In the second category, termite digestomes are deep resources for host and symbiont lignocellulases and other enzymes with applications in a variety of biomass, industrial, and processing applications. Moving forward, one of the most important approaches for accelerating advances in both termite-targeted and termite-modeled biotechnology will be to consider host and symbiont together as a single functional unit.

  11. An engineered plant peroxisome and its application in biotechnology. (United States)

    Kessel-Vigelius, Sarah K; Wiese, Jan; Schroers, Martin G; Wrobel, Thomas J; Hahn, Florian; Linka, Nicole


    Plant metabolic engineering is a promising tool for biotechnological applications. Major goals include enhancing plant fitness for an increased product yield and improving or introducing novel pathways to synthesize industrially relevant products. Plant peroxisomes are favorable targets for metabolic engineering, because they are involved in diverse functions, including primary and secondary metabolism, development, abiotic stress response, and pathogen defense. This review discusses targets for manipulating endogenous peroxisomal pathways, such as fatty acid β-oxidation, or introducing novel pathways, such as the synthesis of biodegradable polymers. Furthermore, strategies to bypass peroxisomal pathways for improved energy efficiency and detoxification of environmental pollutants are discussed. In sum, we highlight the biotechnological potential of plant peroxisomes and indicate future perspectives to exploit peroxisomes as biofactories. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  12. Biotechnological Advances for Restoring Degraded Land for Sustainable Development. (United States)

    Tripathi, Vishal; Edrisi, Sheikh Adil; Chen, Bin; Gupta, Vijai K; Vilu, Raivo; Gathergood, Nicholas; Abhilash, P C


    Global land resources are under severe threat due to pollution and unsustainable land use practices. Restoring degraded land is imperative for regaining ecosystem services, such as biodiversity maintenance and nutrient and water cycling, and to meet the food, feed, fuel, and fibre requirements of present and future generations. While bioremediation is acknowledged as a promising technology for restoring polluted and degraded lands, its field potential is limited for various reasons. However, recent biotechnological advancements, including producing efficient microbial consortia, applying enzymes with higher degrees of specificity, and designing plants with specific microbial partners, are opening new prospects in remediation technology. This review provides insights into such promising ways to harness biotechnology as ecofriendly methods for remediation and restoration. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Membrane transporter engineering in industrial biotechnology and whole cell biocatalysis. (United States)

    Kell, Douglas B; Swainston, Neil; Pir, Pınar; Oliver, Stephen G


    Because they mainly do not involve chemical changes, membrane transporters have been a Cinderella subject in the biotechnology of small molecule production, but this is a serious oversight. Influx transporters contribute significantly to the flux towards product, and efflux transporters ensure the accumulation of product in the much greater extracellular space of fermentors. Programmes for improving biotechnological processes might therefore give greater consideration to transporters than may have been commonplace. Strategies for identifying important transporters include expression profiling, genome-wide knockout studies, stress-based selection, and the use of inhibitors. In addition, modern methods of directed evolution and synthetic biology, especially those effecting changes in energy coupling, offer huge opportunities for increasing the flux towards extracellular product formation by transporter engineering. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  14. An Overview on Indian Patents on Biotechnology. (United States)

    Mallick, Anusaya; Chandra Santra, Subhas; Samal, Alok Chandra


    The application of biotechnology is a potential tool for mitigating the present and future fooding and clothing demands in developing countries like India. The commercialization of biotechnological products might benefiting the poor`s in developing countries are unlikely to be developed. Biotechnology has the potential to provide a wide range of products and the existing production skills in the industrial, pharmaceuticals and the agricultural sector. Ownership of the intellectual property rights is the key factors in determining the success of any technological invention, which was introduced in the market. It provides the means for technological progress to continue of the industry of the country. The new plans, animal varieties, new methods of treatments, new crops producing food articles as such are the inventions of biotechnology. Biotechnology is the result of the application of human intelligence and knowledge to the biological processes. Most of the tools of biotechnology have been developed, by companies, governments, research in- stitutes and universities in developed nations. These human intellectual efforts deserve protection. India is a developing country with advance biotechnology based segments of pharmaceutical and agricultural industries. The Trade Related Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) is not likely to have a significant impact on incentives for innovation creation in the biotechnology sectors. In the recent years, the world has seen the biotechnology sector as one of greatest investment area through the Patent Law and will giving huge profit in future. The Research and Development in the field of biotechnology should be encouraged for explor- ing new tools and improve the biological systems for interest of the common people. Priority should be given to generation, evaluation, protection and effective commercial utilization of tangible products of intellectual property in agriculture and pharmaceuticals. To support the future growth and

  15. New technologies in agricultural biotechnology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andras Szekacs


    Full Text Available Technologies that emerged during the last decade as new tools occasionally represent fundamentally new means of genome modification, which, in addition to the scientific novelty, faces legislators with new challenge by giving a new meaning to both the biochemical/molecular biological and legal meaning to genetically modified organisms (GMOs. Emerging plant genetic technologies are categorized as zinc finger nuclease (ZFN technology; oligonucleotide directed mutagenesis; cisgenesis and intragenesis; RNA-dependent DNA methylation by RNA interference; grafting on GM rootstock; reverse breeding; agro-infiltration; and synthetic genomics. Although all these methods apply biotechnology processes to create new plant varieties, it debated whether all result in GMOs according to the current legal definition. Official risk assessment of these technologies is a task of outstanding weight of the authority.

  16. Biotechnology and bioeconomy in China. (United States)

    Li, Qing; Zhao, Qinghua; Hu, Yihong; Wang, Hongguang


    From the review of the achievements and advantages in the development of biotechnology (BT) and bioindustry in China, it is clear that the bioeconomy would provide a tremendous opportunity for China to develop sustainably or even surpass a few developed countries. A long-term vision has been made to guide the research and development and industrialization of BT in China. This review detailed the strategies, targets, priorities, and key technologies in each stage. Furthermore, the reviewers expatiated on the establishment of the favorable policies, the foundation of the professional groups, the establishment of the advanced laboratories or centers, the investment mechanisms, the development and evaluation of biosafety, the encouragement and support for the international collaborations and exchanges, and the establishment of the general organizational structure.

  17. Biotechnology and bioforensics new trends

    CERN Document Server

    Kumar, Amit


    This Brief covers broad areas of Applied Biology specifically into the domains of Biotechnology/Biomedicine and Forensic Science. Chapters included here would also explain the role of bioinformatics in protein and gene characterization, modeling of the protein structure, survey related to the chromosomal effect on Human Disorders like Diabetes and Cardiac Problems. This Brief is full of Innovative Literature like Use of Microbes in Electricity Production, Brain connection to Type 2 Diabetes etc. Interesting issues in Forensic biology and the aspects of Bioforensics like STR profiling of exhumed bones makes this brief truly useful and informative for Researchers. It also includes the advancements and new ideologies in understanding crop improvements & crop quality. This Brief witnesses Innovative Research related to the Bio and Agri software development too which are capable of accelerating Insilico biological data analysis.

  18. Drugs obtained by biotechnology processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Almeida


    Full Text Available In recent years, the number of drugs of biotechnological origin available for many different diseases has increased exponentially, including different types of cancer, diabetes mellitus, infectious diseases (e.g. AIDS Virus / HIV as well as cardiovascular, neurological, respiratory, and autoimmune diseases, among others. The pharmaceutical industry has used different technologies to obtain new and promising active ingredients, as exemplified by the fermentation technique, recombinant DNA technique and the hybridoma technique. The expiry of the patents of the first drugs of biotechnological origin and the consequent emergence of biosimilar products, have posed various questions to health authorities worldwide regarding the definition, framework, and requirements for authorization to market such products.Nos últimos anos, tem aumentado exponencialmente o número de fármacos de origem biotecnológica ao dispor das mais diversas patologias, entre elas destacam-se, os diferentes tipos de cancêr, as doenças infecciosas (ex. vírus AIDS/HIV, as doenças autoimunes, as doenças cardiovasculares, a Diabetes Mellitus, as doenças neurológicas, as doenças respiratórias, entre outras. A indústria farmacêutica tem recorrido a diferentes tecnologias para a obtenção de novos e promissores princípios ativos, como são exemplo a fermentação, a técnica de DNA Recombinante, a técnica de hidridoma, entre outras. A queda das patentes dos primeiros fármacos de origem biotecnológica e o consequente aparecimento dos produtos biossimilares têm colocado diferentes questões às autoridades de saúde mundiais, sobre a definição, enquadramento e exigências para a autorização de entrada no mercado deste tipo de produtos.

  19. Leveraging natural killer cells for cancer immunotherapy. (United States)

    Grossenbacher, Steven K; Aguilar, Ethan G; Murphy, William J


    Natural killer (NK) cells are potent antitumor effector cells of the innate immune system. Based on their ability to eradicate tumors in vitro and in animal models, significant enthusiasm surrounds the prospect of leveraging human NK cells as vehicles for cancer immunotherapy. While interest in manipulating the effector functions of NK cells has existed for over 30 years, there is renewed optimism for this approach today. Although T cells receive much of the clinical and preclinical attention when it comes to cancer immunotherapy, new strategies are utilizing adoptive NK-cell immunotherapy and monoclonal antibodies and engineered molecules which have been developed to specifically activate NK cells against tumors. Despite the numerous challenges associated with the preclinical and clinical development of NK cell-based therapies for cancer, NK cells possess many unique immunological properties and hold the potential to provide an effective means for cancer immunotherapy.

  20. Leveraging Gaming Technology to Deliver Effective Training (United States)

    Cimino, James D.


    The best way to engage a soldier is to present them with training content consistent with their learning preference. Blended Interactive Multimedia Instruction (IMI) can be used to leach soldiers what they need to do, how to do each step, and utilize a COTS game engine to actually practices the skills learned. Blended IMI provides an enjoyable experience for the soldier, thereby increasing retention rates and motivation while decreasing the time to subject mastery. And now mobile devices have emerged as an exciting new platform, literally placing the training into the soldier's hands. In this paper, we will discuss how we leveraged commercial game engine technology, tightly integrated with the Blended IMI, to train soldiers on both laptops and mobile devices. We will provide a recent case study of how this training is being utilized, benefits and student/instructor feedback.

  1. 'Going to The Hague' as Coercive Leverage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schack, Marc


    During the summer of 2014, Israel initiated a major air and land offensive against the Gaza strip (Operation ‘Protective Edge’). Palestine responded by engaging in a set of what can be termed ‘coercive policies’, using the threat of activating the jurisdiction of the International Criminal Court...... (ICC) as leverage. This was the first time in history that an international actor used a possible recourse to the Court in such an explicitly coercive manner. Hence, this case enables us to conduct some preliminary analyses of this strategy’s effectiveness. Specifically, Palestine tried first to stop...... the Israeli offensive itself and later, after combat operations had ended, to compel the United Nations (UN) Security Council to demand an Israeli withdrawal to the 1967-borders. Palestine’s policies, however, did not succeed. Its threats did not secure an Israeli withdrawal from Gaza, nor did they compel...

  2. Frontiers in biomedical engineering and biotechnology. (United States)

    Liu, Feng; Goodarzi, Ali; Wang, Haifeng; Stasiak, Joanna; Sun, Jianbo; Zhou, Yu


    The 2nd International Conference on Biomedical Engineering and Biotechnology (iCBEB 2013), held in Wuhan on 11–13 October 2013, is an annual conference that aims at providing an opportunity for international and national researchers and practitioners to present the most recent advances and future challenges in the fields of Biomedical Information, Biomedical Engineering and Biotechnology. The papers published by this issue are selected from this conference, which witnesses the frontier in the field of Biomedical Engineering and Biotechnology, which particularly has helped improving the level of clinical diagnosis in medical work.

  3. Designer cell signal processing circuits for biotechnology. (United States)

    Bradley, Robert W; Wang, Baojun


    Microorganisms are able to respond effectively to diverse signals from their environment and internal metabolism owing to their inherent sophisticated information processing capacity. A central aim of synthetic biology is to control and reprogramme the signal processing pathways within living cells so as to realise repurposed, beneficial applications ranging from disease diagnosis and environmental sensing to chemical bioproduction. To date most examples of synthetic biological signal processing have been built based on digital information flow, though analogue computing is being developed to cope with more complex operations and larger sets of variables. Great progress has been made in expanding the categories of characterised biological components that can be used for cellular signal manipulation, thereby allowing synthetic biologists to more rationally programme increasingly complex behaviours into living cells. Here we present a current overview of the components and strategies that exist for designer cell signal processing and decision making, discuss how these have been implemented in prototype systems for therapeutic, environmental, and industrial biotechnological applications, and examine emerging challenges in this promising field. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Improving microalgae for biotechnology--From genetics to synthetic biology. (United States)

    Hlavova, Monika; Turoczy, Zoltan; Bisova, Katerina


    Microalgae have traditionally been used in many biotechnological applications, where each new application required a different species or strain expressing the required properties; the challenge therefore is to isolate or develop, characterize and optimize species or strains that can express more than one specific property. In agriculture, breeding of natural variants has been successfully used for centuries to improve production traits in many existing plant and animal species. With the discovery of the concepts of classical genetics, these new ideas have been extensively used in selective breeding. However, many biotechnologically relevant algae do not possess the sexual characteristics required for traditional breeding/crossing, although they can be modified by chemical and physical mutagens. The resulting mutants are not considered as genetically modified organisms (GMOs) and their cultivation is therefore not limited by legislation. On the other hand, mutants prepared by random or specific insertion of foreign DNA are considered to be GMOs. This review will compare the effects of two genetic approaches on model algal species and will summarize their advantages in basic research. Furthermore, we will discuss the potential of mutagenesis to improve microalgae as a biotechnological resource, to accelerate the process from specific strain isolation to growth optimization, and discuss the production of new products. Finally, we will explore the potential of algae in synthetic biology. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Importance of lactobacilli in food and feed biotechnology. (United States)

    Giraffa, Giorgio; Chanishvili, Nina; Widyastuti, Yantyati


    The genus Lactobacillus is a heterogeneous group of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) with important implications in food fermentation. The ability to colonize a variety of habitats is a direct consequence of the wide metabolic versatility of this group of LAB. Consequently, lactobacilli have been used for decades in food preservation, as starters for dairy products, fermented vegetables, fish and sausages as well as silage inoculants. Lactobacilli have also been proposed as probiotics and microbial cell factories for the production of nutraceuticals. However, a wide range of applications of lactobacilli in food biotechnology remains potential, whereas a number of important strains still need to be discovered and characterized. This article provides an overview of the taxonomy of lactobacilli and describes four of the most significant case studies on the application of this group of LAB in food and feed biotechnology, including their use as probiotics, dairy starters, silage inoculants, and microbial cell factories. The importance of access to and exchange of biological material within and between different strain collections as a crucial step in expanding the range of different biotechnological applications of lactobacilli is also emphasized. (c) 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. Thirty years of European biotechnology programmes: from biomolecular engineering to the bioeconomy. (United States)

    Aguilar, Alfredo; Magnien, Etienne; Thomas, Daniel


    This article traces back thirty years of biotechnology research sponsored by the European Union (EU). It outlines the crucial role played by De Nettancourt, Goffeau and Van Hoeck to promote and prepare the first European programme on biotechnology (1982-1986) run by the European Commission. Following this first biotechnology programme, others followed until the current one, part of the seventh Framework Programme for Research, Technological Development and Demonstration (2007-2013) (FP7). Particular attention is given to the statutory role of the European institutions in the design and orientation of the successive biotechnology programmes, compared to the more informal-yet visionary-role of key individuals upstream to any legislative decision. Examples of success stories and of the role of the biotechnology programmes in addressing societal issues and industrial competitiveness are also presented. Finally, an outline of Horizon 2020, the successor of FP7, is described, together with the role of biotechnology in building the bioeconomy. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. [The past 30 years of Chinese Journal of Biotechnology]. (United States)

    Jiang, Ning


    This review addresses the association of "Chinese Journal of Biotechnology" and the development of biotechnology in China in the past 30 years. Topics include relevant awards and industrialization, development of the biotechnology discipline, and well know scientists in biotechnology, as well as perspectives on the journal.

  8. Biotechnology, nanotechnology, and pharmacogenomics and pharmaceutical compounding, Part 1. (United States)

    Allen, Loyd V


    The world of pharmaceuticals is changing rapidly as biotechnology continues to grow and nanotechnology appears on the horizon. Biotechnology is gaining in importance in extemporaneous pharmaceutical compounding, and nanotechnology and pharmacogenomics could drastically change the practice of pharmacy. This article discusses biotechnology and the factors to consider when compounding biotechnology drugs.

  9. Biotechnology of oil palm: strategies towards manipulation of lipid content and composition. (United States)

    Parveez, Ghulam Kadir Ahmad; Rasid, Omar Abdul; Masani, Mat Yunus Abdul; Sambanthamurthi, Ravigadevi


    Oil palm is a major economic crop for Malaysia. The major challenges faced by the industry are labor shortage, availability of arable land and unstable commodity price. This has caused the industry to diversify its applications into higher value products besides increasing its yield. While conventional breeding has its limitations, biotechnology was identified as one of the tools for overcoming the above challenges. Research on biotechnology of oil palm began more than two decades ago leveraging a multidisciplinary approach involving biochemical studies, gene and promoter isolation, transformation vector construction and finally genetic transformation to produce the targeted products. The main target of oil palm biotechnology research is to increase oleic acid in the mesocarp. Other targets are stearic acid, palmitoleic acid, ricinoleic acid, lycopene (carotenoid) and biodegradable plastics. Significant achievements were reported for the biochemical studies, isolation of useful oil palm genes and characterization of important promoters. A large number of transformation constructs for various targeted products were successfully produced using the isolated oil palm genes and promoters. Finally transformation of these constructs into oil palm embryogenic calli was carried out while the regeneration of transgenic oil palm harboring the useful genes is in progress.

  10. Biotechnology Education: A Multiple Instructional Strategies Approach. (United States)

    Dunham, Trey; Wells, John; White, Karissa


    Provides a rationale for inclusion of biotechnology in technology education. Describes an instructional strategy that uses behaviorist, cognitive, and constructivist learning theories in two activities involving photobioreactors and bovine somatotropin (growth hormone). (Contains 39 references.) (SK)

  11. Application of biotechnology to improve livestock products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swati Gupta

    Full Text Available Biotechnological achievements of recent years have emerged as powerful tool to improve quality attributes of livestock products including milk and meat products. Biotechnological approaches can be employed for improving productivity, economy, physicochemical and nutritional attributes of a wide range of livestock products. The target areas of biotechnological research in the field of livestock products can be envisaged as production of high yielding food animal, improvement in quality of their products, enhanced production of natural food grade preservatives, efficient byproduct utilization and so forth. Many of the biotechnological techniques can be explored in the area of quality assurance programmes, which would be of great help to produce livestock products of assured quality and public health safety. [Vet World 2012; 5(10.000: 634-638

  12. Assessment of technology generating institutions in biotechnology ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    May 18, 2009 ... Key words: Biotechnology, innovation system, research institutions, universities and agricultural development programme. INTRODUCTION ... technology is the application of indigenous and / or scientific knowledge to the .... professionals, public attitude to genetic engineering organisms and products, and ...

  13. New biotechnologies in Serbian forestry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galović Vladislava


    Full Text Available This paper presents an overview of the results achieved in the laboratory for molecular studies of the Institute of Lowland Forestry and Environment, University of Novi Sad, in the field of biotechnology, mainly in molecular genetics, genomics and functional genomics. Researches are designed to serve as a breeding tool. The aim was to clarify the processes of classical genetics by applying modern methods and enable a qualitative and rapid progress in understanding the processes that occur at the level of genes in the genome of forest plant species and thus help the processes of conservation of valuable taxa at the time of global climate change. The results are presented within various research fields and by type of forest trees that were given priority by importance in forest ecosystems. Studies have in most cases been of applicative character with the aim of solving the major problems in forestry, but also of fundamental nature when they were necessary to elucidate the response of forest species to the induced stress, which is an inevitable component of the time characterized by tolerance and adaptation as keywords. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike SRbije, br. III 43002: Biosenzing tehnologije i globalni sistem za kontinuirano istraživanje i integrisano upravljanje ekosistemima i br. III 43007: Istraživanje klimatskih promena i njihovog uticaja na životnu sredinu - praćenje uticaja, adaptacija i ublažavanje i IPA - OXIT

  14. Immunoassays in monitoring biotechnological drugs. (United States)

    Gygax, D; Botta, L; Ehrat, M; Graf, P; Lefèvre, G; Oroszlan, P; Pfister, C


    For the evaluation and interpretation of pharmacokinetic data reliable quantitative determinations are a requirement that can only be met by well-characterized and fully validated analytical methods. To cope with these requirements a method is being established that is based on an integrated and automated fiber-optic biospecific interaction analysis system (FOBIA) for immunoassays. Performance characteristics of this system used in monitoring of recombinant hirudin (CGP 39 393) are presented. Recombinant hirudin is a highly potent and selective inhibitor of human thrombin. Owing to its size and charge, recombinant hirudin is mainly eliminated by glomerular filtration. But only a fraction of the hirudin dose seems to be reabsorbed at the proximal tubule by luminal endocytosis and hydrolyzed by lysosomal enzymes, leaving approximately 50% of the dose to be extracted in the urine. Thus, renal clearance of recombinant hirudin in the absence of renal insufficiency appears to depend primarily on the glomerular filtration rate. During a 3-month i.v. tolerability study in dogs, some of the dogs developed antibodies against recombinant hirudin. The hirudin-antibody complex accumulated in plasma and apparent hirudin plasma concentrations were therefore much higher than expected from single-dose kinetics. Hirudin captured by antibodies showed an extended half-life and the hirudin-antibody complex is still pharmacologically active, as demonstrated by the observed increase in thrombin time. In conclusion, only appropriate analytical methods allow adequate monitoring and pharmacokinetic characterization of biotechnology drugs in biological materials.

  15. Biotechnological improvement of ornamental plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavia Soledad Darqui


    Full Text Available The discovery of commercial transgenic varieties of orange petunias sold in Europe and the United States although they had never reached the approved status, and the consequent recommendation to destroy them, was the trigger to discuss about biotechnological improvement of ornamental plants. Inside the restricted world of 26 vegetal transgenic species, according to the ISAAA’s reports (, there are three ornamental species: carnation, rose and the Beijing University developed petunia; all of them with the same trait, a change in their colour. On the other hand, in 2014, the whole-genome sequence of carnation appeared which was the first and until now the only one among ornamental species. In this context, we review the publications from the last five years in petunia, rose, chrysanthemum and carnation. In these papers there are detailed descriptions of modification of the cascade of genes and transcription factors involved in stress situations, in different developmental stages and their regulation through different plant hormones. This knowledge will allow breeding for better and new varieties with changes in their abiotic or biotic stress tolerance, altered growth or yield and modified product quality as colour or fragrance.

  16. Yeasts: From genetics to biotechnology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russo, S.; Poli, G. [Univ. of Milan (Italy); Siman-Tov, R.B. [Univ. of Jerusalem, Rehovot (Israel)


    Yeasts have been known and used in food and alcoholic fermentations ever since the Neolithic Age. In more recent times, on the basis of their peculiar features and history, yeasts have become very important experimental models in both microbiological and genetic research, as well as the main characters in many fermentative production processes. In the last 40 years, advances in molecular biology and genetic engineering have made possible not only the genetic selection of organisms, but also the genetic modification of some of them, especially the simplest of them, such as bacteria and yeasts. These discoveries have led to the availability of new yeast strains fit to fulfill requests of industrial production and fermentation. Moreover, genetically modified and transformed yeasts have been constructed that are able to produce large amounts of biologically active proteins and enzymes. Thus, recombinant yeasts make it easier to produce drugs, biologically active products, diagnostics, and vaccines, by inexpensive and relatively simple techniques. Yeasts are going to become more and more important in the {open_quotes}biotechnological revolution{close_quotes} by virtue of both their features and their very long and safe use in human nutrition and industry. 175 refs., 4 figs., 6 tabs.

  17. Biotechnological applications of bacterial cellulases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther Menendez


    Full Text Available Cellulases have numerous applications in several industries, including biofuel production, food and feed industry, brewing, pulp and paper, textile, laundry, and agriculture.Cellulose-degrading bacteria are widely spread in nature, being isolated from quite different environments. Cellulose degradation is the result of a synergic process between an endoglucanase, an exoglucanase and a,β-glucosidase. Bacterial endoglucanases degrade ß-1,4-glucan linkages of cellulose amorphous zones, meanwhile exoglucanases cleave the remaining oligosaccharide chains, originating cellobiose, which is hydrolyzed by ß-glucanases. Bacterial cellulases (EC are comprised in fourteen Glycosil Hydrolase families. Several advantages, such as higher growth rates and genetic versatility, emphasize the suitability and advantages of bacterial cellulases over other sources for this group of enzymes. This review summarizes the main known cellulolytic bacteria and the best strategies to optimize their cellulase production, focusing on endoglucanases, as well as it reviews the main biotechnological applications of bacterial cellulases in several industries, medicine and agriculture.



    Garda S. A.; S. G. Danilenko; G. S. Litvinov


    Probiotics based on normal microflora of the birds using perspective strains become increasingly popular for treatment and prophylaxis of dysbacteriosis in poultry. The purpose of the work is the biotechnological data analysis of the composition and functions of the microflora of different birds’ biotopes. One of biotechnological methods for the study of bacterial flora in the birds is a method of in vivo bacteriological control — analysis of group samples of fresh droppings. To study bir...

  19. Outer Limits of Biotechnologies: A Jewish Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John D. Loike


    Full Text Available A great deal of biomedical research focuses on new biotechnologies such as gene editing, stem cell biology, and reproductive medicine, which have created a scientific revolution. While the potential medical benefits of this research may be far-reaching, ethical issues related to non-medical applications of these technologies are demanding. We analyze, from a Jewish legal perspective, some of the ethical conundrums that society faces in pushing the outer limits in researching these new biotechnologies.

  20. Proteomics: a biotechnology tool for crop improvement


    Eldakak, Moustafa; Milad, Sanaa I. M.; Nawar, Ali I.; Rohila, Jai S.


    A sharp decline in the availability of arable land and sufficient supply of irrigation water along with a continuous steep increase in food demands have exerted a pressure on farmers to produce more with fewer resources. A viable solution to release this pressure is to speed up the plant breeding process by employing biotechnology in breeding programs. The majority of biotechnological applications rely on information generated from various -omic technologies. The latest outstanding improve...

  1. Medical Biotechnology Trends and Achievements in Iran (United States)

    Mahboudi, Fereidoun; Hamedifar, Haleh; Aghajani, Hamideh


    A healthcare system has been the most important priority for all governments worldwide. Biotechnology products have affected the promotion of health care over the last thirty years. During the last several decades, Iran has achieved significant success in extending healthcare to the rural areas and in reducing the rates of infant mortality and increasing population growth. Biomedical technology as a converging technology is considered a helpful tool to fulfill the Iranian healthcare missions. The number of biotechnology products has reached 148 in 2012. The total sales have increased to 98 billion USD without considering vaccines and plasma derived proteins in 2012. Iran is one of the leading countries in the Middle East and North Africa in the area of Medical biotechnology. The number of biotechnology medicines launched in Iran is 13 products until 2012. More than 15 products are in pipelines now. Manufacturers are expecting to receive the market release for more than 8 products by the end of 2012. Considering this information, Iran will lead the biotechnology products especially in area of biosimilars in Asia after India in next three years. The present review will discuss leading policy, decision makers’ role, human resource developing system and industry development in medical biotechnology. PMID:23407888

  2. The role of biotechnology in art preservation. (United States)

    Ramírez, José Luis; Santana, María A; Galindo-Castro, Iván; Gonzalez, Alvaro


    Biotechnology has played a key role in medicine, agriculture and industry for over 30 years and has advanced our understanding of the biological sciences. Furthermore, the tools of biotechnology have a great and largely untapped potential for the preservation and restoration of our cultural heritage. It is possible that these tools are not often applied in this context because of the inherent separation of the worlds of art and science; however, it is encouraging to see that during the past six years important biotechnological applications to artwork preservation have emerged and advances in biotechnology predict further innovation. In this article we describe and reflect upon a unique example of a group of scientists and art restoration technicians working together to study and treat of a piece of colonial art, and review some of the new applications in biotechnology for the preservation of mankind's cultural heritage. We predict an expansion in this field and the further development of biotechnological techniques, which will open up new opportunities to both biologists and artwork preservers.

  3. Leveraging Distributions in Physical Unclonable Functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenjie Che


    Full Text Available A special class of Physical Unclonable Functions (PUFs referred to as strong PUFs can be used in novel hardware-based authentication protocols. Strong PUFs are required for authentication because the bit strings and helper data are transmitted openly by the token to the verifier, and therefore are revealed to the adversary. This enables the adversary to carry out attacks against the token by systematically applying challenges and obtaining responses in an attempt to machine learn, and later predict, the token’s response to an arbitrary challenge. Therefore, strong PUFs must both provide an exponentially large challenge space and be resistant to machine-learning attacks in order to be considered secure. We investigate a transformation called temperature–voltage compensation (TVCOMP, which is used within the Hardware-Embedded Delay PUF (HELP bit string generation algorithm. TVCOMP increases the diversity and unpredictability of the challenge–response space, and therefore increases resistance to model-building attacks. HELP leverages within-die variations in path delays as a source of random information. TVCOMP is a linear transformation designed specifically for dealing with changes in delay introduced by adverse temperature–voltage (environmental variations. In this paper, we show that TVCOMP also increases entropy and expands the challenge–response space dramatically.

  4. Tissue engineering and biotechnology in general thoracic surgery. (United States)

    Molnar, Tamas F; Pongracz, Judit E


    Public interest in the recent progress of tissue engineering, a special line of biotechnology, makes the current review on thoracic surgery highly relevant. In this article, techniques, materials and cellular processes are discussed alongside their potential applications in tissue repair. Different applications of tissue engineering in tracheo-bronchial replacement, lung tissue cultures and chest-wall reconstruction are also summarised in the article. Potential tissue engineering-based solutions for destructive, chronic lung-injury-related conditions and replacement of tubular structures in the central airways are also examined. Copyright 2010 European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Students' knowledge of, and attitudes towards biotechnology revisited, 1995-2014: Changes in agriculture biotechnology but not in medical biotechnology. (United States)

    Chen, Shao-Yen; Chu, Yih-Ru; Lin, Chen-Yung; Chiang, Tzen-Yuh


    Modern biotechnology is one of the most important scientific and technological revolutions in the 21st century, with an increasing and measurable impact on society. Development of biotechnology curriculum has become important to high school bioscience classrooms. This study has monitored high school students in Taiwan on their knowledge of and attitudes towards biotechnology for nearly two decades. Not surprisingly, knowledge of biotechnology of current students has increased significantly (p affect students' attitudes toward genetically engineered (GE) plants but not GE animals. Our current study also found that the students' attitude towards GE animals was influenced more by their limited knowledge than by their moral belief. On the basis of findings from this study, we suggest that more materials of emerging animal biotechnology should be included in high school curriculum and recommend that high school teachers and university faculty establish a collaborative framework in the near future. © 2016 by The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 44(5):475-491, 2016. © 2016 The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

  6. Medical Biotechnology: Problems and Prospects in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaikh Mizan


    Full Text Available Biotechnology is the knowledge and techniques of developing and using biological systems for deriving special products and services. The age-old technology took a new turn with the advent of recombinant DNA techniques, and boosted by the development of other molecular biological techniques, cell culture techniques and bioinformatics. Medical biotechnology is the major thrust area of biotechnology. It has brought revolutions in medicine – quick methods for diagnosing diseases, generation of new drugs and vaccines, completely novel approach of treatment are only a few to mention. The industrial and financial bulk of the industry mushroomed very rapidly in the last three decades, led by the USA and western advanced nations. Asian countries like China, India, South Korea, Taiwan and Singapore joined late, but advancing forward in a big way. In all the Asian countries governments supported the initiatives of the expert and entrepreneur community, and invested heavily in its development. Bangladesh has got great potential in developing biotechnology and reaping its fruits. However, lack of commitment and patriotism, and too much corruption and irresponsibility in political and bureaucratic establishment are the major hindrance to the development of biotechnology in Bangladesh.

  7. Forest biotechnology advances to support global bioeconomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoine Harfouche


    Full Text Available The world is shifting to an innovation economy and forest biotechnology can play a major role in the bio-economy by providing farmers, producers, and consumers with tools that can better advance this transition. First-generation or conventional biofuels are primarily produced from food crops and are therefore limited in their ability to meet challenges for petroleum-product substitution and climate change mitigation, and to overcome the food-versus-fuel dilemma. In the longer term, forest lignocellulosic biomass will provide a unique renewable resource for large-scale production of bioenergy, biofuels and bio-products. These second-generation or advanced biofuels and bio-products have also the potential to avoid many of the issues facing the first-generation biofuels, particularly the competition concerning land and water used for food production. To expand the range of natural biological resources the rapidly evolving tools of biotechnology can ameliorate the conversion process, lower the conversion costs and also enhance target yield of forest biomass feedstock and the product of interest. Therefore, linking forest biotechnology with industrial biotechnology presents a promising approach to convert woody lignocellulosic biomass into biofuels and bio-products. Major advances and applications of forest biotechnology that are being achieved to competitively position forest biomass feedstocks with corn and other food crops are outlined. Finally, recommendations for future work are discussed.

  8. The Biotechnology Facility for International Space Station (United States)

    Goodwin, Thomas; Lundquist, Charles; Hurlbert, Katy; Tuxhorn, Jennifer


    The primary mission of the Cellular Biotechnology Program is to advance microgravity as a tool in basic and applied cell biology. The microgravity environment can be used to study fundamental principles of cell biology and to achieve specific applications such as tissue engineering. The Biotechnology Facility (BTF) will provide a state-of-the-art facility to perform cellular biotechnology research onboard the International Space Station (ISS). The BTF will support continuous operation, which will allow performance of long-duration experiments and will significantly increase the on-orbit science throughput. With the BTF, dedicated ground support, and a community of investigators, the goals of the Cellular Biotechnology Program at Johnson Space Center are to: Support approximately 400 typical investigator experiments during the nominal design life of BTF (10 years). Support a steady increase in investigations per year, starting with stationary bioreactor experiments and adding rotating bioreactor experiments at a later date. Support at least 80% of all new cellular biotechnology investigations selected through the NASA Research Announcement (NRA) process. Modular components - to allow sequential and continuous experiment operations without cross-contamination Increased cold storage capability (+4 C, -80 C, -180 C). Storage of frozen cell culture inoculum - to allow sequential investigations. Storage of post-experiment samples - for return of high quality samples. Increased number of cell cultures per investigation, with replicates - to provide sufficient number of samples for data analysis and publication of results in peer-reviewed scientific journals.

  9. Proteomics: A Biotechnology Tool for Crop Improvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moustafa eEldakak


    Full Text Available A sharp decline in the availability of arable land and sufficient supply of irrigation water along with a continuous steep increase in food demands have exerted a pressure on farmers to produce more with fewer resources. A viable solution to release this pressure is to speed up the plant breeding process by employing biotechnology in breeding programs. The majority of biotechnological applications rely on information generated from various -omic technologies. The latest outstanding improvements in proteomic platforms and many other but related advances in plant biotechnology techniques offer various new ways to encourage the usage of these technologies by plant scientists for crop improvement programs. A combinatorial approach of accelerated gene discovery through genomics, proteomics, and other associated -omic branches of biotechnology, as an applied approach, is proving to be an effective way to speed up the crop improvement programs worldwide. In the near future, swift improvements in -omic databases are becoming critical and demand immediate attention for the effective utilization of these techniques to produce next-generation crops for the progressive farmers. Here, we have reviewed the recent advances in proteomics, as tools of biotechnology, which are offering great promise and leading the path towards crop improvement for sustainable agriculture.

  10. Turning Russian specialized microbial culture collections into resource centers for biotechnology. (United States)

    Ivshina, Irena B; Kuyukina, Maria S


    Specialized nonmedical microbial culture collections contain unique bioresources that could be useful for biotechnology companies. Cooperation between collections and companies has suffered from shortcomings in infrastructure and legislation, hindering access to holdings. These challenges may be overcome by the transformation of collections into national bioresource centers and integration into international microbial resource networks. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Clusters in Industrial Biotechnology and Bioeconomy: The Roles of the Public Sector. (United States)

    Philp, Jim; Winickoff, David E


    Government policies across the world seek to create clusters of companies and other stakeholders that specialise in a particular technology to build an 'industrial ecosystem'. This article looks at some examples of clusters created specifically with industrial biotechnology in mind and examines measures for policymakers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Leveraged exchange-traded funds price dynamics and options valuation

    CERN Document Server

    Leung, Tim


    This book provides an analysis, under both discrete-time and continuous-time frameworks, on the price dynamics of leveraged exchange-traded funds (LETFs), with emphasis on the roles of leverage ratio, realized volatility, investment horizon, and tracking errors. This study provides new insights on the risks associated with LETFs. It also leads to the discussion of new risk management concepts, such as admissible leverage ratios and admissible risk horizon, as well as the mathematical and empirical analyses of several trading strategies, including static portfolios, pairs trading, and stop-loss strategies involving ETFs and LETFs. The final part of the book addresses the pricing of options written on LETFs. Since different LETFs are designed to track the same reference index, these funds and their associated options share very similar sources of randomness. The authors provide a no-arbitrage pricing approach that consistently value options on LETFs with different leverage ratios with stochastic volatility and ...

  13. Mass Media Theory, Leveraging Relationships, and Reliable Strategic Communication Effects (United States)


    McQuail , McQuail’s Mass Communication Theory , (London: Sage Publications, Ltd., 2005), 476. 10 Defleur and Ball-Rokeach, 279. 11 Ibid., 290. 22...St ra te gy R es ea rc h Pr oj ec t MASS MEDIA THEORY , LEVERAGING RELATIONSHIPS, AND RELIABLE STRATEGIC COMMUNICATION EFFECTS BY...COVERED 00-00-2007 to 00-00-2008 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Mass Media Theory , Leveraging Relationships, and Reliable Strategic Communication

  14. The Role of Target Leverage in Security Issues and Repurchases


    Armen Hovakimian


    The paper examines whether security issues and repurchases adjust the capital structure toward the target. The time-series patterns of debt ratios imply that only debt reductions are initiated to offset the accumulated deviation from target leverage. The importance of target leverage in earlier debt-equity choice studies is driven by the subsample of equity issues accompanied by debt reductions. Unlike debt issues and reductions, equity issues and repurchases have no significant lasting effec...

  15. Analysis of debt leveraging in private power projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kahn, E.P.; Meal, M.; Doerrer, S.; Morse, S.


    As private power (non-utility generation) has grown to become a significant part of the electricity system, increasing concern about its financial implications has arisen. In many cases, the source of this concern has been the substantial reliance of these projects on debt financing. This study examines debt leveraging in private power projects. The policy debate on these issues has typically been conducted at a high level of generality. Critics of the private power industry assert that high debt leveraging confers an unfair competitive advantage by lowering the cost of capital, and that this leveraging is only possible because risks are shifted to the utility. Further, debt leveraging is claimed to be a threat to reliability. On the opposite side, it is argued that debt leveraging imposes costs and obligations not home by utilities, and so there is no financial advantage. The private producers also argue that on balance more risk is shifted away from utilities than to them, and that incentives for reliability are strong. In this study we examine the project finance mechanisms used in private power lending in detail, relying on a sample of actual loan documents. This review and its findings should be relevant to the further evolution of this debate. State regulatory commissions are likely to be interested in it, and Federal legislation to amend the Public Utility Holding Company Act (PUHCA) could require states to consider the implications of debt leveraging in relation to their oversight of utility power purchase programs

  16. Applications of Protein Hydrolysates in Biotechnology (United States)

    Pasupuleti, Vijai K.; Holmes, Chris; Demain, Arnold L.

    By definition, protein hydrolysates are the products that are obtained after the hydrolysis of proteins and this can be achieved by enzymes, acid or alkali. This broad definition encompasses all the products of protein hydrolysis - peptides, amino acids and minerals present in the protein and acid/alkali used to adjust pH (Pasupuleti 2006). Protein hydrolysates contain variable side chains depending on the enzymes used. These side chains could be carboxyl, amino, imidazole, sulfhydryl, etc. and they may exert specific physiological roles in animal, microbial, insect and plant cells. This introductory chapter reviews the applications of protein hydrolysates in biotechnology. The word biotechnology is so broad and for the purpose of this book, we define it as a set of technologies such as cell culture technology, bioprocessing technology that includes fermentations, genetic engineering technology, microbiology, and so on. This chapter provides introduction and leads to other chapters on manufacturing and applications of protein hydrolysates in biotechnology.

  17. Perspectives on biotechnological applications of archaea (United States)

    Schiraldi, Chiara; Giuliano, Mariateresa; De Rosa, Mario


    Many archaea colonize extreme environments. They include hyperthermophiles, sulfur-metabolizing thermophiles, extreme halophiles and methanogens. Because extremophilic microorganisms have unusual properties, they are a potentially valuable resource in the development of novel biotechnological processes. Despite extensive research, however, there are few existing industrial applications of either archaeal biomass or archaeal enzymes. This review summarizes current knowledge about the biotechnological uses of archaea and archaeal enzymes with special attention to potential applications that are the subject of current experimental evaluation. Topics covered include cultivation methods, recent achievements in genomics, which are of key importance for the development of new biotechnological tools, and the application of wild-type biomasses, engineered microorganisms, enzymes and specific metabolites in particular bioprocesses of industrial interest. PMID:15803645

  18. Plant biotechnology for food security and bioeconomy. (United States)

    Clarke, Jihong Liu; Zhang, Peng


    This year is a special year for plant biotechnology. It was 30 years ago, on January 18 1983, one of the most important dates in the history of plant biotechnology, that three independent groups described Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated genetic transformation at the Miami Winter Symposium, leading to the production of normal, fertile transgenic plants (Bevan et al. in Nature 304:184-187, 1983; Fraley et al. in Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 80:4803-4807, 1983; Herrera-Estrella et al. in EMBO J 2:987-995, 1983; Vasil in Plant Cell Rep 27:1432-1440, 2008). Since then, plant biotechnology has rapidly advanced into a useful and valuable tool and has made a significant impact on crop production, development of a biotech industry and the bio-based economy worldwide.

  19. Biotechnological uses of enzymes from psychrophiles (United States)

    Cavicchioli, R.; Charlton, T.; Ertan, H.; Omar, S. Mohd; Siddiqui, K. S.; Williams, T. J.


    Summary The bulk of the Earth's biosphere is cold (e.g. 90% of the ocean's waters are ≤ 5°C), sustaining a broad diversity of microbial life. The permanently cold environments vary from the deep ocean to alpine reaches and to polar regions. Commensurate with the extent and diversity of the ecosystems that harbour psychrophilic life, the functional capacity of the microorganisms that inhabitat the cold biosphere are equally diverse. As a result, indigenous psychrophilic microorganisms provide an enormous natural resource of enzymes that function effectively in the cold, and these cold‐adapted enzymes have been targeted for their biotechnological potential. In this review we describe the main properties of enzymes from psychrophiles and describe some of their known biotechnological applications and ways to potentially improve their value for biotechnology. The review also covers the use of metagenomics for enzyme screening, the development of psychrophilic gene expression systems and the use of enzymes for cleaning. PMID:21733127

  20. A sign-theoretic approach to biotechnology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruni, Luis Emilio

    to exemplify what is the relevance of a sign-theoretic approach to biotechnology. In particular, I introduce the notion of digital-analogical consensus as a semiotic pattern for the creation of complex logical products that constitute specific signs. The chapter ends with some examples of conspicuous semiotic......, translation, transformation and transmission of information. The idea is also to investigate how this debate may influence the “integrative agenda” in biology, especially at a time in which biotechnology is considered to be the industrial use of “biological information”. I introduce concepts....... Finally I make a connection between a sign-theoretic approach to biotechnology and sustainability, with a glimpse into the future....

  1. Biotechnology: Health care, agriculture, industry, environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sikyta, B.; Pavlasova, E.; Stejskalova, E.


    New developments in different branches of biotechnology are discussed. The production of peptide hormones, new interferons and other lymphokines by the microbial and cell cultures, and new enzyme inhibitors of microbial origin are the most important for health care and pharmacy. The main direction in research in the agriculture represents the development of the new, very effective methods of nitrogen fixation and the production of animal growth hormones by gene manipulated microorganisms. One of the most important field of application of biotechnology is the chemical industry, c.f. microbial production of polymers and biotransformation of compounds previously produced by chemical methods (acrylamide, adipic acid, naphthalene conversion, etc.). Several novel methods of degradation of the cellulosic materials are mentioned and exploitation of biotechnology in environmental protection is also discussed.

  2. Microbial biotechnology addressing the plastic waste disaster. (United States)

    Narancic, Tanja; O'Connor, Kevin E


    Oceans are a major source of biodiversity, they provide livelihood, and regulate the global ecosystem by absorbing heat and CO 2 . However, they are highly polluted with plastic waste. We are discussing here microbial biotechnology advances with the view to improve the start and the end of life of biodegradable polymers, which could contribute to the sustainable use of marine and coastal ecosystems (UN Sustainability development goal 14). © 2017 The Authors. Microbial Biotechnology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Society for Applied Microbiology.

  3. Biotechnological applications of extremophiles, extremozymes and extremolytes. (United States)

    Raddadi, Noura; Cherif, Ameur; Daffonchio, Daniele; Neifar, Mohamed; Fava, Fabio


    In the last decade, attention to extreme environments has increased because of interests to isolate previously unknown extremophilic microorganisms in pure culture and to profile their metabolites. Microorganisms that live in extreme environments produce extremozymes and extremolytes that have the potential to be valuable resources for the development of a bio-based economy through their application to white, red, and grey biotechnologies. Here, we provide an overview of extremophile ecology, and we review the most recent applications of microbial extremophiles and the extremozymes and extremolytes they produce to biotechnology.

  4. Wood production, wood technology, and biotechnological impacts.



    In the year 2001, Prof. Dr. Ursula Kües was appointed at the Faculty of Forest Sciences and Forest Ecology of the Georg-August-University Göttingen to the chair Molecular Wood Biotechnology endowed by the Deutsche Bundesstiftung Umwelt (DBU). Her group studies higher fungi in basic and applied research. Research foci are on mushroom development and on fungal enzymes degrading wood and their applications in wood biotechnology. This book has been edited to thank the DBU for all support given to...

  5. Biotechnological applications of extremophiles, extremozymes and extremolytes

    KAUST Repository

    Raddadi, Noura


    In the last decade, attention to extreme environments has increased because of interests to isolate previously unknown extremophilic microorganisms in pure culture and to profile their metabolites. Microorganisms that live in extreme environments produce extremozymes and extremolytes that have the potential to be valuable resources for the development of a bio-based economy through their application to white, red, and grey biotechnologies. Here, we provide an overview of extremophile ecology, and we review the most recent applications of microbial extremophiles and the extremozymes and extremolytes they produce to biotechnology.

  6. Biotechnology and the bioeconomy-Towards inclusive and sustainable industrial development. (United States)

    Lokko, Yvonne; Heijde, Marc; Schebesta, Karl; Scholtès, Philippe; Van Montagu, Marc; Giacca, Mauro


    To transform developing and least developing countries into industrialised ones, biotechnology could be deployed along the value chain, to provide support to the development of the bio-based industries in such a way to ensure sustainability of the sector and to reduce negative environmental impacts that might otherwise occur. In agribusiness development, for instance, interventions could start from inputs and agricultural mechanization, modern processing technologies, packaging of perishable products, the promotion of food safety in the processing and regulatory environment; and interventions to improve competitiveness and productivity. Worth over USD 300 billion in revenue, the role of the biotechnology goes beyond industrial growth, since it provides opportunities for progress towards many of the UN sustainable development goals (SDGs). This paper reviews the status of industrial biotechnology as it relates to inclusive and sustainable industrial development. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. The role of environmental biotechnology in exploring, exploiting, monitoring, preserving, protecting and decontaminating the marine environment. (United States)

    Kalogerakis, Nicolas; Arff, Johanne; Banat, Ibrahim M; Broch, Ole Jacob; Daffonchio, Daniele; Edvardsen, Torgeir; Eguiraun, Harkaitz; Giuliano, Laura; Handå, Aleksander; López-de-Ipiña, Karmele; Marigomez, Ionan; Martinez, Iciar; Øie, Gunvor; Rojo, Fernando; Skjermo, Jorunn; Zanaroli, Giulio; Fava, Fabio


    In light of the Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD) and the EU Thematic Strategy on the Sustainable Use of Natural Resources, environmental biotechnology could make significant contributions in the exploitation of marine resources and addressing key marine environmental problems. In this paper 14 propositions are presented focusing on (i) the contamination of the marine environment, and more particularly how to optimize the use of biotechnology-related tools and strategies for predicting and monitoring contamination and developing mitigation measures; (ii) the exploitation of the marine biological and genetic resources to progress with the sustainable, eco-compatible use of the maritime space (issues are very diversified and include, for example, waste treatment and recycling, anti-biofouling agents; bio-plastics); (iii) environmental/marine biotechnology as a driver for a sustainable economic growth. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Multitrophic microbial interactions for eco- and agro-biotechnological processes: theory and practice. (United States)

    Saleem, Muhammad; Moe, Luke A


    Multitrophic level microbial loop interactions mediated by protist predators, bacteria, and viruses drive eco- and agro-biotechnological processes such as bioremediation, wastewater treatment, plant growth promotion, and ecosystem functioning. To what extent these microbial interactions are context-dependent in performing biotechnological and ecosystem processes remains largely unstudied. Theory-driven research may advance the understanding of eco-evolutionary processes underlying the patterns and functioning of microbial interactions for successful development of microbe-based biotechnologies for real world applications. This could also be a great avenue to test the validity or limitations of ecology theory for managing diverse microbial resources in an era of altering microbial niches, multitrophic interactions, and microbial diversity loss caused by climate and land use changes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Additive Biotech-Chances, challenges, and recent applications of additive manufacturing technologies in biotechnology. (United States)

    Krujatz, Felix; Lode, Anja; Seidel, Julia; Bley, Thomas; Gelinsky, Michael; Steingroewer, Juliane


    The diversity and complexity of biotechnological applications are constantly increasing, with ever expanding ranges of production hosts, cultivation conditions and measurement tasks. Consequently, many analytical and cultivation systems for biotechnology and bioprocess engineering, such as microfluidic devices or bioreactors, are tailor-made to precisely satisfy the requirements of specific measurements or cultivation tasks. Additive manufacturing (AM) technologies offer the possibility of fabricating tailor-made 3D laboratory equipment directly from CAD designs with previously inaccessible levels of freedom in terms of structural complexity. This review discusses the historical background of these technologies, their most promising current implementations and the associated workflows, fabrication processes and material specifications, together with some of the major challenges associated with using AM in biotechnology/bioprocess engineering. To illustrate the great potential of AM, selected examples in microfluidic devices, 3D-bioprinting/biofabrication and bioprocess engineering are highlighted. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farida Titik Kritanti


    Full Text Available AbstractVarious studies show that women are more risk averse in making decisions and better long-term oriented. Women would rather risk averse than men, making it less likely they will use debt in their capital structure, since by increasing debt increases the risk of the company's financial means. This study want to test whether gender became a significant factor in financial leverage, to see whether there are differences in policy between the company's leverage, led by men and women. Financial leverage is used as a measure of corporate risk because these variables can be changed by the CEO. Data from companies listed on the Jakarta Stock Exchange as sample. The results showed that there were differences in leverage between firms that have a men CEO with the women CEO of a company. Men CEO use more debt than the women CEO. But for the performance measured by ROI, obtained different results for the type of industry studied. For the consumer goods industry, there are performance differences between the men CEO and the women. But for the internet service industry and enamel kitchen showed no performance difference between women CEO with men CEO.Key words: leverage, woman CEO, man CEO, performanceAbstrakBerbagai penelitian menunjukkan bahwa wanita lebih risk averse dalam mengambil keputusan dan lebih berorientasi jangka panjang. Wanita lebih suka menolak risiko dibandingkan pria, sehingga kecil kemungkinan mereka akan menggunakan hutang dalam struktur modalnya, karena dengan menambah hutang berarti memperbesar risiko keuangan perusahaan. Penelitian ini ingin menguji apakah jender menjadi faktor yang cukup signifikan dalam financial leverage, dengan melihat apakah ada perbedaan dalam kebijakan leverage antara perusahaan yang dipimpin oleh pria dan wanita. Financial leverage dipakai sebagai ukuran risiko perusahaan karena variabel ini bisa diubah oleh CEO. Sampel menggunakan data dari perusahaan yang listed di Jakarta Stock Exchange. Hasil penelitian

  11. What Ideas Do Students Associate with "Biotechnology" and "Genetic Engineering"? (United States)

    Hill, Ruaraidh; Stanisstreet, Martin; Boyes, Edward


    Explores the ideas that students aged 16-19 associate with the terms 'biotechnology' and 'genetic engineering'. Indicates that some students see biotechnology as risky whereas genetic engineering was described as ethically wrong. (Author/ASK)

  12. National Strategy for Modernizing the Regulatory System for Biotechnology Products (United States)

    This National Strategy for Modernizing the Regulatory System for Biotechnology Products sets forth a vision for ensuring that the federal regulatory system is prepared to efficiently assess the risks, if any, of the future products of biotechnology.

  13. White House Announcement on the Regulation of Biotechnology (United States)

    The White House posted a blog unveiling documents as part of the Administration’s continuing effort to modernize the federal regulatory system for biotechnology products as well as clarify various roles of the EPA, FDA in evaluating new biotechnologies.

  14. Biotechnology Commercialization Strategies: Risk and Return in interfirm cooperation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fernald, K.D.S.; Pennings, e; Claassen, E.


    The management and exploitation of biotechnological product innovation have proven to be more difficult than initially expected because the number of currently marketed biotechnological products is far from sufficient to counter deficits in pharmaceutical innovation. This study provides insight into

  15. Biotechnology Commercialization Strategies: Risk and Return in Interfirm Cooperation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fernald, K.D.S.; Pennings, H.P.G.; Claassen, E.


    The management and exploitation of biotechnological product innovation have proven to be more difficult than initially expected because the number of currently marketed biotechnological products is far from sufficient to counter deficits in pharmaceutical innovation. This study provides insight into

  16. The present status and perspectives of Biotechnology in Cameroon ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... for the rapid exploitation of biotechnology for the socioeconomic development of Cameroon, subject to the mobilization of the necessary venture capital. Keywords: Cameroon, Biotechnology, GMO, Biodiversity, Economic Development, Recombinant DNA JOURNAL OF THE CAMEROON ACADEMY OF SCIENCES Vol.

  17. Biotechnology for site restoration: scope of the problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bitchaeva, O.


    The potential of modern biotechnology for solving problems related with the nuclear industry, especially site restoration, are investigated. The advantages of biotechnology, the current applications in Russia, main points of international collaboration, and political considerations are discussed.

  18. Nuclear technology and biotechnology for enhancing agricultural production in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamad Osman


    The presentation discussed the following subjects: sustainable development, agriculture in Malaysia, role of biotechnology, role of nuclear technology, improving crops through induced mutations with Malaysian experience in rice and roselle, fusion of nuclear and biotechnology challenges and opportunities


    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    considering national priorities for application of biotechnology for more than a decade ... while safeguarding human health and environmental integrity. .... NACBAA, 1991. National Advisory Committee on Biotechnology Advances and Their. Applications. Ministry of Research, Technical. Training & Technology, Nairobi, Kenya.

  20. Agricultural Biotechnology: Opportunities and Challenges for the Philippines


    Padolina, William G.


    Developing countries, still heavily dependent on agriculture, must now harness biotechnology to modernize agricultural production and diversify product outputs. The Philippines was one of the first Asian countries to establish a biotechnology research and development program. However, not much progress in harnessing the tools of biotechnology has been achieved, especially in the area of varietal improvement. Although there was an early realization of the importance of biotechnology in nationa...

  1. 13 CFR 107.1130 - Leverage fees and additional charges payable by Licensee. (United States)


    ... you issue a Debenture or Participating Security to repay or redeem existing Leverage, you must pay the leverage fee before SBA will guarantee or purchase the new Leverage security. (2) If you issue a Debenture... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Leverage fees and additional...

  2. Wheaten ferments spontaneous fermantation in biotechnological methods




    In article are shown results of research of biotechnological properties of wheaten leavens of spontaneous fermentation (in the example of pea-anisetree leaven) and their analysis. Also is established influence of the given type of leavens on the basic biopolymers of the flour, on the property of the pastry and quality of bread from wheaten flour.

  3. Linking Biotechnology and Agricultural Biodiversity Resources in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Modern economic activities are heavily dependent on using diversity of biological resources. Africa has a wealth of ... security and provide the genetic material needed for industry, agriculture and biotechnology. In agriculture .... benefit assessment in different fields is of fundamental importance in moulding any policy. Even.

  4. Opportunities for energy conservation through biotechnology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young, J.K.; Griffin, E.A.; Russell, J.A.


    The purpose of this study is to identify and quantify potential energy savings available through the development and application of biotechnologies. This information is required in support of ECUT research planning efforts as an aid in identifying promising areas needing further consideration and development. It is also intended as background information for a companion ECUT study being conducted by the National Academy of Science to evaluate the use of bioprocessing methods to conserve energy. Several studies have been conducted recently to assess the status and implications of the development of biotechnology. The Office of Technology Assessment (OTA) considered institutional, economic, and scientific problems and barriers. The National Science Foundation sponsored a study to examine regulatory needs for this new and expanding technology. Somewhat in contrast to these studies, this report covers principally the technical issues. It should be emphasized that the practicality of many developments in biotechnology is not evaluated solely on the basis of energy considerations. Bioprocesses must often compete with well-established coal, petroleum, and natural gas technologies. A complete evaluation of the technical, economical, and ecological impacts of the large-scale applications discussed in this report is not possible within the scope of this study. Instead, this report assesses the potential of biotechnology to save energy so that research into all aspects of implementation will be stimulated for those industries with significant energy savings potential. 92 references, 6 figures, 24 tables.

  5. The Current Developments of Agricultural Biotechnologies Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna M. Shkolyarenko


    Full Text Available Population growth in the context of limited land resources makes the global scientific society research new ways to increase the agricultural yields. Over the past 20 years, biotechnology and GM crops have become widely spread and now are cultivated in 28 countries. The total area of crops has tripled, and it suggests the further vertical and horizontal integration in short term. In 2015, the US Department of Agriculture authorized the commercial use of GM farm animals. The development of agricultural biotechnology market is constrained by opponents of GM crops in more than 160 countries, which include Russia and the European Union, where the production of GM crops is banned due to economic, ethical, ideological and biological reasons. Currently, the EU is seeking to reduce the imports of GM crops and products; Russia's GM imports and exports are prohibited, and the deadline of designing a consolidated position on agricultural biotechnology has been moved to 2017. The author seeks to analyze the volume of production and international trade of agricultural products based on biotechnologies and to describe the main trends in the global market, which could be integrated into the food value chain in Russia. In the context of the worsening economic indicators, the article proposes the possibility of extending the use of GM crops in Russia non-food sector.

  6. Democratization of Science and Biotechnological Development ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Mandela government that came into power in 1994 made the democratization of science and technology a priority in post-apartheid South Africa. Attendant ideas of Science Communication and Public Understanding of Biotechnology have hitherto become currency in South Africa's public sector drive towards the ...


    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Plant biotechnology is safely bringing valuable new benefits to farmers around the world, including those in developing countries where the needs for food, nutrition and overall development may be greatest. >From the current base of experience, it is reasonable to expect even greater benefits in the future, provided that ...

  8. Biotechnology, genetic conservation and sustainable use of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    technologies. The use of biotechnological tools and “bioprospecting” will open new vistas in medicine, agriculture, silviculture, horticulture, environment and other important issues. This paper reviews ... E-mail: human needs ..... (iii) Particle mediated gene transfer, using gene gun. REFERENCES.

  9. Magnetic nano- and microparticles in biotechnology

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šafařík, Ivo; Šafaříková, Miroslava


    Roč. 63, - (2009), s. 497-505 ISSN 0366-6352 R&D Projects: GA MPO 2A-1TP1/094; GA MŠk(CZ) OC 157 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60870520 Keywords : magnetic particles * smart material Subject RIV: EI - Biotechnology ; Bionics Impact factor: 0.791, year: 2009

  10. Linking Biotechnology and Agricultural Biodiversity Resources in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Modern economic activities are heavily dependent on using diversity of biological resources. Africa has a wealth of biodiversity resources which, with the appropriate application of biotechnological tools for conservation and use, can serve as sources of wealth creation. Proper harnessing of the linkages between ...

  11. Biotechnology System Facility: Risk Mitigation on Mir (United States)

    Gonda, Steve R., III; Galloway, Steve R.


    NASA is working with its international partners to develop space vehicles and facilities that will give researchers the opportunity to conduct scientific investigations in space. As part of this activity, NASA's Biotechnology Cell Science Program (BCSP) at the Johnson Space Center (JSC) is developing a world-class biotechnology laboratory facility for the International Space Station (ISS). This report describes the BCSP, including the role of the BTS. We identify the purpose and objectives of the BTS and a detailed description of BTS facility design and operational concept, BTS facility and experiment-specific hardware, and scientific investigations conducted in the facility. We identify the objectives, methods, and results of risk mitigation investigations of the effects of microgravity and cosmic radiation on the BTS data acquisition and control system. These results may apply to many other space experiments that use commercial, terrestrial-based data acquisition technology. Another focal point is a description of the end-to-end process of integrating and operating biotechnology experiments on a variety of space vehicles. The identification of lessons learned that can be applied to future biotechnology experiments is an overall theme of the report. We include a brief summary of the science results, but this is not the focus of the report. The report provides some discussion on the successful 130-day tissue engineering experiment performed in BTS on Mir and describes a seminal gene array investigation that identified a set of unique genes that are activated in space.

  12. Novel gene expression tools for rice biotechnology (United States)

    Biotechnology is an effective and important method of improving both quality and agronomic traits in rice. We are developing novel molecular tools for genetic engineering, with a focus on developing novel transgene expression control elements (i.e. promoters) for rice. A suite of monocot grass promo...

  13. Biotechnology Education in India: An Overview (United States)

    Joshi, Kirti; Mehra, Kavita; Govil, Suman; Singh, Nitu


    Among the developing countries, India is one of those that recognises the importance of biotechnology. The trajectory of different policies being formulated over time is proof that the government is progressing towards achieving self-sufficiency. However, to cater to the ever-growing biotech industry, skilled manpower is required. This article…

  14. African Journal of Biotechnology: Editorial Policies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The African Journal of Biotechnology (AJB), a new broad-based journal, was founded on two key tenets: To publish the most exciting research in all areas of applied biochemistry, industrial microbiology, molecular biology, genomics and proteomics, food and agricultural technologies, and metabolic engineering. Secondly ...

  15. Biotechnology and Consumer Decision-Making. (United States)

    Sax, Joanna K

    Society is facing major challenges in climate change, health care and overall quality of life. Scientific advances to address these areas continue to grow, with overwhelming evidence that the application of highly tested forms of biotechnology is safe and effective. Despite scientific consensus in these areas, consumers appear reluctant to support their use. Research that helps to understand consumer decision-making and the public’s resistance to biotechnologies such as vaccines, fluoridated water programs and genetically engineered food, will provide great social value. This article is forward-thinking in that it suggests that important research in behavioral decision-making, specifically affect and ambiguity, can be used to help consumers make informed choices about major applications of biotechnology. This article highlights some of the most controversial examples: vaccinations, genetically engineered food, rbST treated dairy cows, fluoridated water, and embryonic stem cell research. In many of these areas, consumers perceive the risks as high, but the experts calculate the risks as low. Four major thematic approaches are proposed to create a roadmap for policymakers to consider for policy design and implementation in controversial areas of biotechnology. This article articulates future directions for studies that implement decision-making research to allow consumers to appropriately assign risk to their options and make informed decisions.

  16. Optimizing the acceleration of biotechnology innovation in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Science biotechnology has been attributed a superior platform in Malaysian government plan for wealth creation in the 9th Malaysian plan and policy of Malaysia's science and technology in 21st century; it has been accepted and categorized as a complicated emerging issue to illustrate high prominence combined with ...

  17. The dynamic and ubiquitous nature of biotechnology

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Aug 18, 2008 ... plant breeding, and tissue culture and the medical sciences in the area of gene therapy, production of bioactive products for the quick diagnosis and treatment of diseases, this paper discusses the use of biotechnology in other areas of human endeavours like computer science, physics, mathematics,.

  18. Dendritic platforms for biomimicry and biotechnological applications. (United States)

    Nagpal, Kalpana; Mohan, Anand; Thakur, Sourav; Kumar, Pradeep


    Dendrimers, commonly referred to as polymeric trees, offer endless opportunities for biotechnological and biomedical applications. By controlling the type, length, and molecular weight of the core, branches and end groups, respectively, the chemical functionality and topology of dendrimeric archetypes can be customized which further can be applied to achieve required solubility, biodegradability, diagnosis and other applications. Given the physicochemical variability of the dendrimers and their hybrids, this review attempts to discuss a full spectrum of recent advances and strides made by these "perfectly designed structures". An extensive biotech/biomimicry application profiling of dendrimers is provided with focus on complex archetypical designs such as protein biomimicry (angiogenic inhibitors, regenerative hydroxyapatite and collagen) and biotechnology applications. In terms of biotechnological advances, dendrimers have provided distinctive advantages in the fields of biocatalysis, microbicides, artificial lights, mitochondrial function modulation, vaccines, tissue regeneration and repair, antigen carriers and even biosensors. In addition, this review provides overview of the extensive chemo-functionalization opportunities available with dendrimers which makes them a perfect candidate for forming drug conjugates, protein hybrids, bio mimics, lipidic derivatives, metal deposits and nanoconjugates thereby making them the most multifunctional platforms for diverse biotechnological applications.

  19. Modern trends in biochemistry and biotechnology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    On the conference 'Modern trends in biochemistry and biotechnology' several lectures concerned influence of ionizing radiation on the animal cells. Changes in the cell division caused by radiation induced DNA damage were discussed. Application of single cell gel electrophoresis assay (comet assay) in assessment of DNA damages was the subject of dedicated session

  20. How Japanese students reason about agricultural biotechnology. (United States)

    Maekawa, Fumi; Macer, Darryl


    Many have claimed that education of the ethical issues raised by biotechnology is essential in universities, but there is little knowledge of its effectiveness. The focus of this paper is to investigate how university students assess the information given in class to make their own value judgments and decisions relating to issues of agricultural biotechnology, especially over genetically modified organisms (GMOs). Analysis of homework reports related with agricultural biotechnology after identification of key concepts and ideas in each student report is presented. The ideas were sorted into different categories. The ideas were compared with those in the reading materials using the same categories. These categories included: concern about affects on humans, affects on the environment, developing countries and starvation, trust in industry, responsibility of scientists, risk perception, media influence, need for (international) organizations or third parties, and information dissemination. What was consistent through the different years was that more than half of the students took a "neutral" position. A report was scored as "neutral" when the report included both the positive and negative side of an issue, or when the student could not make a definite decision about the use of GMOs and GM food. While it may be more difficult to defend a strong ''for" or "against" position, some students used logical arguments successfully in doing so. Sample comments are presented to depict how Japanese students see agricultural technology, and how they value its application, with comparisons to the general social attitudes towards biotechnology.

  1. Lignocellulose biotechnology: issues of bioconversion and enzyme ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lignocellulose biotechnology: issues of bioconversion and enzyme production. ... and secondly to highlight some of the modern approaches which potentially could be used to tackle one of the major impediments, namely high enzyme cost, to speed-up the extensive commercialisation of the lignocellulose bioprocessing.

  2. Biotechnology and species development in aquaculture

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Dec 29, 2008 ... potential to improve the quality and quantity of fish reared in aquaculture, although, not without significant contro ... benefits both producers and consumers of aquacultural products. Areas of biotechnology in .... become easier with the development of artificial breeding techniques, such as the use of pituitary ...

  3. Science Academies' Refresher Course on Modern Biotechnology ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    May 2013. This Course is aimed at giving the participants a hands-on training on some modern biotechnological techniques including DNA/RNA isolation from various sources, molecular cloning, PCR and RT-PCR. A variety of teaching methods like lectures by eminent scientists, discussion and laboratory work focussing ...

  4. Biotechnological production of limonene in microorganisms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongedijk, Esmer; Cankar, Katarina; Buchhaupt, Markus; Schrader, Jens; Bouwmeester, Harro; Beekwilder, Jules


    This mini review describes novel, biotechnology-based, ways of producing the monoterpene limonene. Limonene is applied in relatively highly priced products, such as fragrances, and also has applications with lower value but large production volume, such as biomaterials. Limonene is currently

  5. Biotechnology issues in four Malaysian mainstream newspapers

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Sep 30, 2011 ... Data analysis found that tones in this study are more positive, (which is used by journalist to report issue concerning biotechnology) compared with negative tones. (Table 6). Analysis using the chi-square method revealed a chi-square value of 8.245 which was significant at the. 0.05 level (P = 0.004).

  6. Biotechnology from Microbiology Perspective | Mendie | Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Biotechnology has scaled many hurdles of advancement into a science that now covers all realms of human endeavours. It has been elevated into a pedestal of solving many of man's intractable problems of survival in this planet. Researches in biotech has now been intensified in medical, pharmaceutical, agricultural, ...

  7. Design for values in agricultural biotechnology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Belt, van den Henk


    Agricultural biotechnology dates from the last two decades of the twentieth century. It involves the creation of plants and animals with new useful traits by inserting one or more genes taken from other species. New legal possibilities for patenting transgenic organisms and isolated genes have

  8. The Brave New World of Biotechnology (United States)

    Reese, Susan


    Is it the science that will save the world from starvation, or will it mean the end of the world as it is known? While some people fear genetically altered "Frankenfoods" and DNA experiments with pathogenic microorganisms that could result in worldwide epidemics, others view biotechnology as using biological organisms to make products that benefit…

  9. Personality and Impersonality in Biotechnology Discourse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Inger


    With the emergence of biotechnology, the field account has been replaced by something that we may refer to as a laboratory account - a kind of narrative that constitutes the Materials and Methods section of the IMRD model (introduction, methods, results and discussion). Research focusing on field...

  10. Developing legal regulatory frameworks for modern biotechnology ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper looks at attempts that have been made to develop legal regulatory frameworks for modern biotechnology. The discussion is limited to the regulation of Genetically Modified Organisms (GMO) technology by the two leading producers and exporters of GMOs in Africa: South Africa and Kenya. The international and ...

  11. [The new Colombian criminal code and biotechnology]. (United States)

    González de Cancino, Emilssen


    The author describes the process by which new offenses concerning biotechnology have been included in Colombia's Penal Code and discusses some of the more controversial aspects involved. She examines the various stages of the passage of the Bill through Parliament and the modifications undergone. She also provides well-argued criticism of the text, with appropriate reference to Constitutional provisions regarding the rights concerned.

  12. Assessing the Impacts of Agricultural Biotechnologies: Canadian ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The workshop on which this volume is based represents one of the first formal activities of the "Canada–Latin America Initiative on Biotechnology, the Environment and Sustainable Development" (CamBioTec). The decision by IDRC to host this workshop reflects a recognition of the need for careful, rigorous analysis of the ...

  13. Industrial use of Biotechnology in Agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    But, S.J.


    In the past the biological research was restricted within the boundary of laboratories and the subsequent results were often employed merely to strengthen the research knowledge and information. In life sciences, the traditional methods took years in proving the biological facts. At the leg of last century, the practical application of biotechnology provided a powerful tool to mankind that has led to a revolutionary change in modern agriculture. In the present era, the economy of agro-based countries all over the world is dependent on the adaptation of the pattern of crop-production and their improvement through modern biotechnological means. Biotechnology is in fact the name of a combination of techniques involved to make the full use of living organisms, either in total or in part, for the benefit of plants, animals or human beings. Progressive and dynamic investors, associated with researches/scientists, should be encouraged to step forward for the mobilization of emerging trend of biotechnological industry in agriculture. Researcher/Scientists of biological programmes in Pakistan should be encouraged at Government level to come forward in contributing their tremendous role to boost Agr- industry in the country. (author)

  14. Regulation of Biotechnology in Cameroon W

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), Nairobi, enabled Cameroon to be among the pioneers in the African Region in enacting a national legislation on Biosafety. Law No. 2003/ O06 of 21*'. April 2003 regulating Safety in Modern Biotechnology in Cameroon, translates the Cartagena. Protocol into national realities.

  15. Science Academies' Refresher Course on Modern Biotechnology ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    knowledge to boost their confidence in handling modern instruments used in the discipline of life sciences and modern biotechnology. Skills gained during this Course will help them effectively fulfill their role as better researchers and teachers. The Course will consist of 2–3 lectures everyday followed by equal duration of ...

  16. Supporting Biotechnology Regulatory Policy Processes in Southeast ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Biotechnology innovations or bio-innovations can provide solutions to problems associated with food security, poverty and environmental degradation. Innovations such as genetically engineered (GE) crops can increase food production and minimize (or totally obviate) the need for chemical fertilizers and pesticides.

  17. National strategy of safety of biotechnology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    This document was drafted in the frame of the sustainable development, the social fairness, the citizen participation; in Bolivia the management of the biotechnology and the security of the same one are identified for the first time to the actors involved in constituting in a document for the sustainable management of the conservation and sustainable use of the biodiversity in Bolivia [es

  18. Awareness and knowledge on modern biotechnology

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Sep 30, 2011 ... modern biotechnology among the Malaysian public in the. Klang Valley region and to compare their awareness and knowledge level across several demographic variables. MATERIALS AND METHODS. The research data was collected by means of a face to face survey of adult (age 18 years old and ...

  19. PDF text classification to leverage information extraction from publication reports. (United States)

    Bui, Duy Duc An; Del Fiol, Guilherme; Jonnalagadda, Siddhartha


    Data extraction from original study reports is a time-consuming, error-prone process in systematic review development. Information extraction (IE) systems have the potential to assist humans in the extraction task, however majority of IE systems were not designed to work on Portable Document Format (PDF) document, an important and common extraction source for systematic review. In a PDF document, narrative content is often mixed with publication metadata or semi-structured text, which add challenges to the underlining natural language processing algorithm. Our goal is to categorize PDF texts for strategic use by IE systems. We used an open-source tool to extract raw texts from a PDF document and developed a text classification algorithm that follows a multi-pass sieve framework to automatically classify PDF text snippets (for brevity, texts) into TITLE, ABSTRACT, BODYTEXT, SEMISTRUCTURE, and METADATA categories. To validate the algorithm, we developed a gold standard of PDF reports that were included in the development of previous systematic reviews by the Cochrane Collaboration. In a two-step procedure, we evaluated (1) classification performance, and compared it with machine learning classifier, and (2) the effects of the algorithm on an IE system that extracts clinical outcome mentions. The multi-pass sieve algorithm achieved an accuracy of 92.6%, which was 9.7% (pmachine learning classifier that used a logistic regression algorithm. F-measure improvements were observed in the classification of TITLE (+15.6%), ABSTRACT (+54.2%), BODYTEXT (+3.7%), SEMISTRUCTURE (+34%), and MEDADATA (+14.2%). In addition, use of the algorithm to filter semi-structured texts and publication metadata improved performance of the outcome extraction system (F-measure +4.1%, p=0.002). It also reduced of number of sentences to be processed by 44.9% (pclassification is an important prerequisite step to leverage information extraction from PDF documents. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All

  20. Leveraging Interactive Patient Care Technology to Improve Pain Management Engagement. (United States)

    Rao-Gupta, Suma; Kruger, David; Leak, Lonna D; Tieman, Lisa A; Manworren, Renee C B


    Most children experience pain in hospitals; and their parents report dissatisfaction with how well pain was managed. Engaging patients and families in the development and evaluation of pain treatment plans may improve perceptions of pain management and hospital experiences. The aim of this performance improvement project was to engage patients and families to address hospitalized pediatric patients' pain using interactive patient care technology. The goal was to stimulate conversations about pain management expectations and perceptions of treatment plan effectiveness among patients, parents, and health care teams. Plan-Do-Study-Act was used to design, develop, test, and pilot new workflows to integrate the interactive patient care technology system with the automated medication dispensing system and document actions from both systems into the electronic health record. The pediatric surgical unit and hematology/oncology unit of a free-standing, university-affiliated, urban children's hospital were selected to pilot this performance improvement project because of the high prevalence of pain from surgeries and hematologic and oncologic diseases, treatments, and invasive procedures. Documentation of pain assessments, nonpharmacologic interventions, and evaluation of treatment effectiveness increased. The proportion of positive family satisfaction responses for pain management significantly increased from fiscal year 2014 to fiscal year 2016 (p = .006). By leveraging interactive patient care technologies, patients and families were engaged to take an active role in pain treatment plans and evaluation of treatment outcomes. Improved active communication and partnership with patients and families can effectively change organizational culture to be more sensitive to patients' pain and patients' and families' hospital experiences. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Pain Management Nursing. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Biotechnology: Advances and Prospects for Sustainability, in Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Biotechnology is a multi-disciplinary branch of science whose applications are diverse and because science is dynamic, there is tremendous development in the use of biotechnology in the world. Advances of biotechnology are prominent in Nigeria, where government initiative, the private sector as well as that of NGOs are ...

  2. High School Students' Knowledge and Attitudes regarding Biotechnology Applications (United States)

    Ozel, Murat; Erdogan, Mehmet; Usak, Muhammet; Prokop, Pavol


    The purpose of this study was to investigate high school students' knowledge and attitudes regarding biotechnology and its various applications. In addition, whether students' knowledge and attitudes differed according to age and gender were also explored. The Biotechnology Knowledge Questionnaire (BKQ) with 16 items and the Biotechnology Attitude…

  3. Biotechnologies for the management of genetic resources for food and agriculture. (United States)

    Lidder, Preetmoninder; Sonnino, Andrea


    facilitate the development and appropriate use of biotechnologies in developing countries; and that FAO and other relevant international organizations and donors should significantly increase their efforts to support the strengthening of national capacities in the development and appropriate use of pro-poor agricultural biotechnologies. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. A Model Suggestion to Predict Leverage Ratio for Construction Projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özlem Tüz


    Full Text Available Due to the nature, construction is an industry with high uncertainty and risk. Construction industry carries high leverage ratios. Firms with low equities work in big projects through progress payment system, but in this case, even a small negative in the planned cash flows constitute a major risk for the company.The use of leverage, with a small investment to achieve profit targets large-scale, high-profit, but also brings a high risk with it. Investors may lose all or the portion of the money. In this study, monitoring and measuring of the leverage ratio because of the displacement in cash inflows of construction projects which uses high leverage and low cash to do business in the sector is targeted. Cash need because of drifting the cash inflows may be seen due to the model. Work should be done in the early stages of the project with little capital but in the later stages, rapidly growing capital need arises.The values obtained from the model may be used to supply the capital held in the right time by anticipating the risks because of the delay in cashflow of construction projects which uses high leverage ratio.

  5. Recent Advances in Marine Enzymes for Biotechnological Processes. (United States)

    Lima, R N; Porto, A L M

    In the last decade, new trends in the food and pharmaceutical industries have increased concern for the quality and safety of products. The use of biocatalytic processes using marine enzymes has become an important and useful natural product for biotechnological applications. Bioprocesses using biocatalysts like marine enzymes (fungi, bacteria, plants, animals, algae, etc.) offer hyperthermostability, salt tolerance, barophilicity, cold adaptability, chemoselectivity, regioselectivity, and stereoselectivity. Currently, enzymatic methods are used to produce a large variety of products that humans consume, and the specific nature of the enzymes including processing under mild pH and temperature conditions result in fewer unwanted side-effects and by-products. This offers high selectivity in industrial processes. The marine habitat has been become increasingly studied because it represents a huge source potential biocatalysts. Enzymes include oxidoreductases, hydrolases, transferases, isomerases, ligases, and lyases that can be used in food and pharmaceutical applications. Finally, recent advances in biotechnological processes using enzymes of marine organisms (bacterial, fungi, algal, and sponges) are described and also our work on marine organisms from South America, especially marine-derived fungi and bacteria involved in biotransformations and biodegradation of organic compounds. © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Case studies on the use of biotechnologies and on biosafety provisions in four African countries. (United States)

    Black, Robert; Fava, Fabio; Mattei, Niccolo; Robert, Vincent; Seal, Susan; Verdier, Valerie


    production and the economy of this depressed areas. However, the problems bound to environmental protection must not be forgotten; priority should be given to monitor the risks of introduction of foreign species. Red biotechnologies potentially bring a vast domain of powerful tools and processes to achieve better human health, most notably improved diagnostics by molecular techniques, better targeting of pathogens and a better knowledge of their sensitivities to drugs to permit better treatment. Biosafety regulatory frameworks had been initiated in several countries, starting with primary biosafety law. However, disparate attitudes to the purpose of biosafety regulation (e.g., fostering informed decision-making versus 'giving the green-light for a flood of GMOs') currently prevent a needed consensus for sub-regional harmonisation. To date, most R&D funding has come from North America with some commercial interests from Asia, but African biotechnology workers expressed strong desire for (re-)engagement with interested parties from the European Union. Although in some of the visited countries there are very well qualified personnel in molecular biology and biosafety/regulation, the main message received is that human resources and capacity building in-house are still needed. This could be achieved through home-based courses and capacity-building including funds for post-degree research to motivate and retain trained staff. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Systemic risk and heterogeneous leverage in banking networks (United States)

    Kuzubaş, Tolga Umut; Saltoğlu, Burak; Sever, Can


    This study probes systemic risk implications of leverage heterogeneity in banking networks. We show that the presence of heterogeneous leverages drastically changes the systemic effects of defaults and the nature of the contagion in interbank markets. Using financial leverage data from the US banking system, through simulations, we analyze the systemic significance of different types of borrowers, the evolution of the network, the consequences of interbank market size and the impact of market segmentation. Our study is related to the recent Basel III regulations on systemic risk and the treatment of the Global Systemically Important Banks (GSIBs). We also assess the extent to which the recent capital surcharges on GSIBs may curb financial fragility. We show the effectiveness of surcharge policy for the most-levered banks vis-a-vis uniform capital injection.

  8. Asimetri Informasi, Leverage, dan Ukuran Perusahaan pada Manajemen Laba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiya Mahawyahrti


    Full Text Available This study aims at finding the empirical evidence of the effect of asymmetry information, leverage, and firm size on earning management. This research uses agency theory and positive accounting theory to explain the effect of asymmetry information, leverage, and firm size on earning management. This study was conducted on companies listed in Indonesia Stock Exchange during the period of 2009-2013. The samples were selected by purposive sampling method. The number of selected samples were 39 companies. Multiple linear regression analysis was used to analyze the data. Based on the data analysis, the study proves that the asymmetry information has positive effects on earning management, leverage has positive effects on earning management and firm size has negative effects on earning management.

  9. Dampak Struktur Kepemilikan, Financial Leverage, Board Director terhadap Nilai Perusahaan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Dwi Ari Ambarwati


    Full Text Available This study tried to analyze the effect of ownership structure, financial leverage, size of board directors and sales Growth on the performance of companies with lower growth opportunities , whether there is a proxy growth opportunities with low PER. This research was conducted at the manufacturing company with the selection criteria for purposive sampling method 2010-2012 period, based on the criteria  the obtained sample of 32companies  with  low growth opportunities. Thus obtained 96 obervasi for each group. The results showed that: 1. simultaneously the ownership structure, financial leverage, size of board directors and sales Growth affect the performance of  companies with low growth opportunities. 2. Partially, it was found empirical evidence that financial leverage and variable size of board directors significantly affect the company’s performance with lower growth opportunities. For institutional ownership structure revealed a significant effect on performance, but at a rate of 10% alpha tolerated.

  10. White biotechnology: ready to partner and invest in. (United States)

    Kircher, Manfred


    It needs three factors to build an industry: market demand, product vision and capital. White biotechnology already produces high volume products such as feed additive amino acids and specialty products like enzymes for enantioselective biocatalysis. It serves large and diverse markets in the nutrition, wellness, pharmaceutical, agricultural and chemical industry. The total volume adds up to $ 50 billion worldwide. In spite of its proven track record, white biotechnology so far did not attract as much capital as red and even green biotechnology. However, the latest finance indicators confirm the continuously growing attractiveness of investment opportunities in white biotechnology. This article discusses white biotechnology's position and potential in the finance market and success factors.

  11. Editorial: from plant biotechnology to bio-based products. (United States)

    Stöger, Eva


    From plant biotechnology to bio-based products - this Special Issue of Biotechnology Journal is dedicated to plant biotechnology and is edited by Prof. Eva Stöger (University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Vienna, Austria). The Special Issue covers a wide range of topics in plant biotechnology, including metabolic engineering of biosynthesis pathways in plants; taking advantage of the scalability of the plant system for the production of innovative materials; as well as the regulatory challenges and society acceptance of plant biotechnology. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. A Model Suggestion to Predict Leverage Ratio for Construction Projects


    Özlem Tüz; Şafak Ebesek


    Due to the nature, construction is an industry with high uncertainty and risk. Construction industry carries high leverage ratios. Firms with low equities work in big projects through progress payment system, but in this case, even a small negative in the planned cash flows constitute a major risk for the company.The use of leverage, with a small investment to achieve profit targets large-scale, high-profit, but also brings a high risk with it. Investors may lose all or the portion of th...

  13. Leveraging the wisdom of the crowd in software testing

    CERN Document Server

    Sharma, Mukesh


    Its scale, flexibility, cost effectiveness, and fast turnaround are just a few reasons why crowdsourced testing has received so much attention lately. While there are a few online resources that explain what crowdsourced testing is all about, there's been a need for a book that covers best practices, case studies, and the future of this technique.Filling this need, Leveraging the Wisdom of the Crowd in Software Testing shows you how to leverage the wisdom of the crowd in your software testing process. Its comprehensive coverage includes the history of crowdsourcing and crowdsourced testing, im

  14. Leveraging cultural differences to promote educational equality. (United States)

    Brady, Laura M; Germano, Adriana L; Fryberg, Stephanie A


    This paper theorizes that academic interventions will be maximally effective when they are culturally grounded. Culturally grounded interventions acknowledge cultural differences and validate multiple cultural models in a given context. This review highlights the importance of considering culture in academic interventions and draws upon the culture cycle framework to provide a blueprint for those interested in building more efficacious interventions. Specifically, the paper reviews literature in education and psychology to argue: first, when working-class and racial minority students' cultural models are not valued in mainstream academic domains, these students underperform; and second, many current academic interventions intended to improve working-class and racial minority students' academic outcomes could be further enhanced by cultural grounding. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Why do the biotechnology and the climate change debates hardly mix? Evidence from a global stakeholder survey. (United States)

    Aerni, Philipp


    Despite its potential to address climate change problems, the role of biotechnology is hardly ever touched upon in the global sustainability debate. We wanted to know why. For that purpose, we conducted a global online stakeholder survey on biotechnology and climate change. The relevant stakeholders and their representatives were selected by means of key informants that were familiar with either of the two debates. A self-assessment showed that a majority of respondents felt more familiar with the climate change than the biotechnology debate. Even though the survey results reveal that most respondents consider the potential of modern biotechnology to address climate change to be substantial, the policy network analysis revealed that one stakeholder who is not just considered to be relevant in both debates but also crucial in the formation of global public opinion, strongly rejects the view that biotechnology is a climate-friendly and therefore clean technology. This influential opposition seems to ensure that the biotechnology and the climate change debates do not mix. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. [Application of molecular biotechnology in Pharmacognosy]. (United States)

    Tong, Yuan-Yuan; Liu, Yang; Wang, Jun-Wen; Yang, Ce; Huang, Man-Ting; Li, Hai-Yan


    Using the methods of informetrics analysis, articles retrieved from the database of CNKI were statistically analyzed on development course and knowledge system, so as to reflect the overall situation of pharmacognostical studies by molecular biotechnology. The result shows that the research on pharmacognosy by molecular biotechnology is an inter-disciplinary research area, the major research fields can be divided into 7 categories, including molecular identification of Chinese medicinal materials, molecular systematics and genetic diversity analysis of Chinese medicinal materials, biosynthesis and bioregulation of secondary metabolites in medicinal plants, molecular mechanism and genetic basis of Dao-di Herbs, and tissue culture and molecular breeding in medicinal plants. The research on pharmacognosy by molecular have achieved remarkable progress in recent 20 years, and have broad development prospects. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  17. Improving value assessment of high-risk, high-reward biotechnology research: the role of 'thick tails'. (United States)

    Casault, Sébastien; Groen, Aard J; Linton, Jonathan D


    This paper presents work toward improving the efficacy of financial models that describe the unique nature of biotechnology firms. We show that using a 'thick tailed' power law distribution to describe the behavior of the value of biotechnology R&D used in a Real Options Pricing model is significantly more accurate than the traditionally used Gaussian approach. A study of 287 North-American biotechnology firms gives insights into common problems faced by investors, managers and other stakeholders when using traditional techniques to calculate the commercial value of R&D. This is important because specific quantitative tools to assess the value of high-risk, high-reward R&D do not currently exist. This often leads to an undervaluation of biotechnology R&D and R&D intensive biotechnology firms. For example, the widely used Net Present Value (NPV) method assumes a fixed risk ignoring management flexibility and the changing environment. However, Real Options Pricing models assume that commercial returns from R&D investments are described by a normal random walk. A normal random walk model eliminates the possibility of drastic changes to the marketplace resulting from the introduction of revolutionary products and/or services. It is possible to better understand and manage biotechnology research projects and portfolios using a model that more accurately considers large non-Gaussian price fluctuations with thick tails, which recognize the unusually large risks and opportunities associated with Biotechnology R&D. Our empirical data show that opportunity overcompensates for the downside risk making biotechnology R&D statistically more valuable than other Gaussian options investments, which may otherwise appear to offer a similar combination of risk and return. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Tiny but mighty: bacterial membrane vesicles in food biotechnological applications. (United States)

    Liu, Yue; Alexeeva, Svetlana; Defourny, Kyra Ay; Smid, Eddy J; Abee, Tjakko


    Membrane vesicle (MV) production is observed in all domains of life. Evidence of MV production accumulated in recent years among bacterial species involved in fermentation processes. These studies revealed MV composition, biological functions and properties, which made us recognize the potential of MVs in food applications as delivery vehicles of various compounds to other bacteria or the human host. Moreover, MV producing strains can deliver benefits as probiotics or starters in fermentation processes. Next to the natural production of MVs, we also highlight possible methods for artificial generation of bacterial MVs and cargo loading to enhance their applicability. We believe that a more in-depth understanding of bacterial MVs opens new avenues for their exploitation in biotechnological applications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Rethinking production of Taxol® (paclitaxel) using endophyte biotechnology. (United States)

    Kusari, Souvik; Singh, Satpal; Jayabaskaran, Chelliah


    Taxol® (generic name paclitaxel) represents one of the most clinically valuable natural products known to mankind in the recent past. More than two decades have elapsed since the notable discovery of the first Taxol®-producing endophytic fungus, which was followed by a plethora of reports on other endophytes possessing similar biosynthetic potential. However, industrial-scale Taxol® production using fungal endophytes, although seemingly promising, has not seen the light of the day. In this opinion article, we embark on the current state of knowledge on Taxol® biosynthesis focusing on the chemical ecology of its producers, and ask whether it is actually possible to produce Taxol® using endophyte biotechnology. The key problems that have prevented the exploitation of potent endophytic fungi by industrial bioprocesses for sustained production of Taxol® are discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Current challenges and future perspectives of plant and agricultural biotechnology. (United States)

    Moshelion, Menachem; Altman, Arie


    Advances in understanding plant biology, novel genetic resources, genome modification, and omics technologies generate new solutions for food security and novel biomaterials production under changing environmental conditions. New gene and germplasm candidates that are anticipated to lead to improved crop yields and other plant traits under stress have to pass long development phases based on trial and error using large-scale field evaluation. Therefore, quantitative, objective, and automated screening methods combined with decision-making algorithms are likely to have many advantages, enabling rapid screening of the most promising crop lines at an early stage followed by final mandatory field experiments. The combination of novel molecular tools, screening technologies, and economic evaluation should become the main goal of the plant biotechnological revolution in agriculture. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Toward biotechnological production of adipic acid and precursors from biorenewables. (United States)

    Polen, Tino; Spelberg, Markus; Bott, Michael


    Adipic acid is the most important commercial aliphatic dicarboxylic acid in the chemical industry and is primarily used for the production of nylon-6,6 polyamide. The current adipic acid market volume is about 2.6 million tons/y and the average annual demand growth rate forecast to stay at 3-3.5% worldwide. Hitherto, the industrial production of adipic acid is carried out by petroleum-based chemo-catalytic processes from non-renewable fossil fuels. However, in the past years, efforts were made to find alternative routes for adipic acid production from renewable carbon sources by biotechnological processes. Here we review the approaches and the progress made toward bio-based production of adipic acid. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Cassava: an appraisal of its phytochemistry and its biotechnological prospects. (United States)

    Blagbrough, Ian S; Bayoumi, Soad A L; Rowan, Michael G; Beeching, John R


    The present state of knowledge of the phytochemistry of small molecules isolated from the roots and leaves of cassava, Manihot esculenta Crantz (Euphorbiaceae), is reviewed. Cassava roots are an important source of dietary and industrial carbohydrates, mainly eaten as a source of starch, forming the staple food to over 500 million; additionally, the roots have value as a raw material for industrial starch production and for animal feed giving the crop high economic value, but it suffers markedly from post-harvest physiological deterioration (PPD). The hydroxycoumarins scopoletin and its glucoside scopolin as well as trace quantities of esculetin and its glucoside esculin are identified from cassava roots during PPD. The biotechnological prospects for cassava are also reviewed including a critical appraisal of transgenic approaches for crop improvement, together with its use for bioethanol production, due to cassava's efficient ability to fix carbon dioxide into carbohydrate. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Ergonomics problems and solutions in biotechnology laboratories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coward, T.W.; Stengel, J.W.; Fellingham-Gilbert, P.


    The multi-functional successful ergonomics program currently implemented at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) will be presented with special emphasis on recent findings in the Biotechnology laboratory environment. In addition to a discussion of more traditional computer-related repetitive stress injuries and associated statistics, the presentation will cover identification of ergonomic problems in laboratory functions such as pipetting, radiation shielding, and microscope work. Techniques to alleviate symptoms and prevent future injuries will be presented.

  4. Novel oscillatory flow reactors for biotechnological applications


    Reis, N.


    Tese de Doutoramento em Engenharia Química e Biológica This thesis explores the biotechnological applications of two novel scale-down oscillatory flow reactors (OFRs). A micro-bioreactor (working mostly in batch) and a continuous meso-reactor systems were developed based on a 4.4 mm internal diameter tube with smooth periodic constrictions (SPC), both operating under oscillatory flow mixing (OFM). The first part is dedicated to the flow characterisation in the novel SPC geom...

  5. Forest biotechnology advances to support global bioeconomy


    Antoine Harfouche; Sacha Khoury; Francesco Fabbrini; Giuseppe Scarascia Mugnozza


    The world is shifting to an innovation economy and forest biotechnology can play a major role in the bio-economy by providing farmers, producers, and consumers with tools that can better advance this transition. First-generation or conventional biofuels are primarily produced from food crops and are therefore limited in their ability to meet challenges for petroleum-product substitution and climate change mitigation, and to overcome the food-versus-fuel dilemma. In the longer term, forest lig...

  6. Biotechnological potential of marine natural products


    Fusetani, Nobuhiro


    The number of marine natural products (MNPs) that have been applied to biotechnological industry is very limited, although nearly 20000 new compounds were discovered from marine organisms since the birth of MNPs in the early 1970s. However, it is apparent that they have a significant potential as pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, nutraceuticals, research tools, and others. This article focuses on selective antitumor metabolites isolated from marine sponges and tunicates, and their modes of action, ...

  7. UK: disputing boundaries of biotechnology regulation


    Les Levidow; Susan Carr


    UK biotechnology regulation has developed ‘precautionary controls’ for GMO releases. Stringent legislation was drafted and eventually implemented by the Department of Environment (DoE). In parallel, the DoE established a broadly-based advisory committee, which included ecologists and an implicit public-interest representation. The committee was assigned the task to advise on the release of all “novel organisms” — a term which implies an analogy between GMOs and non-indigenous organisms. Copyr...

  8. Biotechnological production of limonene in microorganisms


    Jongedijk, Esmer; Cankar, Katarina; Buchhaupt, Markus; Schrader, Jens; Bouwmeester, Harro; Beekwilder, Jules


    This mini review describes novel, biotechnology-based, ways of producing the monoterpene limonene. Limonene is applied in relatively highly priced products, such as fragrances, and also has applications with lower value but large production volume, such as biomaterials. Limonene is currently produced as a side product from the citrus juice industry, but the availability and quality are fluctuating and may be insufficient for novel bulk applications. Therefore, complementary microbial producti...

  9. Improved molecular tools for sugar cane biotechnology. (United States)

    Kinkema, Mark; Geijskes, Jason; Delucca, Paulo; Palupe, Anthony; Shand, Kylie; Coleman, Heather D; Brinin, Anthony; Williams, Brett; Sainz, Manuel; Dale, James L


    Sugar cane is a major source of food and fuel worldwide. Biotechnology has the potential to improve economically-important traits in sugar cane as well as diversify sugar cane beyond traditional applications such as sucrose production. High levels of transgene expression are key to the success of improving crops through biotechnology. Here we describe new molecular tools that both expand and improve gene expression capabilities in sugar cane. We have identified promoters that can be used to drive high levels of gene expression in the leaf and stem of transgenic sugar cane. One of these promoters, derived from the Cestrum yellow leaf curling virus, drives levels of constitutive transgene expression that are significantly higher than those achieved by the historical benchmark maize polyubiquitin-1 (Zm-Ubi1) promoter. A second promoter, the maize phosphonenolpyruvate carboxylate promoter, was found to be a strong, leaf-preferred promoter that enables levels of expression comparable to Zm-Ubi1 in this organ. Transgene expression was increased approximately 50-fold by gene modification, which included optimising the codon usage of the coding sequence to better suit sugar cane. We also describe a novel dual transcriptional enhancer that increased gene expression from different promoters, boosting expression from Zm-Ubi1 over eightfold. These molecular tools will be extremely valuable for the improvement of sugar cane through biotechnology.

  10. Biotechnology of temperate fruit trees and grapevines. (United States)

    Laimer, Margit; Mendonça, Duarte; Maghuly, Fatemeh; Marzban, Gorji; Leopold, Stephan; Khan, Mahmood; Balla, Ildiko; Katinger, Hermann


    Challenges concerning fruit trees and grapevines as long lived woody perennial crops require adapted biotechnological approaches, if solutions are to be found within a reasonable time frame. These challenges are represented by the need for correct identification of genetic resources, with the foreseen use either in conservation or in breeding programmes. Molecular markers provide most accurate information and will be the major solution for questions about plant breeders rights. Providing healthy planting material and rapid detection of newly introduced pathogens by reliable methods involving serological and molecular biological tools will be a future challenge of increases importance, given the fact that plant material travels freely in the entire European Union. But also new breeding goals and transgenic solutions are part of the biotechnological benefits, e.g. resistance against biotic and abiotic stress factors, modified growth habits, modified nutritional properties and altered processing and storage qualities. The successful characterization of transgenic grapevines and stone fruit trees carrying genes of viral origin in different vectors constructed under ecological consideration, will be presented. Beyond technical feasibility, efficiency of resistance, environmental safety and Intellectual Property Rights, also public acceptance needs consideration and has been addressed in a specific project. The molecular determination of internal quality parameters of food can also be addressed by the use of biotechnological tools. Patient independent detection tools for apple allergens have been developed and should allow to compare fruits from different production systems, sites, and genotypes for their content of health threatening compounds.

  11. Cacao biotechnology: current status and future prospects. (United States)

    Wickramasuriya, Anushka M; Dunwell, Jim M


    Theobroma cacao-The Food of the Gods, provides the raw material for the multibillion dollar chocolate industry and is also the main source of income for about 6 million smallholders around the world. Additionally, cocoa beans have a number of other nonfood uses in the pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries. Specifically, the potential health benefits of cocoa have received increasing attention as it is rich in polyphenols, particularly flavonoids. At present, the demand for cocoa and cocoa-based products in Asia is growing particularly rapidly and chocolate manufacturers are increasing investment in this region. However, in many Asian countries, cocoa production is hampered due to many reasons including technological, political and socio-economic issues. This review provides an overview of the present status of global cocoa production and recent advances in biotechnological applications for cacao improvement, with special emphasis on genetics/genomics, in vitro embryogenesis and genetic transformation. In addition, in order to obtain an insight into the latest innovations in the commercial sector, a survey was conducted on granted patents relating to T. cacao biotechnology. © 2017 The Authors. Plant Biotechnology Journal published by Society for Experimental Biology and The Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. New biotechnological procedures in swine reproduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrujkić Tihomir


    Full Text Available New biotechnological procedures and the use of hormones in swine breeding are aimed at increasing the number of piglets in the litter. In small herds and groups, selected sows with 16 mammary complexes (tits can yield up to 32 piglets, or porkers, per year per sow. In order to achieve such reproduction results, special, individual stalls for sow deliveries are used, in addition to biotechnological methods, with a warm core and floor heating, phased diet and clean facilities. The ovulation value in swine is determined by their genetic and paragenetic effects, and it is often provoked and increased with injections and preparations for superovulation. However, the results vary, since any administration of hormone injecions can reduce the reproductive cycle, shorten the duration of estrus, or disrupt the work of ovaries and create cystic follicles. The use of follicle-stimulating hormones in quantities up to 1000 IU per animal for the induction and synchronization of estrus has become customary for sows and gilts, as well as the use of prostaglandins, the use of GnRH for increasing ovulation in swine and increasing the number of follicles >4 mm in diameter in the implementation of new biotechnologies in swine breeding, increases the number of ovulations and fertility in swine. In this way, reproduction is raised to the highest possible level, and artificial insemination of sows has 12 separate rules which enable better and more successful artificial insemination of sows.

  13. Independent Biotechnology: The Innovation-Regulation Dilemma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Althouse, P. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Prosnitz, D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Velsko, S. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)


    The Center for Global Security Research at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory convened a workshop on August 19, 2016 to consider “Independent Biotechnology: The Innovation-­Regulation Dilemma”. The topic was motivated by the observation that non-­government funded biotechnology research and development activities have grown and diversified tremendously over the past decade. This sector encompasses a broad range of actors and activities: individuals with private laboratories, community “hackerspaces,” biotechnology incubators, and individual startups. Motivations and aspirations are diverse and include such things as personal curiosity, community education, the invention of new products or services, and even the realization of certain economic, political, or social goals. One driving force is the “democratization” of ever more powerful biological technologies, allowing individual citizens and groups access to capabilities that have traditionally only been available to researchers in universities, research institutes, national laboratories, and large commercial concerns. Another is the rise of alternative financing mechanisms such as “crowdsourcing,” which ostensibly provide greater freedom to innovate, and greater public visibility, but entail looser management oversight and transparency.

  14. Biodiversity, biotechnologies and the philosophy of biology. (United States)

    Galleni, Lodovico


    The thesis of this paper is that in front of the development of biotechnology and of the capacity of techniques of altering the living, there is still a very old philosophy of biology. A rapid historical view is given where the rise and diffusion of the reductionistic paradigm is presented and the connections between this paradigm and biotechnologies are traced. Curiously biotechnologies are still based on the philosophy of F. Bacon. Then the necessity of a new paradigm in biology based on the recent discoveries of complexity is underlined. It is reminded that the main discovery of science of the XX century is that we are living in a small planet of limited resources and frail equilibriums. This discovery asks for a different view of the scientific progress, more linked to the conservation of the Biosphere than to its alteration. Stability is the task for the future interactions of human-kind with nature. For this reason the relationships between stability and diversity are summarised. Finally, as the species is the main step of Biodiversity, a brief discussion of the problems posed by the altering of species barriers is presented.

  15. The effect of financial leverage on profitability of manufacturing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study recommends that first, manufacturing companies must use moderate debt as a financing option in other to make higher profits. Second, manufacturing companies must expand their sales in order to enjoy higher profits. Key Words: Financial Leverage, Profitability, Returns on Asset, Capital Structure, Manufacturing ...

  16. Leveraging a Leadership Development Framework for Career Readiness. (United States)

    Fox, Kirsten F


    This chapter provides a context for how colleges and universities can prepare students for career readiness by leveraging leadership development programs to further develop knowledge, skills, and competencies that translate to the changing world of work, particularly for graduates in transition to their first jobs. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Cash Holdings and Leverage of German Listed Firms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rapp, Marc Steffen; Killi, Andreas Maximilian


    with standard firm characteristics, our results suggest a fundamental change in firms’ financial policies: In the second half of the sample period, both established firms and IPO firms exhibit substantially higher (lower) cash (net debt leverage) levels than predicted. The unexpected changes among established...

  18. Understanding Professors of Practice: Leveraging Expertise, Empowering Potential (United States)

    Ramsay, Crystal M.; Brua, Chas


    Contingent faculty are an increasingly common response to rising costs and growing enrollments (AAUP, 2014). Our research focuses on the small subset of contingent faculty whose institutions label them "Professors of Practice." They come to academia with deep professional/industry experience and leverage their unique knowledge, networks,…

  19. A feasible central limit theory for realised volatility under leverage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barndorff-Nielsen, Ole Eiler; Shephard, Neil

    In this note we show that the feasible central limit theory for realised volatility and realised covariation recently developed by Barndor-Nielsen and Shephard applies under arbitrary diusion based leverage eects. Results from a simulation experiment suggest that the feasible version of the limit...

  20. Banking Competition and Stability : The Role of Leverage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Freixas, X.; Ma, K.


    This paper reexamines the classical issue of the possible trade-offs between banking competition and financial stability by highlighting different types of risk and the role of leverage. By means of a simple model we show that competition can affect portfolio risk, insolvency risk, liquidity risk,

  1. Leveraging Mobile Games for Place-Based Language Learning (United States)

    Holden, Christopher L.; Sykes, Julie M.


    This paper builds on the emerging body of research aimed at exploring the educational potential of mobile technologies, specifically, how to leverage place-based, augmented reality mobile games for language learning. Mentira is the first place-based, augmented reality mobile game for learning Spanish in a local neighborhood in the Southwestern…

  2. Leveraging Proximity Sensing to Mine the Behavior of Museum Visitors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martella, Claudio; Miraglia, Armando; Cattani, Marco; van Steen, Martinus Richardus

    Face-to-face proximity has been successfully leveraged to study the relationships between individuals in various contexts, from a working place, to a conference, a museum, a fair, and a date. We spend time facing the individuals with whom we chat, discuss, work, and play. However, face-to-face

  3. Moving Target Techniques: Leveraging Uncertainty for Cyber Defense (United States)


    For example, SQL1 injection attacks, which inject malicious commands into a database application by leveraging a flaw in the application’s high...attacker 1 SQL stands for Structured Query Language, a standardized programming language for...launch code injection or code reuse attacks. Second, the low granularity of randomization in many ASLR implementations reduces the overall protection

  4. Technophobia and technostress as deterrents to leveraging ICTs for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Information and communication technologies (ICTs) are indispensable tools in all engagements of man across the universe. It is no ... This paper therefore examined the possible manifestation of technophobia and techno-stress as deterrents and inhibitors to leveraging ICTs for user information service delivery in Nigerian ...

  5. Leveraging Innovation Capabilities of Asian Micro, Small and ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Leveraging Innovation Capabilities of Asian Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises through Intermediary Organizations. Micro, small and medium enterprises (MSMEs) are a source of livelihood for billions of poor people worldwide. The current global economic downturn has hit these enterprises particularly hard, putting ...

  6. ISS Biotechnology Facility - Overview of Analytical Tools for Cellular Biotechnology Investigations (United States)

    Jeevarajan, A. S.; Towe, B. C.; Anderson, M. M.; Gonda, S. R.; Pellis, N. R.


    The ISS Biotechnology Facility (BTF) platform provides scientists with a unique opportunity to carry out diverse experiments in a microgravity environment for an extended period of time. Although considerable progress has been made in preserving cells on the ISS for long periods of time for later return to Earth, future biotechnology experiments would desirably monitor, process, and analyze cells in a timely way on-orbit. One aspect of our work has been directed towards developing biochemical sensors for pH, glucose, oxygen, and carbon dioxide for perfused bioreactor system developed at Johnson Space Center. Another aspect is the examination and identification of new and advanced commercial biotechnologies that may have applications to on-orbit experiments.

  7. White biotechnology: State of the art strategies for the development of biocatalysts for biorefining. (United States)

    Heux, S; Meynial-Salles, I; O'Donohue, M J; Dumon, C


    White biotechnology is a term that is now often used to describe the implementation of biotechnology in the industrial sphere. Biocatalysts (enzymes and microorganisms) are the key tools of white biotechnology, which is considered to be one of the key technological drivers for the growing bioeconomy. Biocatalysts are already present in sectors such as the chemical and agro-food industries, and are used to manufacture products as diverse as antibiotics, paper pulp, bread or advanced polymers. This review proposes an original and global overview of highly complementary fields of biotechnology at both enzyme and microorganism level. A certain number of state of the art approaches that are now being used to improve the industrial fitness of biocatalysts particularly focused on the biorefinery sector are presented. The first part deals with the technologies that underpin the development of industrial biocatalysts, notably the discovery of new enzymes and enzyme improvement using directed evolution techniques. The second part describes the toolbox available by the cell engineer to shape the metabolism of microorganisms. And finally the last part focuses on the 'omic' technologies that are vital for understanding and guide microbial engineering toward more efficient microbial biocatalysts. Altogether, these techniques and strategies will undoubtedly help to achieve the challenging task of developing consolidated bioprocessing (i.e. CBP) readily available for industrial purpose. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Photo-biotechnology as a tool to improve agronomic traits in crops. (United States)

    Gururani, Mayank Anand; Ganesan, Markkandan; Song, Pill-Soon


    Phytochromes are photosensory phosphoproteins with crucial roles in plant developmental responses to light. Functional studies of individual phytochromes have revealed their distinct roles in the plant's life cycle. Given the importance of phytochromes in key plant developmental processes, genetically manipulating phytochrome expression offers a promising approach to crop improvement. Photo-biotechnology refers to the transgenic expression of phytochrome transgenes or variants of such transgenes. Several studies have indicated that crop cultivars can be improved by modulating the expression of phytochrome genes. The improved traits include enhanced yield, improved grass quality, shade-tolerance, and stress resistance. In this review, we discuss the transgenic expression of phytochrome A and its hyperactive mutant (Ser599Ala-PhyA) in selected crops, such as Zoysia japonica (Japanese lawn grass), Agrostis stolonifera (creeping bentgrass), Oryza sativa (rice), Solanum tuberosum (potato), and Ipomea batatas (sweet potato). The transgenic expression of PhyA and its mutant in various plant species imparts biotechnologically useful traits. Here, we highlight recent advances in the field of photo-biotechnology and review the results of studies in which phytochromes or variants of phytochromes were transgenically expressed in various plant species. We conclude that photo-biotechnology offers an excellent platform for developing crops with improved properties. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. The role of biotechnology in combating climate change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aerni, Philipp; Gagalac, Florabelle; Scholderer, Joachim


    Biotechnology is a platform technology that may significantly contribute to climate change mitigation and adaptation. Yet, biotechnology is hardly ever referred to as “clean technology”. This paper investigates why biotechnology tends to be ignored in this context. A global stakeholder survey...... on biotechnology and climate change was conducted with 55 representatives of 44 institutions. The results of a perception pattern analysis show that the majority of stakeholder representatives had a neutral or positive attitude towards the use of biotechnology and regarded its potential to address climate change...... problems as significant. The survey results further reveal a significant relationship between a representative’s institutional and disciplinary background and his or her attitude. The respective background appears to determine to a considerable extent whether biotechnology is framed as a risk...

  10. Nutritional strategies of Latino farmworker families with preschool children: identifying leverage points for obesity prevention. (United States)

    Quandt, Sara A; Grzywacz, Joseph G; Trejo, Grisel; Arcury, Thomas A


    Obesity and overweight are significant problems for children in the US, particularly for Hispanic children. This paper focuses on the children in families of immigrant Hispanic farmworkers, as farm work is the portal though which many immigrants come to the US. This paper (1) describes a model of the nutritional strategies of child feeding in farmworker families; and (2) uses this model to identify leverage points for efforts to improve the nutritional status of these children. In-depth interviews were conducted in Spanish with 33 mothers of 2-5 year old children in farmworker families recruited in North Carolina in 2010-2011. The purposive sample was balanced by farmworker status (migrant or seasonal), child age, and child gender. Interviews were transcribed and translated. Multiple coders and a team approach to analysis were used. Nutritional strategies centered on domains of procuring food, using food, and maintaining food security. The content of these domains reflected environmental factors (e.g., rural isolation, shared housing), contextual factors (e.g., beliefs about appropriate food, parenting style), and available resources (e.g., income, government programs). Environmental isolation and limited access to resources decrease the amount and diversity of household food supplies. Parental actions (parental sacrifices, reduced dietary variety) attempt to buffer children. Use of government food sources is valuable for eligible families. Leverage points are suggested that would change nutritional strategy components and lower the risk of overweight and obesity. Further prospective research is needed to verify the nutritional strategy identified and to test the ability of leverage points to prevent childhood obesity in this vulnerable population. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. The potential of using biotechnology to improve cassava: a review


    Chavarriaga-Aguirre, Paul; Brand, Alejandro; Medina, Adriana; Pr?as, M?nica; Escobar, Roosevelt; Martinez, Juan; D?az, Paula; L?pez, Camilo; Roca, Willy M; Tohme, Joe


    The importance of cassava as the fourth largest source of calories in the world requires that contributions of biotechnology to improving this crop, advances and current challenges, be periodically reviewed. Plant biotechnology offers a wide range of opportunities that can help cassava become a better crop for a constantly changing world. We therefore review the state of knowledge on the current use of biotechnology applied to cassava cultivars and its implications for breeding the crop into ...

  12. Production and employment impacts of new technologies: analysis for biotechnology


    Wydra, Sven


    Biotechnology is often regarded as a key technology with high potential for far-reaching social, environmental and economic impacts. Among others, the development and diffusion of biotechnology may have considerable economic effects on production and employment. This paper analyzes the economic impacts of different diffusion paths of biotechnology in some major application fields. Bottom-up technology information from literature, expert judgements and explicit scenario assumptions for variou...

  13. The role of plant biotechnology methods in sustainable agriculture


    Koleva Gudeva, Liljana; Trajkova, Fidanka


    Plant biotechnology is set of different scientific approaches and methods that are utilized to improve and modify plants for human and environmental benefit. Plant biotechnology can be used to meet the increasing need for food by improving yields, improving the nutritional quality of crops and recuing the impact on the environment. Plant biotechnology can assist to creation of varieties resistant to frost, droughts and floods, pests and disease, and other abiotic and biotic stresses. Similarl...



    Hossain, Ferdaus; Onyango, Benjamin M.; Adelaja, Adesoji O.; Schilling, Brian J.; Hallman, William K.


    Significant divergence exists in public opinions about biotechnology. Although there is broad support for plant biotechnology for health benefits, opinions differ on the issue of animal genetics for pure economic benefits. While some are opposed to it, many are undecided about genetically modified foods. Considerable skepticism exists about scientists, corporations and government which have negative influence on public acceptance of food biotechnology. Consumers' personal attributes have sign...

  15. Accumulation of energy reserves in algae: From cell cycles to biotechnological applications

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vítová, Milada; Bišová, Kateřina; Kawano, S.; Zachleder, Vilém


    Roč. 33, č. 6 (2015), s. 1204-1218 ISSN 0734-9750 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LO1416; GA ČR GA15-09231S Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : Algae * Carbon dioxide * Cell cycle Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 9.848, year: 2015

  16. [Trends of microalgal biotechnology: a view from bibliometrics]. (United States)

    Yang, Xiaoqiu; Wu, Yinsong; Yan, Jinding; Song, Haigang; Fan, Jianhua; Li, Yuanguang


    Microalgae is a single-cell organism with the characteristics of high light energy utilization rate, fast growth rate, high-value bioactive components and high energy material content. Therefore, microalgae has broad application prospects in food, feed, bioenergy, carbon sequestration, wastewater treatment and other fields. In this article, the microalgae biotechnology development in recent years were fully consulted, through analysis from the literature and patent. The progress of microalgal biotechnology at home and abroad is compared and discussed. Furthermore, the project layout, important achievements and development bottlenecks of microalgae biotechnology in our country were also summarized. At last, future development directions of microalgae biotechnology were discussed.

  17. Taxonomy, ecology and biotechnological applications of thraustochytrids: A review. (United States)

    Fossier Marchan, Loris; Lee Chang, Kim J; Nichols, Peter D; Mitchell, Wilfrid J; Polglase, Jane L; Gutierrez, Tony

    Thraustochytrids were first discovered in 1934, and since the 1960's they have been increasingly studied for their beneficial and deleterious effects. This review aims to provide an enhanced understanding of these protists with a particular emphasis on their taxonomy, ecology and biotechnology applications. Over the years, thraustochytrid taxonomy has improved with the development of modern molecular techniques and new biochemical markers, resulting in the isolation and description of new strains. In the present work, the taxonomic history of thraustochytrids is reviewed, while providing an up-to-date classification of these organisms. It also describes the various biomarkers that may be taken into consideration to support taxonomic characterization of the thraustochytrids, together with a review of traditional and modern techniques for their isolation and molecular identification. The originality of this review lies in linking taxonomy and ecology of the thraustochytrids and their biotechnological applications as producers of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), carotenoids, exopolysaccharides and other compounds of interest. The paper provides a summary of these aspects while also highlighting some of the most important recent studies in this field, which include the diversity of polyunsaturated fatty acid metabolism in thraustochytrids, some novel strategies for biomass production and recovery of compounds of interest. Furthermore, a detailed overview is provided of the direct and current applications of thraustochytrid-derived compounds in the food, fuel, cosmetic, pharmaceutical, and aquaculture industries and of some of the commercial products available. This review is intended to be a source of information and references on the thraustochytrids for both experts and those who are new to this field. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Can plant biotechnology help break the HIV-malaria link? (United States)

    Vamvaka, E; Twyman, R M; Christou, P; Capell, T


    The population of sub-Saharan Africa is at risk from multiple, poverty-related endemic diseases. HIV and malaria are the most prevalent, but they disproportionately affect different groups of people, i.e. HIV predominantly affects sexually-active adults whereas malaria has a greater impact on children and pregnant women. Nevertheless, there is a significant geographical and epidemiological overlap which results in bidirectional and synergistic interactions with important consequences for public health. The immunosuppressive effects of HIV increase the risk of infection when individuals are exposed to malaria parasites and also the severity of malaria symptoms. Similarly, acute malaria can induce a temporary increase in the HIV viral load. HIV is associated with a wide range of opportunistic infections that can be misdiagnosed as malaria, resulting in the wasteful misuse of antimalarial drugs and a failure to address the genuine cause of the disease. There is also a cumulative risk of toxicity when antiretroviral and antimalarial drugs are given to the same patients. Synergistic approaches involving the control of malaria as a strategy to fight HIV/AIDS and vice versa are therefore needed in co-endemic areas. Plant biotechnology has emerged as a promising approach to tackle poverty-related diseases because plant-derived drugs and vaccines can be produced inexpensively in developing countries and may be distributed using agricultural infrastructure without the need for a cold chain. Here we explore some of the potential contributions of plant biotechnology and its integration into broader multidisciplinary public health programs to combat the two diseases in developing countries. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. The biotechnology innovation machine: a source of intelligent biopharmaceuticals for the pharma industry--mapping biotechnology's success. (United States)

    Evens, R P; Kaitin, K I


    The marriage of biotechnology and the pharmaceutical industry (pharma) is predicated on an evolution in technology and product innovation. It has come as a result of advances in both the science and the business practices of the biotechnology sector in the past 30 years. Biotechnology products can be thought of as "intelligent pharmaceuticals," in that they often provide novel mechanisms of action, new approaches to disease control, higher clinical success rates, improved patient care, extended patent protection, and a significant likelihood of reimbursement. Although the first biotechnology product, insulin, was approved just 32 years ago in 1982, today there are more than 200 biotechnology products commercially available. Research has expanded to include more than 900 biotechnology products in clinical trials. Pharma is substantially engaged in both the clinical development of these products and their commercialization.

  20. The contribution of bank regulation and fair value accounting to procyclical leverage


    Amel-Zadeh; Barth, ME; Landsman, WR


    Our analytical description of how banks’ responses to asset price changes can result in procyclical leverage reveals that for banks with a binding regulatory leverage constraint, absent differences in regulatory risk weights across assets, procyclical leverage does not occur. For banks without a binding constraint, fair value and bank regulation both can contribute to procyclical leverage. Empirical findings based on a large sample of US commercial banks reveal that bank regulation explains p...

  1. Culture collections and the biotechnology deal. (United States)

    Sievers, Martin; Dasen, Gottfried; Wermelinger, Tobias; Landert, Silvano; Frasson, David


    Culture collections provide starting material for life science research, development and production. Especially in biotechnology, well characterised and pure microbial strains are essential for reproducible and safe bioprocesses. Culture collections also play a role as repositories of biological material for future applications and help to preserve biological diversity. In addition, they also maintain the know-how needed for more complex identification methods and help to develop new techniques. To enable culture collections to achieve higher quality standards, new certification guidelines for biological resource centres are currently being developed.

  2. Biotechnologies and biomimetics for civil engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Labrincha, J; Diamanti, M; Yu, C-P; Lee, H


    Putting forward an innovative approach to solving current technological problems faced by human society, this book encompasses a holistic way of perceiving the potential of natural systems. Nature has developed several materials and processes which both maintain an optimal performance and are also totally biodegradable, properties which can be used in civil engineering. Delivering the latest research findings to building industry professionals and other practitioners, as well as containing information useful to the public, ‘Biotechnologies and Biomimetics for Civil Engineering’ serves as an important tool to tackle the challenges of a more sustainable construction industry and the future of buildings.

  3. Biotechnological Processes in Microbial Amylase Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subash C. B. Gopinath


    Full Text Available Amylase is an important and indispensable enzyme that plays a pivotal role in the field of biotechnology. It is produced mainly from microbial sources and is used in many industries. Industrial sectors with top-down and bottom-up approaches are currently focusing on improving microbial amylase production levels by implementing bioengineering technologies. The further support of energy consumption studies, such as those on thermodynamics, pinch technology, and environment-friendly technologies, has hastened the large-scale production of the enzyme. Herein, the importance of microbial (bacteria and fungi amylase is discussed along with its production methods from the laboratory to industrial scales.

  4. Production of vanillin: a biotechnological opportunity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daugsch, Andreas; Pastores, Glaucia .


    Natural aroma compounds are of major interest to the food and fragrance industry. Vanillin (3-methoxy-4-hydroxybenzaldehyde) was isolated from the vanilla beans in 1816 and its world consumption has reached today about 12000 tons per year. But only approximately 50 tons per year are extracted from vanilla pods (Vanilla planifolia). The remainder is provided by synthetic vanillin. This review is about alternative processes to produce natural vanillin de novo or by biotransformation using biotechnological methods involving enzymes, microorganisms and plant cells. (author)

  5. Biotechnology network promotes knowledge of transgenics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanco Picado, Patricia; Valdez Melara, Marta


    Red de Ingenieria Genetica Aplicada al Mejoramiento de Cultivos Tropicales (Rigatrop) integrated by a group of scientists from the Universidad de Costa Rica (UCR), Universidad Nacional (UNA) and of the Instituto Tecnologico de Costa Rica (TEC) have organized two forums on the topic of transgenics. The first forum has shown successful experiences of development of transgenic crops in Latin America, as for example: the transgenic bean, project realized in Brazil and transgenic eggplant in Bangladesh. The second forum has been about transgenics and environment effected at the UCR, on the occasion of World Environment Day. Rigatrop members are working currently in two projects applying biotechnological tools to coffee [es

  6. Chrysanthemum biotechnology: discoveries from the recent literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teixeira da Silva Jaime A.


    Full Text Available The in vitro propagation of chrysanthemum (Chrysanthemum × grandiflorum (Ramat. Kitam., one of the world’s most important ornamentals, is a very well-studied topic and shows numerous strides each year. This mini-review condenses the knowledge that has been published on chrysanthemum biotechnology, especially in vitro culture in the wider plant science literature. In 2013 and 2014, important strides were made in molecular breeding, particularly anti-viral strategies, including through transgenics, and our understanding of flower genetics and flowering regulation.

  7. Biotechnology Education as Social and Cultural Production/Reproduction of the Biotechnology Community (United States)

    Andrée, Maria


    This paper is a commentary to a paper by Anne Solli, Frank Bach and Björn Åkerman on how students at a technical university learn to argue as biotechnologists. Solli and her colleagues report from an ethnographic study performed during the first semester of a 5-year program in biotechnology at a technical university in Sweden. Their study…

  8. Biotechnology education as social and cultural production/reproduction of the biotechnology community (United States)

    Andrée, Maria


    This paper is a commentary to a paper by Anne Solli, Frank Bach and Björn Åkerman on how students at a technical university learn to argue as biotechnologists. Solli and her colleagues report from an ethnographic study performed during the first semester of a 5-year program in biotechnology at a technical university in Sweden. Their study demonstrates how students begin to acquire `the right way' of approaching the controversial issue of producing and consuming genetically modified organisms. In my response I discuss the ethnographic account of this particular educational practice in terms of social and cultural production/reproduction of a biotechnology community and how the participants (students and teaching professors) deal with the dialectic of individual and collective transformation. In the perspective of the biotechnology community, the work done by the teaching professor becomes a way of ensuring the future of the biotechnology community in terms of what values and objectives are held highly in the community of practice.

  9. Influence analysis of Arctic tide gauges using leverages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Peter Limkilde; Andersen, Ole Baltazar; Nielsen, Allan Aasbjerg

    Reconstructions of historical sea level in the Arctic Ocean are fraught with difficulties related to lack of data, uneven distribution of tide gauges and seasonal ice cover. Considering the period from 1950 to the present, we attempt to identify conspicuous tide gauges in an automated way, using...... the statistical leverage of each individual gauge. This may be of help in determining appropriate procedures for data preprocessing, of particular importance for the Arctic area as the GIA is hard to constrain and many gauges are located on rivers. We use a model based on empirical orthogonal functions from...... inappropriate for the reconstruction so that it should be removed from the reconstruction model altogether. Therefore, the characteristics of the high-leverage gauges are examined in detail....

  10. Defining and Leveraging Game Qualities for Serious Games (United States)

    Martin, Michael W.; Shen, Yuzhong


    Serious games can and should leverage the unique qualities of video games to effectively deliver educational experiences for the learners. However, leveraging these qualities is incumbent upon understanding what these unique 'game' qualities are , and how they can facilitate the learning process. This paper presents an examination of the meaning of the term 'game' . as it applies to both serious games and digital entertainment games. Through the examination of counter examples, we derive three game characteristics; games are self contained, provide a variety of meaningful choices, and are intrinsically compelling. We also discuss the theoretical educational foundations which support the application of these 'game qualities' to educational endeavors. This paper concludes with a presentation of results achieved through the application of these qualities and the applicable educational theories to teach learners about the periodic table of elements via a serious game developed by the authors.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nugroho A.C.


    Full Text Available Agro-industry has an important role in Indonesian economic growth. One of the crucial constraints in agro-industry investments in developing country is due to limited access to investment fund. This research was aimed to analyze the impacts of leverage on the agro-industrial company investments. The research used financial report data of the manufacturing industries on agro-industrial bases registered in Indonesian Stock-Exchange from 2007 to 2016. The data were analyzed using panel data regression analysis. The results of the research showed that the leverage influenced negatively on the agro-industrial companies. Cash flow has a negative impact on the company investments, which shows the existence of financial constraints when the company decide to invest.

  12. Leveraging best practices to promote health, safety, sustainability, and stewardship. (United States)

    Weiss, Marjorie D


    Strategically leveraging health and safety initiatives with sustainability and stewardship helps organizations improve profitability and positively impact team member and customer attachment to the organization. Collective efficacy enhances the triple bottom line: healthy people, healthy planet, and healthy profits. The HS(3)™ Best Practice Exchanges group demonstrated that collective efficacy can leverage the social cohesion, communication channels, and activities within workplaces to promote a healthy, sustainable work culture. This in turn (1) protects the health and safety of workers, (2) preserves the natural environment, and (3) increases attachment to the organization. Community-based participatory research using the Attach21 survey assessed the progress of these companies in their efforts to integrate health, safety, sustainability, and stewardship. Monthly Best Practice Exchanges promoted collective efficacy by providing support, encouragement, and motivation to share and adopt new ideas. Copyright 2013, SLACK Incorporated.

  13. Good news is bad news: Leverage cycles and sudden stops


    Akinci, Ozge; Chahrour, Ryan


    We show that a model with imperfectly forecastable changes in future productivity and an occasionally binding collateral constraint can match a set of stylized facts about “sudden stop” events. “Good” news about future productivity raises leverage during times of expansion, increasing the probability that the constraint binds, and a sudden stop occurs, in future periods. The economy exhibits a boom period in the run-up to the sudden stop, with output, consumption, and investment all above tre...

  14. Leveraging the Customer Base: Creating Competitive Advantage Through Knowledge Management


    Elie Ofek; Miklos Sarvary


    Professional services firms (e.g., consultants, accounting firms, or advertising agencies) generate and sell business solutions to their customers. In doing so, they can leverage the cumulative experience gained from serving their customer base to either reduce their variable costs or increase the quality of their products/services. In other words, their "production technology" exhibits some form of increasing returns to scale. Growth and globalization, coupled with recent advances in informa...

  15. Global dollar credit: links to US monetary policy and leverage


    Robert N. McCauley; Patrick McGuire; Vladyslav Sushko


    Since the global financial crisis, banks and bond investors have increased the outstanding US dollar credit to non-bank borrowers outside the United States from $6 trillion to $9 trillion. This increase has implications for understanding global liquidity and monetary policy transmission. We analyse the links between US monetary policy, leverage and flows into bond funds, on the one hand, and dollar credit extended to non-US borrowers, on the other. Prior to the crisis, global banks drew on lo...

  16. Establishing and Leveraging networks in design education innovation projects


    Spencer, Nick; Walden, Roderick; Leong, Benny; Bailey, Mark; Aftab, Mersha; University of Technology, Sydney; PolyU, Hongkong


    Project networking is the practice of obtaining needed services, ideas, or content by soliciting contributions from individuals, groups and organisations external to a project’s core team. The ability to establish and leverage networks is an increasingly important component of developing open innovation practices within many industries. This research examines the strategies and tactics employed by multidisciplinary undergraduate and postgraduate students to finding, forming and utilising idea...

  17. 34 CFR 692.1 - What is the Leveraging Educational Assistance Partnership? (United States)


    ... Partnership? 692.1 Section 692.1 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education... PARTNERSHIP PROGRAM Leveraging Educational Assistance Partnership Program General § 692.1 What is the Leveraging Educational Assistance Partnership? The Leveraging Educational Assistance Partnership (LEAP...

  18. 13 CFR 108.1130 - Leverage fees payable by NMVC Company. (United States)


    ... Company. 108.1130 Section 108.1130 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION NEW MARKETS VENTURE CAPITAL (âNMVCâ) PROGRAM SBA Financial Assistance for NMVC Companies (Leverage) General Information About Obtaining Leverage § 108.1130 Leverage fees payable by NMVC Company. There is no fee for the...

  19. Leverage, Asymmetric Information, Firm Value, and Cash Holdings in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldea Mita Cheryta


    Full Text Available This research aimed to analyze the effect of leverage and asymmetry information on the firm value through cash holding as mediation variable. The populations of this research were all the firms which listed on the Indonesia Stock Exchange since 2012 – 2015. A sample of this research was saturated sample and census, consisted 56 firms related the population criteria. This research used secondary data from the firm financial report through path analysis method. This research showed that leverage had a negative effect on the cash holdings, asymmetry information had a negative effect on the firm value through cash holding, and cash holding had a negative effect on the firm value. With leverage and effect on cash, holding cannot affect the firm value, due to investor risk-averse, investor risk seeker, and neutral investor has their own point of view in assessing the company. Cash holdings can lead to asymmetric information that can lead to agency a conflict that can affect a company’s performance, so that indirectly, with the existence of asymmetry, information had an effect on the declining the firm value.

  20. Agricultural biotechnologies in developing countries and their possible contribution to food security. (United States)

    Ruane, John; Sonnino, Andrea


    -governmental organisations, including delegations from 42 FAO Member States. At the end of ABDC-10, the Member States reached a number of key conclusions, agreeing, inter alia, that FAO and other relevant international organisations and donors should significantly increase their efforts to support the strengthening of national capacities in the development and appropriate use of pro-poor agricultural biotechnologies. Copyright © 2011 FAO. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Progress and biotechnological prospects in fish transgenesis. (United States)

    Tonelli, Fernanda M P; Lacerda, Samyra M S N; Tonelli, Flávia C P; Costa, Guilherme M J; de França, Luiz Renato; Resende, Rodrigo R


    The history of transgenesis is marked by milestones such as the development of cellular transdifferentiation, recombinant DNA, genetic modification of target cells, and finally, the generation of simpler genetically modified organisms (e.g. bacteria and mice). The first transgenic fish was developed in 1984, and since then, continuing technological advancements to improve gene transfer have led to more rapid, accurate, and efficient generation of transgenic animals. Among the established methods are microinjection, electroporation, lipofection, viral vectors, and gene targeting. Here, we review the history of animal transgenesis, with an emphasis on fish, in conjunction with major developments in genetic engineering over the past few decades. Importantly, spermatogonial stem cell modification and transplantation are two common techniques capable of revolutionizing the generation of transgenic fish. Furthermore, we discuss recent progress and future biotechnological prospects of fish transgenesis, which has strong applications for the aquaculture industry. Indeed, some transgenic fish are already available in the current market, validating continued efforts to improve economically important species with biotechnological advancements. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garda S. A.


    Full Text Available Probiotics based on normal microflora of the birds using perspective strains become increasingly popular for treatment and prophylaxis of dysbacteriosis in poultry. The purpose of the work is the biotechnological data analysis of the composition and functions of the microflora of different birds’ biotopes. One of biotechnological methods for the study of bacterial flora in the birds is a method of in vivo bacteriological control — analysis of group samples of fresh droppings. To study bird bacterial microflora the method based on vital bacteriological control (group sample study of fresh brood is the most effective. Only 60–70% of microorganisms are identified during the analysis of bowels bird microflora. It is shown that the normal microflora of the birds has a protective function because it is colonized on epithelial intestinal area and competes for power sources, has a wider set of enzymes, and also produces a wide range of exometabolites that determine their antagonistic action on pathogenic and conditionally pathogenic transient microorganisms. To improve modern technologies concerning cultivation of various breeds of birds with high genetic potential it needs full understanding of endogenous microflora role in a bird body. We found that as a source of probiotic strains it is better to use gastrointestinal tract laying hens and/or to make a selection of group tests of their fresh litter. Thus the best probiotic properties are characterized by microorganisms genera Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus. The results could be used for selection of promising strains to create a acomplex probiotic.

  3. Biotechnological potential of sponge-associated bacteria. (United States)

    Santos-Gandelman, Juliana F; Giambiagi-deMarval, Marcia; Oelemann, Walter M R; Laport, Marinella S


    As sessile and filter-feeding metazoans, marine sponges represent an ecologically important and highly diverse component of marine benthic communities throughout the world. It has been suggested that marine sponges are hosts to many microorganisms which can constitute up to 40-60% of its biomass. Recently, sponges have attracted a high interest from scientific community because two important factors. First there is the fact that sponges have a wide range of associated bacteria; and, second, they are a rich source of bioactive substances. Since 1950, a number of bioactive substances with various pharmacological functions have been isolated from marine sponges. However, many of these substances were subsequently shown to be actually synthesized by sponge-associated bacteria. Bacteria associated with marine sponges constitute an interesting source of novel bioactive compounds with biotechnological potential such as antimicrobial substances, enzymes and surfactants. In addition, these bacteria may be biofilm forming and can act as bioindicators in bioremediation processes of environmental pollution caused by oil and heavy metals. This review focuses on the biotechnological applications of these microorganisms.

  4. The Catharanthus alkaloids: pharmacognosy and biotechnology. (United States)

    van Der Heijden, Robert; Jacobs, Denise I; Snoeijer, Wim; Hallard, Didier; Verpoorte, Robert


    The Catharanthus (or Vinca) alkaloids comprise a group of about 130 terpenoid indole alkaloids. Vinblastine is now marketed for more than 40 years as an anticancer drug and became a true lead compound for drug development. Due to the pharmaceutical importance and the low content in the plant of vinblastine and the related alkaloid vincristine, Catharanthus roseus became one of the best-studied medicinal plants. Consequently it developed as a model system for biotechnological studies on plant secondary metabolism. The aim of this review is to acquaint a broader audience with the recent progress in this research and with its exciting perspectives. The pharmacognostical aspects of the Catharanthus alkaloids cover botanical (including some historical), phytochemical and analytical data. An up-to-date view on the biosynthesis of the alkaloids is given. The pharmacological aspects of these alkaloids and their semi-synthetic derivatives are only discussed briefly. The biotechnological part focuses on alternative production systems for these alkaloids, for example by in vitro culture of C. roseus cells. Subsequently it will be discussed to what extent the alkaloid biosynthetic pathway can be manipulated genetically ("metabolic engineering"), aiming at higher production levels of the alkaloids. Another approach is to produce the alkaloids (or their precursors) in other organisms such as yeast. Despite the availability of only a limited number of biosynthetic genes, the research on C. roseus has already led to a broad scientific spin-off. It is clear that many interesting results can be expected when more genes become available.

  5. Biosurfactants: Promising Molecules for Petroleum Biotechnology Advances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The growing global demand for sustainable technologies that improves the efficiency of petrochemical processes in the oil industry has driven advances in petroleum biotechnology in recent years. Petroleum industry uses substantial amounts of petrochemical-based synthetic surfactants in its activities as mobilizing agents to increase the availability or recovery of hydrocarbons as well as many other applications related to extraction, treatment, cleaning and transportation. However, biosurfactants have several potential applications for use across the oil processing chain and in the formulations of petrochemical products such as emulsifying/demulsifying agents, anticorrosive, biocides for sulphate-reducing bacteria, fuel formulation, extraction of bitumen from tar sands and many other innovative applications. Due to their versatility and proven efficiency, biosurfactants are often presented as valuable versatile tools that can transform and modernise petroleum biotechnology in an attempt to provide a true picture of state of the art and directions or use in the oil industry. We believe that biosurfactants are going to have a significant role in many future applications in the oil industries and in this review therefore, we highlight recent important relevant applications, patents disclosures and potential future applications for biosurfactants in petroleum and related industries.

  6. Biosurfactants: Promising Molecules for Petroleum Biotechnology Advances. (United States)

    De Almeida, Darne G; Soares Da Silva, Rita de Cássia F; Luna, Juliana M; Rufino, Raquel D; Santos, Valdemir A; Banat, Ibrahim M; Sarubbo, Leonie A


    The growing global demand for sustainable technologies that improves the efficiency of petrochemical processes in the oil industry has driven advances in petroleum biotechnology in recent years. Petroleum industry uses substantial amounts of petrochemical-based synthetic surfactants in its activities as mobilizing agents to increase the availability or recovery of hydrocarbons as well as many other applications related to extraction, treatment, cleaning, and transportation. However, biosurfactants have several potential applications for use across the oil processing chain and in the formulations of petrochemical products such as emulsifying/demulsifying agents, anticorrosive, biocides for sulfate-reducing bacteria, fuel formulation, extraction of bitumen from tar sands, and many other innovative applications. Due to their versatility and proven efficiency, biosurfactants are often presented as valuable versatile tools that can transform and modernize petroleum biotechnology in an attempt to provide a true picture of state of the art and directions or use in the oil industry. We believe that biosurfactants are going to have a significant role in many future applications in the oil industries and in this review therefore, we highlight recent important relevant applications, patents disclosures and potential future applications for biosurfactants in petroleum and related industries.

  7. Effective Active Ingredients Obtained through Biotechnology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Zappelli


    Full Text Available The history of cosmetics develops in parallel to the history of man, associated with fishing, hunting, and superstition in the beginning, and later with medicine and pharmacy. Over the ages, together with human progress, cosmetics have changed continuously and nowadays the cosmetic market is global and highly competitive, where terms such as quality, efficacy and safety are essential. Consumers’ demands are extremely sophisticated, and thus scientific research and product development have become vital to meet them. Moreover, consumers are aware about environmental and sustainability issues, and thus not harming the environment represents a key consideration when developing a new cosmetic ingredient. The latest tendencies of cosmetics are based on advanced research into how to interfere with skin cell aging: research includes the use of biotechnology-derived ingredients and the analysis of their effects on the biology of the cells, in terms of gene regulation, protein expression and enzymatic activity measures. In this review, we will provide some examples of cosmetic active ingredients developed through biotechnological systems, whose activity on the skin has been scientifically proved through in vitro and clinical studies.

  8. Microbial lipases: Production, properties and biotechnological applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josana Maria Messias


    Full Text Available Lipases belong to the group of hydrolases that catalyze the hydrolysis of triacylglycerol lipids to free fatty acids and glycerol. They have significant potential biotechnological applications in catalyzing organic synthesis reactions in non-aqueous solvents using simplified procedures resulting in conversions of high yields. Lipase production has conventionally been performed by submerged fermentation; however, solid-state fermentation processes have been prominent when residues are used as substrates because they serve as low-cost nutrient sources. Microbial lipases can be used as additives in foods to modify and enhance organoleptic properties, as well as in detergents to hydrolyse fats in the treatment of oily effluents, and also have value for pharmaceutical, cosmetic, agrochemical, and oil chemical industries. More recently, they are used in transesterification reactions to convert plant seed oils into biodiesel. The objective of this work was to review the published literature on the production, properties and applications of microbial lipases, and its biotechnological role in producing biodiesel.

  9. Potential applications of insect symbionts in biotechnology. (United States)

    Berasategui, Aileen; Shukla, Shantanu; Salem, Hassan; Kaltenpoth, Martin


    Symbiotic interactions between insects and microorganisms are widespread in nature and are often the source of ecological innovations. In addition to supplementing their host with essential nutrients, microbial symbionts can produce enzymes that help degrade their food source as well as small molecules that defend against pathogens, parasites, and predators. As such, the study of insect ecology and symbiosis represents an important source of chemical compounds and enzymes with potential biotechnological value. In addition, the knowledge on insect symbiosis can provide novel avenues for the control of agricultural pest insects and vectors of human diseases, through targeted manipulation of the symbionts or the host-symbiont associations. Here, we discuss different insect-microbe interactions that can be exploited for insect pest and human disease control, as well as in human medicine and industrial processes. Our aim is to raise awareness that insect symbionts can be interesting sources of biotechnological applications and that knowledge on insect ecology can guide targeted efforts to discover microorganisms of applied value.

  10. The application of biotechnology in animal nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šefer Dragan


    Full Text Available Animal food has to incorporate multiple objectives, ie. it should provide good animal health, good production and reproductive performance, reduce pollution of the environment as well as have the impact on food of animal origin, by supplying it, in addition to basic nutrients, with certain useful substances that can act preventively on the occurrence of various diseases in humans in modern living conditions. This complex task implies the application of scientific knowledge concerning biotechnology in the field of animal feed production, and also includes the use of specific nutrients that are the result of the latest developments in specific disciplines such as molecular biology and genetic engineering. As a result of researches in these areas there were created some varieties of cereals and legumes with improved nutritional properties. On the other hand, obtaining a safe food of animal origin product imposes the use of substances of natural origin (such as probiotics, prebiotics, phytobiotics, enzymes, chelating forms .., which provide better digestibility and more complete utilization of certain nutrients from the feedstuff. In this way, the quantity of undigested substances are significantly reduced as well as soil and the atmosphere pollution. The use of specific additives in animal nutrition resulting from biotechnological research is most frequent when a problem concerning certain level of production or animal health has to be overcome. This implies a group of non-nutritional ingredients which are aimed to regulate the digestive tract microflora, pH, weight gain, as well as to modify metabolic processes etc.

  11. Biotechnology policies and performance in central and eastern Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Senker, J.; Enzing, C.; Reiss, T.


    This paper assesses how far ten Central and Eastern European (CEE) countries have 'caught up' in biotechnology on the basis of information about the policies and funding for biotechnology research and commercialisation from 2002-2005 and on the research and commercialisation performance of these

  12. Students' Biotechnology Literacy: The Pillars of STEM Education in Malaysia (United States)

    Bahri, Nurnadiah Mohamed; Suryawati, Evi; Osman, Kamisah


    Biotechnology has been widely applied in various products throughout the 21st century. Malaysia selected the biotechnology sector as one of the key strategic technologies that would enable Malaysia to transform into a fully developed nation by the year 2020. However, to date, there has been very little research on the level of biotechnology…

  13. Climate Change and Food Security: the role of Biotechnology

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Robert M. Yawson


    Aug 5, 2012 ... significance of plant biotechnology in reversing the disturbing food insecurity trends on the continent. To move ... commit resources to capacity building and provision of infrastructure for biotechnology ... need for researchers to engage in effective education and communication with the general public so as ...

  14. Role of public sector in developing agricultural biotechnology in Iran ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Agricultural experts in the field of biotechnology in Iran were surveyed in order to explore their perception about factors influencing the participation of public sector in developing agricultural biotechnology in Iran. Based on the results of the study, policy making, marketing, infrastructural, educational and research factors ...

  15. Multidimensional Analysis of High-School Students' Perceptions about Biotechnology (United States)

    Fonseca, Maria Joao; Costa, Patricio; Lencastre, Leonor; Tavares, Fernando


    Concerns about public understanding of biotechnology have motivated educational initiatives to improve students' competency to make scientifically sustained decisions regarding controversial issues. Understanding students' perceptions about biotechnology is essential to determine the effectiveness of these programmes. To assess how students'…

  16. Climate change and food security: The role of biotechnology | Quaye ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The task of eradicating extreme poverty and hunger by 2015, as per Millennium Development Goals, will require both regional and global research efforts and concrete actions among which biotechnology adoption plays a key role. Advances in biotechnology can lead to cutting-edge technologies in agriculture. However ...

  17. Using the Mystery of the Cyclopic Lamb to Teach Biotechnology (United States)

    Jensen, Jamie L.


    I present a learning cycle that explores different biotechnologies using the process of in situ hybridization as a platform. Students are presented with a cyclopic lamb and must use biotechnology to discover the mechanism behind the deformity. Through this activity, students learn about signal transduction and discover the processes of polymerase…

  18. Current and Future Leaders' Perceptions of Agricultural Biotechnology (United States)

    Wingenbach, Gary J.; Miller, Rene P.


    Were elected state FFA officers' attitudes toward agricultural biotechnology significantly different from elected Texas legislators' attitudes about the same topic? The purpose of this study was to determine if differences existed in agricultural biotechnology perceptions or information source preferences when compared by leadership status:…

  19. The relevance of biotechnology in the development of functional ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The application of biotechnology techniques for the development of functional food plants with higher levels of bioactive components or increased availability of nutrients would greatly benefit most populations in developing countries and improve the health and nutritional status overall. Key words: Biotechnology, functional ...

  20. Agricultural Communications Students' Awareness and Perceptions of Biotechnology Issues. (United States)

    Wingenbach, Gary J.; Rutherford, Tracy A.; Dunsford, Deborah W.


    Agricultural communications students (n=330) from 11 universities were most aware of biotechnology effects on food, less aware of effects on health and the environment. They were somewhat accepting of genetic modifications for plants, not humans. Sources of biotechnology knowledge were science classes, labs, and university professors' beliefs.…

  1. Application of biotechnology for the domestication of Dacryodes edulis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Biotechnology applications give a scope for rapid improvement and also facilitate the breeding program. Advantages of biotechnology application using molecular markers in breeding programs includes: study of genetic diversity, DNA fingerprinting of individuals, easy identification of specific traits or genes of interest, rapid ...

  2. Biotechnology and Innovation Systems: The Role of Public Policy ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)


    Feb 29, 2012 ... This book explores how policies targeting public research institutions, such as universities, contribute to the appropriation of biotechnology through national innovation systems. Around the world, biotechnology has become a driving force for dramatic change in systems and policies intended to spur ...

  3. A systems engineering perspective on process integration in industrial biotechnology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kiss, Anton A.; Grievink, Johan; Rito-Palomares, Marco


    Biotechnology has many applications in health care, agriculture, industry and the environment. By using renewable raw materials, biotechnology contributes to lowering greenhouse gas emissions and moving away from a petro-based towards a circular sustainable economy. However, major developments are

  4. Challenges in commercialization of nano and biotechnologies in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The major purpose of this study was to determine challenges in commercialization of nano and biotechnologies in agicultural sector of Iran. The total population for this study was 50 participants who attended a workshop on commercialization of nano and biotechnologies in agriculture at biotech 2010 exhibition in Tehran.

  5. Policy Implication of the Awareness and Use of Biotechnology ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study revealed that majority (88.3 percent) of the respondents are aware of the existence of biotechnology products and majority (76.7 percent) of the respondents use biotechnology products. It was observed that genetically modified cassava variety is the most used biotech product in the study area as it scored a mean ...

  6. (Review paper) The role of biotechnology in crop improvement ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Biotechnology is currently playing a vital role in the improvement of crop plants generally. This is because of its abil ity to overcome the shortcomings of other conventional practices of crop improvement. This paper therefore considered the two broad aspects of Biotechnology in crop improvement name I); Genetic ...

  7. Sectoral innovation foresight. Biotechnology sector. Final Reeport. Task 2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valk, T. van der; Gijsbers, G.W.; Meis, M.


    Biotechnology has evolved from a single set of technologies in the mid 1970s (e.g. recombinant DNA technology) into the full grown economic activity of today. The set of technologies that constitute the field of biotechnology thus find their applications in different sectors, most notably in

  8. Acceptance of biotechnology and social-cultural implications in Ghana

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. Despite major scientific progress in the application of biotechnology in agriculture, public attitudes towards biotechnology in general and genetically modified food (GM food) products in particular remain mixed in Africa. Examining responses on acceptance of GM food through a stakeholder survey in Ghana, it was ...

  9. The plant biotechnology flight: Is Africa on board? | Obembe | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The development of plant biotechnologies has been very rapid in recent times, especially in the developed countries. The technologies have created a new branch of biotechnology known as molecular farming, where plants are engineered to produce pharmaceutical and technical proteins in large quantities. An evaluation ...

  10. Too New for Textbooks: The Biotechnology Discoveries & Applications Guidebook (United States)

    Loftin, Madelene; Lamb, Neil E.


    The "Biotechnology Discoveries and Applications" guidebook aims to provide teachers with an overview of the recent advances in genetics and biotechnology, allowing them to share these findings with their students. The annual guidebook introduces a wealth of modern genomic discoveries and provides teachers with tools to integrate exciting…

  11. Recent biotechnology developments and trends in the Russian Federation. (United States)

    Osmakova, Alina; Kirpichnikov, Michael; Popov, Vladimir


    This paper addresses recent government initiatives in biotechnology and various federal and regional initiatives. It presents an overview of the most visible industrial biotechnology projects under implementation and highlights changes in legislation affecting development of the bioeconomy in the Russian Federation. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. Review Article: Biotechnology in aquaculture | OGARA | Journal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In order to optimize results in new breeding programmes, genetic engineering and genetically modified organisms (GMOs) offer new possibilities. Biotechnology allows ... Whatever the pros and cons of biotechnological development, institutions of developing nations must grow abreast with the rest of the world. Key words: ...

  13. Role of biotechnology in sustainable development of cotton (United States)

    The prospect of biotechnology to provide cost-efficient sustainable cotton production under a safe environment for the 21st century is enormous. The role of plant biotechnology in the improvement of cotton is a rapidly evolving area and very broad. The specific objective of this paper is to provide...

  14. Fossil energy biotechnology: A research needs assessment. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    The Office of Program Analysis of the US Department of Energy commissioned this study to evaluate and prioritize research needs in fossil energy biotechnology. The objectives were to identify research initiatives in biotechnology that offer timely and strategic options for the more efficient and effective uses of the Nation`s fossil resource base, particularly the early identification of new and novel applications of biotechnology for the use or conversion of domestic fossil fuels. Fossil energy biotechnology consists of a number of diverse and distinct technologies, all related by the common denominator -- biocatalysis. The expert panel organized 14 technical subjects into three interrelated biotechnology programs: (1) upgrading the fuel value of fossil fuels; (2) bioconversion of fossil feedstocks and refined products to added value chemicals; and, (3) the development of environmental management strategies to minimize and mitigate the release of toxic and hazardous petrochemical wastes.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Biosecurity is a relatively new area global, being promoted by the significant results, particularly in the last 20 years, fundamental and applied research. Biotechnology is a collection of techniques that can be used in the agro-food, medical and industrial. The paper examines the potential impact of transgenic biotechnology, vulnerabilities, implications, benefits and risks, quality of life and health. Introduction into the environment, cross-border trade and use of GMOs resulting from modern biotechnology can untoward effects on the conservation and sustainable use of biological diversity, food security and safety. It is openly acknowledged that modern biotechnology has great potential to promote human welfare, in particular, to overcome the critical needs in food, agriculture and human health. Establish appropriate safety measures when using genetically modified organisms (biosecurity policy, regulatory regime, scientific and technical measures is a highly sensitive process, aiming both to maximize the benefits of modern biotechnology and to minimize potential risk

  16. Challenges and opportunities for improving food quality and nutrition through plant biotechnology. (United States)

    Francis, David; Finer, John J; Grotewold, Erich


    Plant biotechnology has been around since the advent of humankind, resulting in tremendous improvements in plant cultivation through crop domestication, breeding and selection. The emergence of transgenic approaches involving the introduction of defined DNA sequences into plants by humans has rapidly changed the surface of our planet by further expanding the gene pool used by plant breeders for plant improvement. Transgenic approaches in food plants have raised concerns on the merits, social implications, ecological risks and true benefits of plant biotechnology. The recently acquired ability to precisely edit plant genomes by modifying native genes without introducing new genetic material offers new opportunities to rapidly exploit natural variation, create new variation and incorporate changes with the goal to generate more productive and nutritious plants. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Biotechnological Perspectives of Pyrolysis Oil for a Bio-Based Economy. (United States)

    Arnold, Stefanie; Moss, Karin; Henkel, Marius; Hausmann, Rudolf


    Lignocellulosic biomass is an important feedstock for a potential future bio-based economy. Owing to its compact structure, suitable decomposition technologies will be necessary to make it accessible for biotechnological conversion. While chemical and enzymatic hydrolysis are currently established methods, a promising alternative is provided by fast pyrolysis. The main resulting product thereof, referred to as pyrolysis oil, is an energy-rich and easily transportable liquid. Many of the identified constituents of pyrolysis oil, however, have previously been reported to display adverse effects on microbial growth. In this Opinion we discuss relevant biological, biotechnological, and technological challenges that need to be addressed to establish pyrolysis oil as a reliable microbial feedstock for a bio-based economy of the future. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. N. Nikovskaya


    Full Text Available Analysis of information on air-conditioning contaminated with heavy metals sludge municipal wastewater points to the actual ecological and chemical problem and its solution could be implemented within the framework of the biological process involving heterotrophic microorganisms. Information on the spread, toxicity, biochemistry, microbiology, colloidal and chemical properties of sludge sediments of municipal wastewater biological treatment is given in the review. These sediments contain vitamins, amino acids, organic matter, heavy metals (micro- and macroelements. Therefore the most rational approach to sludge wastes utilization is their use as an agricultural fertilizer after partial removal of heavy metals. Hence, the interaction of sludge components with heavy metals, modern methods of their removing from biocolloidal systems and biotechnologies of conversion of sludge wastes into fertilizer based on the enhancing of vital ability of sludge biocenoses are discussed.

  19. Advanced genetic tools for plant biotechnology. (United States)

    Liu, Wusheng; Yuan, Joshua S; Stewart, C Neal


    Basic research has provided a much better understanding of the genetic networks and regulatory hierarchies in plants. To meet the challenges of agriculture, we must be able to rapidly translate this knowledge into generating improved plants. Therefore, in this Review, we discuss advanced tools that are currently available for use in plant biotechnology to produce new products in plants and to generate plants with new functions. These tools include synthetic promoters, 'tunable' transcription factors, genome-editing tools and site-specific recombinases. We also review some tools with the potential to enable crop improvement, such as methods for the assembly and synthesis of large DNA molecules, plant transformation with linked multigenes and plant artificial chromosomes. These genetic technologies should be integrated to realize their potential for applications to pressing agricultural and environmental problems.

  20. Essentials of Conservation Biotechnology: A mini review (United States)

    Merlyn Keziah, S.; Subathra Devi, C.


    Equilibrium of biodiversity is essential for the maintenance of the ecosystem as they are interdependent on each other. The decline in biodiversity is a global problem and an inevitable threat to the mankind. Major threats include unsustainable exploitation, habitat destruction, fragmentation, transformation, genetic pollution, invasive exotic species and degradation. This review covers the management strategies of biotechnology which include sin situ, ex situ conservation, computerized taxonomic analysis through construction of phylogenetic trees, calculating genetic distance, prioritizing the group for conservation, digital preservation of biodiversities within the coding and decoding keys, molecular approaches to asses biodiversity like polymerase chain reaction, real time, randomly amplified polymorphic DNA, restriction fragment length polymorphism, amplified fragment length polymorphism, single sequence repeats, DNA finger printing, single nucleotide polymorphism, cryopreservation and vitrification.

  1. Nonclinical statistics for pharmaceutical and biotechnology industries

    CERN Document Server


    This book serves as a reference text for regulatory, industry and academic statisticians and also a handy manual for entry level Statisticians. Additionally it aims to stimulate academic interest in the field of Nonclinical Statistics and promote this as an important discipline in its own right. This text brings together for the first time in a single volume a comprehensive survey of methods important to the nonclinical science areas within the pharmaceutical and biotechnology industries. Specifically the Discovery and Translational sciences, the Safety/Toxiology sciences, and the Chemistry, Manufacturing and Controls sciences. Drug discovery and development is a long and costly process. Most decisions in the drug development process are made with incomplete information. The data is rife with uncertainties and hence risky by nature. This is therefore the purview of Statistics. As such, this book aims to introduce readers to important statistical thinking and its application in these nonclinical areas. The cha...

  2. Restriction Enzymes in Microbiology, Biotechnology and Biochemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geoffrey G. Wilson


    Full Text Available Since their discovery in the nineteen-seventies, a collection of simple enzymes termed Type II restriction endonucleases, made by microbes to ward off viral infections, have transformed molecular biology, spawned the multi-billion dollar Biotechnology industry, and yielded fundamental insights into the biochemistry of life, health and disease. In this article we describe how these enzymes were discovered, and we review their properties, organizations and genetics. We summarize current ideas about the mechanism underlying their remarkable ability to recognize and bind to specific base pair sequences in DNA, and we discuss why these ideas might not be correct. We conclude by proposing an alternative explanation for sequence-recognition that resolves certain inconsistencies and provides, in our view, a more satisfactory account of the mechanism.

  3. New challenges and opportunities for industrial biotechnology (United States)


    Industrial biotechnology has not developed as fast as expected due to some challenges including the emergences of alternative energy sources, especially shale gas, natural gas hydrate (or gas hydrate) and sand oil et al. The weaknesses of microbial or enzymatic processes compared with the chemical processing also make industrial biotech products less competitive with the chemical ones. However, many opportunities are still there if industrial biotech processes can be as similar as the chemical ones. Taking advantages of the molecular biology and synthetic biology methods as well as changing process patterns, we can develop bioprocesses as competitive as chemical ones, these including the minimized cells, open and continuous fermentation processes et al. PMID:22905695

  4. Interfacing microbiology and biotechnology. Conference abstracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maupin, Julia A.


    The Interfacing Microbiology and Biotechnology Conference was attended by over 100 faculty, post-docs, students, and research scientists from the US, Europe, and Latin America. The conference successfully stimulated communication and the dissemination of knowledge among scientists involved in basic and applied research. The focus of the conference was on microbial physiology and genetics and included sessions on C1 metabolism, archaeal metabolism, proteases and chaperones, gene arrays, and metabolic engineering. The meeting provided the setting for in-depth discussions between scientists who are internationally recognized for their research in these fields. The following objectives were met: (1) The promotion of interaction and future collaborative projects among scientists involved in basic and applied research which incorporates microbial physiology, genetics, and biochemistry; (2) the facilitation of communication of new research findings through seminars, posters, and abstracts; (3 ) the stimulation of enthusiasm and education among participants including graduate and undergraduate students.

  5. Application of biofilm bioreactors in white biotechnology. (United States)

    Muffler, K; Lakatos, M; Schlegel, C; Strieth, D; Kuhne, S; Ulber, R


    The production of valuable compounds in industrial biotechnology is commonly done by cultivation of suspended cells or use of (immobilized) enzymes rather than using microorganisms in an immobilized state. Within the field of wastewater as well as odor treatment the application of immobilized cells is a proven technique. The cells are entrapped in a matrix of extracellular polymeric compounds produced by themselves. The surface-associated agglomerate of encapsulated cells is termed biofilm. In comparison to common immobilization techniques, toxic effects of compounds used for cell entrapment may be neglected. Although the economic impact of biofilm processes used for the production of valuable compounds is negligible, many prospective approaches were examined in the laboratory and on a pilot scale. This review gives an overview of biofilm reactors applied to the production of valuable compounds. Moreover, the characteristics of the utilized materials are discussed with respect to support of surface-attached microbial growth.

  6. Biotechnological production of limonene in microorganisms. (United States)

    Jongedijk, Esmer; Cankar, Katarina; Buchhaupt, Markus; Schrader, Jens; Bouwmeester, Harro; Beekwilder, Jules


    This mini review describes novel, biotechnology-based, ways of producing the monoterpene limonene. Limonene is applied in relatively highly priced products, such as fragrances, and also has applications with lower value but large production volume, such as biomaterials. Limonene is currently produced as a side product from the citrus juice industry, but the availability and quality are fluctuating and may be insufficient for novel bulk applications. Therefore, complementary microbial production of limonene would be interesting. Since limonene can be derivatized to high-value compounds, microbial platforms also have a great potential beyond just producing limonene. In this review, we discuss the ins and outs of microbial limonene production in comparison with plant-based and chemical production. Achievements and specific challenges for microbial production of limonene are discussed, especially in the light of bulk applications such as biomaterials.

  7. How could haloalkaliphilic microorganisms contribute to biotechnology? (United States)

    Zhao, Baisuo; Yan, Yanchun; Chen, Shulin


    Haloalkaliphiles are microorganisms requiring Na(+) concentrations of at least 0.5 mol·L(-1) and an alkaline pH of 9 for optimal growth. Their unique features enable them to make significant contributions to a wide array of biotechnological applications. Organic compatible solutes produced by haloalkaliphiles, such as ectoine and glycine betaine, are correlated with osmoadaptation and may serve as stabilizers of intracellular proteins, salt antagonists, osmoprotectants, and dermatological moisturizers. Haloalkaliphiles are an important source of secondary metabolites like rhodopsin, polyhydroxyalkanoates, and exopolysaccharides that play essential roles in biogeocycling organic compounds. These microorganisms also can secrete unique exoenzymes, including proteases, amylases, and cellulases, that are highly active and stable in extreme haloalkaline conditions and can be used for the production of laundry detergent. Furthermore, the unique metabolic pathways of haloalkaliphiles can be applied in the biodegradation and (or) biotransformation of a broad range of toxic industrial pollutants and heavy metals, in wastewater treatment, and in the biofuel industry.

  8. Complex Biochemistry and Biotechnological Production of Betalains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marijana Krsnik-Rasol


    Full Text Available The demand for natural food colourants is increasing because of public awareness of their health benefits. Betalains are nitrogen-containing plant pigments whose colours range from red-violet betacyanins to yellow betaxanthins. They are used for colouring dairy products, meat and frozen desserts. Betalains have attracted additional interest because of their antioxidative, anti-inflammatory and anticarcinogenic properties. The main source of commercially produced betalains is red beet root, but alternative sources are found in plants from the Amaranthaceae and Cactaceae families. Another alternative source is plant cell culture in bioreactors, although optimization of pigment production seems necessary. In this paper we synthesize the results of recent studies on betalain biosynthesis, chemical properties, sources, biotechnology and applications.

  9. Advanced genetic tools for plant biotechnology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, WS; Yuan, JS; Stewart, CN


    Basic research has provided a much better understanding of the genetic networks and regulatory hierarchies in plants. To meet the challenges of agriculture, we must be able to rapidly translate this knowledge into generating improved plants. Therefore, in this Review, we discuss advanced tools that are currently available for use in plant biotechnology to produce new products in plants and to generate plants with new functions. These tools include synthetic promoters, 'tunable' transcription factors, genome-editing tools and site-specific recombinases. We also review some tools with the potential to enable crop improvement, such as methods for the assembly and synthesis of large DNA molecules, plant transformation with linked multigenes and plant artificial chromosomes. These genetic technologies should be integrated to realize their potential for applications to pressing agricultural and environmental problems.

  10. Membrane engineering in biotechnology: quo vamus? (United States)

    Rios, Gilbert M; Belleville, Marie-Pierre; Paolucci-Jeanjean, Delphine


    Membranes are essential to a range of applications, including the production of potable water, energy generation, tissue repair, pharmaceutical production, food packaging, and the separations needed for the manufacture of chemicals, electronics and a range of other products. Therefore, they are considered to be "dominant technologies" by governments and industry in several prominent countries--for example, USA, Japan and China. When combined with catalysts, membranes are at the basis of life, and membrane-based biomimetism is a key tool to obtain better quality products and environmentally friendly developments for our societies. Biology has a main part in this global landscape because it simultaneously provides the "model" (with natural biological membranes) and represents a considerable field of applications for new artificial membranes (biotreatments, bioconversions and artificial organs). In this article, our objective is to open up this enthralling area and to give our views about the future of membranes in biotechnology.

  11. Biotechnological interventions in Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal. (United States)

    Singh, Pritika; Guleri, Rupam; Singh, Varinder; Kaur, Gurpreet; Kataria, Hardeep; Singh, Baldev; Kaur, Gurcharan; Kaul, Sunil C; Wadhwa, Renu; Pati, Pratap Kumar


    Withania somnifera is one of the most valued plants and is extensively used in Indian, Unani, and African systems of traditional medicine. It possess a wide array of therapeutic properties including anti-arthritic, anti-aging, anti-cancer, anti-inflammatory, immunoregulatory, chemoprotective, cardioprotective, and recovery from neurodegenerative disorders. With the growing realization of benefits and associated challenges in the improvement of W. somnifera, studies on exploration of genetic and chemotypic variations, identification and characterization of important genes, and understanding the secondary metabolites production and their modulation has gained significant momentum. In recent years, several in vitro and in vivo preclinical studies have facilitated the validation of therapeutic potential of the phytochemicals derived from W. somnifera and have provided necessary impetus for gaining deeper insight into the mechanistic aspects involved in the mode of action of these important pharmaceutically active constituents. The present review highlights some of the current developments and future prospects of biotechnological intervention in this important medicinal plant.

  12. Biotechnological potential of Clostridium butyricum bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daria Szymanowska-Powałowska


    Full Text Available In response to demand from industry for microorganisms with auspicious biotechnological potential, a worldwide interest has developed in bacteria and fungi isolation. Microorganisms of interesting metabolic properties include non-pathogenic bacteria of the genus Clostridium, particularly C. acetobutylicum, C. butyricum and C. pasteurianum. A well-known property of C. butyricum is their ability to produce butyric acid, as well as effectively convert glycerol to 1,3-propanediol (38.2 g/L. A conversion rate of 0.66 mol 1,3-propanediol/mol of glycerol has been obtained. Results of the studies described in the present paper broaden our knowledge of characteristic features of C. butyricum specific isolates in terms of their phylogenetic affiliation, fermentation capacity and antibacterial properties.

  13. From cell biology to biotechnology in space. (United States)

    Cogoli, A


    In this article I discuss the main results of our research in space biology from the simple early investigations with human lymphocytes in the early eighties until the projects in tissue engineering of the next decade on the international space station ISS. The discovery that T lymphocyte activation is nearly totally depressed in vitro in 0 g conditions showed that mammalian single cells are sensitive to the gravitational environment. Such finding had important implications in basic research, medicine and biotechnology. Low gravity can be used as a tool to investigate complicated and still obscure biological process from a new perspective not available to earth-bound laboratories. Low gravity may also favor certain bioprocesses involving the growth of tissues and thus lead to commercial and medical applications. However, shortage of crew time and of other resources, lack of sophisticated instrumentation, safety constraints pose serious limits to biological endeavors in space laboratories.

  14. The behavioralist as nutritionist: leveraging behavioral economics to improve child food choice and consumption. (United States)

    List, John A; Samek, Anya Savikhin


    We leverage behavioral economics to explore new approaches to tackling child food choice and consumption. Using a field experiment with >1500 children, we report several key insights. We find that incentives have large influences: in the control, 17% of children prefer the healthy snack, whereas introduction of small incentives increases take-up of the healthy snack to ∼75%. There is some evidence that the effects continue post-treatment, consistent with a model of habit formation. We find little evidence that the framing of incentives (loss vs. gain) matters. Educational messaging alone has little effect, but we observe a combined effect of messaging and incentives: together they provide an important influence on food choice. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Leveraging Neuroscience to Inform Adolescent Health: The Need for an Innovative Transdisciplinary Developmental Science of Adolescence. (United States)

    Suleiman, Ahna Ballonoff; Dahl, Ronald E


    In this article, we consider how to leverage some of the rapid advances in developmental neuroscience in ways that can improve adolescent health. We provide a brief overview of several key areas of scientific progress relevant to these issues. We then focus on two examples of important health problems that increase sharply during adolescence: sleep problems and affective disorders. These examples illustrate how an integrative, developmental science approach provides new insights into treatment and intervention. They also highlight a cornerstone principle: how a deeper understanding of potentially modifiable factors-at key developmental inflection points along the trajectory toward clinical disorders-is beginning to inform, and may eventually transform, a broad range of innovative early intervention strategies to improve adolescent health. Copyright © 2016 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Development of agriculture biotechnology in Pakistan. (United States)

    Zafar, Yusuf


    Agriculture plays an important role in the national economy of Pakistan, where most of the rapidly increasing population resides in rural areas and depends on agriculture for subsistence. Biotechnology has considerable potential for promoting the efficiency of crop improvement, food production, and poverty reduction. Use of modern biotechnology started in Pakistan since 1985. Currently, there are 29 biotech centers/institutes in the country. However, few centers have appropriate physical facilities and trained manpower to develop genetically modified (GM) crops. Most of the activities have been on rice and cotton, which are among the top 5 crops of Pakistan. Biotic (virus/bacterial/insect) and abiotic (salt) resistant and quality (male sterility) genes have already been incorporated in some crop plants. Despite acquiring capacity to produce transgenic plants, no GM crops, either produced locally or imported, have been released in the country. Pakistan is signatory to the World Trade Organization, Convention on Biological Diversity, and Cartagena protocols. Several legislations under the Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights have been promulgated in the country. National Biosafety Guidelines have been promulgated in April 2005. The Plant Breeders Rights Act, Amendment in Seed Act-1976, and Geographical Indication for Goods are still passing through discussion, evaluation, and analysis phases. Meanwhile, an illegal GM crop (cotton) has already sneaked into farmer's field. Concerted and coordinated efforts are needed among various ministries for implementation of regulation and capacity building for import/export and local handling of GM crops. Pakistan could easily benefit from the experience of Asian countries, especially China and India, where conditions are similar and the agriculture sector is almost like that of Pakistan. Thus, the exchange of information and experiences is important among these nations.

  17. Biotechnology in petroleum recovery. The microbial EOR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sen, Ramkrishna [Department of Biotechnology, Indian Institute of Technology (IIT), Kharagpur, West Bengal 721302 (India)


    Biotechnology has played a significant role in enhancing crude oil recovery from the depleted oil reservoirs to solve stagnant petroleum production, after a three-stage recovery process employing mechanical, physical and chemical methods. Biotechnologically enhanced oil recovery processes, known as microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR), involve stimulating indigenous reservoir microbes or injecting specially selected consortia of natural bacteria into the reservoir to produce specific metabolic events that lead to improved oil recovery. This also involves flooding with oil recovery agents produced ex situ by industrial or pilot scale fermentation. This paper essentially reviews the operating mechanisms and the progress made in enhanced oil recovery through the use of microbes and their metabolic products. Improvement in oil recovery by injecting solvents and gases or by energizing the reservoir microflora to produce them in situ for carbonate rock dissolution and reservoir re-pressurization has been enunciated. The role of biosurfactants in oil mobilization through emulsification and that of biopolymers for selective plugging of oil-depleted zones and for biofilm formation have been delineated. The spoil sport played by sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) in MEOR has also been briefly reviewed. The importance of mathematical models used in predicting the applicability of an MEOR strategy and the microbial growth and transport has been qualitatively discussed. The results of some laboratory studies and worldwide field trials applying ex situ and in situ MEOR technologies were compiled and interpreted. However, the potential of the MEOR technologies has not been fully realized due to poor yield of the useful microbial metabolic products, growth inhibition by accumulated toxic metabolites and longer time of incubation. A complete evaluation and assessment of MEOR from an engineering standpoint based on economics, applicability and performance is required to further

  18. Sustainable Use of Biotechnology for Bioenergy Feedstocks (United States)

    Moon, Hong S.; Abercrombie, Jason M.; Kausch, Albert P.; Stewart, C. Neal


    Done correctly, cellulosic bioenergy should be both environmentally and economically beneficial. Carbon sequestration and decreased fossil fuel use are both worthy goals in developing next-generation biofuels. We believe that biotechnology will be needed to significantly improve yield and digestibility of dedicated perennial herbaceous biomass feedstocks, such as switchgrass and Miscanthus, which are native to the US and China, respectively. This Forum discusses the sustainability of herbaceous feedstocks relative to the regulation of biotechnology with regards to likely genetically engineered traits. The Forum focuses on two prominent countries wishing to develop their bioeconomies: the US and China. These two countries also share a political desire and regulatory frameworks to enable the commercialization and wide release of transgenic feedstocks with appropriate and safe new genetics. In recent years, regulators in both countries perform regular inspections of transgenic field releases and seriously consider compliance issues, even though the US framework is considered to be more mature and stringent. Transgene flow continues to be a pertinent environmental and regulatory issue with regards to transgenic plants. This concern is largely driven by consumer issues and ecological uncertainties. Regulators are concerned about large-scale releases of transgenic crops that have sexually compatible crops or wild relatives that can stably harbor transgenes via hybridization and introgression. Therefore, prior to the commercialization or extensive field testing of transgenic bioenergy feedstocks, we recommend that mechanisms that ensure biocontainment of transgenes be instituted, especially for perennial grasses. A cautionary case study will be presented in which a plant’s biology and ecology conspired against regulatory constraints in a non-biomass crop perennial grass (creeping bentgrass, Agrostis stolonifera), in which biocontainment was not attained. Appropriate

  19. Insect-derived enzymes: a treasure for industrial biotechnology and food biotechnology. (United States)

    Mika, Nicole; Zorn, Holger; Rühl, Martin


    Insects are the most diverse group of organisms on earth, colonizing almost every ecological niche of the planet. To survive in various and sometimes extreme habitats, insects have established diverse biological and chemical systems. Core components of these systems are enzymes that enable the insects to feed on diverse nutrient sources. The enzymes are produced by either the insects themselves (homologous) or by symbiotic organisms located in the insects' bodies or in their nests (heterologous). The use of these insect-associated enzymes for applications in the fields of food biotechnology and industrial (white) biotechnology is gaining more and more interest. Prominent examples of insect-derived enzymes include peptidases, amylases, lipases, and β-D-glucosidases. Highly potent peptidases for the degradation of gluten, a storage protein that can cause intestinal disorders, may be received from grain pests. Several insects, such as bark and ambrosia beetles and termites, are able to feed on wood. In the field of white biotechnology, their cellulolytic enzyme systems of mainly endo-1,4-β-D-glucanases and β-D-glucosidases can be employed for saccharification of the most prominent polymer on earth-cellulose.

  20. Economic diplomacy. The political dynamics of oil leverage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daoudi, M.S.; Dajani, M.S.


    This study probes the 1973-1974 Arab oil embargo, detailing its history, the motivations that caused it and its ripple effect on world politics and the international economic order. The authors examine the interruption of oil supplies to Western Europe during the 1956 Suez Canal crisis, the growing momentum of Arab oil leverage beginning with the First Arab Petroleum Congress in 1959, the decline of the oil companies' domination of the petroleum industry, and the Arab political environment between the 1967 Arab defeat and the 1973 Arab oil embargo. The book concludes with a discussion of the lessons to be learned from the recent embargoes.

  1. Heterogeneity in the Speed of Adjustment toward Target Leverage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elsas, Ralf; Florysiak, David


    Estimating the speed of adjustment toward target leverage using the standard partial adjustment model assumes that all firms within the sample adjust at the same (average) pace. Dynamic capital structure theory predicts heterogeneity in adjustment speed due to firm-specific adjustment costs...... speed of adjustment is the highest for firms with high default risk or expected bankruptcy costs, and if opportunity costs of deviating from a target are high. Our evidence is consistent with the general relevance of the trade-off theory....

  2. Leveraging design activism to guide public projects towards citizen inclusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Casciola, Lara; Götzen, Amalia De; Morelli, Nicola


    This paper explores a case wherein design activism was leveraged to guide the governance of a public project towards greater citizen inclusion. This exploration, part of a master’s thesis in Service Design at Aalborg university, centres on Copenhagen’s Street Lab – a living lab where technological...... smart city solutions are developed and tested. Though an interesting and innovative public project, at the time of this work Street Lab’s citizen inclusion strategy was minimal. This was perceived as a problem, as smart city development without citizen inclusion introduces risks, and can neglect...... is a method worth further exploration for guiding public projects towards participatory design....

  3. Influence analysis of Arctic tide gauges using leverages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Peter Limkilde; Andersen, Ole Baltazar; Nielsen, Allan Aasbjerg


    Reconstructions of historical sea level in the Arctic Ocean are fraught with difficulties related to lack of data, uneven distribution of tide gauges and seasonal ice cover. Considering the period from 1950 to the present, we attempt to identify conspicuous tide gauges in an automated way, using...... a calibration period, in this preliminary case Drakkar ocean model data, which are forced using historical tide gauge data from the PSMSL database. The resulting leverage for each tide gauge may indicate that it represents a distinct mode of variability, or that its time series is perturbed in a way...

  4. A bibliometric assessment of ASEAN collaboration in plant biotechnology

    KAUST Repository

    Payumo, Jane


    This study draws on publication and citation data related to plant biotechnology from a 10-year (2004–2013) period to assess the research performance, impact, and collaboration of member states of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN). Plant biotechnology is one of the main areas of cooperation between ASEAN member states and among the research areas promoted to achieve regional food security and sustainable development. In general, findings indicate increased scientific output, influence, and overall collaboration of ASEAN countries in plant biotechnology over time. Research performance and collaboration (domestic, regional, and international) of the region in plant biotechnology are linked to the status of the economic development of each member country. Thailand produced the most publications of the ASEAN member states while Singapore had the highest influence as indicated by its citation activity in plant biotechnology among the ASEAN countries. Domestic and international collaborations on plant biotechnology are numerous. Regional collaboration or partnership among ASEAN countries was, however, was found to be very limited, which is a concern for the region’s goal of economic integration and science and technology cooperation. More studies using bibliometric data analysis need to be conducted to understand plant biotechnology cooperation and knowledge flows between ASEAN countries. © 2015 Akadémiai Kiadó, Budapest, Hungary

  5. How can developing countries harness biotechnology to improve health?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Persad Deepa L


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The benefits of genomics and biotechnology are concentrated primarily in the industrialized world, while their potential to combat neglected diseases in the developing world has been largely untapped. Without building developing world biotechnology capacity to address local health needs, this disparity will only intensify. To assess the potential of genomics to address health needs in the developing world, the McLaughlin-Rotman Centre for Global Health, along with local partners, organized five courses on Genomics and Public Health Policy in the developing world. The overall objective of the courses was to collectively explore how to best harness genomics to improve health in each region. This article presents and analyzes the recommendations from all five courses. Discussion In this paper we analyze recommendations from 232 developing world experts from 58 countries who sought to answer how best to harness biotechnology to improve health in their regions. We divide their recommendations into four categories: science; finance; ethics, society and culture; and politics. Summary The Courses' recommendations can be summarized across the four categories listed above: Science - Collaborate through national, regional, and international networks - Survey and build capacity based on proven models through education, training, and needs assessments Finance - Develop regulatory and intellectual property frameworks for commercialization of biotechnology - Enhance funding and affordability of biotechnology - Improve the academic-industry interface and the role of small and medium enterprise Ethics, Society, Culture - Develop public engagement strategies to inform and educate the public about developments in genomics and biotechnology - Develop capacity to address ethical, social and cultural issues - Improve accessibility and equity Politics - Strengthen understanding, leadership and support at the political level for biotechnology

  6. Leveraging Existing Heritage Documentation for Animations: Senate Virtual Tour (United States)

    Dhanda, A.; Fai, S.; Graham, K.; Walczak, G.


    The use of digital documentation techniques has led to an increase in opportunities for using documentation data for valorization purposes, in addition to technical purposes. Likewise, building information models (BIMs) made from these data sets hold valuable information that can be as effective for public education as it is for rehabilitation. A BIM can reveal the elements of a building, as well as the different stages of a building over time. Valorizing this information increases the possibility for public engagement and interest in a heritage place. Digital data sets were leveraged by the Carleton Immersive Media Studio (CIMS) for parts of a virtual tour of the Senate of Canada. For the tour, workflows involving four different programs were explored to determine an efficient and effective way to leverage the existing documentation data to create informative and visually enticing animations for public dissemination: Autodesk Revit, Enscape, Autodesk 3ds Max, and Bentley Pointools. The explored workflows involve animations of point clouds, BIMs, and a combination of the two.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Dhanda


    Full Text Available The use of digital documentation techniques has led to an increase in opportunities for using documentation data for valorization purposes, in addition to technical purposes. Likewise, building information models (BIMs made from these data sets hold valuable information that can be as effective for public education as it is for rehabilitation. A BIM can reveal the elements of a building, as well as the different stages of a building over time. Valorizing this information increases the possibility for public engagement and interest in a heritage place. Digital data sets were leveraged by the Carleton Immersive Media Studio (CIMS for parts of a virtual tour of the Senate of Canada. For the tour, workflows involving four different programs were explored to determine an efficient and effective way to leverage the existing documentation data to create informative and visually enticing animations for public dissemination: Autodesk Revit, Enscape, Autodesk 3ds Max, and Bentley Pointools. The explored workflows involve animations of point clouds, BIMs, and a combination of the two.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anggita Langgeng Wijaya


    Full Text Available Penelitian ini menguji dampak kepemilikan managerial, buku besar dan profitabilitas pada kebijakan investasi perusahaan pada sampel perusahaan manufaktur yang ada di Indonesian Stock Exchange. Metode purposive sampling digunakan untuk menentukan sampel dan analisis multiple regression digunakan untuk menguji hipotesis. Hasil dari penelitian ini menunjukkan bahwa kepemilikan manajerial tidak berpengaruh secara signifikan pada kebijakan investasi perusahaan, buku besar berpengaruh positif pada kebijakan investasi publik, sedangkan profitabilitas berpengaruh positif terhadap investasi kebijakan publik. This research tests the effect of managerial ownership, leverage, and profitability on corporate investment policy for a sample of manufacturing companies listed in Indonesian Stock Exchange over the period 2006-2008. Population of this research is all of manufacturing companies at Indonesian Stock Exchange. Purposive sampling method was employed and the data analysis technique was classic assumption test: multicollinearity test, autocorrelation test, heteroscedasticity test, and normality test. The hypothesis test used multiple regression analysis. The results show that managerial ownership has no significant effects on corporate investment policy; leverage positively affects corporate investment policy; while profitability positively affects corporate investment policy.

  9. Supplier relationship management leverages intellectual capital for increased competitive advantage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. R. Van Zyl


    Full Text Available The main purpose of this article is to demonstrate how supplier relationship management (SRM enables the capture and creation of intellectual capital, thereby attaining and sustaining a strategic competitive advantage and increasing supply chain profitability. In order to achieve this purpose, a large part of the article is devoted to exploring the relatively new and unknown field of SRM. It is shown that an organisation must possess a thorough understanding of good supplier characteristics and of the drivers, benefits and requirements for the successful implementation of SRM, in order to enable that organisation to leverage their supplier relationships to ensure the capture of supplier expertise, patents, experiences etc. (i.e. their intellectual capital. The article then explores how the integration of technology in SRM applications can improve the efficiency of supplier collaboration and intellectual capital capture and creation. It is then demonstrated how efficient and collaborative supplier relationships improve supply chain profitability and competitiveness. Lastly, the article explores the implementation pitfalls and trends of SRM that must be constantly considered and monitored by an organisation in order to continually capture and create intellectual capital and reap the full benefits of SRM. This exploration involved an examination of contemporary literature, theories and business cases and subsequently revealed that SRM is a vital discipline/philosophy that must be implemented by any organisation wishing to achieve greater supply chain efficiency and competitiveness. This competitiveness can only be achieved through the mutual unlocking, sharing and leveraging of intellectual capital.

  10. Pengaruh Rasio Aktivitas Dan Rasio Leverage Terhadap Tingkat Profitabilitas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tri Noormuliyaningsih


    Full Text Available The objectives of this research to analyze the influence of activity ratio (inventory turnover, fixed assets turnover, and total assets turnover and leverage ratio (debt ratio and debt to equity ratio to profitability level (return on assets and return on equity on food and beverage companies that listed in Indonesia Stock Exchange (IDX.  Sample on this research consist of 14 (fourteen food and beverage companies that listed in Indonesia Stock Exchange (IDX. The observation periods  are 3 (three years that start from 2012 until 2014. Multiple linear regression is a method that used to analyze data, and for testing the raised hypothesis with t test. The result of research conclude that debt ratio significantly affect the company’s profitability level (return on assets and return on equity with value of negative coefficient. Other variables such as inventory turnover, fixed assets turnover, and total assets turnover are not affect to profitability level (return on assets and return on equity. Influence of debt to equity ratio an profitability level can not be concluded in this research. Keywords: Activity Ratio, Inventory Turnover, Fixed Assets Turnover, Total Assets Turnover, Leverage Ratio, Debt Ratio, Debt to Equity Ratio, Profitability Level, Return On Assets, Return On Equity.

  11. Cognitive reserve in aging. (United States)

    Tucker, A M; Stern, Y


    Cognitive reserve explains why those with higher IQ, education, occupational attainment, or participation in leisure activities evidence less severe clinical or cognitive changes in the presence of age-related or Alzheimer's disease pathology. Specifically, the cognitive reserve hypothesis is that individual differences in how tasks are processed provide reserve against brain pathology. Cognitive reserve may allow for more flexible strategy usage, an ability thought to be captured by executive functions tasks. Additionally, cognitive reserve allows individuals greater neural efficiency, greater neural capacity, and the ability for compensation via the recruitment of additional brain regions. Taking cognitive reserve into account may allow for earlier detection and better characterization of age-related cognitive changes and Alzheimer's disease. Importantly, cognitive reserve is not fixed but continues to evolve across the lifespan. Thus, even late-stage interventions hold promise to boost cognitive reserve and thus reduce the prevalence of Alzheimer's disease and other age-related problems.

  12. Microbial biotechnology and circular economy in wastewater treatment. (United States)

    Nielsen, Per Halkjaer


    Microbial biotechnology is essential for the development of circular economy in wastewater treatment by integrating energy production and resource recovery into the production of clean water. A comprehensive knowledge about identity, physiology, ecology, and population dynamics of process-critical microorganisms will improve process stability, reduce CO2 footprints, optimize recovery and bioenergy production, and help finding new approaches and solutions. Examples of research needs and perspectives are provided, demonstrating the great importance of microbial biotechnology. © 2017 The Authors. Microbial Biotechnology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Society for Applied Microbiology.

  13. Comparing the Governance of Novel Products and Processes of Biotechnology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Janus

    The emergence of novel products and processes of biotechnology in medicine, industry and agriculture has been accompanied by promises of healthier, safer and more productive lives and societies. However, biotechnology has also served as cause and catalyst of social controversy about the physical...... to start to fill this gap and develop a conceptual framework for comparing and analysing new and emerging modes of governance affiliated with biotechnology in the light of more general approaches to governance. We aim for a framework that can facilitate comparative inquiries and learning across different...

  14. Yeast biotechnology: teaching the old dog new tricks (United States)


    Yeasts are regarded as the first microorganisms used by humans to process food and alcoholic beverages. The technology developed out of these ancient processes has been the basis for modern industrial biotechnology. Yeast biotechnology has gained great interest again in the last decades. Joining the potentials of genomics, metabolic engineering, systems and synthetic biology enables the production of numerous valuable products of primary and secondary metabolism, technical enzymes and biopharmaceutical proteins. An overview of emerging and established substrates and products of yeast biotechnology is provided and discussed in the light of the recent literature. PMID:24602262

  15. Crossing boundaries: the importance of cellular membranes in industrial biotechnology. (United States)

    Jezierska, Sylwia; Van Bogaert, Inge N A


    How small molecules cross cellular membranes is an often overlooked issue in an industrial microbiology and biotechnology context. This is to a large extent governed by the technical difficulties to study these transport systems or by the lack of knowledge on suitable efflux pumps. This review emphasizes the importance of microbial cellular membranes in industrial biotechnology by highlighting successful strategies of membrane engineering towards more resistant and hence better performing microorganisms, as well as transporter and other engineering strategies for increased efflux of primary and secondary metabolites. Furthermore, the benefits and limitations of eukaryotic subcellular compartmentalization are discussed, as well as the biotechnological potential of membrane vesicles.

  16. Advances in biomedical engineering and biotechnology during 2013-2014. (United States)

    Liu, Feng; Wang, Ying; Burkhart, Timothy A; González Penedo, Manuel Francisco; Ma, Shaodong


    The 3rd International Conference on Biomedical Engineering and Biotechnology (iCBEB 2014), held in Beijing from the 25th to the 28th of September 2014, is an annual conference that intends to provide an opportunity for researchers and practitioners around the world to present the most recent advances and future challenges in the fields of biomedical engineering, biomaterials, bioinformatics and computational biology, biomedical imaging and signal processing, biomechanical engineering and biotechnology, amongst others. The papers published in this issue are selected from this conference, which witnesses the advances in biomedical engineering and biotechnology during 2013-2014.

  17. Ecology and biotechnological potential of the thermophilic fermentative Coprothermobacter spp. (United States)

    Gagliano, M C; Braguglia, C M; Petruccioli, M; Rossetti, S


    Thermophilic bacteria have been isolated from several terrestrial, marine and industrial environments. Anaerobic digesters treating organic wastes are often an important source of these microorganisms, which catalyze a wide array of metabolic processes. Moreover, organic wastes are primarily composed of proteins, whose degradation is often incomplete. Coprothermobacter spp. are proteolytic anaerobic thermophilic microbes identified in several studies focused on the analysis of the microbial community structure in anaerobic thermophilic reactors. They are currently classified in the phylum Firmicutes; nevertheless, several authors showed that the Coprothermobacter group is most closely related to the phyla Dictyoglomi and Thermotoga. Since only a few proteolytic anaerobic thermophiles have been characterized so far, this microorganism has attracted the attention of researchers for its potential applications with high-temperature environments. In addition to proteolysis, Coprothermobacter spp. showed several metabolic abilities and may have a biotechnological application either as source of thermostable enzymes or as inoculum in anaerobic processes. Moreover, they can improve protein degradation by establishing a syntrophy with hydrogenotrophic archaea. To gain a better understanding of the phylogenesis, metabolic capabilities and adaptations of these microorganisms, it is of importance to better define the role in thermophilic environments and to disclose properties not yet investigated. © FEMS 2015. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail:

  18. Extremophilic micro-algae and their potential contribution in biotechnology. (United States)

    Varshney, Prachi; Mikulic, Paulina; Vonshak, Avigad; Beardall, John; Wangikar, Pramod P


    Micro-algae have potential as sustainable sources of energy and products and alternative mode of agriculture. However, their mass cultivation is challenging due to low survival under harsh outdoor conditions and competition from other, undesired, species. Extremophilic micro-algae have a role to play by virtue of their ability to grow under acidic or alkaline pH, high temperature, light, CO2 level and metal concentration. In this review, we provide several examples of potential biotechnological applications of extremophilic micro-algae and the ranges of tolerated extremes. We also discuss the adaptive mechanisms of tolerance to these extremes. Analysis of phylogenetic relationship of the reported extremophiles suggests certain groups of the Kingdom Protista to be more tolerant to extremophilic conditions than other taxa. While extremophilic microalgae are beginning to be explored, much needs to be done in terms of the physiology, molecular biology, metabolic engineering and outdoor cultivation trials before their true potential is realized. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Waste valorization by biotechnological conversion into added value products. (United States)

    Liguori, Rossana; Amore, Antonella; Faraco, Vincenza


    Fossil fuel reserves depletion, global warming, unrelenting population growth, and costly and problematic waste recycling call for renewable resources of energy and consumer products. As an alternative to the 100 % oil economy, production processes based on biomass can be developed. Huge amounts of lignocellulosic wastes are yearly produced all around the world. They include agricultural residues, food farming wastes, "green-grocer's wastes," tree pruning residues, and organic and paper fraction of urban solid wastes. The common ways currently adopted for disposal of these wastes present environmental and economic disadvantages. As an alternative, processes for adding value to wastes producing high added products should be developed, that is the upgrading concept: adding value to wastes by production of a product with desired reproducible properties, having economic and ecological advantages. A wide range of high added value products, such as enzymes, biofuels, organic acids, biopolymers, bioelectricity, and molecules for food and pharmaceutical industries, can be obtained by upgrading solid wastes. The most recent advancements of their production by biotechnological processes are overviewed in this manuscript.

  20. Immobilization of an integral membrane protein for biotechnological phenylacetaldehyde production. (United States)

    Oelschlägel, Michel; Riedel, Anika; Zniszczoł, Aurelia; Szymańska, Katarzyna; Jarzębski, Andrzej B; Schlömann, Michael; Tischler, Dirk


    Styrene oxide isomerase (SOI) has previously been shown to be an integral membrane protein performing a highly selective, hydrolytic ring opening reaction of epoxides to yield pure aldehydes. Earlier studies had also shown a high sensitivity of SOIs toward their product phenylacetaldehyde which caused an irreversible inhibition and finally complete loss of activity at higher aldehyde concentrations. Here we report on the covalent immobilization of a styrene oxide isomerase (SOI) on SBA-15 silica carriers. The production of the SOI from a Rhodococcus strain was optimized, the enzyme was enriched and immobilized, and finally the biocatalyst was applied in aqueous as well as in two-phase systems. Linkage of the protein to epoxide or amino groups on the SBA-based carriers led to relatively poor stabilization of the enzyme in an aqueous system. But, improved stability was observed toward organic phases like the non-toxic phthalate-related 1,2-cyclohexane dicarboxylic acid diisononyl ester (Hexamol DINCH) which here to our knowledge was used for the first time in a biotechnological application. With this two-phase system and the immobilized SOI, 1.6-2.0× higher product yields were reached and the lifetime of the biocatalyst was tremendously increased. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Biotechnological conversion of spent coffee grounds into polyhydroxyalkanoates and carotenoids. (United States)

    Obruca, Stanislav; Benesova, Pavla; Kucera, Dan; Petrik, Sinisa; Marova, Ivana


    Coffee is one of the world's most popular beverages and has been growing steadily in commercial importance. Nowadays, coffee is the second largest traded commodity in the world, after petroleum. Hence, coffee industry is responsible for the generation of large amounts of waste, especially spent coffee grounds (SCG). Various attempts to valorize this waste stream of coffee industry were made. This article summarizes our research and publications aiming at the conversion of SCG into valuable products - polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) and carotenoids. At first, oil extracted from SCG (approx. 15 wt% oil in SCG) can be efficiently (YP/S=0.82 g/g) converted into PHA employing Cupriavidus necator H16. Further, the solid residues after oil extraction can be hydrolyzed (by the combination of chemical and enzymatic hydrolysis) yielding fermentable sugars, which can be further used as a substrate for the production of PHAs employing Bacillus megaterium (YP/S=0.04 g/g) or Burkholderia cepacia (YP/S=0.24 g/g). Alternatively, SCG hydrolysate can be used as a substrate for biotechnological production of carotenoids by carotenogenic yeast Sporobolomyces roseus. Solid residues after either oil extraction or hydrolysis can be used as fuel in industrial boilers to generate heat and energy. Therefore, entire biomass of SCG can be used for sustainable production of PHAs and/or carotenoids employing bio-refinery approach. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Benefits of new tools in biotechnology to developing countries in south Asia: a perspective from UNESCO. (United States)

    Fahmi, Ahmed


    South Asia, once considered as a laggard, has grown at about 6% on average over the past two decades and the current growth outlook is much brighter. However, this growth is not always well distributed and the challenges of institutionalising policies and mechanisms to ensure inclusive growth are now being seriously considered by these countries governments. The targets set by south Asian countries are primarily based on the investments in infrastructural sector with an objective to generate educated and skilled human resources. The other most important inclusive growth area is the core public services; Agriculture, Health, and Energy, which are increasingly becoming technology driven. Biotechnology has been increasingly seen now to be an area of technology that holds the greatest new potential to address problems arising from low productivity, overburdened health systems, high-cost unsustainable energy supplies and the need for developing new materials for industrial and environmental applications. This article attempts to highlight perspectives on some of the emerging areas of biotechnology that have good potential for economic development in the context of south Asia, as well as discuss briefly some of UNESCO's initiatives in biotechnology for that region. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Contemporary molecular tools in microbial ecology and their application to advancing biotechnology. (United States)

    Rashid, Mamoon; Stingl, Ulrich


    Novel methods in microbial ecology are revolutionizing our understanding of the structure and function of microbes in the environment, but concomitant advances in applications of these tools to biotechnology are mostly lagging behind. After more than a century of efforts to improve microbial culturing techniques, about 70-80% of microbial diversity - recently called the "microbial dark matter" - remains uncultured. In early attempts to identify and sample these so far uncultured taxonomic lineages, methods that amplify and sequence ribosomal RNA genes were extensively used. Recent developments in cell separation techniques, DNA amplification, and high-throughput DNA sequencing platforms have now made the discovery of genes/genomes of uncultured microorganisms from different environments possible through the use of metagenomic techniques and single-cell genomics. When used synergistically, these metagenomic and single-cell techniques create a powerful tool to study microbial diversity. These genomics techniques have already been successfully exploited to identify sources for i) novel enzymes or natural products for biotechnology applications, ii) novel genes from extremophiles, and iii) whole genomes or operons from uncultured microbes. More can be done to utilize these tools more efficiently in biotechnology. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Biotechnological production of aromatic compounds of the extended shikimate pathway from renewable biomass. (United States)

    Lee, Jin-Ho; Wendisch, Volker F


    Aromatic chemicals that contain an unsaturated ring with alternating double and single bonds find numerous applications in a wide range of industries, e.g. paper and dye manufacture, as fuel additives, electrical insulation, resins, pharmaceuticals, agrochemicals, in food, feed and cosmetics. Their chemical production is based on petroleum (BTX; benzene, toluene, and xylene), but they can also be obtained from plants by extraction. Due to petroleum depletion, health compliance, or environmental issues such as global warming, the biotechnological production of aromatics from renewable biomass came more and more into focus. Lignin, a complex polymeric aromatic molecule itself, is a natural source of aromatic compounds. Many microorganisms are able to catabolize a plethora of aromatic compounds and interception of these pathways may lead to the biotechnological production of value-added aromatic compounds which will be discussed for Corynebacterium glutamicum. Biosynthesis of aromatic amino acids not only gives rise to l-tryptophan, L-tyrosine and l-phenylalanine, but also to aromatic intermediates such as dehydroshikimate or chorismate from which value-added aromatic compounds can be derived. In this review, we will summarize recent strategies for the biotechnological production of aromatic and related compounds from renewable biomass by Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas putida, C. glutamicum and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In particular, we will focus on metabolic engineering of the extended shikimate pathway. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Bioprospection of marine microorganisms: biotechnological applications and methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hebe M Dionisi


    Full Text Available Environmental microorganisms constitute an almost inexhaustible reserve of genetic and functional diversity, accumulated during millions of years of adaptive evolution to various selective pressures. In particular, the extent of microbial biodiversity in marine habitats seems to grow larger as new techniques emerge to measure it. This has resulted in novel and more complex approaches for the screening of molecules and activities of biotechnological interest in these environments. In this review, we explore the different partially overlapping biotechnological fields that make use of microorganisms and we describe the different marine habitats that are particularly attractive for bioprospection. In addition, we review the methodological approaches currently used for microbial bioprospection, from the traditional cultivation techniques to state of the art metagenomic approaches, with emphasis in the marine environment.Bioprospección de microorganismos marinos: aplicaciones biotecnológicas y métodos. Los microorganismos ambientales constituyen una reserva prácticamente inagotable de diversidad genética, acumulada durante millones de años de evolución adaptativa a varias presiones selectivas. En particular, la magnitud de la biodiversidad microbiana en hábitats marinos parece crecer al emerger nuevas técnicas para medirla. Como resultado, se han comenzado a utilizar enfoques novedosos y más complejos para la búsqueda de moléculas y actividades de interés biotecnológico en estos ambientes. En este artículo de revisión, nosotros exploramos los diferentes campos de la biotecnología que utilizan microorganismos, los cuales se superponen parcialmente, y describimos los diferentes hábitats marinos que resultan particularmente atractivos para la bioprospección. Además, revisamos los enfoques metodológicos actualmente utilizados para la bioprospección microbiana, desde las técnicas de cultivo tradicionales hasta modernos enfoques

  6. Global unbalance in seaweed production, research effort and biotechnology markets. (United States)

    Mazarrasa, Inés; Olsen, Ylva S; Mayol, Eva; Marbà, Núria; Duarte, Carlos M


    Exploitation of the world's oceans is rapidly growing as evidenced by a booming patent market of marine products including seaweed, a resource that is easily accessible without sophisticated bioprospecting technology and that has a high level of domestication globally. The investment in research effort on seaweed aquaculture has recently been identified to be the main force for the development of a biotechnology market of seaweed-derived products and is a more important driver than the capacity of seaweed production. Here, we examined seaweed patent registrations between 1980 and 2009 to assess the growth rate of seaweed biotechnology, its geographic distribution and the types of applications patented. We compare this growth with scientific investment in seaweed aquaculture and with the market of seaweed production. We found that both the seaweed patenting market and the rate of scientific publications are rapidly growing (11% and 16.8% per year respectively) since 1990. The patent market is highly geographically skewed (95% of all registrations belonging to ten countries and the top two holding 65% of the total) compared to the distribution of scientific output among countries (60% of all scientific publications belonging to ten countries and the top two countries holding a 21%), but more homogeneously distributed than the production market (with a 99.8% belonging to the top ten countries, and a 71% to the top two). Food industry was the dominant application for both the patent registrations (37.7%) and the scientific publications (21%) followed in both cases by agriculture and aquaculture applications. This result is consistent with the seaweed taxa most represented. Kelp, which was the target taxa for 47% of the patent registrations, is a traditional ingredient in Asian food and Gracilaria and Ulva, which were the focus of 15% and 13% of the scientific publications respectively, that are also used in more sophisticated applications such as cosmetics, chemical

  7. The Future of Bio-technology (United States)

    Trent, Jonathan


    Hosts of technologies, most notably in electronics, have been on the path of miniaturization for decades and in 2005 they have crossed the threshold of the nano-scale. Crossing the nano-scale threshold is a milestone in miniaturization, setting impressive new standards for component-packing densities. It also brings technology to a scale at which quantum effects and fault tolerance play significant roles and approaches the feasible physical limit form many conventional "top-down" manufacturing methods. I will suggest that the most formidable manufacturing problems in nanotechnology will be overcome and major breakthroughs will occur in a host of technologies, when nanotechnology converges with bio-technology; i.e. I will argue that the future of bio-technology is in nanotechnology. In 2005, methods in molecular biology, microscopy, bioinformatics, biochemistry, and genetic engineering have focused considerable attention on the nano-scale. On this scale, biology is a kind of recursive chemistry in which molecular recognition, self-assembly, self-organization and self-referencing context-control lead to the emergence of the complexity of structures and processes that are fundamental to all life forms. While we are still far from understanding this complexity, we are on the threshold of being able to use at least some of these biological properties for .technology. I will discuss the use of biomolecules, such as DNA, RNA, and proteins as "tools" for the bio-technologist of the future. More specifically, I will present in some detail an example of how we are using a genetically engineered 60-kDa protein (HSP60) from an organism living in near boiling sulfuric acid to build nano-scale templates for arranging metallic nanoparticles. These "extremophile" HSP60s self-assemble into robust double-ring structures called "chaperonins," which further assemble into filaments and arrays with nanometer accuracy. I will discuss our efforts to use chaperonins to organize quantum

  8. Metabolomics-assisted biotechnological interventions for developing plant-based functional foods and nutraceuticals. (United States)

    Kumar, Arun; Mosa, Kareem A; Ji, Liyao; Kage, Udaykumar; Dhokane, Dhananjay; Karre, Shailesh; Madalageri, Deepa; Pathania, Neemisha


    Today, the dramatic changes in types of food consumed have led to an increased burden of chronic diseases. Therefore, the emphasis of food research is not only to ensure quality food that can supply adequate nutrients to prevent nutrition related diseases, but also to ensure overall physical and mental-health. This has led to the concept of functional foods and nutraceuticals (FFNs), which can be ideally produced and delivered through plants. Metabolomics can help in getting the most relevant functional information, and thus has been considered the greatest -OMICS technology to date. However, metabolomics has not been exploited to the best potential in plant sciences. The technology can be leveraged to identify the health promoting compounds and metabolites that can be used for the development of FFNs. This article reviews (i) plant-based FFNs-related metabolites and their health benefits; (ii) use of different analytic platforms for targeted and non-targeted metabolite profiling along with experimental considerations; (iii) exploitation of metabolomics to develop FFNs in plants using various biotechnological tools; and (iv) potential use of metabolomics in plant breeding. We have also provided some insights into integration of metabolomics with latest genome editing tools for metabolic pathway regulation in plants.

  9. Optimizing eukaryotic cell hosts for protein production through systems biotechnology and genome-scale modeling. (United States)

    Gutierrez, Jahir M; Lewis, Nathan E


    Eukaryotic cell lines, including Chinese hamster ovary cells, yeast, and insect cells, are invaluable hosts for the production of many recombinant proteins. With the advent of genomic resources, one can now leverage genome-scale computational modeling of cellular pathways to rationally engineer eukaryotic host cells. Genome-scale models of metabolism include all known biochemical reactions occurring in a specific cell. By describing these mathematically and using tools such as flux balance analysis, the models can simulate cell physiology and provide targets for cell engineering that could lead to enhanced cell viability, titer, and productivity. Here we review examples in which metabolic models in eukaryotic cell cultures have been used to rationally select targets for genetic modification, improve cellular metabolic capabilities, design media supplementation, and interpret high-throughput omics data. As more comprehensive models of metabolism and other cellular processes are developed for eukaryotic cell culture, these will enable further exciting developments in cell line engineering, thus accelerating recombinant protein production and biotechnology in the years to come. Copyright © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. 75 FR 41798 - Solicitation of Letters of Interest to Participate in Biotechnology Quality Management System... (United States)


    ...] Solicitation of Letters of Interest to Participate in Biotechnology Quality Management System Program AGENCY... participate in the APHIS Biotechnology Quality Management System Program. The Biotechnology Quality Management..., audit-based compliance assistance program known as the Biotechnology Quality Management System Program...

  11. Emerging Agricultural Biotechnologies for Sustainable Agriculture and Food Security. (United States)

    Anderson, Jennifer A; Gipmans, Martijn; Hurst, Susan; Layton, Raymond; Nehra, Narender; Pickett, John; Shah, Dilip M; Souza, Thiago Lívio P O; Tripathi, Leena


    As global populations continue to increase, agricultural productivity will be challenged to keep pace without overtaxing important environmental resources. A dynamic and integrated approach will be required to solve global food insecurity and position agriculture on a trajectory toward sustainability. Genetically modified (GM) crops enhanced through modern biotechnology represent an important set of tools that can promote sustainable agriculture and improve food security. Several emerging biotechnology approaches were discussed in a recent symposium organized at the 13th IUPAC International Congress of Pesticide Chemistry meeting in San Francisco, CA, USA. This paper summarizes the innovative research and several of the new and emerging technologies within the field of agricultural biotechnology that were presented during the symposium. This discussion highlights how agricultural biotechnology fits within the context of sustainable agriculture and improved food security and can be used in support of further development and adoption of beneficial GM crops.

  12. How-to-Do-It: Biotechnology in Three Days. (United States)

    Gardner, Alan M.


    Outlines a three-day unit for presenting biotechnology. States that the approach surveys the processes of enzyme restriction, ligation, transformations of recombinant plasmids, and gel electrophoresis. Diagrams accompany the article. (RT)

  13. Sex, gender, and health biotechnology: points to consider

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Jerome


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Reproductive technologies have been extensively debated in the literature. As well, feminist economists, environmentalists, and agriculturalists have generated substantial debate and literature on gender. However, the implications for women of health biotechnologies have received relatively less attention. Surprisingly, while gender based frameworks have been proposed in the context of public health policy, practice, health research, and epidemiological research, we could identify no systematic framework for gender analysis of health biotechnology in the developing world. Discussion We propose sex and gender considerations at five critical stages of health biotechnology research and development: priority setting; technology design; clinical trials; commercialization, and health services delivery. Summary Applying a systematic sex and gender framework to five key process stages of health biotechnology research and development could be a first step towards unlocking the opportunities of this promising science for women in the developing world.

  14. Journal of Tropical Microbiology and Biotechnology: Editorial Policies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... Microbial Physiology, Biochemistry of micro-organisms, Microbial Genetics, Molecular Biology, Bacteriology, Virology, Mycology, and Microbial Systematics. Both full length and short papers reporting original research making a significant contribution to microbiology and Biotechnology will be considered for publication.

  15. Advances in optics for biotechnology, medicine and surgery. (United States)

    Fitzmaurice, Maryann; Pogue, Brian W; Tearney, Guillermo J; Tunnell, James W; Yang, Changhuei


    The guest editors introduce a Biomedical Optics Express feature issue that includes contributions from participants at the 2013 conference on Advances in Optics for Biotechnology, Medicine and Surgery XIII.

  16. Applications of radiations, radioisotopes and nuclear techniques in biotechnology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhatia, C.R.


    Applications of radiations, radioisotopes and other nuclear techniques has contributed a great deal in our understanding of microbial plant and animal biochemistry and molecular biology. Electron microscopy has provided visual evidence for molecular events. Developments in cell tissue culture of both plants and animals and immunology have contributed to advances in what we now refer as biotechnology. This paper focuses on the applications in the high-tech end of biotechnology, limited to the use of recombinant-DNA techniques. Molecular identification of the genes, their cloning and horizontal transfer across the species of microbes, plants and animals and expression of the transferred genes is the major strength of modern biotechnology. The techniques described in this paper have played a significant role in the development of biotechnology. 6 refs

  17. African Journal of Biotechnology - Vol 6, No 14 (2007)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Roles of agricultural biotechnology in ensuring adequate food security in developing societies · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. N Ozor, EM Igbokwe ...

  18. Potential of industrial biotechnology with cyanobacteria and eukaryotic microalgae.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijffels, R.H.; Kruse, O.; Hellingwerf, K.J.


    Both cyanobacteria and eukaryotic microalgae are promising organisms for sustainable production of bulk products such as food, feed, materials, chemicals and fuels. In this review we will summarize the potential and current biotechnological developments. Cyanobacteria are promising host organisms

  19. Religious voices in biotechnology: the case of gene patenting. (United States)

    Hanson, M J


    On 18 May 1995, nearly 200 religious leaders joined with leading biotechnology critic Jeremy Rifkin in a press conference named the "Joint Appeal against Human and Animal Patenting," a move that many within the biotechnology industry could only interpret as seeking to inhibit biotechnological advance. What moral and religious concerns motivated this challenge to patenting? How could the biotechnology industry understand and respectfully attend to these concerns? What values were at play in the debates that followed the joint appeal? What lessons for future dialogue can be learned from attempts at conversation between the opposing positions? This essay is a report from a Hastings Center research project that accepted the task of addressing these questions. Specifically, the project focused on the patenting of human genetic material, a subset of the issues raised by the joint appeal.

  20. Biotechnological uses of Azotobacter vinelandii : Current state, limits ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal of Biotechnology. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 9, No 33 (2010) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trevor W. Chamberlain


    Full Text Available This study investigates the stock performance of reverse leveraged buyouts (RLBOs before, during, and after the global financial crisis. An RLBO consists of the return to public investors (i.e. the offering of stocks to the public of a company that had gone private after a leveraged buyout (LBO led by a private equity fund. The value created by an RLBO resides in the changes brought by the LBO fund while it owns the company. After a “repackaging” of the bought company, the private equity fund sells the company’s shares to the public. Most of the research on this topic, based on RLBOs that occurred between 1980 and 2005 in the US, has shown that RLBOs outperform their peers (i.e. other IPOs and outperform the market after going public again. Focusing on RLBO companies in Europe in the financial crisis era, this study investigates whether they also outperform other IPOs and the market. The study is based on a sample of 421 IPOs occurring between 2001 and 2011 in France, Germany and the UK, of which 52 are RLBOs. We examine RLBO performance one day, one month, one year and three years after the offering. We also use event study methods to investigate the impact of the global financial crisis on RLBO performance. We find that European RLBOs outperform both their peers (i.e. “classic” IPOs and the market during the period studied. This outperformance does not diminish in the long-term. The global financial crisis appears to have affected RLBO performance, which weakened between 2007 and 2009, though RLBOs still outperformed the market. In addition, multivariable regressions were used to examine various extant explanations for RLBO outperformance. This analysis did not support any of the prevailing theories. In particular, the value created by RLBOs does not appear to be linked to LBO duration, sponsor reputation, or to the level of leverage employed. There is no evidence of time or industry effects. Moreover, RLBO performance shows no

  2. Biotechnology: a solution for improving nutrient bioavailability. (United States)

    King, Janet C


    Biotechnology strategies are now available to improve the amount and availability of nutrients in plant crops. Those strategies include simple plant selection for varieties with high nutrient density in the seeds, cross-breeding for incorporating a desired trait within a plant, and genetic engineering to manipulate the nutrient content of the plant. In plant cross-breeding, all genes of the parent plants are combined and the progeny have both desirable and undesirable traits. To eliminate undesirable traits, plant breeders "back-cross" the new plant varieties with other plants over several generations. This technique, called hybridization, has been used to create varieties of low-phytate corn, barley, and rice. Using the techniques of genetic engineering, the gene(s) encoding for a desired trait(s) in a plant are introduced in a precise and controlled manner within a relatively short period of time. Golden rice, containing carotenoids, and rice with higher amounts of iron, are two examples of genetically engineered plants for improved nutrition. Genetic engineering has tremendous potential for revolutionizing nutrition. However, public concerns regarding safety, appearance, and ethics must be overcome before these products can be effectively introduced into the food supply.

  3. Plant biotechnology for lignocellulosic biofuel production. (United States)

    Li, Quanzi; Song, Jian; Peng, Shaobing; Wang, Jack P; Qu, Guan-Zheng; Sederoff, Ronald R; Chiang, Vincent L


    Lignocelluloses from plant cell walls are attractive resources for sustainable biofuel production. However, conversion of lignocellulose to biofuel is more expensive than other current technologies, due to the costs of chemical pretreatment and enzyme hydrolysis for cell wall deconstruction. Recalcitrance of cell walls to deconstruction has been reduced in many plant species by modifying plant cell walls through biotechnology. These results have been achieved by reducing lignin content and altering its composition and structure. Reduction of recalcitrance has also been achieved by manipulating hemicellulose biosynthesis and by overexpression of bacterial enzymes in plants to disrupt linkages in the lignin-carbohydrate complexes. These modified plants often have improved saccharification yield and higher ethanol production. Cell wall-degrading (CWD) enzymes from bacteria and fungi have been expressed at high levels in plants to increase the efficiency of saccharification compared with exogenous addition of cellulolytic enzymes. In planta expression of heat-stable CWD enzymes from bacterial thermophiles has made autohydrolysis possible. Transgenic plants can be engineered to reduce recalcitrance without any yield penalty, indicating that successful cell wall modification can be achieved without impacting cell wall integrity or plant development. A more complete understanding of cell wall formation and structure should greatly improve lignocellulosic feedstocks and reduce the cost of biofuel production. © 2014 Society for Experimental Biology, Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Future societal issues in industrial biotechnology. (United States)

    Schuurbiers, Daan; Osseweijer, Patricia; Kinderlerer, Julian


    Three international stakeholder meetings were organized by The Netherlands-based "Kluyver Center for Genomics of Industrial Fermentation" with the objective to identify the future societal issues in the field of industrial biotechnology and to develop a coordinated strategy for public dialogue. The meetings resulted in five unanimous recommendations: (i) that science, industry and the European Commission in conjunction with other stakeholders create a comprehensive roadmap towards a bio-based economy; (ii) that the European Commission initiate a series of round-table meetings to further articulate the views, interests and responsibilities of the relevant stakeholders and to define policy; (iii) that the development of new innovative communication activities is stimulated to increase public engagement and to discuss the ways that we do or do not want technologies to shape our common future; (iv) that further social studies are undertaken on public attitudes and behaviors to the bio-based economy and that novel methods are developed to assess public views of future technological developments; and (v) that the concept of sustainability is further operationalized and taken as a core value driving research and development and policy making.

  5. Isolation and Purification of Biotechnological Products (United States)

    Hubbuch, Jürgen; Kula, Maria-Regina


    The production of modern pharma proteins is one of the most rapid growing fields in biotechnology. The overall development and production is a complex task ranging from strain development and cultivation to the purification and formulation of the drug. Downstream processing, however, still accounts for the major part of production costs. This is mainly due to the high demands on purity and thus safety of the final product and results in processes with a sequence of typically more than 10 unit operations. Consequently, even if each process step would operate at near optimal yield, a very significant amount of product would be lost. The majority of unit operations applied in downstream processing have a long history in the field of chemical and process engineering; nevertheless, mathematical descriptions of the respective processes and the economical large-scale production of modern pharmaceutical products are hampered by the complexity of the biological feedstock, especially the high molecular weight and limited stability of proteins. In order to develop new operational steps as well as a successful overall process, it is thus a necessary prerequisite to develop a deeper understanding of the thermodynamics and physics behind the applied processes as well as the implications for the product.

  6. Business Development Capability: Insights from the Biotechnology Industry


    Lorenzi, Valeria; Sørensen, Hans Eibe


    Business development tasks and processes serves to improve firms’ innovation efforts. Such business development activities are found and refined in the biotechnology industry, but have received remarkable little attention in the academic literature. The aim of this paper is to explore the organization of business development on the basis of existing empirical literature and three case studies from the biotechnology industry. We adopt the dynamic capabilities perspective to create a theoretica...

  7. Towards a Typology of Business Models in the Biotechnology Industry


    Segers, Jean Pierre


    The purpose of this paper is to identify a selection of key business models - “typology” - applied in the biotechnology industry. The focus is on the differences between traditional/closed or stand-alone business models opposed to open or networked business models. A number of illustrative case studies and good practices are presented to show that new biotechnology firms are gradually adopting a “best of both worlds” strategy, with both closed business models and open, networked models as ...

  8. Limits Legal Ethics of Biotechnology in XXI Century


    Morgato, Melissa Cabrini; Machado, Edinilson Donisete


    The present paper discusses the ethical and legal consequences of developments in biotechnological science, with a focus on the field of genetic engineering. We classify situations originating from developments in biotechnological science depending on their ethical and legal justification, based on Habermas’ reflections in his work “The future of human nature”, and differentiate between negative eugenics, representing ethically and legally justified situations, given their therapeutic potenti...

  9. Biotechnological approaches to creation of hypoxia and anoxia tolerant plants


    Vartapetian, B.; Dolgikh, Y.; Polyakova, L.; Chichkova, N.; Vartapetian, А.


    The present work provides results of a number of biotechnological studies aimed at creating cell lines and entire plants resistant to anaerobic stress. Developed biotechnological approaches were based on earlier fundamental researches into anaerobic stress in plants, so “Introduction” briefly covers the importance of the problem and focuses on works considering two main strategies of plants adaptation to anaerobic stress. Those are adaptation at molecular level where key factor is anaerobic m...

  10. Leveraging Social Links for Trust and Privacy in Networks (United States)

    Cutillo, Leucio Antonio; Molva, Refik; Strufe, Thorsten

    Existing on-line social networks (OSN) such as Facebook suffer from several weaknesses regarding privacy and security due to their inherent handling of personal data. As pointed out in [4], a preliminary analysis of existing OSNs shows that they are subject to a number of vulnerabilities, ranging from cloning legitimate users to sybil attacks through privacy violations. Starting from these OSN vulnerabilities as the first step of a broader research activity, we came up with a new approach that is very promising in re-visiting security and privacy problems in distributed systems and networks. We suggest a solution that both aims at avoiding any centralized control and leverages on the real life trust between users, that is part of the social network application itself. An anonymization technique based on multi-hop routing among trusted nodes guarantees privacy in data access and, generally speaking, in all the OSN operations.

  11. Multifractal model of asset returns with leverage effect (United States)

    Eisler, Z.; Kertész, J.


    Multifractal processes are a relatively new tool of stock market analysis. Their power lies in the ability to take multiple orders of autocorrelations into account explicitly. In the first part of the paper we discuss the framework of the Lux model and refine the underlying phenomenological picture. We also give a procedure of fitting all parameters to empirical data. We present a new approach to account for the effective length of power-law memory in volatility. The second part of the paper deals with the consequences of asymmetry in returns. We incorporate two related stylized facts, skewness and leverage autocorrelations into the model. Then from Monte Carlo measurements we show, that this asymmetry significantly increases the mean squared error of volatility forecasts. Based on a filtering method we give evidence on similar behavior in empirical data.

  12. Pivoting: leveraging opportunities in a turbulent health care environment. (United States)

    Bandy, Margaret Moylan


    The purpose of this lecture is to challenge librarians in clinical settings to leverage the opportunities presented by the current health care environment and to develop collaborative relationships with health care practitioners to provide relevant services. Health care organizations are under financial and regulatory pressures, and many hospital librarians have been downsized or have had their positions eliminated. The lecture briefly reviews hospital librarians' roles in the past but focuses primarily on our current challenges. This environment requires librarians to be opportunity focused and pivot to a new vision that directs their actions. Many librarians are already doing this, and colleagues are encouraging us to embrace these opportunities. Evidence from publications, websites, discussion lists, personal communications, and the author's experience is explored. Developing interdisciplinary and collaborative relationships in our institutions and providing relevant services will mark our progress as vital, contributing members of our health care organizations.

  13. Leveraging Intelligent Vehicle Technologies to Maximize Fuel Economy (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonder, J.


    Advancements in vehicle electronics, along with communication and sensing technologies, have led to a growing number of intelligent vehicle applications. Example systems include those for advanced driver information, route planning and prediction, driver assistance, and crash avoidance. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory is exploring ways to leverage intelligent vehicle systems to achieve fuel savings. This presentation discusses several potential applications, such as providing intelligent feedback to drivers on specific ways to improve their driving efficiency, and using information about upcoming driving to optimize electrified vehicle control strategies for maximum energy efficiency and battery life. The talk also covers the potential of Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS) and related technologies to deliver significant fuel savings in addition to providing safety and convenience benefits.

  14. Leveraging big data to transform target selection and drug discovery. (United States)

    Chen, B; Butte, A J


    The advances of genomics, sequencing, and high throughput technologies have led to the creation of large volumes of diverse datasets for drug discovery. Analyzing these datasets to better understand disease and discover new drugs is becoming more common. Recent open data initiatives in basic and clinical research have dramatically increased the types of data available to the public. The past few years have witnessed successful use of big data in many sectors across the whole drug discovery pipeline. In this review, we will highlight the state of the art in leveraging big data to identify new targets, drug indications, and drug response biomarkers in this era of precision medicine. © 2015 The Authors Clinical Pharmacology & Therapeutics published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American Society for Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics.

  15. Quality and efficiency successes leveraging IT and new processes. (United States)

    Chaiken, Barry P; Christian, Charles E; Johnson, Liz


    Today, healthcare annually invests billions of dollars in information technology, including clinical systems, electronic medical records and interoperability platforms. While continued investment and parallel development of standards are critical to secure exponential benefits from clinical information technology, intelligent and creative redesign of processes through path innovation is necessary to deliver meaningful value. Reports from two organizations included in this report review the steps taken to reinvent clinical processes that best leverage information technology to deliver safer and more efficient care. Good Samaritan Hospital, Vincennes, Indiana, implemented electronic charting, point-of-care bar coding of medications prior to administration, and integrated clinical documentation for nursing, laboratory, radiology and pharmacy. Tenet Healthcare, during its implementation and deployment of multiple clinical systems across several hospitals, focused on planning that included team-based process redesign. In addition, Tenet constructed valuable and measurable metrics that link outcomes with its strategic goals.

  16. Leveraging LSTM for rapid intensifications prediction of tropical cyclones (United States)

    Li, Y.; Yang, R.; Yang, C.; Yu, M.; Hu, F.; Jiang, Y.


    Tropical cyclones (TCs) usually cause severe damages and destructions. TC intensity forecasting helps people prepare for the extreme weather and could save lives and properties. Rapid Intensifications (RI) of TCs are the major error sources of TC intensity forecasting. A large number of factors, such as sea surface temperature and wind shear, affect the RI processes of TCs. Quite a lot of work have been done to identify the combination of conditions most favorable to RI. In this study, deep learning method is utilized to combine conditions for RI prediction of TCs. Experiments show that the long short-term memory (LSTM) network provides the ability to leverage past conditions to predict TC rapid intensifications.

  17. Leveraging business intelligence to make better decisions: Part III. (United States)

    Reimers, Mona


    Accounts receivable and scheduling datasets have been available to medical practices since the 1990s, and discrete medical records data have become available over the past few years. But the frustrations that arose from the difficulties in reporting data grew with each keyboard stroke and mouse click. With reporting mandated to meet changing payment models, measuring quality of care and medical outcomes, practice managers must find more efficient and effective methods of extracting and compiling the data they have in their systems. Taming the reporting beast and learning to effectively apply business intelligence (BI) tools will become an expected managerial proficiency in the next few years. Practice managers' roles are changing quickly, and they will be required to understand the meaning of their practice's data and craft ways to leverage that data toward a strategic advantage.

  18. Leverage hadoop framework for large scale clinical informatics applications. (United States)

    Dong, Xiao; Bahroos, Neil; Sadhu, Eugene; Jackson, Tommie; Chukhman, Morris; Johnson, Robert; Boyd, Andrew; Hynes, Denise


    In this manuscript, we present our experiences using the Apache Hadoop framework for high data volume and computationally intensive applications, and discuss some best practice guidelines in a clinical informatics setting. There are three main aspects in our approach: (a) process and integrate diverse, heterogeneous data sources using standard Hadoop programming tools and customized MapReduce programs; (b) after fine-grained aggregate results are obtained, perform data analysis using the Mahout data mining library; (c) leverage the column oriented features in HBase for patient centric modeling and complex temporal reasoning. This framework provides a scalable solution to meet the rapidly increasing, imperative "Big Data" needs of clinical and translational research. The intrinsic advantage of fault tolerance, high availability and scalability of Hadoop platform makes these applications readily deployable at the enterprise level cluster environment.

  19. Key points in biotechnological patents to be exploited. (United States)

    García, Alfredo Mateos; López-Moya, José Rafael; Ramos, Patricia


    Patents in some biotechnological fields are controversial. Despite this fact, the number of patent applications increases every year. Total revenues in the global biotechnology market are expected to increase in the middle term. Nowadays, the bioeconomy is an important socio-economic area, which is reflected in the number of firms dedicated to or using biotechnology. The exploitation of biotechnological patents is an essential task in the management of intellectual capital. This paper explains the multiplicity of factors that influence the exploitation of biotechnological patents; specifically, the internal and external key points of patents exploitation. The external determining factors for patents are: (i) the market need for biotechnological products and services, (ii) the importance of the freedom to operate analysis before entering the market, and (iii) efficiency in prosecution by Patent Offices. This paper primarily focuses on the internal determining factors, more particularly, the characteristics that the patent's owner must take into consideration in order to have a strong, broad subject-matter in the granted patent. The experimentation needed to obtain an adequate scope of the subject- matter in the claims is a critical issue in the exploitation of a patent or patent application.


    Tucker, Adrienne M.; Stern, Yaakov


    Cognitive reserve explains why those with higher IQ, education, occupational attainment, or participation in leisure activities evidence less severe clinical or cognitive changes in the presence of age-related or Alzheimer’s disease pathology. Specifically, the cognitive reserve hypothesis is that individual differences in how tasks are processed provide reserve against brain pathology. Cognitive reserve may allow for more flexible strategy usage, an ability thought to be captured by executive functions tasks. Additionally, cognitive reserve allows individuals greater neural efficiency, greater neural capacity, and the ability for compensation via the recruitment of additional brain regions. Taking cognitive reserve into account may allow for earlier detection and better characterization of age-related cognitive changes and Alzheimer’s disease. Importantly, cognitive reserve is not fixed but continues to evolve across the lifespan. Thus, even late-stage interventions hold promise to boost cognitive reserve and thus reduce the prevalence of Alzheimer’s disease and other age-related problems. PMID:21222591


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez Cruz, D.J.


    Venezuela is an important player in the energy world, because of its hydrocarbons reserves. The process for calculating oil and associated gas reserves is described bearing in mind that 90% of the gas reserves of Venezuela are associated to oil. Likewise, an analysis is made of the oil reserves figures from 1975 to 2003. Reference is also made to inconsistencies found by international experts and the explanations offered in this respect by the Ministry of Energy and Petroleum (MENPET) and Petroleos de Venezuela (PDVSA) regarding the changes that took place in the 1980s. In turn, Hubbert's Law is explained to determine peak production of conventional oil that a reservoir or field will reach, as well as its relationship with remaining reserves. Emphasis is placed on the interest of the United Nations on this topic. The reserves of associated gas are presented along with their relationship with the different crude oils that are produced and with injected gas, as well as with respect to the possible changes that would take place in the latter if oil reserves are revised. Some recommendations are submitted so that the MENPET starts preparing the pertinent policies ruling reserves. (auth)

  2. Ovarian reserve parameters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentzen, J G; Forman, Julie Lyng; Pinborg, Anja


    2-5 of the menstrual cycle or during withdrawal bleeding, blood sampling and transvaginal sonography was performed. After adjusting for age, ovarian reserve parameters were lower among users than among non-users of hormonal contraception: serum AMH concentration by 29.8% (95% CI 19.9 to 38...... was observed between duration of hormonal-contraception use and ovarian reserve parameters. No dose-response relation was found between the dose of ethinyloestradiol and AMH or AFC. This study indicates that ovarian reserve markers are lower in women using sex steroids for contraception. Thus, AMH...... concentration and AFC may not retain their accuracy as predictors of ovarian reserve in women using hormonal contraception. Serum anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) concentration is an indirect marker of the number of small follicles in the ovary and thereby the ovarian reserve. The AMH concentration is now widely...

  3. Some like it hot, some like it cold: Temperature dependent biotechnological applications and improvements in extremophilic enzymes. (United States)

    Siddiqui, Khawar Sohail


    The full biotechnological exploitation of enzymes is still hampered by their low activity, low stability and high cost. Temperature-dependent catalytic properties of enzymes are a key to efficient and cost-effective translation to commercial applications. Organisms adapted to temperature extremes are a rich source of enzymes with broad ranging thermal properties which, if isolated, characterized and their structure-function-stability relationship elucidated, could underpin a variety of technologies. Enzymes from thermally-adapted organisms such as psychrophiles (low-temperature) and thermophiles (high-temperature) are a vast natural resource that is already under scrutiny for their biotechnological potential. However, psychrophilic and thermophilic enzymes show an activity-stability trade-off that necessitates the use of various genetic and chemical modifications to further improve their properties to suit various industrial applications. This review describes in detail the properties and biotechnological applications of both cold-adapted and thermophilic enzymes. Furthermore, the review critically examines ways to improve their value for biotechnology, concluding by proposing an integrated approach involving thermally-adapted, genetically and magnetically modified enzymes to make biocatalysis more efficient and cost-effective. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Approaches in biotechnological applications of natural polymers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José A. Teixeira


    Full Text Available Natural polymers, such as gums and mucilage, are biocompatible, cheap, easily available and non-toxic materials of native origin. These polymers are increasingly preferred over synthetic materials for industrial applications due to their intrinsic properties, as well as they are considered alternative sources of raw materials since they present characteristics of sustainability, biodegradability and biosafety. As definition, gums and mucilages are polysaccharides or complex carbohydrates consisting of one or more monosaccharides or their derivatives linked in bewildering variety of linkages and structures. Natural gums are considered polysaccharides naturally occurring in varieties of plant seeds and exudates, tree or shrub exudates, seaweed extracts, fungi, bacteria, and animal sources. Water-soluble gums, also known as hydrocolloids, are considered exudates and are pathological products; therefore, they do not form a part of cell wall. On the other hand, mucilages are part of cell and physiological products. It is important to highlight that gums represent the largest amounts of polymer materials derived from plants. Gums have enormously large and broad applications in both food and non-food industries, being commonly used as thickening, binding, emulsifying, suspending, stabilizing agents and matrices for drug release in pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries. In the food industry, their gelling properties and the ability to mold edible films and coatings are extensively studied. The use of gums depends on the intrinsic properties that they provide, often at costs below those of synthetic polymers. For upgrading the value of gums, they are being processed into various forms, including the most recent nanomaterials, for various biotechnological applications. Thus, the main natural polymers including galactomannans, cellulose, chitin, agar, carrageenan, alginate, cashew gum, pectin and starch, in addition to the current researches about them

  5. AMELIORATION DES PLANTES Biotechnologies et arachide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clavel Danièle


    Full Text Available Les recherches sur les biotechnologies de l’arachide sont principalement conduites aux États-Unis mais également à travers des programmes collaboratifs internationaux où interviennent l’Icrisat et le Cirad. Malgré une forte variation phénotypique, l’arachide cultivée montre peu de variabilité moléculaire. L’arachide étant une culture alimentaire et de rente très importante dans les régions sahéliennes, la sécheresse et la contamination des graines par l’aflatoxine en cours de culture constituent des contraintes majeures. La seule application connue en sélection assistée par marqueurs d’ADN fait intervenir des gènes provenant d’une espèce sauvage compatible en croisement avec l’espèce cultivée. Les principaux résultats publiés jusqu’à présent concernent la mise au point de techniques de régénération et de transfert de gènes. Le marquage moléculaire s’avérant inefficace, les recherches s’orientent aujourd’hui sur la génomique fonctionnelle du fait de la disponibilité des techniques de transformation génétique. L’objectif est de développer de nouveaux outils moléculaires capables d’assister les programmes de sélection pour la résistance à ces deux traits complexes.

  6. States of uncertainty: governing the empire of biotechnology. (United States)

    Forbes, Ian


    The biotechnological revolution presents states and governments with a set of challenges that they have difficulty meeting. Part of the problem is associated with common perceptions of the speed, volume and the radical uncertainty of the new developments. Globalisation is also implicated, especially in relation to the development of the knowledge economy and the role of multinational actors. This in turn contributes to the apparent decline in the confidence of the public that national governments will be effective in addressing mounting concern about the dangers inherent in new techniques and products. Under these circumstances, 'normal' governance begins to look more like 'failure' governance. This article asks whether the effects of the biotechnological revolution on governance can adequately be explained by the critique of imperialism proposed by Michael Hardt and Antonio Negri, and whether the state is in danger of becoming implicated in sponsorship of modernist schemes to improve the human condition of the kind analysed by James E Scott. Biotechnology does appear to have imperial qualities, while there are strong reasons for states to see biotechnology as a feasible and desirable set of developments. For some critics of biotechnology, like Francis Fukuyama, this is a lethal combination, and the powers of the state should be used to stop biotechnological development. Others, by contrast and more pragmatically, propose a check on what the state will support by the application of precautionary principles. The article concludes that the association between the biotechnology empire and the state, combined with the inescapable duty of the state to be the risk manager of last resort, alerts us to the complexities of uncertainty at the same time as it renders a merely restrictive precautionary approach impracticable.

  7. 13 CFR 107.1150 - Maximum amount of Leverage for a Section 301(c) Licensee. (United States)


    ... ADMINISTRATION SMALL BUSINESS INVESTMENT COMPANIES SBA Financial Assistance for Licensees (Leverage) Maximum... conservative investment strategy that limits downside risk. Any such Leverage request must be supported by an up-to-date business plan that reflects continuation of the Licensee's successful investment strategy...

  8. Makification: Towards a Framework for Leveraging the Maker Movement in Formal Education (United States)

    Cohen, Jonathan; Jones, W. Monty; Smith, Shaunna; Calandra, Brendan


    Maker culture is part of a burgeoning movement in which individuals leverage modern digital technologies to produce and share physical artifacts with a broader community. Certain components of the maker movement, if properly leveraged, hold promise for transforming formal education in a variety of contexts. The authors here work towards a…

  9. Skyline Reservation System (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — Flight reservation application used for in-country flights by USAID and DoS staff in Afghanistan. The application is managed and maintained by the vendor and USAID...

  10. Leveraging R&D Resources via the Joint LLC Model (United States)

    Ganz, Matthew W.


    government and commercial entities. The central themes to HRL’s business model are innovation, value and leverage. Leverage is key to the company’s success. HRL’s business model has been carefully honed to allow its parent companies to perform proprietary R&D in certain areas and joint, collaborative R&D among the LLC members in others. The intellectual property arrangements are skillfully organized so that the LLC Members receive a greater than 4:1 leverage of their research dollars in terms of the IP rights gained. This briefing will describe an overview of the current industrial research environment, HRL’s business model, and challenges to future success.

  11. The leverage effect on wealth distribution in a controllable laboratory stock market. (United States)

    Zhu, Chenge; Yang, Guang; An, Kenan; Huang, Jiping


    Wealth distribution has always been an important issue in our economic and social life, since it affects the harmony and stabilization of the society. Under the background of widely used financial tools to raise leverage these years, we studied the leverage effect on wealth distribution of a population in a controllable laboratory market in which we have conducted several human experiments, and drawn the conclusion that higher leverage leads to a higher Gini coefficient in the market. A higher Gini coefficient means the wealth distribution among a population becomes more unequal. This is a result of the ascending risk with growing leverage level in the market plus the diversified trading abilities and risk preference of the participants. This work sheds light on the effects of leverage and its related regulations, especially its impact on wealth distribution. It also shows the capability of the method of controllable laboratory markets which could be helpful in several fields of study such as economics, econophysics and sociology.

  12. Implementation of Strategies to Leverage Public and Private Resources for National Security Workforce Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This report documents implementation strategies to leverage public and private resources for the development of an adequate national security workforce as part of the National Security Preparedness Project (NSPP), being performed under a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)/National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) grant. There are numerous efforts across the United States to develop a properly skilled and trained national security workforce. Some of these efforts are the result of the leveraging of public and private dollars. As budget dollars decrease and the demand for a properly skilled and trained national security workforce increases, it will become even more important to leverage every education and training dollar. This report details some of the efforts that have been implemented to leverage public and private resources, as well as implementation strategies to further leverage public and private resources.

  13. The pectinases from Sphenophorus levis: Potential for biotechnological applications. (United States)

    Habrylo, Olivier; Evangelista, Danilo Elton; Castilho, Priscila Vasques; Pelloux, Jérôme; Henrique-Silva, Flávio


    Pectinases represent about one fifth of the enzyme worldwide market due their wide range of biotechnological applications. Current commercial pectinases are exclusively obtained from microbial sources, but here we report a pectin methylesterase (Sl-PME) and an endo-polygalacturonase (Sl-EPG) bioprospected from the sugarcane weevil, Sphenophorus levis, which revealed good potential for industrial applications. Sl-PME and Sl-EPG were overexpressed in Pichia pastoris, purified and enzymatically characterized. Sl-EPG presents optimal activity at pH 4-5 and 50 °C, showing that it can be used for juice extraction and clarification. On the other hand, Sl-PME presents optimal activity at pH 6-8 and 40 °C, and thus, suitable for both acidic and alkaline processing, such as coffee and tea fermentation. Sl-EPG shows V max  = 3.23 mM/min, K M  = 2.4 g/L and k cat  = 418.6 s -1 . While Sl-PME shows V max  = 0.14 mM/min, K M  = 4.1 g/L and k cat  = 1.7 s -1 . A PG inhibitor (PGIP2) weakly interfered in the Sl-EPG activity and Sl-PME was not affected by a usual PME inhibitor. Moreover, these enzymes manifested synergistic action towards methylesterified pectin. Here, we propose these enzymes as novel alternative tools for the current commercial pectinases. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. A perspective on the economic valorization of gene manipulated biotechnology: Past and future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirjam Knockaert


    Full Text Available Three distinct fields of gene manipulated biotechnology have so far been economically exploited: medical biotechnology, plant biotechnology and industrial biotechnology. This article analyzes the economic evolution and its drivers in the three fields over the past decades, highlighting strong divergences. Product and market characteristics, affecting firms’ financing options, are shown to be important enablers or inhibitors. Subsequently, the lack of commercialization in a fourth type of gene manipulated biotechnology, namely environmental biotechnology, is explained by the existence of strong barriers. Given the latter’s great promises for environmental sustainability, we argue for a need to push the commercial valorization of environmental biotechnology. Our research has strong implications for (technology management research in biotechnology, pointing to a need to control for and/or distinguish between different biotechnology fields.

  15. A perspective on the economic valorization of gene manipulated biotechnology: Past and future. (United States)

    Knockaert, Mirjam; Manigart, Sophie; Cattoir, Sofie; Verstraete, Willy


    Three distinct fields of gene manipulated biotechnology have so far been economically exploited: medical biotechnology, plant biotechnology and industrial biotechnology. This article analyzes the economic evolution and its drivers in the three fields over the past decades, highlighting strong divergences. Product and market characteristics, affecting firms' financing options, are shown to be important enablers or inhibitors. Subsequently, the lack of commercialization in a fourth type of gene manipulated biotechnology, namely environmental biotechnology, is explained by the existence of strong barriers. Given the latter's great promises for environmental sustainability, we argue for a need to push the commercial valorization of environmental biotechnology. Our research has strong implications for (technology) management research in biotechnology, pointing to a need to control for and/or distinguish between different biotechnology fields.

  16. Personalized Infrastructure: Leveraging Behavioral Strategies for Future Mobility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duvall, Andrew L [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)


    For decades, the transportation system has been built to position the personal automobile at the pinnacle of mobility options. This prominence is strongly reflected in individual and population behaviors, and supported by coevolved transportation policy, social norms, funding, and physical structures. Such has been the status quo for the living memory of the U.S. population. However, with the advent of emergent, technologically driven mobility options, the transportation system is in an era of rapid and disruptive change. No longer is transportation infrastructure an externality predominantly composed of physical elements; it is also now a personalized interface carried in the pockets of the majority of the population. Perceptions of personal mobility are evolving, in large part because of the proliferation of smartphone technology and the related Internet of Things (IoT), which will become increasingly essential within future transportation systems. With the emergence of personalized mobility infrastructure, many intervention approaches to influence transportation behavior do not adequately acknowledge the complexity of the social/digital environment within which transportation decisions are made. Transportation decisions are influenced by multiple facets, including costs and benefits in time and money, but also by sociocultural elements shaped by social norms and diffusion of ideas. Understanding of factors that lead to transportation behaviors can help to identify incentives and leverage points whereby alternative choices may be most accepted by individuals, and which, if well coordinated, may lead to improved transportation energy outcomes. How can change be initiated to shift away from the transportation status quo? Is it possible to use technologically delivered incentives to produce meaningful changes in transportation behavior? What types of incentives and at what perceived value is necessary to induce changes in behavior? As transportation agencies look

  17. Evaluation of Brazilian biotechnology patent activity from 1975 to 2010. (United States)

    Dias, F; Delfim, F; Drummond, I; Carmo, A O; Barroca, T M; Horta, C C; Kalapothakis, E


    The analysis of patent activity is one methodology used for technological monitoring. In this paper, the activity of biotechnology-related patents in Brazil were analyzed through 30 International Patent Classification (IPC) codes published by the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). We developed a program to analyse the dynamics of the major patent applicants, countries and IPC codes extracted from the Brazilian Patent Office (INPI) database. We also identified Brazilian patent applicants who tried to expand protection abroad via the Patent Cooperation Treaty (PCT). We had access to all patents published online at the INPI from 1975 to July 2010, including 9,791 biotechnology patent applications in Brazil, and 163 PCTs published online at World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) from 1997 to December 2010. To our knowledge, there are no other online reports of biotechnology patents previous to the years analyzed here. Most of the biotechnology patents filed in the INPI (10.9%) concerned measuring or testing processes involving nucleic acids. The second and third places belonged to patents involving agro-technologies (recombinant DNA technology for plant cells and new flowering plants, i.e. angiosperms, or processes for obtaining them, and reproduction of flowering plants by tissue culture techniques). The majority of patents (87.2%) were filed by nonresidents, with USA being responsible for 51.7% of all biotechnology patents deposited in Brazil. Analyzing the resident applicants per region, we found a hub in the southeast region of Brazil. Among the resident applicants for biotechnology patents filed in the INPI, 43.5% were from São Paulo, 18.3% were from Rio de Janeiro, and 9.7% were from Minas Gerais. Pfizer, Novartis, and Sanofi were the largest applicants in Brazil, with 339, 288, and 245 biotechnology patents filed, respectively. For residents, the largest applicant was the governmental institution FIOCRUZ (Oswaldo Cruz

  18. Nutrition by design: a review of biotechnology in functional food

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Reynolds


    Full Text Available Medical institutions in industrial and developing countries are increasingly turning to functional foods as intervention in chronic disease. Advances in genetic engineering have provided methods of purposefully designing functional foods and bioactive compound-producing organisms. This literature review examines the recent history of biotechnological applications in functional food, the state of bioagricultural engineering for high-value compound production, and the challenges that developers face in promulgatingfunctional foods from biotechnological sources. Based on the literature reviewed, it is predicted that adding biotechnologically-produced compounds will be more successful in producing novel functional foods. Conclusion: Current functional food application is frequently hampered by a dearth of foods suitable to the purpose. The concurrent advent of biotechnology means that producers and clinicians are not constrained by limited and precarious natural development. Biotechnology has already produced altered dietary staples that can safely induce real health benefits, but the social approval of genetically modified foodstuffs is inconsistent at best. Modifying microalgae to produce micro and macronutrients, for harvest and incorporation into functional food products, provides the ideal specificity and reliability for bioactive compound use. However, its application in biomedical science is impeded by technical difficulty. It remains to be seen if microorganism engineering willbe able to meet the needs of its many stakeholders, including the functional food community. Nonetheless,the prospect of a flourishing functional food market, and the healthier population it will bring about, certainly makes it worth a try.

  19. Leveraging multi-generational workforce values in interactive information societies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie van der Walt


    Objectives: This article advocates the need for generational awareness and addresses how this awareness presents benefits to companies, such as, increased productivity, improved succession planning policies and strategies to recruit and retain a diverse workforce. The research problem is directed at how diversity management influences Traditionalists, Baby Boomers, Generation X and Generation Y in terms of their work performance and co-worker relationships. Method: The research design combines Critical Theory and Generational Theory within the mixed-method paradigm. The sequential exploratory design was decided upon as it studies the unknown relationships between different generations of employees. The literature review was followed by a quantitative empirical research component and data was collected by means of a questionnaire. Results: The findings highlight specific differences between generations regarding their perspectives on work values and co-worker relationships, rewards, work-life balance and retirement. Conclusion: The article concludes with recommendations on the role diversity management plays in terms of work performance and co-worker relationships. By leveraging generational awareness in the interactive information society organizations with a multi-generational workforce will succeed in the competitive business environment.

  20. Leveraging natural dynamical structures to explore multi-body systems (United States)

    Bosanac, Natasha

    Multi-body systems have become the target of an increasing number of mission concepts and observations, supplying further information about the composition, origin and dynamical environment of bodies within the solar system and beyond. In many of these scenarios, identification and characterization of the particular solutions that exist in a circular restricted three-body model is valuable. This insight into the underlying natural dynamical structures is achieved via the application of dynamical systems techniques. One application of such analysis is trajectory design for CubeSats, which are intended to explore cislunar space and other planetary systems. These increasingly complex mission objectives necessitate innovative trajectory design strategies for spacecraft within our solar system, as well as the capability for rapid and well-informed redesign. Accordingly, a trajectory design framework is constructed using dynamical systems techniques and demonstrated for the Lunar IceCube mission. An additional application explored in this investigation involves the motion of an exoplanet near a binary star system. Due to the strong gravitational field near a binary star, physicists have previously leveraged these systems as testbeds for examining the validity of gravitational and relativistic theories. In this investigation, a preliminary analysis into the effect of an additional three-body interaction on the dynamical environment near a large mass ratio binary system is conducted. As demonstrated through both of these sample applications, identification and characterization of the natural particular solutions that exist within a multi-body system supports a well-informed and guided analysis.